Science.gov

Sample records for disseminate environmental measurements

  1. NIST Mechanisms for Disseminating Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gills, T. E.; Dittman, S.; Rumble, J. R.; Brickenkamp, C. S.; Harris, G. L.; Trahey, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    The national responsibilities assigned to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) early in the last century for providing measurement assistance and service are carried out today by the four programs that comprise the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Measurement Services (OMS). They are the Calibration Program (CP), the Standard Reference Materials Program (SRMP), the Standard Reference Data Program (SRDP), and the Weights and Measures Program (W&MP). Organized when the U.S. Congress changed the NBS name to NIST, the OMS facilitates access to the measurement and standards activities of NIST laboratories and programs through the dissemination of NIST products, data, and services. A brief historical introduction followed by a perspective of pivotal measurement developments from 1901 to the present and concluding with a look to the future of NIST measurement services in the next decade of the new millennium are presented for each OMS program. PMID:27500025

  2. The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno and James Essex

    2007-04-30

    satellite. Once inside the FRMAC, this information is transferred to the pertinent divisions for review, data storage, and eventual display on map products. The internet is also a powerful communications tool being utilized by the FRMAC. Using a secure internet connection, field team location and data collection can be viewed live-time by any computer attached to the internet. Similarly, survey information from our fixed-wing aircraft can be viewed while the mission is being flown. All accumulated data and maps generated in the FRMAC are disseminated on a web page through the secure FRMAC web site. Several new data communication processes are being investigated to aid the FRMAC. Each of these provides an important tool to efficiently collect, record and disseminate environmental measurements to FRMAC scientists and decision makers. The ultimate goal of these processes is to improve the flow of protection decisions and information to the public.

  3. Environmental Measurement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  4. Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: development, dissemination, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Voss, Carol; Klein, Susan; Glanz, Karen; Clawson, Margaret

    2012-07-01

    Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and community leaders. Interrater reliability testing showed high levels of agreement among trained raters on the products and evaluations of products. NEMS-V can benefit public health partners implementing policy and environmental change initiatives as a part of their community wellness activities. The vending machine project will support a policy calling for state facilities to provide a minimum of 30% of foods and beverages in vending machines as healthy options, based on NEMS-V criteria, which will be used as a model for other businesses.

  5. On line dissemination of environmental knowledge for educational purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fant, S.; Macaluso, L.; Marani, A.; Scalvini, G.; Zane, O.

    2003-04-01

    The environment is a laboratory native for learning, always open and everywhere available. Environmental sciences collect knowledge into the environment and make it scientifically transferable through algorithms. Therefore the environment can be used as a gym for teaching with direct experiments many knowledge of many disciplines. For this reason into the environmental database for the Lagoon of Venice carried out at the Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti of Venice (Italy) has been organized a section for disseminating environmental knowledge (URL: www.istitutoveneto.it/venezia/divulgazione/divulgazione.htm). In this section are given information and tools to make data base contents understanding easy and to promote its use for didactical purpose. The aim is to stimulate users' curiosity and to satisfy the request of dissemination tools coming from those who work in training field. This section is divided into four chapters: Descriptions, with generalities about the types and the dynamics of environment that can be found in the Venice lagoon; Cards, with specific information about objects, phenomena and categories; Didactics, offering Training Experiences, Educational Courses and Games and Simulations. A Glossary, with technical terms and idiomatic forms completes the section. Secondary school teachers have been involved, in order to understand their requirements and their experience level for deciding contents organization. Moreover, agreement with teachers has been found on a report model allowing some standardization on cataloguing of the environmental didactics and education activities carried out within the schools.

  6. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  7. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:26356096

  8. The National Dissemination of International Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sahagia, Maria; Woods, Mike

    2008-08-14

    The paper presents the most significant actions which a primary Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory must accomplish, in order to disseminate the international equivalence to the entire national traceability chain: absolute standardization methods and demonstration of international equivalence, construction and calibration of a consistent set of secondary standardization equipment, preparation of radioactive standards. Delivery of radioactive standards to the end users and carrying out metrological services. Organization of national proficiency tests with the users. International validation of secondary standards by proficiency tests and establishment of a Quality System Assurance.

  9. The National Dissemination of International Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Woods, Mike

    2008-08-01

    The paper presents the most significant actions which a primary Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory must accomplish, in order to disseminate the international equivalence to the entire national traceability chain: absolute standardization methods and demonstration of international equivalence, construction and calibration of a consistent set of secondary standardization equipment, preparation of radioactive standards. Delivery of radioactive standards to the end users and carrying out metrological services. Organization of national proficiency tests with the users. International validation of secondary standards by proficiency tests and establishment of a Quality System Assurance.

  10. Disseminating policy and environmental change interventions: insights from obesity prevention and tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jennifer; Myers, Allison E; Ribisl, Kurt M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-06-01

    Public health and other practitioners increasingly are being asked to implement policy and environmental change interventions, yet many practitioners lack the knowledge, skills, and resources to do so. In response to this need, a growing number of organizations are disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and building practitioners' capacity to use those interventions in practice. Although advances have been made on approaches to disseminating individual-level EBIs, little is known about the optimal way to disseminate EBIs to promote policy and environmental change. This paper describes the approach that two projects developed to disseminate policy and environmental change interventions. The Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) disseminates EBIs to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Counter Tobacco disseminates EBIs to counter tobacco product sales and marketing in the retail environment. Both Centers (1) identify the best available evidence, (2) disseminate menus of intervention strategies, (3) provide implementation guidance, (4) incorporate stories from the field, (5) build practitioners' capacity, and (6) integrate dissemination into practitioners' existing social networks. The Centers' process evaluations included website analytics and online surveys. Over 26,000 unique visitors accessed the Center TRT website in 2012 and over 17,000 have accessed Counter Tobacco's site since its launch in August 2011. The majority of respondents to Centers' surveys agreed that resources were easy to access and use. Both Centers have had success reaching their intended audiences. Research is now needed to assess the extent of practitioners' use of Center resources and the impact of the resulting interventions.

  11. Disseminating Policy and Environmental Change Interventions: Insights from Obesity Prevention and Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence-based interventions are increasingly called for as a way to improve health behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Numerous organizations are disseminating interventions that target individual-level behavioral change. Fewer are disseminating interventions that target the policy and environmental changes required to support healthier behaviors. This paper aims to describe the distinct features of policy and environmental change and the lessons learned by two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded dissemination projects, the Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) and Counter Tobacco. Methods Both Center TRT and Counter Tobacco have conducted formative research with their target audiences to customize dissemination to address practitioner-reported needs and preferences. The Centers’ have developed the following approach to disseminating policy and environmental change interventions: (1) Identify the best available evidence rather than waiting for the best possible evidence, (2) disseminate menus of broad intervention strategies, (3) provide implementation guidance, (4) incorporate stories from the field, (5) build practitioners’ capacity, and, (6) integrate dissemination into practitioners’ existing professional and social networks. In 2012, over 26,000 unique visitors accessed the Center TRT website and downloaded over 12,400 documents. The Counter Tobacco website has had 10,907 unique visitors since its launch in August 2011, and the number of visitors is increasing rapidly. Conclusions Both Centers have had success reaching their intended audiences. Research is now needed to assess the extent of practitioners’ use of disseminated recommendations, guidance, and tools in practice and the impact of the resulting interventions. PMID:25037977

  12. The Environmental Protection Agency: A Profile of Its Information Collection and Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadec, Sarah T.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its publication distribution programs. Topics discussed include information collection, vehicles for dissemination, the application of information technologies, and primary users. The relationship of the EPA to the Government Printing Office (GPO) and the National Technical…

  13. The Environmental Protection Agency: A Profile of Its Information Collection and Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadec, Sarah T.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its publication distribution programs. Topics discussed include information collection, vehicles for dissemination, the application of information technologies, and primary users. The relationship of the EPA to the Government Printing Office (GPO) and the National Technical…

  14. Staying Alive: Vibrio cholerae's Cycle of Environmental Survival, Transmission, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jenna G; Teschler, Jennifer K; Jones, Christopher J; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases kill nearly 9 million people annually. Bacterial pathogens are responsible for a large proportion of these diseases, and the bacterial agents of pneumonia, diarrhea, and tuberculosis are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Increasingly, the crucial role of nonhost environments in the life cycle of bacterial pathogens is being recognized. Heightened scrutiny has been given to the biological processes impacting pathogen dissemination and survival in the natural environment, because these processes are essential for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria to new hosts. This chapter focuses on the model environmental pathogen Vibrio cholerae to describe recent advances in our understanding of how pathogens survive between hosts and to highlight the processes necessary to support the cycle of environmental survival, transmission, and dissemination. We describe the physiological and molecular responses of V. cholerae to changing environmental conditions, focusing on its survival in aquatic reservoirs between hosts and its entry into and exit from human hosts.

  15. Staying alive: Vibrio cholerae’s cycle of environmental survival, transmission, and dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher J.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases kill nearly 9 million people annually. Bacterial pathogens are responsible for a large proportion of these diseases and the bacterial agents of pneumonia, diarrhea, and tuberculosis are leading causes of death and disability worldwide (1). Increasingly, the crucial role of non-host environments in the life cycle of bacterial pathogens is being recognized. Heightened scrutiny has been given to the biological processes impacting pathogen dissemination and survival in the natural environment, as these processes are essential for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria to new hosts. This chapter focuses on the model environmental pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, to describe recent advances in our understanding of how pathogens survive between hosts and highlight the processes necessary to support the cycle of environmental survival, transmission, and dissemination. We describe the physiological and molecular responses of V. cholerae to changing environmental conditions, focusing on its survival in aquatic reservoirs between hosts and its entry and exit from human hosts. PMID:27227302

  16. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in representative broiler feedlots environments: identification of indicator ARGs and correlations with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    He, Liang-Ying; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-11-18

    fexA, fexB, cfr, sul1, tetW, tetO, tetS: R = 0.52-0.71) and some environmental parameters (e.g., TOC, TN, TP, NH3-N with fexA, fexB, cfr, sul1, tetW, tetO, tetQ, tetS: R = 0.53-0.87) (p < 0.01). Further redundancy analysis demonstrated that the distribution and transportation of ARGs from the boiler feedlots to the receiving environments were correlated with environmental variables. The findings highlight the contribution of some chemicals such as antibiotics and metals to the development of ARGs in broiler feedlots environments; and the observed ARG dissemination mechanism in the broiler feedlots facilitates the development of effective mitigation measures.

  17. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  18. A case study in serendipity: environmental researchers use of traditional and social media for dissemination.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Clare; Weitkamp, Emma

    2013-01-01

    In the face of demands for researchers to engage more actively with a wider range of publics and to capture different kinds of research impacts and engagements, we explored the ways a small number of environmental researchers use traditional and social media to disseminate research. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the impact of different media as a tool to broker contact between researchers and a variety of different stakeholders (for example, publics, other researchers, policymakers, journalists) as well as how researchers perceive that their use of these media has changed over the past five years. The questionnaire was sent to 504 researchers whose work had featured in a policy-oriented e-news service. 149 valid responses were received (29%). Coverage in traditional media (newspapers, broadcast) not only brokers contact with other journalists, but is a good source of contact from other researchers (n=47, 62%) and members of the public (n=36, 26%). Although the use of social media was limited amongst our sample, it did broker contact with other researchers (n=17, 47%) and the public (n=10, 28%). Nevertheless, few environmental researchers were actively using social media to disseminate their research findings, with many continuing to rely on academic journals and face-to-face communication to reach both academic and public audiences.

  19. A Case Study in Serendipity: Environmental Researchers Use of Traditional and Social Media for Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Clare; Weitkamp, Emma

    2013-01-01

    In the face of demands for researchers to engage more actively with a wider range of publics and to capture different kinds of research impacts and engagements, we explored the ways a small number of environmental researchers use traditional and social media to disseminate research. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the impact of different media as a tool to broker contact between researchers and a variety of different stakeholders (for example, publics, other researchers, policymakers, journalists) as well as how researchers perceive that their use of these media has changed over the past five years. The questionnaire was sent to 504 researchers whose work had featured in a policy-oriented e-news service. 149 valid responses were received (29%). Coverage in traditional media (newspapers, broadcast) not only brokers contact with other journalists, but is a good source of contact from other researchers (n=47, 62%) and members of the public (n=36, 26%). Although the use of social media was limited amongst our sample, it did broker contact with other researchers (n=17, 47%) and the public (n=10, 28%). Nevertheless, few environmental researchers were actively using social media to disseminate their research findings, with many continuing to rely on academic journals and face-to-face communication to reach both academic and public audiences. PMID:24349571

  20. Environmental Measurements Session summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.; Tanner, S. G. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Emphasis was placed on data from payloads flown on the subject flights including results from the Induced Environment Contamination monitor (IECM). Brief summaries of the vibroacoustics, loads, electromagnetic and thermal aspects of the environment, as derived from Shuttle system measurements, were presented primarily to indicate where the environment was different than observed and, therefore, where specification changes may be forthcoming. In addition, brief summaries of two somewhat unexpected effects, the vehicle glow and interaction between the low Earth environment and Shuttle payload by materials were presented as an aid in interpreting other environmental data. Papers for each payload/experiment involved in Shuttle flights were presented essentially in flight related chronological order. A significant portion of time was allocated for presentation of IECM data since this payload was flown on STS-2, STS-3, and STS-4 and, therefore, represents the largest data base relative to the contamination environment. Summaries of papers are presented.

  1. U.S. stream flow measurement and data dissemination improve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Costa, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Stream flow information is essential for many important uses across a broad range of scales, including global water balances, engineering design, flood forecasting, reservoir operations, navigation, water supply, recreation, and environmental management. Growing populations and competing priorities for water, including preservation and restoration of aquatic habitat, are spurring demand for more accurate, timely, and accessible water data.To be most useful, stream flow information must be collected in a standardized manner, with a known accuracy, and for a long and continuous time period.

  2. Training for and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS).

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Erica; Clawson, Margaret; Glanz, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Researchers believe that nutrition environments contribute to obesity and may explain some health disparities. The Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS) are valid and reliable observational measures of the nutrition environment. This article describes the dissemination of the measures, including the development, implementation, and evaluation of training workshops, and a follow-up survey of training participants. To disseminate the NEMS measures, we developed a 2-day intensive, participatory workshop. We used an immediate postcourse evaluation and a structured telephone follow-up interview to evaluate the workshops and the dissemination strategy. Topics included use of the NEMS measures, reactions to the workshops, and participants' training others on the measures. During the study period, 173 people participated in 14 workshops. Participants indicated a high level of satisfaction with the training workshops. Almost two-thirds of respondents reported using the measures to train an additional 292 people and to rate more than 3,000 food outlets. The measures have been used in diverse locations across the United States for various purposes. Respondents have reported NEMS results in peer-reviewed journals, master's theses, newspaper articles, and presentations. The NEMS measures are the only nutrition environment measures that have been packaged for distribution and widely disseminated. The measures fill a need in the worlds of research and community action, and dissemination was successful in accelerating diffusion and promoting adoption of the measures. The use of an ongoing, continual process to improve workshops and measures contributes to the usefulness of the surveys and accelerates their adoption and continued use.

  3. Towards a Comprehensive Strategy to Mitigate Dissemination of Environmental Sources of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Vikesland, Peter J; Pruden, Amy; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Aga, Diana S; Buergmann, Helmut; Li, Xiangdong; Manaia, Célia M; Nambi, Indumathi M; Wigginton, Krista R; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-10-04

    Antibiotic resistance is a pervasive global health threat. To combat the spread of resistance, it is necessary to consider all possible sources and understand the pathways and mechanisms by which resistance disseminates. Best management practices are urgently needed to provide barriers to the spread of resistance and maximize the lifespan of antibiotics as a precious resource. Herein we advise upon the need for coordinated national and international strategies, highlighting three essential components: 1) Monitoring, 2) Risk Assessment, and 3) Mitigation of antibiotic resistance. Central to all three components is What exactly to monitor, assess, and mitigate? We address this question within an environmental framework, drawing from fundamental microbial ecological processes driving the spread of resistance.

  4. Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2003 document Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM or Forum) is established by the Agency's Science and Technology Policy Council (STPC) to promote consistency and consensus within EPA on measurement, monitoring, and laboratory science issues

  5. Systems Antecedents for Dissemination and Implementation: A Review and Analysis of Measures

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Weiner, Bryan; Fernandez, Maria; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the role of organizations as settings for dissemination and implementation. Only recently has the field begun to consider features of organizations that impact on dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions. This manuscript identifies and evaluates available measures for 5 key organizational-level constructs: (1) leadership; (2) vision; (3) managerial relations; (4) climate; and (5) absorptive capacity. Overall the picture was the same across the five constructs—no measure was used in more than one study, many studies did not report the psychometric properties of the measures, some assessments were based on a single response per unit, and the level of the instrument and analysis did not always match. We must seriously consider the development and evaluation of a robust set of measures that will serve as the basis of building the field, allow for comparisons across organizational types and intervention topics, and allow a robust area of dissemination and implementation research to develop. PMID:21724933

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE TO INTENTIONAL DISSEMINATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORES IN THE UNITED STATES--2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores at multiple locations in the United States in the Fall of 2001 resulted not only in several deaths and illnesses (including psychological effects), but likely changed lifestyles and attitudes, and increased the ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE TO INTENTIONAL DISSEMINATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORES IN THE UNITED STATES--2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores at multiple locations in the United States in the Fall of 2001 resulted not only in several deaths and illnesses (including psychological effects), but likely changed lifestyles and attitudes, and increased the ...

  8. Development and Dissemination of the El Centro Health Disparities Measures Library.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Victoria Behar; O'Day, Joanne E; Norris, Timothy B; Adebayo, Oluwamuyiwa Winifred

    2017-09-01

    This report describes the development and dissemination of a library of English measures, with Spanish translations, on constructs relevant to social determinants of health and behavioral health outcomes. The El Centro Measures Library is a product of the Center of Excellence for Health Disparities Research: El Centro, a program funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The library is aimed at enhancing capacity for minority health and health disparities research, particularly for Hispanics living in the United States and abroad. The open-access library of measures (available through www.miami.edu/sonhs/measureslibrary) contains brief descriptions of each measure, scoring information (where available), links to related peer-reviewed articles, and measure items in both languages. Links to measure websites where commercially available measures can be purchased are included, as is contact information for measures that require author permission. Links to several other measures libraries are hosted on the library website. Other researchers may contribute to the library. El Centro investigators began the library by electing to use a common set of measures across studies to assess demographic information, culture-related variables, proximal outcomes of interest, and major outcomes. The collection was expanded to include other health disparity research studies. In 2012, a formal process was developed to organize, expand, and centralize the library in preparation for a gradual process of dissemination to the national and international community of researchers. The library currently contains 61 measures encompassing 12 categories of constructs. Thus far, the library has been accessed 8,883 times (unique page views as generated by Google Analytics), and responses from constituencies of users and measure authors have been favorable. With the paucity of availability and accessibility of translated

  9. Environmental measurements for Project Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.H.; Ravizza, D.L.

    1995-09-28

    From July 10 to July 17, 1995, Project Overview was conducted at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) at Andros Island, Bahamas. Part of the project was the collection and analysis of environmental data including wind measurements and ocean temperature and salinity profiles. This report describes these environmental measurements and presents the results of analysis performed in the field. The goal of the analysis was to calculate the Brunt-Vaeisaelae (BV) profile during operations, and provide operational recommendations from solutions of the Taylor-Goldstein (T-G) equation using the measured BV profile. Part 1 is a description of the sensors and their deployment. Part 2 discusses the analysis done in the field. Part 3 presents a summary of the wind measurements. Part 4 summarizes the ocean profiling results. Part 5 presents overall conclusions and recommendations for future experiments. The appendices include all of the ocean profiling results and wind measurements obtained in the field.

  10. Policy, Systems, and Environmental Approaches to Obesity Prevention: Translating and Disseminating Evidence from Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aycock, Nancy; Paxton-Aiken, Amy; Lowe-Wilson, Abby; Sommers, Janice; Farris, Rosanne; Thompson, Diane; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    To reduce obesity prevalence, public health practitioners are intervening to change health behaviors as well as the policies, systems, and environments (PSEs) that support healthy behaviors. Although the number of recommended PSE intervention strategies continues to grow, limited guidance is available on how to implement those strategies in practice. This article describes the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Center for Training and Research Translation's (Center TRT's) approach to reviewing, translating, and disseminating practitioner-developed interventions, with the goal of providing more practical guidance on how to implement PSE intervention strategies in real-world practice. As of August 2014, Center TRT had disseminated 30 practice-based PSE interventions. This article provides an overview of Center TRT's process for reviewing, translating, and disseminating practice-based interventions and offers key lessons learned during the nine years that Center TRT has engaged in this work. PMID:26556933

  11. Policy, Systems, and Environmental Approaches to Obesity Prevention: Translating and Disseminating Evidence from Practice.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jennifer; Aycock, Nancy; Paxton-Aiken, Amy; Lowe-Wilson, Abby; Sommers, Janice; Farris, Rosanne; Thompson, Diane; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    To reduce obesity prevalence, public health practitioners are intervening to change health behaviors as well as the policies, systems, and environments (PSEs) that support healthy behaviors. Although the number of recommended PSE intervention strategies continues to grow, limited guidance is available on how to implement those strategies in practice. This article describes the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Center for Training and Research Translation's (Center TRT's) approach to reviewing, translating, and disseminating practitioner-developed interventions, with the goal of providing more practical guidance on how to implement PSE intervention strategies in real-world practice. As of August 2014, Center TRT had disseminated 30 practice-based PSE interventions. This article provides an overview of Center TRT's process for reviewing, translating, and disseminating practice-based interventions and offers key lessons learned during the nine years that Center TRT has engaged in this work.

  12. Dissemination of data measured at the CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, E.; Otuka, N.; Cabellos, O.; Aberle, O.; Aerts, G.; Altstadt, S.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Badurek, G.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Baumann, P.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Cardella, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cennini, P.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Damone, L. A.; David, S.; Deo, K.; Diakaki, M.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Frost, R. J. W.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; Garcia, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Gilardoni, S.; Giubrone, G.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Goncalves, I. F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Haight, R.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kalamara, A.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Konovalov, V.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Kurtulgil, D.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Naour, C. Le; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Leong, L. S.; Licata, M.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Lozano, M.; Macina, D.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez, T.; Marrone, S.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Montesano, S.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Nolte, R.; O'Brien, S.; Oprea, A.; Palomo-Pinto, F. R.; Pancin, J.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perkowski, J.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, L.; Poch, A.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J. M.; Radeck, D.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M.; Roman, F.; Rout, P. C.; Rudolf, G.; Rubbia, C.; Rullhusen, P.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N. V.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Stephan, C.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Villamarin, D.; Vicente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Wallner, A.; Walter, S.; Ware, T.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wolf, C.; Wiesher, M.; Wisshak, K.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The n_TOF neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN is used for high quality nuclear data measurements from thermal energy up to hundreds of MeV. In line with the CERN open data policy, the n_TOF Collaboration takes actions to preserve its unique data, facilitate access to them in standardised format, and allow their re-use by a wide community in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and various nuclear technologies. The present contribution briefly describes the n_TOF outcomes, as well as the status of dissemination and preservation of n_TOF final data in the international EXFOR library.

  13. Media Choice in Environmental Information Dissemination for Solid Waste Management among Policy Formulators and Implementors: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, B. A.; Temowo, O. O.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the…

  14. Media Choice in Environmental Information Dissemination for Solid Waste Management among Policy Formulators and Implementors: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, B. A.; Temowo, O. O.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the…

  15. Environmental applications of magnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R; Stober, J C; Turner, G M; Oldfield, F; Bloemendal, J; Dearing, J A; Rummery, T A

    1980-02-01

    A wide range of examples of the application of magnetic measurements to environmental studies illustrate the advantages of magnetic techniques over conventional methods. Magnetic measurements, in both the field and the laboratory, are particularly useful for reconnaissance work because of their spee and flexibility, Quantification as well as simple diagnosis of the transformation and movement of magnetic minerals within and between the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere is practical. Techniques of investigating intrinsic and mineral magnetic properties, in addition to paleomagnetic remanence, are described in subjects as diverse as meteorology, hydrology, sedimentology, geophysics, and ecology.

  16. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature.

  17. Process Measurements for Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    This article presents discussions dealing with the latest analytical and bioassay methods for environmental assessment. Presented is a phased approach for the integration of methods in environmental assessment. (RE)

  18. Process Measurements for Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    This article presents discussions dealing with the latest analytical and bioassay methods for environmental assessment. Presented is a phased approach for the integration of methods in environmental assessment. (RE)

  19. Measuring environmental attitudes of elementary school students

    Treesearch

    John C. Benjamin; George H. Moeller; Douglas A. Morrison

    1977-01-01

    A modified semantic differential was developed to measure environmental attitudes of sixth-graders. Classes were selected to represent different socioeconomic and residence backgrounds and degrees of previous exposure to structured environmental programs. Results indicate that: exposure to environmental education fosters favorable environmental attitudes; socioeconomic...

  20. Interdisciplinary Priorities for Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science: Frameworks, Mechanics, and Measures.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Julian W; Sankaré, Ibrahima C; Kahn, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Much of dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) science is conducted by social scientists, healthcare practitioners, and biomedical researchers. While each of these groups has its own venues for sharing methods and findings, forums that bring together the diverse DII science workforce provide important opportunities for cross-disciplinary collaboration and learning. In particular, such forums are uniquely positioned to foster the sharing of three important components of research. First: they allow the sharing of conceptual frameworks for DII science that focus on the use and spread of innovations. Second: they provide an opportunity to share strategies for initiating and governing DII research, including approaches for eliciting and incorporating the research priorities of patients, study participants, and healthcare practitioners, and decision-makers. Third: they allow the sharing of outcome measures well-suited to the goals of DII science, thereby helping to validate these outcomes in diverse contexts, improving the comparability of findings across settings, and elevating the study of the implementation process itself. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Consistent Methodologies for Determining, Relating and Disseminating Light Stable Isotopic Measurement Results: The Carbon Dioxide Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinedinst, D. B.; Verkouteren, R. M.

    2001-05-01

    systems using proprietary data reduction algorithms, standardization procedures and uncertainty treatments. Furthermore, reporting the raw measurements rather than result-based data serves to negate the subtle effect of a priori knowledge of value assignments and over judicious use of outlier rejection schemes. The Web-based data processing interface provides a tool for consistent data processing using internationally accepted practices, procedures and reference materials. Taken in combination, the CO2 intercomparison exercise and the Web-based data processing system serve as a model for enabling traceability and consistency of IRMS data reporting and dissemination across laboratories, industries, nations, and international networks so that real progress can be made at understanding complex chemical systems of importance to the atmospheric, geologic and industrial communities.

  2. Spectral induced polarization of disseminated electronic conductors: laboratory data obtained through time domain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, G.; Ilyin, Yu.; Tarasov, A.; Titov, K.

    2012-04-01

    With a time domain (TD) technique, we measured Spectral Induced Polarization responses of 19 models of ore. The models were mixtures of calibrated sand (0.2 - 0.3 mm) with calibrated electron-conductive grains (average radii: 0.045, 0.055, 0.13, 0.20, 0.38 and 0.50 mm). The grains represent a mixture of pyrrhotite (30 %), pyrite (30 %), magnetite (30 %) and chalcopyrite (10 %). In the models the grain concentration varied from 0.6 to 30 % by volume. We measured IP decay with a conventional TD measuring setup and a lab low-current transmitter in the time range from 0.3 ms to 64 s. The IP decays obtained with various current wavelength forms were inverted on the basis of the Debye decomposition, which allowed obtaining the relaxation time distribution. The following results were obtained: The total chargeability, m, was found to be independent of the grain size; it is related to the grain fraction, χ, according to the power law, m=6.28.10-2.χ0.78(m is dimensionless, and χ is in per cents; R2=0.98); The grain size, r, was found to be closely related to the mean IP relaxation time, τ, according to the square law, r2=10-5.τ (r is in meters, and τ is in seconds; R2=0.74); the square law corresponds to the diffusion kinetics, but contains the unrealistically large value of the diffusion coefficient; The maximum values of the relaxation time distributions, Zmax, was found to be closely related to the specific surface of the grains, Sv, according to the power law, Zmax=1.82 10-2 Sv0.65 (Zmax is dimensionless, and Sv is in cm-1; R2=0.94); The relaxation time distribution for disseminated ores can be safely recovered on the basis of TD measurements with relatively short pulse lengths (or using frequency domain measurements with relatively high frequency values).

  3. Environmental measures in sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Senji; Yamanaka, Keiji )

    1991-05-01

    This article describes how wastewater treatment plants in Japan control environmental problems of odor release and air pollution. A description of odor treatment techniques based on the process which generates them is presented. Some techniques presented include protection of greenbelts, growing plants on treatment sites, control of odor diffusion, covered treatment facilities, elimination of odor sources, and deodorization.

  4. Comparison of Information Dissemination Methods in Inle Lake: A Lesson for Reconsidering Framework for Environmental Education Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oo, Htun Naing; Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the practice of information dissemination regarding pesticide usage in floating gardening in a rural area. The analysis reveals reasons why the current information dissemination methods employed by relevant stakeholders do not work. It then puts forward a proposition that information sharing within organizations of and among…

  5. Comparison of Information Dissemination Methods in Inle Lake: A Lesson for Reconsidering Framework for Environmental Education Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oo, Htun Naing; Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the practice of information dissemination regarding pesticide usage in floating gardening in a rural area. The analysis reveals reasons why the current information dissemination methods employed by relevant stakeholders do not work. It then puts forward a proposition that information sharing within organizations of and among…

  6. Measurement of thrombus precursor protein in septic patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Soon; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Song, Jae Woo

    2002-10-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation leading to the widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. Therefore, the determination of soluble fibrin is crucial for the diagnosis of DIC. Thrombus precursor protein (TpP) levels can be determined as a measure of soluble polymers, which are the immediate precursors of insoluble fibrin. In this study, the potential diagnostic usefulness of this TpP test was investigated in septic patients with DIC and liver diseases. TpP analysis was performed on 155 plasma samples from 95 septic patients, including 72 patients without liver disease and 23 patients with liver diseases, and on 42 plasma samples from normal healthy subjects. The study population was subdivided according to three phases of DIC described as compensated, decompensated and full-blown DIC. Plasma TpP level was determined using a new assay, the TpPTM (American Biogenetic Sciences, USA), which is based on an ELISA method. Septic patients with decompensated (16.1 9.1 mg/mL) or full- blown (20.9 12.4 mg/mL) phases of DIC had significantly higher TpP levels than those with the compensated (5.6 6.2 mg/mL) phase of DIC or healthy controls (2.9 1.6 mg/mL). In septic patients with liver disease, a significant difference was found between the TpP levels of patients with full- blown DIC (21.6 10.6 mg/mL) and those of patients with the decompensated phase (13.4 6.5 mg/mL). Plasma TpP levels correlated significantly with other DIC parameters including platelet count, fibrinogen, antithrombin and TAT, and correlated weakly with D-dimer. Our findings indicate that septic patients who developed decompensated or full-blown DIC or organ dysfunction have significantly higher plasma levels of TpP, and suggest the potential usefulness of the TpP assay as an aid to the diagnosis of DIC in cases of sepsis and liver disease complicated by sepsis.

  7. Disseminated sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-03-25

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported.

  8. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  9. Multidrug-resistant organisms in a routine ward environment: differential propensity for environmental dissemination and implications for infection control.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Tan, Jasmine Shi Min; Tay, Huiyi; Chua, Gek Hong; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Syahidah, Nur

    2013-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) pose significant infection-control challenges in settings with high prevalence and limited isolation facilities. This observational study in an 800-bed hospital determined the prevalence, bacterial density and genetic relatedness of MDROs isolated from ward surfaces, medical devices and the hands of healthcare professionals. The targeted MDROs were meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenem-resistant (CR) Acinetobacter baumannii. During a 2-month period, microbiological sampling and molecular typing were performed on environment isolates, clinical isolates and isolates recovered from the hands of healthcare professionals. The target MDROs were recovered from 79% of sampled surfaces, predominantly MRSA (74% of all tested surfaces) and CR A. baumannii (29%) but also VRE (2%) and K. pneumoniae (1%). MRSA was recovered from most tested surfaces throughout the ward, whilst CR A. baumannii was significantly more likely to be recovered from near-patient surfaces. Hand sampling demonstrated infrequent recovery of MRSA (5%), CR A. baumannii (1%) and VRE (1%). Molecular typing of the study isolates identified seven MRSA and five Acinetobacter clonal clusters, respectively, and typing identified similar strains from the environment, patients and hands. Thus, in a healthcare setting with endemic circulation of MDROs, MRSA and CR A. baumannii were the predominant organisms recovered from ward surfaces, with MRSA in particular demonstrating widespread environmental dissemination. Molecular typing demonstrated the presence of related strains in patients, in the environment and on the hands of healthcare workers.

  10. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  11. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.

    PubMed

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

    2013-08-06

    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  12. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, annual report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1995 and serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Manager and staff of the Chicago Operations Office, and our colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven research program areas: (1) Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity; (2) Radiation Transport and Dosimetry; (3) Environmental Radon, Thoron, and Related Aerosols; (4) Atmospheric and Surface Pollutant Studies Related to Global Climate Change; (5) Atmospheric Chemistry; and (6) Metrology, Consultation, and Emergency Response Environmental Management The mission of EML is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues, and related national security issues.

  13. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Chieco, N.A.; Krey, P.W.; Beck, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1994 and it serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the manager and staff of the Chicago Field Office, and the authors colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven general program areas: environmental radiation and radioactivity; radiation transport and dosimetry; environmental radon, thoron, and related aerosols; atmospheric and surface pollutant studies related to global climate change; atmospheric chemistry; metrology, consultation, and emergency response; environmental management. EML`s mission is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants, and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues and related national security issues.

  14. Sequential injection immunoassay for environmental measurements.

    PubMed

    Soh, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Hirakawa, Koji; Zhang, RuiQi; Nakajima, Hizuru; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Sequential injection immunoassay systems for environmental measurements based on the selective immunoreaction between antigen and antibody were described. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique is suitable to be applied for the procedure of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because the washing and the addition of reagent solutions can be automated by using a computer-controlled syringe pump and switching valve. We selected vitellogenin (Vg), which is a biomarker for evaluating environmental risk caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the hydrosphere, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), which are versatile surfactants, as target analytes in the flow immunoassay systems. For Vg monitoring, SIA systems based on spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical determinations were constructed. On the other hand, chemiluminescence determination was applied to the detection of LAS and APEO. For APEO, an SIA system combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was also developed. These new sequential injection immunoassay systems are expected to be useful systems for environmental analysis.

  15. Ant trophallactic networks: simultaneous measurement of interaction patterns and food dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Efrat; Segre, Enrico; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-07-01

    Eusocial societies and ants, in particular, maintain tight nutritional regulation at both individual and collective levels. The mechanisms that underlie this control are far from trivial since, in these distributed systems, information about the global supply and demand is not available to any single individual. Here we present a novel technique for non-intervening frequent measurement of the food load of all individuals in an ant colony, including during trophallactic events in which food is transferred by mouth-to-mouth feeding. Ants are imaged using a dual camera setup that produces both barcode-based identification and fluorescence measurement of labeled food. This system provides detailed measurements that enable one to quantitatively study the adaptive food distribution network. To demonstrate the capabilities of our method, we present sample observations that were unattainable using previous techniques, and could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying food exchange.

  16. Ant trophallactic networks: simultaneous measurement of interaction patterns and food dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Efrat; Segre, Enrico; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial societies and ants, in particular, maintain tight nutritional regulation at both individual and collective levels. The mechanisms that underlie this control are far from trivial since, in these distributed systems, information about the global supply and demand is not available to any single individual. Here we present a novel technique for non-intervening frequent measurement of the food load of all individuals in an ant colony, including during trophallactic events in which food is transferred by mouth-to-mouth feeding. Ants are imaged using a dual camera setup that produces both barcode-based identification and fluorescence measurement of labeled food. This system provides detailed measurements that enable one to quantitatively study the adaptive food distribution network. To demonstrate the capabilities of our method, we present sample observations that were unattainable using previous techniques, and could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying food exchange. PMID:26224025

  17. Metastasis 'systems' biology: how are macro-environmental signals transmitted into microenvironmental cues for disseminated tumor cells?

    PubMed

    Grzelak, Candice Alexandra; Ghajar, Cyrus Michael

    2017-10-01

    Disseminated breast tumor cells reside on or near stable microvascular endothelium. Currently, the cues that disrupt DTC dormancy and facilitate outgrowth are largely unknown. This article explores the hypothesis that specific patient lifestyle exposures (e.g., alcohol abuse) may disrupt the microenvironments that maintain disseminated tumor cell (DTC) dormancy in a tissue-specific fashion. We suggest that such exposures are 'transmitted' to the dormant niche in the form of injury. Thus, we discuss the relationship between wound healing and metastasis using liver as an example to illustrate how injury steers the phenotype of liver endothelium and perivascular hepatic stellate cells to a potentially pro-metastatic one. We posit further that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - recently shown to prevent metastatic relapse - may act by preserving the dormant niche. We conclude by suggesting that maintenance of the dormant niche - either through patient lifestyle or via development of therapeutics that mimic local molecular cues/responses that coincide with a healthy lifestyle - is a means to prevent metastatic relapse, and should be the subject of far greater research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-02-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  19. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Management Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: • Risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other end states) • Risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities • Comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs • Ranking of programs or activities by risk • Ranking of wastes/materials by risk • Evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress • Integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  20. A comparative analysis of the dissemination of best practice measures for key populations.

    PubMed

    Lundy, Jennifer; Santangelo, Jennifer; Rogers, Patrick; Kuehn, Lynn; Christensen, Sharon; Bournique, Judy; Mekhjian, Hagop; Kamal, Jyoti

    2008-11-06

    In collaboration with the department of Quality and Operations Improvement, Clinical Applications and the Information Warehouse, we have leveraged available Information Warehouse data to build a Best Practice Compliance Measurement Dashboard. This tool combines information from our operating room charting system, our order entry system and coding information from the patient billing and management system to provide 'previous day', data on a patients current course of treatment.

  1. Disseminating research.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Lesley

    2015-07-01

    THE THEME of this edition of Nurse Researcher, 'disseminating research', is pertinent to researchers across the career spectrum and tackles two important issues: open access publishing and originality in PhD research. In the first paper, Suzanne Fredericks examines and contrasts two models of open access publishing, revealing some notable advantages of 'green' open access, achieved through repositories, as opposed to the more well-known 'gold' open access offered by journals ( Fredericks 2015 ). In the second paper, Paul Gill and Gina Dolan discuss originality in PhD studies, exploring the nature of the concept and how doctoral students can demonstrate originality, which is an essential consideration in their research dissemination activities as well as their thesis preparation ( Gill and Dolan 2015 ).

  2. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume.

  3. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  4. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  5. Navigational and Environmental Measurement System (NEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, T. D.

    1988-01-01

    The NEMS concept and design were initiated from the need to measure and record positional and environmental information during aircraft flights of developmental science research instrumentation. The unit was designed as a stand-alone system which could serve the needs of instruments whose developmental nature did not justify the cost and complexity of including these measurements within the instrument data system. Initially, the system was comprised of a Loran-C receiver and a portable IBM compatible computer recording position and time. Later, the system was interfaced with the Wallops aircraft inertial navigation system (INS), and various other sensors were supplied and shared by the Goddard science users. Real-time position mapping on video monitors was added for investigator's use and information. In 1987, the use of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver was included in some missions. A total configuration of the system and the various sensors which can be incorporated are shown.

  6. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Executive Order 12898, {open_quote}Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,{close_quote} directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies` incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping.

  7. The role of media in the dissemination of environmental and natural disaster information to the public: NPOESS: the future of earth observation and the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameller, Rafael; Cervone, Guido; Kafatos, M.; Jones, Dave

    TV broadcast news, part news and part entertainment, continuously transformed by new technology and driven by ratings, still remains the primary form of dissemination of real time information to the general public. Media coverage of environmental issues and natural disasters varies considerably, depending on the perceived interests of the audience. While some receive a lot of coverage with in depth scientific analysis, others receive almost no coverage at all, or are only superficially covered. Although the media is often criticized by scientists for the uneven coverage of events, scientists, agencies and NGOs, must rely on the media to quickly reach the general public. Public awareness and understanding of natural hazards can help save lives and reduce property damages and economic losses, particularly as global climate change and its connection to hazards is accelerating. Earth orbiting satellites provide an unprecedented access to high resolution data about the Earth and its environment. Although such data are readily available and provides excellent visuals for natural hazards, their use in media broadcast is still not widespread. The goal of this research is to bridge the gap between the scientific data available and the visuals currently used in media broadcast. In this work we analyze the media coverage of natural hazards and disasters and the impact on the public. We present examples of past cooperation that led to the dissemination of earth observation products through TV broadcasts, and discuss the different requirements which have to be met in order to transform high resolution satellite images and scientific data into a TV friendly format. Finally, we identify the potential use of future products from the upcoming NPOESS satellite platforms for the coverage of natural hazards and disasters.

  8. Measurement of environmental formylmethionyl-peptides.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P D; Ronk, E A; Clark, P R; Shahan, T A; Castranova, V

    1994-07-01

    Formylmethionyl-peptides are naturally occurring, biologically active ligands produced by bacteria. They produce a variety of biological effects including neutrophil chemotaxis, cellular degranulation, oxygen-free radical production, and smooth muscle contraction. Our studies have demonstrated that oxidized and reduced forms of formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) can be detected in bulk environmental organic dust samples. Organic dust fMLP content may not reflect total formylmethionyl-peptide content and pathological sequelae. Attempts to develop a total formylmethionyl-peptide assay that would reflect its pathological potential have thus far been unsuccessful. Information has been derived concerning the biology of formylmethionyl-peptides from these studies. Chromatographic, radioenzymatic, and radioreceptor-ligand binding studies were performed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of synthetic and environmental fMLP demonstrated that fMLP is labile, forming three oxidation products. HPLC is limited by inadequate sensitivity for air sample analysis and the probability of the presence of multiple formylmethionyl-peptides. Deformylases were isolated from Escherichia coli, but their usefulness in a competitive assay to detect formylmethionyl-peptides was limited by specificity differences from that for biological receptors. Receptor binding studies were conducted in an attempt to replace the deformylase with a biological receptor. The receptor binding patterns noted were consistent with the existence of three distinct formylmethionyl-peptide receptor subsets in neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. The plurality of fMLP receptor subtypes interfered with formylmethionyl-peptide measurement in a competitive assay. Formylmethionyl-peptides may contribute to organic dust-induced disease, but better techniques for the assessment of exposure to these agents are needed to properly assess their health impact.

  9. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Environmental quarterly, March 1-June 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Current information from the EML environmental programs, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory is reported. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes dealing with strontium-90 in human bone from Bombay, chemical composition of the aerosol at American Samoa, and strontium-90 in New York and San Francisco diets. Subsequent sections include tabulations of strontium-90 fallout, chemical constituents of wet and dry deposition, radionuclide and trace metal concentrations in surface air, and strontium-90 concentrations in human bone, milk and tap water. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for four of the sections.

  10. An observatory to gather and disseminate information on the health-related effects of environmental and climate change.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Christovam; Roux, Emmanuel; Ceccato, Pietro; Gosselin, Pierre; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel; de Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal; Xavier, Diego Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    This report sought to critically examine proposals, potentials, and challenges of environmental health observatories with an emphasis on climate change processes. A critical review of existing environmental health observatories was performed, examining their purposes, potential audiences, and technological platforms. The implementation of the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory (C&HO) is described, and two stages are defined: (i) the requirement analysis and negotiation stage that identified the national and regional institutional players and their roles as data producers/users; and (ii) thematic health-related workshops that reviewed water-related diseases, vector-borne diseases, extreme climate events, and health problems derived from forest fires. The C&HO is an example of making information on climate and health available through an Internet site where data from different origins can be accessed on a common platform. Complex queries are made by users and can be executed over multiple sites, geographically distributed, with all technical details hidden from the end user. At this stage of the C&HO prototype, alongside the queries, users can also produce semi-qualitative graphs and maps. A multi-scale approach was developed using the platform by setting up sentinel sites. Building a successful observatory is a participatory process that involves choosing indicators, data sources, information technology, and languages to best reach different audiences, such as researchers, citizens, public health professionals, and decisionmakers.

  11. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  12. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  13. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  14. Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility.

  15. Measuring Values-Based Environmental Concerns in Children: An Environmental Motives Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Coral M.; Chance, Randie C.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report…

  16. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts.

  17. The Role of Measuring in the Learning of Environmental Occupations and Some Aspects of Environmental Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    István, Lüko

    2016-01-01

    The methodology neglected area of pedagogy, within the environmental specialist teaching methodology cultivating the best part is incomplete. In this article I shall attempt to environmental methodology presented in one part of the University of West Environmental Education workshop, based on the measurement of experiential learning as an…

  18. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28 Section 582.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing, development...

  19. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28 Section 582.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing, development...

  20. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28 Section 582.28 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing, development...

  1. Environmental Health Practice: Statistically Based Performance Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Enander, Richard T.; Gagnon, Ronald N.; Hanumara, R. Choudary; Park, Eugene; Armstrong, Thomas; Gute, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. State environmental and health protection agencies have traditionally relied on a facility-by-facility inspection-enforcement paradigm to achieve compliance with government regulations. We evaluated the effectiveness of a new approach that uses a self-certification random sampling design. Methods. Comprehensive environmental and occupational health data from a 3-year statewide industry self-certification initiative were collected from representative automotive refinishing facilities located in Rhode Island. Statistical comparisons between baseline and postintervention data facilitated a quantitative evaluation of statewide performance. Results. The analysis of field data collected from 82 randomly selected automotive refinishing facilities showed statistically significant improvements (P<.05, Fisher exact test) in 4 major performance categories: occupational health and safety, air pollution control, hazardous waste management, and wastewater discharge. Statistical significance was also shown when a modified Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the new self-certification approach to environmental and worker protection is effective and can be used as an adjunct to further enhance state and federal enforcement programs. PMID:17267709

  2. A Calibration and Quality Assurance Program for Environmental Radon Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Fisenne, Isabel M.; George, Andreas C.; Keller, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    The ideal facility for assessing the quality of radon measurements at environmental levels consists of: (1) an instrument whose response to radon and its progeny is determined from measurements of a certified or standard 226Ra source, and (2) a calibration room with a known radon concentration. The linkage between these two elements and additional quality control requirements are discussed here for some Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon measurements programs. PMID:28179764

  3. Ionospheric Measurements Using Environmental Sampling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, R. E.; Jackson, J. E.; Kane, J. A.; Serbu, G. P.

    1960-01-01

    Two rockets were flown to peak altitudes of 220 km in September 1959 to test various methods planned for future measurements of ionization parameters in the ionosphere, exosphere, and interplanetary plasma. The experiments used techniques which sample the ambient environment in the immediate vicinity of the research vehicle. Direct methods were chosen since indirect propagation techniques do not provide the temperatures of charged particles, are insensitive to ion densities, and cannot measure local electron densities under all conditions. Very encouraging results have been obtained from a preliminary analysis of data provided by one of the two flights. A new rf probe technique was successfully used to determine the electron density profile. This was indicated by its agreement with the results of a companion cw propagation experiment, particularly when the probe data were corrected for the effects of the ion sheath which surrounds the vehicle. The characteristics of this sheath were determined directly in flight by an electric field meter which provided the sheath field, and by a Langmuir probe which measured the total potential across the sheath. The electron temperatures deduced from the Langmuir probe data are greater than the neutral gas temperatures previously measured for the same location and season, but these measurements possibly were taken under different atmospheric conditions. Ion densities were calculated from the ion trap data for several altitudes ranging from 130 to 210 km and were found to be within 20 percent of the measured electron densities.

  4. Ethnicity and hazard information dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Ronald W.; Nelson, Lisa

    1991-07-01

    Citizens from two communities were questioned regarding the sources from which they have previously obtained information about environmental hazards and their preferences for different communication channels. Three ethnic groups—whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans—were represented among those questioned. While all three ethnic groups described similar patterns of past information receipt, it was found that Mexican-Americans obtained more information through social network contacts than whites or blacks. Ethnic differentials emerged when citizens were asked about preferred sources for information receipt. While radio was identified as desirable by all three groups, only minority citizens expressed a preference for local television as a dissemination mode and only Mexican-Americans favored neighborhood meetings. Mailed dissemination and newspapers were preferred primarily by whites and blacks. The implications of the results for the conduct of hazard information dissemination are examined.

  5. Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

  6. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 2002 Unit Performance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    This EML Unit Performance Plan provides the key goals and performance measures for FY 2002 and continuing to FY 2003. The purpose of the Plan is to inform EML's stakeholders and customers of the Laboratory's products and services, and its accomplishments and future challenges. Also incorporated in the Unit Performance Plan is EML's Communication Plan for FY 2002.

  7. The Measurement of Classroom Environmental Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, William J.; Stern, George G.

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a preliminary analysis of a new instrument, the Classroom Environment Index (CEI), designed to measure the psychological environment (press) of the classroom. The structure was essentially the same as other Syracuse indexes, containing 30 scales of 10 items each. Three forms of the instrument were…

  8. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  9. Disseminated histoplasmosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. In the disseminated ... fairly high for people with untreated widespread (disseminated) histoplasmosis, but is reduced significantly with treatment.

  10. Probes Measure Gases for Environmental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite will make the first space-based measurements of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. In support of the mission, Goddard Space Flight Center will fly air missions from Wallops Flight Facility to gather finer-grained data in areas of interest. Goddard started working with Blacksburg, Virginia-based Aeroprobe Corporation through the SBIR program in 2008 to develop sensors for such flights, and the company has since commercialized the resulting product.

  11. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-08-14

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends.

  12. Environmental Measurement in Schools: Electronics in Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of environmental meters designed to measure conductivity, light level, oxygen, pH, sound, and temperature are discussed. Criteria for choosing suitable equipment are suggested and, where possible, cheaper alternatives are mentioned. (Author/BB)

  13. Environmental Measurement in Schools: Electronics in Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of environmental meters designed to measure conductivity, light level, oxygen, pH, sound, and temperature are discussed. Criteria for choosing suitable equipment are suggested and, where possible, cheaper alternatives are mentioned. (Author/BB)

  14. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative...

  15. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative...

  16. Inferring random component distributions from environmental measurements for quality assurance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental measurement programs can add value by providing not just accurate data, but also a measure of that accuracy. While quality assurance (QA) has been recognized as necessary since almost the beginning of automated weather measurement, it has received less attention than the data proper. M...

  17. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  18. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  19. Eddy correlation measurements in wet environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuenca, R. H.; Migliori, L.; O Kane, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The lower Feale catchment is a low-lying peaty area of 200 km^2 situated in southwest Ireland that is subject to inundation by flooding. The catchment lies adjacent to the Feale River and is subject to tidal signals as well as runoff processes. Various mitigation strategies are being investigated to reduce the damage due to flooding. Part of the effort has required development of a detailed hydrologic balance for the study area which is a wet pasture environment with local field drains that are typically flooded. An eddy correlation system was installed in the summer of 2002 to measure components of the energy balance, including evapotranspiration, along with special sensors to measure other hydrologic variables particular to this study. Data collected will be essential for validation of surface flux models to be developed for this site. Data filtering is performed using a combination of software developed by the Boundary-Layer Group (BLG) at Oregon State University together with modifications made to this system for conditions at this site. This automated procedure greatly reduces the tedious inspection of individual records. The package of tests, developed by the BLG for both tower and aircraft high frequency data, checks for electronic spiking, signal dropout, unrealistic magnitudes, extreme higher moment statistics, as well as other error scenarios not covered by the instrumentation diagnostics built into the system. Critical parameter values for each potential error were developed by applying the tests to real fast response turbulent time series. Potential instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and unusual physical situations records are flagged for removal or further analysis. A final visual inspection step is required to minimize rejection of physically unusual but real behavior in the time series. The problems of data management, data quality control, individual instrumentation sensitivity, potential underestimation of latent and sensible heat

  20. Analytic considerations for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Larry L; Wang, Richard Y

    2002-01-01

    The presence of environmental chemicals in human breast milk is of general concern because of the potential health consequence of these chemicals to the breast-fed infant and the mother. In addition to the mother's exposure, several features determine the presence of environmental chemicals in breast milk and their ability to be determined analytically. These include maternal factors and properties of the environmental chemical--both physical and chemical--such as its lipid solubility, degree of ionization, and molecular weight. Environmental chemicals with high lipid solubility are likely to be found in breast milk; they include polyhalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine insecticides, and polybrominated diphenylethers. These fat-soluble chemicals are incorporated into the milk as it is synthesized, and they must be measured in accordance with the fat content of the milk to allow for meaningful comparisons within an individual and among populations. Although the analytic approach selected to measure the environmental chemical is predominantly determined by the characteristics of the chemical, the concentration of the chemical in the milk sample and the existence of structurally similar chemicals (e.g., congeners) must be considered as well. In general, the analytic approach for measuring environmental chemicals in breast milk is similar to the approach for measuring the same chemicals in other matrices, except special considerations must be given for the relatively high fat content of milk. The continued efforts of environmental scientists to measure environmental chemicals in breast milk is important for defining the true contribution of these chemicals to public health, especially to the health of the newborn. Work is needed for identifying and quantifying additional environmental chemicals in breast milk from the general population and for developing analytic

  1. Effective dissemination strategies.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Dissemination of research findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex process. In this paper, Philip Scullion sets out to explore and disentangle some of these complexities, examine examples of successful dissemination strategies and provide valuable insights. It is argued that the process of dissemination needs to be afforded greater emphasis by project-funding bodies, research supervisors, researchers, and those responsible for implementing changes in clinical practice. Important initiatives are acknowledged before the concept of dissemination is explored. The source, message, medium and target groups, all key elements in the dissemination process, are then examined. It is argued that dissemination needs to be carefully considered at the design stage of research projects in relation to each of these elements. This paper concludes that the current commitment to research and evidence-based practice will have limited impact on patient care until a similar commitment to dissemination is evident at both corporate and individual levels.

  2. Development of a Scale for Measuring Invasive Plant Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Dozier, Hallie

    2000-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure invasive plant environmentalism (knowledge and attitudes concerning non-native plant invasions). Scaled responses of 237 plant nursery customers to a 17-item standardized interview using the partial credit model. Results indicate that the instrument measured the construct of invasive plant environmentalism…

  3. Development of a Scale for Measuring Invasive Plant Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Dozier, Hallie

    2000-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure invasive plant environmentalism (knowledge and attitudes concerning non-native plant invasions). Scaled responses of 237 plant nursery customers to a 17-item standardized interview using the partial credit model. Results indicate that the instrument measured the construct of invasive plant environmentalism…

  4. Measuring environmental efficiency of agricultural water use: a Luenberger environmental indicator.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md A S; Ancev, Tihomir

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture creates substantial environmental pressures by withdrawing large quantities of water, leaving rivers and wetlands empty and unable to support the valuable ecosystems that depend on the water resource. The key challenge facing society is that of balancing water extractions for agricultural production and other uses with provision of appropriate environmental flow to maintain healthy rivers and wetlands. Measuring tradeoffs between economic gain of water use in agriculture and its environmental pressures can contribute to constructing policy instruments for improved water resource management. The aim of this paper is to develop a modelling framework to measure these tradeoffs. Using a new approach - Luenberger environmental indicator - the study derives environmental efficiency scores for various types of irrigation enterprises across seventeen natural resource management regions within the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Findings show that there is a substantial variation in environmental performance of irrigation enterprises across the regions. Some enterprises were found to be relatively environmentally efficient in some regions, but they were not efficient in others. The environmental efficiency scores could be used as a guideline for formulating regional policy and strategy to achieve sustainable water use in the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  6. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Sam; Ruder, Eric; Roman, Henry A.; Geggel, Amelia; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest. PMID:23999551

  7. Using inequality measures to incorporate environmental justice into regulatory analyses.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Ruder, Eric; Roman, Henry A; Geggel, Amelia; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Levy, Jonathan I

    2013-08-30

    Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest.

  8. Technology-based dissemination.

    PubMed

    Jennett, P A; Premkumar, K

    1996-01-01

    Health care reform and restructuring, changes in the scope and definitions of 'health', 'health care' and 'health research', along with a continued emphasis on multidisciplinary health promotion and prevention, all indicate the need for information dissemination, exchange and management. Technology can be a tool to help meet this need, as it can help us disseminate, as well as understand the process of dissemination. Rapid advances in, and reduced costs of technology, permit the integration of this tool. This paper provides a definition for dissemination, along with a background and rationale as to why now is the time and place to harness technology to assist with the dissemination process. In addition, it presents well-designed studies on the effective use of technology as an aid to dissemination. Concrete examples of innovative technology that are being tested are also examined. Finally, the challenge and strategies for technology integration are addressed.

  9. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    PubMed

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges in quality of environmental measurements for compliance

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.G.

    1994-04-07

    Quality systems development in environmental measurements for compliance with regulatory requirements for nuclear and other contaminants in the environment is one of the major challenges in current technology disciplines. Efforts to fulfill the mission and objectives of funded projects will not be successful on a timely and cost-effective schedule without adequate plans and credible action for the protection of workers, facilities, and the public in environment, safety, and health aspects. This can be accomplished through quality assurance planning and implementation of an effective, controlled environmental measurements program.

  11. Preoperative computed tomography measurements of pancreatic steatosis and visceral fat: prognostic markers for dissemination and lethality of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Abhishek; Hernandez, Jonathan; Shaheen, Fawad; Shroff, Miloni; Dahal, Sujat; Morton, Connor; Farrior, Thomas; Kedar, Raj; Rosemurgy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased visceral fat and pancreatic steatosis promote lymphatic metastases and decreased survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Objectives We aim to determine the utility of preoperative computed tomography (CT) measurements of pancreatic steatosis and visceral fat as prognostic indicators in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods High-resolution CT scans of 42 patients undergoing PD for pancreatic adenocarcinoma were reviewed. Attenuation in CT of the pancreas, liver and spleen were measured in Hounsfield units and scored by two blinded investigators. Perirenal adipose tissue was measured in mm. Results Lymphatic metastases were present in 57% of patients. Age, gender, tumour size and margin status were similar in patients with and without nodal metastases. Node-positive patients had increased visceral but not subcutaneous fat pads compared with node-negative patients and decreased CT attenuation of the pancreatic body and tail and liver. Node-positive patients stratified by visceral adiposity (≥10 mm vs. <10 mm) demonstrated poorer survival (7 ± 1 months vs. 16 ± 2 months; P < 0.01). Conclusions In resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma, increased pancreatic steatosis and increased visceral fat stores are associated with lymphatic metastases. Furthermore, increased visceral fat is associated with abbreviated survival in patients with lymphatic metastases. Hence, increased visceral fat may be a causative factor of abbreviated survival and serves a prognostic role in patients with pancreatic malignancies. PMID:21609373

  12. Measuring Environmental Quality in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    Linwood Pendleton; Brent Sohngen; Robert Mendelsohn; Thomas Holmes

    1998-01-01

    This study presents a method for valuing recreational environmental quality in the forests of the southeastern United States. The paper offers a method for choosing, measuring, and valuing forest attributes. Surveys and popular recreation literature are used to identify forest attributes that contribute to recreational quality. Standard ecological techniques are...

  13. Who Makes the Most? Measuring the "Urban Environmental Virtuosity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Oriana; Ercolano, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a composite indicator called urban environmental virtuosity index (UEVI), in order to measure the efforts made by public local bodies in applying an ecosystem approach to urban management. UEVI employs the less exploited process-based selection criteria for representing the original concept of virtuosity, providing makes a…

  14. Who Makes the Most? Measuring the "Urban Environmental Virtuosity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Oriana; Ercolano, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a composite indicator called urban environmental virtuosity index (UEVI), in order to measure the efforts made by public local bodies in applying an ecosystem approach to urban management. UEVI employs the less exploited process-based selection criteria for representing the original concept of virtuosity, providing makes a…

  15. Mid-Frequency Reverberation Measurements with Full Companion Environmental Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-30

    MEASUREMENTS WITH FULL COMPANION ENVIRONMENTAL SUPPORT Dajun (DJ) Tang Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013 NE 40 th Street...bottom and sub- bottom impact on propagation and scattering, surface and water column influence on propagation, culminating in a full understanding...had not been a true 6.1 level reverberation experiment where the environment has been sufficiently measured to support full modeling of the data

  16. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies.

  17. The measure of environmental sensitivity in detection performance degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong-wei; Sun, Chao; Xiang, Long-feng

    2012-11-01

    It is known that environmental mismatch in an uncertain ocean can cause performance degradation to sonar detection algorithms. However, there has been relatively little work in defining practical quantitative measures of environmental sensitivity. In previous studies, mismatch analysis was mainly performed on matched field processing for target localization. Environmental sensitivity for ocean acoustic propagation has also been studied where the acoustic field's pressure amplitude variation was considered. Based on these facts, this paper defines a measure of environmental sensitivity in the degradation of detection performance, in order to account for realistic uncertainties in various environmental parameters. Sensitivity is here defined for two detectors. One is the optimum detector in the deterministic ocean environment and another is the optimum Bayesian detector in the uncertain ocean environment. The Malta Plateau, a well-studied shallow-water region of the Mediterranean Sea, is used to perform the detection performance degradation sensitivity analysis. The result shows that (1) the sensitivity is range-and depth-dependent, and its value in the sound channel is much smaller compared to other regions of the ocean; (2) the optimum detector derived for the deterministic environment may suffer a great detection performance degradation when applied to the uncertain environment; and (3) the water-column sound-speed profile and the upper seabed layer are the most sensitive parameters for the degradation of detection performance.

  18. Introducing a sensor to measure budburst and its environmental drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kleinknecht, George J.; Lintz, Heather E.; Kruger, Anton; Niemeier, James J.; Salino-Hugg, Michael J.; Thomas, Christoph K.; Still, Christopher J.; Kim, Youngil

    2015-01-01

    Budburst is a key adaptive trait that can help us understand how plants respond to a changing climate from the molecular to landscape scale. Despite this, acquisition of budburst data is constrained by a lack of information at the plant scale on the environmental stimuli associated with the release of bud dormancy. Additionally, to date, little effort has been devoted to phenotyping plants in natural populations due to the challenge of accounting for the effect of environmental variation. Nonetheless, natural selection operates on natural populations, and investigation of adaptive phenotypes in situ is warranted and can validate results from controlled laboratory experiments. To identify genomic effects on individual plant phenotypes in nature, environmental drivers must be concurrently measured, and characterized. Here, we designed and evaluated a sensor to meet these requirements for temperate woody plants. It was designed for use on a tree branch to measure the timing of budburst together with its key environmental drivers; temperature, and photoperiod. Specifically, we evaluated the sensor through independent corroboration with time-lapse photography and a suite of environmental sampling instruments. We also tested whether the presence of the device on a branch influenced the timing of budburst. Our results indicated the following: the temperatures measured by the budburst sensor’s digital thermometer closely approximated the temperatures measured using a thermocouple touching plant tissue; the photoperiod detector measured ambient light with the same accuracy as did time lapse photography; the budburst sensor accurately detected the timing of budburst; and the sensor itself did not influence the budburst timing of Populus clones. Among other potential applications, future use of the sensor may provide plant phenotyping at the landscape level for integration with landscape genomics. PMID:25806035

  19. Introducing a sensor to measure budburst and its environmental drivers.

    PubMed

    Kleinknecht, George J; Lintz, Heather E; Kruger, Anton; Niemeier, James J; Salino-Hugg, Michael J; Thomas, Christoph K; Still, Christopher J; Kim, Youngil

    2015-01-01

    Budburst is a key adaptive trait that can help us understand how plants respond to a changing climate from the molecular to landscape scale. Despite this, acquisition of budburst data is constrained by a lack of information at the plant scale on the environmental stimuli associated with the release of bud dormancy. Additionally, to date, little effort has been devoted to phenotyping plants in natural populations due to the challenge of accounting for the effect of environmental variation. Nonetheless, natural selection operates on natural populations, and investigation of adaptive phenotypes in situ is warranted and can validate results from controlled laboratory experiments. To identify genomic effects on individual plant phenotypes in nature, environmental drivers must be concurrently measured, and characterized. Here, we designed and evaluated a sensor to meet these requirements for temperate woody plants. It was designed for use on a tree branch to measure the timing of budburst together with its key environmental drivers; temperature, and photoperiod. Specifically, we evaluated the sensor through independent corroboration with time-lapse photography and a suite of environmental sampling instruments. We also tested whether the presence of the device on a branch influenced the timing of budburst. Our results indicated the following: the temperatures measured by the budburst sensor's digital thermometer closely approximated the temperatures measured using a thermocouple touching plant tissue; the photoperiod detector measured ambient light with the same accuracy as did time lapse photography; the budburst sensor accurately detected the timing of budburst; and the sensor itself did not influence the budburst timing of Populus clones. Among other potential applications, future use of the sensor may provide plant phenotyping at the landscape level for integration with landscape genomics.

  20. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Alper, Gulay

    2012-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, commonly preceded by an infection. It principally involves the white matter tracts of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mainly affects children. Clinically, patients present with multifocal neurologic abnormalities reflecting the widespread involvement in central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid may be normal or may show a mild pleocytosis with or without elevated protein levels. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) shows multiple demyelinating lesions. The diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus criteria. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis typically has a monophasic course with a favorable prognosis. Multiphasic forms have been reported, resulting in diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing these cases from multiple sclerosis. In addition, many inflammatory disorders may have a similar presentation with frequent occurrence of encephalopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  1. Development of a scale for measuring invasive plant environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, E W; Dozier, H

    2000-01-01

    The ecological impact of invasive plant species is a serious concern among environmental scientists and conservationists. Educating the public about invasive plant issues is a major hurdle, given that several invaders come into the environment through ornamental gardening. An important first step in planning an educational program concerning invasive plant issues is to assess public knowledge and attitudes concerning these issues. This paper describes the development of an instrument that measures invasive plant environmentalism. Responses from 237 nursery customers from the southeastern U.S. to a 17-item standardized interview were scaled using the partial credit model, a member of the family of Rasch (1960) measurement models. Our results indicate that the instrument adequately measures this construct. Substantive interpretations of the results are also discussed.

  2. Tracking contributions to human body burden of environmental chemicals by correlating environmental measurements with biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E; Sohn, Michael D; Bennett, Deborah H

    2014-01-01

    The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and food), and the biological half-life of a compound, on the resulting correlations between biomarker and environmental measurements. For two hypothetical compounds whose half-lives are on the order of days for one and years for the other, we generate synthetic daily environmental concentrations and food exposures with different day-to-day and population variability as well as different amounts of home- and food-based exposure. Assuming that the total intake results only from home-based exposure and food ingestion, we estimate time-dependent biomarker concentrations using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Box plots of modeled R2 values indicate that although the R2 correlation between wipe and biological (e.g., serum) measurements is within the same range for the two compounds, the relative contribution of the home exposure to the total exposure could differ by up to 20%, thus providing the relative indication of their contribution to body burden. The novel method introduced in this paper provides insights for evaluating scenarios or experiments where sample, exposure, and compound variability must be weighed in order to interpret associations between exposure data.

  3. Tracking Contributions to Human Body Burden of Environmental Chemicals by Correlating Environmental Measurements with Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and food), and the biological half-life of a compound, on the resulting correlations between biomarker and environmental measurements. For two hypothetical compounds whose half-lives are on the order of days for one and years for the other, we generate synthetic daily environmental concentrations and food exposures with different day-to-day and population variability as well as different amounts of home- and food-based exposure. Assuming that the total intake results only from home-based exposure and food ingestion, we estimate time-dependent biomarker concentrations using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Box plots of modeled R2 values indicate that although the R2 correlation between wipe and biological (e.g., serum) measurements is within the same range for the two compounds, the relative contribution of the home exposure to the total exposure could differ by up to 20%, thus providing the relative indication of their contribution to body burden. The novel method introduced in this paper provides insights for evaluating scenarios or experiments where sample, exposure, and compound variability must be weighed in order to interpret associations between exposure data. PMID:24681626

  4. Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

  5. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  6. New Concepts for Radiometric Measurements of Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    There is a long history of using radioisotopes to study a variety of environmental processes. The recent release of radioisotopes from the nuclear power facilities in Fukushima, Japan, prompted a review at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of the current measurement practices applied to the measurement of actinides and radioactive fission products in the environment. The objective of this review is to identify gaps in measurement capability that might be addressed through research and development. The scope is limited to man-made radioisotopes in the environment related to nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The focus rests on actinides and fission products. This report presents the preliminary findings of the review.

  7. Multiple measures on the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network.

    PubMed

    Wall, Patrick; Kassinger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program is leading an initiative to build a National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network) that integrates data into a network of standardized electronic data to provide valid scientific information on environmental exposures and adverse health conditions, as well as spatial and temporal relations between them. The Web-based Tracking Network is designed for different audiences including government, the academic community, and the public. A primary goal of the Tracking Network is to allow the exploration of data on health effects, environments, and demographics. The wide variety of data types along with stratifications present a complex problem when developing system functionality to query and display disparate data simultaneously in a comparable way using charts, tables, and maps. While the ability to query and display data that span across geographies and multiple time periods for a single type of data has been the main feature set of the Tracking Network, allowing the same for multiple data types is needed to enable users to explore trends and possible associations among health and environmental data. As a first step, a multidisciplinary team was formed to address complex issues related to developing the ability to view multiple measures on the Tracking Network. The team then iterated through steps involving requirements gathering, the segmentation of the requirements into functional areas, submission of proposals to address those functional areas, and finally evaluation of the proposals to address functional areas. Adding the ability to view multiple measures is an important step to improve Tracking Network users' exploration of the environmental health status of their communities. With this capability, public health practitioners and other users can formulate hypotheses, analyze trends, and explore possible relationships across a wide variety

  8. Quality Assurance and Control Considerations in Environmental Measurements and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlet, Jacob

    1982-06-01

    Quality assurance and quality control have become accepted as essential parts of all environmental surveillance, measurements, and monitoring programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear. The same principles and details apply to each. It is primarily the final measurement technique that differs. As the desire and need to measure smaller amounts of pollutants with greater accuracy has increased, it has been recognized that quality assurance and control programs are cost-effective in achieving the expected results. Quality assurance (QA) consists of all the actions necessary to provide confidence in the results. Quality control (QC) is a part of QA, and consists of those actions and activities that permit the control of the individual steps in the environmental program. The distinction between the two terms is not always clearly defined, but a sharp division is not necessary. The essential principle of QA and QC is a commitment to high quality results. The essential components of a QA and QC program are a complete, written procedures manual for all parts of the environmental program, the use of standard or validated procedures, participation in applicable interlaboratory comparison or QA programs, replicate analysis and measurement, training of personnel, and a means of auditing or checking that the QA and QC programs are properly conducted. These components are discussed below in some detail.

  9. IAEA's ALMERA network: Supporting the quality of environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Tarjan, S; Pitois, A; Groening, M; Osborn, D

    2016-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency coordinates and provides methodological and analytical quality support to the network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA), comprising 150 laboratories in 84 countries. Annual proficiency tests (PTs) are organized for the network laboratories using sets of different samples typically encountered in environmental and food monitoring laboratories. The PT system is designed to respond to the needs of the network for rapid response and reliable measurement results, and to metrological principles and international standards and guides. Comparison of performance of ALMERA and non-ALMERA laboratories in PTs indicates that the "PT - method development - training - PT" strategy adopted for capability building is beneficial to the network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Imported Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Clones in a Greek Hospital: Impact of Infection Control Measures for Restraining Their Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Poulou, Aggeliki; Voulgari, Evangelia; Vrioni, Georgia; Xidopoulos, Grigorios; Pliagkos, Aris; Chatzipantazi, Vassiliki; Markou, Fani

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains represents a major threat for hospitalized patients. We document the dissemination and control of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in a Greek hospital. During a 3-year study period (January 2009 to December 2011), carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from clinical samples from 73 individual patients. Phenotyping and molecular testing confirmed that 52 patients were infected with K. pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2) producers, 12 were infected with VIM-1 producers, and the remaining 9 were infected with isolates producing both KPC-2 and VIM-1 enzymes. Twenty-eight of these clinical cases were characterized as imported health care associated, and 23 of these were attributed to KPC producers and 5 were attributed to KPC and VIM producers. The remaining 45 cases were deemed hospital acquired. In the second year of the study, intensified infection control intervention was implemented, followed by active surveillance and carrier isolation in the third year. The incidence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae patient cases decreased from 0.52/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.32/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.075). Following these additional infection control measures, the incidence fell to 0.21/1,000 patient days in 2011 and differed significantly from that in 2009 (P = 0.0028). Despite the fact that the imported cases of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae were equally distributed over this 3-year period, the incidence of hospital-acquired cases decreased from 0.36/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.19/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.058) and to 0.1/1,000 patient days in 2011 (P = 0.0012). Our findings suggest that rigorous infection control measures and active surveillance can effectively reduce the incidence of secondary transmission due to KPC-producing pathogens. PMID:22649010

  11. Measuring Health Information Dissemination and Identifying Target Interest Communities on Twitter: Methods Development and Case Study of the @SafetyMD Network

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the ability of individual stakeholder groups to achieve health information dissemination goals through Twitter. Objective This study aimed to develop and apply methods for the systematic evaluation and optimization of health information dissemination by stakeholders through Twitter. Methods Tweet content from 1790 followers of @SafetyMD (July-November 2012) was examined. User emphasis, a new indicator of Twitter information dissemination, was defined and applied to retweets across two levels of retweeters originating from @SafetyMD. User interest clusters were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of a random sample of 170 followers. Results User emphasis of keywords remained across levels but decreased by 9.5 percentage points. PCA and HCA identified 12 statistically unique clusters of followers within the @SafetyMD Twitter network. Conclusions This study is one of the first to develop methods for use by stakeholders to evaluate and optimize their use of Twitter to disseminate health information. Our new methods provide preliminary evidence that individual stakeholders can evaluate the effectiveness of health information dissemination and create content-specific clusters for more specific targeted messaging. PMID:27151100

  12. Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.

    PubMed

    Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

    2013-04-15

    Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in the New Delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Timothy R; Weeks, Janis; Livermore, David M; Toleman, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    Not all patients infected with NDM-1-positive bacteria have a history of hospital admission in India, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases are known to be circulating in the Indian community. We therefore measured the prevalence of the NDM-1 gene in drinking water and seepage samples in New Delhi. Swabs absorbing about 100 μL of seepage water (ie, water pools in streets or rivulets) and 15 mL samples of public tap water were collected from sites within a 12 km radius of central New Delhi, with each site photographed and documented. Samples were transported to the UK and tested for the presence of the NDM-1 gene, bla(NDM-1), by PCR and DNA probing. As a control group, 100 μL sewage effluent samples were taken from the Cardiff Wastewater Treatment Works, Tremorfa, Wales. Bacteria from all samples were recovered and examined for bla(NDM-1) by PCR and sequencing. We identified NDM-1-positive isolates, undertook susceptibility testing, and, where appropriate, typed the isolates. We undertook Inc typing on bla(NDM-1)-positive plasmids. Transconjugants were created to assess plasmid transfer frequency and its relation to temperature. From Sept 26 to Oct 10, 2010, 171 seepage samples and 50 tap water samples from New Delhi and 70 sewage effluent samples from Cardiff Wastewater Treatment Works were collected. We detected bla(NDM-1) in two of 50 drinking-water samples and 51 of 171 seepage samples from New Delhi; the gene was not found in any sample from Cardiff. Bacteria with bla(NDM-1) were grown from 12 of 171 seepage samples and two of 50 water samples, and included 11 species in which NDM-1 has not previously been reported, including Shigella boydii and Vibrio cholerae. Carriage by enterobacteria, aeromonads, and V cholera was stable, generally transmissible, and associated with resistance patterns typical for NDM-1; carriage by non-fermenters was unstable in many cases and not associated with typical resistance. 20 strains of bacteria were found in the samples, 12 of

  14. Environmental outcome-based management: Using environmental goals and measures in the Chesapeake Bay program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Attention is focused on the following: Establishing Environmental Outcome-Based Management; Chesapeake Bay Program Environmental Indicators; Managing for Environmental Results; Future Directions; and Appendices.

  15. Need for expanded environmental measurement capabilities in geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico P.

    1992-01-01

    The proliferation of environmental satellites in low altitude earth orbit (LEO) has demonstrated the usefulness of earth remote sensing from space. As use of the technology grows, the limitations of LEO missions become more apparent. Many inadequacies can be met by remote sensing from geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO) that can provide high temporal resolution, consistent viewing of specific earth targets, long sensing dwell times with varying sun angles, stereoscopic coverage, and correlative measurements with ground and LEO observations. An environmental platform in GEO is being studied by NASA. Small research satellite missions in GEO were studied (1990) at GSFC. Some recent independent assessments of NASA Earth Science Programs recommend accelerating the earlier deployment of smaller missions.

  16. Need for expanded environmental measurement capabilities in geosynchronous Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico P.

    1991-01-01

    The proliferation of environmental satellites in low altitude earth orbit (LEO) has demonstrated the usefulness of earth remote sensing from space. As use of the technology grows, the limitations of LEO missions become more apparent. Many inadequacies can be met by remote sensing from geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO) that can provide high temporal resolution, consistent viewing of specific earth targets, long sensing dwell times with varying sun angles, stereoscopic coverage, and correlative measurements with ground and LEO observations. An environmental platform in GEO is being studied by NASA. Small research satellite missions in GEO were studied (1990) at GSFC. Some recent independent assessments of NASA Earth Science Programs recommend accelerating the earlier deployment of smaller missions.

  17. Dynamical Aspects in the Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbuch, Gérard; Boudjema, GeEacuterRard

    We describe a simple model of the dynamics of adoption of agri-environmental measures by farmers in Europe. Farmers choices are based on their evaluation of the economic advantages of taking environmental premiums in exchange for environment friendly practices, plus imitation terms taking into account the information that they get from neighbors which have already made their own choice. We show that under a large set of social network topologies and hypotheses on distribution of farmers characteristics, the outcome of the social processes, namely premium uptaken rate, depends upon local characteristics of farmers and their network. It is not directly related to average characteristics. Some conclusions and recommendations about policy implementation can then be driven.

  18. TRANSFORMATION FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ACTION IN IIDA CITY RESIDENTS - ATTEITION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobuo; Higuchi, Kazukiyo; Tokai, Akihiro

    Iida City in Nagano Prefecture is a town with an advanced environmental strategy including citizenry participation in the town's environment plan, a network of EMS (Environmental Management system) businesses, and a citizens' solar power system. In this study, a questionnaire of Iida residents was carried out to determine their environmental consciousness, and the effect on their actions. It also examined the influence of current environmental measures on the residents, and the relation between the level of social capital and residents' environmental considerations. The results indicate that the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is higher than that of the entire Japan in Iida City, and environmental measures has improved the residents' environmental consciousness. And it is thought the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is related to the level of social capital.

  19. Measurements of vaccinia virus dissemination using whole body imaging: approaches for predicting of lethality in challenge models and testing of vaccines and antiviral treatments.

    PubMed

    Zaitseva, Marina; Kapnick, Senta; Golding, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of novel anti-smallpox vaccines and antiviral treatments often rely on mouse -challenge models using pathogenic vaccinia virus, such as Western Reserve (WR) strain or other orthopoxviruses. Traditionally, efficacy of treatment is evaluated using various readouts, such as lethality (rare), measurements of body weight loss, pox lesion scoring, and determination of viral loads in internal organs by enumerating plaques in sensitive cell lines. These methodologies provide valuable information about the contribution of the treatment to protection from infection, yet all have similar limitations: they do not evaluate dissemination of the virus within the same animal and require large numbers of animals. These two problems prompted us to turn to a recently developed whole body imaging technology, where replication of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing luciferase enzyme (WRvFire) is sensed by detecting light emitted by the enzyme in the presence of D: -luciferin substrate administered to infected animal. Bioluminescence signals from infected organs in live animals are registered by the charge-coupled device camera in IVIS instrument developed by Caliper, and are converted into numerical values. This chapter describes whole body bioimaging methodology used to determine viral loads in normal live BALB/c mice infected with recombinant WRvFire vaccinia virus. Using Dryvax vaccination as a model, we show how bioluminescence data can be used to determine efficacy of treatment. In addition, we illustrate how bioluminescence and survival outcome can be combined in Receiver Operating Characteristic curve -analysis to develop predictive models of lethality that can be applied for testing of new therapeutics and second-generation vaccines.

  20. Interlaboratory Comparison of Organically Bound Tritium Measurements in Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, W.J.G.; Kim, S.B.; Kotzer, T.G.

    2005-07-15

    The measurement of organically bound tritium in environmental samples is essential for assessing the impact of tritium releases in terms of doses to the general public and a growing number of laboratories are now required to make them. Interlaboratory comparisons provide one way for laboratories to practice and check their analytical methods and procedures. At AECL's Chalk River Laboratories, two organic matrices with tritium concentrations less than 1.5 kBq/g were developed and distributed to seven laboratories in Canada, Europe and Russia for measurement. Some participants experienced difficulties in analysing the samples, especially with the lower concentrations, where results varied by more than an order of magnitude. Laboratories incorporating procedures such as rinsing to remove tritium from exchangeable sites, using standardized combustion methods and purifying the combustion water obtained more reliable, consistent results. The preparation of the standard reference material must be carefully executed in order to produce a homogeneous sample of uniform size. The tritium measurement community would benefit if standard reference materials in the environmental concentration range were available.

  1. Development of Nondestructive Measuring Technique of Environmental Radioactive Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    The Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the Japanese big earthquake in 2011. The main radioactivity concerned after the accident are I-131 (half-life 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years) and 137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days) and 90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new detection technique which enables us to realize quantitative evaluation of the strontium radioactivity by means of nondestructive measurement without chemical separation processing, which is concerned to be included inside foods, environmental water and soil around us, in order to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to the radiation.

  2. Measurement error caused by spatial misalignment in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gryparis, Alexandros; Paciorek, Christopher J; Zeka, Ariana; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A

    2009-04-01

    In many environmental epidemiology studies, the locations and/or times of exposure measurements and health assessments do not match. In such settings, health effects analyses often use the predictions from an exposure model as a covariate in a regression model. Such exposure predictions contain some measurement error as the predicted values do not equal the true exposures. We provide a framework for spatial measurement error modeling, showing that smoothing induces a Berkson-type measurement error with nondiagonal error structure. From this viewpoint, we review the existing approaches to estimation in a linear regression health model, including direct use of the spatial predictions and exposure simulation, and explore some modified approaches, including Bayesian models and out-of-sample regression calibration, motivated by measurement error principles. We then extend this work to the generalized linear model framework for health outcomes. Based on analytical considerations and simulation results, we compare the performance of all these approaches under several spatial models for exposure. Our comparisons underscore several important points. First, exposure simulation can perform very poorly under certain realistic scenarios. Second, the relative performance of the different methods depends on the nature of the underlying exposure surface. Third, traditional measurement error concepts can help to explain the relative practical performance of the different methods. We apply the methods to data on the association between levels of particulate matter and birth weight in the greater Boston area.

  3. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators...

  4. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators of...

  5. Congenital disseminated tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Ling; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen

    2013-04-01

    Tufted angioma represents a rare vascular tumor that can develop in children and young adults. It usually presents as solitary plaque or large tumor on the extremities, trunk or other anatomic sites. Histopathologically, it is characterized by proliferation of closely packed capillaries in the dermis in a 'cannonball' distribution. We described a 2-month-old child who developed widespread disseminated red papules since her birth. Eight lesions were excised for histopathology, seven of which showed typical cannonball-like distribution of proliferative capillaries, characteristic of tufted angioma, and one on the hand which showed focal disseminated proliferation of endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry showed focal D2-40 positivity in one lesion and was negative in the other seven. Expression of Prox1 and Glut-1 was negative in all lesions. This case represented a disseminated form of tufted angioma.

  6. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators as...

  7. A low-cost miniaturised detector for environmental radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Briggs, Aaron; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Baird, Adam

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a low-cost (£ few hundred), low-power (40mA), low-mass (30g) detector for environmental radioactivity measurements, using scintillator and solid state technology. The detector can measure energy and therefore has the capability to distinguish between different types of energetic particle. Results from recent tests, when our detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system, and flew on a balloon up to 25km, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, and higher-energy particles in the free troposphere from cosmic rays. The detector can be used with Bluetooth technology for remote monitoring, which is particularly useful for hazardous areas. It is also small and cheap enough to be used in sensor networks for a wide range of applications, from atmospheric science to disaster monitoring.

  8. Measuring the performance of environmentally friendly cleaning solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, M.; Shoemaker, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    An important decision factor in the replacement of environmentally risky solvents with more benign materials is performance: that is, can the alternative cleaners equal or surpass the performance of the traditional ones? The purpose of this chapter is to discuss some of the measurement techniques that have proved valuable in the evaluation of new cleaners. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has examined the following techniques to determine residue contaminants remaining on the cleaned surface: optical scanning, ionography, x-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also discussed in this chapter are measurement techniques being developed at other facilities. The advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are summarized.

  9. A two-stage DEA approach for environmental efficiency measurement.

    PubMed

    Song, Malin; Wang, Shuhong; Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The slacks-based measure (SBM) model based on the constant returns to scale has achieved some good results in addressing the undesirable outputs, such as waste water and water gas, in measuring environmental efficiency. However, the traditional SBM model cannot deal with the scenario in which desirable outputs are constant. Based on the axiomatic theory of productivity, this paper carries out a systematic research on the SBM model considering undesirable outputs, and further expands the SBM model from the perspective of network analysis. The new model can not only perform efficiency evaluation considering undesirable outputs, but also calculate desirable and undesirable outputs separately. The latter advantage successfully solves the "dependence" problem of outputs, that is, we can not increase the desirable outputs without producing any undesirable outputs. The following illustration shows that the efficiency values obtained by two-stage approach are smaller than those obtained by the traditional SBM model. Our approach provides a more profound analysis on how to improve environmental efficiency of the decision making units.

  10. Disseminated Blastomycosis Mimicking Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer L; Tjarks, B Joel; Berg, Aaron; Oliver, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection commonly found within the Mississippi and Ohio River basins and Great Lakes region. While patients typically present with acute pneumonia, Blastomyces dermatitidis has the potential to spread hematogenously, resulting in disseminated infection of multiple organs. In this report, we describe a 57-year-old male with disseminated blastomycosis acquired in South Dakota. The diagnostic evaluation was confounded by concern for malignancy given the involvement of multiple locations, including brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and testes. Despite aggressive therapy with amphotericin B, the patient succumbed to this infection. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  11. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shurong; Hersh, Andrew M; Naughton, Greg; Mullins, Kevin; Fung, Maxwell A; Sharon, Victoria R

    2013-11-15

    The dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii commonly causes localized cutaneous disease with lymphocutaneous distribution. However, disseminated sporotrichosis occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in a patient with newly diagnosed HIV with a CD4 count of 208. The patient presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules as well as fever and malaise. Tissue culture and skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. He was started on itraconazole 200mg twice a day with rapid resolution of fever along with cessation of the development of new lesions.

  12. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Environmental report, September 1, 1980-March 1, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents current information from the EML environmental programs, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in India, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes dealing with global movement of radioactive debris from nuclear tests, vertical distribution of short-lived radionuclides in the lower stratosphere at the end of 1980, stratospheric radionuclide and trace gas inventories, plutonium isotopes in stratospheric filtered air, sulfur dioxide measurements in New York City, estimates of lead, manganese, aluminum and iron in atmospheric deposition at American Samoa, chemical composition of deposition at seven US locations, intercomparison of trace element analyses of commercially available reference materials, evaluation of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, and quality control assessments of radionuclide analyses of surface air filters, biological and deposition samples and of chemical analyses of precipitation. Subsequent sections include tabulations of Sr-90 fallout, chemical constituents of wet and dry deposition, radionuclides and trace metals in surface air, radioactivity and trace gases sampled in the stratosphere by aircraft and balloons, Sr-90 in San Francisco and New York diet, milk and tap water, and Cs-137 in Chicago foods. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  13. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  14. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, A.C.; Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R.; Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  15. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of Environmental NO2 by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxuan; Yi, Hongming; Fertein, Eric; Sigrist, Markus W.; Chen, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The most widely used technique for the measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the chemiluminescence technique. However this indirect NO2 measurement method is affected by positive or negative interferences due to the use of non selective catalyzer molybdenum or photolytic converter [1]. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) offers the capability of interference-free direct NO2 measurement without any sample preparation or/and chemical conversion [2,3]. In this paper, we report on the development and applications of a photoacoustic spectroscopy-based NO2 sensor for continuous measurement of NO2 in air with a sensitivity of about 0.5 ppb (SNR=1) and 1 min time resolution. Time series measurements of environmental NO2 concentrations were carried out and compared with side-by-side measurements by a NOx analyzer (AC-31 M). Good agreement has been observed. Experimental detail and preliminary results will be presented. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge financial supports from the CaPPA project (ANR-10-LABX-005) and the CPER CLIMIBIO program. G. W. thanks the "Pôle Métropolitain de la Côte d'Opale" (PMCO) and the Région Nord Pas de Calais for the PhD fellowship support. References [1] G. Villena, I. Bejan, R. Kurtenbach, P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, "Interferences of Commercial NO2 instruments in the urban atmosphere and in a smog chamber", Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5 (2012) 149. [2] M. Lassen, D. B. Clsusen, A. Brusch, J. C. Petersen, "A versatil integrating sphere based photoacoustic sensor for trace gas monitoring", Opt. Express 22 (2014) 11660. [3] C. Haisch, R. Niessner, "Photoacoustic analyzer for the artifact-free parallel detection of soot and NO2 in engin exhaut", Anal. Chem. 84 (2012) 7292.

  17. Application of clinical laboratory measurements to issues of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Rej, R; Silkworth, J B; DeCaprio, A P

    1992-03-13

    Monitoring of biochemical constituents in serum is an important component in revealing potential toxicity in humans and experimental animals due to exposure to a variety of xenobiotic agents. The relative toxicity of pure compounds, usually at large doses, has helped elucidate the mode of action of these compounds and their relative risk. However, most actual cases of environmental exposure present an extensive range of components and the potential for synergistic or inhibitory interactions. In this paper we review two such environmental cases: The Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, NY, and the transformer fire at the State Office Building in Binghamton, NY. We focus on the clinical laboratory measurements obtained in these studies (including serum glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium and potassium), their usefulness, limitations, and application to such cases. Significant alterations in serum triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase levels were found in guinea pigs due to exposure to dioxins. These two tests were useful in estimating the 'equivalent' concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in complex chemical mixtures.

  18. Enforcement of mitigation measures resulting from environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1981-11-01

    Until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the problem of enforcing mitigation measures identified in environmental impact assessment. Present or proposed enforcement systems in the USA, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia are described and discussed. Although the best enforcement system would depend on the local social, political, and legal systems, five universally desirable features are identified. First, a comprehensive coordinated monitoring and reassessment system is needed. Second, the agencies concerned must have adequate resources to do the work and incentives to carry it out well. Third, there must be the necessary legal powers. Fourth, provision must be made for changing the conditions based on experience. And fifth, the system should be equally effective against private companies and public authorities.

  19. NOAA Environmental Satellite Measurements of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    For over 40 years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has continuously monitored the near-earth space environment in support of space weather operations. Data from this period have covered a wide range of geophysical conditions including periods of extreme space weather such as the great geomagnetic March 1989, the 2003 Halloween storm and the more recent St Patrick's Day storm of 2015. While not specifically addressed here, these storms have stressed our technology infrastructure in unexpected and surprising ways. Space weather data from NOAA geostationary (GOES) and polar (POES) satellites along with supporting data from the Air Force are presented to compare and contrast the space environmental conditions measured during extreme events.

  20. Response of Sap-Flow Measurements on Environmental Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, J. A.; Dragoni, D.; Schmid, H.

    2005-05-01

    The exchange of water between the atmosphere and biosphere is an important determinant of climate and the productivity of vegetation. Both evaporation and transpiration involve substantial amounts of energy exchange at the interface of the biosphere and atmosphere. Knowing how transpiration changes throughout the seasonal and diurnal cycles can help increase the understanding of how a forest reacts to changes in the biosphere and atmosphere. A common way to estimate transpiration is by measuring the sap flowing through the living tissues of trees. A study was conducted at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, a mixed deciduous forest in south central Indiana (USA), to investigate how sap flow in trees responds to changes in meteorological and environmental conditions. The heat -dissipation technique was used to estimate sap velocities from two Big Tooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) and two Tulip Poplars (Liriodendron tulipifera). Sap velocity patterns (normalized by a reference potential evapo-transpiration) were directly compared with meteorological and ecological measurements, such as vapor pressure deficits, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), rain fall, and soil moisture content. In this study, we also investigated the uncertainties and problems that arise in using the heat dissipation technique to extrapolate the single-tree measurements to the forest scale.

  1. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  2. Dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics in a cascaded, fiber-based long-haul radio frequency dissemination network.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Wang, B; Zhu, X; Yuan, Y B; Wang, L J

    2015-09-01

    To study the dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics of the cascaded fiber-based RF dissemination, we perform an experiment using three sets of RF modulated frequency dissemination systems. The experimental results show that the total transfer stability of the cascaded system can be given by σ(T)(2)=∑(i=1)(N)σ(i)(2) (σ(i) is the frequency dissemination stability of the ith segment and N is the quantity of segments). Furthermore, for each segment, the phase noise of recovered frequency signal is also measured. The results show that for an N-segment, cascaded dissemination system, its stability degrades only by a factor of N. This sub-linear relation makes the cascaded, RF-dissemination method a very attractive one for long-haul, time and frequency dissemination network.

  3. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... mitigate environmental impacts and to demonstrate the effectiveness of efforts to that end. Based upon... environmental impacts. (e) In the event that equipment or procedural failure might result in...

  4. Environmental Radiation Measurements on MIR Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental radiation levels on the Russian space station Mir are being monitored under differing shielding conditions by a series of six area passive dosimeters (APDs) placed at individual locations inside the Core and Kvant 2 modules, and by an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) to be-deployed on the exterior surface of the Kvant 2 module. Each APD and the EDA contains CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for measurement of LET spectra and TLDs for absorbed dose measurements. Two of the missions, NASA-2/Mir-21 and NASA-3/Mir-22 have been completed and the six APDs from each mission returned to Earth from Mir. This report covers progress to date on the analysis of TLDs and PNTDs from these two missions. For NASA-2/Mir-21, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 271 to 407 micro-Gy/d at the APDS. For NASA-3/Mir-22, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 265 to 421 micro-Gy/d.

  5. [Disseminated mycosis fungoides].

    PubMed

    Trope, B M; Schmidt, J M; de Oliveira Neto, A A; Pereira Júnior, A C; Marques, A de S; Ishida, C E; Azulay, R D

    1985-01-01

    A case of mycosis fungoides (MF) that began with cutaneous eritemato-papular lesions leading to death with neurological symptoms is reported. Cutaneous histophatology was typical to MF and the liquoric citology showed Sézary cells. Necropsy evidenced extra-cutaneous dissemination of the tumor involving lymphnodes, heart, digestive system, bladder, liver, bone marrow and leptomeninges. The uncommon clinical manifestations and evolution are discussed.

  6. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Panta; Fischer, Max; Meehan, Shane; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2012-12-15

    Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, which was described in 1966, is characterized by small, atrophic patches with distinctive keratin rims that occur on sun-exposed areas of the extremities, shoulders, and back. The diagnosis is based on the histopathologic finding of a cornoid lamella, absence of a granular layer, and often a thin epidermis. It is associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Gene studies suggest a pathway defect in which several mutations in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation lead to development of porokeratosis.

  7. Disseminated superficial porokeratosis.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Mandal, Rajni; Walters, Ruth; Solomon, Gary; Kundu, Roopal V; Strober, Bruce E

    2010-11-15

    A 62-year-old woman with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis presented for evaluation and treatment of a one-week history of pruritic, pink spots on her trunk and extremities. Several weeks prior, therapy with certolizumab pegol and methotrexate was started for her psoriatic arthritis. A biopsy specimen was consistent with the diagnosis of porokeratosis. Owing to the setting of immunosuppression and presence of symmetric pruritic lesions on non-sun exposed areas, the diagnosis of disseminated superficial porokeratosis was made.

  8. Developing an Effective Dissemination Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, TX. National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.

    This booklet offers guidelines for the development of dissemination strategies, especially those concerned with research and programs. Individual sections address: the importance of including sound dissemination plans in grant proposals, factors found to be closely related to information utilization in the dissemination process, a philosophical…

  9. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify...

  10. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify...

  11. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and...

  12. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and...

  13. Bacterial Biosensors for Measuring Availability of Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tecon, Robin; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, pollution risk assessment is based on the measurement of a pollutant's total concentration in a sample. The toxicity of a given pollutant in the environment, however, is tightly linked to its bioavailability, which may differ significantly from the total amount. Physico-chemical and biological parameters strongly influence pollutant fate in terms of leaching, sequestration and biodegradation. Bacterial sensor-reporters, which consist of living micro-organisms genetically engineered to produce specific output in response to target chemicals, offer an interesting alternative to monitoring approaches. Bacterial sensor-reporters detect bioavailable and/or bioaccessible compound fractions in samples. Currently, a variety of environmental pollutants can be targeted by specific biosensor-reporters. Although most of such strains are still confined to the lab, several recent reports have demonstrated utility of bacterial sensing-reporting in the field, with method detection limits in the nanomolar range. This review illustrates the general design principles for bacterial sensor-reporters, presents an overview of the existing biosensor-reporter strains with emphasis on organic compound detection. A specific focus throughout is on the concepts of bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and how bacteria-based sensing-reporting systems can help to improve our basic understanding of the different processes at work. PMID:27879922

  14. Environmental performance measurement: A framework for the utility industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Utilities use environmental performance measurement (EPM) for internal management, external communication, and benchmarking. This report presents a framework to assist utilities in developing EPM processes consistent with their environmental and business goals.

  15. 30 CFR 282.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Director to assess the impacts of exploration, testing, mining, and processing activities on the..., minimize, or otherwise mitigate environmental impacts and to demonstrate the effectiveness of efforts to... for mitigating environmental impacts. (e) In the event that equipment or procedural failure...

  16. Measuring the attitudes and awareness of environmental education camp users

    Treesearch

    Roger E. McCay; David A. Gansner; John J. Padalino

    1978-01-01

    Questionnaires for evaluating what people expect from environmental camps and what they learn while there have been developed and applied at the Pocono Environmental Education Center, Dingman's Ferry, Penna. Nine questionnaires for various ages and types of users are presented. The results can be used by camp administrators and educators to evaluate their own...

  17. Surface monitoring measurements of materials on environmental change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornari, Vivi; Bernikola, Eirini; Bellendorf, Paul; Bertolin, Chiara; Camuffo, Dario; Kotova, Lola; Jacobs, Daniela; Zarnic, Roko; Rajcic, Vlatka; Leissner, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Climate Change is one of the most critical global challenges of our time and the burdened cultural heritage of Europe is particularly vulnerable to be left unprotected. Climate for Culture2 project exploits the damage impact of climate change on cultural heritage at regional scale. In this paper the progress of the study with in situ measurements and investigations at cultural heritage sites throughout Europe combined with laboratory simulations is described. Cultural works of art are susceptible to deterioration with environmental changes causing imperceptibly slow but steady accumulation of damaging effects directly impacted on structural integrity. Laser holographic interference method is employed to provide remote non destructive field-wise detection of the structural differences occurred as climate responses. The first results from climate simulation of South East Europe (Crete) are presented. A full study in regards to the four climate regions of Europe is foreseen to provide values for development of a precise and integrated model of thermographic building simulations for evaluation of impact of climate change. Development of a third generation user interface software optimised portable metrology system (DHSPI II) is designed to record in custom intervals the surface of materials witnessing reactions under simulated climatic conditions both onfield and in laboratory. The climate conditions refer to real data-loggers readings representing characteristic historical building in selected climate zones. New generation impact sensors termed Glass Sensors and Free Water Sensors are employed in the monitoring procedure to cross-correlate climate data with deformation data. In this paper results from the combined methodology are additionally presented.

  18. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Paul Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance. PMID:25610675

  19. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2002-08-01

    This report covers the following topics: Characterization of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides; Development of Tools for Long-term Monitoring; Hanford Tank Waste Chemistry; Environmental Control Device Testing; and Process Monitoring and Control of Toxic Organics.

  20. Measles with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM).

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, J; Ashraf, S M; Khajuria, K

    2009-01-01

    We report a seven year old male with measles associated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) despite having received measles vaccination in infancy. The diagnosis was based on serum antimeasles antibodies and MRI brain. The patient was managed with high dose corticosteroids along with supportive measures. There was a complete neurologically and physica recovery.

  1. Laboratory measurements on radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: Implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Solecki, Andrzej Tomasz; Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Piekarz, Magdalena; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification, evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on the earth's surface could be measured by satellite techniques capable of measuring thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies have found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes, hence satellite techniques are widely used in research into the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations in SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes, such as the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or because of radon. In particular, ionization processes due to radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of radon in the thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory-controlled atmospheric volume.

  2. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 2, 28. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Chieco, N.A.

    1997-02-01

    This report contains environmental sampling and analytical chemistry procedures that are performed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. The purpose of environmental sampling and analysis is to obtain data that describe a particular site at a specific point in time from which an evaluation can be made as a basis for possible action.

  3. Evidence-based selection of environmental factors and datasets for measuring multiple environmental deprivation in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This Environment and Human Health project aims to develop a health-based summary measure of multiple physical environmental deprivation for the UK, akin to the measures of multiple socioeconomic deprivation that are widely used in epidemiology. Here we describe the first stage of the project, in which we aimed to identify health-relevant dimensions of physical environmental deprivation and acquire suitable environmental datasets to represent population exposure to these dimensions at the small-area level. We present the results of this process: an evidence-based list of environmental dimensions with population health relevance for the UK, and the spatial datasets we obtained and processed to represent these dimensions. This stage laid the foundations for the rest of the project, which will be reported elsewhere. PMID:20102585

  4. The reliability of environmental measures of the college alcohol environment.

    PubMed

    Clapp, John D; Whitney, Mike; Shillington, Audrey M

    2002-01-01

    Much of what we know about students' drinking patterns and problems related to alcohol use is based on survey research. Although local and national survey data are important to alcohol-prevention projects, they do not sufficiently capture the complexity of the alcohol environment. Environmental prevention approaches to alcohol-related problems have been shown to be effective in community settings and researchers have begun to study and adapt such approaches for use on college campuses. Many environmental approaches require systematic scanning of the campus alcohol environment. This study assessed the inter-rater reliability of two environmental scanning tools (a newspaper content analysis form and a bulletin analysis form) designed to identify alcohol-related advertisements targeting college students. Inter-rater reliability for these forms varied across different rating categories and ranged from poor to excellent. Suggestions for future research are addressed.

  5. Disseminated extracranial metastatic meningioma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Felicia H Z; Low, Sharon Y Y; Tham, Chee K; Ding, Cristine; Wong, Chin F; Nolan, Colum P

    2016-11-01

    Meningiomas are usually low-grade, solitary lesions that rarely metastasize. In this group of central nervous system tumours, the higher grade subtypes are notorious for resistance to conventional chemo-radiation therapies. Recent studies have shown efficacy in the use of bevacizumab in patients with recurrent and, or progressive anaplastic meningioma. The authors report a case of a young patient with recurrent anaplastic meningioma who despite being treated with bevacizumab, progressed with disease dissemination to multiple extracranial sites. Although the majority of meningiomas are amendable to treatment, the higher grade subtypes remain therapeutically challenging. The unexpected resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in this patient adds another layer of complexity to an elusive subset of a supposedly benign disease. This patient report reflects the need for in-depth studies, molecular characterization and overall, better disease understanding in order to improve prognosis for affected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental performance measurement: Design, implementation, and review guidance for the utility industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, J.; McDaniel, J.; Parker, B.

    1998-08-01

    Many utilities formally track their environmental performance and report it to internal decision-makers and external stakeholders. Their environmental performance measurement (EPM) process captures both the environmental impacts and benefits attributable to their company, and the financial costs and benefits of their environmental management efforts. This report presents a framework intended to assist utilities in creating and implementing EPM processes that support both their business and environmental objectives. The three-phase framework--Plan, Implement, Review--describes the development, use and improvement of the EPM process. Specific guidance is provided for each step in the process so that readers can begin immediately developing or improving their process for measuring and reporting environmental information. The EPM framework builds on a variety of company experiences in the electric utility and other industries, previous research supported by EPRI on environmental performance measurement, and a series of benchmarking interviews with several major electric utility companies.

  7. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  8. A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOLUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of the recent literature on environmental applications of bioluminescence systems will focus on in vivo and in vitro bioluminescence methods that have been utilized to elucidate properties of chemicals, toxic and mutagenic effects, and to estimate biomass. The unifyin...

  9. Heat Map Visualization of Complex Environmental and Biomarker Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, the assessment of human systems interactions with the environment has permeated all phases of environmental and public health research. We are invoking lessons learned from the broad discipline of Systems Biology research that focuses primarily on molecular ...

  10. Heat Map Visualization of Complex Environmental and Biomarker Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, the assessment of human systems interactions with the environment has permeated all phases of environmental and public health research. We are invoking lessons learned from the broad discipline of Systems Biology research that focuses primarily on molecular ...

  11. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-10-01

    This report covers the following 5 tasks: (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides; (2) Development of Tools for Long-term Monitoring; (3) Hanford Tank Waste Chemistry; (4) Environmental Control Device Testing; and (5) Process Monitoring and Control of Toxic Organics.

  12. The Reliability of Environmental Measures of the College Alcohol Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Whitney, Mike; Shillington, Audrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the inter-rater reliability of two environmental scanning tools designed to identify alcohol-related advertisements targeting college students. Inter-rater reliability for these forms varied across different rating categories and ranged from poor to excellent. Suggestions for future research are addressed. (Contains 26 references and 6…

  13. A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOLUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of the recent literature on environmental applications of bioluminescence systems will focus on in vivo and in vitro bioluminescence methods that have been utilized to elucidate properties of chemicals, toxic and mutagenic effects, and to estimate biomass. The unifyin...

  14. Measuring Social Capital among Youth: Applications in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…

  15. Is the Environmental Literacy of University Students Measurable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Harraway, John; Lovelock, Brent; Skeaff, Sheila; Slooten, Liz; Strack, Mick; Furnari, Mary; Jowett, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We report the development and piloting of an evaluative instrument and process for monitoring the environmental literacy (EL) of undergraduate students in one large research-led university in New Zealand. The instrument addresses knowledge, affect and competencies in the general area of EL in line with this institution's adoption of EL as a…

  16. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-04-01

    This report covers the following four tasks: (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications, Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  17. Measurement of Environmental Constructs in Disability Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guscia, Roma; Ekberg, Stuart; Harries, Julia; Kirby, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assumes a biopsychosocial basis for disability and provides a framework for understanding how environmental factors contribute to the experience of disability. To determine the utility of prevalent disability assessment instruments, the authors examined the extent to…

  18. The Reliability of Environmental Measures of the College Alcohol Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Whitney, Mike; Shillington, Audrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the inter-rater reliability of two environmental scanning tools designed to identify alcohol-related advertisements targeting college students. Inter-rater reliability for these forms varied across different rating categories and ranged from poor to excellent. Suggestions for future research are addressed. (Contains 26 references and 6…

  19. Measuring Social Capital among Youth: Applications in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…

  20. Program Evaluation: Strategies for Assessing How Information Dissemination Contributes to Agency Goals. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Nancy

    Federal agencies use information dissemination programs as one of several tools to achieve various social or environmental goals. Evaluations of five federal information dissemination program cases were examined to assist agency efforts in evaluating and improving the effectiveness of such programs. These cases were: Environmental Protection…

  1. Selected Dissemination/Diffusion Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Marshall L.

    This analysis of selected diffusion and dissemination methods used by developer-demonstrator projects in the National Diffusion Network discusses strategies under the following headings: managing the project, developing materials, disseminating information, conducting awareness sessions, training personnel, using certified trainers, providing…

  2. Lingual ulceration in disseminated histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Guttal, Kruthika S; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Bathi, Renuka J; Rao, Ravikala

    2010-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is a rare systemic fungal infection commonly presenting as mucosal ulceration of the oral cavity. It has been increasingly reported in India as disseminated disease with lesions in the oral cavity as a consequence of rapid spread of HIV infection. The authors report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with oral manifestation in a 40-year-old male patient.

  3. 74 FR 36198 - Flexible Approaches to Environmental Measurement-The Evolution of the Performance Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Flexible Approaches to Environmental Measurement--The Evolution of the Performance Approach AGENCY... up-to- date communication on the Agency's progress to Flexible Measurement-- The Evolution of the...

  4. Personal and Environmental Exposure Assessment Measurements at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Naomi, H.

    2000-06-01

    The research is directed to developing state-of-the-art personal and environmental exposure assessment for inhaled radionuclides at Fernald during D&D. An additional objective is the radiochemical analyses of soil samples taken around the radium (K-65) silos before and after removal of the material. Lead-210, the long lived decay product of radon released during the removal, provides a sensitive tracer to determine the entire inventory of radon released.

  5. Measuring and minimizing the social cost of environmental pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The various impacts to the environmental protection movement on the largest corporations in several industries which had the most serious pollution problem are discussed. The purpose was to examine the impacts from the point of view of top corporation managers so that a broader perspective could be provided for all concerned parties- citizens, environmentalists, legislators, governmental administrators and agency personnel, scientists, engineers, and other industrial managers.

  6. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2001-04-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  7. Mid-Frequency Reverberation Measurements with Full Companion Environmental Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-30

    and ISS the scattering strength integrated over the scattering patch for given sonar beam . Two unique features of TREX13 are that: 1) all components...Reverberation Track where focused environmental characterization was conducted. Main acoustic assets are shown here: The reverberation sources and...sound speed minimum is deflected as a high intensity, higher angle beam into the bottom, where it is backscattered along the reciprocal path. The

  8. Operational and environmental performance in China's thermal power industry: Taking an effectiveness measure as complement to an efficiency measure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jieming; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The trend toward a more fiercely competitive and strictly environmentally regulated electricity market in several countries, including China has led to efforts by both industry and government to develop advanced performance evaluation models that adapt to new evaluation requirements. Traditional operational and environmental efficiency measures do not fully consider the influence of market competition and environmental regulations and, thus, are not sufficient for the thermal power industry to evaluate its operational performance with respect to specific marketing goals (operational effectiveness) and its environmental performance with respect to specific emissions reduction targets (environmental effectiveness). As a complement to an operational efficiency measure, an operational effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to increase its electricity generation through the improvement of operational efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its electricity generation activities to match electricity demand. In addition, as a complement to an environmental efficiency measure, an environmental effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to decrease its pollutant emissions through the improvement of environmental efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its emissions abatement activities to fulfill environmental regulations. Furthermore, an environmental effectiveness measure helps the government regulator to verify the rationality of its emissions reduction targets assigned to the thermal power industry. Several newly developed effectiveness measurements based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) were utilized in this study to evaluate the operational and environmental performance of the thermal power industry in China during 2006-2013. Both efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated from the three perspectives of operational

  9. Image dissemination and archiving.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ian

    2007-08-01

    Images generated as part of the sonographic examination are an integral part of the medical record and must be retained according to local regulations. The standard medical image format, known as DICOM (Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine) makes it possible for images from many different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, to be distributed via a standard internet network to distant viewing workstations and a central archive in an almost seamless fashion. The DICOM standard is a truly universal standard for the dissemination of medical images. When purchasing an ultrasound unit, the consumer should research the unit's capacity to generate images in a DICOM format, especially if one wishes interconnectivity with viewing workstations and an image archive that stores other medical images. PACS, an acronym for Picture Archive and Communication System refers to the infrastructure that links modalities, workstations, the image archive, and the medical record information system into an integrated system, allowing for efficient electronic distribution and storage of medical images and access to medical record data.

  10. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  11. Environmental measurements in the Beaufort Sea, Spring 1988. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, T.; Felton, W.J.; Luby, J.C.; Fox, W.L.; Kientz, K.L.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents environmental data taken in the spring of 1988: Ice camp APLIS was established and maintained by personnel from the Applied Physics Lab. Univ. of Washington, to support Navy-sponsored research and test activities conducted in ICEX 1-88. The environmental data - weather, floe drift, CTD profiles, ice properties, and underwater noise - were gathered primarily to support the analysis of acoustic data obtained by ICEX 1-88 participants. The camp was established on a multiyear floe approximately 350 km north of Prudhoe Bay. The floe was occupied for seven weeks and evacuated on 25 April upon successful completion of test and research objectives. During the period, the floe drifted westward 155 km, driven mainly by the wind. A small amount of rotation accompanied the drift. The camp was established at the edge of a refrozen lead. Multiyear pressure ridges and rubble fields surrounded the lead and the camp. Weather information on air temperature and pressure and on wind direction and speed was recorded several times daily. Many of the research activities at the ice camp involved underwater acoustic propagation. Underwater ambient noise affected the quality of the acoustic data gathered. Sources of the noise included thermal cracking of the ice, ridging, wind-generated waves at open leads, and biological organisms.

  12. Environmental gamma radiation measurements on the island of Pantelleria.

    PubMed

    Brai, M; Bellia, S; Di Liberto, R; Dongarra, G; Hauser, S; Parello, F; Puccio, P; Rizzo, S

    1992-09-01

    The population exposure to those living on the island of Pantelleria, Italy, was estimated by measuring the natural gamma background. Gamma spectra of natural rocks and measurements of absorbed dose in air were taken. A correlation was found between the mean gamma exposure rate and the mean values of natural radionuclide concentrations in the investigated rocks.

  13. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Environmental report, September 1, 1981-March 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Jr, E P; Toonkel, L E

    1982-05-01

    This report presents current information from the EML environmental programs, the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two reports on radionuclide data quality assurance are presented in the initial section: one dealing with fallout and biological samples and the other with filtered air samples. These are followed by a report on stratospheric tritium injection by the October 1980 Chinese test. The second section presents recent data from EML progams strontium-90 fallout, radionuclides and trace metals in surface air, radioactivity and trace gases sampled in the stratosphere by aircraft and balloons, strontium-90 in San Francisco and New York diet, milk, and tap water, and cesium-137 in tap water. The third section presents data from Argonne National Laboratory on cesium-137 in Chicago food and from Los Alamos National Laboratory on tritium in the stratosphere. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is presented. Each section has been abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB.

  14. Portable apparatus for the measurement of environmental radon and thoron

    DOEpatents

    Negro, Vincent C.

    2001-01-01

    The radometer is a portable instrument for the measurement of the concentration of atmospheric radon/thoron in a test area. A constant velocity pump pulls the air from the outside at a constant flow rate. If the air is too moist, some or all of the sample is passed through a desiccant filter prior to encountering an electrostatic filter. The electrostatic filter prevents any charged particles from entering the sampling chamber. Once the sample has entered the chamber, the progeny of the decay of radon/thoron are collected on a detector and measured. The measured data is compiled by a computer and displayed.

  15. Correlation of environmental carbaryl measurements with serum and urinary 1-naphthol measurements in a farmer applicator and his family.

    PubMed Central

    Shealy, D B; Barr, J R; Ashley, D L; Patterson, D G; Camann, D E; Bond, A E

    1997-01-01

    In exposure or risk assessments, both environmental and biological measurements are often used. Environmental measurements are an excellent means for evaluating regulatory compliance, but the models used to estimate body burden from these measurements are complex. Unless all possible routes of exposure (i.e., inhalation, dermal absorption, ingestion) are evaluated, exposure to a toxicant can be underestimated. To circumvent this problem, measurements of the internal dose of a toxicant in blood, serum, urine, or tissues can be used singularly or in combination with environmental data for exposure assessment. In three separate laboratories, carbaryl or its primary metabolite, 1-naphthol, was measured in personal air, dermal samples, blood serum, and urine from farmer applicators and their families. The usefulness of both environmental and biological data has been demonstrated. For the farmer applicator, the environmental levels of carbaryl would have been sufficient to determine that an exposure had occurred. However, biological measurements were necessary to determine the absorbed dose of each member of the applicator's family. In addition, a correlation between serum and urinary 1-naphthol measurements has been shown; therefore, either matrix can be used to accurately evaluate occupational carbaryl exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:9222136

  16. Evaluation of uncertainty in the measurement of environmental electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Vulević, B; Osmokrović, P

    2010-09-01

    With regard to Non-ionising radiation protection, the relationship between human exposure to electromagnetic fields and health is controversial. Electromagnetic fields have become omnipresent in the daily environment. This paper assesses the problem of how to compare a measurement result with a limit fixed by the standard for human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz). The purpose of the paper is an appropriate representation of the basic information about evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  17. Geothermal Energy Information Dissemination and Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John W. Lund

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project is to continue on-going work by the Geo-Heat Center to develop and disseminate information; provide educational materials; develop short courses and workshops; maintain a comprehensive geothermal resource database; respond to inquiries from the public, industry and government; provide engineering, economic and environmental information and analysis on geothermal technology to potential users and developers; and provide information on market opportunities for geothermal development. These efforts are directed towards increasing the utilization of geothermal energy in the US and developing countries, by means of electric power generation and direct-use.

  18. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI.

  19. Laboratory measurements on Radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Tomasz Solecki, Andrzej; Eulalia Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification or evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on earth's surface have also been measured by satellite techniques able to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes thus satellite techniques are widely utilized in researches on the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations on SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes like the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or by Radon. In particular ionization processes due to Radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of Radon in thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory controlled atmospheric volume. Samples of highly radioactive granite powder containing 600 Bq/kg of Radium that is 20 times higher than the average continental lithosphere content has been stored in a desiccator of 0,005 m3 volume for 30 days to accumulate radon 222Rn in the desiccator air. After radon accumulation the desiccator was placed inside a styrofoam chamber of 1x0.5x0.5 m size and the cover removed. The relative humidity of chamber air was 72% and temperature 24 oC. Experiment was monitored by an infrared camera Flir Therma CAM PM695 operating in the spectrum band 7,5-13 µm with thermal resolution 0,01ºC and a RadStar RS300-I Radon Detector/Monitor with 1 hour time resolution. Air temperature and humidity were monitored by a digital Terdens thermohygrometer. No significant thermal or humidity effects were observed.

  20. Assessment of Volumetric versus Manual Measurement in Disseminated Testicular Cancer; No Difference in Assessment between Non-Radiologists and Genitourinary Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, L. M.; van Ginkel, Robert J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of semi-automatic volumetric measurement of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases in testicular cancer (TC) patients treated with chemotherapy versus the standardized manual measurements based on RECIST criteria. Methods 21 TC patients with retroperitoneal lymph node metastases of testicular cancer were studied with a CT scan of chest and abdomen before and after cisplatin based chemotherapy. Three readers, a surgical resident, a radiological technician and a radiologist, assessed tumor response independently using computerized volumetric analysis with Vitrea software® and manual measurement according to RECIST criteria (version 1.1). Intra- and inter-rater variability were evaluated with intra class correlations and Bland-Altman analysis. Results Assessment of intra observer and inter observer variance proved non-significant in both measurement modalities. In particularly all intraclass correlation (ICC) values for the volumetric analysis were > .99 per observer and between observers. There was minimal bias in agreement for manual as well as volumetric analysis. Conclusion In this study volumetric measurement using Vitrea software® appears to be a reliable, reproducible method to measure initial tumor volume of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases of testicular cancer after chemotherapy. Both measurement methods can be performed by experienced non-radiologists as well. PMID:28081195

  1. Goal specificity: a proxy measure for improvements in environmental outcomes in collaborative governance.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer C; Koontz, Tomas M

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative governance critics continually call for evidence to support its prevalent use. As is often the case in environmental policy, environmental outcomes occur at a rate incompatible with political agendas. In addition, a multitude of possibly confounding variables makes it difficult to correlate collaborative governance processes with environmental outcomes. The findings of this study offer empirical evidence that collaborative processes have a measurable, beneficial effect on environmental outcomes. Through the use of a unique paired-waterbody design, our dataset reduced the potential for confounding variables to impact our environmental outcome measurements. The results of a path analysis indicate that the output of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is significantly related to watershed partnerships' level of attainment of their environmental improvement goals. The action of setting specific goals (e.g. percentage of load reductions in pollutant levels) is fostered by sustained participation from partnership members throughout the lifecycle of the collaborative. In addition, this study demonstrates the utility of logic modeling for environmental planning and management, and suggests that the process of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is a useful proxy measure for reporting progress towards improvements in environmental outcomes when long-term environmental data are not available.

  2. Disseminated Intra-Abdominal Hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Fátima; Maguiña, Ciro; Seas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. PMID:24006293

  3. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  4. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 2: SUBSAMPLING ERROR MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling can be a significant source of error in the measurement process. The characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites require data that meet site-specific levels of acceptable quality if scientifically supportable decisions are to be made. In support of this effort,...

  5. Aerosol and gamma background measurements at Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, Christo; Arsov, Todor; Penev, Ilia; Nikolova, Nina; Kalapov, Ivo; Georgiev, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Trans boundary and local pollution, global climate changes and cosmic rays are the main areas of research performed at the regional Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station Moussala BEO (2925 m a.s.l., 42°10'45'' N, 23°35'07'' E). Real time measurements and observations are performed in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Complex information about the aerosol is obtained by using a threewavelength integrating Nephelometer for measuring the scattering and backscattering coefficients, a continuous light absorption photometer and a scanning mobile particle sizer. The system for measuring radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols allows us to monitor a large scale radioactive aerosol transport. The measurements of the gamma background and the gamma-rays spectrum in the air near Moussala peak are carried out in real time. The HYSPLIT back trajectory model is used to determine the origin of the data registered. DREAM code calculations [2] are used to forecast the air mass trajectory. The information obtained combined with a full set of corresponding meteorological parameters is transmitted via a high frequency radio telecommunication system to the Internet.

  6. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 2: SUBSAMPLING ERROR MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling can be a significant source of error in the measurement process. The characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites require data that meet site-specific levels of acceptable quality if scientifically supportable decisions are to be made. In support of this effort,...

  7. Is it Possible to increase the Accuracy of Environmental Measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Sonobe, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which has resulted in substantial temperature increases. Many countries have entered into agreements to limit and / or decrease GHG emissions. This requires precise measurements by region to clearly evaluate GHG emissions, sinks and evolution as well as mitigation strategies. High precision measurements are a key requirement to study and evaluate the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Calibrating the analytical instruments used to make atmospheric measurements are often done using standards prepared in synthetic air. There are significant differences between synthetic air and natural air which introduce bias into some measurement; therefore natural air is preferred. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process and the role of precisely characterized materials, highlighting stability of isotopic mixtures in natural air. Emphasis will focus on adjustment of isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy

  8. Aerogenic Dissemination of Aphtae Epizooticae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-14

    FTD-ID(RS)T-0112-80 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION AEROGENIC DISSEMINATION OF APHTAE EPIZOOTICAE by Jerzy Wisniewski DTIC A Approved for public release...0112-8o Date14 Mar 19.80 AEROGENIC DISSEMINATION oF APHTAE EPIZOOTICAE Jerzy Wisniewski During aphtae epizooticae the principal cause of the virus...8217 e saliva foam assists in spreading the virus nn the air. The aerosol containing the virus can also be found in evaporation from wet floors, as well

  9. An empirical determination of the minimum number of measurements needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance of disseminated organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    In coal samples, published recommendations based on statistical methods suggest 100 measurements are needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rv-r) to within ??2%. Our survey of published thermal maturation studies indicates that those using dispersed organic matter (DOM) mostly have an objective of acquiring 50 reflectance measurements. This smaller objective size in DOM versus that for coal samples poses a statistical contradiction because the standard deviations of DOM reflectance distributions are typically larger indicating a greater sample size is needed to accurately estimate Rv-r in DOM. However, in studies of thermal maturation using DOM, even 50 measurements can be an unrealistic requirement given the small amount of vitrinite often found in such samples. Furthermore, there is generally a reduced need for assuring precision like that needed for coal applications. Therefore, a key question in thermal maturation studies using DOM is how many measurements of Rv-r are needed to adequately estimate the mean. Our empirical approach to this problem is to compute the reflectance distribution statistics: mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis in increments of 10 measurements. This study compares these intermediate computations of Rv-r statistics with a final one computed using all measurements for that sample. Vitrinite reflectance was measured on mudstone and sandstone samples taken from borehole M-25 in the Cerro Prieto, Mexico geothermal system which was selected because the rocks have a wide range of thermal maturation and a comparable humic DOM with depth. The results of this study suggest that after only 20-30 measurements the mean Rv-r is generally known to within 5% and always to within 12% of the mean Rv-r calculated using all of the measured particles. Thus, even in the worst case, the precision after measuring only 20-30 particles is in good agreement with the general precision of one decimal place recommended for mean Rv

  10. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Environmental Orientations in a Diverse Group of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lincoln R.; Green, Gary T.; Castleberry, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of children's environmental orientations is of critical importance as opportunities for authentic contact with nature diminish. Current instruments for measuring children's environmental attitudes are complex, and few have been tested across diverse audiences. This study employed a mixed-methods approach that included pilot tests,…

  11. Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Environmental Responsibility, Character Development, and Attitudes toward School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Robert Baxter; Stern, Marc J.; Krohn, Brian D.; Ardoin, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures to develop and validate scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development and leadership, and attitudes toward school for environmental education programs servicing middle school children. The scales represent outcomes commonly of interest to…

  12. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  13. Development of an Instrument to Measure Technology Studies Teachers' Attitudes to Environmental and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rue, Peter; Gardner, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the extent to which environmental and social issues related to technology are being addressed in the teaching of technology studies. Describes the development of an instrument designed to measure teachers' attitudes towards environmental and societal issues and investigate the extent to which such issues are actually taught in practice.…

  14. ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF FULL-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBERS USING AN INDEPENDENTLY MEASURED EMISSION SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the assessment of the performance of full-scale environmental chambers using an independently measured emission source. To assess the overall performance of an environmental test chamber, it is necessary to subject the chamber to a test with a reference sourc...

  15. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  16. Geographic information system applied to measuring benthic environmental impact with chemical measures on mariculture at Penghu Islet in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yi-Che; Chou, Chiu L; Chiau, Wen-Yan

    2009-03-01

    Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is currently grown by marine aquaculture in Taiwan, particularly on Penghu Islet. Although the effect of marine aquaculture on the environment has been the subject of many studies, an understanding of its environmental impact has yet to be attained, and the continuing expansion of cage farming has caused noticeable ecological declines. Nevertheless, useful tools to measure this environmental degradation are scant. The results of this study suggest that the combination of a geographic information system (GIS) with redox potential and sulfide measurements can be used to definitively assess the condition of the benthic environment near cobia aquaculture sites and to help develop environmental monitoring programs. These applications could easily be adopted to assess multiple marine environmental conditions.

  17. Development of composite indices to measure the adoption of pro-environmental behaviours across Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that existing regulations, dwelling type

  18. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  19. Environmental gamma radiation measurement in district Swat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, T; Khan, K; Subhani, M S; Akhter, P; Jabbar, A

    2008-01-01

    External exposure to environmental gamma ray sources is an important component of exposure to the public. A survey was carried out to determine activity concentration levels and associated doses from (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs by means of high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry in the Swat district, famous for tourism. The mean concentrations for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 50.4 +/- 0.7, 34.8 +/- 0.7 and 434.5 +/- 7.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in soil samples, which are slightly more than the world average values. However, (137)Cs was only found in the soil sample of Barikot with an activity concentration of 34 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1). Only (40)K was determined in vegetation samples with an average activity of 172.2 +/- 1.7 Bq kg(-1), whereas in water samples, all radionuclides were found below lower limits of detection. The radium equivalent activity in all soil samples is lower than the limit set in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The value of the external exposure dose has been determined from the content of these radionuclides in soil. The average terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate was observed to be 62.4 nGy h(-1), which yields an annual effective dose of 0.08 mSv. The average value of the annual effective dose lies close to the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. However, the main component of the radiation dose to the population residing in the study area arises from cosmic ray due to high altitude.

  20. Measured space environmental effects to LDEF during retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Linder, W. Kelly

    1992-01-01

    On the STS-32 shuttle mission, a space flight experiment provided an understanding of the effects of the space environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) from rendezvous with the shuttle until removal from the payload bay at the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC. The Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) is an attached shuttle payload that has been used on two earlier flights (STS 51C and STS 28) to quantify the contamination deposited during the course of the mission. The IOCM can characterize by direct measurement, the deposition of molecular and particulate contamination during any phase of flight. In addition to these principal measurements, the IOCM actively measures the thermophysical properties of thermal control surfaces by calorimetry, the flux of the ambient atomic oxygen environment, the incident solar flux, and the absolute ambient pressure in the payload bay. The IOCM also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g. thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and micrometeoroids and/or orbital debris, etc. One of the more salient results from the STS-32 flight suggests that the LDEF emitted a large number of particulates after berthing into the shuttle. The mission atomic oxygen fluence was also calculated. Although the fluence was low by normal standards, the Kapton passive samples exhibited the onset of erosion. Orbital debris and micrometeoroid impacts also occurred during the retrieval mission. The average perforation diameter was approximately 12.5 microns. The largest perforation diameter was measured at 65 microns.

  1. Measured space environmental effects to LDEF during retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Linder, W. Kelly; Borson, Eugene N.

    1993-06-01

    Data gathered by the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) with regard to the effect of the space environment on the STS-32 Shuttle mission and on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are reported. IOCM measures the deposition of molecular and particulate contamination during all flight phases. It also measures the thermophysical properties of thermal control surfaces by calorimetry, the flux of the ambient atomic oxygen environment, the incident solar flux, and the absolute ambient pressure in the payload bay. The IOCM also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment. One of the more salient results from the STS-32 flight suggests that the LDEF emitted a large number of particulates after berthing into the Shuttle. The mission atomic oxygen fluence was also calculated. Although the fluence was low by normal standards, the Kapton (trademark) passive samples exhibited the onset of erosion. Orbital debris and micrometeoroid impacts also occurred during the retrieval mission. The average perforation diameter was approximately 1.25 micrometers. The largest perforation diameter was measured at 65 micrometers.

  2. Measured space environmental effects to LDEF during retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Linder, W. Kelly

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) is an attached shuttle payload to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) that was used on 2 earlier flights to quantify the contamination deposited during the course of the missions. The IOCM can characterize by direct measurement the deposition of molecular and particulate contamination during any phase of flight. Also, the IOCM actively measures the optical property changes of thermal control surfaces by calorimetry, the flux of the ambient atomic oxygen environment, the incident solar flux, and the absolute ambient pressure in the payload bay. The IOCM also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g., thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and micrometeoroids and/or debris. Some of the more salient results from the flight suggests that the payload bay was slightly contaminated during both the prelaunch phase of the mission and after the deployment of the SYNCOM IV payload. Measurements during the postflight phases, i.e., ferry flight and deintegration processing, show negligible to very low mass deposition. The results of the data are discussed in depth.

  3. Measured space environmental effects to LDEF during retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Linder, W. Kelly; Borson, Eugene N.

    1993-01-01

    Data gathered by the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) with regard to the effect of the space environment on the STS-32 Shuttle mission and on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are reported. IOCM measures the deposition of molecular and particulate contamination during all flight phases. It also measures the thermophysical properties of thermal control surfaces by calorimetry, the flux of the ambient atomic oxygen environment, the incident solar flux, and the absolute ambient pressure in the payload bay. The IOCM also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment. One of the more salient results from the STS-32 flight suggests that the LDEF emitted a large number of particulates after berthing into the Shuttle. The mission atomic oxygen fluence was also calculated. Although the fluence was low by normal standards, the Kapton (trademark) passive samples exhibited the onset of erosion. Orbital debris and micrometeoroid impacts also occurred during the retrieval mission. The average perforation diameter was approximately 1.25 micrometers. The largest perforation diameter was measured at 65 micrometers.

  4. Methodology Development for Measurement of Agent Fate in an Environmental Wind Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF AGENT FATE IN AN ENVIRONMENTAL WIND TUNNEL Wendel Shuely, Robert Nickol, GEO-Centers, and...managerial support by Dr. H. Durst , Mr. L. Bickford and Dr. J. Savage, ECBC, and Mr. Tim Bauer, NSWC.

  5. The Hospice Environmental Survey (HES): Pilot Test of a New Measurement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jean H.; Perrill, Norman K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of the Hospice Environmental Survey (HES) to measure user's perception of the homelike atmosphere provided by a hospital inpatient unit called Hospice House. Presents the HES instrument, methodology, and pilot study data. (Author/NB)

  6. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  7. "State of the Art" for Measurement and Evaluation of Environmental Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews the instruments presently available to measure cognitive and affective outcomes. Combination tests, measuring cognitive and affective outcomes, were also mentioned. A model is proposed as a framework for analyzing and critiquing current measurement devices in environmental education. (MA)

  8. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  9. Evaluating the dissemination of Body & Soul, an evidence-based fruit and vegetable intake intervention: challenges for dissemination and implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Allicock, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K.; Valle, Carmina G.; Carr, Carol; Resnicow, Ken; Gizlice, Ziya

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the evidence-based Body & Soul program, when disseminated and implemented without researcher or agency involvement and support, would achieve similar results to earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials. Design Prospective group randomized trial. Setting Churches with predominantly African American membership. Participants A total of 1033 members from the fifteen churches completed baseline surveys. Of these, 562 (54.4%) completed the follow-up survey six months later. Intervention Church-based nutrition program for African Americans that included pastoral involvement, educational activities, church environmental changes, and peer counseling. Main Outcome Measure Daily fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was assessed at pre- and post-test. Analysis Mixed-effects linear models. Results At posttest, there was no statistically significant difference in daily servings of FV between the early intervention group participants compared to control group participants (4.7 vs, 4.4, P=0.38). Process evaluation suggested that added resources such as technical assistance could improve program implementation. Conclusions and Implications The disseminated program may not produce improvements in FV intake equal to those in the earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials, primarily due to lack of program implementation. Program dissemination may not achieve public health impact unless support systems are strengthened for adequate implementation at the church level. PMID:22406012

  10. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  11. Environmental assessment of the measures increasing the sustainability of motor transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaril, E.; Magaril, R.; Abrzhina, L.

    2017-06-01

    Ensuring the sustainable development of motor transport, whose emission of greenhouse gases and other contaminants is one of the main sources of air pollution, requires informed decision-making on the implementation of effective environmental protection measures. A simplified methodological approach to a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of these environmental protection measures has been developed. The offered approach has been approved at estimating application for motor fuels of the multipurpose additive, which increases both the energy efficiency and environmental safety of motor transport.

  12. Obtaining environmental measures to facilitate vertebrate habitat modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, J.W.; Wright, N.M.; Heglund, P.J.; Scott, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Published literature generally lacks habitat information needed to adequately model the habitats of most wildlife species at large scales (>1:100,000). We searched in primary and secondary literature for occurrence of several potentially useful habitat measures for 20 species of interest to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. We found adequate information for modeling only the habitats of certain game species and species of special interest. We suggest that many more researchers could collect simple habitat information regarding vegetation composition and structure, topographic features, soils, temperature, and distance to special landscape features such that current research expenses would not be increased significantly. We recommend that habitat data be consistently reported in peer-reviewed literature or deposited into a central data repository. This will not only help fill the gaps in our current knowledge of wildlife but also place it in a format that is readily accessible by the scientific community.

  13. A study of environmental radioactivity measurements for Cankiri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kapdan, Enis; Taskin, Halim; Kam, Erol; Osmanlioglu, A Erdal; Karahan, Gursel; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2012-07-01

    This study is the first to assess the level of background radiation for the Cankiri province of Turkey. Indoor air radon concentrations were determined using Columbia Resin-39 nuclear track detectors and the average (222)Rn activity was found to be 44 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 1.1 mSv). Measurements of gamma doses in outdoor air were performed using a portable plastic scintillation detector and the average gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be 8 μR h(-1) (corresponding to an annual effective dose of 87.7 μSv). Radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 17.7, 22.3, 357 and 4.1 Bq kg(-1) for the radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The average annual effective dose from the natural radioactivity sources ((238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K) was calculated to be 44.4 μSv. Radioactivity levels of drinking water samples were carried out using a low-background proportional counter and the average gross alpha and beta activities were obtained as 0.25 and 0.26 Bq l(-1), respectively (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 184 μSv). The average radon concentrations in indoor air and the average radionuclide activities in soil were found to be lower than most Turkish cities while higher levels of outdoor gamma dose rate and water radioactivity were observed. The results of this study showed that the region's background radioactivity level differs considerably from the reported data for Turkish cities.

  14. Continuous regional blood flow measurement during environmental heating in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kregel, K.C.; Wall, P.T.; Gisolfi, C.V.

    1986-03-05

    With prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures, shifting regional blood flows reflect the dominance of cardiovascular over thermoregulatory requirements. Hypotension and decreased cardiac output contribute to the circulatory failure noted in heat stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in regional blood flows during prolonged exposure (50-70 min) to 45/sup 0/C heat. Sprague-Dawley rats (250-450 g) were implanted with pulsed Doppler flow probes on the superior mesenteric, caudal, and left iliac arteries. Measurements included blood flows in kHz Doppler shift, colonic (T/sub c/) and tail-skin temperatures, and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). As T/sub c/ rose from 37/sup 0/ to 42/sup 0/C, iliac flow remained relatively constant, caudal flow rose to peak values of 257-600%, and mesenteric flow declined 60-88% relative to baseline. The rise in caudal blood flow occurred within the first 5 min of exposure whereas the decline in mesenteric flow was progressive; MABP rose to peak levels of 180 mm Hg. Heart rate rose to 500-630 bpm. At T/sub c/ above 42/sup 0/C, mesenteric flow increased in several animals (36-75%) and MABP began to fall. The authors hypothesize that the hypotension observed with prolonged heat exposure in the rat is in part attributed to the inability of the animal to sustain splanchnic vasoconstriction.

  15. Evaluation of a Multicommuted Flow System for Photometric Environmental Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ródenas-Torralba, Eva; Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F.; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    A portable flow analysis instrument is described for in situ photometric measurements. This system is based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a photodiode detector, coupled to a multipumping flow system. The whole equipment presents dimensions of 25  cm × 22  cm × 10  cm, weighs circa 3 kg, and costs 650 €. System performance was evaluated for different chemistries without changing hardware configuration for determinations of (i) Fe3+ with SCN-, (ii) iodometric nitrite determination, (iii) phenol with sodium nitroprusside, and (iv) 1-naphthol-N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl) with p-aminophenol. The detection limits were estimated as 22, 60, 25, and 60 ng mL -1 for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl at the 99.7% confidence level with RSD of 2.3, 1.0, 1.8, and 0.8%, respectively. Reagent and waste volumes were lower than those obtained by flow systems with continuous reagent addition. Sampling rates of 100, 110, 65, and 72 determinations per hour were achieved for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl determinations PMID:17671614

  16. 40 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  17. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT...

  18. Disseminated folliculitis by Mycobacterium fortuitum in an immunocompetent woman*

    PubMed Central

    Macente, Sara; Helbel, Cesar; Souza, Simone Felizardo Rocha; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Padua, Rubia Andreia Falleiros; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water. Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient. PMID:23539012

  19. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  20. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  1. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  2. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  3. Disseminated folliculitis by Mycobacterium fortuitum in an immunocompetent woman.

    PubMed

    Macente, Sara; Helbel, Cesar; Souza, Simone Felizardo Rocha; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Padua, Rubia Andreia Falleiros; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water. Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient.

  4. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): evaluation of 114 measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, A. C. Jr; Carter, R. C.; Kennedy, R. S.; Harbeson, M. M.; Krause, M.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER) Program was to identify a set of measures of human capabilities for use in the study of environmental and other time-course effects. 114 measures studied in the PETER Program were evaluated and categorized into four groups based upon task stability and task definition. The Recommended category contained 30 measures that clearly obtained total stabilization and had an acceptable level of reliability efficiency. The Acceptable-But-Redundant category contained 15 measures. The 37 measures in the Marginal category, which included an inordinate number of slope and other derived measures, usually had desirable features which were outweighed by faults. The 32 measures in the Unacceptable category had either differential instability or weak reliability efficiency. It is our opinion that the 30 measures in the Recommended category should be given first consideration for environmental research applications. Further, it is recommended that information pertaining to preexperimental practice requirements and stabilized reliabilities should be utilized in repeated-measures environmental studies.

  5. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): evaluation of 114 measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, A. C. Jr; Carter, R. C.; Kennedy, R. S.; Harbeson, M. M.; Krause, M.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER) Program was to identify a set of measures of human capabilities for use in the study of environmental and other time-course effects. 114 measures studied in the PETER Program were evaluated and categorized into four groups based upon task stability and task definition. The Recommended category contained 30 measures that clearly obtained total stabilization and had an acceptable level of reliability efficiency. The Acceptable-But-Redundant category contained 15 measures. The 37 measures in the Marginal category, which included an inordinate number of slope and other derived measures, usually had desirable features which were outweighed by faults. The 32 measures in the Unacceptable category had either differential instability or weak reliability efficiency. It is our opinion that the 30 measures in the Recommended category should be given first consideration for environmental research applications. Further, it is recommended that information pertaining to preexperimental practice requirements and stabilized reliabilities should be utilized in repeated-measures environmental studies.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE; ENVIRONMENTAL SOFTWARE SITEPRO VERSION 2.0"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE; ENVIRONMENTAL SOFTWARE SITEPRO VERSION 2.0"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  8. Kentucky Information Dissemination System. Fall Dissemination Conference Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Communication Services.

    Describing a state conference on information dissemination held in November 1979 in Frankfort, Kentucky, this report contains conference materials and evaluations of the mini-seminars and awareness sessions conducted there. Materials include a final agenda, seminar and roundabout topics, a description of the Kentucky Department of Education…

  9. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Chieco, N.A.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications.

  10. Proficiency Tests for Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Organized by an Accredited Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, Cedric; Osmond, Melanie

    2008-08-14

    For 40 years, STEME (Environmental Sample Processing and Metrology Department) organized international proficiency testing (PT) exercises formerly for WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Community) and currently for ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority). Five PT exercises are organized each year for the measurement of radionuclides (alpha, beta and gamma) in different matrixes (water, soil, biological and air samples) at environmental levels. ASN can deliver a French ministerial agreement to participate on environmental radioactivity measurements French network for laboratories asking it. Since 2006, November, STEME is the first French entity obtaining a COFRAC (French Committee of Accreditation) accreditation as 'Interlaboratory Comparisons' for the organization of proficiency tests for environmental radioactivity measurement according to standard International Standard Organization (ISO) 17025 and guide ISO 43-1. STEME has in charge to find, as far as possible, real sample or to create, by radionuclide adding, an adapted sample. STEME realizes the sampling, the samples preparation and the dispatching. STEME is also accredited according to Standard 17025 for radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and determines homogeneity, stability and reference values. After the reception of participating laboratories results, STEME executes statistical treatments in order to verify the normal distribution, to eliminate outliers and to evaluate laboratories performance.Laboratories participate with several objectives, to obtain French agreement, to prove the quality of their analytical performance in regards to standard 17025 or to validate new methods or latest developments. For 2 years, in addition to usual PT exercises, new PT about alpha or beta measurement in air filters, radioactive iodine in carbon cartridges or measurement of environmental dosimeters are organized. These PT exercises help laboratories to improve radioactive measurements and to

  11. Proficiency Tests for Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Organized by an Accredited Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Cédric; Osmond, Mélanie

    2008-08-01

    For 40 years, STEME (Environmental Sample Processing and Metrology Department) organized international proficiency testing (PT) exercises formerly for WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Community) and currently for ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority). Five PT exercises are organized each year for the measurement of radionuclides (alpha, beta and gamma) in different matrixes (water, soil, biological and air samples) at environmental levels. ASN can deliver a French ministerial agreement to participate on environmental radioactivity measurements French network for laboratories asking it [1]. Since 2006, November, STEME is the first French entity obtaining a COFRAC (French Committee of Accreditation) accreditation as "Interlaboratory Comparisons" for the organization of proficiency tests for environmental radioactivity measurement according to standard International Standard Organization (ISO) 17025 and guide ISO 43-1. STEME has in charge to find, as far as possible, real sample or to create, by radionuclide adding, an adapted sample. STEME realizes the sampling, the samples preparation and the dispatching. STEME is also accredited according to Standard 17025 for radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and determines homogeneity, stability and reference values. After the reception of participating laboratories results, STEME executes statistical treatments in order to verify the normal distribution, to eliminate outliers and to evaluate laboratories performance. Laboratories participate with several objectives, to obtain French agreement, to prove the quality of their analytical performance in regards to standard 17025 or to validate new methods or latest developments. For 2 years, in addition to usual PT exercises, new PT about alpha or beta measurement in air filters, radioactive iodine in carbon cartridges or measurement of environmental dosimeters are organized. These PT exercises help laboratories to improve radioactive measurements

  12. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  13. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  14. Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC) environmental data base review, evaluation, and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Faulkner, L.L.; Rodman, C.W.; Carlile, D.W.; Ecker, R.M.; Nicholls, A.K.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes the principal issues of public concern, the adequacy of the environmental data base to answer the issues of concern, and the additional data collection required to support a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the proposed Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). The report is based on a review of the readily available environmental literature and a site visit. Representatives of local, state, and federal agencies were also interviewed for their personal insights and concerns not discovered during the literature review.

  15. Modeling the dissemination and uptake of clinical trials results

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Scott R.; Schouten, Jeffrey T.; Cope, Marie T.; Kagan, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    A select set of highly cited publications from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks was used to illustrate the integration of time interval and citation data, modeling the progression, dissemination, and uptake of primary research findings. Following a process marker approach, the pace of initial utilization of this research was measured as the time from trial conceptualization, development and implementation, through results dissemination and uptake. Compared to earlier studies of clinical research, findings suggest that select HIV/AIDS trial results are disseminated and utilized relatively rapidly. Time-based modeling of publication results as they meet specific citation milestones enabled the observation of points at which study results were present in the literature summarizing the evidence in the field. Evaluating the pace of clinical research, results dissemination, and knowledge uptake in synthesized literature can help establish realistic expectations for the time course of clinical trials research and their relative impact toward influencing clinical practice. PMID:24808630

  16. Evaluation of regional environmental and health hazards by applying synthetic measures.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, T; Konczalik, J; Murowaniecki, Z

    1998-01-01

    Large geographical areas, urban and rural regions of 49 voivodships in Poland, were evaluated from the point of view of existing environmental and health hazards caused by chemical contamination of the environment. Using routine sources of information, we selected four health-related environmental indicators and eight environmental-related health indicators. All indicator values were normalized and then aggregated to synthetic measures of environmental and health hazards, using the taxonometric method. The synthetic measures characterized the urban and rural regions of the entire country and were used for their ranking for remedial purposes. A consistency of environmental and health synthetic measures was found in urban regions (correlation coefficient r = 0.58). The spatial distribution of environmental and health hazards was determined using geo-graphical information system (GIS) methods. The application of kriging and the interpolation of data improved the interpretation of the results. The worst situation was found in the southwest regions of Poland, which are heavily industrialized with a high population density.

  17. Disseminating an Effective Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul

    1992-01-01

    Reasons for the failure to adopt behavior-analytic teaching strategies include the perception that behavior analysis is coercive and controlling, difficulties in implementation, university factors, and marketing problems. The goal of dissemination of these strategies could be met through creating motivational conditions and devising marketing…

  18. Disseminating Educational Research with IT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Niki

    Teachers and researchers need to use the research produced in education to improve their practice. However, the current modes of dissemination through journals and papers are often written for the expert community. The Telematics Centre at the University of Exeter (United Kingdom), School of Education provides creative solutions for the effective…

  19. The Dissemination of Pedagogical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns--they think…

  20. The Dissemination of Pedagogical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns--they think…

  1. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    PubMed Central

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O. A.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with <10% of the resistance genes found outside the WWTP environment. Our data highlight that, despite an abundance of functional resistance genes within WWTPs, only few genes are found in other environments, suggesting that the overall dissemination of the WWTP resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome. PMID:26419330

  2. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

  3. EUMETCast: The Meteorological Data Dissemination Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, V. K.; Koenig, M.

    2006-05-01

    EUMETCast is EUMETSAT's broadcast system for environmental data. It utilises telecommunications satellites and the services of telecommunication providers to distribute data files using Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) standards to a wide audience located within the combined geographical coverage zones of the individual telecommunication satellites used to transmit the data. The telecommunication zones are now covering Europe, Africa, South America and parts of Asia and North America. This service has been established to provide the meteorological communities with satellite data and other meteorological products in near real-time for operational, but also research, education and training purposes. The following EUMETSAT services are currently available via EUMETCast: - Second Generation Meteosat - High Rate SEVIRI Image Data (every 15 minutes) - First Generation Meteosat - Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) (every 30 minutes) - Other Geostationary Data from NOAA (GOES E/W) and JMA (MTSAT), (every 3 hours) - Data Collection and Retransmission (DCP) and Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD) - Basic Meteorological Data (BMD) (Ku-band Europe only) - Meteorological Products (including some Satellite Application Facility products) - EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) (Ku-band Europe only) - DWDSAT (Ku-band Europe only) - VEGETATION data (C-band Africa only) Progressively during 2006 users will find an increasing amount of polar satellite data and products available on EUMETCast. As part of the extension of the EUMETCast Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS), ERS scatterometer data and NOAA satellite AVHRR data have already been introduced in early 2006. The ERS- SCAT demonstration service is a forerunner for the future pilot EARS-ASCAT service and the pilot EARS- AVHRR service will continue to expand during 2006 with the inclusion of data from additional AVHRR stations in the EARS network. The EUMETCast System will be also be used to provide dissemination of

  4. Active self-testing noise measurement sensors for large-scale environmental sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-12-13

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10.

  5. Active Self-Testing Noise Measurement Sensors for Large-Scale Environmental Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10. PMID:24351634

  6. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between self-reported talents and measured intelligence.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.

  7. Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  8. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  9. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    PubMed

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Elliott, Michael B; Handy, Susan L; Brownson, Ross C

    2005-02-01

    Enhancing community environments to support walking and bicycling serves as a promising approach to increase population levels of physical activity. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors and their relative association with transportation or recreational physical activity. For this cross-sectional study, high- and low-income study areas were selected among census tracts in St. Louis MO ("low-walkable" city) and Savannah GA ("high-walkable" city). Between February and June 2002, a telephone survey of 1068 adults provided measures of the perceived environment and physical activity behavior. In this timeframe, objective measures were collected through environmental audits of all street segments (n =1158). These measures were summarized using 400-m buffers surrounding each respondent. Neighborhood characteristics included the land use environment, transportation environment, recreational facilities, aesthetics, and social environment. Associations were examined between neighborhood features and transportation- and recreation-based activity. After adjusting for age, gender, and education, transportation activity was negatively associated with objective measures of sidewalk levelness and perceived and objective neighborhood aesthetics. It was positively associated with perceived and objectively measured number of destinations and public transit, perceived access to bike lanes, and objective counts of active people in the neighborhood. Recreational activity was positively associated with perceived access to recreational facilities and objective measures of attractive features. These findings indicate that physical activities for transportation or recreational are associated with different perceived and objective environmental characteristics. Modifications to these features may change the physical activity behavior of residents exposed to them.

  11. Measuring physical activity-related environmental factors: reliability and predictive validity of the European environmental questionnaire ALPHA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A questionnaire to assess physical activity related environmental factors in the European population (a 49-item and an 11-item version) was created as part of the framework of the EU-funded project "Instruments for Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity and fitness (ALPHA)". This paper reports on the development and assessment of the questionnaire's test-retest stability, predictive validity, and applicability to European adults. Methods The first pilot test was conducted in Belgium, France and the UK. In total 190 adults completed both forms of the ALPHA questionnaire twice with a one-week interval. Physical activity was concurrently measured (i) by administration of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) by interview and (ii) by accelerometry (Actigraph™ device). After adaptations, the second field test took place in Belgium, the UK and Austria; 166 adults completed the adapted questionnaire at two time points, with minimum one-week interval. In both field studies intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and proportion of agreement were computed to assess the stability of the two test scores. Predictive validity was examined in the first field test by correlating the results of the questionnaires with physical activity data from accelerometry and long IPAQ-last 7 days. Results The reliability scores of the ALPHA questionnaire were moderate-to good in the first field testing (ICC range 0.66 - 0.86) and good in the second field testing (ICC range 0.71 - 0.87). The proportion of agreement for the ALPHA short increased significantly from the first (range 50 - 83%) to the second field testing (range 85 - 95%). Environmental scales from both versions of the ALPHA questionnaire were significantly associated with self-reported minutes of transport-related walking, and objectively measured low intensity physical activity levels, particularly in women. Both versions were easily administered with an average completion time

  12. Creating new realities: program development and dissemination.

    PubMed Central

    Fixsen, D L; Blase, K A

    1993-01-01

    Program development and dissemination in human services present challenges and opportunities for social scientists. Over the past 27 years the Teaching-Family Model of group home treatment has moved from prototype development to widespread dissemination across North America. Reviewing concepts in industry related to product development and dissemination, the application of these concepts to a human services delivery system, and program replication and dissemination data offer information about how innovative human services can be widely adapted and adopted. PMID:8307838

  13. Obtaining Heat Stress Measurements. Module 15. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on obtaining heat stress measurements. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming and describing the…

  14. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Treesearch

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  15. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  16. Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures by Organic Farmers: The Role of Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay Gailhard, Ilkay; Bavorová, Miroslava; Pirscher, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of interpersonal communication on the adoption of agri-environmental measures (AEM) by organic farmers in Germany. Methodology: The study used the logit model to predict the probability of adoption behaviour, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) was conducted to analyse the question of…

  17. The Situational Attitude Scae--Women (SASW): A Means to Measure Environmental Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minatoya, Lydia Yuriko; Sedlacek, William E.

    1983-01-01

    Measured environmental sexism in 334 college freshmen who completed the Situational Attitude Scale-Women (SASW). Reactions to situations were significantly different when a woman was identified as the principal actor. There were also significant differences between the reactions of male and female students. (JAC)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: INNOVATIVE MEASURES FOR SUBSURFACE CHROMIUM REMEDIATION: SOURCE ZONE, CONCENTRATED PLUME, AND DILUTE PLUME.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This environmental research brief reports on innovative measures for addressing 1) the source zone soils, 2) the concentrated portion of the ground-water plume, and 3) the dilute portion of the ground-water plume. For the source zone, surfactant-enhanced chromium extraction is ev...

  19. Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures by Organic Farmers: The Role of Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay Gailhard, Ilkay; Bavorová, Miroslava; Pirscher, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of interpersonal communication on the adoption of agri-environmental measures (AEM) by organic farmers in Germany. Methodology: The study used the logit model to predict the probability of adoption behaviour, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) was conducted to analyse the question of…

  20. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan? 3272.12 Section 3272.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS...

  1. Long Term Statistical Measurements of Environmental Acoustics Parameters in the Arctic. AEAS Report Number 2. Low Frequency Transmission Loss Measurements in the Central Arctic Ocean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    RD-RI56 576 LONG TERM STATISTICAL MEASUREMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL 1/2 ACOUSTICS PRAMETERS I..(U) POLRR RESEARCH LAB INC CARPINTERIA CA B M BUCK 15 JAN...BUREAU Of STANDARDS-1963-A I l I E ".-.’ .’ In :j: Lona Term Statistical Measurements of Environmental Acoustics Parameters in the Arctic - AEAS...No - Lo Frequency Transmission ’>:--’.-’- , .- ’ ,. ’.*- Lona Term Statistical Measurements ofcean Environmental Acoustics Parameters ,..-’, in the

  2. Pemphigus vulgaris and disseminated nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Martín, F J; Pérez-Bernal, A M; Camacho, F

    2000-09-01

    Infectious diseases, in particular septicaemia from Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most severe and frequent complications for the immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus. Infection by Nocardia asteroides in subjects with pemphigus vulgaris is rare. We report the sixth case found of such an association; the subject died of disseminated nocardiosis while receiving steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, 4 years after being diagnosed with chronic pemphigus vulgaris.

  3. Environmental Satellites: Strategy Needed to Sustain Critical Climate and Space Weather Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Environmental satellites provide data on the earth and its space environment that are used for forecasting the weather, measuring variations in climate...that are used for weather forecasting , as well as climate monitoring, prediction, and research. Current satellites provide measurements of the...seasonal, annual, and decade-long changes in the earth’s temperature and ozone coverage. They are also used to observe and forecast space weather

  4. Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States

    PubMed Central

    Odio, Camila D.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Galgiani, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Of 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections that occur annually in the United States, ≈1% disseminate; one third of those cases are fatal. Immunocompromised hosts have higher rates of dissemination. We identified 8 patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who had defects in the interleukin-12/interferon-γ and STAT3 axes, indicating that these are critical host defense pathways. PMID:28098554

  5. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination. PMID:27583270

  6. Towards a planning support system for environmental management and agri-environmental measures--the Colorfields study.

    PubMed

    Paar, Philip; Röhricht, Wieland; Schuler, Johannes

    2008-11-01

    The authors present the beginnings of a planning support system (PSS) for agri-environmental measures exemplified by a virtual implementation of Colorfields and blooming strips on model farms, based on real-world data. This paper starts with an introduction to the Colorfields, a concept for transdisciplinary and sustainable landscape design of set-aside land. Colorfields comprise of blooming strips of flowering annual or biennial plants, which are designed and drilled in pattern on fallow land creating Land Art. The temporary scenic arrangements of the Colorfields combine the advantages of ecological strips, e.g. providing habitats for insects (especially bees), improving soil fertility through the cultivation of intercrops, with improvements of the social recognition of farmers as producers of pleasant landscapes instead of monoculture fields. The prototype of the PSS uses two software tools of different scientific origin, the bio-economic modeling system MODAM and the landscape visualization system Lenné3D, which are linked based on geo-data. The resulting system helps to assess the economic effects and visualizes the effects of the specific landuse patterns under different scenarios. The economic assessment of blooming strips on arable land and of one Colorfield on fallow land shows that these measures prove to be profitable from an economic viewpoint assuming the current area payments for the obligatory European Union set-aside program. Furthermore, the visualizations enable the design to be tested virtually by exploring the resultant scenery. They provide artists, planners and stakeholders including farmers with a tool to virtually wander through landscape scenarios supporting a collaborative design and a shared vision for the community. The results of the two model farms and previous case studies for Colorfields demonstrate how current policy conditions could be used for the improvement of environmental and scenic qualities. Furthermore, the ability of the

  7. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  8. Ambient Intelligence Application Based on Environmental Measurements Performed with an Assistant Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile. PMID:24681671

  9. Ambient intelligence application based on environmental measurements performed with an assistant mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-03-27

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile.

  10. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p < .001) and self-perceived access to non-residential uses (b = 2.89, p = .031) were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031), measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006), and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003). Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall

  11. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    SciTech Connect

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  12. Lanthanide ecotoxicity: first attempt to measure environmental risk for aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    González, Verónica; Vignati, Davide A L; Pons, Marie-Noelle; Montarges-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bojic, Clément; Giamberini, Laure

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical cycles of lanthanides are being disrupted by increasing global production and human use, but their ecotoxicity is not fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity of Aliivibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata to lanthanides increased with atomic number, while Daphnia magna, Heterocypris incongruens, Brachionus calyciflorus and Hydra attenuata were equally sensitive to the tested elements. In some cases, a marked decrease in exposure concentrations was observed over test duration and duly considered in calculating effect concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for hazard and risk assessment. Comparison of PNEC with measured environmental concentrations indicate that, for the present, environmental risks deriving from lanthanides should be limited to some hotspots (e.g., downstream of wastewater treatment plants). However, considering the increasing environmental concentrations of lanthanides, the associated risks could become higher in the future. Ecotoxicological and risk assessment studies, along with monitoring, are required for properly managing these emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Well GeHP detector calibration for environmental measurements using reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjani, A.; Mavon, C.; Belafrites, A.; Degrelle, D.; Boumala, D.; Rius, D.; Groetz, J.-E.

    2016-12-01

    A well-type detector installed in the Modane underground Laboratory (LSM) can combine both low background and high detection efficiency and it is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of environmental samples. Reference materials such as IAEA-447 (moss-soil), IAEA-RG-Th1 and IAEA-RG-U1 were used for the detector calibration, owing to a chemical composition close to those of the environmental samples. Nevertheless, the matrix effects and the true coincidence summing effects must be corrected from the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE). The FEPE was performed for a wide range of energy by a semi-empirical method using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6), intended for environmental measurements such as lake sediments dating. In the well geometry, the true coincidence summing effects could be very important and correction factors have been computed in three different ways.

  14. Environmental tests of thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, B. W.; Bibby, M. C.; Borella, H. M.; Woodruff, S. E.; Hudson, C. L.

    1989-07-01

    A method that uses thermographic phosphors (TPs) for remote temperature measurements in hostile environments was developed. Based on the results of environmental tests, the potential for applying the TP method to measuring blade and vane temperatures in operating turbine engines was evaluated. Heat/water-quench tests, burner-rig tests, and a test in an experimental-engine hot section demonstrated that the TPs can be durably bonded to blade and vane surfaces, yet still exhibit usable luminescence after the test. A spin-pit test showed that it was possible to measure the temperature reliably on a heated rotating turbine disk. These tests and their results are described.

  15. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of intervention dissemination (i.e., what is the best approach to disseminate an intervention). Rather, the paper discusses the challenges specific to finding pathways to disseminate an intervention and describes federal opportunities to support intervention dissemination. Three specific mechanisms are discussed: Federal Registries of Evidence-Based Programs, the Tiered Evidence Grant Programs, and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and the Small Technology Transfer Research (STTR) programs. The article presents some limitations associated with federal mechanisms for dissemination of effective interventions, but is intended to highlight current and future opportunities they may offer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measurement of optical glass refractive index free from effect of environmental temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian-rong; Hao, Qun; Zhu, Qiu-dong; Hu, Yao; Cheng, Xu

    2010-08-01

    A method based on measurement of critical refraction angle is proposed for measurement of optical glass refractive index independent of environment temperature. The critical refraction angle difference between the test sample and a standard refractive index block is measured first, and then the refractive index difference is obtained by a linear regression algorithm and the refractive index of the sample can be calculated from it. The requirement for environmental temperature is 25+/-5 °C , which can be easily satisfied on the production line. Compared with the non-linear algorithm used for direct measurement, this method is simpler, more efficient, and can directly get the refractive index value at standard temperature. Experimental result shows that the measurement repeatability is 1×10-5. The method can be used for fast and accurate measurement of the refractive index for the same glass material in mass production (e.g. X-cube made of K9 optical glass).

  17. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Mel W.; Grab, Denise A.; Livermore, Michael A.; Vossler, Christian A.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods—including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services—provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically “nonmarket” goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures. PMID:26221734

  18. The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Mel W; Grab, Denise A; Livermore, Michael A; Vossler, Christian A; Glimcher, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Environmental public goods--including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services--provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically "nonmarket" goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures.

  19. Long-term epidemiological study of disseminated neoplasia of cockles in Galicia (NW Spain): temporal patterns at individual and population levels, influence of environmental and cockle-based factors and lethality.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Iglesias, D; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of disseminated neoplasia (DN) affecting cockles Cerastoderma edule (L.) in Galicia was addressed at individual and population levels. Early stage of DN was characterized by isolated neoplastic cells occurring in branchial vessels or in the connective tissue of gills, mantle, gonad or digestive gland. As disease progressed, the neoplastic cells appeared loose in foci and became widely distributed throughout the organs. In advanced stages, the connective tissue of most organs was infiltrated by neoplastic cells, which displaced normal cells, leading to the loss of the normal tissue/organ architecture. Host defence reaction was occasionally observed. A field survey performed for 7 years, in two cockle beds located in different Galician Rías, showed that DN is a hyperendemic disease usually present all year-round at high prevalence in adult cockles but with annual prevalence minima in spring likely due to the death of heavily affected cockles, concurrently with gonad ripeness-spawning. DN was detected in the cockles ranging from 10 to 39 mm in size; the highest DN prevalence and severity corresponded to the cockles of intermediate size/age (22-29 mm/0.7-1 year old). Sex did not appear to influence DN occurrence. An inhibitory effect of DN on cockle gametogenesis was detected.

  20. Network influences on dissemination of evidence-based guidelines in state tobacco control programs.

    PubMed

    Luke, Douglas A; Wald, Lana M; Carothers, Bobbi J; Bach, Laura E; Harris, Jenine K

    2013-10-01

    Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs, are effectively and efficiently disseminated to intended stakeholders. To determine the organizational and network predictors of dissemination among state tobacco control programs, interviews with members of tobacco control networks across eight states were conducted between August 2009 and September 2010. Measures included partner attributes (e.g., agency type) and relationships among network members (frequency of contact, extent of collaboration, and dissemination of Best Practices). Exponential random graph modeling was used to examine attribute and structural predictors of collaboration and dissemination among partners in each network. Although density and centralization of dissemination ties varied across states, network analyses revealed a consistent prediction pattern across all eight states. State tobacco control dissemination networks were less dense but more centralized compared with organizational contact and collaboration networks. Tobacco control partners in each state were more likely to disseminate the Best Practices guidelines if they also had existing contact and collaboration relationships with one another. Evidence-based guidelines in public health need to be efficiently and broadly disseminated if we hope to translate science into practice. This study suggests that funders, advocacy groups, and public health agencies can take advantage of existing public health organizational relationships to support the communication and dissemination of evidence-based practices and policies.

  1. Using Built Environmental Observation Tools: Comparing Two Methods of Creating a Measure of the Built Environment

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Erin M.; Carlson, Nichole E.; Chapman, Nancy J.; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Identify an efficient method of creating a comprehensive and concise measure of the built environment integrating data from geographic information systems (GIS) and the Senior Walking Environmental Assessment Tool (SWEAT). Design Cross-sectional study using a population sample. Setting Eight municipally defined neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. Subjects Adult residents (N = 120) of audited segments (N = 363). Measures We described built environmental features using SWEAT audits and GIS data. We obtained information on walking behaviors and potential confounders through in-person interviews. Analysis We created two sets of environviental measures, one based on the conceptual framework used to develop SWEAT and another using principal component analysis (PCA). Each measure’s association with walking for transportation and exercise was then assessed and compared using logistic regression. Results A priori measures (destinations, safety, aesthetics, and functionality) and PCA measures (accessibility, comfort/safety, maintenance, and pleasantness) were analogous in conceptual meaning and had similar associations with walking. Walking for transportation was associated with destination accessibility and functional elements, whereas walking for exercise was associated with maintenance of the walking area and protection from traffic. However, only PCA measures consistently reached statistical significance. Conclusion The measures created with PCA were more parsimonious than those created a priori. Performing PCA is an efficient method of combining and scoring SWEAT and GIS data. PMID:20465151

  2. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  3. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  4. [Disseminated interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Ignacio M; Veltri, Mariano; Manzella, Diego J; Avagnina, María Alejandra; Pereyra, Pablo M; Chavín, Hernán C

    2017-01-01

    A 70 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 3-month history of abdominal pain, weight loss and night sweats. On physical examination, she presented with a 5 cm diameter abdominal mass extended from epigastrium to the left flank, and at least three bilateral supraclavicular adenopathies. A disseminated interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma was diagnosed through a biopsy of the abdominal mass. After that, a CHOP regime (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) was iniciated. She died after completion of the first cycle of treatment, six months after diagnosis.

  5. Cryptococcus neoformans myositis without dissemination.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Khatib, Riad; Jones, Bruce A; Fakih, Mohamad G

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of isolated cryptococcal myositis involving the paraspinal muscle without evidence of disseminated disease in a patient with a large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed at the time of presentation. Biopsy of the muscle involved grew a pure culture of Cryptococcus neoformans and periodic acid-Schiff staining showed numerous budding yeast consistent with Cryptococcus spp. The patient responded to systemic antifungal therapy with complete resolution of his infection. We also present a review of 5 previously published cases of cryptococcal myositis.

  6. Disseminating best practice through teaching.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    A nurse may be invited to deliver teaching sessions to students at a local university, especially if he or she has a reputation as a practice innovator. These invitations are an opportunity for the nurse to disseminate practice wisdom to a wider audience. Planning the session so that it is educational, stimulating and represents the nurse's experience and expertise is crucial. While leading such a session may seem daunting, there are several strategies that can increase the chance of success, and these are discussed in this article.

  7. [Two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Stief, B; Kiesow, C; Ellenberger, C

    2012-01-01

    Two cases of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis of a pet mouse and a red panda are described. The pet mouse had a private owner; the red panda lived in a zoological garden in Saxony. At necropsy, both animals suffered from a systemic toxoplasmosis. A severe necrotizing hepatitis was the main histological feature in both animals. Parasitic cysts could be abundantly found in the liver, moderately in the brain and in a low number in other organs. With the PAS-reaction, cysts showed a weak staining in the mouse and a strong staining in the red panda. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry.

  8. Measuring the Environmental Dimensions of Human Migration: The Demographer’s Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Gray, Clark L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the empirical literature linking environmental factors and human migration has grown rapidly and gained increasing visibility among scholars and the policy community. Still, this body of research uses a wide range of methodological approaches for assessing environment-migration relationships. Without comparable data and measures across a range of contexts, it is impossible to make generalizations that would facilitate the development of future migration scenarios. Demographic researchers have a large methodological toolkit for measuring migration as well as modeling its drivers. This toolkit includes population censuses, household surveys, survival analysis and multi-level modeling. This paper’s purpose is to introduce climate change researchers to demographic data and methods and to review exemplary studies of the environmental dimensions of human migration. Our intention is to foster interdisciplinary understanding and scholarship, and to promote high quality research on environment and migration that will lead toward broader knowledge of this association. PMID:25177108

  9. EHL Transition Temperature Measurements on a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Filter Wheel Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Shogrin, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) transition temperature was measured for a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder filter wheel bearing in a vacuum tribometer. Conditions included both an 89 N (20 lb.) hard and soft load, 600 rpm, temperatures between 23 C (73 F) and 85 C (185 F), and a vacuum of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -5) Pa. Elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication started to occur at approximately 70 C (158 F).

  10. Development of novel sol-gel indicators (SGI`s) for in-situ environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.R.; Wicks, G.G.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Organic indicator molecules have been incorporated in a porous sol- gel matrix coated on the end of a fiber-optic lens assembly to create sensors for in situ environmental measurements. Probes have been made that are sensitive to pH and uranyl concentration. The use of fiber optics allows the probe to be lowered into a well or bore hole, while support equipment such as a spectrophotometer and computer may be situated hundreds of meters away.

  11. Studies on Agri-environmental Measures: A Survey of the Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthes, Sandra; Matzdorf, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Agri-environmental measures (AEM) are incentive-based instruments in the European Union (EU) that provide payments to farmers for voluntary environmental commitments related to preserving and enhancing the environment and maintaining the cultural landscape. We review the AEM literature and provide an overview of important research topics, major research results and future challenges as discussed in the available literature concerning these measures. This review contributes to the existing literature by attempting to equally consider ecological and economic perspectives. The reviewed articles are analyzed regarding their regional focus, topics and methods. The analytical section of the article seeks to discuss commonly asked questions about AEM on the basis of results from reviewed studies. The vast amount of available literature provides valuable insights into specific cases and reveals a complex picture with few general conclusions. The existing research is usually either biased toward ecological or economic perspectives and fails to provide a holistic picture of the problems and challenges within agri-environmental programming (e.g., multiple measures, multiple target areas, legal aspects, financial constraints, transaction costs). Most empirical studies provide detailed insights into selected individual measures but are incapable of providing results at a level relevant to decision-making, as they neglect the role of farmers and the available AEM budget. Predominantly economic approaches often only consider rough assumptions of ecological and economic processes and are also not suitable for decision-making. Decision-support tools that build on these disciplinary results and simultaneously consider scheme factors and environmental conditions at high spatial resolution for application by the responsible authorities are rare and require further research.

  12. Validation of minicams for measuring concentrations of chemical agent in environmental air

    SciTech Connect

    Menton, R.G.; Hayes, T.L.; Chou, Y.L.; Hobson, D.W.

    1993-05-13

    Environmental monitoring for chemical agents is necessary to ensure that notification and appropriate action will be taken in the, event that there is a release exceeding control limits of such agents into the workplace outside of engineering controls. Prior to implementing new analytical procedures for environmental monitoring, precision and accuracy (PA) tests are conducted to ensure that an agent monitoring system performs according to specified accuracy, precision, and sensitivity requirements. This testing not only establishes the accuracy and precision of the method, but also determines what factors can affect the method's performance. Performance measures that are particularly important in agent monitoring include the Detection Limit (DL), Decision Limit (DC), Found Action Level (FAL), and the Target Action Level (TAL). PA experiments were performed at Battelle's Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) to validate the use of the miniature chemical agent monitoring system (MINICAMs) for measuring environmental air concentrations of sulfur mustard (HD). This presentation discusses the experimental and statistical approaches for characterizing the performance of MINICAMS for measuring HD in air.

  13. SEMAT--the next generation of inexpensive marine environmental monitoring and measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Trevathan, Jarrod; Johnstone, Ron; Chiffings, Tony; Atkinson, Ian; Bergmann, Neil; Read, Wayne; Theiss, Susan; Myers, Trina; Stevens, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT) project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a "smart" wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT's goals, which include: (1) The ability to adapt and evolve; (2) Underwater wireless communications; (3) Short-range wireless power transmission; (4) Plug and play components; (5) Minimal deployment expertise; (6) Near real-time analysis tools; and (7) Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments.

  14. SEMAT — The Next Generation of Inexpensive Marine Environmental Monitoring and Measurement Systems

    PubMed Central

    Trevathan, Jarrod; Johnstone, Ron; Chiffings, Tony; Atkinson, Ian; Bergmann, Neil; Read, Wayne; Theiss, Susan; Myers, Trina; Stevens, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT) project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a “smart” wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT's goals, which include: (1) The ability to adapt and evolve; (2) Underwater wireless communications; (3) Short-range wireless power transmission; (4) Plug and play components; (5) Minimal deployment expertise; (6) Near real-time analysis tools; and (7) Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments. PMID:23012567

  15. Online dissemination of probabilistic forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulston, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    Probabilistic weather forecasts intrinsically contain a much larger amount of information than traditional deterministic forecasts. This greatly increases their potential value to end-users, but also creates an obstacle to their dissemination. Traditional media, such as TV, radio and newspapers, are not suitable for presenting probabilistic forecasts to a large number of users who need predictions concerning a range of variables at a range of locations. The web has the potential to allow probabilistic forecasts to be communicated to users without having to make tacit assumptions about how their individual utility functions depend on weather variables. Unfortunately, the majority of weather forecasts currently available on the web are little more than online renditions of the type of forecasts found in more traditional media. We present a demonstration of how probabilistic forecasts might be effectively disseminated using the web. The graphical user interface allows users to view ensembles of the weather variables of interest to them without having to summarise the probabilistic information in the ensemble, and thus make implicit assumptions about the users weather risk exposure. Such a GUI can also be used to view "end-to-end" ensemble forecasts of non-weather, but weather dependent, variables of direct interest to users (e.g. wind power production).

  16. GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST) commonly emphasize the built environment (BE) as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i) to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii) to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Methods Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Results Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school), and trip-end (home or school). Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP]), the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. Conclusions The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future research should explore

  17. Rehabilitation problems after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: four cases.

    PubMed

    Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant; Johansson, Kjell; Ekholm, Sven

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe rehabilitation problems in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The study examines retrospective clinical data. Data are reported from 4 patients, who were consecutively admitted and examined with the Functional Independence Measure and magnetic resonance imaging. It was found that the lesions in the brains affected by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis are widespread, but become smaller with time. Motor symptoms dominate at first, but recovery is quite good. Social and cognitive functions are also affected, however, and require a much longer recovery time. These symptoms are, thus, the dominating problem in the rehabilitation ward. At clinical follow-up after 3 years the cognitive problems still influenced the lives of the patients. It is concluded that social and cognitive problems seem to be common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Recovery in these areas takes a long time and this is the main rehabilitation problem, since it affects the capability of the person to reintegrate into society.

  18. Ultra-low background and environmental measurements at Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC).

    PubMed

    Bandac, I; Borjabad, S; Ianni, A; Nuñez-Lagos, R; Pérez, C; Rodríguez, S; Villar, J A

    2017-08-01

    To support the construction of experiments at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC) in Spain, an Ultra-Low Background Service (ULBS) and a Copper Electroforming Service (CES) were created. The measurement technique employed at the ULBS is gamma spectroscopy with high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A new anti-radon system is being implemented. The main goal of CES is to obtain high-purity copper pieces. A new electroforming set-up inside LSC underground clean room is planned. Radon and environmental measurements at the LSC are presented. The ULBS and CES are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a CZT detector to in situ environmental radioactivity measurement in the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Kubota, T; Shibahara, Y; Fujii, T; Fukutani, S; Takamiya, K; Mizuno, S; Yamana, H

    2015-11-01

    Instead of conventional Ge semiconductor detectors and NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers, an application of a CdZnTe semiconductor (CZT) whose crystal has the dimension of 1 cm cubic to the in situ environmental radioactivity measurement was attempted in deeply affected areas in Fukushima region. Results of deposition density on soil for (134)Cs/(137)Cs obtained seemed consistent, comparing obtained results with those measured by the Japanese government. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Note: Electrical resolution during conductive atomic force microscopy measurements under different environmental conditions and contact forces

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, M.; Porti, M.; Nafria, M.; Aymerich, X.; Whittaker, E.; Hamilton, B.

    2010-10-15

    Conductive atomic force microscopy experiments on gate dielectrics in air, nitrogen, and UHV have been compared to evaluate the impact of the environment on topography and electrical measurements. In current images, an increase of the lateral resolution and a reduction of the conductivity were observed in N{sub 2} and, especially, in UHV (where current depends also on the contact force). Both effects were related to the reduction/elimination of the water layer between the tip and the sample in N{sub 2}/UHV. Therefore, since current measurements are very sensitive to environmental conditions, these factors must be taken into consideration when comparisons between several experiments are performed.

  1. Measuring Access to Information and Technology: Environmental Factors Affecting Persons With Neurologic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Sofia F; Lai, Jin-Shei; Miskovic, Ana; Jerousek, Sara; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-08-01

    To develop and validate a patient-reported measure of access to information and technology (AIT) for persons with spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. A mixed-methods approach was used to develop items, refine them through cognitive interviews, and evaluate their psychometric properties. Item responses were evaluated with the Rasch rating scale model. Correlational and analysis-of-variance methods were used to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Individuals with a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (aged ≥18y, English speaking) participated in cognitive interviews (n=12 persons), field testing of the items (n=305 persons), and validation testing of the final set of items (n=604 persons). Not applicable. A set of items to measure AIT for people with disabilities. A user-friendly multimedia touchscreen was used for self-administration of the items. A 23-item AIT measure demonstrated good evidence of internal consistency reliability, and content and construct validity. This new AIT measure will enable researchers and clinicians to determine to what extent environmental factors influence health outcomes and social participation in people with disabilities. The AIT measure could also provide disability advocates with more specific and detailed information about environmental factors to lobby for elimination of barriers. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of measured and predicted environmental concentrations of selected human pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Markus; Moltmann, Johann F; Knacker, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    In the past few years, there was an increasing awareness of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface water and drinking water resources, and measurements in surface water, sediment or waste water were done for a number of PPCPs. In the regulatory context, an environmental risk assessment (ERA) has become essential for new PPCPs. Reliably predicted or measured environmental concentrations (PECs or MECs) of chemicals are essential for the exposure assessment, which is one of the two main pillars of environmental risk assessment (ERA). This paper reports on measured data of selected PPCPs in surface waters and compares the measured values with predicted environmental concentrations from exposure models. Such models have been proposed by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) and the Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment for New Notified and Existing Chemical Substances (TGD). Four pharmaceuticals and one personal care product were in the scope of the investigation reported here: 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole and iopromide as well as tonalide. Measured environmental concentrations in surface waters for these PPCPs were reviewed in the scientific literature. The appropriateness of these data was evaluated according to criteria for monitoring data recommended by the TGD. A total of 38 references were evaluated with emphasis on the adequacy of chemical analysis and the representativeness of sampling. Measurements of concentrations in surface water (MECsw), which were found to be adequate for use in exposure assessment according to the monitoring quality criteria, were averaged and compared with respective PECs in surface water (PECsw) derived from exposure modelling (cf. EMEA and TGD). Measured environmental concentrations adequate for use in exposure assessment were found in 20 out of 38 references. Several of the measurements from Germany could be used for a

  3. Validation of measures of biosocial precursors to borderline personality disorder: childhood emotional vulnerability and environmental invalidation.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Shannon E; Baer, Ruth A

    2010-12-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) results from a transaction of two childhood precursors: emotional vulnerability and an invalidating environment. Until recently, few empirical studies have explored relationships between these theoretical precursors and symptoms of the disorder. Psychometrically sound assessment tools are essential to this area of research. The present study examined psychometric characteristics of recently developed self-report measures of childhood emotional vulnerability and parental invalidation. A large sample of undergraduates completed these measures; parent reports were collected to examine agreement between young adults' and parents' recollections of their emotional style in childhood and the parenting they received. Both measures were internally consistent, showed clear factor structures, and were significantly correlated with BPD features and related constructs. In addition, both showed modest, yet significant agreement between participants' and parents' reports. Overall, this study supports the utility of these measures of childhood emotional vulnerability and environmental invalidation.

  4. The uncertainty of averaging a time series of measurements and its use in environmental legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Ballesta, Pascual

    This paper assesses the problem of the calculation of an averaging uncertainty for measurements in the framework of the European Air Quality Directives. Current environmental legislation establishes maximum uncertainties associated with a defined period of measurements. The difficulties of an 'a priori' determination of uncertainty contributions associated with both the averaging of measurements and an incomplete time series are discussed. The definition of an overall uncertainty, which includes budget contributions from the afore-mentioned factors, is not helpful as a regulatory parameter for quality. Alternatively, it should be used as additional information to associate with the average measurement value. This should be taken into consideration in future revisions of the European ambient air quality legislation.

  5. Mismatch between perceived and objectively measured environmental obesogenic features in European neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Roda, C; Charreire, H; Feuillet, T; Mackenbach, J D; Compernolle, S; Glonti, K; Ben Rebah, M; Bárdos, H; Rutter, H; McKee, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M

    2016-01-01

    Findings from research on the association between the built environment and obesity remain equivocal but may be partly explained by differences in approaches used to characterize the built environment. Findings obtained using subjective measures may differ substantially from those measured objectively. We investigated the agreement between perceived and objectively measured obesogenic environmental features to assess (1) the extent of agreement between individual perceptions and observable characteristics of the environment and (2) the agreement between aggregated perceptions and observable characteristics, and whether this varied by type of characteristic, region or neighbourhood. Cross-sectional data from the SPOTLIGHT project (n = 6037 participants from 60 neighbourhoods in five European urban regions) were used. Residents' perceptions were self-reported, and objectively measured environmental features were obtained by a virtual audit using Google Street View. Percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. The mismatch was quantified at neighbourhood level by a distance metric derived from a factor map. The extent to which the mismatch metric varied by region and neighbourhood was examined using linear regression models. Overall, agreement was moderate (agreement < 82%, kappa < 0.3) and varied by obesogenic environmental feature, region and neighbourhood. Highest agreement was found for food outlets and outdoor recreational facilities, and lowest agreement was obtained for aesthetics. In general, a better match was observed in high-residential density neighbourhoods characterized by a high density of food outlets and recreational facilities. Future studies should combine perceived and objectively measured built environment qualities to better understand the potential impact of the built environment on health, particularly in low residential density neighbourhoods.

  6. Measuring silver nanoparticle dissolution in complex biological and environmental matrices using UV-visible absorbance.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Long, Stephen E; Cleveland, Danielle; Geronimo, Carly Lay A; MacCuspie, Robert I

    2011-10-01

    Distinguishing the toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs) themselves from the well-studied toxic effects of their ions is a critical but challenging measurement for nanotoxicity studies and regulation. This measurement is especially difficult for silver NPs (AgNPs) because in many relevant biological and environmental solutions, dissolved silver forms AgCl NPs or microparticles. Simulations predict that solid AgCl particles form at silver concentrations greater than 0.18 and 0.58 μg/mL in cell culture media and moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW), respectively. The AgCl NPs are usually not easily separable from AgNPs. Therefore, common existing total silver techniques applied to measure AgNP dissolution, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or atomic absorption, cannot accurately measure the amount of silver remaining in AgNP form, as they cannot distinguish Ag oxidation states. In this work, we introduce a simple localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) UV-visible absorbance measurement as a technique to measure the amount of silver remaining in AgNP form for AgNPs with constant agglomeration states. Unlike other existing methods, this absorbance method can be used to measure the amount of silver remaining in AgNP form even in biological and environmental solutions containing chloride because AgCl NPs do not have an associated LSPR absorbance. In addition, no separation step is required to measure the dissolution of the AgNPs. After using ICP-MS to show that the area under the absorbance curve is an accurate measure of silver in AgNP state for unagglomerating AgNPs in non-chloride-containing media, the absorbance is used to measure dissolution rates of AgNPs with different polymer coatings in biological and environmental solutions. We find that the dissolution rate decreases at high AgNP concentrations, 5 kDa polyethylene glycol thiol coatings increase the dissolution rate, and the rate is much higher in cell culture media than in

  7. Periphyton collectors as a tool to measure environmental performance of ocean outlets.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, S

    2003-01-01

    Brown and Root has participated in extensive investigations of the effects of the discharges from Perth's Ocean Outlets, as part of the Perth Long-Term Ocean Outlet Monitoring (PLOOM) Programme (1995 to 2001). The major environmental concern with these discharges is the potential for nutrients in the wastewater to stimulate excess primary production in the sea. PLOOM, and its predecessor, the Perth Coastal Waters Study, have been instrumental in developing parameters for the measurement of the performance of Perth's ocean outlets. These parameters are currently being integrated in the development of Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC) for the Perth region. EQC play an important role in the management framework by providing the quantitative benchmarks for measuring success in achieving the environmental quality objectives. PLOOM has monitored a range of environmental parameters in the Perth Metropolitan area, including water quality, nutrient levels, water circulation and plume dilution, levels of metals and pesticides present in the marine environment, and the environmental health of benthic communities, in particular of temperate reef systems. During the PLOOM studies, a valuable tool was being developed to monitor outlet performance. Artificial reef structures ("periphyton collectors") were placed in the plume trajectory. Here, periphyton is defined as: the microalgae (diatoms and microscopic filamentous forms), algal propagules, bacteria, microfauna and particulate material that are found in a mucous-like layer commonly coating seagrass leaves, and that initially colonise artificial surfaces. The advantage of periphyton collectors is that these largely remove the effects of natural variability, can be placed at any depth and distance from a potential nutrient source, provide an easy, cost effective measure of environmental impact, integrated over an extended period (one month), and produce tangible results which can be interpreted by the wider community, as

  8. Measuring the environmental efficiency of countries: a directional distance function metafrontier approach.

    PubMed

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-04-15

    This paper measures environmental efficiency (EE) in 63 countries over the period 1981-2005 and analyzes whether the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol is accompanied by an increase in environmental efficiency during the same period. Differences in EE across countries under distinct country-specific production frontiers are measured using a directional distance function model, which incorporates a desirable output (GDP) and an undesirable output (CO2 emissions). It is further assumed that a stochastic meta-technology-frontier exists and represents potential outputs available to all countries given inputs. The metafrontier for four country groups, high income countries, upper-middle income countries, low-middle income countries, and low income countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. The overall results indicate that the four country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that high income countries achieved the highest progress in their average environmental efficiency relative to the metafrontier, while lower-middle income countries and low income countries recorded negative growth in their average EE relative to the metafrontier.

  9. Incorporating physical activity measures into environmental monitoring of national parks: an example from Yosemite.

    PubMed

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai; Floyd, Myron F

    2014-09-01

    To address increasing prevalence of obesity and associated chronic disease, recent national initiatives have called upon federal agencies to promote healthy lifestyles and provide opportunities for physical activity. In response, the U.S. National Park Service has developed strategies promoting health through physical activity in addition to its well-established biodiversity and landscape conservation mission. Incorporating physical activity measures with routine environmental monitoring would help identify areas where parks can promote active pursuits with minimal environmental impact. This study provides one example of how protocols developed for visitor and environmental monitoring can generate data to evaluate physical activity. Researchers implemented an observational study in high-use meadows of Yosemite National Park during the summer of 2011. Variables measured include the spatial location of visitors and activity type. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were assigned to activity categories and analyzed for average energy expenditure. Mean METs values indicated sedentary to light physical activity across the meadows, with greater means in areas with boardwalks or paved pathways. Data leveraged in this study provide park managers an example of adapting existing monitoring programs to incorporate indicators relevant to physical activity evaluation and how physical activity may impact resource conditions in national parks.

  10. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Castro, L. A. de; Napolitano, R. d. J.

    2011-08-15

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still protected by the finite-time measurement, according with the exact numerical calculations.

  11. Environmental thermoluminescent dosimetry measurements at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Site, 1976-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    In 1975, the US Energy Research and Development Administration began evaluating a site in southeastern New Mexico for the possible construction and operation of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The purpose of the facility was to test and demonstrate the operations and technical principles of a permanent repository in bedded salt for ERDA-generated transuranic radioactive waste. An extensive preoperational environmental study program to document the region's meterorology, geology, hydrology, flora and fauna, existing air and water quality, and background radiation was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories. The purpose of this document is to report the final results of environmental thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements performed from January 1976 through December 1985. The final results were obtained by reevaluating the quarterly raw data using a uniform analysis procedure. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis by measurement of antibodies against environmental antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Dewair, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), an immunologically mediated chronic pulmonary disease, is the result of an inflammatory response of the lung initiated by the inhalation of environmental organic dusts. These organic dusts usually contain substances (antigens) capable of eliciting immune responses in humans. The symptoms of HP generally present as recurrent flu-like episodes which makes it difficult to establish the proper diagnosis. However, detection in patients' sera of high-titer antibodies against the environmental antigens could be of great help in identifying those materials causing the disease and which must be avoided. A highly specific and sensitive serodiagnostic test, a radioimmuno assay (RIA), was developed for measurement of antibodies against antigens relevant to Farmer's Lung Disease (FLD), a type of HP affecting farmers.

  13. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broadway, J.A.

    1998-03-31

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development.

  14. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; LaKind, Judy S.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2010-01-01

    With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:20195443

  15. IAEA-447: a new certified reference material for environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Tarjan, S; Ceccatelli, A; Kis-Benedek, G; Betti, M

    2012-08-01

    The environment program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) includes activities to produce and certify reference materials for environmental radioactivity measurements. This paper describes methodologies applied in preparation and certification of the new IAEA-447 moss-soil certified reference material. In this work, the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties of (40)K, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu and (241)Am were established. Details of the analytical methods including radiochemical procedures were reported. Analytical challenges and lessons learned from the reported results in the worldwide IAEA proficiency test using this material was summarized and best analytical practices to improve the performance for environmental radioactivity determinations were recommended. IAEA-447 is an important reference material for quality control and method validation of gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analytical procedures.

  16. Weather dissemination and public usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The existing public usage of weather information was examined. A survey was conducted to substantiate the general public's needs for dissemination of current (0-12 hours) weather information, needs which, in a previous study, were found to be extensive and urgent. The goal of the study was to discover how the general public obtains weather information, what information they seek and why they seek it, to what use this information is put, and to further ascertain the public's attitudes and beliefs regarding weather reporting and the diffusion of weather information. Major findings from the study include: 1. The public has a real need for weather information in the 0-6 hour bracket. 2. The visual medium is preferred but due to the lack of frequent (0-6 hours) forecasts, the audio media only, i.e., telephone recordings and radio weathercasts, were more frequently used. 3. Weather information usage is sporadic.

  17. Laboratory emissivity measurements of the plagioclase solid solution series under varying environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Pieters, C. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Wyatt, M. B.

    2012-11-01

    New laboratory thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the plagioclase solid solution series over the 1700 ˜ 400 cm-1 (6-25 μm) spectral range are presented. Thermal infrared (TIR) spectral changes for fine-particulate samples (0-25 μm) are characterized for the first time under different laboratory environmental conditions: ambient (terrestrial-like), half-vacuum (Mars-like), vacuum, and vacuum with cooled chamber (lunar-like). Under all environmental conditions the Christiansen Feature (CF) is observed to vary in a systematic way with Na-rich end-member (albite) having a CF position at the highest wave number (shortest wavelength) and the Ca-rich end-member (anorthite) having a CF position with the lowest wave number (longest wavelength). As pressure decreases to <10-3 mbar four observations are made: (1) the CF position shifts to higher wave numbers, (2) the spectral contrast of the CF increases relative to the RB, (3) the spectral contrast of the RB in the ˜1200-900 spectral range decreases while the spectral contrast of the RB in the ˜800-400 spectral range either increases or remains the same and (4) the TF disappears. A relationship between the wavelength position of the CF measured under simulated lunar conditions and plagioclase composition (An#) is developed. Although its exact form may evolve with additional data, this linear relationship should be applied to current and future TIR data sets of the Moon. Our new spectral measurements demonstrate how sensitive thermal infrared emissivity spectra of plagioclase feldspars are to the environmental conditions under which they are measured and provide important constraints for interpreting current and future thermal infrared data sets.

  18. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  19. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  20. An Overview of Public Domain Tools for Measuring the Sustainability of Environmental Remediation - 12060

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, John E.; Rogers, Scott

    2012-07-01

    comes to the public domain, Federal government agencies are spearheading the development of software tools to measure and report emissions of air pollutants (e.g., carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants); consumption of energy, water and natural resources; accident and safety risks; project costs and other economic metrics. Most of the tools developed for the Government are available to environmental practitioners without charge, so they are growing in usage and popularity. The key features and metrics calculated by the available public-domain tools for measuring the sustainability of environmental remediation projects share some commonalities but there are differences amongst the tools. The SiteWise{sup TM} sustainability tool developed for the Navy and US Army will be compared with the Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT{sup TM}) developed for the US Air Force (USAF). In addition, the USAF's Clean Solar and Wind Energy in Environmental Programs (CleanSWEEP), a soon-to-be-released tool for evaluating the economic feasibility of utilizing renewal energy for powering remediation systems will be described in the paper. (authors)

  1. Difficult to measure constructs: conceptual and methodological issues concerning participation and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Whiteneck, Gale; Dijkers, Marcel P

    2009-11-01

    For rehabilitation and disability research, participation and environment are 2 crucial constructs that have been placed center stage by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). However, neither construct is adequately conceptualized by the ICF, and both are difficult to measure. This article addresses conceptual and methodologic issues related to these ICF constructs, and recommends an improved distinction between activities and participation, as well as elaboration of environment. A division of the combined ICF categories for activity and participation into 2 separate taxonomies is proposed to guide future research. The issue of measuring participation from objective and subjective perspectives is examined, and maintaining these distinct conceptual domains in the measurement of participation is recommended. The methodological issues contributing to the difficulty of measuring participation are discussed, including potential dimensionality, alternative metrics, and the appropriateness of various measurement models. For environment, the need for theory to focus research on those aspects of the environment that interact with individuals' impairments and functional limitations in affecting activities and participation is discussed, along with potential measurement models for those aspects. The limitations resulting from reliance on research participants as reporters on their own environment are set forth. Addressing these conceptual and methodological issues is required before the measurement of participation and environmental factors can advance and these important constructs can be used more effectively in rehabilitation and disability observational research and trials.

  2. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools.

  3. Environmental variables measured at multiple spatial scales exert uneven influence on fish assemblages of floodplain lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interaction between environmental variables measured at three different scales (i.e., landscape, lake, and in-lake) and fish assemblage descriptors across a range of over 50 floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas. Our goal was to identify important local- and landscape-level determinants of fish assemblage structure. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and variables measured at broader scales (i.e., landscape-level and lake-level) were hypothesized to be stronger than relationships with variables measured at finer scales (i.e., in-lake variables). Results suggest that fish assemblage structure in floodplain lakes was influenced by variables operating on three different scales. However, and contrary to expectations, canonical correlations between in-lake environmental characteristics and fish assemblage structure were generally stronger than correlations between landscape-level and lake-level variables and fish assemblage structure, suggesting a hierarchy of influence. From a resource management perspective, our study suggests that landscape-level and lake-level variables may be manipulated for conservation or restoration purposes, and in-lake variables and fish assemblage structure may be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  4. The comparison of environmental effects on michelson and fabry-perot interferometers utilized for the displacement measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The optical structure of general commercial interferometers, e.g., the Michelson interferometers, is based on a non-common optical path. Such interferometers suffer from environmental effects because of the different phase changes induced in different optical paths and consequently the measurement precision will be significantly influenced by tiny variations of the environmental conditions. Fabry-Perot interferometers, which feature common optical paths, are insensitive to environmental disturbances. That would be advantageous for precision displacement measurements under ordinary environmental conditions. To verify and analyze this influence, displacement measurements with the two types of interferometers, i.e., a self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercial Michelson interferometer, have been performed and compared under various environmental disturbance scenarios. Under several test conditions, the self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer was obviously less sensitive to environmental disturbances than a commercial Michelson interferometer. Experimental results have shown that induced errors from environmental disturbances in a Fabry-Perot interferometer are one fifth of those in a Michelson interferometer. This has proved that an interferometer with the common optical path structure will be much more independent of environmental disturbances than those with a non-common optical path structure. It would be beneficial for the solution of interferometers utilized for precision displacement measurements in ordinary measurement environments.

  5. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE.

  6. Rapid In-Situ Measurement of Gamma Activity in Soil for Environmental Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, T. K.

    2003-12-01

    In-situ measurements of gamma radiation in soil are used as a rapid, low-cost, non-intrusive alternative to conventional sampling and analysis methods in the preliminary assessment of environmental impacts to watersheds at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The method resolves the ambient gamma-radiation field near ground surface into background and residual components and provides radionuclide-specific soil activity determination. The efficacy of the method has been evaluated and compares favorably with conventional gamma-PHA soil analyses and aerial survey data. The method has garnered regulatory approval and is being successfully deployed to evaluate the impact of Cs-137 contamination from CERCLA sites.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE, DECISION FX, INC. SAMPLING FX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE, DECISION FX, INC., GROUNDWATER FX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES - QED ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS INC. WELL WIZARD DEDICATED SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, BURGE ENVIRONMENTAL INC. MULTIPROBE 100

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE, DECISION FX, INC. SAMPLING FX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE, DECISION FX, INC., GROUNDWATER FX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, BURGE ENVIRONMENTAL INC. MULTIPROBE 100

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES - QED ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS INC. WELL WIZARD DEDICATED SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ...

  15. Reconceptualizing 'effectiveness' in environmental projects: can we measure values-related achievements?

    PubMed

    Harder, Marie K; Velasco, Ismael; Burford, Gemma; Podger, Dimity; Janoušková, Svatava; Piggot, Georgia; Hoover, Elona

    2014-06-15

    There have been recent calls for a shift to an evidence-based paradigm in environmental management, grounded in systematic monitoring and evaluation, but achieving this will be complex and difficult. Evaluating the educational components of environmental initiatives presents particular challenges, because these programs often have multiple concurrent goals and may value 'human outcomes', such as value change, which are intangible and difficult to quantify. This paper describes a fresh approach based on co-creating an entirely new values-based assessment framework with expert practitioners worldwide. We first discuss the development of a generic framework of 'Proto-Indicators' (reference criteria constituting prototypes for measurable indicators), and then demonstrate its application within a reforestation project in Mexico where indicators and assessment tools were localized to enhance context-relevance. Rigorously derived using unitary validity, with an emphasis on relevance, practicability and logical consistency from user perspectives, this framework represents a step-wise advance in the evaluation of non-formal EE/ESD programs. This article also highlights three important principles with broader implications for evaluation, valuation and assessment processes within environmental management: namely peer-elicitation, localizability, and an explicit focus on ethical values. We discuss these principles in relation to the development of sustainability indicators at local and global levels, especially in relation to post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of the HPGe detector efficiency in measurements of radioactivity in extended environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Montalván Olivares, Diango M; Guevara, M V Manso; Velasco, Fermin G

    2017-09-13

    A combination of experimental measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations was used to determine the full-energy peak efficiency of a HPGe detector employed in environmental measurements. The manufacturer-provided parameters of the detector were corrected by comparing measured values of the efficiency with those obtained by MC simulations. After the adjustment of the active volume of the detector, the simulated and experimentally measured efficiencies agreed within 1%. A full-energy peak efficiency curve for a new distance was obtained by simulation. The efficiency curve for volumetric samples in the 53-1408keV energy range was determined using the efficiency transfer method. Geometric and self-absorption correction factors were estimated by experimental measurements, MC calculations or a combination of the two. In addition, the density of two sediment samples was estimated by a transmission measurement experiment and data simulation. Finally, concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th in two sediment samples from the Caetité region of Brazil were determined with relative uncertainties of about 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection After Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nicholas; Sampath, Rahul; Abu Saleh, Omar M; Tweet, Marysia S; Jevremovic, Dragan; Alniemi, Saba; Wengenack, Nancy L; Sampathkumar, Priya; Badley, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Ten case reports of disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections associated with cardiovascular surgery were published from Europe. We report 3 cases of disseminated M chimaera infections with histories of aortic graft and/or valvular surgery within the United States. Two of 3 patients demonstrated ocular involvement, a potentially important clinical finding.

  18. Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection After Cardiothoracic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Nicholas; Sampath, Rahul; Abu Saleh, Omar M.; Tweet, Marysia S.; Jevremovic, Dragan; Alniemi, Saba; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Sampathkumar, Priya; Badley, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Ten case reports of disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections associated with cardiovascular surgery were published from Europe. We report 3 cases of disseminated M chimaera infections with histories of aortic graft and/or valvular surgery within the United States. Two of 3 patients demonstrated ocular involvement, a potentially important clinical finding. PMID:27703994

  19. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an...

  20. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an...

  1. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an...

  2. Wisconsin Dissemination Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmatuck, Loretta

    Activities of the final year are reported as they relate to the objectives of the Wisconsin Dissemination Planning (WDP) Project: (1) to develop a plan for coordination among the dissemination functions in the Department of Public Instruction (DPI) through a state-wide steering committee; (2) to complete a needs assessment for dissemination…

  3. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an assurance in its application that the curricula or materials will reach the populations for which...

  4. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  5. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  6. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  7. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  8. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  9. National Dissemination Forum, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Henry M.

    Presented is an analysis of nine agreements focused on three areas of common concern to dissemination specialists involved in the 1977 National Dissemination Forum: resources, linkage, research, evaluation and quality control. FORUM participants represented the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC of the National Institute of Education…

  10. Disseminated Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Toddler.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Sachdev, Anil; Gupta, Dhiren; Radhakrishnan, Nita

    2017-02-15

    Immunodeficient children are more prone for invasive cryptococcal infections. A 2-year-old boy with disseminated cryptococcosis was evaluated for underlying immunodeficiency without success. Child was managed successfully. Immunocompetent children with disseminated cryptococcosis can present diagnostic or therapeutic challenge in resource-limited settings.

  11. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an assurance in its application that the curricula or materials will reach the populations for which the...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303... PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The degree... effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  13. The Tenth National Dissemination Conference. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlig, Richard K.

    This report on the Tenth National Dissemination Conference of 1977 outlines the purposes of the conference and summarizes the present state of educational information dissemination. National programs are described, including the National Institute of Education State Capacity Building Program, the National Diffusion Network, the Dissemination…

  14. Curriculum Dissemination as Planned Cultural Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean

    The author traces the change from the use of the term "diffusion" to the term "dissemination" with reference to curriculum projects in Britain and discusses implications of the change. Although at one time the two terms were used interchangeably, the term "dissemination" now emphasizes techniques of effective management rather than the educational…

  15. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  16. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  17. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  18. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Eason, Tarsha N; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Curioso, Clarissa L; Griffin, Shannon M; Ramudit, Malini K D; Plunkett, Trevor R

    2016-09-12

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. This manuscript describes the development and analysis of a bead-based multiplex immunoassay capable of measuring the presence of antibodies in human saliva to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Saliva is particularly attractive in this application because it is noninvasive, cheaper and easier to collect than serum. Antigens from environmental pathogens were coupled to carboxylated microspheres (beads) and used to measure antibodies in very small volumes of human saliva samples using a bead-based, solution-phase assay. Beads were coupled with antigens from Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, noroviruses (G I.1 and G II.4) and hepatitis A virus. To ensure that the antigens were sufficiently coupled to the beads, coupling was confirmed using species-specific, animal-derived primary capture antibodies, followed by incubation with biotinylated anti-species secondary detection antibodies and streptavidin-R-phycoerythrin reporter (SAPE). As a control to measure non-specific binding, one bead set was treated identically to the others except it was not coupled to any antigen. The antigen-coupled and control beads were then incubated with prospectively-collected human saliva samples, measured on a high throughput analyzer based on the principles of flow cytometry, and the presence of antibodies to each antigen was measured in Median Fluorescence Intensity units (MFI). This multiplex immunoassay has a number of advantages, including more data with less sample; reduced costs and labor; and the ability to customize the assay to many targets of interest. Results indicate that the salivary multiplex immunoassay may be capable of identifying previous exposures and infections, which can be especially useful in surveillance

  19. Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Measurement-The Promise and the Current Reality.

    PubMed

    Broday, David M

    2017-10-02

    The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air quality monitoring, yet their capability to capture urban-scale spatiotemporal pollutant patterns has not been thoroughly examined to date. Here, we summarize our studies on the practicalities of using data streams from sensor nodes for air quality measurement and the required methods to tune the results to different stakeholders and applications. We summarize the results from eight cities across Europe, five sensor technologies-three stationary (with one tested also while moving) and two personal sensor platforms, and eight ambient pollutants. Overall, few sensors showed an exceptional and consistent performance, which can shed light on the fine spatiotemporal urban variability of pollutant concentrations. Stationary sensor nodes were more reliable than personal nodes. In general, the sensor measurements tend to suffer from the interference of various environmental factors and require frequent calibrations. This calls for the development of suitable field calibration procedures, and several such in situ field calibrations are presented.

  20. Environmental measurement while drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide-thallium activated crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The output of the PMT goes to a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The MCA data is transmitted to the surface via a signal conditioning and transmitter board similar to that used with the GMT. The EMWD system is described and the results of the GRS field tests and field demonstration are presented.

  1. Validation of environmental content in the Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure.

    PubMed

    Khetani, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the concurrent validity of the environment content in the newly developed Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM). Cross-sectional study. Data were collected online. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to survey caregivers of children (N=381; 85 children with developmental disabilities and delays and 296 children without developmental disabilities and delays) aged 0 and 5 years (mean age, 36.49±20.18 mo). Not applicable. The YC-PEM includes an assessment of the effect of environment on children's participation for 3 settings: home, daycare/preschool, and community. Pearson and Spearman correlational analyses were used to examine the concurrent validity of the YC-PEM environmental content according to a criterion measure, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors-Child and Parent Version (CHIEF-CP). The YC-PEM and the CHIEF-CP items were first mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Children and Youth Version to identify items for pairwise comparison. We found small to moderate negative associations for 51 of 66 pairwise comparisons involving CHIEF-CP and YC-PEM environment items (r=-.13 to -.39; P<.01). Significant associations were found for items in all 5 International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version environmental domains. Results lend further support for the use of the YC-PEM for valid caregiver assessment of the physical, social, attitudinal, and institutional features of environments in terms of their effect on young children's participation within the home, daycare/preschool, and community settings. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  3. A practical E-PERM (electret passive environmental radon monitor) system for indoor 222Rn measurement.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, P; Dempsey, J C; Ramsey, R W; Stieff, L R

    1990-04-01

    The technical and scientific basis for the measurement of indoor 222Rn concentration using an E-PERM (Electret passive environmental radon monitor) has been described in our earlier work. The purpose of this paper is to describe further development of a practical and convenient system that can be used routinely for indoor 222Rn measurement. The ion chamber is now made of electrically conducting plastic to minimize the response from natural gamma radiation. A spring-loaded shutter method is used to cover and uncover the electret from outside the chamber. The electret voltage reader has been modified to improve the accuracy and the ease in operation. The calibration, performance, error analysis, and lower limits of detection for these standardized versions of E-PERMs are also described.

  4. Improvements to sample processing and measurement to enable more widespread environmental application of tritium

    DOE PAGES

    Moran, James; Alexander, Thomas; Aalseth, Craig; ...

    2017-01-26

    Previous measurements have demonstrated the wealth of information that tritium (T) can provide on environmentally relevant processes. Here, we present modifications to sample preparation approaches that enable T measurement by proportional counting on small sample sizes equivalent to 120 mg of water and demonstrate the accuracy of these methods on a suite of standardized water samples. We also identify a current quantification limit of 92.2 TU which, combined with our small sample sizes, correlates to as little as 0.00133 Bq of total T activity. Furthermore, this enhanced method should provide the analytical flexibility needed to address persistent knowledge gaps inmore » our understanding of both natural and artificial T behavior in the environment.« less

  5. A new acquisition and imaging system for environmental measurements: an experience on the Italian cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Calogero, Andrea; Trinca, Daniele; di Pasquale, Stefano; Giarnetti, Sabino; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2014-05-23

    A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up.

  6. A New Acquisition and Imaging System for Environmental Measurements: An Experience on the Italian Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Calogero, Andrea; Trinca, Daniele; di Pasquale, Stefano; Giarnetti, Sabino; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up. PMID:24859030

  7. Octanol-water partition coefficient of benzo(a)pyrene: measurement, calculation, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Harrison, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a potent carcinogen produced in significant quantities during pyrolysis of such substances as coal, wood, and cigarettes. Several researchers have shown that the lipophilic storage and soil sediment accumulation of many organic solutes is proportional to the partitioning between octanol-1 and water. The octanol-water partition coefficient (P) is defined as P = C/sub o//C/sub w/, where C/sub o/ and C/sub w/ are the concentration of the solute in n-octanol and water. Considerable data are available demonstrating that P values measured in the laboratory can be used to predict the environmental behavior of organic pollutants. Literature searches reveal that calculated, but not measured, log P values are reported for BaP. This laboratory study was initiated to define better the log P of BaP.

  8. Added Value Measures in Education Show Genetic as Well as Environmental Influence

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities. PMID:21311598

  9. Genetic and environmental mediation between measures of personality and family environment in twins reared together.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Kämpfe, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the etiology of the relationship between personality traits and retrospectively recalled family environment. The data of 226 identical and 168 fraternal twin pairs reared together from the Jena twin study of social attitudes were available. Personality traits were measured using the self- and peer report versions of the German NEO-personality inventory-revised. A German version of Blocks Environmental Questionnaire was applied to measure two broad dimensions of the family environment retrospectively: support and organization. We could replicate earlier findings that retrospective reports of these family environment dimensions were in part genetically influenced. A total of 66% of the genetic variance in support and 24% in organization could be accounted for by heritable variance in self-rated personality. That was replicated by using peer reports of personality, 41% explained genetic variance in support and 17% in organization. Environmental mediations were negligible. This indicates that the relationship between personality and retrospectively recalled family environment is largely genetically mediated.

  10. Environmental radioactivity measurements and applications - Difficulties, current status and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostakis, Marios J.

    2015-11-01

    For several decades natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment have been extensively studied all around the world. Nuclear accidents - mainly that of Chernobyl - have led to the development of the field of radioecology, while detector systems and techniques - with predominant that of γ-spectrometry - have been continuously developed through the years to meet researchers' needs. The study of natural radionuclides that was originally limited to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was then extended to include radionuclides such as 234Th, 210Pb, 235U and 7Be, which allowed the study of radioactive equilibrium. Besides their importance from the radiation protection point of view, many radionuclides are also used as tracers of environmental processes, such as aerosol and transportation of air masses studies (7Be, 10Be, 22Na), soil erosion, sedimentation and geochronology (210Pb, 137Cs), marine ecosystems studies and studies related to climate change. All these studies require specialized samplings strategies and sampling preparation techniques as well as high quality measurements, while the improvement of detection limits is often of vital importance. This work is a review of environmental radioactivity measurements and applications, mainly focused in the field of γ-spectrometry, for which difficulties and limitations will be presented, together with future trends, new challenges and applications.

  11. An Undergraduate Field Experiment for Measuring Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Adam M.; Huang, Jiping; Ellis, David A.; Mabury, Scott A.

    1999-12-01

    An undergraduate field experiment is described for the measurement of nicotine and various carbonyl compounds arising from environmental tobacco smoke. Students are introduced to practical techniques in HPLC-UV and GC-NPD. Also introduced are current methods in personal air sampling using small and portable field sampling pumps. Carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and acetone) are sampled with silica solid-phase extraction cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, eluted, and analyzed by HPLC-UV (360-380 nm). Nicotine is sampled using XAD-2 cartridges, extracted, and analyzed by GC-NPD. Students gain an appreciation for the problems associated with measuring ubiquitous pollutants such as formaldehyde, as well as the issue of chromatographic peak resolution when trying to resolve closely eluting peaks. By allowing the students to formulate their own hypothesis and sampling scheme, critical thinking and problem solving are developed in addition to analysis skills. As an experiment in analytical environmental chemistry, this laboratory introduces the application of field sampling and analysis techniques to the undergraduate lab.

  12. Heart and ventilatory measures in crayfish during environmental disturbances and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Schapker, Heidi; Breithaupt, Thomas; Shuranova, Zhanna; Burmistrov, Yuri; Cooper, Robin L

    2002-02-01

    Most animals assess the environment in which they live and alter their behavior according to various stimuli. When the animal does not make significant behavioral changes, as measured by bodily movements, the animal may be characterized as unresponsive to a given stimulus. This study demonstrates that when behavioral movements of crayfish cannot be observed, physiological measures of heart rate (HR) and ventilatory rate (VR) show dramatic changes in response to defined sensory stimuli. In the majority of cases, upon anticipation of a social interaction with another crayfish both HR and VR will increase. During an agonistic encounter between two crayfish, the level of HR and VR correlate with the intensity of the interaction. Such rapid responses in cardiac and respiratory systems to environmental disturbances and anticipation of a social interaction suggest an autonomic-like regulation associated with fear, flight or fight. Since behavioral observations do not allow an internal status to be readily assessed, we suggest that HR and VR may serve as a useful bioindex in crustaceans to their internal drive or possibly an awareness level to environmental cues.

  13. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  14. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  15. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development.

  16. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  17. The Expanding Reach of Environmental Radiotracers - New Chronometers And More Sensitive Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalseth, C.

    2015-12-01

    Radiotracers in the environment provide powerful tools for understanding environmental processes. Viewed as an age continuum, methods using shorter-lived radionuclides (<100 y) like 3H, 7Be, 85Kr, 134Cs, and 137Cs generally rely on measurements of radioactive decay in samples. Methods using longer-lived radionuclides (>1,000 y) like 10Be, 14C, 36Cl, and 81Kr generally rely on atom-counting measurements such as accelerator mass spectrometry. Significant challenges exist in the age range between 100 and 1,000 years where useful radiotracers are difficult to measure by either method and can have very low abundance. These challenges are being addressed with more sensitive measurements using both atom counting and radioactive decay, extending the reach of established radiotracers as well as adding new chronometers. Improvements in atom-counting methods will be reviewed; the practicality of using 81Kr (abundance ~5×10-13 in atmospheric krypton) for age-dating old aquifers has been established and current work focuses on improving sample utilization efficiency to allow smaller samples to be measured. Better efficiency also brings lower-abundance isotopes within reach, for example 39Ar. Improvements in radioactive decay counting will be reviewed; these take advantage of ultra-pure materials to achieve lower backgrounds and are adding new age-dating reach to the environmental science tool-set with intermediate half-life radionuclides, for example 32Si for sediment cores. These methods also improve sensitivity for established radiotracers like 3H and will allow smaller samples to be measured, allowing specific processes to be traced. For example, using 3H as an indicator of carbon cycling through organic compounds in soil systems. Progress in both atom counting and decay counting is expanding the use of 39Ar for age-dating aquifers, measuring ocean mixing, and age-dating younger glacial ice. Argon-39 is a challenging intermediate-age radiotracer (269-year half-life) with

  18. Review of Measures of Worksite Environmental and Policy Supports for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; van Bakergem, Margaret A.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Pamulapati, Surya C.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). Methods We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Results Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. Conclusion This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development. PMID:25950572

  19. Review of measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity and healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Hipp, J Aaron; Reeds, Dominic N; van Bakergem, Margaret A; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Pamulapati, Surya C; Hoehner, Christine M

    2015-05-07

    Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development.

  20. Sequential nonideal measurements of quantum oscillators: Statistical characterization with and without environmental coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Vincenzo; Pierro, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    A one-dimensional quantum oscillator is monitored by taking repeated position measurements. As a first contribution, it is shown that, under a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme applied to a system initially at the ground state, (i) the observed sequence of measurements (quantum tracks) corresponding to a single experiment converges to a limit point, and that (ii) the limit point is random over the ensemble of the experiments, being distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable with a variance at most equal to the ground-state variance. As a second contribution, the richer scenario where the oscillator is coupled with a frozen (i.e., at the ground state) ensemble of independent quantum oscillators is considered. A sharply different behavior emerges: under the same measurement scheme, here we observe that the measurement sequences are essentially divergent. Such a rigorous statistical analysis of the sequential measurement process might be useful for characterizing the main quantities that are currently used for inference, manipulation, and monitoring of many quantum systems. Several interesting properties of the quantum tracks evolution, as well as of the associated (quantum) threshold crossing times, are discussed and the dependence upon the main system parameters (e.g., the choice of the measurement sampling time, the degree of interaction with the environment, the measurement device accuracy) is elucidated. At a more fundamental level, it is seen that, as an application of basic quantum mechanics principles, a sharp difference exists between the intrinsic randomness unavoidably present in any quantum system, and the extrinsic randomness arising from the environmental coupling, i.e., the randomness induced by an external source of disturbance.

  1. [Respiratory failure in disseminated sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Popova, L M; Avdiunina, I A; Alferova, V P

    2000-01-01

    The development and patterns of respiratory failure (RF) are analyzed in 9 patients with disseminated sclerosis (DS). Forced ventilation of the lungs was carried out with consideration for main location of the process. Relationship between patterns of respiratory disorders and neuroanatomy of respiratory regulation is discussed. Involvement of the corticospinal routes is paralleled by dissociation during functional pulmonary tests: spontaneous volumes are less than controlled inspirations. The most severe symptom complexes were observed in RF of predominantly bulbar localization: respiratory anarchy, blocking of airways caused by impaired swallowing, impaired mechanism of coughing reflex, loss of spontaneous respiration, sometimes apnea during sleeping. Involvement of the respiratory nuclei of medullary respiratory center and airways and of the corticonuclear routes of caudal cranial nerves causes the development of a triad of symptoms: glossopharyngolaryngeal paralysis, dysfunction of respiratory nuclei of medulla oblongata, and decreased sensitivity of respiratory center to CO2. Aspiration complications caused by dysphagia are characteristic of bulbar DS. Respiratory function in 5 patients without clinical picture of RF are specially discussed. The authors emphasize unfavorable prognostic significance of signs of extracorporeal obstruction indicating the probability of RF long before its manifestation. Special attention is paid to early diagnosis of symptoms of coming RF when evaluating the status of patients with DS during treatment. Timely use of respiratory resuscitation methods reduces the mortality and ensures a good chance for remissions with recovery of respiratory function, which are characteristic of RF.

  2. Disseminated typical bronchial carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Novković, Dobrivoje; Skuletić, Vesna; Vuković, Jelena; Cerović, Snezana; Tomić, Ilija; Karlicić, Vukojica; Stojisavljević, Marko

    2013-05-01

    Bronchial carcinoids belong to a rare type of lung tumors. If they do not expose outstanding neuroendocrine activity, they develop without clearly visible symptoms. They are often detected during a routine examination. According to their clinical pathological features, they are divided into typical and atypical tumors. Typical bronchial carcinoids metastasize to distant organs very rarely. Localized forms are effectively treated by surgery. The methods of conservative treatment should be applied in other cases. We presented a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid lung tumor detected by a routine examination. Additional analysis (chest X-ray, computed tomography of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, skeletal scintigraphy, bronhoscopy, histopathological analysis of the bioptate of bronchial tumor, as well as bronchial brushing cytology and immunohistochemical staining performed with markers specific for neuroendocrine tumor) proved a morphologically typical lung carcinoid with dissemination to the liver and skeletal system, which is very rarely found in typical carcinoids. The presented case with carcinoid used to be showed morphological and pathohistological characteristics of typical bronchial carcinoid. With its metastasis to the liver and skeletal system it demonstrated unusual clinical course that used to be considered as rare phenomenon. Due to its frequent asymptomatic course and varied manifestation, bronchial carcinoid could be considered as a diagnostic challenge requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

  3. GOES satellite time code dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The GOES time code system, the performance achieved to date, and some potential improvements in the future are discussed. The disseminated time code is originated from a triply redundant set of atomic standards, time code generators and related equipment maintained by NBS at NOAA's Wallops Island, VA satellite control facility. It is relayed by two GOES satellites located at 75 W and 135 W longitude on a continuous basis to users within North and South America (with overlapping coverage) and well out into the Atlantic and Pacific ocean areas. Downlink frequencies are near 468 MHz. The signals from both satellites are monitored and controlled from the NBS labs at Boulder, CO with additional monitoring input from geographically separated receivers in Washington, D.C. and Hawaii. Performance experience with the received time codes for periods ranging from several years to one day is discussed. Results are also presented for simultaneous, common-view reception by co-located receivers and by receivers separated by several thousand kilometers.

  4. Speciation and Bioavailability Measurements of Environmental Plutonium Using Diffusion in Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Christl, Marcus; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2015-11-09

    The biological uptake of plutonium (Pu) in aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern since it is an alpha-particle emitter with long half-life which can potentially contribute to the exposure of biota and humans. The diffusive gradients in thin films technique is introduced here for in-situ measurements of Pu bioavailability and speciation. A diffusion cell constructed for laboratory experiments with Pu and the newly developed protocol make it possible to simulate the environmental behavior of Pu in model solutions of various chemical compositions. Adjustment of the oxidation states to Pu(IV) and Pu(V) described in this protocol is essential in order to investigate the complex redox chemistry of plutonium in the environment. The calibration of this technique and the results obtained in the laboratory experiments enable to develop a specific DGT device for in-situ Pu measurements in freshwaters. Accelerator-based mass-spectrometry measurements of Pu accumulated by DGTs in a karst spring allowed determining the bioavailability of Pu in a mineral freshwater environment. Application of this protocol for Pu measurements using DGT devices has a large potential to improve our understanding of the speciation and the biological transfer of Pu in aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Nitric Oxide PLIF Measurements in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    A nonintrusive laser-based measurement system has been applied for the first time in the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Planar laser-induced fluorescence of naturally occurring nitric oxide (NO) has been used to obtain instantaneous flow visualization images, and to make both radial and axial velocity measurements. Results are presented at selected facility run conditions, including some in simulated Earth atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and others in simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon), for bulk enthalpies ranging from 6.5 MJ/kg to 18.4 MJ/kg. Flow visualization images reveal the presence of large scale unsteady flow structures, and indicate nitric oxide fluorescence signal over more than 70% of the core flow for bulk enthalpies below about 11 MJ/kg, but over less than 10% of the core flow for bulk enthalpies above about 16 MJ/kg. Axial velocimetry was performed using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Axial velocities of about 3 km/s were measured along the centerline. Radial velocimetry was performed by scanning the wavelength of the narrowband laser and analyzing the resulting Doppler shift. Radial velocities of 0.5km/s were measured.

  6. Speciation and Bioavailability Measurements of Environmental Plutonium Using Diffusion in Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Christl, Marcus; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The biological uptake of plutonium (Pu) in aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern since it is an alpha-particle emitter with long half-life which can potentially contribute to the exposure of biota and humans. The diffusive gradients in thin films technique is introduced here for in-situ measurements of Pu bioavailability and speciation. A diffusion cell constructed for laboratory experiments with Pu and the newly developed protocol make it possible to simulate the environmental behavior of Pu in model solutions of various chemical compositions. Adjustment of the oxidation states to Pu(IV) and Pu(V) described in this protocol is essential in order to investigate the complex redox chemistry of plutonium in the environment. The calibration of this technique and the results obtained in the laboratory experiments enable to develop a specific DGT device for in-situ Pu measurements in freshwaters. Accelerator-based mass-spectrometry measurements of Pu accumulated by DGTs in a karst spring allowed determining the bioavailability of Pu in a mineral freshwater environment. Application of this protocol for Pu measurements using DGT devices has a large potential to improve our understanding of the speciation and the biological transfer of Pu in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26574673

  7. Year-Round Major Ion Measurements at Greenland Environmental Observatory, Summit (GEOSummit)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, J. R.; Bales, R. C.; McConnell, J. R.; Zhao, L.; Moon, C.

    2009-12-01

    Long-term year-round surface snow sampling at remote high latitude locations is fundamental to better understanding arctic geophysical processes. Research at the Greenland Environmental Observatory, Summit Station (GEOSummit) from 2003 to present includes high temporal resolution year-round ion chromatography (IC) measurements of surface snow and snow pit samples for Na, NH4, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3, SO42-, oxalate, MSA, acetate and formate. Many of these species exhibit annual cycles corresponding to source emissions. For example, Ca2+ exhibits a spring peak attributed to dust deposition, and formate exhibits a summer/fall peak associated with biomass burning. Monthly snow-pit major-ion sample measurements at 3-cm resolution indicate variability of many species are preserved within the snow pack. Concentrations are generally consistent with prior ice-core concentrations. Concurrently measured snow-accumulation rates exhibited relatively uniform intra-annual accumulation (5.9 cm/month +/- 4.3 cm, 1 sigma) with significant inter-annual variability. Snow-pit density values also show consistent trends with time as snow accumulates. These baseline measurements at GEOSummit will continue through another 5-year period to better characterize concentrations in snow on annual to decadal scales, and connections with source apportionment and atmospheric transport pathways.

  8. Decreased Pulmonary Function Measured in Children Exposed to High Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Homes

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Stephen J.; Wymer, Larry; Kennedy, Suzanne; Grimsley, L. Faye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposures to water-damaged homes/buildings has been linked to deficits in respiratory health. However, accurately quantifying this linkage has been difficult because of the methods used to assess water damage and respiratory health. Purpose: The goal of this analysis was to determine the correlation between the water-damage, as defined by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value in an asthmatic child’s home, and the child’s pulmonary function measured by spirometry, “forced expiratory volume in one second, percent predicted” or FEV1%. Methods: This analysis utilized data obtained from the “Heads-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana” (HEAL) study. The children (n= 109), 6 to 12 years of age, who had completed at least one spirometry evaluation and a dust sample collected for ERMI analysis from the home at approximately the same time as the spirometry testing, were included in the analysis. Statistical evaluation of the correlation between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using the Spearman’s Rank Correlation analysis. The relationship between ERMI values and FEV1% was performed using B-spline regression. Results: The average ERMI value in the HEAL study homes was 7.3. For homes with ERMI values between 2.5 and 15, there was a significant inverse correlation with the child’s lung function or FEV1% measurement (Spearman’s rho -0.23; p= 0.03), i.e. as the ERMI value increased, the FEV1% value decreased. Conclusions: Measures of water-damage (the ERMI) and clinical assessments of lung function (FEV1%) provided a quantitative assessment of the impact of water-damaged home exposures on children’s respiratory health. PMID:24494033

  9. Uncertainty of gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of environmental samples due to uncertainties in matrix composition, density and sample geometry.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, S; Jakobi, A; Wilhelm, Chr

    2014-12-01

    This paper is intended to identify the uncertainties of activities in environmental samples measured with gamma-ray spectrometry that result from uncertainties in matrix composition, density and geometrical dimensions of the sample. For that purpose efficiencies were calculated for a wide range of environmental matrices such as fresh and ashed food samples, water samples and soil samples. Compositions were mainly taken from literature. Densities and geometry parameters were varied in a range occurring in practice. Considered energies cover a range from 46.5keV to 2000keV. Finally, a couple of recommendations in respect to gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of environmental samples are given.

  10. Measures of the environmental footprint of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    E. Schneider; B. Carlsen; E. Tavrides; C. van der Hoeven; U. Phathanapirom

    2013-11-01

    Previous estimates of environmental impacts associated with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (FEFC) have focused primarily on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Results have varied widely. This work builds upon reports from operating facilities and other primary data sources to build a database of front end environmental impacts. This work also addresses land transformation and water withdrawals associated with the processes of the FEFC. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, depleted uranium disposition, and transportation. To allow summing the impacts across processes, all impacts were normalized per tonne of natural uranium mined as well as per MWh(e) of electricity produced, a more conventional unit for measuring environmental impacts that facilitates comparison with other studies. This conversion was based on mass balances and process efficiencies associated with the current once-through LWR fuel cycle. Total energy input is calculated at 8.7 x 10- 3 GJ(e)/MWh(e) of electricity and 5.9 x 10- 3 GJ(t)/MWh(e) of thermal energy. It is dominated by the energy required for uranium extraction, conversion to fluoride compound for subsequent enrichment, and enrichment. An estimate of the carbon footprint is made from the direct energy consumption at 1.7 kg CO2/MWh(e). Water use is likewise dominated by requirements of uranium extraction, totaling 154 L/MWh(e). Land use is calculated at 8 x 10- 3 m2/MWh(e), over 90% of which is due to uranium extraction. Quantified impacts are limited to those resulting from activities performed within the FEFC process facilities (i.e. within the plant gates). Energy embodied in material inputs such as process chemicals and fuel cladding is identified but not explicitly quantified in this study. Inclusion of indirect energy associated with embodied energy as well as construction and decommissioning of facilities could increase the FEFC energy intensity estimate by a factor of up

  11. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  12. Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-02-01

    Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ∼ 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (∼ 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings.

  13. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    PubMed

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  14. Relationship between foliar chemical parameters measured in Melia azedarach L. and environmental conditions in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Pignata, M L; Gudiño, G L; Cañas, M S; Orellana, L

    1999-12-15

    A diagnostic study was done on Melia azedarach L. in relation to atmospheric pollutants in Córdoba city, Argentina. The study area receives regional pollutants, and it was categorized taking into account traffic level, industrial level, location of the sample point in relation to the corner, treeless condition, building type, topographic level and distance to the river. Water content and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) were calculated; and concentrations of soluble proteins, sulphur, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes (HPCD), chlorophylls (Total Chl) and pheophytins (Total Paeoph) were determined in leaf samples. HPCD correlated positively with industry, topographic level and distance to the river, and with a combination of the environmental variables (ECI); pigments correlated negatively with traffic level and with ECI; Total Phaeoph/Total Chl ratio correlated positively with traffic, building and ECI. On the basis of our results, traffic level, industrial level, building type, topographic level and distance to the river are the environmental variables to bear in mind when selecting analogous sampling points in a passive monitoring program. An approximation to predict tree injury may be obtained by measuring water content, soluble proteins, sulphur, HPCD and pigments as they are responsible for the major variability of data. This study revealed that M. azedarach was sensitive to air pollutants from traffic and industry. Thus, in those sampling sites with the maximum score for traffic level, industrial level and ECI, the highest values of the parameters that indicate foliar damage together with the least pigment concentration were observed.

  15. Physico-chemical measurements of CL-20 for environmental applications. Comparison with RDX and HMX.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Paquet, Louise; Deschamps, Stéphane; Balakrishnan, Vimal K; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-30

    CL-20 is a polycyclic energetic nitramine, which may soon replace the monocyclic nitramines RDX and HMX, because of its superior explosive performance. Therefore, to predict its environmental fate, analytical and physico-chemical data must be made available. An HPLC technique was thus developed to measure CL-20 in soil samples based on the US Environmental Protection Agency method 8330. We found that the soil water content and aging (21 days) had no effect on the recoveries (>92%) of CL-20, provided that the extracts were kept acidic (pH 3). The aqueous solubility of CL-20 was poor (3.6 mg l(-1) at 25 degrees C) and increased with temperature to reach 18.5 mg l(-1) at 60 degrees C. The octanol-water partition coefficient of CL-20 (log KOW = 1.92) was higher than that of RDX (log KOW = 0.90) and HMX (log KOW = 0.16), indicating its higher affinity to organic matter. Finally, CL-20 was found to decompose in non-acidified water upon contact with glass containers to give NO2- (2 equiv.), N2O (2 equiv.), and HCOO- (2 equiv.). The experimental findings suggest that CL-20 should be less persistent in the environment than RDX and HMX.

  16. Comparison of five in vitro bioassays to measure estrogenic activity in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; de Jager, Christiaan; Levi, Yves; Lim, Richard; Puijker, Leo; Sacher, Frank; Tremblay, Louis A; Wilson, Vickie S; Chapman, Heather F

    2010-05-15

    Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic activity (the yeast estrogen screen, ER-CALUX, MELN, T47D-KBluc, and E-SCREEN assays) and chemical analysis on extracts from four different water sources (groundwater, raw sewage, treated sewage, and river water). All five bioassays displayed similar trends and there was good agreement with analytical chemistry results. The data from the ER-CALUX and E-SCREEN bioassays were robust and predictable, and well-correlated with predictions from chemical analysis. The T47D-KBluc appeared likewise promising, but with a more limited sample size it was less compelling. The YES assay was less sensitive than the other assays by an order of magnitude, which resulted in a larger number of nondetects. The MELN assay was less predictable, although the possibility that this was due to laboratory-specific difficulties cannot be discounted. With standardized bioassay data analysis and consistency of operating protocols, bioanalytical tools are a promising advance in the development of a tiered approach to environmental water quality monitoring.

  17. Pseudomonas stutzeri Nitrite Reductase Gene Abundance in Environmental Samples Measured by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Grüntzig, Verónica; Nold, Stephen C.; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M.

    2001-01-01

    We used real-time PCR to quantify the denitrifying nitrite reductase gene (nirS), a functional gene of biogeochemical significance. The assay was tested in vitro and applied to environmental samples. The primer-probe set selected was specific for nirS sequences that corresponded approximately to the Pseudomonas stutzeri species. The assay was linear from 1 to 106 gene copies (r2 = 0.999). Variability at low gene concentrations did not allow detection of twofold differences in gene copy number at less than 100 copies. DNA spiking and cell-addition experiments gave predicted results, suggesting that this assay provides an accurate measure of P. stutzeri nirS abundance in environmental samples. Although P. stutzeri abundance was high in lake sediment and groundwater samples, we detected low or no abundance of this species in marine sediment samples from Puget Sound (Wash.) and from the Washington ocean margin. These results suggest that P. stutzeri may not be a dominant marine denitrifier. PMID:11157241

  18. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  19. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  20. Environmental impact assessment of a WtE plant after structural upgrade measures.

    PubMed

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Nicoletti, Monica; Ciacci, Luca; Vassura, Ivano; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on analysing the evolution of environmental impacts caused by a medium-large Italian WtE plant before and after revamping and maintenance operations, with the aim of providing an evaluation of how much these structural upgrade measures may affect the total environmental performance. LCA methodology was applied for the modelling and comparison of six WtE scenarios, each describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996-2011. The comparison was conducted by adopting 1ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. carcinogens, respiratory inorganics and organics, climate change, damage to human health). Lastly, the "Pedigree quality matrix" was applied to verify the reliability and robustness of the model created. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. However, while a net reduction of air emissions seems to be achievable through dedicated flue gas treatment technologies, outcomes underscored potentials for improving the management of bottom ash through the adoption of alternative options aimed to use that solid residue mainly as filler, and to decrease risks from its current disposal in landfill. If the same effort that is put into flue gas treatment were devoted to energy recovery, the targets for the WtE plant could be easily met, achieving a higher sustainability. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. The study confirmed the expected improvements

  1. Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. Sandia-developed Windows{trademark}-based software is used for data display and storage. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The design includes data assurance techniques to increase safety by reducing the probability of giving a safe indication when an unsafe condition exists. The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide

  2. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  3. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  4. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  5. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site.

  6. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  7. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  8. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  9. Effects of holding time and measurement error on culturing Legionella in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Flanders, W Dana; Kirkland, Kimberly H; Shelton, Brian G

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease require environmental testing of water samples from potentially implicated building water systems to identify the source of exposure. A previous study reports a large impact on Legionella sample results due to shipping and delays in sample processing. Specifically, this same study, without accounting for measurement error, reports more than half of shipped samples tested had Legionella levels that arbitrarily changed up or down by one or more logs, and the authors attribute this result to shipping time. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the effects of sample holding/shipping time on Legionella sample results while taking into account measurement error, which has previously not been addressed. We analyzed 159 samples, each split into 16 aliquots, of which one-half (8) were processed promptly after collection. The remaining half (8) were processed the following day to assess impact of holding/shipping time. A total of 2544 samples were analyzed including replicates. After accounting for inherent measurement error, we found that the effect of holding time on observed Legionella counts was small and should have no practical impact on interpretation of results. Holding samples increased the root mean squared error by only about 3-8%. Notably, for only one of 159 samples, did the average of the 8 replicate counts change by 1 log. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis of frequent, significant (≥= 1 log10 unit) Legionella colony count changes due to holding.

  10. Nitric Oxide PLIF Measurements in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.; McRae, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of naturally occurring nitric oxide (NO) has been used to obtain instantaneous flow visualization images, and to make both radial and axial velocity measurements in the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represents the first application of NO PLIF flow visualization in HYMETS. Results are presented at selected facility run conditions, including some in a simulated Earth atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and others in a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon), for specific bulk enthalpies ranging from 6.5 MJ/kg to 18.4 MJ/kg. Flow visualization images reveal the presence of large scale unsteady flow structures, and indicate nitric oxide fluorescence signal over more than 70% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies below about 11 MJ/kg, but over less than 10% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies above about 16 MJ/kg. Axial velocimetry was performed using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Axial velocities of about 3 km/s were measured along the centerline. Radial velocimetry was performed by scanning the wavelength of the narrowband laser and analyzing the resulting Doppler shift. Radial velocities of +/- 0.5 km/s were measured.

  11. A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Ytreberg, Erik; Lagerström, Maria; Holmqvist, Albin; Eklund, Britta; Elwing, Hans; Dahlström, Magnus; Dahl, Peter; Dahlström, Mia

    2017-03-22

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF Kα net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings.

  12. Uncertainty in Measured Data and Model Predictions: Essential Components for Mobilizing Environmental Data and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    In spite of pleas for uncertainty analysis - such as Beven's (2006) "Should it not be required that every paper in both field and modeling studies attempt to evaluate the uncertainty in the results?" - the uncertainty associated with hydrology and water quality data is rarely quantified and rarely considered in model evaluation. This oversight, justified in the past by mainly tenuous philosophical concerns, diminishes the value of measured data and ignores the environmental and socio-economic benefits of improved decisions and policies based on data with estimated uncertainty. This oversight extends to researchers, who typically fail to estimate uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data because of additional effort required, lack of adequate scientific understanding on the subject, and fear of negative perception if data with "high" uncertainty are reported; however, the benefits are certain. Furthermore, researchers have a responsibility for scientific integrity in reporting what is known and what is unknown, including the quality of measured data. In response we produced an uncertainty estimation framework and the first cumulative uncertainty estimates for measured water quality data (Harmel et al., 2006). From that framework, DUET-H/WQ was developed (Harmel et al., 2009). Application to several real-world data sets indicated that substantial uncertainty can be contributed by each data collection procedural category and that uncertainties typically occur in order discharge < sediment < dissolved N and P < total N and P. Similarly, modelers address certain aspects of model uncertainty but ignore others, such as the impact of uncertainty in discharge and water quality data. Thus, we developed methods to incorporate prediction uncertainty as well as calibration/validation data uncertainty into model goodness-of-fit evaluation (Harmel and Smith, 2007; Harmel et al., 2010). These enhance model evaluation by: appropriately sharing burden with "data

  13. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator`s success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning.

  14. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  15. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  16. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  17. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Liana; Gulletta, Maurizio; Coppini, Davide; Donzelli, Carla; Stellini, Roberto; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Matteelli, Alberto

    2007-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well recognized manifestation of AIDS, but the disseminated disease is a rare condition and it has not been associated to HIV seroconversion to our knowledge. We describe a fatal episode of disseminated T. gondii acute infection with massive organ involvement during primary HIV infection. The serological data demonstrate primary T. gondii infection. The avidity index for HIV antibodies supports recent HIV-1 infection.

  18. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis following intraocular involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, J A; Leveque, C; Coats, M; Lawrence, L; Barber, J C

    1988-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was treated with systemic steroids for a retinal inflammatory lesion before the diagnosis of cryptococcal retinitis and meningitis was suspected. He died from central nervous system disease despite treatment with parenteral antifungals. Histopathological studies demonstrated ocular and disseminated systemic infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. Direct cryptococcal involvement of the eye is rare and is usually associated with disseminated disease. Systemic steroids must be used with caution, and patients who take these drugs require frequent monitoring. Images PMID:3355803

  19. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  20. Qualitative Measurement of Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Among Federal Employees in 2000

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) program is mandated by Executive Order 13101 to green the federal government. This was a study to determine federal attitudes.

  1. Environmental response functions - relating eddy-covariance flux measurements to ecosystem drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Metzger, S. R.; Mauder, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Trancon y Widemann, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Loescher, H.; Zheng, X.; Schmid, H. E.; Foken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements are suited to continuously monitor the water and heat exchange above selected sites. However, these results may only represent small areas surrounding the immediate measurement locations. On the other hand, aircraft-based EC measurements can provide flux information on regional scales, but are restricted to short time intervals. It is desirable to integrate both approaches in an effort to provide suitable datasets for the design, constraint, and evaluation of flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modeling applications. The objective of this study is to develop environmental response functions (ERF), which enable the integration of ground-based and airborne EC flux measurements. The idea behind ERF is to explicitly relate flux observations (responses) to meteorological forcing and biophysical surface properties (drivers). Thus far ERF have built upon (i) low spatial discretization and binning of airborne flux observations, (ii) discrete land cover representations, and (iii) parametric relationships. Here, we present an approach that advances the scalability of ERFs, and enables the rigorous quantification of uncertainty. This approach consists of; (i) wavelet decomposition of airborne EC high-frequency data, which enables high resolution flux observations, (ii) quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation, and (iii) boosted regression trees, that enable detecting highly non-linear ERFs according to the information in the data. The resulting ERFs can then be used to extrapolate the water and heat exchange, e.g. across a watershed. We apply the present approach to airborne EC flux measurements that were conducted in July 2009 at ≈50 m above the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River Watershed, Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. The wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data results in 8446 flux observations during 12 flights

  2. 78 FR 25079 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... environmental data under the agreement. The Policy was originally approved on December 12, 2012 by the Science... of environmental data. Background/Authority The U.S. EPA Science Policy Council (now U.S. EPA Science... implementing an Agency-wide policy requiring organizations generating or using environmental data under...

  3. ESID, dissemination, and community psychology: a case of partial implementation?

    PubMed

    Gray, Denis O; Jakes, Susan S; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig

    2003-12-01

    Dissemination, the second stage of Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) is a critical, if not defining, element of this social change model. This paper attempts to assess the extent to which community psychology has adopted and implemented ESID's dissemination focus in its training and publications. We identify four levels of commitment to dissemination: dissemination advocate, dissemination activist, dissemination researcher, and experimental dissemination researcher. Content analyses of textbooks, journal publications, and conference papers and a brief survey of doctoral training in the field were conducted. Findings suggest that the dissemination aspects of ESID have been modestly and partially implemented within the field. That is, although there is some evidence of a commitment to dissemination practice (advocate, activist), there is much less evidence of a commitment to dissemination research. The implications of these findings for the effectiveness of the ESID model and for training and practice in community psychology are discussed.

  4. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-07

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  5. Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium: Measures of Effectiveness workshop. Appendix 13.6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-18

    This report is the second working document produced by the Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium under a Department of Energy planning grant to the Weston Institute. It was prepared in a Steering Committee workshop held at the Johns Hopkins School of Continuing Studies Downtown Center at 1 Charles Plaza in Baltimore, Maryland. Eighteen participants representing Consortium institutions attended the workshop. Weston Institute provided staff support for the conduct of the workshop and prepared this report. Workshop participants addressed the question What will be the most important Measures of Effectiveness of Consortium Programs? The results of the workshop are presented in the order of importance attached to them by the participants. The top ten rankings in three subgroups of participants (i.e., Basic Education, Community Colleges, and Higher Education) are presented in the Preliminary Analysis Section and fully in the Appendix with additional data analysis. This report will be distributed to Steering Committee members as background for the selection of the Measures of Effectiveness (MOE`s) used by the Consortium in preparing its proposal to the Department of Energy in June of 1993.

  6. Mini-UAV Based Sensory System for Measuring Environmental Variables in Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Joossen, Guillaume; Sanz, David; del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and validation of a mobile sensory platform for greenhouse monitoring. The complete system consists of a sensory system on board a small quadrotor (i.e., a four rotor mini-UAV). The goals of this system include taking measures of temperature, humidity, luminosity and CO2 concentration and plotting maps of these variables. These features could potentially allow for climate control, crop monitoring or failure detection (e.g., a break in a plastic cover). The sensors have been selected by considering the climate and plant growth models and the requirements for their integration onboard the quadrotor. The sensors layout and placement have been determined through a study of quadrotor aerodynamics and the influence of the airflows from its rotors. All components of the system have been developed, integrated and tested through a set of field experiments in a real greenhouse. The primary contributions of this paper are the validation of the quadrotor as a platform for measuring environmental variables and the determination of the optimal location of sensors on a quadrotor. PMID:25648713

  7. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from new carpets measured in a large-scale environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M. )

    1993-03-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by new carpets. Samples of four typical carpets, including two with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex adhesive and two with different backings, were collected from the finish lines at manufacturers' mills. Individual VOCs released from these samples were identified, and their concentrations, emission rates and mass emissions were measured under simulated indoor conditions in a 20 m[sup 3] environmental chamber over one week periods. Concentrations and emission rates of VOCs emitted by a new SBR carpet were also measured in a house. The carpets emitted a variety of VOCs. The two SBR carpets primarily emitted 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), the source of [open quotes]new carpet[close quotes] odor, and styrene. The concentrations and emission rates of 4-PCH were similar for the two carpets, while the styrene values varied significantly. The carpet with a polyvinyl chloride backing emitted formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, isooctane, 1,2-propanediol, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Of these, vinyl acetate and propanediol had the highest concentrations and emission rates. The carpet with a polyurethane backing primarily emitted butylated hydroxytoluene. With the exception of formaldehyde, little is known about the health effects of these VOCs at low concentrations. 23 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from new carpets measured in a large-scale environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, A T; Wooley, J D; Daisey, J M

    1993-03-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by new carpets. Samples of four typical carpets, including two with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex adhesive and two with different backings, were collected from the finish lines at manufacturers' mills. Individual VOCs released from these samples were identified, and their concentrations, emission rates and mass emissions were measured under simulated indoor conditions in a 20 m3 environmental chamber over one week periods. Concentrations and emission rates of VOCs emitted by a new SBR carpet were also measured in a house. The carpets emitted a variety of VOCs. The two SBR carpets primarily emitted 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), the source of "new carpet" odor, and styrene. The concentrations and emission rates of 4-PCH were similar for the two carpets, while the styrene values varied significantly. The carpet with a polyvinyl chloride backing emitted formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, isooctane, 1,2-propanediol, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Of these, vinyl acetate and propanediol had the highest concentrations and emission rates. The carpet with a polyurethane backing primarily emitted butylated hydroxytoluene. With the exception of formaldehyde, little is known about the health effects of these VOCs at low concentrations.

  9. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  10. Mini-UAV based sensory system for measuring environmental variables in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Joossen, Guillaume; Sanz, David; del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2015-02-02

    This paper describes the design, construction and validation of a mobile sensory platform for greenhouse monitoring. The complete system consists of a sensory system on board a small quadrotor (i.e., a four rotor mini-UAV). The goals of this system include taking measures of temperature, humidity, luminosity and CO2 concentration and plotting maps of these variables. These features could potentially allow for climate control, crop monitoring or failure detection (e.g., a break in a plastic cover). The sensors have been selected by considering the climate and plant growth models and the requirements for their integration onboard the quadrotor. The sensors layout and placement have been determined through a study of quadrotor aerodynamics and the influence of the airflows from its rotors. All components of the system have been developed, integrated and tested through a set of field experiments in a real greenhouse. The primary contributions of this paper are the validation of the quadrotor as a platform for measuring environmental variables and the determination of the optimal location of sensors on a quadrotor.

  11. Ethical Issues in Measuring Biomarkers in Children’s Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sly, Peter D.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Pronczuk, Jenny; Šrám, Radim; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Machin, Diego Gonzalez; Carpenter, David O.; Surdu, Simona; Meslin, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studying the impact of environmental exposures is important in children because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects on growth, development, and health. Assessing exposure in children is difficult, and measuring biomarkers is potentially useful. Research measuring biomarkers in children raises a number of ethical issues, some of which relate to children as research subjects and some of which are specific to biomarker research. Objective As an international group with experience in pediatric research, biomarkers, and the ethics of research in children, we highlight the ethical issues of undertaking biomarker research in children in these environments. Discussion Significant issues include undertaking research in vulnerable communities, especially in developing countries; managing community expectations; obtaining appropriate consent to conduct the research; the potential conflicts of obtaining permission from an ethics review board in an economically developed country to perform research in a community that may have different cultural values; returning research results to participants and communities when the researchers are uncertain of how to interpret the results; and the conflicting ethical obligations of maintaining participant confidentiality when information about harm or illegal activities mandate reporting to authorities. Conclusion None of these challenges are insurmountable and all deserve discussion. Pediatric biomarker research is necessary for advancing child health. PMID:19672395

  12. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  13. Restoring Detailed Geomagnetic and Environmental Information from Continuous Sediment Paleomagnetic Measurement through Optimised Deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, C.; Oda, H.

    2013-12-01

    in UDECON is achieved by searching for the minimum ABIC while shifting the sensor response (to account for possible mispositioning of the sample on the tray) and a smoothness parameter in ranges defined by user. Comparison of deconvolution results using sensor response estimated from integrated point source measurements and other methods suggest that the integrated point source estimate yields better results (smaller ABIC). The noise characteristics of magnetometer measurements and the reliability of the UDECON algorithm were tested using repeated (a total of 400 times) natural remanence measurement of a u-channel sample before and after stepwise alternating field demagnetizations. Using a series of synthetic data constructed based on real paleomagnetic record, we demonstrate that optimized deconvolution using UDECON can greatly help revealing detailed paleomagnetic information such as excursions that may be smoothed out during pass-through measurement. Application of UDECON to the vast amount of existing and future pass-through paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements on sediments recovered especially through ocean drilling programs will contribute to our understanding of the geodynamo and paleo-environment by providing more detailed records of geomagnetic and environmental changes.

  14. STUDY ON THE REDUCTION MEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS AT THE DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION STAGES OF THE RIVER WORKS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tetsuya; Amano, Kunihiko; Kishida, Hiroyuki

    In the field of infrastructure construction including river works, construction materials such as concrete are used, and it needs to transport them for the long distance. Due to recent growth of public awareness on the environmental issues, it becomes more important to estimate and reduce the environmental loads brought by the infrastructure construction. In the infrastructure construction, it is necessary to take notice of carbon dioxide and waste materials as the broad-based and long-range environmental loads. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct the quantitative evaluation on these environmental loads and to investigate the reduction measures by considering the actual situation of construction. Focusing on the river works, this paper estimates the cost of construction, the carbon dioxide emission and final disposal volume on the several alternative plans at the designing stage, compares the significance of different environmental loads by using the integrated factors of LIME2, and analyzes the effectiveness of reduction measures. It also establishes the reduction scenarios of the environmental loads, and analyzes the effectiveness compared to the base-line scenario in which the materials are newly extracted and produced. Based on the results, it establishes the procedure intending to reduce the environmental loads at the time of river planning and construction, which will be referentialized by river managers, construction consultants and constructors nationwide.

  15. An atom counter for measuring 81Kr and 85Kr in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Bailey, K.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Cheng, C.-F.; Hu, S.-M.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Williams, W. D.; Yang, G.-M.

    2012-08-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr is the ideal tracer for old water and ice in the age range of 105-106 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr-dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3, an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method and capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10-14-10-10. The instrument was calibrated with 12 samples whose 85Kr/Kr ratios were independently measured using Low Level Decay Counting, including six samples that were measured in a blind arrangement. Compared to the previously reported ATTA-2 instrument, the counting rates of ATTA-3 are higher by two orders of magnitude and the required sample size lower by one order of magnitude. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150-1500 kyr, the required sample size is 5-10 μL STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100-200 kg of water or 40-80 kg of ice. Moreover, a laser-induced quenching scheme was developed to enable measurements of both the rare 81,85Kr and the abundant 83Kr, whose isotopic abundances differ by 11 orders of magnitude. This scheme allows ATTA-3 to directly determine 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios without other supplemental measurements. Combining the significant reduction in sample size with numerous advances in the measurement procedure, ATTA-3 represents the state-of-the-art instrument for routine analysis of these rare noble gas tracers in a wide range of earth science applications.

  16. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  17. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. First Measurements of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has sensors recording air and ground temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided, daily, during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. The capability of multiple, consistent, and simultaneous data is essential for meaningful interpretation of near-surface processes including the characterization of soil thermal properties. The Martian atmosphere is generally transparent to solar radiation, but atmospheric dust absorbs solar radiation and heats the atmosphere, while UV radiation ionizes atmospheric gases and is harmful to any potential Martian organisms (past or present). For this reason, knowledge of the UV radiation flux at the surface of Mars is important for the understanding habitability conditions, one of the main goals of the MSL mission. Moreover UV radiation is a significant driver in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and surface. In this paper we present a first analysis of REMS measurements, the status of the different sensors and the potential of REMS for Mars environmental studies. REMS Team: C. Armiens, I. Carrasco, F. Gómez, A. Lepinette, J. Martín, J. Martínez-Frías, L. Mora, S. Navarro, V. Peinado, J. Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. Romeral, E. Sebastián, J. Torres, J. Verdasca (Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km. 4, 28850 Torrej

  19. Concept of scientific wildlife conservation and its dissemination

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, Xue-Hong; WAN, Xiao-Tong; JIN, Yu-Hui; ZHANG, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, wildlife conservation has attracted great public attention. However, substantial distinctions can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation, particularly with the recent notion that emphasizes animal rights. Wildlife welfare and wildlife rights are not synonymous, with welfare more compatible with the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the appropriate awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization and the theoretical basis of holism. Nevertheless, rational biases regarding the public’s understanding of wildlife conservation and the spread of information via social media still exist. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the application of several measures. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important disseminators of scientifically-based information, with education in schools and universities of growing importance. Furthermore, the media should shoulder the social responsibility for the accurate dissemination of conservation information. PMID:27686785

  20. Concept of scientific wildlife conservation and its dissemination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Hong; Wan, Xiao-Tong; Jin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-18

    In recent years, wildlife conservation has attracted great public attention. However, substantial distinctions can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation, particularly with the recent notion that emphasizes animal rights. Wildlife welfare and wildlife rights are not synonymous, with welfare more compatible with the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the appropriate awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization and the theoretical basis of holism. Nevertheless, rational biases regarding the public's understanding of wildlife conservation and the spread of information via social media still exist. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the application of several measures. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important disseminators of scientifically-based information, with education in schools and universities of growing importance. Furthermore, the media should shoulder the social responsibility for the accurate dissemination of conservation information.

  1. Predicting links based on knowledge dissemination in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Jia, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    Link prediction is the task of mining the missing links in networks or predicting the next vertex pair to be connected by a link. A lot of link prediction methods were inspired by evolutionary processes of networks. In this paper, a new mechanism for the formation of complex networks called knowledge dissemination (KD) is proposed with the assumption of knowledge disseminating through the paths of a network. Accordingly, a new link prediction method-knowledge dissemination based link prediction (KDLP)-is proposed to test KD. KDLP characterizes vertex similarity based on knowledge quantity (KQ) which measures the importance of a vertex through H-index. Extensive numerical simulations on six real-world networks demonstrate that KDLP is a strong link prediction method which performs at a higher prediction accuracy than four well-known similarity measures including common neighbors, local path index, average commute time and matrix forest index. Furthermore, based on the common conclusion that an excellent link prediction method reveals a good evolving mechanism, the experiment results suggest that KD is a considerable network evolving mechanism for the formation of complex networks.

  2. Accurate and precise Pb isotope ratio measurements in environmental samples by MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Dominik J.; Kober, Bernd; Dolgopolova, Alla; Gallagher, Kerry; Spiro, Baruch; Le Roux, Gaël; Mason, Thomas F. D.; Kylander, Malin; Coles, Barry J.

    2004-04-01

    Analytical protocols for accurate and precise Pb isotope ratio determinations in peat, lichen, vegetable, chimney dust, and ore-bearing granites using MC-ICP-MS and their application to environmental studies are presented. Acid dissolution of various matrix types was achieved using high temperature/high pressure microwave and hot plate digestion procedures. The digests were passed through a column packed with EiChrom Sr-resin employing only hydrochloric acid and one column passage. This simplified column chemistry allowed high sample throughput. Typically, internal precisions for approximately 30 ng Pb were below 100 ppm (+/-2[sigma]) on all Pb ratios in all matrices. Thallium was employed to correct for mass discrimination effects and the achieved accuracy was below 80 ppm for all ratios. This involved an optimization procedure for the 205Tl/203Tl ratio using least square fits relative to certified NIST-SRM 981 Pb values. The long-term reproducibility (+/-2[sigma]) for the NIST-SRM 981 Pb standard over a 5-month period (35 measurements) was better than 350 ppm for all ratios. Selected ore-bearing granites were measured with TIMS and MC-ICP-MS and showed good correlation (e.g., r=0.999 for 206Pb/207Pb ratios, slope=0.996, n=13). Mass bias and signal intensities of Tl spiked into natural (after matrix separation) and in synthetic samples did not differ significantly, indicating that any residual components of the complex peat and lichen matrix did not influence mass bias correction. Environmental samples with very different matrices were analyzed during two different studies: (i) lichens, vegetables, and chimney dust around a Cu smelter in the Urals, and (ii) peat samples from an ombrotrophic bog in the Faroe Islands. The presented procedure for sample preparation, mass spectrometry, and data processing tools resulted in accurate and precise Pb isotope data that allowed the reliable differentiation and identification of Pb sources with variations as small as 0

  3. Assessment of environmental improvement measures using a novel integrated model: a case study of the Shenzhen River catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua-Peng; Su, Qiong; Khu, Soon-Thiam

    2013-01-15

    Integrated water environmental management in a rapidly urbanizing area often requires combining social, economic and engineering measures in order to be effective. However, in reality, these measures are often considered independently by different planners, and decisions are made in a hierarchical manner; this has led to problems in environmental pollution control and also an inability to devise innovative solutions due to technological lock-in. In this paper, we use a novel coupled system dynamics and water environmental model (SyDWEM) to simulate the dynamic interactions between the socio-economic system, water infrastructure and receiving water in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in Shenzhen, China. The model is then applied to assess the effects of proposed socio-economic or engineering measures on environmental and development indicators in the catchment for 2011-2020. The results indicate that 1) measures to adjust industry structures have a positive effect on both water quantity and quality in the catchment; 2) measures to increase the labor productivity, the water use efficiency, the water transfer quota or the reclaimed wastewater reuse can alleviate the water shortage, but cannot improve water quality in the river; 3) measures to increase the wastewater treatment rate or the pollutant removal rate can improve water quality in the river, but have no effect on water shortage. Based on the effectiveness of the individual measures, a combination of socio-economic and engineering measures is proposed, which can achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area. Thus, we demonstrate that SyDWEM has the capacity to evaluate the effects of both socio-economic and engineering measures; it also provides a tool for integrated decision making by socio-economic and water infrastructure planners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The network average gust factor, its measurement and environmental controls, and role in gust forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Alexander A.

    There exists a strong, well documented linear relationship between network averaged sustained (or mean) wind and gust speeds within the San Diego Gas and Electric (SDGE) mesonet that is characterized by the slope of the linear regression between the two known as the network average gust factor (GF). The network average GF potentially contains information on the average obstruction of the stations within the network and when paired with numerical model output, may be used for gust prediction. Using the network average GF for gust prediction can also result in the correction of biases due to poorly resolved terrain or unresolved obstructions. This thesis explores the presence of strong network average GFs in a collection of diverse observation networks, different methods for estimating network GF, and the influence of potential measurement and environmental controls on network average GF. Sustained wind speed and gust data from the Air Research Laboratory Field Research Division (ARLFRD), Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG), Delaware Earth Observing System (DEOS), and SDGE mesonets were taken for the year of 2015 from NCEP MADIS for calculations and comparison of network average GF. Additional data obtained to aide in the assessment of controls on network average GF include wind measurements from select regions of ASOS stations (both METAR filtered and raw one-minute) and the RAWS network, wind measurements from HPWREN, and temperature measurements from the ARLFRD. Using these data each network was found to have a strong and persistent network average GF each unique from each other. Estimates of these GFs were found to be most accurate when using a zero-intercept linear regression model, arithmetic averaging between stations, and only incorporating observations time when nearly all potential stations within a network report in the calculation. By using these methods when calculating network average GF the physicality of the estimate is ensured, the shape of the GF

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE, UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE RESEARCH CORPORATION, SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND DECISION ASSISTANCE (SADA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE, UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE RESEARCH CORPORATION, SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND DECISION ASSISTANCE (SADA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  7. Dissemination of an innovative mastery learning curriculum grounded in implementation science principles: a case study.

    PubMed

    McGaghie, William C; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Kristopaitis, Theresa; Wayne, Diane B

    2015-11-01

    Dissemination of a medical education innovation, such as mastery learning, from a setting where it has been used successfully to a new and different medical education environment is not easy. This article describes the uneven yet successful dissemination of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum on central venous catheter (CVC) insertion for internal medicine and emergency medicine residents across medical education settings. The dissemination program was grounded in implementation science principles. The article begins by describing implementation science which addresses the mechanisms of medical education and health care delivery. The authors then present a mastery learning case study in two phases: (1) the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SBML CVC curriculum at a tertiary care academic medical center; and (2) the dissemination of the SBML CVC curriculum to an academic community hospital setting. Contextual information about the drivers and barriers that affected the SBML CVC curriculum dissemination is presented. This work demonstrates that dissemination of mastery learning curricula, like all other medical education innovations, will fail without active educational leadership, personal contacts, dedication, hard work, rigorous measurement, and attention to implementation science principles. The article concludes by presenting a set of lessons learned about disseminating an SBML CVC curriculum across different medical education settings.

  8. Assessment of Environmental Intention of Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of environmental education (EE) is that citizens develop a responsible environmental behavior. Environmental awareness constitutes an important factor for the shaping of a responsible environmental behavior. The mass media can strengthen the degree of environmental awareness of the public, through the dissemination of…

  9. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Model for Soil Bioengineering Measures on Infrastructure Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil bioengineering techniques can be a helpful instrument for civil engineers taking into account not only technical but also ecological, socio-economic and sustainability aspects. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models can serve as supplementary evaluation methods to economic analyses, taking into account the resource demand and environmental burdens of engineering structures. The presented LCA model includes the functional grade of structures in addition to environmental aspects. When using vegetation as living construction material, several factors have to be considered. There is the provision of ecosystem services of plants, such as the stabilization of the slope through its root-system, CO2 sequestration through biomass production et cetera. However, it must be noted that vegetation can cause security issues on infrastructure facilities and entail costs through the necessity of maintenance works. For this reason, it is necessary to already define the target systems during the planning phase of a soil bioengineering structure. In this way, necessary measures can be adapted in all life cycles of a structure. The objective of the presented LCA model is to serve as a basis for the definition of target systems. In the designed LCA model the soil bioengineering structures are divided into four life phases; construction phase, operational phase, end of life phase and subsequent use phase. A main objective of the LCA model is the understanding of the "Cumulative Energy Demand" (CED) and "Global Warming Potential" (GWP) of soil bioengineering structures during all life cycle phases. Additionally, the biomass production and the CO2 sequestration potential of the used plants are regarded as well as the functional integrity of the soil bioengineering system. In the life phase of soil bioengineering structures, a major part of the energy input is required during the construction phase. This is mainly due to the cumulative energy demand of the inert materials

  10. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT...

  11. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7)...

  12. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7)...

  13. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7)...

  14. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  15. Reaching standards for dissemination: a case study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helen; Griffiths, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    At what stage are web applications ready for dissemination? A set of standards for efficacy, effectiveness and readiness for dissemination of (prevention) interventions has been developed by the Society for Prevention Research (SPR) (Flay et al., 2005) [1]. In this case study paper, we examine these standards criteria with reference to MoodGYM, an automated web application designed to reduce depression symptoms using cognitive behaviour therapy training. We examine evidence for its efficacy, its effectiveness in real world situations, and its capacity to meet recommended standards for dissemination. We conclude that MoodGYM has substantially met the standards of evidence required for dissemination. This successful application of the SPR standards to the evaluation of a web application, suggests that these prevention standards might be usefully applied to web/Internet context. Web applications might be assessed for dissemination by the International Society for Research into Internet Interventions (ISRII), or some other professional organization to assist policy makers in making decisions about the funding, adoption and promotion of applications.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  17. Sharing Dissemination Responsibilities: A Guide for Articulating Vocational Education Disseminating Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, William L.; Oldsen, Carl F.

    Designed for state vocational education Research Coordinating Units (RCU) personnel who manage dissemination programs, this guide offers suggestions for sharing dissemination responsibility with other state programs. The guide examines the possibilities of integrating activities in a horizontal dimension, i.e., across state educational agency…

  18. Outbreak of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis with local dissemination in Balkh, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M S; Caddy, A J; McKinnon, K A; Fogg, L F; Roscoe, M; Bailey, J W; O'Dempsey, T J; Beeching, N J

    2012-09-01

    In Afghanistan zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania major has been less widely reported than anthroponotic CL due to L. tropica. However, an outbreak of zoonotic CL occurred amongst a group of British soldiers at a military camp near Mazar-e-Sharif in the Balkh province of northern Afghanistan in 2004. A study was performed to assess the epidemiology, clinical features, parasitology results, treatment outcomes and environmental health measures associated with this incident. Twenty (17%) of 120 soldiers developed CL due to L. major and the risk of infection increased with the proximity of their accommodation to an area of recently cleared scrub, where many wild rodents were observed. Most cases had features of local dissemination, including secondary lesions from the pseudo-Koebner phenomenon, sporotrichoid lymphatic spread, lymphadenopathy and satellite papules or milia formation around healing lesions. Several cases responded poorly to fluconazole and low dose (10 mg/kg) sodium stibogluconate, which were considered suitable treatments at the time. Environmental health measures at the military camp were found to be deficient. Zoonotic CL due to L. major is a significant threat for foreign troops based in Balkh, Afghanistan and may present with unusually severe clinical features and be resistant to previously recommended treatments.

  19. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D D), and surveillance and maintenance (S M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.

  20. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), and surveillance and maintenance (S&M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement.