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Sample records for disseminated nocardiosis due

  1. Pemphigus vulgaris and disseminated nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Martín, F J; Pérez-Bernal, A M; Camacho, F

    2000-09-01

    Infectious diseases, in particular septicaemia from Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most severe and frequent complications for the immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus. Infection by Nocardia asteroides in subjects with pemphigus vulgaris is rare. We report the sixth case found of such an association; the subject died of disseminated nocardiosis while receiving steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, 4 years after being diagnosed with chronic pemphigus vulgaris.

  2. Disseminated nocardiosis masquerading as metastatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Rajalakshmi; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Reddy Attunuru, Bhanu Prakash; Gupta, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. It can be localized or systemic and is regarded as an opportunistic infection that is commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a patient with underlying malignancy in whom the clinical presentation was highly suggestive of a metastatic disease. PMID:27578940

  3. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  4. Nocardia mikamii a Novel Species Causing Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Literature Review of Disseminated Nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Mujeeb, Sufyan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia is an uncommon Gram-positive organism. It typically appears as delicate filamentous Gram-positive branching rods. In the United States it was estimated to be approximately 500 to 1000 new cases per year. The organism causes disease in immunocompromised individuals with pulmonary infection representing the most common site of infection. Nocardia mikamii has been a recently isolated pathogen and not many cases of disseminated infection with this organism has been reported in the literature; we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis (mikamii sp.) in an immunocompromised patient. We also present a literature review on nocardiosis. PMID:27437492

  5. Fatal cases of disseminated nocardiosis: challenges to physicians and clinical microbiologists - Case report.

    PubMed

    Piukovics, Klára; Bertalan, Viktória; Terhes, Gabriella; Báthori, Ágnes; Hajdú, Edit; Pokorny, Gyula; Kovács, László; Urbán, Edit

    2016-12-01

    Despite the development in the identification of Nocardia spp., common challenges exist in the laboratory diagnosis and management of nocardiosis. We report two cases of disseminated nocardiosis in a patient with hematologic disorder and in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, where the cooperation between various specialists was essential to set up the adequate diagnosis of disseminated nocardiosis.

  6. Pulmonary Nocardiosis due to Nocardia asiatica in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Sakina; Sonobe, Kazunari; Nakamura, Yuzo; Nei, Takahito; Kamio, Koichiro; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis due to Nocardia asiatica in an immunocompent 64-year-old-female. Wadowsky-Yee-Okuda-α-ketoglutarate (WYOα) agar, a selective media for Legionella species, was useful for the detection based on the growth-inhibition of normal oral flora and growth-promotion of Nocardia species.

  7. Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Successful Blind Strategy of Treatment in an HIV Infected Patient.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Ana C; Batista, Dário; Aleixo, Maria J; Saraiva, Paulo; Aguas, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nocardiosis is a rare disease that mainly affects severely immunocompromised patients. Symptoms are nonspecific and microbiological isolation is difficult, hiding the diagnosis. Treatment should be guided by species and susceptibility testing. Findings. We report a clinical case of a disseminated nocardiosis in a patient with HIV and HVB infections. Interpretation. Diagnosis should be presumed early and microbiological conditions should be optimized, in order to identify the species and achieve antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is a very important step to choose an effective therapeutic regimen or alternative options.

  8. Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Successful Blind Strategy of Treatment in an HIV Infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Ana C.; Aleixo, Maria J.; Saraiva, Paulo; Aguas, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nocardiosis is a rare disease that mainly affects severely immunocompromised patients. Symptoms are nonspecific and microbiological isolation is difficult, hiding the diagnosis. Treatment should be guided by species and susceptibility testing. Findings. We report a clinical case of a disseminated nocardiosis in a patient with HIV and HVB infections. Interpretation. Diagnosis should be presumed early and microbiological conditions should be optimized, in order to identify the species and achieve antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is a very important step to choose an effective therapeutic regimen or alternative options. PMID:25821611

  9. Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent host: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanwen; Huang, Aiben; Fang, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in order to improve the knowledge of nocardiosis. A case of dissemination nocardiosis caused by N. otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent host is reported and the associated literature reviewed. Informed consent for publication of this case report was provided by the patient. The present patient was a young immunocompetent man suffering from disseminated nocardiosis induced by infection with N. otitidiscaviarum. Following a poor response to β-lactam antibiotic, a combination of sulfonamide with minocycline was administered, which successfully ameliorated the symptoms. Previous studies published in English were retrieved from PubMed with ‘Nocardia otitidiscaviarum’ used as the search keyword. A total of 23 articles were retrieved from the PubMed database, supporting the assertion that N. otitidiscaviarum is a rare Nocardia species. Among these 23 cases, there were 11 cases of lymphocutaneous (48%), 5 of pulmonary (22%), 2 of brain (9%) and 1 of pyothorax (4%) infection, and 4 cases of disseminated infections (17%). Analysis of the immune state of these patients demonstrated that 9 were immunocompetent (39%), 7 of whom had cutaneous infections (30%) with a predominant history of trauma (6/7), and 14 were immunosuppressed, 9 of whom were treated with prednisolone. Microbiology and histopathology were necessary in all cases for definite diagnosis. Among the 13 cases who underwent drug susceptibility testing, 10 cases were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and 12 cases were sensitive to aminoglycoside. In conclusion, although N. otitidiscaviarum is one of the less commonly isolated species of Nocardia, it is capable of inducing localized or disseminated infection, even in an immunocompetent host. The majority of cases respond well to TMP-SMX and aminoglycoside, but the therapeutic action of cephalosporin is weak

  10. Disseminated nocardiosis with psoas abscess in a patient with AIDS: first reported case.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Solari, Rubén; De Carolis, Luis; Cangelos, Diana; Bianchi, Mario; Negroni, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Psoas muscle abscess is an uncommon infection that have been diagnosed increasingly in the last years. We present a case of a patient with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed a disseminated infection due to Nocardia asteroides sensu stricto type VI with psoas abscess. To our knowledge no other cases of Nocardia psoas abscess in the setting of HIV infection have been reported in the literature.

  11. Disseminated nocardiosis in a patient on infliximab and methylprednisolone for treatment-resistant Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drone, Elizabeth R; McCrory, Allison L; Lane, Natalie; Fiala, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    A 62-year-old white man with a 10-year history of treatment-refractory Sweet's syndrome was admitted to the hospital with the onset of purpuric lesions. Methylprednisolone and infliximab were administered. Our patient developed disseminated Nocardia infection and eventually succumbed. Opportunistic infections such as Nocardia have been associated with infliximab and other tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. The astute clinician should be aware of the risk of rare opportunistic infections, particularly in patients on TNF-α inhibitors and systemic corticosteroids.

  12. [Thoracic nocardiosis - a clinical report].

    PubMed

    Vale, Artur; Guerra, Miguel; Martins, Daniel; Lameiras, Angelina; Miranda, José; Vouga, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia genus microorganisms are ubiquitous, Gram positive aerobic bacterias, responsible for disease mainly in immunocompromised hosts, with cellular immune response commitment. Inhalation is the main form of transmition and pulmonary disease is the most frequent presentation. Dissemination may occur by contiguity and also via hematogenous. The clinical and imaging presentation is not specific, and diagnosis is obtained after identification of Nocardia bacteria in biological samples. Since there are no reliable studies that indicate the best therapeutic option, treatment should be individualized and based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Surgical drainage should also be considered in all patients. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with thoracic nocardiosis, and make a short literature review on the theme.

  13. Reactive cutaneous cytophagocytosis in nocardiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Heung; Lee, Won-Sup; Lee, Ai-Young

    2002-01-01

    Cutaneous nocardiosis, which usually manifests in the form of pustules, abscesses, or subcutaneous nodules, is occasionally found in immunocompromised patients. A 59-yr-old Korean man with myasthenia gravis and thymoma developed nodular skin lesions on his trunk. Histopathologically, abscess formation with a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and many cytophagic histiocytes were observed. Numerous filamentous organisms, which turned out to be Nocardia asteroides by culture, were also found. After sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim therapy, all of the skin lesions rapidly decreased in size, with a marked diminution of the number of cytophagic histiocytes, and cleared up within four months. On reporting a case of cutaneous nocardiosis showing unusual histopathologic findings, we considered that reactive conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of the cutaneous cytophagocytosis, and that nocardiosis could be one of the diseases showing reactive cytophagocytosis. PMID:11961320

  14. Nocardiosis in the Tropical Northern Territory of Australia, 1997–2014

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Sarah E.; Baird, Rob; Currie, Bart J.; Ralph, Anna P.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.; Davis, Joshua S.; Tong, Steven Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening disease. We aimed to characterize the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of nocardiosis in the tropical north of Australia. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of nocardiosis diagnosed between 1997 and 2014. Population-based incidences were calculated using district population data. Results. Clinically significant nocardiosis was identified in 61 patients. The unadjusted population-based annual incidence of nocardiosis was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55–2.60) per 100000 people and was 1.7 (95% CI, .96–2.90) fold higher in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous persons (P = .027). Of 61 patients, 47 (77%) had chronic lung disease, diabetes, and/or hazardous alcohol consumption; 22 (36%) were immunocompromised; and 8 (13%) had no identified comorbidities. Disease presentations included pulmonary (69%; 42 of 61), cutaneous (13%; 8 of 61), and disseminated nocardiosis (15%; 9 of 61). The most commonly identified species were Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (each 11%). Linezolid was the only antimicrobial to which isolates were universally susceptible; 89% (48 of 54), 60% (32 of 53), and 48% (26 of 54) of isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and imipenem, respectively. Eighteen patients (30%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 1-year mortality was 31%. Conclusions. The incidence of nocardiosis in tropical Australia is amongst the highest reported globally. Nocardiosis occurs in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts, and it is associated with high rates of ICU admission, 1-year mortality, and resistance to commonly recommended antimicrobials. Diagnosis should be considered in patients with consistent clinical features, particularly if they are Indigenous or have chronic lung disease. PMID:27942539

  15. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with meningitis due to Mycobacterium intracellulare.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of persistent fever, headache and fatigue for several weeks. On admission, she was diagnosed as having meningitis due to Mycobacterium intracellulare (M. intracellulare) detected in her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. Even though anti-tuberculous therapy improved her CSF findings, her condition was not restored. Brain MRI showed multifocal and asymmetrical increases in T2 signals involving white matter and cortical gray-white junction of cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and brainstem. Based on the progression of clinical symptoms and radiological features, we diagnosed her illness as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with meningitis due to M. intracellulare. Steroid therapy dramatically improved her condition. This is the first report of ADEM following meningitis due to M. intracellulare in a non-immunocompromized host.

  16. Disseminated Zygomycosis Due to Rhizopus schipperae after Heatstroke

    PubMed Central

    Anstead, Gregory M.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Weitzman, Irene; Otto, Randal A.; Ahuja, Sunil K.

    1999-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman suffered heatstroke and developed diarrhea while trekking across south Texas. The heatstroke was complicated by seizures, rhabdomyolysis, pneumonia, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient’s stool and blood cultures grew Campylobacter jejuni. The patient subsequently developed paranasal and gastrointestinal zygomycosis and required surgical debridement and a prolonged course of amphotericin B. The zygomycete cultured was Rhizopus schipperae. This is only the second isolate of R. schipperae that has been described. R. schipperae is characterized by the production of clusters of up to 10 sporangiophores arising from simple but well-developed rhizoids. These asexual reproductive propagules are produced on Czapek Dox agar but are absent on routine mycology media, where only chlamydospores are observed. Despite multiorgan failure, bacteremia, and disseminated zygomycosis, the patient survived and had a good neurological outcome. Heatstroke has not been previously described as a risk factor for the development of disseminated zygomycosis. PMID:10405417

  17. Comparative pathology of nocardiosis in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    St Leger, J A; Begeman, L; Fleetwood, M; Frasca, S; Garner, M M; Lair, S; Trembley, S; Linn, M J; Terio, K A

    2009-03-01

    Nocardia spp. infections in mammals cause pyogranulomatous lesions in a variety of organs, most typically the lung. Members of the Nocardia asteroides complex are the most frequently recognized pathogens. Nine cases of nocardiosis in free-ranging pinnipeds and 10 cases of nocardiosis in cetaceans were evaluated. Host species included the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, n = 8), leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx, n = 1), Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, n = 4), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas, n = 4), and killer whale (Orcinus orca, n = 2). The most common presentation of nocardiosis in both pinnipeds and cetaceans was the systemic form, involving 2 or more organs. Organs most frequently affected were lung and thoracic lymph nodes in 7 of 9 cases in pinnipeds and 8 of 10 cases in cetaceans. Molecular identification and bacterial isolation demonstrated a variety of pathogenic species. N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitisdiscaviarum are pathogenic for pinnipeds. In cetaceans N. asteroides, N. farcinica, N. brasiliensis, N. cyriacigeorgica, and N. levis are pathogenic. Hematoxylin and eosin and acid fast staining failed to reveal bacteria in every case, whereas modified acid fast and Grocott's methenamine silver consistently demonstrated the characteristic organisms. In both pinnipeds and cetaceans, juvenile animals were affected more often than adults. Hooded seals demonstrated more cases of nocardiosis than other pinnipeds.

  18. Nocardiosis after bone marrow transplantation: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    van Burik, J A; Hackman, R C; Nadeem, S Q; Hiemenz, J W; White, M H; Flowers, M E; Bowden, R A

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the spectrum of nocardiosis after marrow transplantation, we reviewed the medical records of 27 patients with nocardiosis who were treated at three centers, and we reviewed the findings of three cases reported in the literature. Nocardial involvement was defined as invasive nocardiosis (n = 25), colonization (n = 4), or contamination (n = 1). The median time to the diagnosis of nocardiosis after marrow transplantation was 210 days. Nocardia asteroides complex accounted for 96% of isolates. All 25 invasive infections occurred in allogeneic marrow recipients. Ten (40%) of 25 patients with invasive nocardiosis were receiving double-strength oral trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole twice weekly as prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Treatment regimens for nocardiosis included sulfonamides; synergistic agents were also often added. The overall survival rate at 6 years was 34%; survival from the infection itself was 84%. Two of four nocardiosis-related deaths also involved other pathogens. The incidence of nocardiosis among allogeneic marrow recipients averaged 0.3% over 25 years. We conclude that nocardiosis is a rare infection that occurs later after marrow transplantation than other infections and that is marginally associated with increased mortality among long-term survivors of allogeneic marrow transplantation.

  19. Systemic nocardiosis caused by Nocardia concava in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongxuan; Zheng, Donghui; Takizawa, Kayoko; Mikami, Yuzuru; Dai, Lie; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Lu, Changming; Xi, Liyan

    2011-08-01

    A 42-year-old man with polychondritis and a 2-year history of using low-dose prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs was admitted to our hospital due to persistent high fever of 10 days duration. A strain of Nocardia was twice isolated from his blood and subsequently identified to be N. concava. The patient was initially treated with sulphadiazine sodium, vancomycin and imipenema for 7 days but the symptoms persisted. Consequently, the regimen was changed to sulphadiazine sodium, ciprofloxacin and amikacin sulfate based on the antibiotic susceptibility tests of the Nocardia isolate. The fever disappeared and the patient's condition improved after 10 days of this treatment to the extent that he was discharged. However, 7 days later, the patient's condition deteriorated and he died due to multiple organ failure. This is the first report of N. concava causing systemic nocardiosis in China.

  20. Primary Cutaneous Nocardiosis in a Patient With Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing; Tang, Jin; Lu, Zeyuan; Wang, Niansong; Gao, Xuping; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia infection is not common in clinical practice and most cases occur as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of primary cutaneous nocardiosis characterized by multiple subcutaneous abscesses due to Nocardia brasiliensis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome undergoing long-term corticosteroid therapy. The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome 9 months ago, and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. Subsequently, his renal disease was stable under low-dose methylprednisolone (8 mg/d). All of the pus cultures, which were aspirated from 5 different complete abscesses, presented Nocardia. Gene sequencing confirmed that they were all N. brasiliensis. The patient was cured by surgical drainage and a combination of linezolid and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. The case highlights that even during the period of maintenance therapy with low-dose corticosteroid agents, an opportunistic infection still could occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26817885

  1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation due to IgM-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Bleakly, N Teresa; Fontaine, Magali J; Pate, Lisa L; Sutherland, Scott M; Jeng, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) due to red cell hemolysis has been previously attributed to transfusion-related hemolytic reactions, but not to autoimmune hemolytic anemia. We report a case of DIC in a child with complement-fixing IgM-mediated cold-agglutinin autoimmune hemolysis, which resulted in arterial thrombosis and gangrene of the upper and lower extremities.

  2. Diffuse ulcerations due to disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with HIV.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2003-04-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is a serious disease that affects the skin, lungs, and internal organs. It is one of the diseases that characterize acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and in endemic areas is one of the more commonly observed infections in AIDS patients. The mortality rate in patients with AIDS and histoplasmosis is high if untreated. Disseminated histoplasmosis may have a variety of dermatological manifestations. In this article, we provide the first report of diffuse ulcerations due to disseminated histoplasmosis. These ulcers developed while the patient was on stavudine, lamivudine, and indinavir, and had a CD-4 count of 525 mm3. The patient's histoplasmosis resolved with itraconazole monotherapy. Histoplasmosis is a well-described opportunistic infection that accompanies human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report an unlikely victim of disseminated histoplasmosis who suffered this infection while on antiretroviral therapy and with a CD-4 count of 525/mm3. Notably, he had a normal chest x-ray and disseminated cutaneous ulcers. The diagnosis was made by skin biopsy, and his infection responded promptly to itraconazole therapy. This case serves as a reminder that the immunological derangements and cutaneous alterations wrought by HIV remain unpredictable in nature and extent.

  3. [Pulmonary nocardiosis. A case report (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, J A; Martín Luengo, F; Villar Galán, J L

    1979-06-25

    Within the genus Nocardia three species are at present considered to have human pathologic interest: N. asteroides, N. brasiliensis, and N. caviae. These species are usually the etiologic agents of at least two clinical pictures: nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. A case of pulmonar nocardiosis in a 62-year-old male is reported. The patient had asthmatic episodes and on several occasions received treatment with corticoids. The clinical picture basically consisted of an impairment of the general condition with respiratory symptomatology and fever of 38 to 39 degrees C. An opaque pleuropulmonary image was observed on the chest X-ray film, and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was initially established. The correct diagnosis was confirmed through the bacteriological examination of the transtracheal aspirate with the isolation of N. asteroides. Treatment with streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim achieved the clinical and roentgenologic cure of the patient. After 2 months of treatment the clinical manifestations had disappeared and after 5 months the chest X-ray was normal. Some epidemiologic data are reviewed.

  4. Case series: Nocardiosis of the brain and lungs

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Seema; Buxi, TBS; Anand, Ish; Rohatgi, Anshu

    2008-01-01

    Localized and multisystem nocardiosis is an opportunistic disease that occurs commonly in immunocompromised patients. Rarely, it is also seen in immunocompetent individuals. The lungs and brain are commonly involved. Typical, but nonspecific, findings are often seen on imaging and the presence of concomitant lesions in these two systems often suggests this diagnosis. We report two cases of cerebral and pulmonary involvement by nocardiosis. PMID:19774160

  5. Central nervous system nocardiosis in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Nastaran; Peri, Anna Maria; Righi, Elda; Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon but clinically important disease, often occurring in immunocompromised individuals and carrying a high mortality rate. We present 20 cases of microbiologically proven CNS nocardiosis diagnosed in Queensland from 1997 to 2015 and review the literature from 1997 to 2016. Over 50% of cases occurred in immunocompromised individuals, with corticosteroid use posing a particularly significant risk factor. Nine (45%) patients were immunocompetent and 3 had no comorbidities at time of diagnosis. Nocardia farcinica was the most frequently isolated species (8/20) and resistance to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was found in 2 isolates. Overall, 35% of our patients died within 1 year, with the majority of deaths occurring in the first month following diagnosis. Interestingly, of the 7 deaths occurring at 1 year, 6 were attributed to N farcinica with the seventh isolate being unspeciated, suggesting the virulence of the N farcinica strain. PMID:27861348

  6. [Postoperative nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum: pitfalls and delayed diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, F; Donay, J-L; Fieux, F; Marie, O; de Kerviler, E; Jacob, L

    2007-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon infection, which is exceptionally present as a postoperative event. A case of postoperative pulmonary and cerebro-meningeal infection caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum after a leg amputation in a diabetic patient is reported. Diagnosis has been delayed and the clinical, radiological and microbiological causes of this delay are assessed from a quality of care management point of view. Recommendations are proposed regarding physicians' role and optimized microbiological procedures for recognition of slowly growing nocardial strains.

  7. Disseminated Trichosporonosis in a Burn Patient: Meningitis and Cerebral Abscess Due to Trichosporon asahii▿

    PubMed Central

    Heslop, Orville D.; Nyi Nyi, May-Phyo; Abbott, Sean P.; Rainford, Lois E.; Castle, Daphney M.; Coard, Kathleen C. M.

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old diabetic female presented to a hospital in Jamaica with thermal burns. Trichosporon asahii was isolated from facial wounds, sputum, and a meningeal swab. Dissemination of the fungus was demonstrated in stained histological sections of the meninges and a brain abscess at autopsy. Pure growth of the fungus from patient samples submitted and an environmental isolate obtained from a wash basin in the hospital supported the diagnosis. PMID:22012010

  8. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapriya, J.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Arun, V.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Later, the consumed substance was proven to be mercuric chloride. His renal failure improved over time, and his creatinine normalized after 2 months. PMID:27194836

  9. Disseminated microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon hellem in an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    PubMed

    Childs-Sanford, S E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Didier, E S; Kollias, G V

    2006-05-01

    Disseminated microsporidiosis was diagnosed in an adult female Egyptian fruit bat that died unexpectedly in a zoo. Gross findings, which were minimal, included poor body condition, bilateral renomegaly, and mottling of the liver. Histopathological lesions, which were particularly pronounced in the urogenital tract and liver, consisted primarily of inflammation associated with intracytoplasmic microsporidian spores. Polymerase chain reaction -based methods were used to establish the identity of the microsporidian as Encephalitozoon hellem. E. hellem is an emerging cause of human and avian disease, manifested mainly as opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients. This report describes the first documented case of E. hellem in a non-human mammalian species.

  10. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium in captive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-05-01

    A 2-year-old captive female Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris) died after prolonged anorexia in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Necropsy revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. Histopathologic examination revealed a typical granuloma composed of caseous necrotic areas surrounded by lymphocytes with a few giant cells and foamy macrophages. Periodic acid-Schiff stain and Gomori methenamine silver stain did not reveal any fungal bodies. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain revealed few acid-fast organisms in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. A polymerase chain reaction assay of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen yielded a positive result for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. This is an unusual case of disseminated infection of a wild mammal with avian mycobacteriosis, and is believed to be most likely associated with the feeding of tigers with culled chickens infected with M. avium.

  11. An Unusual Presentation of Nocardiosis in an Allogeneic Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Saqib, Amina; Mohammad, Farhan; Terjanian, Terenig

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare cause of opportunistic infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) occurring in about 0.3% of patients. The risk factors include delayed immune reconstitution, prolonged neutropenia, and graft-versus-host disease. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by the brain and the skin. Concomitant pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is an extremely rare entity as presented in our case. We present the case of a 72-year-old male at 137 days post transplant presenting with complaints of headache and slurred speech. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan revealed two ring-enhancing lesions: 1.6 cm in the right frontal lobe and 1 cm in the left parietal lobe. The patient had an outpatient computed tomography (CT) chest scan a month prior showing a 1.4 cm solid right upper lobe nodule prompting bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) that was nondiagnostic. On repeat inpatient CT chest scan, the nodule had increased in size to 3.3 x 2.5 x 2.1 cm, prompting a percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy. He was started on empiric trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and liposomal amphotericin B. The tissue mycology and acid-fast cultures were reported positive for nocardia species. The patient was discharged on intravenous TMP-SMX. A follow-up CT chest scan and MRI brain scan four months later showed resolution of the right upper lobe nodule and significant decrease in size of the brain lesions. The patient will continue TMP-SMX for a total of nine to 12 months. Given the increase in transplant recipients and the ongoing risk of developing nocardiosis several months post transplant, there is a need for standardized diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Meanwhile, our case highlights the importance of aggressiveness in pursuing a prompt diagnosis including invasive procedures, if required, in order to begin specific treatment. PMID:27904816

  12. Experimental Granulomatous Pulmonary Nocardiosis in BALB/C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mifuji Lira, Roque M.; Limón Flores, Alberto Yairh; Salinas Carmona, Mario César

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a granulomatous disease with high mortality that affects both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. The mechanisms leading to the establishment and progression of the infection are currently unknown. An animal model to study these mechanisms is sorely needed. We report the first in vivo model of granulomatous pulmonary nocardiosis that closely resembles human pathology. BALB/c mice infected intranasally with two different doses of GFP-expressing Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC700358 (NbGFP), develop weight loss and pulmonary granulomas. Mice infected with 109 CFUs progressed towards death within a week while mice infected with 108 CFUs died after five to six months. Histological examination of the lungs revealed that both the higher and lower doses of NbGFP induced granulomas with NbGFP clearly identifiable at the center of the lesions. Mice exposed to 108 CFUs and subsequently to 109 CFUs were not protected against disease severity but had less granulomas suggesting some degree of protection. Attempts to identify a cellular target for the infection were unsuccessful but we found that bacterial microcolonies in the suspension used to infect mice were responsible for the establishment of the disease. Small microcolonies of NbGFP, incompatible with nocardial doubling times starting from unicellular organisms, were identified in the lung as early as six hours after infection. Mice infected with highly purified unicellular preparations of NbGFP did not develop granulomas despite showing weight loss. Finally, intranasal delivery of nocardial microcolonies was enough for mice to develop granulomas with minimal weight loss. Taken together these results show that Nocardia brasiliensis microcolonies are both necessary and sufficient for the development of granulomatous pulmonary nocardiosis in mice. PMID:27303806

  13. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  14. Fatal nocardiosis in a dog caused by multiresistant Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Kilwinski, Jochen; Peters, Martin; Verspohl, Jutta; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Wohlsein, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Among pathogenic Nocardia species in humans and animals, infections caused by Nocardia (N.) veterana have rarely been described and so far, all non-human cases are linked to bovine mastitis in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify the causative microorganism involved in the death of a three-month-old dog suffering from dyspnea and neurological deficits ante mortem. Pathomorphological investigation revealed (pyo-)granulomatous lesions in various organs. Bacteriological examination was performed and the respective bacteria were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 16S rDNA sequencing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. Gram-staining and colony morphology suggested the presence of an actinomycete which was identified as N. veterana by MALDI-TOF MS. This identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Distemper-associated immunosuppression may have played a role in the pathogenesis of systemic nocardiosis in this dog. Retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status showed that the N. veterana isolate was multiresistant and displayed high minimal inhibitory concentrations to all antimicrobial agents used for the dog's therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a systemic nocardiosis caused by N. veterana in a dog with a concurrent canine distemper virus infection.

  15. Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in an Immunodeficient Patient (Pemphigus Vulgaris) Due to Corticosteroid Therapy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    NAJJARI, Mohsen; EBRAHIMIPOUR, Mohammad; KAHEH, Amir; KARIMAZAR, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a frequent misdiagnosed parasitic infection in the world that caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. In Iran, the disease is predominantly reported from warm and humid climate provinces. The patient was a 54-yr-old man, originated from Khuzestan Province with a history of pemphigus and diabetes that was treated with high-dose of corticosteroid drugs before admission in a non-private hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2014. After different primary diagnosis and administrating of several drugs, endoscopy and histopatholgical biopsy revealed a massive S. stercoralis infection in the duodenal mucosa and gastric wall. In spite treating with anti-helminthic drugs in the last days, due to using different steroid drugs, clinical manifestations of the patient were exacerbated and he was expired on the seventeenth day due to severe dyspnea. Physicians’ awareness and using various diagnosis methods like serology, endoscopy, and biopsy should be considered in the endemic areas. In suspicious cases, anthelmintic drugs should be started before the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:28127349

  16. [Disseminated infection due to Penicillium marneffei related to HIV infection: first observation in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Santiso, Gabriela; Chediak, Viviana; Maiolo, Elena; Mujica, María T; San Juan, Jorge; Arechavala, Alicia; Negroni, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The first case observed in Argentina of AIDS-related human penicillosis is herein presented. The patient was a six- teen year-old young man coming from a rural area of southern China. He was admitted at the F. J. Muñiz Hospital of Buenos Aires city with severe pneumonia and adult respiratory distress. Penicillium marneffei was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fuid and was microscopically observed in a skin cytodiagnosis. P. marneffei identification was confirmed by rRNA amplification and its phenotypic characteristics. The patient suffered an advanced HIV infection and also presented several AIDS-related diseases due to CMV, nosocomial bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii which led to a fatal outcome.

  17. Nocardiosis in ectopic ACTH syndrome: A case report and review of 11 cases from the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lichen; Xu, Qiaomai; Yang, Meifang; Gao, Hainv; Xu, Mingzhi; Ma, Weihang

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) associated with nocardiosis is rare, and little information is available regarding its clinical characteristics. In this study, the case of a 35-year-old male patient who showed significant cushingoid features and had a cough with yellow phlegm for 1 month is described. Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scanning and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with CT identified two different lesions in the mediastinum and pulmonary region, respectively. The lesion in the mediastinum was finally diagnosed as an ACTH-secreting mediastinal paraganglioma via biopsy. The sputum culture confirmed pulmonary nocardiosis. The patient was effectively treated with complete tumor resection following the treatment of nocardiosis using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Following the present case, 11 additional cases of nocardiosis in EAS were identified in the literature and their clinical characteristics were compared and evaluated. It may be concluded that, although Nocardia remains a rare opportunistic infection pathogen in EAS, it is necessary to consider nocardiosis as a diagnosis for patients with pulmonary imaging findings of cavity, consolidation or nodule, particularly when there are brain and extra-pulmonary lesions as well as a poor response to regular treatment. PMID:28105096

  18. Massive Bleeding as the First Clinical Manifestation of Metastatic Prostate Cancer due to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation with Enhanced Fibrinolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, João Madeira; Victorino, Rui M. M.; Meneses Santos, João

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the most frequent coagulation disorder associated with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. However, DIC with enhanced fibrinolysis as an initial presentation of prostate cancer is extremely rare. The appropriate treatment to control bleeding in these situations is challenging, controversial, and based on isolated case reports in the literature. A 66-year-old male presented at the emergency department with acute severe spontaneous ecchymoses localized to the limbs, laterocervical hematoma, and hemothorax. Prostate specific antigen level was 385 μg/L, bone scintigraphy revealed multiple bone metastases, and prostate biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma (Gleason 9; 4 + 5). Laboratory investigation showed a pattern of enhanced fibrinolysis rather than the more common intravascular coagulation mechanism. Epsilon aminocaproic acid in monotherapy was initiated with a clear and rapid control of bleeding manifestations. This rare case of massive bleeding due to DIC with enhanced fibrinolysis as the first manifestation of prostate cancer suggests that in selected cases where the acute bleeding dyscrasia is clearly associated with a dominant fibrinolysis mechanism it is possible to use an approach of monotherapy with antifibrinolytics. PMID:27803823

  19. Disseminated fusariosis and endogenous fungal endophthalmitis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia following platelet transfusion possibly due to transfusion-related immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To report a case of disseminated fusariosis with endogenous endophthalmitis in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Transfusion-associated immune modulation secondary to platelet transfusion could play an important role in the pathophysiology of this case. Case Presentation A 9 year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by pancytopenia and disseminated Intravascular coagulation was given platelet transfusion. He developed disseminated fusariosis and was referred to the ophthalmology team for right endogenous endophthalmitis. The infection was controlled with aggressive systemic and intravitreal antifungals. Conclusion Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are predisposed to endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. Transfusion-associated immune modulation may further increase host susceptibility to such opportunistic infections. PMID:22044440

  20. A case of central nervous system nocardiosis in a patient with lupus treated with belimumab

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Richard HC; Kim, Deborah; Constantinescu, Florina

    2016-01-01

    Belimumab was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in March 2011 as the first biological agent for treating active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report regarding a patient with SLE treated with belimumab who was diagnosed with central nervous system nocardiosis. PMID:28149666

  1. Molecular Identification of Nocardia Isolates from Clinical Samples and an Overview of Human Nocardiosis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baio, Paulo Victor Pereira; Ramos, Juliana Nunes; dos Santos, Louisy Sanches; Soriano, Morgana Fonseca; Ladeira, Elisa Martins; Souza, Mônica Cristina; Camello, Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Hirata Junior, Raphael; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2013-01-01

    Background Nocardia sp. causes a variety of clinical presentations. The incidence of nocardiosis varies geographically according to several factors, such as the prevalence of HIV infections, transplants, neoplastic and rheumatic diseases, as well as climate, socio-economic conditions and laboratory procedures for Nocardia detection and identification. In Brazil the paucity of clinical reports of Nocardia infections suggests that this genus may be underestimated as a cause of human diseases and/or either neglected or misidentified in laboratory specimens. Accurate identification of Nocardia species has become increasingly important for clinical and epidemiological investigations. In this study, seven clinical Nocardia isolates were identified by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and their antimicrobial susceptibility was also determined. Most Nocardia isolates were associated to pulmonary disease. Methodology/Principal Findings The majority of Brazilian human isolates in cases reported in literature were identified as Nocardia sp. Molecular characterization was used for species identification of Nocardia nova, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia asiatica and Nocardia exalbida/gamkensis. Data indicated that molecular analysis provided a different Nocardia speciation than the initial biochemical identification for most Brazilian isolates. All Nocardia isolates showed susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the antimicrobial of choice in the treatment nocardiosis. N. nova isolated from different clinical specimens from one patient showed identical antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and two distinct clones. Conclusions/Significance Although Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country in terms of land mass and population, pulmonary, extrapulmonary and systemic forms of nocardiosis were reported in only 6 of the 26 Brazilian states from 1970 to 2013. A least 33.8% of these 46 cases of nocardiosis proved fatal. Interestingly, coinfection by two clones may

  2. Acute kidney injury due to menstruation-related disseminated intravascular coagulation in an adenomyosis patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Son, Jungmin; Lee, Dong Won; Seong, Eun Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Soo Bong; Kang, Jin; Yang, Byeong Yun; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Jong-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2010-09-01

    The authors report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from menstruation-related disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in an adenomyosis patient. A 40-yr-old woman who had received gonadotropin for ovulation induction therapy presented with anuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. Her medical history showed primary infertility with diffuse adenomyosis. On admission, her pregnancy test was negative and her menstrual cycle had started 1 day previously. Laboratory data were consistent with DIC, and it was believed to be related to myometrial injury resulting from heavy intramyometrial menstrual flow. Gonadotropin is considered to play an important role in the development of fulminant DIC. This rare case suggests that physicians should be aware that gonadotropin may provoke fulminant DIC in women with adenomyosis.

  3. Disseminated penicilliosis due to Penicillium chrysogenum in a pediatric patient with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Robles, Martha; Gómez-Ponce, Carlos; Reséndiz-Sánchez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica; Ceballos-Bocanegra, Adrián; Martínez-Rivera, Ángeles

    2016-10-01

    A case of disseminated infection caused by Penicillium chrysogenum in a 10-year-old boy with a history of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and proliferative glomerulonephritis, treated with immunosuppressors, is reported herein. The patient had a clinical picture of 2 weeks of fever that did not respond to treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and amphotericin B. Computed tomography imaging showed diffuse cotton-like infiltrates in the lungs, hepatomegaly, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, and multiple well-defined round hypodense lesions in the spleen. His treatment was changed to caspofungin, followed by voriconazole. One month later, a splenic biopsy revealed hyaline septate hyphae of >1μm in diameter. Fungal growth was negative. However, molecular analysis showed 99% identity with P. chrysogenum. A therapeutic splenectomy was performed, and treatment was changed to amphotericin B lipid complex and caspofungin. The patient completed 2 months of treatment with resolution of the infection. P. chrysogenum is a rare causative agent of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, and its diagnosis is necessary to initiate the appropriate antifungal treatment.

  4. Apperceptive agnosia due to carbon monoxide poisoning. An interpretation based on critical band masking from disseminated lesions.

    PubMed

    Campion, J; Latto, R

    1985-05-01

    Apperceptive visual agnosia is normally held to be a specific deficit in 'apperception' - a hypothetical postsensory stage in visual processing. This paper describes the investigation of a patient diagnosed as suffering from a classical apperceptive agnosia resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning. Controlled behavioural testing confirmed the apparent agnosia but revealed that he could be trained to make a number of visual discriminations which had not been apparent from routine clinical examination and that he suffered a number of subtle sensory impairments which likewise had not hitherto been apparent. Evoked potential recording to grating patterns showed a complex pattern of brain responses involving interactions between spatial frequency, orientation and hemisphere recorded from. The data suggested that the agnosia was caused by sensory impairments rather than a deficit in apperception. We proposed that the impairments were caused by loss of certain spatial frequency and orientation information but rejected an interpretation based on the concept of processing channels in favour of one based on object contour masking by a peppery field defect caused by disseminated lesions. This interpretation received some support from fine grain static perimetry, contrast sensitivity function measurement and orientation discrimination in the two hemifields. Qualitatively similar results were obtained in normal subjects whose field was artificially masked. The results have implications for theories of visual agnosia and for theories of vision based on the concept of processing channels.

  5. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis without optic neuritis followed by optic neuritis in a child due to the sudden cessation of steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won Yeol; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kwon, Yoon Hyung; Jeung, Woo Jin; Ahn, Hee Bae; Park, Woo Chan; Rho, Sae Heun

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that usually occurs in children after viral infection or vaccination. It is not uncommon for ADEM to be accompanied by optic neuritis. However, ADEM followed by optic neuritis is a rare. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who initially presented with ADEM (without optic neuritis) due to a live measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and was treated with intravenous high-dose corticosteroids. After steroid therapy, she recovered neurologically and was not prescribed any medication, including an oral steroid taper, for use after discharge. Three weeks later, she developed unilateral optic neuritis and was again treated with steroid therapy. This is a rare case of ADEM without optic neuritis in a child, followed by optic neuritis due to the sudden cessation of steroid therapy. Further studies and follow-ups are needed to determine whether ADEM followed by optic neuritis can be considered a specific clinical form of this disorder.

  6. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  7. Disseminated sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-03-25

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported.

  8. Disseminated tuberculosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Complications of disseminated TB can include: Adult respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ) Liver inflammation Lung failure Return of the ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 251. Read More Acute respiratory distress syndrome Granulomatosis with polyangiitis HIV/AIDS Lymph system Meningitis ...

  9. Pulmonary nocardiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection develops when you breathe in (inhale) the bacteria. The infection causes pneumonia -like symptoms. The infection can spread to any part of the body. People with a weak immune system are at a high risk for nocardia infection. This includes people who ...

  10. A Case of Disseminated Infection with Skin Manifestation Due to Non-neoformans and Non-gattii Cryptococcus in a Patient with Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Seob; Lee, Hyewon; Park, Weon Seo; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sang Il; Choi, Mi Hong; Lee, Si Won; Ko, Eun Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Eom, Hyeon Seok

    2017-01-16

    Cryptococcus spp. other than Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii were previously considered saprophytes and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. However, opportunistic infections associated with non-neoformans and non-gattii species, such as Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus, have increased over the past four decades. We experienced a case of cryptococcosis caused by non-neoformans and non-gattii spp. in a 47-year-old female with refractory acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient underwent salvage chemotherapy with fluconazole prophylaxis and subsequently developed neutropenic fever with multiple erythematous umbilicated papules. A skin biopsy revealed fungal hyphae and repetitive blood cultures showed yeast microorganisms that were identified later as C. laurentii by Vitek-II®. Skin lesions and fever began to improve with conventional amphotericin B therapy. The treatment regimen was continued for 21 days until the disseminated cryptococcosis was completely controlled.

  11. [Successful treatment for disseminated intra-vascular coagulation due to sepsis and brain abscess with low molecular weight heparin in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hiroishi, K; Shigenobu, Y; Asai, M; Tsuzuki, Y; Hayashi, N; Tominaga, K; Matsui, K; Hada, T; Higashino, K

    1999-02-01

    The management of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in a 22-year-old female patient with antiphospholipid syndrome is reported. Gabexate mesilate was given by continuous drip infusion at 1.5 g/day. No effect was seen, therefore Dalteparin sodium (DS) was administered by continuous drip infusion at 70 U/kg/day. The DIC score improved gradually during the first 4 days to normalization by 10 days. However, convulsive seizure was developed. Computed tomographic scan of brain demonstrated brain abscess at lt-basal ganglia. Continuous drainage was performed while administered continuous drip infusion of DS. Follow-up CT after operation showed reduction of low density area which means brain abscess. Finding in this case suggest that DS may play a role in the management of DIC accompanying intracranial infection.

  12. Disseminated, Persistent, and Fatal Infection Due to the Vaccine Strain of Varicella-Zoster Virus in an Adult Following Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Preeti; Forrest, Graeme N.; Gershon, Michael; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Jason; LaRussa, Philip; Steinberg, Sharon; Gershon, Anne A.

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine is recommended for healthy individuals who are susceptible to varicella. Although the vaccine is safe, effective, and used worldwide, serious adverse events have been reported, mainly in immunocompromised patients who subsequently recovered. Here, we describe the fatality of an immunocompromised patient who received the varicella vaccine. His medical history provides a cautionary lens through which to view the decision of when vaccination is appropriate. A middle-aged man with non-Hodgkin lymphoma received chemotherapy and a stem cell transplant. He was vaccinated 4 years post-transplantation, despite diagnosis of a new low-grade lymphoma confined to the lymph nodes. Within 3 months of vaccination, he developed recurrent rashes with fever, malaise, weakness, hepatitis, weight loss, and renal failure. The syndrome was eventually determined to be associated with persistent disseminated zoster caused by the vaccine virus. This case illustrates a circumstance when a live viral vaccine should not be used. PMID:25452596

  13. Successful Long-Term Treatment of Cerebral Nocardiosis with Unexpectedly Low Doses of Linezolid in an Immunocompromised Patient Receiving Complex Polytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cojutti, Piergiorgio; Pagotto, Alberto; Cristini, Francesco; Furlanut, Mario; Viale, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral nocardiosis is a severe infection that carries the highest mortality rate among all bacterial cerebral abscesses. We report on a case in an immunocompromised patient which was successfully treated with unexpectedly low doses of linezolid. Therapeutic drug monitoring was very helpful in highlighting issues of poor compliance and of drug-drug interactions. PMID:22371902

  14. Disseminated histoplasmosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. In the disseminated ... fairly high for people with untreated widespread (disseminated) histoplasmosis, but is reduced significantly with treatment.

  15. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  16. Effective dissemination strategies.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Dissemination of research findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex process. In this paper, Philip Scullion sets out to explore and disentangle some of these complexities, examine examples of successful dissemination strategies and provide valuable insights. It is argued that the process of dissemination needs to be afforded greater emphasis by project-funding bodies, research supervisors, researchers, and those responsible for implementing changes in clinical practice. Important initiatives are acknowledged before the concept of dissemination is explored. The source, message, medium and target groups, all key elements in the dissemination process, are then examined. It is argued that dissemination needs to be carefully considered at the design stage of research projects in relation to each of these elements. This paper concludes that the current commitment to research and evidence-based practice will have limited impact on patient care until a similar commitment to dissemination is evident at both corporate and individual levels.

  17. Technology-based dissemination.

    PubMed

    Jennett, P A; Premkumar, K

    1996-01-01

    Health care reform and restructuring, changes in the scope and definitions of 'health', 'health care' and 'health research', along with a continued emphasis on multidisciplinary health promotion and prevention, all indicate the need for information dissemination, exchange and management. Technology can be a tool to help meet this need, as it can help us disseminate, as well as understand the process of dissemination. Rapid advances in, and reduced costs of technology, permit the integration of this tool. This paper provides a definition for dissemination, along with a background and rationale as to why now is the time and place to harness technology to assist with the dissemination process. In addition, it presents well-designed studies on the effective use of technology as an aid to dissemination. Concrete examples of innovative technology that are being tested are also examined. Finally, the challenge and strategies for technology integration are addressed.

  18. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies.

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Alper, Gulay

    2012-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, commonly preceded by an infection. It principally involves the white matter tracts of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mainly affects children. Clinically, patients present with multifocal neurologic abnormalities reflecting the widespread involvement in central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid may be normal or may show a mild pleocytosis with or without elevated protein levels. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) shows multiple demyelinating lesions. The diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus criteria. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis typically has a monophasic course with a favorable prognosis. Multiphasic forms have been reported, resulting in diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing these cases from multiple sclerosis. In addition, many inflammatory disorders may have a similar presentation with frequent occurrence of encephalopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  20. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis.

  1. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M.; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  2. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shurong; Hersh, Andrew M; Naughton, Greg; Mullins, Kevin; Fung, Maxwell A; Sharon, Victoria R

    2013-11-15

    The dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii commonly causes localized cutaneous disease with lymphocutaneous distribution. However, disseminated sporotrichosis occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in a patient with newly diagnosed HIV with a CD4 count of 208. The patient presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules as well as fever and malaise. Tissue culture and skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. He was started on itraconazole 200mg twice a day with rapid resolution of fever along with cessation of the development of new lesions.

  3. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  4. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Pratibha Balasaheb; Chandak, Sachet Vijay; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating syndrome due to uninhibited immune activation. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare cause of HLH. There have been few case reports and series demonstrating a relation between the two disease entities in immunosuppressed hosts. HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis is even rarer in an immunocompetant host. We report a rare case of HLH triggered by disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetant patient. PMID:27134914

  5. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae UTF1, the causative agent of fish nocardiosis: The first reference genome sequence of the fish pathogenic Nocardia species

    PubMed Central

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Shimahara, Yoshiko; Kamaishi, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Katoh, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is one of the major threats in the aquaculture of Seriola species (yellowtail; S. quinqueradiata, amberjack; S. dumerili and kingfish; S. lalandi) in Japan. Here, we report the complete nucleotide genome sequence of N. seriolae UTF1, isolated from a cultured yellowtail. The genome is a circular chromosome of 8,121,733 bp with a G+C content of 68.1% that encodes 7,697 predicted proteins. In the N. seriolae UTF1 predicted genes, we found orthologs of virulence factors of pathogenic mycobacteria and human clinical Nocardia isolates involved in host cell invasion, modulation of phagocyte function and survival inside the macrophages. The virulence factor candidates provide an essential basis for understanding their pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level by the fish nocardiosis research community in future studies. We also found many potential antibiotic resistance genes on the N. seriolae UTF1 chromosome. Comparative analysis with the four existing complete genomes, N. farcinica IFM 10152, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 and N. nova SH22a, revealed that 2,745 orthologous genes were present in all five Nocardia genomes (core genes) and 1,982 genes were unique to N. seriolae UTF1. In particular, the N. seriolae UTF1 genome contains a greater number of mobile elements and genes of unknown function that comprise the differences in structure and gene content from the other Nocardia genomes. In addition, a lot of the N. seriolae UTF1-specific genes were assigned to the ABC transport system. Because of limited resources in ocean environments, these N. seriolae UTF1 specific ABC transporters might facilitate adaptation strategies essential for marine environment survival. Thus, the availability of the complete N. seriolae UTF1 genome sequence will provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of N. seriolae isolates, as well as provide new insights into the ecological and functional diversity of

  6. Developing an Effective Dissemination Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, TX. National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.

    This booklet offers guidelines for the development of dissemination strategies, especially those concerned with research and programs. Individual sections address: the importance of including sound dissemination plans in grant proposals, factors found to be closely related to information utilization in the dissemination process, a philosophical…

  7. Weather dissemination and public usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The existing public usage of weather information was examined. A survey was conducted to substantiate the general public's needs for dissemination of current (0-12 hours) weather information, needs which, in a previous study, were found to be extensive and urgent. The goal of the study was to discover how the general public obtains weather information, what information they seek and why they seek it, to what use this information is put, and to further ascertain the public's attitudes and beliefs regarding weather reporting and the diffusion of weather information. Major findings from the study include: 1. The public has a real need for weather information in the 0-6 hour bracket. 2. The visual medium is preferred but due to the lack of frequent (0-6 hours) forecasts, the audio media only, i.e., telephone recordings and radio weathercasts, were more frequently used. 3. Weather information usage is sporadic.

  8. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Paul Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance. PMID:25610675

  9. DDDRC: decentralised data dissemination in VANET using raptor codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2015-06-01

    The design of data dissemination protocol has been a great challenge due to the highly dynamic and unreliable wireless channel in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET). In literature, several interesting solutions are proposed to perform data dissemination for this environment. But these solutions either use architectures requiring centralised coordination or global network knowledge or large intermediate buffers. In this paper, we propose a decentralised technique that overcomes above requirements and provides reliable and scalable communication in both dense and sparse traffic for VANET. Random walks are used in the proposed technique to disseminate data from one vehicle to other vehicles in the network. We use raptor codes to provide low decoding complexity and more scalability for data dissemination. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique has better fault tolerance with lower complexity than general random-walk-based dissemination process and more scalability as compared to the other protocols.

  10. Selected Dissemination/Diffusion Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Marshall L.

    This analysis of selected diffusion and dissemination methods used by developer-demonstrator projects in the National Diffusion Network discusses strategies under the following headings: managing the project, developing materials, disseminating information, conducting awareness sessions, training personnel, using certified trainers, providing…

  11. Lingual ulceration in disseminated histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Guttal, Kruthika S; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Bathi, Renuka J; Rao, Ravikala

    2010-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is a rare systemic fungal infection commonly presenting as mucosal ulceration of the oral cavity. It has been increasingly reported in India as disseminated disease with lesions in the oral cavity as a consequence of rapid spread of HIV infection. The authors report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with oral manifestation in a 40-year-old male patient.

  12. Image dissemination and archiving.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ian

    2007-08-01

    Images generated as part of the sonographic examination are an integral part of the medical record and must be retained according to local regulations. The standard medical image format, known as DICOM (Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine) makes it possible for images from many different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, to be distributed via a standard internet network to distant viewing workstations and a central archive in an almost seamless fashion. The DICOM standard is a truly universal standard for the dissemination of medical images. When purchasing an ultrasound unit, the consumer should research the unit's capacity to generate images in a DICOM format, especially if one wishes interconnectivity with viewing workstations and an image archive that stores other medical images. PACS, an acronym for Picture Archive and Communication System refers to the infrastructure that links modalities, workstations, the image archive, and the medical record information system into an integrated system, allowing for efficient electronic distribution and storage of medical images and access to medical record data.

  13. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  14. Aerogenic Dissemination of Aphtae Epizooticae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-14

    FTD-ID(RS)T-0112-80 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION AEROGENIC DISSEMINATION OF APHTAE EPIZOOTICAE by Jerzy Wisniewski DTIC A Approved for public release...0112-8o Date14 Mar 19.80 AEROGENIC DISSEMINATION oF APHTAE EPIZOOTICAE Jerzy Wisniewski During aphtae epizooticae the principal cause of the virus...8217 e saliva foam assists in spreading the virus nn the air. The aerosol containing the virus can also be found in evaporation from wet floors, as well

  15. Intraspinal dissemination of intracranial hemangiopericytoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hosam Shata Mohanmed; Endo, Toshiki; Endo, Hidenori; Murakami, Kensuke; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Background: The authors report the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from thoracic myelopathy caused by intraspinal dissemination of hemangiopericytoma. In literature, hemangiopericytoma is commonly found as an intracranial lesion, and often hematogenously metastasizes to the bone or liver; however, intradural spinal dissemination is extremely rare. Case Description: The patient presented with gait disturbance due to thoracic myelopathy 6 years after surgical treatment for intracranial hemangiopericytoma. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intradural disseminated lesions compressing the spinal cord. Although the patient underwent resection of the intradural spinal tumor, the lesion was tightly adherent to the dorsal surface of the spinal cord. Therefore, it resulted in subtotal removal. Immediately after the surgery, symptoms related to the thoracic myelopathy resolved. The patient was free from disease progression for 14 months after whole spine radiotherapy. Conclusion: Recognition of this type of progression is important in the clinical management of intracranial hemangiopericytoma because intradural spinal dissemination dramatically degrades neurological functions. PMID:28144476

  16. Ethnicity and hazard information dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Ronald W.; Nelson, Lisa

    1991-07-01

    Citizens from two communities were questioned regarding the sources from which they have previously obtained information about environmental hazards and their preferences for different communication channels. Three ethnic groups—whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans—were represented among those questioned. While all three ethnic groups described similar patterns of past information receipt, it was found that Mexican-Americans obtained more information through social network contacts than whites or blacks. Ethnic differentials emerged when citizens were asked about preferred sources for information receipt. While radio was identified as desirable by all three groups, only minority citizens expressed a preference for local television as a dissemination mode and only Mexican-Americans favored neighborhood meetings. Mailed dissemination and newspapers were preferred primarily by whites and blacks. The implications of the results for the conduct of hazard information dissemination are examined.

  17. Kentucky Information Dissemination System. Fall Dissemination Conference Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Communication Services.

    Describing a state conference on information dissemination held in November 1979 in Frankfort, Kentucky, this report contains conference materials and evaluations of the mini-seminars and awareness sessions conducted there. Materials include a final agenda, seminar and roundabout topics, a description of the Kentucky Department of Education…

  18. Disseminating an Effective Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul

    1992-01-01

    Reasons for the failure to adopt behavior-analytic teaching strategies include the perception that behavior analysis is coercive and controlling, difficulties in implementation, university factors, and marketing problems. The goal of dissemination of these strategies could be met through creating motivational conditions and devising marketing…

  19. The Dissemination of Pedagogical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns--they think…

  20. Creating new realities: program development and dissemination.

    PubMed Central

    Fixsen, D L; Blase, K A

    1993-01-01

    Program development and dissemination in human services present challenges and opportunities for social scientists. Over the past 27 years the Teaching-Family Model of group home treatment has moved from prototype development to widespread dissemination across North America. Reviewing concepts in industry related to product development and dissemination, the application of these concepts to a human services delivery system, and program replication and dissemination data offer information about how innovative human services can be widely adapted and adopted. PMID:8307838

  1. Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States

    PubMed Central

    Odio, Camila D.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Galgiani, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Of 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections that occur annually in the United States, ≈1% disseminate; one third of those cases are fatal. Immunocompromised hosts have higher rates of dissemination. We identified 8 patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who had defects in the interleukin-12/interferon-γ and STAT3 axes, indicating that these are critical host defense pathways. PMID:28098554

  2. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination. PMID:27583270

  3. Disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Perdomo, Yuri Chiarelli; Boigues, Rafaela Suguimoto; Takita, Luiz Carlos; Hans Filho, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided. PMID:28099613

  4. [Inheriting and dissemination of Chengjiang Acupuncture School in Hong Kong].

    PubMed

    Xia, You-Bing; He, Ting

    2013-10-01

    To explore the origin and development of modern acupuncture in Hong Kong, and to find its relationship with the over-sea dissemination of Chengjiang Acupuncture School. Through study on the related literature and interview of experts, the origin of acupuncture education and academic research associations in 1930's to 1950's were investigated. The approaches of the international dissemination of acupuncture by those associations and their representatives were also studied. And it is held that the popularization of acupuncture in Hong Kong in mid-20th century were mainly due to the effort of CHENG Dan-an and his followers. And at the same time, because of the geographic and time factors, Hong Kong is taken as an important place for the international dissemination of acupuncture from the mainland of China before the opening and reforming.

  5. Disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gleiciere Maia; Silveira, Alice Rangel Cristiane; Betânia, Claudia Abreu Rodrigues; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Disseminated fusariosis is an uncommon clinical condition in immunocompromised patients. We report a fatal case of disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma in a male patient, 15 years old, who underwent a bone marrow transplant. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a public hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil, presenting bone marrow aplasia, severe leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. After 15 days, the patient developed right knee effusion. Synovial fluid and blood samples were analyzed at the Medical Mycology Laboratory of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Mycological diagnosis was based on the presence of hyaline septate hyphae on direct examination and the isolation of Fusarium oxysporum in culture, confirming the case of disseminated fusariosis. In vitro, the isolate showed fluconazole resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and voriconazole. Therapy with voriconazole in combination with liposomal amphotericin B led to an improved clinical response; however, due to underlying disease complications, the patient progressed to death.

  6. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of intervention dissemination (i.e., what is the best approach to disseminate an intervention). Rather, the paper discusses the challenges specific to finding pathways to disseminate an intervention and describes federal opportunities to support intervention dissemination. Three specific mechanisms are discussed: Federal Registries of Evidence-Based Programs, the Tiered Evidence Grant Programs, and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and the Small Technology Transfer Research (STTR) programs. The article presents some limitations associated with federal mechanisms for dissemination of effective interventions, but is intended to highlight current and future opportunities they may offer.

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans myositis without dissemination.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Khatib, Riad; Jones, Bruce A; Fakih, Mohamad G

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of isolated cryptococcal myositis involving the paraspinal muscle without evidence of disseminated disease in a patient with a large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed at the time of presentation. Biopsy of the muscle involved grew a pure culture of Cryptococcus neoformans and periodic acid-Schiff staining showed numerous budding yeast consistent with Cryptococcus spp. The patient responded to systemic antifungal therapy with complete resolution of his infection. We also present a review of 5 previously published cases of cryptococcal myositis.

  8. NIST Mechanisms for Disseminating Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gills, T. E.; Dittman, S.; Rumble, J. R.; Brickenkamp, C. S.; Harris, G. L.; Trahey, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    The national responsibilities assigned to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) early in the last century for providing measurement assistance and service are carried out today by the four programs that comprise the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Measurement Services (OMS). They are the Calibration Program (CP), the Standard Reference Materials Program (SRMP), the Standard Reference Data Program (SRDP), and the Weights and Measures Program (W&MP). Organized when the U.S. Congress changed the NBS name to NIST, the OMS facilitates access to the measurement and standards activities of NIST laboratories and programs through the dissemination of NIST products, data, and services. A brief historical introduction followed by a perspective of pivotal measurement developments from 1901 to the present and concluding with a look to the future of NIST measurement services in the next decade of the new millennium are presented for each OMS program. PMID:27500025

  9. Disseminated sporotrichosis presenting with granulomatous inflammatory multiple mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Mauermann, Michelle L; Klein, Christopher J; Orenstein, Robert; Dyck, P James B

    2007-12-01

    We describe a case of sporotrichosis that disseminated to involve multiple nerves after initiation of immunosuppressive therapy and then precipitously worsened after withdrawal of therapy. This case illustrates that multiple mononeuropathies are not always caused by vasculitis, and a correct pathological diagnosis should be established before treatment. Based on clinical and pathological features, the mechanism of neuropathy may have been due to either direct nerve infection or a bystander effect of inflammatory/immune damage or, perhaps more likely, to both mechanisms.

  10. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303... PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The degree... effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  11. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  14. The Tenth National Dissemination Conference. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlig, Richard K.

    This report on the Tenth National Dissemination Conference of 1977 outlines the purposes of the conference and summarizes the present state of educational information dissemination. National programs are described, including the National Institute of Education State Capacity Building Program, the National Diffusion Network, the Dissemination…

  15. Curriculum Dissemination as Planned Cultural Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean

    The author traces the change from the use of the term "diffusion" to the term "dissemination" with reference to curriculum projects in Britain and discusses implications of the change. Although at one time the two terms were used interchangeably, the term "dissemination" now emphasizes techniques of effective management rather than the educational…

  16. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  17. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  18. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an assurance in its application that the curricula or materials will reach the populations for which...

  19. Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection After Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nicholas; Sampath, Rahul; Abu Saleh, Omar M; Tweet, Marysia S; Jevremovic, Dragan; Alniemi, Saba; Wengenack, Nancy L; Sampathkumar, Priya; Badley, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Ten case reports of disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections associated with cardiovascular surgery were published from Europe. We report 3 cases of disseminated M chimaera infections with histories of aortic graft and/or valvular surgery within the United States. Two of 3 patients demonstrated ocular involvement, a potentially important clinical finding.

  20. Wisconsin Dissemination Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmatuck, Loretta

    Activities of the final year are reported as they relate to the objectives of the Wisconsin Dissemination Planning (WDP) Project: (1) to develop a plan for coordination among the dissemination functions in the Department of Public Instruction (DPI) through a state-wide steering committee; (2) to complete a needs assessment for dissemination…

  1. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in systemic lupus erythematosus-an unusual presentation of acute tenosynovitis and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Kijsirichareanchai, Kunut; Winn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis is a disease where Histoplasma capsulatum affects multiple organs due to the inability of host cellular immunity to control the infection. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis mainly involves the bone marrow, liver, and lungs. We report an unusual initial presentation of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as acute tenosynovitis in a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient. This report highlights the point that H. capsulatum may present as focal lesions and a high level of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis, especially in SLE patients. We specifically reviewed reported cases of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in SLE patients, and a review of the literature is presented.

  2. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including... contributes to the development of new knowledge. Dissemination activities promote the independence... the knowledge base through publications and presentations, including those based on research...

  3. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  4. Modelling information dissemination under privacy concerns in social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.

  5. [Disseminated mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients: A disease that also exists].

    PubMed

    Pozo Laderas, Juan Carlos; Pontes Moreno, Antonio; Pozo Salido, Carmen; Robles Arista, Juan Carlos; Linares Sicilia, María José

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is usually an acute angioinvasive infections, which leads to non-suppurative necrosis and significant tissue damage. It represents 1.6% of all the invasive fungal infections and predominates in immunosuppressed patients with risk factors. Incidence has been significantly increased even in immunocompetent patients. Due to finding a case of disseminated mucormycosis caused by Rhizomucor pusillus in a young immunocompetent patient, a systematic review was carried out of reported cases in PubMed of mucormycosis in immunocompetent adults according to the main anatomic locations, and especially in disseminated cases. A review of the main risk factors and pathogenicity, clinical manifestations, techniques of early diagnosis, current treatment options, and prognosis is presented. Taxonomy and classification of the genus Mucor has also been reviewed.

  6. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Liana; Gulletta, Maurizio; Coppini, Davide; Donzelli, Carla; Stellini, Roberto; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Matteelli, Alberto

    2007-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well recognized manifestation of AIDS, but the disseminated disease is a rare condition and it has not been associated to HIV seroconversion to our knowledge. We describe a fatal episode of disseminated T. gondii acute infection with massive organ involvement during primary HIV infection. The serological data demonstrate primary T. gondii infection. The avidity index for HIV antibodies supports recent HIV-1 infection.

  7. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis following intraocular involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, J A; Leveque, C; Coats, M; Lawrence, L; Barber, J C

    1988-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was treated with systemic steroids for a retinal inflammatory lesion before the diagnosis of cryptococcal retinitis and meningitis was suspected. He died from central nervous system disease despite treatment with parenteral antifungals. Histopathological studies demonstrated ocular and disseminated systemic infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. Direct cryptococcal involvement of the eye is rare and is usually associated with disseminated disease. Systemic steroids must be used with caution, and patients who take these drugs require frequent monitoring. Images PMID:3355803

  8. Cutaneous manifestation of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a patient coinfected with HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Arch, Emily L; Schaefer, Jochen T; Dahiya, Anjali

    2008-12-15

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially lethal parasitic infection. Coinfection of a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) can lead to a more severe disease course and treatment-refractoriness. Here we report a patient coinfected with HTLV-I and Strongyloides stercoralis who developed disseminated, treatment-resistant disease. The patient presented with serpiginous, nonpalpable, purpuric streaks on the abdomen and proximal lower extremities. A biopsy of this eruption demonstrating filariform larvae in the dermis was consistent with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient's immune dysregulation due to HTLV-I positivity likely contributed to her development of disseminated disease. Awareness of the interaction between HTLV-I and strongyloidiasis has important implications in terms of prognosis and treatment. Recognition of the cutaneous manifestations of disseminated disease can facilitate diagnosis and implementation of appropriate therapy.

  9. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-01-01

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption. PMID:27409616

  10. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  11. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  12. Disseminated Kaposi's Sarcoma in an HIV-Positive Patient: A Rare Entity in an Indian Patient.

    PubMed

    Behera, Biswanath; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Toi, Pampa Ch; Vinod, Kolar Vishwanath

    2016-01-01

    AIDS-associated disseminated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a rare entity, especially in India due to the low prevalence of human herpes virus-8 infections in Indian population. Due to its rapid and progressive nature, early diagnosis and institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy is crucial in AIDS-associated KS, with a view to achieving favorable prognosis. We report a case of disseminated KS in an HIV-1 positive patient, who presented with two months history of multiple violaceous patches and plaques over the trunk, bilateral upper limbs, lower limbs, and hard palate. The patient died of recurrent massive pleural effusion before starting antiretroviral therapy. This case is being reported due to the paucity of KS in the Indian literature, especially the disseminated type and to highlight its rapidly progressive course which can be fatal.

  13. Disseminated Kaposi's Sarcoma in an HIV-Positive Patient: A Rare Entity in an Indian Patient

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Biswanath; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Toi, Pampa Ch; Vinod, Kolar Vishwanath

    2016-01-01

    AIDS-associated disseminated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a rare entity, especially in India due to the low prevalence of human herpes virus-8 infections in Indian population. Due to its rapid and progressive nature, early diagnosis and institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy is crucial in AIDS-associated KS, with a view to achieving favorable prognosis. We report a case of disseminated KS in an HIV-1 positive patient, who presented with two months history of multiple violaceous patches and plaques over the trunk, bilateral upper limbs, lower limbs, and hard palate. The patient died of recurrent massive pleural effusion before starting antiretroviral therapy. This case is being reported due to the paucity of KS in the Indian literature, especially the disseminated type and to highlight its rapidly progressive course which can be fatal. PMID:27293276

  14. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2011-10-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This 70-year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. schenckii. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients.

  15. Precise time dissemination via portable atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1982-01-01

    The most precise operational method of time dissemination over long distances presently available to the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) community of users is by means of portable atomic clocks. The Global Positioning System (GPS), the latest system showing promise of replacing portable clocks for global PTTI dissemination, was evaluated. Although GPS has the technical capability of providing superior world-wide dissemination, the question of present cost and future accessibility may require a continued reliance on portable clocks for a number of years. For these reasons a study of portable clock operations as they are carried out today was made. The portable clock system that was utilized by the U.S. Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) in the global synchronization of clocks over the past 17 years is described and the concepts on which it is based are explained. Some of its capabilities and limitations are also discussed.

  16. Public information, dissemination, and behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysts have become increasingly concerned about inaccuracies and misconceptions in the public, educational, and professional information portraying their activities, but have done little to correct these views. The present paper has two purposes in this regard. First, the paper describes some of the conditions that have given rise to these concerns. Second, and more important, the paper surveys various procedures and programs for the dissemination of public information that may correct inaccuracies and misconceptions. Special consideration is also given to issues involving (a) the assessment of the problem, (b) the content and means of dissemination, (c) the possible contributions of behavior analysts to current misunderstandings, and (d) relationships between behavior analysts and the media. The dissemination of accurate and unbiased information constitutes an important new undertaking for behavior analysis. The future of the field may depend in part on such activity. PMID:22478623

  17. CHRONIC DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS WITH PROLONGED LATENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis in an ex-serviceman is described. Evidence is presented to support a latency period of over sixty years between acquisition of infection and clinical manifestation. This is the longest latency period for histoplasmosis described in the medical literature...

  18. The Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Kellet; And Others

    Hawaii's endeavor to use information technology to improve educational practices within the state is described in four major sections: (1) the framework of the plan, including a brief history of dissemination, the goals of the plan, and philosophic statements on resources, linkages, and leadership; (2) the resource component, including an…

  19. ESEA III Evaluation and Dissemination: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balyeat, Ralph R.; Norman, C. Douglas

    This study surveyed evaluation and dissemination/diffusion practices of ESEA III projects funded in the 1969 fiscal year, which projects are nearing the end of their operations as federally supported programs. The study attempted to discover if (1) the projects were evaluated in accordance with generally accepted procedures, (2) the project…

  20. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  1. Disseminated Tuberculosis Presenting as Baker's Cyst Infection

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Sami; Waqar, Sana

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of coexisting immunocompromised state and lack of specific symptoms a reactivation of treated mycobacterial tuberculosis (MTB) infection is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis of leg pain. We present a unique case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as an infected Baker's cyst in a 73-year-old immunocompetent male. PMID:28163945

  2. Disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    A 6-year-old, intact, female miniature Doberman pinscher was evaluated for lethargy, intermittent back pain, and unstable gait. Physical and neurological findings included bradycardia, hypothermia, hyperesthesia, progressive and ascending ataxia, and proprioceptive deficits in all limbs. Laboratory findings and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, confirmed later by microscopy. PMID:11802671

  3. Computer software management, evaluation, and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center involving the collection, processing, and distribution of software developed under the auspices of NASA and certain other federal agencies are reported. Program checkout and evaluation, inventory control, customer services and marketing, dissemination, program maintenance, and special development tasks are discussed.

  4. Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Arielle; Branch, Andrea D

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key components of the innate immune system yet they are often the victims of attack by infectious agents. This review examines the significance of viral infection of macrophages. The central hypothesis is that macrophage tropism enhances viral dissemination and persistence, but these changes may come at the cost of reduced replication in cells other than macrophages. PMID:26949751

  5. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  6. Active Tools for Better Knowledge Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Peter; Mikulecka, Jaroslava

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a solution to the inadequacy and passivity problems with push and pull technologies could be in a combination of both, with an active component, adding more intelligence to the whole process of information and knowledge dissemination and supply. Describes basic principles of activity components in intelligent systems, and some…

  7. Indigenous Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chin, Chuen; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2007-01-01

    We report the first indigenous case of disseminated histoplasmosis in Taiwan diagnosed by histopathology of bone marrow, microbiologic morphology, and PCR assay of the isolated fungus. This case suggests that histoplasmosis should be 1 of the differential diagnoses of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients in Taiwan. PMID:17370526

  8. A Proposed Framework for Educational Innovation Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Benjamin T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational technologies is increasing, the process for disseminating these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive framework or coordinated research agenda that may be used to guide such investigation. This…

  9. Factors that Influence Dissemination in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, B. T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational materials and methods in engineering education is increasing, the process of disseminating (making target groups become aware of, accept, and use) these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. The purpose of this article is to identify…

  10. A case of disseminated blastomycosis in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Monaco, William E; Batsis, John A

    2013-04-01

    Blastomyces dermatitides is increasingly found in Canada along the St. Lawrence River. However, there are only rare reports of this disease in New England. We describe a case of disseminated blastomycosis in a patient from northern Vermont who acquired the fungus while gardening.

  11. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture. PMID:12001504

  12. Dissemination and School Improvement in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibbin, Sue, Ed.; Malkas, Mark, Ed.

    Updating a 1978 literature review, this document assembles five articles analyzing recent research on how various types of educational agencies disseminate information for school improvement. Each article summarizes literature relevant to one type of educational agency, discusses interrelationships among the research findings, and assesses the…

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presenting with hypertensive emergency.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Samrat; Das, Mousumi; Bagchi, Nilay Ranjan

    2014-04-01

    We report a 12-year-old girl presenting with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) along with hypertensive emergency. Hypertension persisted for few weeks following recovery and subsided with oral clonidine. Although autonomic instability in ADEM has been reported before, hypertensive emergency was not previously documented as presenting feature of ADEM.

  14. Defining encephalopathy in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fridinger, S E; Alper, Gulay

    2014-06-01

    The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group requires the presence of encephalopathy to diagnose acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Clinical characteristics of encephalopathy are inadequately delineated in the pediatric demyelinating literature. The authors' purpose was to better define encephalopathy in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis by describing the details of the mental status change. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 25 children diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis according to the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group guidelines. Frequency of encephalopathy-defining features was determined. Clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid findings, and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were compared between patients with different stages of encephalopathy. The authors found irritability (36%), sleepiness (52%), confusion (8%), obtundation (20%), and coma (16%) as encephalopathy-defining features in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Twenty-eight percent had seizures, and 65% demonstrated generalized slowing on EEG. Approximately half of the patients in this study were diagnosed with encephalopathy based on the presence of irritability and/or sleepiness only. Such features in young children are often subtle and transient and thus difficult to objectively determine.

  15. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  16. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab.

    PubMed

    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  17. Telemedicine: challenges to dissemination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Jose Manuel Santos de Varge; Marques, Alexandre Barbosa; Cruz, Antonio

    2016-11-03

    Telemedicine has been seen as an important tool for facing the challenges of universal health systems. The goal of this article is to discuss the main challenges to its full dissemination in Brazil. Being a somewhat new area, there are not many scientific papers that systematize it. This article is an exploratory paper, as it aims to provide an overall perspective on the subject. From an economic point of view, telemedicine is a strategic area due to its an intrinsic potential of being a source for generating innovation, for requiring and incorporating technological breakthroughs from other areas, and for its interdisciplinary nature and dynamic inter-relations that drive different industries. From the social perspective, it has the potential to make access to health services democratic, by connecting remote regions with health services located in hospitals and centers of reference for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Resumo: A telemedicina está sendo vista como uma ferramenta importante para enfrentar os desafios dos sistemas de saúde universais. O objetivo deste artigo foi discutir os principais desafios para a sua plena disseminação no Brasil. Em função do caráter relativamente emergente desta área, existe uma escassez relativa de trabalhos científicos que a sistematizem. Por isso, este artigo se enquadra na categoria de trabalho exploratório, já que tem por objetivo proporcionar uma visão geral sobre o tema. Destaca-se, que do ponto de vista econômico, a telemedicina se constitui em uma área estratégica por seu potencial intrínseco de ser fonte geradora de inovações, por demandar e incorporar avanços tecnológicos oriundos de outras áreas e, em função da sua natureza interdisciplinar e de suas inter-relações dinâmicas, pela possibilidade de impulsionar diferentes indústrias. Do ponto de vista social, tem o potencial de democratizar o acesso aos serviços de saúde, integrando regiões remotas com serviços de saúde localizados em

  18. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including..., productivity, integration and inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. (b) The UAP must be a resource for information for individuals with developmental disabilities and...

  19. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including..., productivity, integration and inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. (b) The UAP must be a resource for information for individuals with developmental disabilities and...

  20. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including..., productivity, integration and inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. (b... the knowledge base through publications and presentations, including those based on research...

  1. Dissemination of Information in Developing Countries: The Personal Computer and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wai-Man

    2005-01-01

    With the blooming of information in digital format, dissemination of information is becoming a big challenge for developing countries. It is not only due to the limited provision of personal computers--in addition, the technological infrastructure and the ability to access information are also becoming major concerns in developing countries. This…

  2. Dissemination of Educational Tools and Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C.

    1998-05-01

    The IDEAS program is oriented towards innovative approaches to education and therefore result in a wide range of programs including Astro Capella (the creation of a capella astronomy songs written and performed by a group from NASA/GSFC, Smale, Boyd, and Granger), video kiosks in the Air and Space Museum (SAO, Dow), teaching astronomy in the parks (U of Wisconsin, Bjorkman, Wilcots), as well as the more bread and butter programs of teacher training and curriculum development. In addition to describing some of the diverse programs to come out of the IDEAS programs, I will discuss the dissemination of the results of those programs, and especially the role of the broker/facilitator in that dissemination. The audience is invited to participate in this discussion.

  3. [Acute arterial occlusion associated disseminated hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Somocurcio, Jose; Alvarez, Gamero; Lara Campos, Gloria; Cahuana Aparco, Judith; Calongos Porras, Estefanny; Bermejo Cataño, Pedro; Tejada Llacsa, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosis are terms used to denote the zoonotic infestation caused by adult and larval stages (metacestode) of the cestode from the genus Echinococcus (family tenidae). The term hydatidosis should be applied to the infestation caused by the metacestode while echinococcosis for the larval and adult stages. In Peru there is a high prevalence of this infection, liver and lung being the most affected organs. There are factors from the host and from the infectious agent that contribute to this infection, with the immune component of the host as an important infection and dissemination point. A case of acute arterial occlusion associated with disseminated hydatidosis in a 54 years old patient, born and from Huancavelica, with sudden onset of an acute arterial obstruction is reported. The patient did not improve after surgery and died within 48 hours of presentation.

  4. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 2905.101 Methods of disseminating information. Contracting officers...

  5. Twiddlenet: Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    METADATA TAGGING AND DATA DISSEMINATION IN MOBILE DEVICE NETWORKS by Christopher T. Clotfelter Jonathon E. Towle September 2007 Thesis...Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks 6. AUTHOR(S) Clotfelter, Christopher T. Towle , Jonathon E. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...DISSEMINATION IN MOBILE DEVICE NETWORKS Jonathan E. Towle Captain, United States Maine Corps B.S., California State University Humboldt

  6. Disseminated adiaspiromycosis in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Echavarria, E; Cano, E L; Restrepo, A

    1993-01-01

    A case of disseminated adiaspiromycosis in an AIDS patient is described. The most notable characteristic of the infection was the extensive osteomyelitis exhibited by the patient. Positive cultures for Chrysosporium parvum var. parvum were obtained from pus taken from a lesion of the wrist during surgery as well as from sputum samples and a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with amphotericin B controlled the fungal infection.

  7. Antibody response that protects against disseminated candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Y; Cutler, J E

    1995-01-01

    We previously showed that surface mannans of Candida albicans function as adhesins during yeast cell attachment to mouse splenic marginal zone macrophages. The mannan adhesin fraction was encapsulated into liposomes and used to vaccinate mice over a 5- to 6-week period. Circulating agglutinins specific for the fraction correlated with increased resistance to disseminated candidiasis. Antiserum from vaccinated animals protected naive BALB/cByJ mice against C. albicans serotype A and B strains and Candida tropicalis. Antiserum also protected SCID mice against disseminated disease. The serum protective ability was stable at 56 degrees C, but this ability was adsorbed by C. albicans cells. The antiserum was divided into three fractions after separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. One fraction contained all of the agglutinin activity and transferred resistance to naive mice. A second fraction also transferred resistance. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for candidal surface determinants were obtained. MAb B6.1 is specific for a mannan epitope in the adhesin fraction, and MAb B6 is specific for a different epitope in the fraction. Both MAbs are immunoglobulin M, and both strongly agglutinate candidal cells, but only MAb B6.1 protected both normal and SCID mice against disseminated candidiasis. In one experiment, 10 normal mice were given MAb B6.1 and challenged with yeast cells. Six mice survived the 67-day observation period; 4 of the survivors were cured as evidenced by the lack of CFU in the kidney and spleen. Our studies show that antibodies against certain cell surface antigens of C. albicans help the host resist disseminated candidiasis. PMID:7790089

  8. Time dissemination in the Hydro Quebec network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Lefrancois, W.; Laroche, L.

    1979-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of electrical networks combined with the increasing cost of power losses during a network failure has led public utilities to become equipped with more powerful and precise tools for pinpointing the causes of such a fault. Hydro Quebec has developed and is now using a time dissemination system which uses a modified IRIG B code transmitted on its own telecommunication network. The reasons for using such a system and the way it was carried out are discrete.

  9. Dissemination: bringing translational research to completion.

    PubMed

    Clark, Florence; Park, Daniel J; Burke, Janice P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of innovative health care research, a gap exists between research-generated knowledge and the utilization of that knowledge in real-world practice settings. This article examines the transition from research to implementation in the context of the dissemination of A. Jean Ayres' sensory integration procedures and of the challenges currently facing the University of Southern California Well Elderly Studies research team. Drawing from the emerging field of implementation science, this article discusses how researchers can develop an implementation plan to more easily translate evidence into practice. Such plans should address the intervention's reach (i.e., its capacity to penetrate into the intended target population), the settings for which it is applicable, the leaders who will encourage practitioner uptake, stakeholder groups, and challenges to dissemination. By taking action to ensure the more effective dissemination of research-generated knowledge, researchers can increase the likelihood that their interventions will lead to improvements in practice and more effective care for consumers.

  10. Evidence-based radiology: review and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Santiago; Blackmore, C Craig

    2007-08-01

    Evidence-based radiology (EBR) is an important tool for the practice of radiology. The user of the EBR approach identifies evidence in a systematic fashion and then assimilates information through in-depth, explicit critical review of the best-designed and most recent literature on the subject in question. Clinical decision making is then based on the best current evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values. Substantial progress has been made in the review and dissemination of EBR. Dissemination of EBR within radiology has two critical aspects. The first is increased understanding of the methods required for EBR and of the appropriate use of EBR. The second important component is the dissemination of the data and critical literature reviews necessary to allow use of the EBR approach. Resources available for both EBR methods and EBR data in radiology include societies, journals, medical meetings, Web sites, and textbooks. Although radiology has made important progress in this field in recent years, the specialty is still behind other specialties that have been at the forefront of evidence-based medicine in the past decade.

  11. Dissemination and Implementation of Manualized Family-Based Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Jennifer L; Kimber, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to systematically review the literature pertaining to the dissemination and implementation of manualized family-based treatment (FBT). Several studies were found looking at the dissemination of FBT to sites beyond those of the primary research, mainly focusing on patient outcomes. Alternatively, articles were found which focused primarily on implementation outcomes, such as the barriers and facilitating factors for FBT uptake, a knowledge transfer model that could be applied to improve uptake, and team decision-making processes. It remains important to study the implementation of FBT in clinical practice due to the barriers identified in the literature.

  12. Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection in an 'extensive metaboliser': navigating the minefield of drug interactions and pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Trubiano, J A; Paratz, E; Wolf, M; Teh, B W; Todaro, M; Thursky, K A; Slavin, M A

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of non-fatal disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection, including central nervous system disease and endophthalmitis, in a relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia patient with extensive CYP2C19 metabolism. Successful treatment required aggressive surgical debridement, three times daily voriconazole dosing and cimetidine CYP2C19 inhibition. In addition, the unique use of miltefosine was employed due to azole-chemotherapeutic drug interactions. Prolonged survival following disseminated S. prolificans, adjunctive miltefosine and augmentation of voriconazole exposure with cimetidine CYP2C19 inhibition has not been reported.

  13. Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 3. Lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    al-Gindan, Y; Kubba, R; el-Hassan, A M; Omer, A H; Kutty, M K; Saeed, M B

    1989-05-01

    In a study of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to leishmania major in an endemic focus in Saudi Arabia, lymph node enlargement was observed in 66 of 643 patients (10.26%). The epitrochlear lymph nodes were most commonly involved (68%), but cervical (11%), axillary (15%), and inguinal (18%) lymph nodes were also involved. In eight patients (12%), two lymph node areas were involved. The affected lymph nodes were typically solitary, firm, mobile, nontender, only moderately enlarged, and appeared to persist beyond the clinical healing of the associated skin lesions. The results of pathologic and immunopathologic studies carried out on eight lymph nodes obtained from this group of patients supported the leishmanial etiology. Although amastigotes were only demonstrated in two lymph nodes, the leishmanial antigen was found in all eight specimens. The lymph node involvement is another manifestation of dissemination in infection with a dermotropic leishmania. It appears that in some cases, instead of the parasite, it may be the leishmanial antigen that disseminates and produces lymphadenitis.

  14. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  15. Summary - National Dissemination and the Five Target States, Part 3, Final Report for Phase II--Dissemination, Rural Shared Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre.

    The dissemination phase (Phase II) of the Rural Shared Services Project is reported in this document. Efforts of the dissemination phase were concentrated in 5 target states: Vermont, Georgia, Wyoming, Montana, and New Mexico; national dissemination was limited to attendance at national conferences, the U. S. Office of Education PREP materials for…

  16. Leptomeningeal dissemination of pilocytic astrocytoma in a 17-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Jandaghi, Ali BabaeI; Bidabadi, Elham; Saadat, Seyed; Alijani, Babak; Daliri, Saeid; Reyhanian, Zoheir; Mashouf, Mehryar

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination is a rare phenomenon and can be associated with obstructive hydrocephalus and an unfavorable prognosis. Herein, we report a seventeen-year-old boy with a history of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt insertion due to severe hydrocephalus who presented with progressive headache and vomiting together with ocular and cerebellar signs and symptoms. Neuroimaging confirmed the presence of multiple intracranial masses in the cerebellum and thalamus. Intracranial dissemination of tumor to the the leptomeninges was seen during neuroendoscopy. Simultaneous biopsy and endoscopic third ventriculostomy were performed and the diagnosis of low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination was made by histological examination. The patient underwent chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy to reduce the risk of reoccurrence of the primary tumor and was followed for one year.

  17. The future of time and frequency dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Judah

    1994-05-01

    I will try to extrapolate the changes in the dissemination of time and frequency information that have taken place during the last 25 years to predict the future developments both in the methods of disseminating time and frequency and in the kinds of customers we will be asked to serve. Two important developments are likely to play pivotal roles in driving the evolution of dissemination. The first is the commercial availability of very high quality clocks -- devices whose performance may eventually rival that of the current generation of primary frequency standards. The widespread use of these devices may blur the traditional distinction between client and server, and may replace it with a more symmetrical interchange of data among peers. The second is the increasing demand for digital time and frequency information driven by the increasing sophistication of everything from traffic lights to electric power meters. The needs of these individual users may not tax the state of the art of primary frequency standards in principle, but their large numbers and wide geographical distribution present a technological challenge that is difficult to meet at a reasonable price using existing methods. Some of these problems may be solved (or at least addressed) using developments in communications and consumer electronics such as the increasing use of fiber-optic telephone circuits and the increasing bandwidth and sophistication of the cable network used to transmit television pictures. To be useful, these advances in hardware must stimulate parallel advances in software algorithms and methods. These advances are more difficult to predict with great confidence, but the developments of the last few years will be examined to provide some indications of the future.

  18. The future of time and frequency dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1994-01-01

    I will try to extrapolate the changes in the dissemination of time and frequency information that have taken place during the last 25 years to predict the future developments both in the methods of disseminating time and frequency and in the kinds of customers we will be asked to serve. Two important developments are likely to play pivotal roles in driving the evolution of dissemination. The first is the commercial availability of very high quality clocks -- devices whose performance may eventually rival that of the current generation of primary frequency standards. The widespread use of these devices may blur the traditional distinction between client and server, and may replace it with a more symmetrical interchange of data among peers. The second is the increasing demand for digital time and frequency information driven by the increasing sophistication of everything from traffic lights to electric power meters. The needs of these individual users may not tax the state of the art of primary frequency standards in principle, but their large numbers and wide geographical distribution present a technological challenge that is difficult to meet at a reasonable price using existing methods. Some of these problems may be solved (or at least addressed) using developments in communications and consumer electronics such as the increasing use of fiber-optic telephone circuits and the increasing bandwidth and sophistication of the cable network used to transmit television pictures. To be useful, these advances in hardware must stimulate parallel advances in software algorithms and methods. These advances are more difficult to predict with great confidence, but the developments of the last few years will be examined to provide some indications of the future.

  19. Dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics in a cascaded, fiber-based long-haul radio frequency dissemination network.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Wang, B; Zhu, X; Yuan, Y B; Wang, L J

    2015-09-01

    To study the dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics of the cascaded fiber-based RF dissemination, we perform an experiment using three sets of RF modulated frequency dissemination systems. The experimental results show that the total transfer stability of the cascaded system can be given by σ(T)(2)=∑(i=1)(N)σ(i)(2) (σ(i) is the frequency dissemination stability of the ith segment and N is the quantity of segments). Furthermore, for each segment, the phase noise of recovered frequency signal is also measured. The results show that for an N-segment, cascaded dissemination system, its stability degrades only by a factor of N. This sub-linear relation makes the cascaded, RF-dissemination method a very attractive one for long-haul, time and frequency dissemination network.

  20. Disseminated lupus vulgaris: a case report.

    PubMed

    Can, Burce; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Demir, Filiz Topaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a secondary form of cutaneous tuberculosis which persists for years if not treated. The head and neck are the most commonly affected sites. While less frequently arms and legs, and rarely the trunk and the scalp are involved. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old man with a 5-year history of slowly growing, atrophic, some eroded and ulcerated, red-brown plaques on his forehead, nose, cheeks, ear lobes, trunk and extremites. All of his disseminated lesions healed after antituberculosis therapy.

  1. Disseminated coccidoidomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Stalis, Ilse H; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-03-01

    A16-yr-old male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented for nonspecific signs of illness and weight loss. Despite 2 mo of diagnostics and supportive care, the koala's health declined and euthanasia was elected. On histopathologic examination, lesions containing fungal organisms morphologically consistent with coccidioidomycosis were found in the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, heart, eye, and bone marrow. Although disseminated infection was present, the koala was IgM and IgG seronegative for Coccidioides spp. 1 mo prior to euthanasia.

  2. Geothermal Energy Information Dissemination and Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John W. Lund

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project is to continue on-going work by the Geo-Heat Center to develop and disseminate information; provide educational materials; develop short courses and workshops; maintain a comprehensive geothermal resource database; respond to inquiries from the public, industry and government; provide engineering, economic and environmental information and analysis on geothermal technology to potential users and developers; and provide information on market opportunities for geothermal development. These efforts are directed towards increasing the utilization of geothermal energy in the US and developing countries, by means of electric power generation and direct-use.

  3. EUMETCast: The Meteorological Data Dissemination Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, V. K.; Koenig, M.

    2006-05-01

    EUMETCast is EUMETSAT's broadcast system for environmental data. It utilises telecommunications satellites and the services of telecommunication providers to distribute data files using Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) standards to a wide audience located within the combined geographical coverage zones of the individual telecommunication satellites used to transmit the data. The telecommunication zones are now covering Europe, Africa, South America and parts of Asia and North America. This service has been established to provide the meteorological communities with satellite data and other meteorological products in near real-time for operational, but also research, education and training purposes. The following EUMETSAT services are currently available via EUMETCast: - Second Generation Meteosat - High Rate SEVIRI Image Data (every 15 minutes) - First Generation Meteosat - Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) (every 30 minutes) - Other Geostationary Data from NOAA (GOES E/W) and JMA (MTSAT), (every 3 hours) - Data Collection and Retransmission (DCP) and Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD) - Basic Meteorological Data (BMD) (Ku-band Europe only) - Meteorological Products (including some Satellite Application Facility products) - EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) (Ku-band Europe only) - DWDSAT (Ku-band Europe only) - VEGETATION data (C-band Africa only) Progressively during 2006 users will find an increasing amount of polar satellite data and products available on EUMETCast. As part of the extension of the EUMETCast Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS), ERS scatterometer data and NOAA satellite AVHRR data have already been introduced in early 2006. The ERS- SCAT demonstration service is a forerunner for the future pilot EARS-ASCAT service and the pilot EARS- AVHRR service will continue to expand during 2006 with the inclusion of data from additional AVHRR stations in the EARS network. The EUMETCast System will be also be used to provide dissemination of

  4. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after pertussis infection.

    PubMed

    Budan, B; Ekici, B; Tatli, B; Somer, A

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination. A 3-month-old boy is reported who developed ADEM a week after full recovery from pertussis. MRI detected a high-intensity lesion extending from the pons to the mesencephalon, compatible with ADEM. Following the administration of intravenous immunoglobulins, the patient's clinical symptoms improved. This case report demonstrates that pertussis is capable of inducing an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system.

  5. The National Dissemination of International Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Woods, Mike

    2008-08-01

    The paper presents the most significant actions which a primary Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory must accomplish, in order to disseminate the international equivalence to the entire national traceability chain: absolute standardization methods and demonstration of international equivalence, construction and calibration of a consistent set of secondary standardization equipment, preparation of radioactive standards. Delivery of radioactive standards to the end users and carrying out metrological services. Organization of national proficiency tests with the users. International validation of secondary standards by proficiency tests and establishment of a Quality System Assurance.

  6. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency. PMID:26609303

  7. The treatment of disseminated vasculitis with methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M S; Gifford, R H; Bertino, J R; Kenney, J D; Malawista, S E

    1976-06-01

    With the great interest in recent years in the use of immunosuppressive/antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of severe systemic inflammatory disorders, it is surprising that, except in Wegener's granulomatosis, the use of methotrexate (MTX) in disseminated vasculitides has been neglected. We have treated three patients with MTX, each with a different form of severe, corticosteroid-resistant, life-threatening, disseminated vasculitis. One had a nonspecific vasculitis characterized by excruciating muscle pain, weakness, and atrophy; the second had rheumatoid vasculitis with extensive skin ulceration and four-limb mononeuritis multiplex; the third had polyarteritis nodosa with hypertension, eventually fatal renal disease, and severe peripheral neuropathy. Treatment in each case was associated with a dramatic, favorable change in a course previously marked by relentless deterioration; two patients are alive 4 and 5 years later, without MTX. The purpose of this preliminary report is to indicate the possible efficacy of MTX in a wider group of disorders than those to which it is generally limited at present, and to stimulate its further evaluation.

  8. [Disseminated histoplasmosis treated by boluses of fluconazole].

    PubMed

    Mandengue Ebenye, C; Takuefou Mfangam, B; Nouédoui, C; Atangana, P J A

    2015-01-01

    We report a case in which an HIV-infected man was cured of disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii) after treatment by high-dose fluconazole (1,600 mg taken four times daily) for 2 months, combined with active antiretroviral therapy. The choice of fluconazole at this dosage was motivated by its availability as a generic and thus inexpensive medication, the patient's precarious status, and his critical clinical condition. At the end of the second month of treatment, the patient chose to stop the fluconazole, which he could no longer afford, while continuing the antiretroviral treatment, which was free. The clinical and laboratory improvement observed from the first week has continued to progress for more than 8 months after fluconazole treatment stopped. This single case needs - and deserves - to be confirmed in a series of patients. Nonetheless it makes it possible to envision fluconazole as a low-cost and efficacious antifungal agent for the treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Disseminated Cerebrospinal Embryonal Tumor in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Armocida, Daniele; Caporlingua, Federico; Lapadula, Gennaro; Elefante, Grazia Maria; Antonelli, Manila; Salvati, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. According to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, the term Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor has been replaced by the term Embryonal Tumor (ET). We present a case of disseminated cerebrospinal ET presenting in an adult patient. Illustrative Case. A 49-year-old male presenting with low back pain, dysuria, and hypoesthesia of the lower extremities referred to our emergency department. Brain and whole spine contrast-enhanced MRI documented a diffusively disseminated heterogeneous neoplasm with intradural extra- and intramedullary involvement of the cervicothoracic tract and cauda equina. A primary biopsy of the lumbosacral localization was performed through L5 bilateral laminectomy. Histologic diagnosis was Embryonal Tumor Not Otherwise Specified. The patient underwent chemotherapy with postoperative adjuvant alternating Vincristine-Doxorubicin-Ifosfamide (VAI) and Ifosfamide-Etoposide (IE). Discussion. Spinal ETs are exceedingly rare especially when presenting in the adult patient. Neurosurgical and oncologic management is still unclear. When feasible, surgical removal should always be performed to obtain a histologic diagnosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might entail both chemo- and radiotherapy; however a consensus on this matter is still lacking. PMID:27818821

  10. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    SciTech Connect

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  11. Detection of disseminated peritoneal tumors by fluorescein diacrylate in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yoshinori; Furuta, Hirokazu; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Dai, Ping; Fujikawa, Yuta; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Morishita, Koki; Hasegawa, Akira; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    Tumor invasion to the peritoneum is a poor prognostic factor in cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of disseminated peritoneal tumors is essential to accurate cancer staging. To date, peritoneal washing cytology during laparotomy has been used for diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of gastrointestinal cancer, but its sensitivity has not been satisfactory. Thus, a more direct approach is indispensable to detect peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Fluorescein diacrylate (FDAcr) is an esterase-sensitive fluorescent probe derived from fluorescein. In cancer cells, fluorescent fluorescein generated by exogenous application of FDAcr selectively deposits owing to its stronger hydrolytic enzyme activity and its lower leakage rate. We examined whether FDAcr can specifically detect disseminated peritoneal tumors in athymic nude mouse models. Intraperitoneally administered FDAcr revealed disseminated peritoneal microscopic tumors not readily recognized on white-light imaging. These results suggest that FDAcr is a useful probe for detecting disseminated peritoneal tumors.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Packer, R.J.; Goldberg, H.I.; Hackney, D.B.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy is a rare syndrome of progressive neurologic deterioration seen most often in patients who have received central nervous system irradiation combined with intrathecal or systemic chemotherapy in the treatment or prophylaxis of various malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting white matter abnormalities in the case of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy reported here. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in diagnosing incipient white matter changes in disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, thus permitting early, appropriate therapeutic modifications.

  13. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  14. Delamination of tantalum porous coating from a TKA due to regional dissemination of debris.

    PubMed

    Bonutti, Peter M; Pivec, Robert; Issa, Kimona; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Banerjee, Samik; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A; Bauer, Thomas W

    2013-08-01

    Metallic debris from metal-on-metal bearings is a recognized mode of failure that may lead to implant loosening and periprosthetic soft tissue reactions. The sequelae of metallosis have been most commonly reported with respect to total hip arthroplasty. The authors report a rare case of metallosis following a hybrid metal-on-polyethylene total knee arthroplasty that used a porous tantalum tibial knee component. A total knee arthroplasty patient who presented with knee pain but normal radiographs was found to have delamination of her tibial component that resulted in marked periprosthetic soft tissue metallosis.

  15. Disseminated lupus vulgaris presenting as granulomatous folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Hruza, G J; Posnick, R B; Weltman, R E

    1989-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of scattered, grouped, asymptomatic follicular papules, pustules, and nodules tending toward coalescence into large geographic aggregates. Repeated cutaneous biopsy specimens showed granulomatous folliculitis with negative Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Finally, biopsy material submitted for mycobacterial culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. No evidence of active systemic tuberculosis was found. The patient had a very rare form of tuberculosis, disseminated lupus vulgaris, presenting with granulomatous folliculitis, which is usually not seen in lupus vulgaris. The lesions resolved after an 18-month course of isoniazid and rifampin. The unusual clinical and histologic presentation as well as occasional partial remissions following a variety of nonspecific empiric therapies delayed diagnosis despite multiple evaluations. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining mycobacterial cultures from skin biopsy specimens in addition to special stains whenever cutaneous tuberculosis is suspected.

  16. Dissemination and implementation research in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L; Stoney, Catherine M; Rothman, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Published medical research takes years to change clinical practice. The reasons for this evidence-to-practice gap are many. To address this gap, in recent years the field of dissemination and implementation (D&I) science has grown dramatically. D&I studies design and test strategies to accelerate the movement of new evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers into real-world clinical practice. This article summarizes the proceedings of sessions at the 2011 and 2012 annual meetings of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine that discussed D&I studies in emergency medicine. Examples of current studies are provided, along with a review of D&I methods, funding opportunities, and suggestions for future research.

  17. Cultural dissemination in a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X. H.; Ye, G. W.; Wang, B.; He, M. F.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a complex contact network is constructed as substrate for cultural diffusion. Agents are partitioned into “clusters”, interpreted as sub-cultural groups. Cultural dissemination works both within the cluster and across clusters. To reflect connection intensity, an extra-cluster interaction damping coefficient is defined. The probability of interaction between agents through the intra-cluster contact is higher than through extra-cluster. Dynamical behavior of the cultural diffusion model is studied in this contact network. It is found that there is a critical value of extra-interaction intensity that separates the system from a multicultural to mono-cultural state for low values of the number of vectors (options) per cultural feature (attribute).

  18. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, J W; Novilla, M N; Fayer, R; Iverson, G C

    1984-12-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  19. Disseminating natural language processed clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, information can be extracted from clinical narratives for a variety of applications (e.g., patient management). While the complex and nested output of NLP systems can be expressed in standard formats, such as the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), these representations may not be directly suitable for certain end-users or applications. The availability of a âeuro tabular' format that simplifies the content and structure of NLP output may facilitate the dissemination and use by users who are more familiar with common spreadsheet, database, or statistical tools. In this paper, we describe the knowledge-based design of a tabular representation for NLP output and development of a transformation program for the structured output of MedLEE, an NLP system at our institution. Through an evaluation, we found that the simplified tabular format is comparable to existing more complex NLP formats in effectiveness for identifying clinical conditions in narrative reports.

  20. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence. PMID:27293443

  1. Prostate cancer: beware of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mihir; John, Babbin; Evans, Gillian; Eddy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological systemic condition resulting from aberrant activation of the coagulation system. It is characterised by the release and activation of procoagulants into the blood, with an associated consumption coagulopathy. Its association with solid and haematological malignancies is well described in literature. This case describes an elderly man, known to have prostate cancer, who following transurethral resection of the prostate developed DIC with haematuria, spontaneous ecchymoses and mucosal bleeding. Subsequent investigations revealed a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >1000 µg/L, and staging CT showed multiple sclerotic metastatic lesions affecting the thoracic and lumbar vertebra, as well as infiltration into his left femur. Coagulation normalised with blood products and vitamin K within 1 week, and the patient responded to antiandrogen therapy with a reduction in pain and PSA on discharge. PMID:25819815

  2. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Saroj; Nazir, Salik; Tachamo, Niranjan; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity. PMID:27406461

  3. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, P; Demonceau, N; Mulder, A; Lebrun, F; Demaret, P

    2015-02-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mainly affecting children. It usually occurs within 2 days to 4 weeks following a triggering factor such a viral infection or an immunization. Clinical presentation is characterized by an acute encephalopathy and by multifocal neurologic abnormalities. In the absence of specific biologic marker, the diagnosis of ADEM is based on clinical, biological and radiological data including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain MRI typically shows multifocal lesions predominantly involving the white matter. Treatment is based on high doses of steroids. Intravenous immunoglobulins or plasmapheresis are sometimes required. The prognosis is usually favorable but neurological sequellae can occur.

  4. Multilocular disseminated tarlov cysts: importance of imaging.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management.

  5. Multilocular Disseminated Tarlov Cysts: Importance of Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P. Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management. PMID:25191117

  6. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  7. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    PubMed

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed.

  8. [Analysis of dissemination pathways for poliovirus].

    PubMed

    Ohka, Seii

    2009-06-01

    Poliomyelitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by poliovirus (PV). In humans, an infection is initiated by oral ingestion of the virus, followed by multiplication in the alimentary mucosa, from which the virus spreads through the bloodstream. Paralytic poliomyelitis initiates from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus, probably via the blood-brain barrier. After the virus enters the central nervous system, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, a neuron-specific pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. It is important for the efficient virus dissemination to overcome the barriers as follows; i) to access the target tissue, ii) to enter the cells, iii) to reach the place for the replication, iv) to replicate efficiently. PV is easily transferred to humans orally; however, no rodent model for oral infections has been developed. We analyzed the each barrier above, and showed that PV is inactivated by the low pH of the gastric contents in mice. We also demonstrated that type 1 interferon signaling plays an important role in determining permissivity in the alimentary tract. As for the neural pathway, we demonstrated that direct efficient interaction between the cytoplasmic domain and cytoplasmic dynein is essential for the efficient retrograde transport of PV-containing vesicles along microtubules for the hPVR-dependent PV transport. On the other hand, we found that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV was also observed in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist.

  9. [Primary disseminated pulmonary hydatid cyst manifesting with right-side cardiac failure: case report].

    PubMed

    Çakın, Özlem; Üstün, Cemal; Akçay, Selahattin; İnci, Mehmet Fatih; Altınsoy, Hasan Baki

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by a tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus. There are three known species of Echinococcus that lead to the disease among humans. E. granulosus is the most common of the three. A 26-year-old man admitted to emergency room with a cough, dyspnea, tachycardia, and chest pain was hospitalized with suspected pneumonia. The patient was in poor general condition and was conscious. On physical examination, fever: 37.3°C/axillary, blood pressure: 165/100 mmHg, cardiac pulse: 114/min, remarkable bilateral pretibial edema, peripheral cyanosis, and disseminated rales and rhonchi were found. Chest radiography showed the multiple disseminated cystic formations, and thorax computed tomography showed remarkable dilatation in the ring of pulmonary artery, and multiple cystic formations in the lung area. The disseminated pulmonary hydatid cyst disease was diagnosed according to clinical and laboratory findings. Albendazole 800 mg/kg daily was administered to the patient for three months. The patient recovered markedly after this treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary disseminated pulmonary hydatid cyst to manifest with right-side cardiac failure. In endemic areas, the morbidity and mortality due to hydatid cyst may be decreased if hydatid cyst is considered among patients with suspected radiologic findings.

  10. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  11. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-03-05

    After injection of 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle.

  12. A Dissemination Model for New Technical Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    The Technical Education Research Center-SW has conceived, tested, and refined a model for disseminating newly developed programs and materials throughout the nation. The model performed successfully in the dissemination of more than 50,000 educational units (modules) of Laser/Electro-Optics Technician (LEOT) materials during a four-year period…

  13. Cultivating Change: Disseminating Innovation in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannaway, Deanne; Hinton, Tilly; Berry, Bianca; Moore, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    Effective dissemination is crucial if innovation and development in teaching and learning in higher education are to lead to sustainable changes in practice. In 2003, King used an agricultural metaphor to challenge innovators to understand the purposes behind their dissemination aims. Similar to the way that seed can be spread, one could choose to…

  14. 21 CFR 99.101 - Information that may be disseminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information that may be disseminated. 99.101 Section 99.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disseminate written information concerning the safety, effectiveness, or benefit of a use not described in...

  15. 7 CFR 15a.8 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 15a.8 Section 15a.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.8 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  16. 7 CFR 15a.8 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 15a.8 Section 15a.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.8 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  17. 7 CFR 15a.8 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of policy. 15a.8 Section 15a.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.8 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification...

  18. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators...

  19. Do Haphazard Reviews Provide Sound Directions for Dissemination Efforts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen; Littell, Julia H.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. The lead article in the February-March issue by McHugh and Barlow (2010) emphasized the need for "dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments."…

  20. 45 CFR 86.9 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 86.9 Section 86.9 Public... Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing... statement of the policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each announcement, bulletin,...

  1. 36 CFR 1211.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 1211.140 Section 1211.140 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1211.140 Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1)...

  2. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K

    2013-03-30

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease.

  3. Ultra-stable radio frequency dissemination in free space.

    PubMed

    Miao, J; Wang, B; Gao, C; Bai, Y; Zhu, X; Wang, L J

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-stable radio frequency (RF) dissemination scheme over 80 m free space. The frequency dissemination stability is 3.2 × 10(-13)/s and 4.4 × 10(-17)/day, which can be applied to transfer frequency signal without compromising its stability in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) or radio astronomy.

  4. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators...

  5. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute myocardial necrosis caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Ekoé, J M; Cunningham, M; Jaques, O; Balague, F; Baumann, R P; Humair, L; de Torrenté, A

    1985-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman was struck by lightning and suffered 20% second degree burns. She was admitted after cardiac and respiratory arrest. Despite intensive supportive care she died 24 h later of cardiogenic shock complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. At autopsy there was myocardial necrosis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial necrosis are only rarely described as complications of lightning.

  6. Dissemination of Research to Parents: Issues, Barriers and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pamela J.

    Intended for educational researchers, the paper stresses the importance of disseminating research knowledge to parents, particularly to parents of handicapped children. Barriers to disseminating research knowledge to parents include the low priority of this activity among members of the academic community, the trickles down theory of dissemination…

  7. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  8. Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System: An Action Report. Hawaii State Dissemination Conference, Hawaii Department of Education (Honolulu, Hawaii, October 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The first intensive exposure to organized dissemination at the state, regional, and national level for many of the participants, this 2-day conference consisted of a series of sessions held in Honolulu and neighboring islands. Explanations of how these dissemination efforts are organized and operated were followed by detailed information on the…

  9. A Dissemination System for State Accountability Programs--Part 2: The Relationship of Contemporary Communication Theory to Accountability Dissemination Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinghaus, Erwin P.; Miller, Gerald R.

    An assumptive, theoretical, and empirical foundation for the development of a formal dissemination model to apply to the introduction of information about educational accountability programs is set forth. If a dissemination model is to be effective, the fundamental assumptions underlying it must be spelled out explicitly. Existing communication…

  10. Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs. PMID:23339199

  11. User data dissemination concepts for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.

    1976-01-01

    Domestic data dissemination networks for earth-resources data in the 1985-1995 time frame were evaluated. The following topics were addressed: (1) earth-resources data sources and expected data volumes, (2) future user demand in terms of data volume and timeliness, (3) space-to-space and earth point-to-point transmission link requirements and implementation, (4) preprocessing requirements and implementation, (5) network costs, and (6) technological development to support this implementation. This study was parametric in that the data input (supply) was varied by a factor of about fifteen while the user request (demand) was varied by a factor of about nineteen. Correspondingly, the time from observation to delivery to the user was varied. This parametric evaluation was performed by a computer simulation that was based on network alternatives and resulted in preliminary transmission and preprocessing requirements. The earth-resource data sources considered were: shuttle sorties, synchronous satellites (e.g., SEOS), aircraft, and satellites in polar orbits.

  12. A novel murine model of disseminated trichosporonosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gokaslan, A; Anaissie, E

    1992-01-01

    Serious infections caused by Trichosporon beigelii have been noted with increasing frequency in immuno-compromised patients. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of this emerging infection has been limited by the lack of an animal model. We developed a CF1 mouse intravenous inoculation model of disseminated trichosporonosis to evaluate the pathogenicity of T. beigelii in transiently immunosuppressed mice. Four inocula (1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7), 2 x 10(7), and 4 x 10(7) CFU per animal) of one clinical strain of T. beigelii 3001 were tested. Mice in groups of 10 were each injected with a single intravenous dose of one inoculum. Mortality correlated with inoculum size, as survival time was significantly shorter in mice injected with 4 x 10(7) or 2 x 10(7) CFU than in mice that received 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(6) CFU (P less than 0.01). Necrotizing abscesses with conidial and hyphal elements and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration were observed in all major organs examined. Resistance to infection was markedly lowered by immunosuppression with either cyclophosphamide or cortisone acetate, with a significantly shorter survival time and a greater fungal burden per organ in immunosuppressed animals than in normal animals (P less than 0.01). Nine additional strains were inoculated intravenously with around 5 x 10(6) CFU. Injection of each of these strains caused 100% mortality, in a pattern similar to that observed with strain 3001. Images PMID:1639502

  13. Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos

    2013-03-01

    An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs.

  14. The problem of dissemination: evidence and ideology.

    PubMed

    Traynor, M

    1999-09-01

    This paper recontextualises research evidence as an example of textually-based social control. It does this by drawing on two areas of theoretical literature; feminist literary theory and the sociology of scientific knowledge. Accounts of literary works as ideological instruments of social control suggest that (at least some kinds of) research literature may fulfil a similar role among a clinical readership. There have also been compelling accounts of scientific writing as expressions of desire on the part of one group to 'act at a distance' upon others. In the light of this literature, it becomes less tenable to see research dissemination as the simple transfer of information, supplemented by organisational work. Research is implicated in the attempt by one group to enrol others in its own project and in the (self-)construction of the identities of the healthcare worker. The accounts that literary theory can provide do not remain focused upon the text, but draw links between the reading process and the experience and place in society, for example the gender, of the writer and reader. As such their explanations create a space for the resisting reader.

  15. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    PubMed

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p < 0.01) in the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p < 0.001) in patients with Candida spp. positive hemocultures rather then in patients with Candida spp. negative hemocultures. In the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p < 0.05). Correlation of results of hemoculture and mannan antigens and antibodies in patients with disseminated

  16. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  17. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738

  18. 77 FR 22792 - Non-Competitive Program Expansion Supplement To Revise, Update, and Disseminate Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... To Revise, Update, and Disseminate Educational Curricula Regarding Alzheimer's Disease and Related... Program Expansion Supplement To Revise, Update, and Disseminate Educational Curricula Regarding Alzheimer...) Program grantees to revise, update, and disseminate educational curricula regarding Alzheimer's...

  19. Towards a molecular diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and disseminated candidosis.

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Stéphane; Costa, Jean-Marc

    2005-09-01

    A lot of in-house polymerase chain reaction assays have been reported for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and disseminated candidosis. Encouraging results have been published to anticipate the diagnosis over the conventional microbiological methods. However, the absence of standardized methods has led to diverging results. As a consequence, these tests are not recognized as consensual diagnostic criteria, in contrast with some antigenemia detection kits. The major breakthrough for improving the results of these methods is the emergence of real-time technologies. This markedly improves the reliability of the PCR results by dramatically decreasing the risk of false positive results due to PCR products carryover. Moreover, using the quantitative results provided by this technique, this allows to rapidly compare the efficiency of primers, probes, and DNA extraction methods. Therefore, the hope is to identify the more specific and sensitive parameters to implement comparative studies. Automated DNA extraction should also be useful to achieve this goal. Whatever sophisticated technology is used, we still have to define the meaning of detecting nucleic acids in a given clinical sample. This seems simple in normally sterile anatomical sites but less obvious for example in respiratory specimens for invasive aspergillosis or in blood for candidosis in heavily colonized patients. Additional studies of the kinetics of fungal DNA are needed. The development of real-time technology should improve our knowledge in order to give the clinicians informative clues for making a decision.

  20. Review: Biological relevance of disseminated tumor cells in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Riethdorf, Sabine; Wikman, Harriet; Pantel, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    The prognosis of cancer patients is largely determined by the occurrence of distant metastases. In patients with primary tumors, this relapse is mainly due to clinically occult micrometastasis present in secondary organs at primary diagnosis but not detectable even with high resolution imaging procedures. Sensitive and specific immunocytochemical and molecular assays enable the detection and characterization of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) at the single cell level in bone marrow (BM) as the common homing site of DTC and circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood. Because of the high variability of results in DTC and CTC detection, there is an urgent need for standardized methods. In this review, we will focus on BM and present currently available methods for the detection and characterization of DTC. Furthermore, we will discuss data on the biology of DTC and the clinical relevance of DTC detection. While the prognostic impact of DTC in BM has clearly been shown for primary breast cancer patients, less is known about the clinical relevance of DTC in patients with other carcinomas. Current findings suggest that DTC are capable to survive chemotherapy and persist in a dormant nonproliferating state over years. To what extent these DTC have stem cell properties is subject of ongoing investigations. Further characterization is required to understand the biology of DTC and to identify new targets for improved risk prevention and tailoring of therapy. Our review will focus on breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancer as the main tumor entities in Europe and the United States.

  1. A case of disseminated central nervous system sparganosis

    PubMed Central

    Noiphithak, Raywat; Doungprasert, Gahn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sparganosis is a very rare parasitic infection in various organs caused by the larvae of tapeworms called spargana. The larva usually lodges in the central nervous system (CNS) and the orbit. However, lumbar spinal canal involvement, as noted in the present case, is extremely rare. We report a rare case of disseminated CNS sparganosis involving the brain and spinal canal and review the literature. Case Description: A 54-year-old man presented with progressive low back pain and neurological deficit at the lumbosacral level for 2 months. Imaging indicated arachnoiditis and an abnormal lesion at the L4-5 vertebral level. The patient underwent laminectomy of the L4-5 with lesionectomy and lysis of adhesions between the nerve roots. Microscopic examination indicated sparganum infection. Further brain imaging revealed evidence of chronic inflammation in the left parieto-occipital area without evidence of live parasites. In addition, an ophthalmologist reported a nonactive lesion in the right conjunctiva. The patient recovered well after surgery, although he had residual back pain and bladder dysfunction probably due to severe adhesion of the lumbosacral nerve roots. Conclusion: CNS sparganosis can cause various neurological symptoms similar to those of other CNS infections. A preoperative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is helpful for diagnosis, especially in endemic areas. Surgical removal of the worm remains the treatment of choice. PMID:28031991

  2. Leptomeningeal Dissemination of Intraventricular Rhabdoid Meningioma: Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Ihsan; Eren, Suat; Levent, Akin; Kantarci, Mecit; Kurt, Ali; Okay, Onder Hilmi

    A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with a 1-year history of headache. The patient's systemic-neurological examination and laboratory findings were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed. Imaging findings showed calcified intraventricular mass and subependymal and gyral nodular lesions. There was a slight increase in ventricular volume. Surgical treatment was performed. Pathological specimens revealed the diagnosis of rhabdoid meningioma. Leptomeningeal dissemination refers to diffuse seeding of the leptomeninges by tumor metastases. To our knowledge, leptomeningeal dissemination of intraventricular rhabdoid meningioma is very rare in the literature. We aimed to discuss imaging findings and differential diagnosis of leptomeningeal dissemination of rhabdoid meningioma.

  3. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  4. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  5. Converting hard copy documents for electronic dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.

    1994-12-31

    Since the advent of computer systems, the goal of a paperless office, and even a paperless society, has been pursued. While the normal paper flow in an organization is far from totally automated, particularly for items requiring signatures or authorizations, electronic information dissemination is becoming an almost simple task. The reasons for providing on-line documents are many and include faster and easier access for everyone, elimination of printing costs, reduction of wasted shelf and desk space, and the security of having a centrally-located, always up-to-date document. New computer software even provides the user with the ability to annotate documents and to have bookmarks so that the old scribbled-in and dog-eared manual can be replaced without loosing this `customizability`. Moreover, new hypermedia capabilities mean that documents can be read in a non-linear fashion and can include color figures and photographs, audio, and even animation sequences, capabilities which exceed those of paper. The proliferation of network-based information servers, coupled with the growth of the Internet, has enticed academic, governmental, and even commercial organizations to provide increasing numbers of documents and data bases in electronic form via the network, not just to internal staff, but to the public as well. Much of this information, which includes everything from mundane company procedures to spiffy marketing brochures, was previously published only in hard copy. Converting existing documents to electronic form and producing only electronic versions of new documents poses some interesting challenges to the maintainer or author.

  6. Acute ischemia of bilateral lower extremities as a presenting feature of disseminated mucormycosis endocarditis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Rajagopalan, Priya; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Le, Brian; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated mucormycosis endocarditis is extremely rare, and only a few cases have actually been reported in the literature. It is almost universally fatal despite aggressive surgical and medical management. In this article, we present the case of a 48-year-old immunocompromised male with mucormycosis endocarditis, who presented with acute bilateral lower extremity ischemia and passed away due to subsequent multi-organ failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of disseminated mucormycosis native valve endocarditis presenting as acute bilateral lower extremity ischemia. PMID:27987284

  7. Disseminated histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in a non-HIV patient in Burkina Faso: Case report.

    PubMed

    Zida, A; Niamba, P; Barro-Traoré, F; Korsaga-Somé, N; Tapsoba, P; Briegel, J; Guiguemdé, R T

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection due to Histoplasma capsulatum. The African form of this mycosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, remains rare. We report a case of disseminated African histoplasmosis with skin, lymph nodes, bones and viscera localizations. The 22-year-old patient was HIV-seronegative and was considered immunocompetent. The presence of Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii in ulcerations and a nodule pus aspiration was confirmed by direct microscopic examination and by culture. The medical treatment was based on fluconazole. Even though a regression of the symptoms was observed, the patient died. In disseminated African histoplasmosis, an early laboratory diagnosis must be carried out for accurate treatment.

  8. Evidence of disseminated infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Álvarez-Carrión, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Fernández-Manzano, Álvaro; de Juan, Lucía; Huguet, Cristina; Briones, Víctor; Romero, Beatriz

    2016-12-01

    The infection caused by the zoonotic opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) was reported for the first time in a pet ferret. Both owners were HIV-positive. Euthanasia of the pet was recommended due to medical reasons and as a preventive action. Disseminated and open tuberculosis lesions were observed in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems of the ferret. Ecographic and radiographic surveys showed a severe generalized lymphadenopathy, strong thickening of the gastric wall and peritoneum layer. The histopathological findings revealed a disseminated, granulomatous, chronic inflammation affecting the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, lymphoid tissues (spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes) and liver. Ziehl-Neelsen staining displayed the presence of positive acid-fast bacilli within these granulomas. Bacteriology and sequencing of the isolates yielded Mah sequevar code 3. Ferrets can act as reservoirs of mycobacteria exposing their owners to the infection, which is of major concern in immunodeficient individuals, as those HIV-infected.

  9. Variation in genotype and higher virulence of a strain of Sporothrix schenckii causing disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenying; Liu, Xiaoming; Lv, Xuelian; Lin, Jingrong

    2011-12-01

    Sporotrichosis is usually a localized, lymphocutaneous disease, but its disseminated type was rarely reported. The main objective of this study was to identify specific DNA sequence variation and virulence of a strain of Sporothrix schenckii isolated from the lesion of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis. We confirmed this strain to be S. schenckii by(®) tubulin and chitin synthase gene sequence analysis in addition to the routine mycological and partial ITS and NTS sequencing. We found a 10-bp deletion in the ribosomal NTS region of this strain, in reference to the sequence of control strains isolated from fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis. After inoculated into immunosuppressed mice, this strain caused more extensive system involvement and showed stronger virulence than the control strain isolated from a fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis. Our study thus suggests that different clinical manifestation of sporotrichosis may be associated with variation in genotype and virulence of the strain, independent of effects due to the immune status of the host.

  10. Malignant extracellular vesicles carrying MMP1 mRNA facilitate peritoneal dissemination in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Akira; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Ikeda, Shun-ichi; Kato, Tomoyasu; Kiyono, Tohru; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Advanced ovarian cancers are highly metastatic due to frequent peritoneal dissemination, resulting in dismal prognosis. Here we report the functions of cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are emerging as important mediators of tumour metastasis. The EVs from highly metastatic cells strongly induce metastatic behaviour in moderately metastatic tumours. Notably, the cancer EVs efficiently induce apoptotic cell death in human mesothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, thus resulting in the destruction of the peritoneal mesothelium barrier. Whole transcriptome analysis shows that MMP1 is significantly elevated in mesothelial cells treated with highly metastatic cancer EVs and intact MMP1 mRNAs are selectively packaged in the EVs. Importantly, MMP1 expression in ovarian cancer is tightly correlated with a poor prognosis. Moreover, MMP1 mRNA-carrying EVs exist in the ascites of cancer patients and these EVs also induce apoptosis in mesothelial cells. Our findings elucidate a previously unknown mechanism of peritoneal dissemination via EVs. PMID:28262727

  11. Pneumorachis associated with multiorgan infection due to Citrobacter koseri.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norihisa; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Seki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kyosuke; Tahara, Kenichi; Hirose, Tomoya; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Irisawa, Taro; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tomono, Kazunori

    2013-12-01

    Pneumorachis rarely occurs after spreading from a contiguous site of infection or after a traumatic event. We describe an adult patient who developed sepsis and a renal abscess due to Citrobacter koseri, and computed tomographic imaging identified gas within the entire spinal canal as well as an iliopsoas abscess. This patient recovered from pneumorachis caused by disseminated infection.

  12. Family Connections: Using Collaborative Partnerships to Support Dissemination.

    PubMed

    DePanfilis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Spreading and sustaining evidence-informed practice in child welfare is complex. In particular, putting in place an active dissemination strategy requires the recognition of these unique challenges. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how collaborative partnerships between individuals and organizations may represent an opportunity for more widely disseminating evidence-based practice in child welfare. The benefit of collaborative partnerships has been established as a beneficial mechanism to spread evidence-supported protocols in medicine and has been experimented with through Breakthrough Series Collaboratives in child welfare. Interagency collaborative teams to lead dissemination of evidence-informed practice in child welfare are now beginning to be examined as a method to scale-up practices more quickly. This article will use Family Connections, a multifaceted, community-based service program that works with families to help them meet the basic needs of their children and prevent child maltreatment as a case study for how collaborative partnerships can aid in dissemination.

  13. A case of immune reconstitution syndrome to disseminated histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Halima

    2011-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is an uncommon cause of hepatosplenomegaly in South Africa. A case of immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) to disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient presented to a tertiary hospital in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, is described.

  14. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  15. Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Corapi, Wayne; Quist, Erin; Griffin, Sarah; Zhang, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused by A. versicolor. PMID:22031699

  16. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dissemination represents a devastating form of gastric cancer (GC) progression with a dismal prognosis. There is no effective therapy for this condition. The 5-year survival rate of patients with peritoneal dissemination is 2%, even including patients with only microscopic free cancer cells without macroscopic peritoneal nodules. The mechanism of peritoneal dissemination of GC involves several steps: detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor, survival in the free abdominal cavity, attachment to the distant peritoneum, invasion into the subperitoneal space and proliferation with angiogenesis. These steps are not mutually exclusive, and combinations of different molecular mechanisms can occur in each process of peritoneal dissemination. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular events involved in peritoneal dissemination is important and should be systematically pursued. It is crucial to identify novel strategies for the prevention of this condition and for identification of markers of prognosis and the development of molecular-targeted therapies. In this review, we provide an overview of recently published articles addressing the molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination of GC to provide an update on what is currently known in this field and to propose novel promising candidates for use in diagnosis and as therapeutic targets. PMID:27570420

  18. A Bandwidth-Efficient Dissemination Scheme of Non-Safety Information in Urban VANETs †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lozano, Estrella; Campo, Celeste; Garcia-Rubio, Carlos; Rodriguez-Carrion, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The recent release of standards for vehicular communications will hasten the development of smart cities in the following years. Many applications for vehicular networks, such as blocked road warnings or advertising, will require multi-hop dissemination of information to all vehicles in a region of interest. However, these networks present special features and difficulties that may require special measures. The dissemination of information may cause broadcast storms. Urban scenarios are especially sensitive to broadcast storms because of the high density of vehicles in downtown areas. They also present numerous crossroads and signal blocking due to buildings, which make dissemination more difficult than in open, almost straight interurban roadways. In this article, we discuss several options to avoid the broadcast storm problem while trying to achieve the maximum coverage of the region of interest. Specifically, we evaluate through simulations different ways to detect and take advantage of intersections and a strategy based on store-carry-forward to overcome short disconnections between groups of vehicles. Our conclusions are varied, and we propose two different solutions, depending on the requirements of the application. PMID:27355956

  19. A Bandwidth-Efficient Dissemination Scheme of Non-Safety Information in Urban VANETs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lozano, Estrella; Campo, Celeste; Garcia-Rubio, Carlos; Rodriguez-Carrion, Alicia

    2016-06-27

    The recent release of standards for vehicular communications will hasten the development of smart cities in the following years. Many applications for vehicular networks, such as blocked road warnings or advertising, will require multi-hop dissemination of information to all vehicles in a region of interest. However, these networks present special features and difficulties that may require special measures. The dissemination of information may cause broadcast storms. Urban scenarios are especially sensitive to broadcast storms because of the high density of vehicles in downtown areas. They also present numerous crossroads and signal blocking due to buildings, which make dissemination more difficult than in open, almost straight interurban roadways. In this article, we discuss several options to avoid the broadcast storm problem while trying to achieve the maximum coverage of the region of interest. Specifically, we evaluate through simulations different ways to detect and take advantage of intersections and a strategy based on store-carry-forward to overcome short disconnections between groups of vehicles. Our conclusions are varied, and we propose two different solutions, depending on the requirements of the application.

  20. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  1. Disseminated blastomycosis in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Beverley S.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-year-old German shepherd was evaluated after collapsing at home following a week of lethargy and anorexia. Systemic blastomycosis was diagnosed histologically at necropsy. Diagnosis and treatment were difficult due to unusual neurological symptoms, the absence of abnormalities on diagnostic tests, and the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. PMID:12125188

  2. Detecting peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer in mice by DWIBS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jeong; Luci, Jeffrey J; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Lee, Haakil; Nam, Ki Taek; Peterson, Todd E; Price, Ronald R

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) is a relatively new diffusion-based pulse sequence that produces positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG)-like images. We tested the feasibility of DWIBS in detecting peritoneal ovarian cancer in a syngeneic mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with ID8 murine ovarian carcinoma cells. After 11 weeks, the abdomen was imaged by DWIBS. A respiratory gating diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging in abdomen was used (imaging parameters of field of view of 47×47 mm(2), matrix size of 64×64 zero-filled to 256×256 and b-value of 1500 s/mm(2)). We also performed FDG microPET as the reference standard. For comparison of the correlating surface areas of tumor foci on both DWIBS and FDG microPET imaging, two-dimensional region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed, and correlation between the two modalities was determined. Mice were also subjected to macroscopic examination for tumor location and pathology after imaging. DWIBS in all mice depicted the tumors as abnormal high signal intensity. The results show that the ROI analysis of correlating lesions reveals relatively high correlation (r²=0.7296) and significant difference (P=.021) between DWIBS and FDG microPET. These results demonstrate that DWIBS has the potential for detecting peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer. Nonetheless, due to low ratios of image signal-to-noise and motion artifacts, DWIBS can be limited for lesions near the liver.

  3. Dissemination of satellite-based river discharge and flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.; van Praag, E.; de Groeve, T.; Slayback, D. A.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    In collaboration with NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center and the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) daily measures and distributes: 1) river discharges, and 2) near real-time flood extents with a global coverage. Satellite-based passive microwave sensors and hydrological modeling are utilized to establish 'remote-sensing based discharge stations', and observed time series cover 1998 to the present. The advantages over in-situ gauged discharges are: a) easy access to remote or due to political reasons isolated locations, b) relatively low maintenance costs to maintain a continuous observational record, and c) the capability to obtain measurements during floods, hazardous conditions that often impair or destroy in-situ stations. Two MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites provide global flood extent coverage at a spatial resolution of 250m. Cloud cover hampers flood extent detection; therefore we ingest 6 images (the Terra and Aqua images of each day, for three days), in combination with a cloud shadow filter, to provide daily global flood extent updates. The Flood Observatory has always made it a high priority to visualize and share its data and products through its website. Recent collaborative efforts with e.g. GeoSUR have enhanced accessibility of DFO data. A web map service has been implemented to automatically disseminate geo-referenced flood extent products into client-side GIS software. For example, for Latin America and the Caribbean region, the GeoSUR portal now displays current flood extent maps, which can be integrated and visualized with other relevant geographical data. Furthermore, the flood state of satellite-observed river discharge sites are displayed through the portal as well. Additional efforts include implementing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to incorporate Water Markup Language (WaterML) data exchange mechanisms to further facilitate the distribution of the satellite

  4. Dissemination research in cancer control: where are we and where should we go?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Deborah J; Sorensen, Glorian; Weiner, Bryan J; Campbell, Marci; Emmons, Karen; Melvin, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based programs and policies is a critical final step in reducing the burden of cancer in the general public. Yet, we have not been fully successful to date in improving clinical or public health practice by disseminating programs found to be effective in research. Therefore, research is needed into the dissemination process and outcomes to enable better efforts in the future. This paper explores the definitions and models used for dissemination, the designs of dissemination studies, and possible research questions in dissemination research, all focused on cancer prevention and control. We hope that this paper will encourage dissemination research in our field.

  5. Detection of disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Zieglschmid, V; Hollmann, C; Böcher, O

    2005-01-01

    Metastases are the major cause of cancer-related deaths in patients with solid epithelial malignancies, such as breast, colorectal and prostate carcinomas. Hematogenous spreading of tumor cells from a primary tumor can be considered as a crucial step in the metastasis cascade leading eventually to the formation of clinically manifest metastases. Consequently, as shown in recent studies, the detection of disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood might be of clinical relevance with respect to individual patient prognosis and staging or monitoring of therapy. However, the rarity of disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood renders the application of sensitive techniques mandatory for their detection. The emergence of highly sophisticated reverse transciptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, combining a preanalytical enrichment step with the assessment of multiple molecular tumor markers expressed in disseminated tumor cells, provides a powerful tool in detecting disseminated tumor cells with high sensitivity and specificity. This review will discuss currently used tumor markers as well as experimental means to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR assays to detect disseminated tumor cells in the peripheral blood of patients with breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers, and their clinical relevance assessed in recent studies.

  6. The Occasional Case Against Broad Dissemination and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness imposes a staggering public health burden in the United States. Although the past 40 years have witnessed tremendous advances in the identification of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in psychological treatments, gaps persist between treatment in experimental settings and services available in the community. In response, considerable attention and large financial commitments have focused in recent years on broad dissemination and implementation efforts designed to improve the quality of psychological services delivered by a variety of generalist practitioners across practice settings. Increasingly, under the influence of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, it is envisioned that these generalists will practice in integrated primary care settings. These advances hold enormous potential, and yet, given the tremendous diversity of mental health problems and human suffering, broad dissemination and implementation efforts to generalists alone may not be sufficient to adequately address the burden of mental illness. Some EBPs may prove too complex for universal dissemination, and the time and expense required for quality dissemination and implementation preclude large-scale training in the treatment of low base rate disorders. As dissemination and implementation efforts work to ensure a quality generalist mental health care workforce, herein we highlight the vital need for available specialty care in the delivery of psychological treatments. Given traditional barriers that interfere with the accessibility of specialty care, we propose the transformative potential of a specialty behavioral telehealth care workforce, transacting with the generalist practitioner workforce to collectively ensure the highest quality and timely delivery of needed treatments to affected individuals. PMID:23915401

  7. Dissemination of thermodynamic temperature above the freezing point of silver.

    PubMed

    Sadli, M; Machin, G; Anhalt, K; Bourson, F; Briaudeau, S; del Campo, D; Diril, A; Kozlova, O; Lowe, D H; Mantilla Amor, J M; Martin, M J; McEvoy, H C; Ojanen-Saloranta, M; Pehlivan, Ö; Rougié, B; Salim, S G R

    2016-03-28

    The mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin at high temperatures will formally allow dissemination of thermodynamic temperature either directly or mediated through high-temperature fixed points (HTFPs). In this paper, these two distinct dissemination methods are evaluated, namely source-based and detector-based. This was achieved by performing two distinct dissemination trials: one based on HTFPs, the other based on absolutely calibrated radiation thermometers or filter radiometers. These trials involved six national metrology institutes in Europe in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme joint project 'Implementing the new kelvin' (InK). The results have shown that both dissemination routes are possible, with similar standard uncertainties of 1-2 K, over the range 1273-2773 K, showing that, depending on the facilities available in the laboratory, it will soon be possible to disseminate thermodynamic temperatures above 1273 K to users by either of the two methods with uncertainties comparable to the current temperature scale.

  8. Cutaneous and disseminated blastomycosis: a pediatric case series.

    PubMed

    Brick, Katherine E; Drolet, Beth A; Lyon, Valerie B; Galbraith, Sheila S

    2013-01-01

    Blastomycosis is a rare fungal infection that most often initially infects the lungs and can progress to disseminated involvement of the skin, bones, and central nervous system (CNS). Pediatric blastomycosis constitutes a small portion of total cases, but delay in diagnosis may result in significant morbidity. Seventeen pediatric cases of blastomycosis were identified at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin from 1999 to 2009 through retrospective chart review; 53% had evidence of dissemination (bone, skin, or CNS) confirmed by culture. Six cases presented with cutaneous lesions, and five of these were found to have other systemic involvement. These five nonimmunosuppressed cases of primary pulmonary disease with cutaneous involvement plus dissemination to bone or the CNS are reported in detail. The diagnosis of blastomycosis in children is often delayed, and dissemination by the time of diagnosis may be more common than in adults. Cutaneous dissemination may occur in immunocompetent children, may indicate underlying systemic involvement, and can be more readily identified than symptoms of bony or neurologic involvement. These reported cases indicate the importance of dermatologists recognizing and investigating all potentially involved organ systems when a patient presents with characteristic skin lesions with or without a history of respiratory illness.

  9. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Ayse; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Mehpare; Oguz, Melek; Yıldız, Yasemin Tasci

    2013-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, which principally affects the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows a benign infection or vaccination in children. Although a number of infectious agents have been implicated in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been described previously in children. Acquired T. gondii infection presents with lymphadenopathy and fever and usually spontaneously resolves in immunocompetent patients. We describe a previously healthy 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection, the symptoms of which initially began with nuchal stiffness, difficulty in walking, and urinary and stool incontinence; he later had development of motor and sensory impairment in both lower extremities and classical magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of the disease. The patient recovered completely after the specific therapy for acquired T. gondii infection and pulse prednisolone. Although acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been reported previously in association with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinicians should keep in mind this uncommon cause of a common disease when evaluating a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  10. Selective dissemination and indexing of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J H

    1971-07-23

    Selective dissemination of information to individuals provides a new and promising method for keeping abreast of current scientific information. Since SDI services are directed to the information needs of each individual, they are a significant step beyond grouporiented services and products, which require considerable expenditure of effort by each user as he sorts useful information from trash. However, SDI systems do require a high degree of precision in matching scientists against documents. They must operate more efficiently and economically than many current systems which occasionally provide a useful item of information to users. To meet these stringent requirements for quality, precision, efficiency, and economy, more research must be devoted to comparing and improving indexing methods, which are the basic component of all information storage and retrieval systems. It is incredible that so much money has been spent on the development and operation of scientific information systems before basic data on the comparative performance of various indexing methods have been gathered, analyzed, and confirmed by multiple investigators. The design of an effective information system would seem to require this type of basic knowledge, just as basic properties of alternative materials must be known before an engineer can design a building, bridge, or factory. Yet, except for the few studies mentioned in the previous section, research on indexing methods has been greatly neglected. Bourne's comment about studies of indexing languages is still an appropriate description of the situation: "In almost all the experimental reports, the investigator worked with an indexing language different than that of other experimenters. Consequently, no one has ever had his test results verified, or expanded, or made more precise by another experimenter" (47). Most existing information systems are based on keyword indexing, with concepts broken into isolated terms during input operations

  11. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in an Adult: An Uncommon Case of Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Holder, Eric K; McCall, Joseph C; Feeko, Kristofer J

    2015-07-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an uncommon acute, rapidly progressive autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is most often due to infection or immunization. Generally, it is monophasic, but there is potential for recurrence and risk for development of multiple sclerosis. Although there has been literature documenting autonomic dysreflexia and hypertensive emergency in 2 pediatric cases of ADEM, to our knowledge there has not been a case detailing paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in an adult patient with ADEM. This case report describes a fulminant case of ADEM and serves to expand the list of diagnoses associated with paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity.

  12. Disseminated Cryptococcal Disease in Non-HIV, Nontransplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Leto, D.; Chagla, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcal infection carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Typical patients include HIV individuals with advanced immunosuppression or solid organ or hematopoietic transplant recipients. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcal disease in a 72-year-old male who was immunocompromised with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ongoing chemotherapy. The patient presented with a subacute history of constitutional symptoms and headache after he received five cycles of FCR chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab). Diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcal disease was made based on fungemia in peripheral blood cultures with subsequent involvement of the brain, lungs, and eyes. Treatment was started with liposomal amphotericin, flucytosine, and fluconazole as induction. He was discharged after 4 weeks of hospitalization on high dose fluconazole for consolidation for 2 months, followed by maintenance therapy. PMID:27957359

  13. Gastrointestinal Dissemination and Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus following Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations that alter virulence and antibiotic susceptibility arise and persist during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, an experimental system demonstrating transmission following bacteremia has been lacking, and thus implications of within-host adaptation for between-host transmission are unknown. We report that S. aureus disseminates to the gastrointestinal tract of mice following intravenous injection and readily transmits to cohoused naive mice. Both intestinal dissemination and transmission were linked to the production of virulence factors based on gene deletion studies of the sae and agr two-component systems. Furthermore, antimicrobial selection for antibiotic-resistant S. aureus displaced susceptible S. aureus from the intestine of infected hosts, which led to the preferential transmission and dominance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among cohoused untreated mice. These findings establish an animal model to investigate gastrointestinal dissemination and transmission of S. aureus and suggest that adaptation during the course of systemic infection has implications beyond the level of a single host. PMID:25385792

  14. Therapeutic plasma exchange in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children.

    PubMed

    Borras-Novell, Cristina; García Rey, Enric; Perez Baena, Luis Francisco; Jordan Garcia, Iolanda; Catella Cahiz, Dolors; Cambra, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is probably due to an autoimmune mechanism with an acute presentation and a monophasic course. The management of patients with ADEM is based on supportive therapy, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin, and in selected cases, with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of TPE, as adjuvant therapy in pediatric patients with ADEM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with the diagnosis of ADEM between 2009 and 2011 to which TPE was indicated and were admitted in the ICU of Hospital Sant Joan de Deu (Spain). The diagnosis of ADEM was made by clinical and laboratory criteria and by the presence of compatible lesions on cranio-spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). For signaling TPE, we followed the guidelines established by the American Association of Apheresis (ASFA) in 2010. Five cases were identified. The predominant neurological symptoms in our patients were: altered level of consciousness, seizures, motor deficits, cranial nerve disorders, and aphasia. Most important demyelinating lesions were located in cortical and subcortical white matter of the brain and highlighted brainstream. Patients performed between 4 and 5 sessions, with no reported side effects. Progressive clinical improvement was evident in all patients, with good neurosensory response to stimulation, cessation of seizures, and recovery of limb mobility. Nowadays, one patient's right paresis persists and another suffers epileptic seizures. None of the cases in our series presented new episodes of demyelination. Due to the suggested immune-mediated pathogenesis of ADEM, treatment is based on immunomodulatory agents, being glucocorticoids the most important ones. The treatment can be complemented with intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis. Available data suggests that plasma exchange is beneficial

  15. Ocular manifestation of disseminated Mycobacterium simiae infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, U; Arnold, P; Guscetti, F; Pfyffer, G E; Spiess, B

    2003-03-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial disease was diagnosed in an eight-year-old domestic shorthaired cat, with involvement of the skin, lungs, lymph nodes and one eye. Mycobacterium simiae was cultured from skin biopsies on solid agar and in liquid media. This organism is known to cause pulmonary, cutaneous or disseminated infection in human patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome but has never been encountered as a pathogen in companion animals. Combination treatment with rifampicin, enrofloxacin and clarithromycin resulted in complete clinical remission within six months, with no side effects. No recurrence was observed in a 22-month follow-up period.

  16. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  17. Extremely refractory Kawasaki disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Yeong Bong

    2017-03-07

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in <0.1% of Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.

  18. Shock, acute disseminated intravascular coagulation, and microvascular thrombosis: is 'shock liver' the unrecognized provocateur of ischemic limb necrosis?

    PubMed

    Warkentin, T E; Pai, M

    2016-02-01

    For unknown reasons, a small minority of critically ill patients with septic or cardiogenic shock, multiorgan failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation develop symmetrical acral (distal extremity) limb loss due to microvascular thrombosis ('limb gangrene with pulses'). Case reports have described preceding 'shock liver' in some critically ill patients who developed such a picture of ischemic limb necrosis. This suggests that profoundly disturbed procoagulant-anticoagulant balance featuring uncontrolled generation of thrombin-resulting from failure of the protein C and antithrombin natural anticoagulant systems due to insufficient hepatic synthesis of these crucial proteins-could explain the microvascular thrombosis and associated limb loss. We hypothesize that shock liver is the key predisposing risk factor underlying ischemic limb necrosis in the majority of patients who develop this complication in the setting of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation complicating septic or cardiogenic shock. As shock liver precedes onset of limb ischemia by several days, therapeutic intervention may be possible.

  19. [Optimisation of diagnostics and differential diagnostics disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Demikhova, O V; Karpina, N L; Lepekha, L N; Bagirov, M A; Amansakhedov, R B

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons of dramatic situation with tuberculosis in Russia is untimely diagnostics of tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to identify the causes of diagnostic mistakes when we deal with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis at current stage and to modernize the diagnostic process. The analysis of the diagnostic activity of the consultative diagnostic center of Central Tuberculosis Research Institute of Russian Academy Medical Sciences for 2011 was performed with special attention on the results of the survey of 505 patients with pulmonary dissemination. The frequency of discrepancies of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostics was 96.1%. Based on the studies carried out the main causes diagnostic mistakes in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis were determined. New directions of improving of tuberculosis diagnostics were developed: overall high-technology examination of patient, adherence to the diagnostic procedure, developed by consultative diagnostic center of Central Tuberculosis Research Institute (CTRI), timely performing fiber-optic bronchoscopy with complex biopsy and diagnostic surgery procedures, further training of primary health care doctors. Implementation of proposed activities will significantly (by 3-5 times) reduce the time for diagnostics of respiratory system disease.

  20. Proceedings: panel on information dissemination for wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, P.

    1980-04-01

    This meeting was called as part of a multi-year planning effort. Groups involved in the production and/or dissemination of information on wind energy were invited to describe their current activities and their perceptions of the needs of the 80's in this area. Participants exchanged copies of materials they distribute regularly and discussed frequently asked questions.

  1. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  2. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  3. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  4. 40 CFR 1400.10 - Limitation on public dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation on public dissemination. 1400.10 Section 1400.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR...

  5. Marketing: Exploring Applications for Educational Dissemination. Literature Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Linda

    This synthesis of information about marketing and information dissemination of education-related products is divided into three parts: an overview of major writings, specific marketing strategies, and resources for further study. The first part opens with a definition of marketing as it relates to education. A review of the literature provides…

  6. Packaging for Dissemination. Diffusion of Innovations Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Andrew D.; And Others

    This handbook reviews some of the forms that can be used to package educational projects for dissemination to other schools, such as written reports, slide tape presentations, news releases, conference presentations, and workshops. Guidelines and suggestions in the essays on each format are supplemented by the appendices, which include a report…

  7. Evaluation Designs for the Improving Teaching Competencies Program Dissemination Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Diane L.; And Others

    Evaluation designs are presented for these work components of the Improving Teaching Competencies Program (ITCP): (1) developing, implementing, and evaluating a strategy for disseminating selected ITCP instructional systems in Individually Guided Education (IGE) schools; (2) developing, implementing, and evaluating a strategy for disseminating…

  8. Health Promotion Dissemination and Systems Thinking: Towards an Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Allan; Moor, Gregg; Holmes, Bev; Clark, Pamela I.; Bruce, Ted; Leischow, Scott; Buchholz, Kaye; Krajnak, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Objective:: To help close the gap between health promotion research and practice by using systems thinking. Methods: We review 3 national US tobacco control initiatives and a project (ISIS) that has introduced systems thinking to tobacco control, speculating on ways in which systems thinking may add value to health promotion dissemination and…

  9. Exemplary Dissemination Programs for Intermediate Units Serving Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard

    Utilizing information derived from documents, site visits, correspondence, and personal interviews re: 6 intermediate education units serving rural schools which were initially identified via a mail survey, this report describes intermediate education units with exemplary information dissemination programs. Varying considerably, each program is…

  10. CT of disseminated plasmacytoma - in an AIDS patient

    SciTech Connect

    Leder, D.S.; Nazarian, L.N.; Burke, M.

    1996-05-01

    It is well known that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with increased risk of neoplasms, particularly Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There have been several recent reports in the literature describing plasma cell tumors in AIDS patients. We report the imaging findings in a case of widely disseminated plasmacytoma in a patient with known AIDS. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  11. 40 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... employment, and all unions or professional organizations holding collective bargaining or...

  12. 40 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... employment, and all unions or professional organizations holding collective bargaining or...

  13. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28 Section 2400.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  14. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28 Section 2400.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28 Section 2400.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  16. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28 Section 2400.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  17. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28 Section 2400.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  18. A User's Evaluation of a NASA Regional Dissemination Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovel, M. Terry; Coddington, Dean C.

    Retrospective searches provided by a NASA Regional Dissemination Center (RDC) were found to be of substantial value to researchers during a six-month experimental period at the University of Denver's Research Institute (DRI). The purpose of the experiment was to gain a better understanding of the usefulness of an RDC to a user organization. DRI…

  19. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nature, usage and availability of the energy-related systems and supporting technologies developed or... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20...

  20. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nature, usage and availability of the energy-related systems and supporting technologies developed or... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20...

  1. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nature, usage and availability of the energy-related systems and supporting technologies developed or... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20...

  2. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nature, usage and availability of the energy-related systems and supporting technologies developed or... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20...

  3. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nature, usage and availability of the energy-related systems and supporting technologies developed or... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20...

  4. Disseminated mucormycosis in an adolescent with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Michael C; Moore, Blake A; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Givner, Laurence B; Jason, Donald R; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Ajizian, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    We report a 16-year-old, previously healthy female who presented with disseminated mucormycosis leading to multiorgan failure and death with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. We review previous reported cases of mucormycosis in children with diabetes to demonstrate that this uncommon invasive infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in this population.

  5. A Mobile Technology Framework for the Dissemination of Cultural Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammas, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    The current research proposes a mobile technology framework in cultural heritage setting for the dissemination of cultural memory among its visitors. The framework studies the complex concept of human memory and attempts to adopt the human information perception, as a learning process, on a mobile framework that will allow their users to interact…

  6. How Clientele with Varying Education Levels View Extension Dissemination Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obahayujie, Julius O.; Hillison, John

    1987-01-01

    Studies the dissemination methods and clientele of agricultural extension in rural Virginia. Sample was 300 beef farmers. Identifies typical farmer characteristics. Farmers rate farm visits as beneficial, whereas they rated computer messages and cartoons low. Suggests favored extension methods change with clientele's education levels. Includes…

  7. Disseminated blastomycosis presenting as mastoiditis and epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Makary, Chadia A; Roberts, Thomas D; Wetmore, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection that affects primarily the lungs. Head and neck involvement has been reported most commonly in the larynx as well as oral and nasal mucosa. Temporal bone involvement is extremely rare. We report a case of disseminated blastomycosis presenting as mastoiditis and epidural abscess. We discuss the importance of early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment for optimal outcome.

  8. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  9. 10 CFR 602.18 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 602.18 Section 602.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL... that is published or accepted for publication in a recognized scientific or technical journal and...

  10. 10 CFR 605.20 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 605.20 Section 605.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... publication in a recognized scientific or technical journal and which satisfies the information...

  11. Breast Cancer Lymphatic Dissemination - Influence of Estrogen and Progesterone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    agonist treatments for idiopathic precocious puberty . In press, Journal of Adolescent health. 2007. Harrell JC, Dye WW, Allred DC, Jedlicka P...early disseminated cancer cells detected in bone marrow of breast cancer patients have a putative breast cancer stem cell phenotype. Clin Cancer Res

  12. Moving Research into Practice: Can We Make Dissemination Stick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers in special education have made significant advances in defining and identifying evidence-based practices, scholars often constitute an insular group that disseminates research findings primarily through outlets and venues targeting like-minded researchers using traditional approaches. Thus, despite tangible results in…

  13. Knowledge Generation, Organization Dissemination and Utilization for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.

    A "communication system" paradigm for dissemination of appropriate knowledge, information, and technology needed for effective rural development is briefly described. The paradigm describes six categories of interrelated functions, activities, and processes: (1) scientific knowledge production by carrying out basic and applied research; (2)…

  14. Disseminated folliculitis by Mycobacterium fortuitum in an immunocompetent woman*

    PubMed Central

    Macente, Sara; Helbel, Cesar; Souza, Simone Felizardo Rocha; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Padua, Rubia Andreia Falleiros; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water. Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient. PMID:23539012

  15. 40 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  16. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine: A Regional Dissemination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Wallace, Eleanor Z.; Smith, Lawrence G.; Sullivant, Jean; Dunn, Kathel; McGinn, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Described and evaluated an interactive course designed to create a cadre of medical school faculty in New York who could integrate evidence-based medicine into their training programs. Findings for representatives of 30 internal medicine residency programs show the usefulness of the regional dissemination model used. (SLD)

  17. 40 CFR 5.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 5.140 Section 5.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction §...

  18. Early rehabilitative treatment for pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Carlisi, E; Pavese, C; Mandrini, S; Carenzio, G; Dalla Toffola, E

    2015-06-01

    Although the diagnosis of and therapy for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been extensively investigated, the role of rehabilitation in modifying its functional outcome has received little attention in the literature so far. We report a case of pediatric ADEM who showed complete functional recovery following early rehabilitative treatment, started in the Intensive Care Unit.

  19. Refractory Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Porcel, Federico; Hornik, Alejandro; Rosenblum, Jordan; Borys, Ewa; Biller, José

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is characterized by its rapid progression with variable symptoms and severity in adults and children. Multiple therapeutic options have been proposed, but solid evidence is yet to be gathered. We describe an adult man with a fulminant form of ADEM unresponsive to numerous treatment modalities.

  20. Disseminated Ochroconis gallopava infection in a heart transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Cardeau-Desangles, I; Fabre, A; Cointault, O; Guitard, J; Esposito, L; Iriart, X; Berry, A; Valentin, A; Cassaing, S; Kamar, N

    2013-06-01

    Ochroconis gallopava is an emerging cause of mycosis in solid organ transplant recipients. Herein, we report a rare case of disseminated O. gallopava infection that involved lung, subcutaneous area, brain and peritoneum in a heart transplant recipient. Despite voriconazole therapy, the patient died 2 months after diagnosis.

  1. 48 CFR 1252.242-72 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of contract information. 1252.242-72 Section 1252.242-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... to be published, or distribute for public consumption, any information, oral or written,...

  2. Disseminated folliculitis by Mycobacterium fortuitum in an immunocompetent woman.

    PubMed

    Macente, Sara; Helbel, Cesar; Souza, Simone Felizardo Rocha; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Padua, Rubia Andreia Falleiros; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water. Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient.

  3. 15 CFR 296.31 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 296.31 Section 296.31 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  4. 15 CFR 296.31 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 296.31 Section 296.31 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  5. 15 CFR 296.31 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 296.31 Section 296.31 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  6. 15 CFR 296.31 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 296.31 Section 296.31 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  7. Dissemination Models: Dynamic Ways to Get the Message Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    In response to the need of Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners for means of disseminating information concerning new ideas and practices in their field (particularly the results of "309 Projects" funded under Title III of the Amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1966), The Iowa Model was developed in which the…

  8. Family Connections: Using Collaborative Partnerships to Support Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePanfilis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Spreading and sustaining evidence-informed practice in child welfare is complex. In particular, putting in place an active dissemination strategy requires the recognition of these unique challenges. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how collaborative partnerships between individuals and organizations may represent an opportunity for more…

  9. RED: the analysis, management and dissemination of expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Everitt, R; Minnema, S E; Wride, M A; Koster, C S; Hance, J E; Mansergh, F C; Rancourt, D E

    2002-12-01

    The Rancourt EST Database (RED) is a web-based system for the analysis, management, and dissemination of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). RED represents a flexible template DNA sequence database that can be easily manipulated to suit the needs of other laboratories undertaking mid-size sequencing projects.

  10. Computer Dissemination of Current Literature, An Over-All Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, C. R.

    A resume of the Ames Laboratory Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Computer System is presented. The results of three types of evaluation studies made of the Ames Laboratory SDI systems are discussed which include: evaluation of model studies utilizing restricted document and user sample sizes; statistical evaluation of production runs…

  11. Ames Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) System Operating Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lloyd E.; Wegner, Waldo W.

    The Ames Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) System is an attempt to efficiently place rapidly increasing amounts of information into the hands of scientists and engineers who can exploit it. It is a computerized current awareness system designed to increase researchers' literature searching capabilities by bringing to their attention…

  12. Survey of Current Systems for Selective Dissemination of Information. (SDI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Edward M., Ed.

    Reproductions of 100 fact sheets received in response to a comprehensive survey of known and suspected Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) systems are organized into operational, pilot and planned systems. The survey form was designed to give a detailed picture of system design features, organized so that the reader can rapidly locate…

  13. A rare nonfatal presentation of disseminated Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Ashwin Rajendra; Vijaykumar, Ramaa; Save, Sushma Uttam; Bavdekar, Sandeep Bhalchandra

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of disseminated Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis with multiple liver and splenic abscesses presenting with skin lesions and cardiogenic shock, and later diagnosed to have chronic granulomatous disease. The patient was treated with prolonged antimicrobial therapy, after which she recovered and remained asymptomatic on follow-up.

  14. Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus in a springer spaniel.

    PubMed

    Kahler, J S; Leach, M W; Jang, S; Wong, A

    1990-10-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus was diagnosed in a Springer Spaniel with lethargy, lameness, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, and urinary incontinence. Necropsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and numerous fungal hyphae in many organs. The conidial heads of the fungus have a characteristic briar-pipe appearance in culture.

  15. Case report: Abortion and disseminated infection by Coccidioides posadasii in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus in Southern California☆

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Santiago; Johnson, Suzanne M.; Garcia, Jorge; Carlson, Erin L.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Smith, Jana; Uzal, Francisco A.

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease affecting humans and other mammals caused by the soil-dwelling fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. Abortion due to Coccidioides spp. infection is rare in domestic animals and transplacental transmission is considered uncommon in women. This report describes a case of placental-fetal infection and abortion in an alpaca with disseminated C. posadasii infection. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were used to confirm the etiology, C. posadasii, in fetal tissues. PMID:24432245

  16. Dissemination of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C; Papadopoulos, E

    2015-09-30

    The present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. Systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respiratory system, although dissemination of the various parasitic forms in the environment would not always result to subsequent infection; external parasites may also be disseminated during movements, e.g., to inhabit wooden poles used in fencing. New livestock into a farm constitutes a biosecurity hazard and the most common means to introducing new parasitic pathogens into a farm; in contemporary small ruminant health management, this contributes in dissemination of anthelmintic resistant parasitic strains; other parasitic disease agents (e.g., mange mites, ticks) may also be spread into a farm that way. Often, especially in small scale farming, visits of rams or bucks take place from one farm to another during the mating season; in such cases, ectoparasites (e.g., mange mites) can be disseminated through direct contact of animals, as well other pathogens (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum) via the semen. During transportation of sheep/goats, parasitic forms can also spread, as well as during movement of sheep or goats to slaughterhouses, in which case dogs present in these places would contribute to their dissemination. Spread of life forms of various parasites can also occur from animal species present in the environment of sheep or goats; these include animals present within a farm, stray dogs roaming around a farm (e.g., for spread of Multiceps multiceps, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, N. caninum), cats commanding the environment of a farm (e.g., for

  17. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  18. Lung dendritic cells facilitate extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination during pneumococcal pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rosendahl, Alva; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Medina, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. Given the critical role of dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating and modulating the immune response to pathogens, we investigated here the role of DCs in S. pneumoniae lung infections. Using a well-established transgenic mouse line which allows the conditional transient depletion of DCs, we showed that ablation of DCs resulted in enhanced resistance to intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae. DCs-depleted mice exhibited delayed bacterial systemic dissemination, significantly reduced bacterial loads in the infected organs and lower levels of serum inflammatory mediators than non-depleted animals. The increased resistance of DCs-depleted mice to S. pneumoniae was associated with a better capacity to restrict pneumococci extrapulmonary dissemination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S. pneumoniae disseminated from the lungs into the regional lymph nodes in a cell-independent manner and that this direct way of dissemination was much more efficient in the presence of DCs. We also provide evidence that S. pneumoniae induces expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in cultured bone marrow-derived DCs. MMP-9 is a protease involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins and is critical for DC trafficking across extracellular matrix and basement membranes during the migration from the periphery to the lymph nodes. MMP-9 was also significantly up-regulated in the lungs of mice after intranasal infection with S. pneumoniae. Notably, the expression levels of MMP-9 in the infected lungs were significantly decreased after depletion of DCs suggesting the involvement of DCs in MMP-9 production during pneumococcal pneumonia. Thus, we propose that S. pneumoniae can exploit the DC-derived proteolysis to open tissue barriers thereby facilitating its own dissemination from the local site of infection. PMID:23802100

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Assists Mycobacterial Dissemination in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Mani H.; Medisetti, Raghavender; Ganji, Rakesh; Jakkala, Kiran; Sankati, Swetha; Chatti, Kiranam; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacillus, is a virulence factor involved in inflammasome inactivation and phagosome maturation arrest. We earlier reported that Zmp1 was secreted under granuloma-like stress conditions, induced Th2 cytokine microenvironment and was highly immunogenic in TB patients as evident from high anti-Zmp1 antibody titers in their sera. In this study, we deciphered a new physiological role of Zmp1 in mycobacterial dissemination. Exogenous treatment of THP-1 cells with 500 nM and 1 μM of recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1) resulted in necrotic cell death. Apart from inducing secretion of necrotic cytokines, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β, it also induced the release of chemotactic chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-8, suggesting its likely function in cell migration and mycobacterial dissemination. This was confirmed by Gap closure and Boyden chamber assays, where Zmp1 treated CHO or THP-1 cells showed ∼2 fold increased cell migration compared to the untreated cells. Additionally, Zebrafish-M. marinum based host–pathogen model was used to study mycobacterial dissemination in vivo. Td-Tomato labeled M. marinum (TdM. marinum) when injected with rZmp1 showed increased dissemination to tail region from the site of injection as compared to the untreated control fish in a dose-dependent manner. Summing up these observations along with the earlier reports, we propose that Zmp1, a multi-faceted protein, when released by mycobacteria in granuloma, may lead to necrotic cell damage and release of chemotactic chemokines by surrounding infected macrophages, attracting new immune cells, which in turn may lead to fresh cellular infections, thus assisting mycobacterial dissemination. PMID:27621726

  20. The role of seabirds of the Iles Eparses as reservoirs and disseminators of parasites and pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Karen D.; Dietrich, Muriel; Jaeger, Audrey; Wilkinson, David A.; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; Boulinier, Thierry; Pascalis, Hervé; Tortosa, Pablo; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Lebarbenchon, Camille

    2016-04-01

    The role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of parasites and pathogens has received much attention over the past several years due to their high vagility. Seabirds are particularly interesting hosts in this respect. In addition to incredible long-distance movements during migration, foraging and prospecting, these birds are long-lived, site faithful and breed in dense aggregations in specific colony locations. These different characteristics can favor both the local maintenance and large-scale dissemination of parasites and pathogens. The Iles Eparses provide breeding and feeding grounds for more than 3 million breeding pairs of seabirds including at least 13 species. Breeding colonies on these islands are relatively undisturbed by human activities and represent natural metapopulations in which seabird population dynamics, movement and dispersal can be studied in relation to that of circulating parasites and pathogens. In this review, we summarize previous knowledge and recently-acquired data on the parasites and pathogens found in association with seabirds of the Iles Eparses. These studies have revealed the presence of a rich diversity of infectious agents (viruses, bacteria and parasites) carried by the birds and/or their local ectoparasites (ticks and louse flies). Many of these agents are widespread and found in other ecosystems confirming a role for seabirds in their large scale dissemination and maintenance. The heterogeneous distribution of parasites and infectious agents among islands and seabird species suggests that relatively independent metacommunities of interacting species may exist within the western Indian Ocean. In this context, we discuss how the patterns and determinants of seabird movements may alter parasite and pathogen circulation. We conclude by outlining key aspects for future research given the baseline data now available and current concerns in eco-epidemiology and biodiversity conservation.

  1. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-06-21

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination.

  2. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination. PMID:27338393

  3. Dissemination of psychosocial treatments for anxiety: the importance of taking a broad perspective.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2013-12-01

    Dissemination methods are used to increase the likelihood that a given treatment or form of clinical practice is implemented by clinicians in the community. Therapist training in treatment methods is an important component of dissemination. Successful dissemination also requires that roadblocks to treatment implementation are identified and circumvented, such as misconceptions that clinicians might hold about a given treatment. The present article offers a commentary on the papers included in the special issue on treatment dissemination for anxiety disorders. Most papers focus on issues concerning the training and education of clinicians with regard to exposure therapy. Training and education is an important step but should be part of a broad, multifaceted approach. There are several other important methods of treatment dissemination, including methods developed and implemented with success by the pharmaceutical industry, might also be used to disseminate psychosocial therapies. Optimal dissemination likely requires a broad perspective in which multiple dissemination methods are considered for implementation.

  4. Disseminating evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Zafra; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    The research-practice gap is of concern in the treatment of eating disorders. Despite the existence of empirically supported treatments, few receive them. The barriers to wider dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatment include clinician attitudes towards such treatments and the lack of sufficient numbers of suitably trained therapists to provide treatment. In this review we discuss these barriers in the context of the wider issue of the dissemination and implementation of psychological treatments and review the research with regard to the treatment of eating disorders. Particular emphasis is placed on examining recent efforts to expand the availability and reach of treatments by making treatment delivery and training more scalable. We highlight promising developments and areas where further research is needed.

  5. Editorial opinion: public dissemination of raw turbulence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillero, Juan A.; Jiménez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Many of the papers in this issue deal with processing of pre-existing large-scale turbulence data. We argue here that there is a certain urgency to the discussion of whether raw data should be made publicly available within the turbulence community, and of which are the best procedures, technology and rules for possible dissemination. Besides expressing the personal opinion that such sharing would be advantageous for the field, the urgency mostly arises from the danger that funding agencies and other institutions would otherwise set standards without proper community input. The experience of the Madrid School of Aeronautics with the dissemination of numerical simulation results is briefly reviewed, including the present technological solutions and usage statistics.

  6. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  7. The difficult airway: mechanisms for effective dissemination of critical information.

    PubMed

    Mark, L J; Beattie, C; Ferrell, C L; Trempy, G; Dorman, T; Schauble, J F

    1992-01-01

    The perioperative management and dissemination of critical information regarding a patient with an unexpected difficult intubation, including successful application of a difficult airway algorithm (Figure 1), are described. Documentation and dissemination of critical information include entry of patient data into an in-hospital computerized Difficult Airway/Intubation Registry, simultaneous application of a highly visible Difficult Airway/Intubation Patient Wrist Band (coded for access to computer registry), summary reports distributed to health care providers, and enrollment of the patient in the Medic Alert Foundation International's newly established category difficult airway/intubation for 24-hour access. We postulate that the widespread use of the procedures described in this report may reduce the contribution of unexpected difficult airway/intubation to anesthetic morbidity and mortality.

  8. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Jiménez, Alejandra; Vásquez, Daniel; Robledo, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years). The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis. PMID:26557074

  9. Reframing the dissemination challenge: a marketing and distribution perspective.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental obstacle to successful dissemination and implementation of evidence-based public health programs is the near-total absence of systems and infrastructure for marketing and distribution. We describe the functions of a marketing and distribution system, and we explain how it would help move effective public health programs from research to practice. Then we critically evaluate the 4 dominant strategies now used to promote dissemination and implementation, and we explain how each would be enhanced by marketing and distribution systems. Finally, we make 6 recommendations for building the needed system infrastructure and discuss the responsibility within the public health community for implementation of these recommendations. Without serious investment in such infrastructure, application of proven solutions in public health practice will continue to occur slowly and rarely.

  10. [An autopsy case of periarteritis nodosa associated with disseminated strongyloidiasis].

    PubMed

    Kiyuna, M; Toda, T; Tamamoto, T; Shimajiri, S; Shingaki, Y; Hokama, M; Ohwan, I

    1994-08-01

    An autopsy case of periarteritis nodosa associated with disseminated strongyloidiasis in a 59-year-old woman is reported. The patient had unknown fever of 38 degrees C and marked impairment of renal function, for which pulse therapy of steroid was performed. Electromyogram showed myogenic pattern, and biopsy of the biceps presented necrotizing angitis of small arteries. Renal biopsy showed marked infiltration of lymphocytes in the stroma, and frequent hyalinosis and crescent formation of the glomeruli. Two months after admission, the patient died of respiratory failure associated with sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Postmortem examination disclosed strongyloides stercolaris and fungi in both lungs with extensive hemorrhage. Terminal ileum and ascending colon had multiple erosions, extensive hemorrhage, numerous strongyloides stercolaris, and frequent necrotizing angitis in the mucosa. Necrotizing angitis was also demonstrated in both kidneys.

  11. The importance of interdisciplinary research training and community dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simone V.; Vessali, Misha; Pratt, Jacob A.; Watts, Samantha; Pratt, Janey S.; Raghavan, Preeti; DeSilva, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Funding agencies and institutions are creating initiatives to encourage interdisciplinary research that can be more easily translated into community initiatives to enhance health. Therefore, the current research environment calls for interdisciplinary education and skills to create sustained partnerships with community institutions. However, formalized opportunities in both of these areas are limited for students embarking on research careers. The purpose of this paper is to underscore the historical and current importance of providing interdisciplinary training and community dissemination for research students. We also suggest an approach to begin to address the existing gap. Specifically, we suggest embedding a ten-week summer rotation into existing research curricula with the goals of: 1) providing students with a hands-on interdisciplinary research experience, 2) facilitating dialogue between research students and community settings to disseminate science to the public, and 3) sparking collaborations among researchers who seek to create a way to sustain summer program rotations with grant funding. PMID:26508528

  12. Concept of scientific wildlife conservation and its dissemination

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, Xue-Hong; WAN, Xiao-Tong; JIN, Yu-Hui; ZHANG, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, wildlife conservation has attracted great public attention. However, substantial distinctions can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation, particularly with the recent notion that emphasizes animal rights. Wildlife welfare and wildlife rights are not synonymous, with welfare more compatible with the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the appropriate awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization and the theoretical basis of holism. Nevertheless, rational biases regarding the public’s understanding of wildlife conservation and the spread of information via social media still exist. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the application of several measures. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important disseminators of scientifically-based information, with education in schools and universities of growing importance. Furthermore, the media should shoulder the social responsibility for the accurate dissemination of conservation information. PMID:27686785

  13. GigaDB: promoting data dissemination and reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, Tam P.; Si Zhe, Xiao; Edmunds, Scott C.; Li, Peter; Goodman, Laurie; Hunter, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Often papers are published where the underlying data supporting the research are not made available because of the limitations of making such large data sets publicly and permanently accessible. Even if the raw data are deposited in public archives, the essential analysis intermediaries, scripts or software are frequently not made available, meaning the science is not reproducible. The GigaScience journal is attempting to address this issue with the associated data storage and dissemination portal, the GigaScience database (GigaDB). Here we present the current version of GigaDB and reveal plans for the next generation of improvements. However, most importantly, we are soliciting responses from you, the users, to ensure that future developments are focused on the data storage and dissemination issues that still need resolving. Database URL: http://www.gigadb.org PMID:24622612

  14. THE IPUMS COLLABORATION: INTEGRATING AND DISSEMINATING THE WORLD'S POPULATION MICRODATA

    PubMed Central

    Ruggles, Steven; McCaa, Robert; Sobek, Matthew; Cleveland, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) International partnership is a project of the Minnesota Population Center and national statistical agencies, dedicated to collecting and distributing census data from around the world. IPUMS is currently disseminating data on over a half-billion persons enumerated in more than 250 census samples from 79 countries. The data series includes information on a broad range of population characteristics, including fertility, nuptiality, life-course transitions, migration, labor-force participation, occupational structure, education, ethnicity, and household composition. This paper describes sample characteristics and data structure; the data integration process including the creation of constructed family interrelationship variables; the flexible dissemination system that enables researchers to build customized extracts of pooled census samples across time and place; and some of the most significant findings that have emerged from the database. PMID:26236495

  15. Reframing the Dissemination Challenge: A Marketing and Distribution Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to successful dissemination and implementation of evidence-based public health programs is the near-total absence of systems and infrastructure for marketing and distribution. We describe the functions of a marketing and distribution system, and we explain how it would help move effective public health programs from research to practice. Then we critically evaluate the 4 dominant strategies now used to promote dissemination and implementation, and we explain how each would be enhanced by marketing and distribution systems. Finally, we make 6 recommendations for building the needed system infrastructure and discuss the responsibility within the public health community for implementation of these recommendations. Without serious investment in such infrastructure, application of proven solutions in public health practice will continue to occur slowly and rarely. PMID:19833993

  16. JPEG2000 and dissemination of cultural heritage over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Politou, Eugenia A; Pavlidis, George P; Chamzas, Christodoulos

    2004-03-01

    By applying the latest technologies in image compression for managing the storage of massive image data within cultural heritage databases and by exploiting the universality of the Internet we are now able not only to effectively digitize, record and preserve, but also to promote the dissemination of cultural heritage. In this work we present an application of the latest image compression standard JPEG2000 in managing and browsing image databases, focusing on the image transmission aspect rather than database management and indexing. We combine the technologies of JPEG2000 image compression with client-server socket connections and client browser plug-in, as to provide with an all-in-one package for remote browsing of JPEG2000 compressed image databases, suitable for the effective dissemination of cultural heritage.

  17. Concept of scientific wildlife conservation and its dissemination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Hong; Wan, Xiao-Tong; Jin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-18

    In recent years, wildlife conservation has attracted great public attention. However, substantial distinctions can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation, particularly with the recent notion that emphasizes animal rights. Wildlife welfare and wildlife rights are not synonymous, with welfare more compatible with the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the appropriate awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization and the theoretical basis of holism. Nevertheless, rational biases regarding the public's understanding of wildlife conservation and the spread of information via social media still exist. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the application of several measures. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important disseminators of scientifically-based information, with education in schools and universities of growing importance. Furthermore, the media should shoulder the social responsibility for the accurate dissemination of conservation information.

  18. Multilocular disseminated Tarlov cysts: Importance of imaging and management options

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2012-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of this case study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbosacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances, and (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan in non-invasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of multilocular disseminated TC in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated. PMID:23723584

  19. Multilocular disseminated Tarlov cysts: Importance of imaging and management options.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2012-04-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of this case study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbosacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances, and (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan in non-invasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of multilocular disseminated TC in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated.

  20. Disseminated Histoplasmosis: A Fatal Opportunistic Infection in Disguise

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Kaur, Arshdeep; Selhi, Pavneet Kaur; Puri, Harpreet Kaur; Sood, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is no longer confined to certain geographic areas and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy and organomegaly in HIV-positive patients. We present an unusual case of a 20-year-old immunocompromised male of African origin presenting with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and retroperitoneal and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears from the cervical lymph node revealed numerous yeast forms of histoplasma in macrophages. The patient succumbed to the fulminant infection. Postmortem liver biopsy also revealed infiltration by histoplasma, confirming the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis. This case highlights the variable nature of the clinical presentation of disseminated histoplasmosis which can mimic tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, or lymphoma. FNA cytology is a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tool for early detection and prompt management of histoplasmosis. PMID:27365926

  1. Disseminated pheochromocytoma in a North American river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Patterson, Jon S; Kiupel, Matti; Hencken, Christy; Sikarskie, James G; Harrison, Tara M

    2012-06-01

    A 21-yr-old male North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) with a chronic history of degenerative osteoarthritis was evaluated for acute posterior paralysis. Because no definitive cause was identified and a poor prognosis was expected, the otter was euthanatized. A malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland origin with disseminated metastases to the central nervous system, lymph nodes, diaphragm, pancreas, spleen, and liver was diagnosed on postmortem examination. No clinical signs of disseminated neoplasia had been noted throughout the otter's history. The adrenal neoplasm was composed of nests of epithelial cells surrounded by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A, PGP9.5, metencephalin, and endorphin and negative for melan A and inhibin, confirming a diagnosis of a malignant pheochromocytoma. On the basis of the necropsy finding, metastasis of the pheochromocytoma might have contributed to the observed clinical signs.

  2. Dissemination strategy for immunizing scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Alexandre O.; Barbosa, Valmir C.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the problem of distributing a vaccine for immunizing a scale-free network against a given virus or worm. We introduce a method, based on vaccine dissemination, that seems to reflect more accurately what is expected to occur in real-world networks. Also, since the dissemination is performed using only local information, the method can be easily employed in practice. Using a random-graph framework, we analyze our method both mathematically and by means of simulations. We demonstrate its efficacy regarding the trade-off between the expected number of nodes that receive the vaccine and the network’s resulting vulnerability to develop an epidemic as the virus or worm attempts to infect one of its nodes. For some scenarios, the method is seen to render the network practically invulnerable to attacks while requiring only a small fraction of the nodes to receive the vaccine.

  3. The Science, and Art, of Program Dissemination: Strategies, Successes, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Kathleen P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue is to provide readers with a greater awareness of the processes involved in dissemination, as well as existing supports that help disseminate and sustain evidence-based interventions. Although dissemination research is limited in most disciplines, it is particularly lacking in the social science field. Many…

  4. National Dissemination Conference. Proceedings. (9th, Kansas City, Missouri, June 22-24, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlig, Richard K.

    The objectives of this conference included (1) bringing conferees in contact with leaders of recent national dissemination endeavors, (2) allowing them to interact in voicing dissemination problems and posing possible solutions, and (3) eliciting concerns related to dissemination/diffusion efforts. The proceedings include lists of the…

  5. Research Note--Online Dissemination of Research: Are Professional Associations Making the Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borah, Elisa Vinson; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and practical means of disseminating research to social workers are needed. The authors examined how 10 social work and 10 other helping profession association websites used their sites to disseminate research to their members. A rubric was used to rate the websites in 4 domains: (1) promotion, (2) accessibility, (3) dissemination, and…

  6. Promising Website Practices for Disseminating Research on Family-School Partnerships to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Chavkin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The issue of research dissemination via websites is part of the larger research utilization question, and the authors begin with a review of literature on the theory and best practices in dissemination. The second part of the study involves an exploratory examination of the websites and dissemination practices of 30 research centers focusing on…

  7. Disseminating Chronic Disease Prevention "to or with" Canadian Public Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Jeffrey R.; Robinson, Kerry; Elliott, Susan; Eyles, John

    2009-01-01

    This article follows a conceptual article published in this journal by Elliott et al. and provides an empirical evaluation of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative-Dissemination Phase. Between 1994 and 2005, seven provincial research teams of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative-Dissemination Phase undertook projects to disseminate and evaluate the…

  8. Statewide Dissemination of a Rural, Non-Chain Restaurant Intervention: Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nothwehr, F.; Haines, H.; Chrisman, M.; Schultz, U.

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic calls for greater dissemination of nutrition-related programs, yet there remain few studies of the dissemination process. This study, guided by elements of the RE-AIM model, describes the statewide dissemination of a simple, point-of-purchase restaurant intervention. Conducted in rural counties of the Midwest, United States,…

  9. Developing a Framework for the Dissemination of Educational and R&D Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., New York, NY.

    An indepth study was performed to assess the present status of dissemination in the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, to develop a conceptual framework that would provide a rational base for a dissemination policy, and to recommend an organizational plan for the management of the dissemination activity within…

  10. Disseminated toxoplasmosis presenting as sepsis in two AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carlos José Dornas Gonçalves; Molina, Rodrigo Juliano; de Souza, Murilo Barcelos; Silva, Ana Cristina A; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; dos Reis, Marlene Antonia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2007-01-01

    This report describes two patients who presented acute disseminated and severe toxoplasmosis as the first opportunistic disease related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At admission, clinical and laboratory findings were similar to sepsis or septic shock and a fast evolutive course to death occurred in both cases. At necropsy, an inflammatory reaction and presence of a great number of Toxoplasma gondii cysts and tachyzoites were observed in most organs examined.

  11. First case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a Gorilla gorilla.

    PubMed

    Mischnik, Alexander; Stockklausner, Julia; Hohneder, Nicole; Jensen, Henrik E; Zimmermann, Stefan; Reuss, David E; Rickerts, Volker; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Stockklausner, Clemens

    2014-11-01

    In humans, Cryptococcus mainly infects individuals with HIV infection or other types of immunosuppression. Here, we report the first case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a simian immunodeficiency virus-negative 27-year-old female Gorilla gorilla presenting with lethargy, progressive weight loss and productive cough. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive lung biopsy culture, serum cryptococcal antigen, and cerebral histopathology demonstrating encapsulated yeasts. Molecular characterisation of lung culture isolate yielded Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. An immune-deficiency could not be demonstrated.

  12. Successful treatment of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with amphotericin B lipid complex.

    PubMed

    Koehler, A P; Cheng, A F; Chu, K C; Chan, C H; Ho, A S; Lyon, D J

    1998-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in regions of the Americas, but this infection may be encountered in travellers who return from an endemic region. A case is reported of a disseminated infection in a Hong Kong Chinese man, who was successfully treated with amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) after intolerance and toxicity precluded the use of other antifungal agents. Lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B merit further evaluation in the treatment of coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycoses.

  13. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Oral Manifestation in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Manoj; Mathur, Meetu; Mathur, Setu; Mallikarjun, R.; Banerjee, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    A case of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) in a 60-year-old female patient is reported from Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The patient presented with multiple papules on the skin surrounding the lips, face, torso, trunk, and back. She also complained of growth in the palate. Histoplasmosis was confirmed by biopsy and histopathology of skin and palatal lesions. This case report highlights the presenting features and occurrence of histoplasmosis in nonendemic region in India. PMID:28255468

  14. Disseminated Chrysosporium infection in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Emily; Meler, Erika; Garrett, Katrina; Long, Hanna; Mak, King; Stephens, Carol; Thompson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated Chrysosporium spp. infection was diagnosed in a German shepherd dog based on a positive fungal culture and cytological findings of intralesional fungi associated with granulomatous splenitis and neutrophilic lymphadenitis. The clinical presentation that could mimic a multicentric lymphoma, including markedly enlarged lymph nodes and a very abnormal splenic appearance on ultrasound makes this case even more atypical. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement on oral posaconazole and remains clinically stable ten months after diagnosis. PMID:26937338

  15. Disseminated Streptococcus pneumoniae infection involving a ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, J.S.; Rajagopalan, N.; Huaman, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first reported case, to our knowledge, of disseminated pneumococcal infection involving a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The management of this infection was extremely challenging, requiring multiple surgical debridements, LVAD removal, and prolonged courses of antibiotics. The Streptococcus pneumoniae isolate was found to be serotype 19F, which is included in both the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. This report highlights the importance of routine screening for up-to-date vaccination in patients who undergo LVAD implantation. PMID:26073334

  16. Disseminated Streptococcus pneumoniae infection involving a ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Reeves, J S; Rajagopalan, N; Huaman, M A

    2015-08-01

    We describe the first reported case, to our knowledge, of disseminated pneumococcal infection involving a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The management of this infection was extremely challenging, requiring multiple surgical debridements, LVAD removal, and prolonged courses of antibiotics. The Streptococcus pneumoniae isolate was found to be serotype 19F, which is included in both the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. This report highlights the importance of routine screening for up-to-date vaccination in patients who undergo LVAD implantation.

  17. Data dictionary and formatting standard for dissemination of geotechnical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benoit, J.; Bobbitt, J.I.; Ponti, D.J.; Shimel, S.A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    A pilot system for archiving and web dissemination of geotechnical data collected and stored by various agencies is currently under development. Part of the scope of this project, sponsored by the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) and by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Lifelines Program, is the development of a data dictionary and formatting standard. This paper presents the data model along with the basic structure of the data dictionary tables for this pilot system.

  18. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM): its diagnostic criteria and therapy].

    PubMed

    Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated central nervous system disorder in an individual with genetic susceptibility. It is characterized by acute or subacute onset of multifocal neurologic deficits with encephalopathy, often following a viral illness or vaccination. Since ADEM is diverse in its clinical features, the diagnostic criteria of ADEM require the exclusion of other etiologies. In this review, I will explain the diagnostic algorism and criteria, and therapy of ADEM.

  19. Visualization and dissemination of global crustal models on virtual globes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Pan, Xin; Sun, Jian-zhong

    2016-05-01

    Global crustal models, such as CRUST 5.1 and its descendants, are very useful in a broad range of geoscience applications. The current method for representing the existing global crustal models relies heavily on dedicated computer programs to read and work with those models. Therefore, it is not suited to visualize and disseminate global crustal information to non-geological users. This shortcoming is becoming obvious as more and more people from both academic and non-academic institutions are interested in understanding the structure and composition of the crust. There is a pressing need to provide a modern, universal and user-friendly method to represent and visualize the existing global crustal models. In this paper, we present a systematic framework to easily visualize and disseminate the global crustal structure on virtual globes. Based on crustal information exported from the existing global crustal models, we first create a variety of KML-formatted crustal models with different levels of detail (LODs). And then the KML-formatted models can be loaded into a virtual globe for 3D visualization and model dissemination. A Keyhole Markup Language (KML) generator (Crust2KML) is developed to automatically convert crustal information obtained from the CRUST 1.0 model into KML-formatted global crustal models, and a web application (VisualCrust) is designed to disseminate and visualize those models over the Internet. The presented framework and associated implementations can be conveniently exported to other applications to support visualizing and analyzing the Earth's internal structure on both regional and global scales in a 3D virtual-globe environment.

  20. Endothelial JAM-A promotes reovirus viremia and bloodstream dissemination.

    PubMed

    Lai, Caroline M; Boehme, Karl W; Pruijssers, Andrea J; Parekh, Vrajesh V; Van Kaer, Luc; Parkos, Charles A; Dermody, Terence S

    2015-02-01

    Viruses that cause systemic disease often spread through the bloodstream to infect target tissues. Although viremia is an important step in the pathogenesis of many viruses, how viremia is established is not well understood. Reovirus has been used to dissect mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and is being evaluated in clinical trials as an oncolytic agent. After peroral entry into mice, reovirus replicates within the gastrointestinal tract and disseminates systemically via hematogenous or neural routes. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a tight junction protein that serves as a receptor for reovirus. JAM-A is required for establishment of viremia and viral spread to sites of secondary replication. JAM-A also is expressed on the surface of circulating hematopoietic cells. To determine contributions of endothelial and hematopoietic JAM-A to reovirus dissemination and pathogenesis, we generated strains of mice with altered JAM-A expression in these cell types and assessed bloodstream spread of reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L), which disseminates solely by hematogenous routes. We found that endothelial JAM-A but not hematopoietic JAM-A facilitates reovirus T1L bloodstream entry and egress. Understanding how viruses establish viremia may aid in development of inhibitors of this critical step in viral pathogenesis and foster engineering of improved oncolytic viral vectors.

  1. Predicting links based on knowledge dissemination in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Jia, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    Link prediction is the task of mining the missing links in networks or predicting the next vertex pair to be connected by a link. A lot of link prediction methods were inspired by evolutionary processes of networks. In this paper, a new mechanism for the formation of complex networks called knowledge dissemination (KD) is proposed with the assumption of knowledge disseminating through the paths of a network. Accordingly, a new link prediction method-knowledge dissemination based link prediction (KDLP)-is proposed to test KD. KDLP characterizes vertex similarity based on knowledge quantity (KQ) which measures the importance of a vertex through H-index. Extensive numerical simulations on six real-world networks demonstrate that KDLP is a strong link prediction method which performs at a higher prediction accuracy than four well-known similarity measures including common neighbors, local path index, average commute time and matrix forest index. Furthermore, based on the common conclusion that an excellent link prediction method reveals a good evolving mechanism, the experiment results suggest that KD is a considerable network evolving mechanism for the formation of complex networks.

  2. Disseminating Comparative Effectiveness Research Through Community-based Experiential Learning

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Margaret; Stevenson, Lynn; Davis, Brandy R.; Evans, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To launch and evaluate a comparative effectiveness research education and dissemination program as part of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Methods. First- through third-year PharmD students received training on comparative effectiveness research and disseminated printed educational materials to patients in the community who they were monitoring longitudinally (n=314). Students completed an assessment and initial visit documentation form at the first visit, and a follow-up assessment and documentation form at a subsequent visit. Results. Twenty-three diabetes patients, 29 acid-reflux patients, 30 osteoarthritis patients, and 50 hypertension patients received materials. Aside from the patient asking questions, which was the most common outcome (n=44), the program resulted in 38 additional actions, which included stopping, starting, or changing treatments or health behaviors, or having additional follow-up or diagnostic testing. Small but positive improvements in patient understanding, confidence, and self-efficacy were observed. Conclusions. Dissemination of comparative effectiveness research materials in an IPPE program demonstrated a positive trend in markers of informed decision-making. PMID:28289299

  3. Disseminated necrotic mediastinitis spread from odontogenic abscess: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Filiaci, Fabio; Riccardi, Emiliano; Mitro, Valeria; Piombino, Pasquale; Rinna, Claudio; Agrillo, Alessandro; Ungari, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aims Deep neck infections are rare but potentially fatal complication of pulpal abscess of the teeth. If an infection can progress rapidly from a toothache to a life threatening infection, then it is critical that dentists be able to recognize the danger signs and identify the patients who are at risk. Mediastinitis is a severe inflammatory process involving the connective tissues that fills the intracellular spaces and surrounds the organs in the middle of the chest. This pathology has both an acute and a chronic form and, in most cases, it has an infectious etiology. This study want to expose the experience acquired in the Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences Department, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, regarding two clinical cases of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis starting from an odontogenic abscess. Methods We report two clinical cases of disseminated necrotic mediastinitis with two different medical and surgical approaches. The radiographic and photographic documentation of the patients was collected in the pre-and post-operatively. All patients underwent a CT scan and MRI. Results Mediastinitis can result from a serious odontogenic abscess, and the extent of its inflammation process must be never underestimated. Dental surgeons play a key role as a correct diagnosis can prevent further increasing of the inflammation process. Conclusions A late diagnosis and an inadequate draining represent the major causes of the elevated mortality rate of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis. PMID:26330907

  4. Targeting CBLB as a Potential Therapeutic Approach for Disseminated Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yun; Tang, Juan; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Yixia; Tang, Rong; Ouyang, Song; Zeng, Qiuming; Rappleye, Chad; Rajaram, Murugesan V.S.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Tao, Lijian; Brown, Gordon D.; Langdon, Wallace Y.; Li, Belinda T.; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated candidiasis has become one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired blood stream infections with high mobility and mortality. However, the molecular basis of host defense against disseminated candidiasis remains elusive, and treatment options are limited. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CBLB directs polyubiquitination of dectin-1 and -2, two key pattern recognition receptors for sensing Candida albicans, and their downstream kinase SYK, thus inhibiting dectin-1/2-mediated innate immune responses. CBLB deficiency or inactivation protects mice from systemic infection with a lethal dose of Candida albicans, and deficiency of dectin-1, -2, or both, in Cblb−/− mice abrogates this protection. Importantly, silencing the Cblb gene in vivo protects mice from lethal systemic Candida albicans infection. Our data reveal that CBLB is crucial for homeostatic control of innate immune responses mediated by dectin-1 and -2. Our data also indicate that CBLB represents a potential therapeutic target for protection from disseminated candidiasis. PMID:27428899

  5. A strategy for electronic dissemination of NASA Langley technical publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, Donna G.; Mccaskill, Mary K.; Holland, Scott D.; Walsh, Joanne L.; Nelson, Michael L.; Adkins, Susan L.; Ambur, Manjula Y.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    1994-01-01

    To demonstrate NASA Langley Research Center's relevance and to transfer technology to external customers in a timely and efficient manner, Langley has formed a working group to study and recommend a course of action for the electronic dissemination of technical reports (EDTR). The working group identified electronic report requirements (e.g., accessibility, file format, search requirements) of customers in U.S. industry through numerous site visits and personal contacts. Internal surveys were also used to determine commonalities in document preparation methods. From these surveys, a set of requirements for an electronic dissemination system was developed. Two candidate systems were identified and evaluated against the set of requirements: the Full-Text Electronic Documents System (FEDS), which is a full-text retrieval system based on the commercial document management package Interleaf, and the Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), which is a Langley-developed system based on the publicly available World Wide Web (WWW) software system. Factors that led to the selection of LTRS as the vehicle for electronic dissemination included searching and viewing capability, current system operability, and client software availability for multiple platforms at no cost to industry. This report includes the survey results, evaluations, a description of the LTRS architecture, recommended policy statement, and suggestions for future implementations.

  6. Mechanisms and Targets Involved in Dissemination of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    H. WEIDLE, ULRICH; BIRZELE, FABIAN; KOLLMORGEN, GWENDLYN; RUEGER, RÜDIGER

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is associated with the highest death rate of all gynecological tumors. On one hand, its aggressiveness is based on the rapid dissemination of ovarian cancer cells to the peritoneum, the omentum, and organs located in the peritoneal cavity, and on the other hand, on the rapid development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we focus on the metastatic process of ovarian cancer, which involves dissemination of, homing to and growth of tumor cells in distant organs, and describe promising molecular targets for possible therapeutic intervention. We provide an outline of the interaction of ovarian cancer cells with the microenvironment such as mesothelial cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and other stromal components in the context of approaches for therapeutic interference with dissemination. The targets described in this review are discussed with respect to their validity as drivers of metastasis and to the availability of suitable efficient agents for their blockage, such as small molecules, monoclonal antibodies or antibody conjugates as emerging tools to manage this disease. PMID:27807064

  7. Evolution and phylogeographic dissemination of endemic porcine picornaviruses in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Van Dung, Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Honh; Rabaa, Maia A.; Baker, Stephen; Simmonds, Peter; Woolhouse, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Picornaviridae are important and often zoonotic viruses responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases. However, the evolution and spatial dissemination of different picornaviruses circulating in domestic animals are not well studied. We examined the rate of evolution and time of origin of porcine enterovirus G (EV-G) and porcine kobuvirus species C lineages (PKV-C) circulating in pig farms in Vietnam and from other countries. We further explored the spatiotemporal spread of EV-G and PKV-C in Southwest Vietnam using phylogeographic models. Multiple types of EV-G are co-circulating in Vietnam. The two dominant EV-G types among isolates from Vietnam (G1 and G6) showed strong phylogenetic clustering. Three clades of PKV-C (PKV-C1-3) represent more recent introductions into Vietnam; PKV-C2 is closely related to PKV-C from Southwest China, indicating possible cross-border dissemination. In addition, high virus lineage migration rates were estimated within four districts in Dong Thap province in Vietnam for both EV-G types (G1, G6) and all PKV-C (C1-3) clades. We found that Chau Thanh district is a primary source of both EV-G and PKV-C clades, consistent with extensive pig trading in and out of the district. Understanding the evolution and spatial dissemination of endemic picornaviruses in pigs may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of picornaviruses. PMID:27774295

  8. Annexin 2A sustains glioblastoma cell dissemination and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Maule, Francesca; Bresolin, Silvia; Rampazzo, Elena; Boso, Daniele; Puppa, Alessandro Della; Esposito, Giovanni; Porcù, Elena; Mitola, Stefania; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Accordi, Benedetta; Tumino, Manuela; Basso, Giuseppe; Persano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most devastating tumor of the brain, characterized by an almost inevitable tendency to recur after intensive treatments and a fatal prognosis. Indeed, despite recent technical improvements in GBM surgery, the complete eradication of cancer cell disseminated outside the tumor mass still remains a crucial issue for glioma patients management. In this context, Annexin 2A (ANXA2) is a phospholipid-binding protein expressed in a variety of cell types, whose expression has been recently associated with cell dissemination and metastasis in many cancer types, thus making ANXA2 an attractive putative regulator of cell invasion also in GBM. Here we show that ANXA2 is over-expressed in GBM and positively correlates with tumor aggressiveness and patient survival. In particular, we associate the expression of ANXA2 to a mesenchymal and metastatic phenotype of GBM tumors. Moreover, we functionally characterized the effects exerted by ANXA2 inhibition in primary GBM cultures, demonstrating its ability to sustain cell migration, matrix invasion, cytoskeletal remodeling and proliferation. Finally, we were able to generate an ANXA2-dependent gene signature with a significant prognostic potential in different cohorts of solid tumor patients, including GBM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ANXA2 acts at multiple levels in determining the disseminating and aggressive behaviour of GBM cells, thus proving its potential as a possible target and strong prognostic factor in the future management of GBM patients. PMID:27429043

  9. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  10. Education and dissemination strategies of photoactuation as a novel phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, E. M.; Wenn, D.; Ramos, I.; Esteve, J.; Mamojka, B.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2011-10-01

    In the current information age, scientists and educators are urged to disseminate scientific findings in a prompt manner for increased public acceptance, later on, in the market place. Customer acceptance of highly novel technologies is an education-driven effort that requires attention early-on during the stage of technology development. Prompt attention is particularly needed in technologies where nanoparticles are employed, such as those being developed within the Nano- Optical Mechanical Systems (NOMS) project. Another driving force to disseminate photoactuation is to generate interest and curiosity amongst the K-12 population that could eventually lead to increased enrollment of students in the physical sciences. In this paper, we present a work plan for the dissemination of photoactuation to society at large; from K-12 to the general public. The work plan will be designed in accordance with the logic model, following indications of the National Academy of Sciences, and will include a proposal for evaluating translational research following a process marker model.

  11. Severe disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent patient caused by Veronaea botryosa.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Davoudi, Mehrnaz Mohammad; de Hoog, G S; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Navarrete, Gisela; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid

    2013-06-01

    We present a severe case of disseminated phaeohyphomycosis due to Veronaea botryosa. A 32-year-old female, native from Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico, presented a chronic dermatosis which started 10 years earlier with multiple exophytic, multilobulated, soft, and pedunculated or sessile neoformations of diverse sizes from 2 to 10 cm in diameter, which became verrucose and increased in size. The patient was immunocompetent, and no hereditary or familiar precedents of importance were known. No treatment was given, and the dermatosis remained relatively stable until the patient became pregnant in 2001 and 2003. The infection then exacerbated and worsened, leading to dissemination to the extremities, trunk, and face. The initial diagnosis was chromoblastomycosis which was treated with terbinafine and itraconazole but without visible improvement. Histopathology revealed pigmented, irregular, unbranched, and septate hyphae. Veronaea botryosa was isolated (CBS 127264 = JX566723), and its identity was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. Therapy with posaconazole (800 mg/day) was started showing a gradual improvement of lesions with a reduction in size and flattening of the eruptions.

  12. Disseminated pelvic actinomycosis presenting as metastatic carcinoma: association with the progestasert intrauterine device.

    PubMed

    Perlow, J H; Wigton, T; Yordan, E L; Graham, J; Wool, N; Wilbanks, G D

    1991-01-01

    Actinomycosis is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Actinomyces israelii. Asymptomatic colonization of the cervix with this organism has been noted in users of an intrauterine device (IUD), and its prevalence ranges between 1.6% and 36%. Rarely, symptomatic infection may occur, with the potential for extensive morbidity and even death. Herein we report a patient who survived severe disseminated actinomycosis yet presented with the clinical picture of a metastasized malignancy. This is the first report of disseminated pelvic actinomycosis presenting as an external lesion of the abdominal wall and in which a Progestasert IUD (Alza, Palo Alto, CA) was present. The common difficulty, and thus delay, in diagnosing this disease led to considerable morbidity due to an infection considered curable with penicillin. We recommend that all patients with an IUD or a history of IUD use have such information made known to those responsible for interpreting the Papanicolaou smear. Such knowledge may heighten suspicion and focus attention on the identification of these organisms before onset of clinical disease. It is important to consider this disease when caring for patients with an IUD or when counseling those contemplating its use as a contraceptive.

  13. Impact of anthropogenic activities on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance across ecological boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vijay; Cytryn, Eddie

    2017-02-28

    Antibiotics are considered to be one of the major medical breakthroughs in history. Nonetheless, over the past four decades, antibiotic resistance has reached alarming levels worldwide and this trend is expected to continue to increase, leading some experts to forecast the coming of a 'post-antibiotic' era. Although antibiotic resistance in pathogens is traditionally linked to clinical environments, there is a rising concern that the global propagation of antibiotic resistance is also associated with environmental reservoirs that are linked to anthropogenic activities such as animal husbandry, agronomic practices and wastewater treatment. It is hypothesized that the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) within and between environmental microbial communities can ultimately contribute to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Nonetheless, the scope of this phenomenon is not clear due to the complexity of microbial communities in the environment and methodological constraints that limit comprehensive in situ evaluation of microbial genomes. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance in non-clinical environments, specifically focusing on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance across ecological boundaries and the contribution of this phenomenon to global antibiotic resistance.

  14. Cerebral embolism through hematogenous dissemination of pulmonary mucormycosis complicating relapsed leukemia.

    PubMed

    Higo, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yamazaki, Sho; Ando, Sumiyo; Gonoi, Wataru; Ishida, Masanori; Okuma, Hidemi; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Ohtomo, Kuni; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2015-01-01

    Invasive mucormycosis in patients with hematological diseases mostly occurs in the lungs. Invasive mucormycosis of other anatomical sites is relatively infrequent and its pathogenesis has not so far been well elucidated. Here, we describe an autopsy case of pulmonary invasive mucormycosis complicated by cerebral embolism with infarct. A 77-year-old Japanese woman with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia complained of left visual disturbance and weakness of the lower limbs. The diagnosis of leukemic infiltration to the central nervous system was made. Repeated intrathecal injection of methotrexate plus cytarabine resulted in partial amelioration of the neurologic symptoms. However, the patient then developed fever, dyspnea, and subsequent right hemiparesis. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a consolidative shadow with halo sign in the left lung field, which was compatible with either invasive pulmonary aspergillosis or mucormycosis. These findings accounted for fever and dyspnea, but not hemiparesis. Despite antifungal therapy, the patient succumbed to death after two weeks. Autopsy revealed pulmonary invasive mucormycosis with a fungal ball in the lumina of the adjacent ascending aorta. Intriguingly, autopsy and postmortem CT scan identified left cerebral infarct due to mucormycosis, which accounted for the right hemiparesis. It is likely that the fungal ball caused the cerebral embolism through hematogenous dissemination. We should suspect hematogenous dissemination when we see a patient with pulmonary invasive mucormycosis developing neurologic symptoms.

  15. Disseminated histoplasmosis and aids: relapse and late mortality in endemic area in North-Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dasmasceno, Lisandra Serra; Novaes, Alberto Ramos; Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais; Lima, Daniel Teixeira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Gonçalves, Maria Vânia Freitas; de Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima; Leitão, Terezinha do Menino Jesus Silva

    2013-09-01

    The State of Ceará in north-eastern Brazil has one of the highest rates in the world of relapse and death due to disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The objective of this study is to characterise the relapse and mortality of DH in AIDS cases residents in Ceará. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of AIDS patients who had a first episode of DH from 2002 to 2008. We analysed the outcomes until December 31, 2010. A total of 145 patients participated in the study. The mean clinical follow-up duration was 3.38 years (SD = 2.2; 95% CI = 3.01-3.75). The majority of the subjects were male with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 2.2; 95% CI = 3.01-3.75) and were born in the capital of Ceará. DH was the first manifestation of AIDS in 59% of the patients. The relapse rate was 23.3%, with a disseminated presentation in 90% of these patients. The overall mortality during the study period was 30.2%. The majority of patients who relapsed or died had irregular treatment with antifungals or highly active antiretroviral therapy and did not have active clinical follow-up. High rates of recurrence and mortality were found in AIDS-associated DH in this area of the country.

  16. Murine model of disseminated fusariosis: evaluation of the fungal burden by traditional CFU and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    González, Gloria M; Márquez, Jazmín; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Palma-Nicolás, José P; Garza-González, Elvira; Ceceñas, Luis A; Gerardo González, J

    2013-10-01

    Systemic disease is the most severe clinical form of fusariosis, and the treatment involves a challenge due to the refractory response to antifungals. Treatment for murine Fusarium solani infection has been described in models that employ CFU quantitation in organs as a parameter of therapeutic efficacy. However, CFU counts do not precisely reproduce the amount of cells for filamentous fungi such as F. solani. In this study, we developed a murine model of disseminated fusariosis and compared the fungal burden with two methods: CFU and quantitative PCR. ICR and BALB/c mice received an intravenous injection of 1 × 10(7) conidia of F. solani per mouse. On days 2, 5, 7, and 9, mice from each mice strain were killed. The spleen and kidneys of each animal were removed and evaluated by qPCR and CFU determinations. Results from CFU assay indicated that the spleen and kidneys had almost the same fungal burden in both BALB/c and ICR mice during the days of the evaluation. In the qPCR assay, the spleen and kidney of each mouse strain had increased fungal burden in each determination throughout the entire experiment. The fungal load determined by the qPCR assay was significantly greater than that determined from CFU measurements of tissue. qPCR could be considered as a tool for quantitative evaluation of fungal burden in experimental disseminated F. solani infection.

  17. Oral manifestations of chronic disseminated histiocytosis. A report of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, Ignacio; Mínguez, Juan Manuel; Bonet, Jaime; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Sanchis, José María

    2004-01-01

    Chronic disseminated histiocytosis is a systemic disorder resulting from tumor proliferation of Langerhans-type histiocytic cells. The etiology and pathogenesis are not fully clear, though the clinical manifestations are the result of the accumulation and infiltration of these types of cells in organs and tissues. The present study reports 10 patients (6 boys and 4 girls) with chronic disseminated histiocytosis. The patient age at onset of the disease varied from 4 months to 3.2 years (mean 1.7 years). All patients had oral lesions, and in 5 cases these were the first manifestation of the disease. The most frequent alterations were gingival bleeding (7 cases), aphthae measuring over 1 cm in diameter (6 cases), maxillary osteolytic lesions (6 cases), tooth loss due to expulsive folliculitis (5 cases), oral candidiasis (4 cases), orofacial swelling (3 cases), aphthae measuring under 1 cm in diameter (3 cases), and nonspecific oral pain (2 cases). All the oral lesions disappeared with the treatments prescribed, though some patients developed new outbreaks and exacerbations of the disease.

  18. [A case of cat-scratch-induced Pasteurella multocida infection presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure].

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Takahiko; Morisawa, Yuji

    2009-09-01

    Domestic animals are the main reservoirs of Pasteurella species for human zoonosis due to bites and scratches. Pasterurella multocida may cause serious soft-tissue infection and, less commonly, sepsis or septic shock, particularly in insufficient initial therapy and an immunocompromised host. We report a case of cat-scratch-induced P. multocida infection, presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A febrile 83-year-old woman with consciousness disturbance and a subcutaneous left-foot abscess due to a scratch from a pet cat. She was successfully treated with antibiotic piperacillin and clindamycin therapy and aggressive wound drainage.

  19. Lymphatic Dissemination of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus after Penile Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Min; Dutra, Joseph; Fritts, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily transmitted by heterosexual contact, and approximately equal numbers of men and women worldwide are infected with the virus. Understanding the biology of HIV acquisition and dissemination in men exposed to the virus by insertive penile intercourse is likely to help with the rational design of vaccines that can limit or prevent HIV transmission. To characterize the target cells and dissemination pathways involved in establishing systemic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, we necropsied male rhesus macaques at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after penile SIV inoculation and quantified the levels of unspliced SIV RNA and spliced SIV RNA in tissue lysates and the number of SIV RNA-positive cells in tissue sections. We found that penile (glans, foreskin, coronal sulcus) T cells and, to a lesser extent, macrophages and dendritic cells are primary targets of infection and that SIV rapidly reaches the regional lymph nodes. At 7 days after inoculation, SIV had disseminated to the blood, systemic lymph nodes, and mucosal lymphoid tissues. Further, at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), spliced SIV RNA levels were the highest in the genital lymph nodes, indicating that this is the site where the infection is initially amplified. By 14 days p.i., spliced SIV RNA levels were high in all tissues, but they were the highest in the gastrointestinal tract, indicating that the primary site of virus replication had shifted from the genital lymph nodes to the gut. The stepwise pattern of virus replication and dissemination described here suggests that vaccine-elicited immune responses in the genital lymph nodes could help prevent infection after penile SIV challenge. IMPORTANCE To be the most effective, vaccines should produce antiviral immune responses in the anatomic sites of virus replication. Thus, understanding the path taken by HIV from the mucosal surfaces, which are the site of virus exposure, to the deeper tissues where

  20. Neonatal cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis in a preterm extremely-low-birth-weight infant with favourable outcome at 3-year follow-up: a case report.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, P; Rizzollo, S; Monetti, C; Carbonara, C; Priolo, C; Mastretta, E; Barberis, L; Galletto, P; Cigna, P; Leonessa, M L; Sala, U; Gomirato, G; Mostert, M; Stronati, M; Ruffinazzi, G; Tzialla, C; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Kaguelidou, F; Farina, D

    2012-05-01

    Invasive disseminated neonatal aspergillosis is an uncommon disease, with only scattered reports in literature in the last few years. Here we report on a 25-week gestational age, 730 g at birth preterm female infant who developed on day-of-life 10 multiple cutaneous exhulcerative lesions in her right arm, trunk and abdomen. Early recognition and diagnosis of these lesions as a due to cutaneous initial symptom of cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis, as well as prompt treatment with Liposomal amphotericin B + Itraconazole, secured successful recovery from the systemic infection. Skin lesions healed without any surgical treatment. The infant was discharged in good health. Long-term follow-up at three years of age revealed normality of all neurodevelopmental and cognitive parameters. To our knowledge, this is one of the very few cases of survival, free from sequelae, for a preterm infant affected by neonatal cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis.

  1. Information dissemination analysis of different media towards the application for disaster pre-warning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster.

  2. Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the Application for Disaster Pre-Warning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster. PMID:24878739

  3. Due process traditionalism.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  4. Disseminated gestational choriocarcinoma presenting with hepatic and uveal metastases, hook effect, and choriocarcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aswani, Yashant; Thakkar, Hemangini; Hira, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)-secreting tumor that comprises vascular channels. It has a tendency for widespread metastasis, common sites for which include the lung, vagina, brain, liver, bone, intestine, and kidney. We describe a 30-year-old female who presented with hepatitis-like features and bilateral diminution of vision, and subsequently developed hemothorax and hemoperitoneum—all rare and seemingly unrelated manifestations which were finally attributable to metastases from gestational choriocarcinoma. To further complicate the clinical scenario, the serum HCG of the patient was mildly raised (due to a phenomenon called hook effect). Subsequently, the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and succumbed to her illness. In this report, we discuss the imaging findings of choriocarcinoma, its potential sites of metastases, and the hook effect. PMID:28104943

  5. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children as the result of aseptic meningitis - a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Gołąbek, Violetta; Woźniakowska-Gęsicka, Teresa; Sokołowska, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammation of the spinal cord and brain. Diagnosis of ADEM, due to its rare occurrence and lack of definite laboratory indices, is difficult and is never totally certain. The clinical criterion required for the diagnosis is presence of acute symptoms from the brain and/or spine with fever, occurring after viral or bacterial infection, vaccination or serum administration. Differentiation between ADEM and acute multiple sclerosis in children is difficult, and diagnosis of ADEM may only be confirmed after years of observation, especially as multiple sclerosis is more common than ADEM. The most useful tool in differentiation between the two diseases is MRI. The aim of the study was to present two cases of ADEM with unknown aetiology after aseptic meningitis in children.

  6. DISSEMINATED REFRACTARY TUBERCULOSIS WITH BICEPS TENDON INVOLVEMENT IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis Oliveira, Marcelo; Schiefer, Márcio; da Silva, Marcos Britto; Fontenelle, César; Júnior, Yonder Archanjo Ching-San; Franco, José Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors report a rare case of disseminated tuberculosis which had compromised the long head of biceps tendon and shoulder joint, during standard drug therapy. Methods: On a first sight, the accurate diagnosis wasn't accomplished and the patient had been treated with physiotherapy for rotator cuff tear. However, the patient presented with a fast growing mass in anterior region of the proximal third of the arm, complaining of pain increase. Aspirative punction of the mass revealed a yellow fluid and the laboratorial analysis confirmed infection by M. Tuberculosis. The patient was treated with surgical debridement and his drug therapy was changed. Results: Resolution of infectious status and complete shoulder function restoration was succeeded. Conclusion: Due to its high prevalence in Brazil, tuberculosis must always be considered as a possible cause of inflammatory joint disease, even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27004180

  7. Two Papers on Educational Innovation and Dissemination. 1. Educational Innovation: Substance and Process. 2. "Post-Sputnik" Trends in Educational Dissemination Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Matilda B.; Paisley, William J.

    In the first paper of this set, a paradigm which was developed in communication and diffusion research is adapted to define the educational innovation process in the form of producer-product-dissemination-users-adoption. Dissemination and adoption are subject to a number of factors, which can be further detailed. Previously innovation was seen as…

  8. Successful Treatment of Corticosteroid with Antiviral Therapy for a Neonatal Liver Failure with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Maeba, Shinji; Hasegawa, Shunji; Shimomura, Maiko; Ichimura, Takuya; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Motoyama, Masashi; Fukunaga, Shinnosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2015-10-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection carries one of the poorest outcomes of neonatal liver failure (NLF). Neonates with disseminated HSV infection can develop hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and occasionally need orthotopic liver transplantation. Early interventions may be critical for the cure of NLF. Case Report We describe herewith a 6-day-old neonate with fulminant hepatic failure due to disseminated HSV-1 infection, who successfully responded to high-dose corticosteroid therapy 72 hours after the onset of disease. Preceding acyclovir, gamma globulin, and exchange blood transfusion therapies failed to control the disease. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy led to a drastic improvement of liver function and cytokine storms, and prevented the disease progression to HLH. Sustained levels of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid HSV DNA declined after prolonged acyclovir therapy. Bilateral lesions of the periventricular white matter areas, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, disappeared at 3 months of age. The infant showed normal growth and development at 4 years of age. Conclusion Early anti-hypercytokinemia therapy using corticosteroid, and prolonged antiviral therapy might only provide the transplantation-free cure of NLF with HSV dissemination.

  9. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation after Surgery for Facial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Hirohiko; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Yusa, Kazuyuki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A case of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) presenting after surgery for facial trauma associated with multiple facial bone fractures is described. With regard to the oral and maxillofacial region, DIC has been described in the literature following head trauma, infection, and metastatic disease. Until now, only 5 reports have described DIC after surgery for facial injury. DIC secondary to facial injury is thus rare. The patient in this case was young and had no medical history. Preoperative hemorrhage or postoperative septicemia may thus induce DIC. PMID:27313913

  10. Review and developments of dissemination models for airborne carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    Dissemination prediction models were reviewed to determine their applicability to a risk assessment for airborne carbon fibers. The review showed that the Gaussian prediction models using partial reflection at the ground agreed very closely with a more elaborate diffusion analysis developed for the study. For distances beyond 10,000 m the Gaussian models predicted a slower fall-off in exposure levels than the diffusion models. This resulting level of conservatism was preferred for the carbon fiber risk assessment. The results also showed that the perfect vertical-mixing models developed herein agreed very closely with the diffusion analysis for all except the most stable atmospheric conditions.

  11. Medical and surgical management of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B D; Kosmorsky, G S; Cohen, B H

    1994-12-01

    Two children with a recent history of viral illness developed visual loss secondary to optic neuritis. Clinical findings and neuroimaging were consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Markedly elevated opening pressures were noted on lumbar puncture. The patients demonstrated an initial favorable response to high-dose corticosteroid administration. Both had recurrence of symptoms after being tapered off oral corticosteroids. High-dose corticosteroids were reinstituted and a bilateral optic nerve sheath decompression was performed on one patient who developed profound visual loss. A second patient underwent a lumboperitoneal shunt. Both children had resolution of their symptoms and had a recovery of normal visual acuity.

  12. Study of Disseminating Landslide Early Warning Information in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Lateh, Habibah; Tien Tay, Lea; Ahamd, Jamilah; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Jamaludin, Suhaimi

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, rain induced landslides are occurring more often than before. The Malaysian Government allocates millions of Malaysian Ringgit for slope monitoring and slope failure remedial measures in the budget every year. In rural areas, local authorities also play a major role in monitoring the slope to prevent casualty by giving information to the residents who are staying near to the slopes. However, there are thousands of slopes which are classified as high risk slopes in Malaysia. Implementing site monitoring system in these slopes to monitor the movement of the soil in the slopes, predicting the occurrence of slopes failure and establishing early warning system are too costly and almost impossible. In our study, we propose Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity prediction method to predict the slope failure by referring to the predicted rainfall data from radar and the rain volume from rain gauges. The critical line which determines if the slope is in danger, is generated by simulator with well-surveyed the soil property in the slope and compared with historical data. By establishing such predicting system, the slope failure warning information can be obtained and disseminated to the surroundings via SMS, internet and siren. However, establishing the early warning dissemination system is not enough in disaster prevention, educating school children and the community by giving knowledge on landslides, such as landslide's definition, how and why does the slope failure happen and when will it fail, to raise the risk awareness on landslides will reduce landslides casualty, especially in rural area. Moreover, showing video on the risk and symptom of landslides in school will also help the school children gaining the knowledge of landslides. Generating hazard map and landslides historical data provides further information on the occurrence of the slope failure. In future, further study on fine tuning of landslides prediction method, applying IT technology to

  13. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  14. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Viboud, Cécile

    2012-12-07

    We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

  15. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  16. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Israel; Kennedy, Peter G E

    2015-10-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually an acute, multi-focal, and monophasic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. The disorder is mainly a condition of the pediatric age group, but neurologists are also involved in the management of adult patients. The lack of defined diagnostic criteria for ADEM underlies the limited understanding of its epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, course, prognosis, therapy, as well as the association with, and distinction from, multiple sclerosis. The present review summarizes current knowledge and outlines unanswered questions the answers to which should be eventually provided through a synergistic combination of clinical and basic research.

  17. Disseminated tumor cells: are they ready for clinical use?

    PubMed

    Braun, Stephan; Vogl, Florian D; Schneitter, Alois; Egle, Daniel; Auer, Doris; Lang, Margarete; Marth, Christian

    2007-12-01

    During the past three decades, efforts successfully established the presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in bone marrow as a prognostic factor. These works were comprehensively evaluated in a pooled analysis that now permits to classify the prognostic significance of DTC as level I evidence. Intriguing molecular data suggest a role for tumor stem cells possibly responsible for the prognostic impact of DTC. In a typical clinical setting of the year 2007, DTC--irrespectively of the strong prognostic significance--would only have a convincing clinical application if DTC were a surrogate marker for treatment efficacy. Consequently, this important question is to be addressed in well-designed clinical trials.

  18. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy: Theoretical Background, Empirical Research, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT), developed by Drs. Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson, builds off the tradition of behavioral couple therapy by including acceptance strategies as key components of treatment. Results from a large randomized clinical trial of IBCT indicate that it yields large and significant gains in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, these benefits have been shown to persist for at least 5 years after treatment for the average couple. Not only does IBCT positively impact relationship constructs such as satisfaction and communication, but the benefits of therapy extend to individual, co-parenting, and child functioning. Moreover, IBCT has been shown to operate through the putative mechanisms of improvements in emotional acceptance, behavior change, and communication. IBCT was chosen for nationwide training and dissemination through the Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Furthermore, the principles of IBCT have been translated into a web-based intervention for distressed couples, OurRelationship.com. IBCT is continuing to evolve and grow as research and technologies allow for continued evaluation and dissemination of this well-supported theoretical model.

  19. Acute Disseminated Talaromyces marneffei in An Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingli; Chen, Youfei; Xu, Hao; Ding, Liren; Wu, Zuqun; Xu, Zhijiang; Wang, Kai

    2017-03-27

    Talaromyces marneffei (also called Penicilliosis Marneffei or T. marneffei) is a rare fungal disease that is prevalent mainly in Southeast Asia and commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. It was rarely observed in immunocompetent hosts. We report a case of acute disseminated T. marneffei in an immunocompetent patient in the non-prevalent region. This patient had never visited the endemic area. The patient experienced a persistent fever. Brain CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass in the right frontal with osteolytic damage. Excessive white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein content were observed. Antibiotics including meropenem and linezolid could not play an effect, and another two hard masses appeared in his right neck and front chest wall. The aspirates from the right frontal mass and bone marrow were cultured. The final diagnose of this infection was disseminated T. marneffei. After voriconazole treatment, all symptoms improved gradually. We present this case and aim to promote more clinicians and microbiologists in the non-endemic region to recognize this rare disease.

  20. Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Madarame, H; Takai, S; Jose, S; Wernery, U

    2011-04-21

    Rhodococcus (R). equi, a recognized pathogen in horses, is emerging as a human opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromized people. It affects also New World camelids, but there are no reports of R. equi infection in Old World camelids yet. Four cases of disseminated R. equi infection in adult breeding dromedaries occurred at one camel farm near Dubai within 16 months of each other. At necropsy the lungs were diffusely consolidated with large caseous areas. Histology revealed severe suppurative to necrotising pneumonia with multiple encapsulated abscesses. Immunohistochemistry enabled the detection of 15- to 17-kDa antigens (VapA) of R. equi in the lung sections. High numbers of R. equi were isolated from the lung lesions as well as from liver, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes, indicative of septicaemia. The isolated strains were PCR-positive for the specific virulence plasmid (VapA-Gen) of R. equi, indicating virulent strains and containing an 85-kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of disseminated R. equi infection in Old World camelids. Since adult camels in general do not suffer from bacterial caused pneumonia (except tuberculosis), this is a new emerging disease for camels.

  1. An Operational Geodatabase Service for Disseminating Raster Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asante, K. O.

    2009-12-01

    The volume of raster time series data available for earth science applications is rapidly expanding with improvements in spatial and temporal resolution of earth imaging from remote sensing missions. Current dissemination systems are typically designed for mission efficiency rather than supporting the various needs of diverse user communities. This promotes the building of multiple archives of the same dataset by end users who acquire the skills needed to establish and maintain their own data streams. Such processing often becomes a barrier to the adoption of new datasets. This presentation describes the development of an operational geodatabase service for the dissemination of raster time series. The service combines innovative geocoding schemes with traditional database and geospatial capabilities to facilitate direct access to raster time series. It includes functionality such as search and retrieval, data segmentation, trend analysis and direct integration into third-party applications using predefined data schemas. The service allows end users to interact with data using simple web-based tools without the need for complex data processing skills. A live implementation of the service is demonstrated using sample global environmental datasets.

  2. The widest practicable dissemination: The NASA technical report server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.; Binkley, Robert L.; Kellogg, Yvonne D.; Paulson, Sharon S.; Beaumont, Chris J.; Schmunk, Robert B.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 established NASA and charged it to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning...its activities and the results thereof.' The search for innovative methods to distribute NASA's information lead a grass-roots team to create the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), which uses the World Wide Web and other popular Internet-based information systems as search engines. The NTRS is an inter-center effort which provides uniform access to various distributed publication servers residing on the Internet. Users have immediate desktop access to technical publications from NASA centers and institutes. The NTRS is comprised of several units, some constructed especially for inclusion in NTRS, and others that are existing NASA publication services that NTRS reuses. This paper presents the NTRS architecture, usage metrics, and the lessons learned while implementing and maintaining the services over the initial six-month period. The NTRS is largely constructed with freely available software running on existing hardware. NTRS builds upon existing hardware and software, and the resulting additional exposure for the body of literature contained will allow NASA to ensure that its institutional knowledge base will continue to receive the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination.

  3. The Widest Practicable Dissemination: The NASA Technical Report Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.; Binkley, Robert L.; Kellogg, Yvonne D.; Paulson, Sharon S.; Beaumont, Chris J.; Schmunk, Robert B.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 established NASA and charged it to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning [...] its activities and the results thereof." The search for innovative methods to distribute NASA s information lead a grass-roots team to create the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), which uses the World Wide Web and other popular Internet-based information systems as search engines. The NTRS is an inter-center effort which provides uniform access to various distributed publication servers residing on the Internet. Users have immediate desktop access to technical publications from NASA centers and institutes. The NTRS is comprised of several units, some constructed especially for inclusion in NTRS, and others that are existing NASA publication services that NTRS reuses. This paper presents the NTRS architecture, usage metrics, and the lessons learned while implementing and maintaining the services over the initial 6-month period. The NTRS is largely constructed with freely available software running on existing hardware. NTRS builds upon existing hardware and software, and the resulting additional exposure for the body of literature contained will allow NASA to ensure that its institutional knowledge base will continue to receive the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination.

  4. [Bicalutamide monotherapy of patients with disseminated forms of prostatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Pushkar', D Iu; Kosko, D; Bernikov, A N

    2001-01-01

    Combined antiandrogen therapy (complete androgen blocking) implies surgical or chemical castration in combination with antiandrogen therapy. Both sources of androgens are thus blocked in patients with locally disseminated prostatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of bikalutamide (150 mg) monotherapy. The study was carried out in 58 patients with prostatic cancer (stages T3-T4) divided into 2 groups: 1) bikalutamide monotherapy (150 mg daily) and 2) bikalutamide (50 mg daily) + bilateral orchidectomy. All patients were examined before and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the beginning of therapy. The efficiency of non-steroid antiandrogen was higher in group 1. The mean level of prostate-specific antigen in this group decreased to 10.6 ng/ml by 24 months, while in group 2 to 25.3 ng/ml. Hence, bicalutamide was effective, safe, and well tolerated in our study, and is therefore recommended as monotherapy for patients with disseminated forms of prostatic cancer.

  5. Community Dissemination and Genetic Research: Moving Beyond Results Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Susan Brown; Ludman, Evette J.; Hopkins, Scarlett; James, Rosalina D.; Hoeft, Theresa J.; Kinegak, Annie; Lupie, Henry; Kinegak, Ralph; Boyer, Bert B.; Burke, Wylie

    2015-01-01

    The community-based participatory research (CBPR) literature notes that researchers should share study results with communities. In the case of human genetic research, results may be scientifically interesting but lack clinical relevance. The goals of this study were to learn what kinds of information community members want to receive about genetic research and how such information should be conveyed. We conducted 8 focus group discussions with Yup’ik Alaska Native people in southwest Alaska (N=60) and 6 (N=61) with members of a large health maintenance organization in Seattle, Washington. Participants wanted to receive genetic information they “could do something about” and wanted clinically actionable information to be shared with their healthcare providers; they also wanted researchers to share knowledge about other topics of importance to the community. Although Alaska Native participants were generally less familiar with western scientific terms and less interested in web-based information sources, the main findings were the same in Alaska and Seattle: participants wished for ongoing dialogue, including opportunities for informal, small-group conversations and receiving information that had local relevance. Effective community dissemination is more than a matter of presenting study results in lay language. Community members should be involved in both defining culturally appropriate communication strategies and in determining which information should be shared. Reframing dissemination as a two-way dialogue, rather than a one-way broadcast, supports the twin aims of advancing scientific knowledge and achieving community benefit. PMID:25900516

  6. The syndrome of pneumococcemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and asplenia.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, M E; MacKenzie, C R

    1979-01-01

    A 58-year-old man who survived an episode of fulminant pneumococcal septicemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation had undergone splenectomy 23 years previously. In the literature there are 25 reported cases of fulminant septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with asplenia in adults (excluding cases in which corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy was given). The pneumococcus was responsible for all of these cases as well. The mortality in this series was more than 90%, and death occurred within 24 hours of presentation at hospital in almost 70% of the fatal cases and was associated with high-density bacteremia and adrenal hemorrhage. Gram-staining of the buffy coat of the peripheral blood or the exudate from purpuric skin lesions was carried out in only 6 of the 26 cases but yielded positive results in all but 1. It is concluded that a diagnosis of septicemia in asplenic adults can be established within a short time of presentation on the basis of statistical probability and the results of Gram-staining of the peripheral blood and exudate from the skin lesions. Prevention appears to be the cornerstone of management because of the variable interval from splenectomy to the onset of the syndrome and the high mortality. Images FIG. 1 PMID:38002

  7. Lupus Flare: An Uncommon Presentation of Disseminated Gonorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the US with 700,000 annual cases. Although most cases of gonorrhea are localized, approximately 0.5–3% become disseminated. Here we discuss a rare case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed septic shock from disseminated gonorrhea infection (DGI). Our patient is a 24-year-old woman with SLE, mixed connective tissue disease with cutaneous vasculitis, and lupus nephritis who presented with several weeks of malaise and generalized body aches associated with a diffuse rash along her fingers, palms, and trunk. Infectious workup was unrevealing with the exception of a positive gonorrhea test obtained from a cervical swab. Given her symptoms of tenosynovitis, the appearance of her skin lesions, and her positive gonorrhea test, she was diagnosed with septic shock secondary to DGI. With antibiotic treatment, the patient reported a dramatic improvement of the pain in her swollen joints and her rash receded. Patients diagnosed with SLE carry an increased risk of gonorrhea regardless of whether or not they are being treated for their SLE. Although it is well-documented that SLE is associated with severe DGI, few describe it resulting in overt septic shock. PMID:25024709

  8. Bioinformatics education dissemination with an evolutionary problem solving perspective.

    PubMed

    Jungck, John R; Donovan, Samuel S; Weisstein, Anton E; Khiripet, Noppadon; Everse, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Bioinformatics is central to biology education in the 21st century. With the generation of terabytes of data per day, the application of computer-based tools to stored and distributed data is fundamentally changing research and its application to problems in medicine, agriculture, conservation and forensics. In light of this 'information revolution,' undergraduate biology curricula must be redesigned to prepare the next generation of informed citizens as well as those who will pursue careers in the life sciences. The BEDROCK initiative (Bioinformatics Education Dissemination: Reaching Out, Connecting and Knitting together) has fostered an international community of bioinformatics educators. The initiative's goals are to: (i) Identify and support faculty who can take leadership roles in bioinformatics education; (ii) Highlight and distribute innovative approaches to incorporating evolutionary bioinformatics data and techniques throughout undergraduate education; (iii) Establish mechanisms for the broad dissemination of bioinformatics resource materials and teaching models; (iv) Emphasize phylogenetic thinking and problem solving; and (v) Develop and publish new software tools to help students develop and test evolutionary hypotheses. Since 2002, BEDROCK has offered more than 50 faculty workshops around the world, published many resources and supported an environment for developing and sharing bioinformatics education approaches. The BEDROCK initiative builds on the established pedagogical philosophy and academic community of the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium to assemble the diverse intellectual and human resources required to sustain an international reform effort in undergraduate bioinformatics education.

  9. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Updates on an inflammatory CNS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Daniela; Alper, Gulay; Van Haren, Keith; Kornberg, Andrew J; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Tenembaum, Silvia; Belman, Anita L

    2016-08-30

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance. ADEM is clinically defined by acute polyfocal neurologic deficits including encephalopathy. MRI typically demonstrates reversible, ill-defined white matter lesions of the brain and often also the spinal cord, along with frequent involvement of thalami and basal ganglia. CSF analysis may reveal a mild pleocytosis and elevated protein, but is generally negative for intrathecal oligoclonal immunoglobulin G synthesis. In the absence of a specific diagnostic test, ADEM is considered a diagnosis of exclusion, and ADEM mimics, especially those requiring a different treatment approach, have to be carefully ruled out. The role of biomarkers, including autoantibodies like anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of ADEM is currently under debate. Based on the presumed autoimmune etiology of ADEM, the current treatment approach consists of early immunotherapy. Outcome of ADEM in pediatric patients is generally favorable, but cognitive deficits have been reported even in the absence of other neurologic sequelae. This review summarizes the current knowledge on epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, neuroimaging features, CSF findings, differential diagnosis, therapy, and outcome, with a focus on recent advances and controversies.

  10. User data dissemination concepts for earth resources: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the future capabilities of earth-resources data sensors (both satellite and airborne) and their requirements on the data dissemination network were investigated and optimum ways of configuring this network were determined. The scope of this study was limited to the continental U.S.A. (including Alaska) and to the 1985-1995 time period. Some of the conclusions and recommendations reached were: (1) Data from satellites in sun-synchronous polar orbits (700-920 km) will generate most of the earth-resources data in the specified time period. (2) Data from aircraft and shuttle sorties cannot be readily integrated in a data-dissemination network unless already preprocessed in a digitized form to a standard geometric coordinate system. (3) Data transmission between readout stations and central preprocessing facilities, and between processing facilities and user facilities are most economically performed by domestic communication satellites. (4) The effect of the following factors should be studied: cloud cover, expanded coverage, pricing strategies, multidiscipline missions.

  11. Harnessing complexity: taking advantage of context and relationships in dissemination of school-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Butler, Helen; Bowes, Glenn; Drew, Sarah; Glover, Sara; Godfrey, Celia; Patton, George; Trafford, Lea; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-03-01

    Schools and school systems are increasingly asked to use evidence-based strategies to promote the health and well-being of students. The dissemination of school-based health promotion research, however, offers particular challenges to conventional approaches to dissemination. Schools and education systems are multifaceted organizations that sit within constantly shifting broader contexts. This article argues that health promotion dissemination needs to be rethought for school communities as complex systems and that this requires understanding and harnessing the dynamic ecology of the sociopolitical context. In developing this argument, the authors draw on their experience of the dissemination process of a multilevel school-based intervention in a complex educational context. Building on this experience, they argue for the need to move beyond conventional dissemination strategies to a focus on active partnerships between developers and users of school-based intervention research and offer a conceptual tool for planning dissemination.

  12. Disseminated Aspergillosis in the Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Shinhye; Yang, Min Kyu; Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Taek Soo; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Woo, Se Joon; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Kyoung Un; Kim, Hong Bin

    2015-10-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis is very rare in immunocompetent hosts and is typically associated with a poor prognosis. We describe the case of a 66-year-old, immunocompetent man who developed pneumonia, endophthalmitis and probable spondylitis caused by Aspergillus species. The patient was successfully treated with antifungal drugs. We reviewed the English-language literature between 1980 and 2012 for disseminated aspergillosis cases in immunocompetent hosts, using the keywords "dissemin*" and "aspergillo*." Disseminated aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts is very rare in the literature. However, awareness of possible dissemination of Aspergillus spp. is necessary in patients who have a probable lung lesion and in cases with unusual presentation of a disseminated infection, even if the patient has no risk factors.

  13. [Onychomycoses due to molds].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Pihet, M

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycoses represent about 30% of superficial mycosis that are encountered in Dermatology consults. Fungi such as dermatophytes, which are mainly found on the feet nails, cause nearly 50% of these onychopathies. Yeasts are predominantly present on hands, whereas non-dermatophytic moulds are very seldom involved in both foot and hand nails infections. According to literature, these moulds are responsible for 2 to 17% of onychomycoses. Nevertheless, we have to differentiate between onychomycoses due to pseudodermatophytes such as Neoscytalidium (ex-Scytalidium) and Onychocola canadensis, which present a high affinity for keratin, and onychomycoses due to filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Acremonium... These saprophytic moulds are indeed most of the time considered as colonizers rather than real pathogens agents. Mycology and histopathology laboratories play an important role. They allow to identify the species that is involved in nail infection, but also to confirm parasitism by the fungus in the infected nails. Indeed, before attributing any pathogenic role to non-dermatophytic moulds, it is essential to precisely evaluate their pathogenicity through samples and accurate mycological and/or histological analysis. The treatment of onychomycoses due to non-dermatophytic moulds is difficult, as there is today no consensus. The choice of an antifungal agent will first depend on the species that is involved in the infection, but also on the severity of nail lesions and on the patient himself. In most cases, the onychomycosis will be cured with chemical or mechanical removing of the infected tissues, followed by a local antifungal treatment. In some cases, a systemic therapy will be discussed.

  14. Credit where due.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described.

  15. E. coli Meningitis Presenting in a Patient with Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juliana B.; Maque, Yvan; Moquillaza, Manuel A.; Anicama, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spontaneous Escherichia coli meningitis is an infrequent condition in adults and is associated with some predisposing factors, including severe Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) infections. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old Hispanic man, with history of travelling to the jungle regions of Peru and Brazil two decades ago, and who received prednisone due to Bell's palsy for three weeks before admission, presented to the Emergency Department with diarrhea, fever, and hematochezia. A week after admission he developed drowsiness, meningeal signs, abdominal distension, and constipation. A cerebrospinal fluid culture showed extended spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli. A colonoscopy was performed and showed pancolitis. Three days after the procedure the patient became unstable and developed peritoneal signs. He underwent a laparotomy, which ended up in a total colectomy and partial proctectomy due to toxic megacolon. Three days later the patient died in the intensive care unit due to septic shock. Autopsy was performed and microscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple Strongyloides larvae throughout the body. Conclusion. Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be excluded in adults with spontaneous E. coli meningitis, especially, if gastrointestinal symptoms and history of travelling to an endemic area are present. Even with a proper diagnosis and management, disseminated strongyloidiasis has a poor prognosis. PMID:24324900

  16. A phase I study of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate therapy for disseminated skeletal metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.; Claringbold, P.G.; Hetherington, E.L.; Sorby, P.; Martindale, A.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Thirty-five patients with disseminated skeletal metastases from a variety of tumor types underwent clinical trial of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) on a day-patient basis. Individual beta radiation dosimetry was based on pharmacokinetic studies of a 20 mCi tracer dose of 153Sm-EDTMP. The retained skeletal activity varied unpredictably from 40% to 95% of the administered dose, but in all patients greater than 98% of the nonosseous activity was cleared in the urine within 6 hours. Prospective calculation of radiation dosimetry in each patient permitted an accurate dosage schedule based upon total red marrow exposure, starting at 100 cGy and escalating to 280 cGy to define the dose-limiting myelotoxicity. Pain was relieved in 22 of 34 evaluable patients (65%) for periods ranging from 4 to 35 weeks, following a single administration of 153Sm-EDTMP. Recurrence of pain responded to retreatment with 153Sm-EDTMP in five of nine patients. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression manifested particularly by delayed thrombocytopenia. Platelet counts less than 100 x 10(9)/L occurred in 42% of courses when bone marrow radiation absorbed dose exceeded 200 cGy. Myelosuppression was transient and platelet counts had recovered to pretreatment levels within 10 weeks of treatment. 153Sm-EDTMP is effective for the amelioration of pain due to disseminated skeletal metastases particularly with carcinoma of breast or prostate where 83% of patients experienced pain relief. In 15 of the 34 evaluable patients there was evidence of stabilization or regression of skeletal metastases on radiographs and follow-up technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scans.

  17. ECM microenvironment regulates collective migration and local dissemination in normal and malignant mammary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Ngoc, Kim-Vy; Cheung, Kevin J; Brenot, Audrey; Shamir, Eliah R; Gray, Ryan S; Hines, William C; Yaswen, Paul; Werb, Zena; Ewald, Andrew J

    2012-09-25

    Breast cancer progression involves genetic changes and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM). To test the importance of the ECM in tumor cell dissemination, we cultured epithelium from primary human breast carcinomas in different ECM gels. We used basement membrane gels to model the normal microenvironment and collagen I to model the stromal ECM. In basement membrane gels, malignant epithelium either was indolent or grew collectively, without protrusions. In collagen I, epithelium from the same tumor invaded with protrusions and disseminated cells. Importantly, collagen I induced a similar initial response of protrusions and dissemination in both normal and malignant mammary epithelium. However, dissemination of normal cells into collagen I was transient and ceased as laminin 111 localized to the basal surface, whereas dissemination of carcinoma cells was sustained throughout culture, and laminin 111 was not detected. Despite the large impact of ECM on migration strategy, transcriptome analysis of our 3D cultures revealed few ECM-dependent changes in RNA expression. However, we observed many differences between normal and malignant epithelium, including reduced expression of cell-adhesion genes in tumors. Therefore, we tested whether deletion of an adhesion gene could induce sustained dissemination of nontransformed cells into collagen I. We found that deletion of P-cadherin was sufficient for sustained dissemination, but exclusively into collagen I. Our data reveal that metastatic tumors preferentially disseminate in specific ECM microenvironments. Furthermore, these data suggest that breaks in the basement membrane could induce invasion and dissemination via the resulting direct contact between cancer cells and collagen I.

  18. Strain-dependent CNS dissemination in guinea pigs after Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol challenge.

    PubMed

    Be, Nicholas A; Klinkenberg, Lee G; Bishai, William R; Karakousis, Petros C; Jain, Sanjay K

    2011-09-01

    Clinical reports suggest an association of distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with CNS disease. We therefore examined CNS dissemination by different laboratory strains (two M. tuberculosis H37Rv, one CDC1551) in a guinea pig aerosol infection model. Although all strains grew exponentially in lungs, with similar bacterial burdens at the time of extrapulmonary dissemination, M. tuberculosis CDC1551 disseminated to the CNS significantly more than the H37Rv strains. No CNS lesions were observed throughout the study, with only a modest cytokine response. These data suggest that M. tuberculosis may have virulence factors that promote CNS dissemination, distinct from those required for pulmonary TB.

  19. Molecular findings of disseminated histoplasmosis in two captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Avilés, David; Taylor, Maria Lucia; del Rocio Reyes-Montes, Maria; Pérez-Torrez, Armando

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports two cases of disseminated histoplasmosis in captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed based on histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular findings.

  20. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as diabetic keto-acidosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Niknam, Negin; Malhotra, Prashant; Kim, Angela; Koenig, Seth

    2017-01-06

    Histoplasma capsulatum causes a spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic to fatal disseminated disease. Disseminated histoplasmosis is mostly seen in endemic areas among immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Here, we present a patient living in a non-endemic area with previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, who presented with septic shock and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and was ultimately diagnosed with disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient rapidly recovered on administration of intravenous liposomal amphotericin followed by oral itraconazole. Uncontrolled diabetes may be a risk factor for disseminated or severe histoplasmosis in otherwise immunocompetent patients.

  1. Fulminant mediastinitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: atypical presentation and spreading following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Horacio; Carrascal, Yolanda; Maroto, Laura; Arce, Nuria

    2013-05-01

    Mediastinitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, related to thoracic wall contamination after cardiac surgery, has rarely been described. We aim to report a case of fulminant mediastinitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae, secondary to a disseminated concomitant pulmonary infection. The patient remained pauci-symptomatic until clinical manifestations of sepsis acutely appeared.

  2. An Educational Program of Engineering Ethics and Its Dissemination Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Ryujiro; Nagashima, Shigeo

    Education on ethics for corporate employees, especially for engineers, seems to become increasingly important for most of companies in Japan, because some affairs or scandals caused by ethical problem in many companies were likely to subject them to operational disadvantages. Even in Hitachi, Ltd., we have worked on education of engineering ethics for two years. In this paper, we describe some activities of committees on engineering ethics, an e-learning training course which is usable on our intranet e-learning system, and a short-term in-house training course operated regularly in our training institute. And we also refer to its dissemination activities to employees in each division and some subsidiaries.

  3. Disseminated T-cell lymphoma in a bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Haynes, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated lymphoma was diagnosed in an 8-year-old male bonobo (Pan paniscus). The male bonobo presented with a 4-6 week history of dyspnea and facial swelling around the eyes; thoracic radiographs and computed tomography scan indicated a craniodorsal mediastinal soft tissue mass. Upon gross examination, there was a large, cream to white mass expanding the mediastinum and pericardial sac. The mass extended along the thoracic aorta and cranial vena cava, through the thoracic inlet, along and encircling the trachea, and bilaterally into the thyroid glands. Microscopically, neoplastic lymphocytes were present in the thymus, trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, and numerous other tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lymphocytes revealed diffuse immunoreactivity for cluster of differentiation (CD)3 indicating T-cell lymphoma. Routine viral screening was negative via polymerase chain reaction.

  4. Remission of disseminated cancer after systemic oncolytic virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen J; Federspiel, Mark J; Peng, Kah-Whye; Tong, Caili; Dingli, David; Morice, William G; Lowe, Val; O'Connor, Michael K; Kyle, Robert A; Leung, Nelson; Buadi, Francis K; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2014-07-01

    MV-NIS is an engineered measles virus that is selectively destructive to myeloma plasma cells and can be monitored by noninvasive radioiodine imaging of NIS gene expression. Two measles-seronegative patients with relapsing drug-refractory myeloma and multiple glucose-avid plasmacytomas were treated by intravenous infusion of 10(11) TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) infectious units of MV-NIS. Both patients responded to therapy with M protein reduction and resolution of bone marrow plasmacytosis. Further, one patient experienced durable complete remission at all disease sites. Tumor targeting was clearly documented by NIS-mediated radioiodine uptake in virus-infected plasmacytomas. Toxicities resolved within the first week after therapy. Oncolytic viruses offer a promising new modality for the targeted infection and destruction of disseminated cancer.

  5. Adapting Axelrod's cultural dissemination model for simulating peer effects.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Christian; Lechner, Gernot; Brudermann, Thomas; Füllsack, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We present a generic method for considering incomplete but gradually expandable sociological data in agent-based modeling based on the classic model of cultural dissemination by Axelrod. Our method extension was inspired by research on the diffusion of citizen photovoltaic initiatives, i.e. by initiatives in which citizens collectively invest in photovoltaic plants and share the profits. Owing to the absence of empirical interaction parameters, the Axelrod model was used as basis for considering peer effects with contrived interaction data that can be updated from empirical surveys later on. The Axelrod model was extended to cover the following additional features: •Consideration of empirical social science data for concrete social interaction.•Development of a variable and fine-tunable interaction function for agents.•Deployment of a generic procedure for modeling peer effects in agent-based models.

  6. [Kidney donor with severe disseminated intravascular coagulation: transplantation however successful].

    PubMed

    Keeris, Lodewijk M; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; van der Sande, Frank M; Wind, Tineke J; van Suylen, Robert Jan; van Mook, Walther N K A

    2009-01-01

    A 41-year-old male, with no previous medical history, was admitted to our intensive care unit with severe isolated neurotrauma and a Glasgow Coma Scale of E1-M1-V1, mid-dilated unreactive pupils and severe abnormalities on the brain CT-scan. A severe syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and non-oliguric renal insufficiency developed. Following clinical and neurophysiological examination the patient was declared brain-dead, and the family gave permission for organ donation. The left kidney was transplanted and functioned well immediately. However, in view of the DIC and renal function disorders the right kidney was not considered usable for transplantation elsewhere. Pathological examination revealed many fibrin thrombi in the glomerular capillaries and acute tubular necrosis. This case supports the view that thrombotic microangiopathy in kidneys of patients with DIS, even with renal function impairment, is not an a priori reason for excluding donation.

  7. Multiple disseminated glomuvenous malformations: do we know enough?

    PubMed

    Solovan, C; Chiticariu, Elena; Beinsan, Doina; Zurac, Sabina; Baderca, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    Multiple glomuvenous malformations (GVMs), also known as glomangiomas, are uncommon entities with histological features of both glomus cells proliferation and venous malformation. A 14-year-old boy was admitted to our clinic with multiple dermal blue nodules, disseminated in different segments of the body. The patient's family history was positive for similar lesions; his mother and maternal grandmother had some asymptomatic blue nodules on their body. Histological examination showed a tumor composed of multiple caveronous vessels surrounded by glomus cells, positive for alpha smooth muscle actin, HHF35 (pan-actin), and h-caldesmon. This is a case of multiple GVMs, a rare disease caused by mutations in glomulin gene, with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The clinical and histopathological features are briefly discussed.

  8. The rediscovery of Palmyra and its dissemination in Philosophical Transactions

    PubMed Central

    Astengo, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the first publicly documented western encounter with the ancient city of Palmyra as an archaeological site. This encounter was achieved in the late seventeenth century by a group of British merchants, who reached Palmyra and made drawings and reports of its ruins. The reports were then published in Philosophical Transactions in the mid 1690s. This paper points to the ways in which such accounts came into being, as well as how the city was described and publicly communicated for the first time in Philosophical Transactions. These articles had a great impact throughout the following centuries as a reference for the study of Palmyra. This paper therefore also stresses the pivotal role of Philosophical Transactions for the production and dissemination of Palmyra's archaeological legacy, as well as for the development of early modern archaeology within the early Royal Society.

  9. Mechanisms of disseminated cancer cell dormancy: an awakening field

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, María Soledad; Bragado, Paloma; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases arise from residual disseminated tumour cells (DTCs). This can happen years after primary tumour treatment because residual tumour cells can enter dormancy and evade therapies. As the biology of minimal residual disease seems to diverge from that of proliferative lesions, understanding the underpinnings of this new cancer biology is key to prevent metastasis. Analysis of approximately 7 years of literature reveals a growing focus on tumour and normal stem cell quiescence, extracellular and stromal microenvironments, autophagy and epigenetics as mechanisms that dictate tumour cell dormancy. In this Review, we attempt to integrate this information and highlight both the weaknesses and the strengths in the field to provide a framework to understand and target this crucial step in cancer progression. PMID:25118602

  10. [Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Pérez, J; Oddó, D; Labarca, J; Guzmán, S; Acuña, G; León, E D

    1993-01-01

    A twenty nine year old male homosexual presented with malaise, weight loss, fever and profuse sweating. An ill defined abdominal mass was found during physical examination in the right lower quadrant and chest X rays disclosed a pleural effusion. HIV antibodies and hepatitis B surface antigen were positive and immunological parameters were altered. Light and electron microscopic examination of operative biopsies of the abdominal mass revealed the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum. Treatment with Amphotericin B was started with a favorable response and the patient was discharged. He was readmitted with a septic shock and died. Necropsy showed pulmonary histoplasmosis. This is the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS described in Chile.

  11. Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: development, dissemination, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Voss, Carol; Klein, Susan; Glanz, Karen; Clawson, Margaret

    2012-07-01

    Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and community leaders. Interrater reliability testing showed high levels of agreement among trained raters on the products and evaluations of products. NEMS-V can benefit public health partners implementing policy and environmental change initiatives as a part of their community wellness activities. The vending machine project will support a policy calling for state facilities to provide a minimum of 30% of foods and beverages in vending machines as healthy options, based on NEMS-V criteria, which will be used as a model for other businesses.

  12. Disseminated Hemangiosarcoma in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amanda P; Gray, Stanton B; Chaffee, Beth K

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular endothelial origin that is sporadically reported in rhesus macaques. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of a 1-y-old rhesus macaque with spontaneous disseminated hemangiosarcoma that originally presented as a focal cutaneous mass. Histopathologic examination of multiple tumor foci revealed regions in which the neoplastic cells formed diffuse sheets, as well as the well-defined vascular channels typically associated with hemangiosarcoma. Multiple endothelial cell immunomarkers were used to confirm the diagnosis in this rhesus macaque. The tumor exhibited staining properties consistent with those seen in domestic animals and humans. In addition, to our knowledge, this animal represents the youngest case of any form of spontaneous hemangiosarcoma reported in the rhesus macaque to date. PMID:27298251

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current controversies in diagnosis and outcome.

    PubMed

    Koelman, Diederik L H; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-09-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Only in the past 15 years have larger groups of patients from several geographical areas been reported for comparisons across studies. In spite of the increased recognition of ADEM, the diagnosis of ADEM remains clinical, aided by neuroimaging confirmation, because of the lack of a biological marker. The diagnosis may be difficult, given that several diseases may present similar to ADEM. The controversial existence of multiphasic forms necessitates a continuous evaluation of the diagnosis by tracking subsequent events. Despite proposed consensus criteria, the diagnostic criteria employed to characterize ADEM range widely among the largest reported cohorts to date. This review comprehensively evaluates the current knowledge and controversies that surround ADEM, with special consideration of the distinction between ADEM and other demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, we present implications of the current knowledge of ADEM for both research and clinical practice.

  14. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and other inflammatory demyelinating variants.

    PubMed

    Scolding, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory central nervous system disorder characterized by acute or subacute onset of multifocal neurologic deficits with headache and impaired conscious level. Acute haemorrhagic leuoko-encephalitis (AHEM) is a more sever, often fatal variant. These disorders often follows a viral illness or vaccination, and are usually monophasic, though (probably more commonly in childhood) a multiphasic variant of ADEM is recognized. Because of the relative non-specificity of the clinical presentation (a sub-acute encephalopathy with focal signs), the differential diagnosis is wide; and distinction from the first episode of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis can occasionally be difficult. Here the clinical and investigational features of these disorders and their treatment are discussed.

  15. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in a Child Following Plasmodium vivax Malaria.

    PubMed

    Purkait, Radheshyam; Mukherji, Aritra; Sinhamahapatra, Tapankumar; Bhadra, Ramchandra

    2015-07-01

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a multifocal, monophasic, acute demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, which is commonly preceded by viral infections and occasionally bacterial infections or immunizations. Its occurrence following malarial infection, especially Plasmodium vivax Malaria is very uncommon. We report an 11-year girl who presented with clinical features of encephalopathy and generalized convulsions, 10 days following complete recovery from the Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Diagnosis of ADEM as a complication of Plasmodium vivax Malaria was made based on acute onset of neurological events, characteristic findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and prompt response to corticosteroid therapy. Follow-up MRI, 6 months after discharge, showed complete resolution of change found on the initial MRI. To the best of our knowledge, only two such cases have been reported in the English literature till date.

  16. Atypical presentations of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Ansuya; Paruk, Hoosain; Bhagwan, Bhupendra; Moodley, Anand

    2017-02-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system associated with various viral infections including HIV infection. We present the findings of seven HIV-infected patients with mild to moderate immunosuppression presenting with atypical features. Four patients had a multiphasic course; three patients had tumefactive lesions, and two patients had corpus callosum lesions. Two patients with the multiphasic course also had tumefactive lesions. Their clinical and radiological findings are presented. Despite the few cases, we propose that the dysimmune process lying between marked immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/μL) and normal CD4 counts (CD4 > 500 cells/μL) might be responsible for these atypical presentations.

  17. Using stories to disseminate research: the attributes of representative stories.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John F

    2007-11-01

    When researchers communicate their findings to patients, clinicians, policy-makers, or media, they may find it helpful to supplement quantitative data with stories about individuals who represent themes in their research. Whether such stories are gathered during the research itself or identified from other sources, researchers must develop strategies for assessing their representativeness. This paper proposes 5 attributes of representative stories: (1) expression of important themes in the research, (2) explicit location in the "distribution" of stories that exemplify the theme, (3) verifiability, (4) acknowledgment of uncertainty, and (5) compelling narration. This paper summarizes research on substance abuse among physicians, and uses these 5 attributes to assess the representativeness of a published case report and a fictional short story about addicted physicians. While neither story is fully representative of the research, the process of evaluating these stories illustrates an approach to identifying representative stories for use in disseminating research.

  18. Disseminated pleomorphic myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Mete, A; Woods, L; Famini, D; Anderson, M

    2012-01-01

    The pathological and diagnostic features of a widely disseminated pleomorphic high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma are described in a 23-year-old male brown bear (Ursus arctos horribilis). Firm, solid, white to tan neoplastic nodules, often with cavitated or soft grey-red necrotic centres, were observed throughout most internal organs, subcutaneous tissues and skeletal muscles on gross examination. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of pleomorphic spindle cells forming interlacing fascicles with a focal storiform pattern with large numbers of bizarre polygonal multinucleate cells, frequently within a collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome stain and transmission electron microscopy designated the myofibroblast as the cell of origin. This is the first case of a high-grade myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear.

  19. Fonsecaea pugnacius, a Novel Agent of Disseminated Chromoblastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Conceição M. P. S.; Gomes, Renata R.; Santos, Daniel W. C. L.; Marques, Sirlei G.; do Nascimento, Mariana M. F.; Andrade, Caroline E. W.; Silva, Raimunda R.; Queiroz-Telles, Flávio

    2015-01-01

    We report a fatal case of a chromoblastomycosis-like infection caused by a novel species of Fonsecaea in a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian male from an area of chromoblastomycosis endemicity in Brazil. The patient had a 30-year history of slowly evolving, verrucous lesions on the right upper arm which gradually affected the entire arm, the left hemifacial area, and the nose. Subsequent dissemination to the brain was observed, which led to death of the patient. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU), BT2, and CDC42 genes of the isolates recovered from skin and brain were sequenced, confirming the novelty of the species. The species is clinically unique in causing brain abscesses secondary to chromoblastomycosis lesions despite the apparent intact immunity of the patient. Histopathologic appearances were very different, showing muriform cells in skin and hyphae in brain. PMID:26085610

  20. Advanced Congestive Heart Failure Associated With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Sarcon, Annahita; Liu, Xiaoli; Ton, David; Haywood, James; Hitchcock, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a complication of an underlying disease and not a primary illness. It is most commonly associated with sepsis, trauma, obstetrical complications, and malignancies. There are very few cases in the literature illustrating the association between DIC and congestive heart failure. Findings. In this report, we present a case of severe congestive heart failure, leading to biventricular thrombi and subsequently DIC. Conclusion. We suggest that the association between congestive heart failure and DIC is an underrecognized one. Congestive heart failure continues to remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in medical therapies. Thus far, the precise role of coagulation factors in congestive heart failure is unknown. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and coagulation factors.

  1. [Biopsy of lung tissue in the diagnosis of disseminated transformations].

    PubMed

    Lewaschow, J N; Orsheschkowskij, O W

    1988-01-01

    The results of complex studies in 440 patients with disseminated processes are presented. In 135 of them the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical, roentgenologic and laboratory data and by biopsies of skin, muscles and subcutaneous lymph nodes. Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed in 218 patients. It gave positive results in 65% of the cases. Open biopsy of lung was performed in 134 cases. Hemodynamic and gas exchange studies during the operation indicated its insignificant traumatism. Complications (limited hemothorax, partial pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, wound suppuration) were noted in 10 (7.5%) cases in the postoperative period. Pulmonary tests performed three weeks after the operation did not reveal significant changes in the subjects, even those with considerable initial disorders. Open biopsy permitted to verify the diagnosis in 131 (98%) patients. In 52% of these cases the diagnosis did not correspond to the presumed one and considerably influenced the subsequent treatment.

  2. Outcome of Patients With Pilocytic Astrocytoma and Leptomeningeal Dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, Ali; Hodges, Joseph C.; Teh, Bin S.; Chintagumpala, Murali; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language studies pertaining to PA with LMD was performed using a combination of keywords that included juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma, low-grade glioma, leptomeningeal dissemination, neuraxis spread, and radiotherapy. We found 26 studies with 58 patients between 1976 and 2005 that met these criteria. Results: The median survival for PA patients with LMD was 65 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 81.1%, 75.7%, and 55.5%. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 69.3%, 66.5%, and 34.6%, respectively. Age, gender, primary site location, timing of LMD presentation (synchronous vs. metachronous), and LMD location did not significantly influence OS or PFS. No statistically significant difference was found in OS or PFS between the chemotherapy and radiotherapy groups. Likewise, no difference was found in OS or PFS according to the use of craniospinal irradiation vs. less extensive RT fields. Conclusions: Approximately one-half of PA patients were alive 5 years after the diagnosis of LMD. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have efficacy against LMD. Although the use of craniospinal irradiation did not have an effect on PFS, the patient numbers were small and a larger number treated with craniospinal irradiation is needed to determine its efficacy.

  3. Brucella dissociation is essential for macrophage egress and bacterial dissemination.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jianwu; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa; Ficht, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that smooth Brucella can dissociate into rough mutants that are cytotoxic to macrophages. However, the in vivo biological significance and/or mechanistic details of Brucella dissociation and cytotoxicity remain incomplete. In the current report, a plaque assay was developed using Brucella strains exhibiting varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Infected monolayers were observed daily using phase contrast microscopy for plaque formation while Brucella uptake and replication were monitored using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Visible plaques were detected at 4-5 days post infection (p.i.) with cytotoxic Brucella 16MΔmanBA at an MOI of 0.1. IFA staining demonstrated that the plaques consisted of macrophages with replicating Brucella. Visible plaques were not detected in monolayers infected with non-cytotoxic 16MΔmanBAΔvirB2 at an MOI of 0.1. However, IFA staining did reveal small groups of macrophages (foci) with replicating Brucella in the monolayers infected with 16MΔmanBAΔvirB2. The size of the foci observed in macrophage monolayers infected with rough Brucella correlated directly with cytotoxicity measured in liquid culture, suggesting that cytotoxicity was essential for Brucella egress and dissemination. In monolayers infected with 16M, small and large foci were observed. Double antibody staining revealed spontaneous rough mutants within the large, but not the small foci in 16M infected monolayers. Furthermore, plaque formation was observed in the large foci derived from 16M infections. Finally, the addition of gentamicin to the culture medium inhibited plaque formation, suggesting that cell-to-cell spread occurred only following release of the organisms from the cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Brucella-induced cytotoxicity is critical for Brucella egress and dissemination.

  4. A Long-term Co-perfused Disseminated Tuberculosis-3D Liver Hollow Fiber Model for Both Drug Efficacy and Hepatotoxicity in Babies

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shashikant; Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Ramachandran, Geetha; Deshpande, Devyani; Shuford, Stephen; Crosswell, Howland E.; Cirrincione, Kayle N.; Sherman, Carleton M.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of disseminated tuberculosis in children ≤ 6 years has not been optimized. The pyrazinamide-containing combination regimen used to treat disseminated tuberculosis in babies and toddlers was extrapolated from adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Due to hepatotoxicity worries, there are no dose–response studies in children. We designed a hollow fiber system model of disseminated intracellular tuberculosis with co-perfused three-dimensional organotypic liver modules to simultaneously test for efficacy and toxicity. We utilized pediatric pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide and acetaminophen to determine dose-dependent pyrazinamide efficacy and hepatotoxicity. Acetaminophen concentrations that cause hepatotoxicity in children led to elevated liver function tests, while 100 mg/kg pyrazinamide did not. Surprisingly, pyrazinamide did not kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis up to fourfold the standard dose as monotherapy or as combination therapy, despite achieving high intracellular concentrations. Host-pathogen RNA-sequencing revealed lack of a pyrazinamide exposure transcript signature in intracellular bacteria or of phagolysosome acidification on pH imaging. Artificial intelligence algorithms confirmed that pyrazinamide was not predictive of good clinical outcomes in children ≤ 6 years who had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Thus, adding a drug that works inside macrophages could benefit children with disseminated tuberculosis. Our in vitro model can be used to identify such new regimens that could accelerate cure while minimizing toxicity. PMID:27211555

  5. A case of disseminated DLE complicated by atopic dermatitis and Sjögren's syndrome: link between hypohidrosis and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Saki; Kitaba, Shun; Itoi, Saori; Kijima, Akiko; Murota, Hiroyuki; Tani, Mamori; Katayama, Ichiro

    2011-02-01

    We report an unusual case of disseminated discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) complicated by pre-existing atopic dermatitis (AD) and late-onset Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Disseminated DLE lesions were sparse on the expected sites for AD, such as the medial region of the extremities or v-neck area. The patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AD and SS but not for systemic lupus erythematosus. Histopathological analysis of the crusted erythematous lesions revealed typical DLE with few FoxP3(+) cells and a moderate number of IL-17(+) cells. A quantitative sweating test showed impaired sweating of both lesional and non-lesional skin due to underlying hypohidrosis that was related to AD and SS. This finding suggests that dissemination of DLE was triggered by scratching and a Köbner phenomenon-like effect related to hypohidrotic and xerotic skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of disseminated DLE complicated by AD and SS.

  6. A Long-term Co-perfused Disseminated Tuberculosis-3D Liver Hollow Fiber Model for Both Drug Efficacy and Hepatotoxicity in Babies.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shashikant; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Ramachandran, Geetha; Deshpande, Devyani; Shuford, Stephen; Crosswell, Howland E; Cirrincione, Kayle N; Sherman, Carleton M; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of disseminated tuberculosis in children≤6years has not been optimized. The pyrazinamide-containing combination regimen used to treat disseminated tuberculosis in babies and toddlers was extrapolated from adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Due to hepatotoxicity worries, there are no dose-response studies in children. We designed a hollow fiber system model of disseminated intracellular tuberculosis with co-perfused three-dimensional organotypic liver modules to simultaneously test for efficacy and toxicity. We utilized pediatric pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide and acetaminophen to determine dose-dependent pyrazinamide efficacy and hepatotoxicity. Acetaminophen concentrations that cause hepatotoxicity in children led to elevated liver function tests, while 100mg/kg pyrazinamide did not. Surprisingly, pyrazinamide did not kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis up to fourfold the standard dose as monotherapy or as combination therapy, despite achieving high intracellular concentrations. Host-pathogen RNA-sequencing revealed lack of a pyrazinamide exposure transcript signature in intracellular bacteria or of phagolysosome acidification on pH imaging. Artificial intelligence algorithms confirmed that pyrazinamide was not predictive of good clinical outcomes in children≤6years who had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Thus, adding a drug that works inside macrophages could benefit children with disseminated tuberculosis. Our in vitro model can be used to identify such new regimens that could accelerate cure while minimizing toxicity.

  7. Untreated Active Tuberculosis in Pregnancy with Intraocular Dissemination: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Shadi; LoBue, Stephen; Adams, Daniel; Oladipo, Yewande; Posso, Ramses; Mapp, Tiffany; Santiago, Crystal; Jain, Manisha; Marino, William D; Henderson, Cassandra E

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that affects hundreds of millions of people across the world. However, the incidence in developed countries has decreased over the past decades causing physicians to become unfamiliar with its unspecific symptoms. Pregnant individuals are especially difficult because many symptoms of active TB can mimic normal physiological changes of pregnancy. We present a case report of a 26-year-old multiparous woman, G4P3003, at 38-week gestation with a history of positive PPD who emigrated from Ghana 6 years ago. She came to the hospital with an initial complaint of suprapubic pain, pressure, and possible leakage of amniotic fluid for the past week. Patient also complained of a productive cough for the past 3 to 4 months with a decrease in vision occurring with the start of pregnancy. Visual acuity was worse than 20/200 in both eyes. Definitive diagnosis of active TB was delayed due to patient refusal of chest X-ray. Fortunately, delay in diagnosis was minimized since patient delivered within 24 hours of admission. Active TB was confirmed with intraocular dissemination. Patient had optic atrophy OS (left eye) and papillitis, choroiditis, and uveitis OD (right eye) due to TB infiltration. Fetus was asymptomatic and anti-TB therapy was started for both patients.

  8. Untreated Active Tuberculosis in Pregnancy with Intraocular Dissemination: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Stephen; Adams, Daniel; Oladipo, Yewande; Posso, Ramses; Mapp, Tiffany; Santiago, Crystal; Jain, Manisha; Marino, William D.; Henderson, Cassandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that affects hundreds of millions of people across the world. However, the incidence in developed countries has decreased over the past decades causing physicians to become unfamiliar with its unspecific symptoms. Pregnant individuals are especially difficult because many symptoms of active TB can mimic normal physiological changes of pregnancy. We present a case report of a 26-year-old multiparous woman, G4P3003, at 38-week gestation with a history of positive PPD who emigrated from Ghana 6 years ago. She came to the hospital with an initial complaint of suprapubic pain, pressure, and possible leakage of amniotic fluid for the past week. Patient also complained of a productive cough for the past 3 to 4 months with a decrease in vision occurring with the start of pregnancy. Visual acuity was worse than 20/200 in both eyes. Definitive diagnosis of active TB was delayed due to patient refusal of chest X-ray. Fortunately, delay in diagnosis was minimized since patient delivered within 24 hours of admission. Active TB was confirmed with intraocular dissemination. Patient had optic atrophy OS (left eye) and papillitis, choroiditis, and uveitis OD (right eye) due to TB infiltration. Fetus was asymptomatic and anti-TB therapy was started for both patients. PMID:26693374

  9. A disseminated infection with the antifungal-multiresistant teleomorphic fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta in a patient with acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Frédéric; D’Almeida, Mahussi; Albert, Olivier; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fatal invasive infection due to the ascomycetous fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta, in a 20-year-old European patient suffering from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The infection could not be controlled by a bitherapy combining liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. This is the second case of disseminated infection reported with this unusual fungus, which develops under its teleomorphic state, is fully resistant to all systemic antifungals, and which is known to live in tropical countries. PMID:24432214

  10. Twist1-induced dissemination preserves epithelial identity and requires E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Eliah R.; Pappalardo, Elisa; Jorgens, Danielle M.; Coutinho, Kester; Tsai, Wen-Ting; Aziz, Khaled; Auer, Manfred; Tran, Phuoc T.; Bader, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of epithelial cells is a critical step in metastatic spread. Molecular models of dissemination focus on loss of E-cadherin or repression of cell adhesion through an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We sought to define the minimum molecular events necessary to induce dissemination of cells out of primary murine mammary epithelium. Deletion of E-cadherin disrupted epithelial architecture and morphogenesis but only rarely resulted in dissemination. In contrast, expression of the EMT transcription factor Twist1 induced rapid dissemination of cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells. Twist1 induced dramatic transcriptional changes in extracellular compartment and cell–matrix adhesion genes but not in cell–cell adhesion genes. Surprisingly, we observed disseminating cells with membrane-localized E-cadherin and β-catenin, and E-cadherin knockdown strongly inhibited Twist1-induced single cell dissemination. Dissemination can therefore occur with retention of epithelial cell identity. The spread of cancer cells during metastasis could similarly involve activation of an epithelial motility program without requiring a transition from epithelial to mesenchymal character. PMID:24590176

  11. Reinterpreting Dissemination of Prevention Programs as Widespread Implementation with Effectiveness and Fidelity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.

    This article urges a reexamination of the concept of dissemination of health-related prevention programs. The article discusses factors that serve as sustaining conditions for dissemination of prevention programs including: (1) the nature of preventive intervention and parameters of effective community-based prevention praxis; (2) aspects of the…

  12. [Florida State Department of Education] Division of Vocational Education Dissemination and Diffusion Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This dissemination and diffusion handbook for the Florida State Department Division of Vocational Education is divided into ten chapters. Chapter 1 describes the functions of the dissemination and diffusion (D&D) section of the division of vocational education. Identifying the procedures and processes to be followed, chapter 2 focuses on the…

  13. Dissemination with Impact: What Research Suggests for Practice in Career and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Jones, Lisa M.

    Dissemination in career and technical education does not simply disperse information, new products, new practices and materials, and new ideas designed to stimulate local change but does so in ways that promote its use. Federal efforts to promote dissemination of research-based information in education are: (1) deeply indebted to the agricultural…

  14. Structural and Informal Knowledge Acquisition and Dissemination in Organizational Learning: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Siu Loon; McShane, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of organizational learning is populated with many theories and models; many relate to the enduring organizational learning framework consisting of knowledge acquisition, knowledge dissemination, and knowledge use. However, most of the research either emphasizes structural knowledge acquisition and dissemination as a composite…

  15. Bulk Data Dissemination in Low Power Sensor Networks: Present and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhirong; Hu, Tianlei; Song, Qianshu

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor network-based (WSN-based) applications need an efficient and reliable data dissemination service to facilitate maintenance, management and data distribution tasks. As WSNs nowadays are becoming pervasive and data intensive, bulk data dissemination protocols have been extensively studied recently. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art bulk data dissemination protocols. The large number of papers available in the literature propose various techniques to optimize the dissemination protocols. Different from the existing survey works which separately explores the building blocks of dissemination, our work categorizes the literature according to the optimization purposes: Reliability, Scalability and Transmission/Energy efficiency. By summarizing and reviewing the key insights and techniques, we further discuss on the future directions for each category. Our survey helps unveil three key findings for future direction: (1) The recent advances in wireless communications (e.g., study on cross-technology interference, error estimating codes, constructive interference, capture effect) can be potentially exploited to support further optimization on the reliability and energy efficiency of dissemination protocols; (2) Dissemination in multi-channel, multi-task and opportunistic networks requires more efforts to fully exploit the spatial-temporal network resources to enhance the data propagation; (3) Since many designs incur changes on MAC layer protocols, the co-existence of dissemination with other network protocols is another problem left to be addressed. PMID:28098830

  16. Allograft and prostatic involvement in a renal transplant recipient with disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sreejith, P.; Jha, V.; Kohli, H.S.; Rathi, M.; Gupta, K.L.; Sakhuja, V.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious opportunistic infection in renal transplant recipients and is disseminated in nature in one-third of patients. Genito urinary tuberculosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. We report a patient presenting 5 years after renal transplantation with disseminated tuberculosis and allograft and prostatic involvement. PMID:20535270

  17. Allograft and prostatic involvement in a renal transplant recipient with disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, P; Jha, V; Kohli, H S; Rathi, M; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, V

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious opportunistic infection in renal transplant recipients and is disseminated in nature in one-third of patients. Genito urinary tuberculosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. We report a patient presenting 5 years after renal transplantation with disseminated tuberculosis and allograft and prostatic involvement.

  18. Music Confucius Institute: Evaluating Its Approach as an Agent for International Chinese Music Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Wei; Li, Sheng Bing

    2016-01-01

    The paper identifies the educational and presentational functions of the Confucius Institute (MCI) at the Royal Danish Academy of Music (RDAM) as its core approaches which mostly influence Chinese cultural dissemination in its host country. The MCI's utilization of the two dissemination approaches aligns with the "receiver-centered"…

  19. A Dissemination Methodology for Learning and Teaching Developments through Engaging and Embedding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treleaven, Lesley; Sykes, Chris; Ormiston, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Dissemination of learning and teaching innovation in higher education requires approaches to change that are socially contextualised, dynamic and self-reflexive. This article, therefore, presents a methodology for dissemination employing an embedding heuristic and engaging in participatory action research. The embedding approach emphasises three…

  20. Strategies for Effective Dissemination of the Outcomes of Teaching and Learning Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Deborah; Gannaway, Deanne; Orrell, Janice; Chalmers, Denise; Abraham, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical study that addresses the question of how higher education institutions can disseminate effectively the outcomes of projects that seek to achieve large-scale change in teaching and learning. Traditionally, dissemination of innovation and good practice is strongly advocated within universities, but little…

  1. 21 CFR 10.80 - Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices... § 10.80 Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices and regulations. (a) A representative of FDA... in the Federal Register. A draft of a notice or proposed regulation made available in this manner...

  2. 21 CFR 10.80 - Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices... § 10.80 Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices and regulations. (a) A representative of FDA... in the Federal Register. A draft of a notice or proposed regulation made available in this manner...

  3. 21 CFR 10.80 - Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices... § 10.80 Dissemination of draft Federal Register notices and regulations. (a) A representative of FDA... in the Federal Register. A draft of a notice or proposed regulation made available in this manner...

  4. Technical Assistance and Dissemination Conference (8th, Washington, D.C., March 2-4, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Resource Center for Special Education, Washington, DC.

    This document reports on a 1998 conference on technical assistance and dissemination attended by representatives from the Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), Technical Assistance and Dissemination (TA&D) projects, and regional resource centers. The conference was intended to increase knowledge concerning…

  5. Selective Dissemination of Microfiche Documents in a University Setting: Phase 1. Final Report. Project CLR-561.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Joseph C.

    A selective dissemination service (SRIM) of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) features semimonthly dissemination of microfiche copies of documents newly added to the NTIS collection, on the basis of interest profiles. The service was used to test a university subsystem wherein a number of individual profiles were combined and…

  6. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. (a) Release of information during the field...

  7. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. (a) Release of information during the field...

  8. 49 CFR 831.13 - Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flow and dissemination of accident or incident...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES § 831.13 Flow and dissemination of accident or incident information. (a) Release of information during the field...

  9. Development of Comprehensive State Dissemination Plans: An Overview of Present Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenn, Joseph F.

    Established by NIE in June 1975, the State Dissemination Grants Program provides resources to state education agencies to develop comprehensive and generalized dissemination capacity, which is defined as the leadership and service capability to provide information and technical assistance in the solution of problems identified by the dissemination…

  10. Successful treatment of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Day, Shandra R; Weiss, David B; Hazen, Kevin C; Moore, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Blastomycosis commonly occurs following inhalation of Blastomyces dermatitidis conidia causing a pulmonary infection and can disseminate to extrapulmonary sites. Osseous involvement primarily results from hematogenous spread, but in rare cases, direct inoculation can occur. We describe a case of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease successfully treated with posaconazole.

  11. Disseminated blastomycosis in a child with a brief review of the Indian literature.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Raghurama; Narayan, Betsy Lakshmi; Durga Prasad, B K; Amareswar, A; Sridevi, M; Raju, Buchi

    2013-01-01

    Disseminated blastomycosis is rare in India, particularly in the pediatric population. We discuss the clinical picture, progress and outcome of disseminated blastomycosis in a 4-year-old child. We also present a brief review of the literature focussing on the scenario of blastomycosis in India.

  12. SELECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION IN PRACTICE, SURVEY OF OPERATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL SDI PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWNIE, CURRIE S.; HOSHOVSKY, ALEXANDER G.

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE OPERATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS ESTABLISHED FOR THE SELECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION (SDI) IS PRESENTED. AN ATTEMPT HAS ALSO BEEN MADE TO IDENTIFY THE TRENDS WHICH MAY SHAPE THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELECTIVE DISSEMINATION PROCEDURES. THE REPORT IS BASED IN PART ON THE EXISTING SDI…

  13. Successful Treatment of Osseous Blastomycosis without Pulmonary or Disseminated Disease and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Day, Shandra R.; Weiss, David B.; Hazen, Kevin C.; Moore, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Blastomycosis commonly occurs following inhalation of Blastomyces dermatitidis conidia causing a pulmonary infection and can disseminate to extrapulmonary sites. Osseous involvement primarily results from hematogenous spread but in rare cases direct inoculation can occur. We describe a case of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease successfully treated with posaconazole. PMID:24703876

  14. DISSEMINATED FUNGAL INFECTION WITH ADRENAL INVOLVEMENT: REPORT OF TWO HIV NEGATIVE BRAZILIAN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Graziella Hanna; LANZONI, Valéria Pereira Barbosa; BEIRÃO, Elisa Maria; TIMERMAN, Artur; MELHEM, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis are systemic fungal infections endemic in Brazil. Disseminated clinical forms are uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. We describe two HIV-negative patients with disseminated fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, who were diagnosed by biopsies of suprarenal lesions. Both were treated for a prolonged period with oral antifungal agents, and both showed favorable outcomes. PMID:27049710

  15. Project CAP. Boston Mountains Educational Cooperative, Greenland, Arkansas. A Submission to the Joint Dissemination Review Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jack A.; Kaplan, Carol B.

    One of seven career education programs chosen for nationwide dissemination by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP), Project CAP (Career Awareness Program) is being conducted for grades 1-8 in Greenland, Arkansas. For the years 1974-77, it received funding from both federal and local sources. It…

  16. Dissemination of English Culture in Chinua Achebe's "No Longer at Ease"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrinjooee, Bahman; Khatar, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Chinua Achebe's (1930-2013) "No Longer at Ease" (1960) which depicts the dissemination of English culture in Nigeria and its effects on the life and identity of Obi Okonkwo, the Western educated male protagonist. The focus of this paper is on the dissemination of English culture and submission of Nigerian culture in…

  17. Disseminated histoplasmosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant: a diagnosis not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Haydoura, S; Wallentine, J; Lopansri, B; Ford, C D; Saad, D; Burke, J P

    2014-10-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are at highest risk for disseminated histoplasmosis, but only a few cases have been reported in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient residing in a non-endemic area. Diagnosis was first suspected based on a peripheral blood smear.

  18. Knowledge Dissemination and Use in Science and Mathematics Education: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Janet; Huberman, Michael

    Dissemination of educational research and effective practice has burgeoned in the past two decades. This report reviews the research on knowledge use in science and mathematics education and highlights approaches and strategies for dissemination which might be particularly useful to the National Science Foundation. In particular, the influence of…

  19. Project CERES. Ceres Unified School District, Ceres, California. A Submission to the Joint Dissemination Review Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Octave V.

    One of seven career education programs chosen for nationwide dissemination by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP), Project CERES (Career Education Responsive to Every Student) is being conducted for grades K-6 with planned expansion to grades 7-12. For the years 1972-76, it received funding…

  20. 48 CFR 1252.242-70 - Dissemination of information-educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of information-educational institutions. 1252.242-70 Section 1252.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1252.242-70 Dissemination of information—educational institutions. As prescribed...

  1. 29 CFR 90.22 - Dissemination of program knowledge and assistance to workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dissemination of program knowledge and assistance to workers. 90.22 Section 90.22 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBILITY TO APPLY FOR... the Subject of an Investigation for Industry Import Relief § 90.22 Dissemination of program...

  2. Research Exchange. Quarterly Newsletter of the National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research (NCDDR), 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Exchange, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The four issues of this newsletters are designed to promote the effective dissemination and utilization of disability research outcomes. The first two newsletters include parts 1 and 2 of "Disability, Diversity and Dissemination: A Review of the Literature on Topics Related to Increasing the Utilization of Rehabilitation Research Outcomes among…

  3. Improving the Dissemination of Scientific and Technical Information: A Practitioner's Guide to Innovation. (Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capital Systems Group, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    The aim of this guide is to alert persons with an operational interest in scientific communication to new ideas, techniques, and equipment in the field of communication media and publications. The focus is on the dissemination of scientific information via the technical journal or its equivalent. Secondary dissemination of information such as…

  4. The Use of Online Strategies and Social Media for Research Dissemination in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Alongside a growing interest in knowledge mobilization (trying to increase the connection between research, policy and practice) there has been a transformation of how knowledge is produced, accessed and disseminated in light of the internet and social media strategies. Few studies have explored the use of social media for research dissemination.…

  5. Sustainability of the Dissemination of an Occupational Sun Protection Program in a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Zhang, Xiao; Kane, Ilima L.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of an occupational sun safety program, Go Sun Smart (GSS), was explored in a randomized trial, testing dissemination strategies at 68 U.S. and Canadian ski areas in 2004-2007. All ski areas received GSS from the National Ski Areas Association through a Basic Dissemination Strategy (BDS) using conference presentations and free…

  6. The Microelectronics Education Programme--Dissemination and Diffusion of Microelectronics Technology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, J. A.; Anderson, J. S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Microelectronics Education Programme, a development program which embodies the building of a springboard for the dissemination of microelectronic innovations that will benefit education. Springboard activities discussed in detail include information dissemination through regional information centers, inservice teacher training, and…

  7. 48 CFR 1252.242-70 - Dissemination of information-educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information-educational institutions. 1252.242-70 Section 1252.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1252.242-70 Dissemination of information—educational institutions. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(a), insert the following clause: Dissemination of...

  8. 48 CFR 1252.242-70 - Dissemination of information-educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information-educational institutions. 1252.242-70 Section 1252.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1252.242-70 Dissemination of information—educational institutions. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(a), insert the following clause: Dissemination of...

  9. 48 CFR 1252.242-70 - Dissemination of information-educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information-educational institutions. 1252.242-70 Section 1252.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1252.242-70 Dissemination of information—educational institutions. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(a), insert the following clause: Dissemination of...

  10. 48 CFR 1252.242-70 - Dissemination of information-educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information-educational institutions. 1252.242-70 Section 1252.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1252.242-70 Dissemination of information—educational institutions. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(a), insert the following clause: Dissemination of...

  11. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 43 - Time Delays for Public Dissemination

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Dissemination C Appendix C to Part 43 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REAL-TIME PUBLIC REPORTING Pt. 43, App. C Appendix C to Part 43—Time Delays for Public Dissemination... for swaps described in § 43.5(c)(2). All Asset Classes Yearly phase-in Time delay for...

  12. 47 CFR 64.1509 - Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1509 Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call information. (a)...

  13. A systematic review of studies evaluating diffusion and dissemination of selected cancer control interventions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Peter; Robinson, Paula; Ciliska, Donna; Armour, Tanya; Brouwers, Melissa; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Sussman, Jonathan; Raina, Parminder

    2005-09-01

    With this review, the authors sought to determine what strategies have been evaluated (including the outcomes assessed) to disseminate cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of behavior change. Five topic areas along the cancer care continuum (smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) were selected to be representative. A systematic review was conducted of primary studies evaluating dissemination of a cancer control intervention. Thirty-one studies were identified that evaluated dissemination strategies in the 5 topic areas. No strong evidence currently exists to recommend any one dissemination strategy as effective in promoting the uptake of cancer control interventions. The authors conclude that there is a strong need for more research into dissemination of cancer control interventions. Future research should consider methodological issues such as the most appropriate study design and outcomes to be evaluated.

  14. Evidence-based approaches to dissemination and diffusion of physical activity interventions.

    PubMed

    Owen, Neville; Glanz, Karen; Sallis, James F; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-10-01

    With the increasing availability of effective, evidence-based physical activity interventions, widespread diffusion is needed. We examine conceptual foundations for research on dissemination and diffusion of physical activity interventions; describe two school-based program examples; review examples of dissemination and diffusion research on other health behaviors; and examine policies that may accelerate the diffusion process. Lack of dissemination and diffusion evaluation research and policy advocacy is one of the factors limiting the impact of evidence-based physical activity interventions on public health. There is the need to collaborate with policy experts from other fields to improve the interdisciplinary science base for dissemination and diffusion. The promise of widespread adoption of evidence-based physical activity interventions to improve public health is sufficient to justify devotion of substantial resources to the relevant research on dissemination and diffusion.

  15. Rectal Cancer With Disseminated Carcinomatosis of the Bone Marrow: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Yuichiro; Takeishi, Kazuki; Guntani, Atsushi; Tsujita, Eiji; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Maeda, Takashi; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old man was admitted with melena and low back pain at rest. X-ray examination showed rectal cancer with multiple bone metastases. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia and DIC. Histologic examination showed disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. The DIC was considered to be caused by disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer, and we immediately started treatment with anti-DIC therapy and anticancer chemotherapy with the modified FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6). After some response to therapy, the patient's general condition deteriorated, and he died 128 days after admission. This is the first English report showing disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from colorectal cancer treated with mFOLFOX6. PMID:25216414

  16. Comparison of three neurotropic viruses reveals differences in viral dissemination to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Luethy, Lauren N; Erickson, Andrea K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Ikizler, Mine; Dermody, Terence S; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses initiate infection in peripheral tissues prior to entry into the central nervous system (CNS). However, mechanisms of dissemination are not completely understood. We used genetically marked viruses to compare dissemination of poliovirus, yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D), and reovirus type 3 Dearing in mice from a hind limb intramuscular inoculation site to the sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and brain. While YFV-17D likely entered the CNS via blood, poliovirus and reovirus likely entered the CNS by transport through the sciatic nerve to the spinal cord. We found that dissemination was inefficient in adult immune-competent mice for all three viruses, particularly reovirus. Dissemination of all viruses was more efficient in immune-deficient mice. Although poliovirus and reovirus both accessed the CNS by transit through the sciatic nerve, stimulation of neuronal transport by muscle damage enhanced dissemination only of poliovirus. Our results suggest that these viruses access the CNS using different pathways.

  17. Comparison of three neurotropic viruses reveals differences in viral dissemination to the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, Lauren N.; Erickson, Andrea K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.; Ikizler, Mine; Dermody, Terence S.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses initiate infection in peripheral tissues prior to entry into the central nervous system (CNS). However, mechanisms of dissemination are not completely understood. We used genetically marked viruses to compare dissemination of poliovirus, yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D), and reovirus type 3 Dearing in mice from a hind limb intramuscular inoculation site to the sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and brain. While YFV-17D likely entered the CNS via blood, poliovirus and reovirus likely entered the CNS by transport through the sciatic nerve to the spinal cord. We found that dissemination was inefficient in adult immune-competent mice for all three viruses, particularly reovirus. Dissemination of all viruses was more efficient in immune-deficient mice. Although poliovirus and reovirus both accessed the CNS by transit through the sciatic nerve, stimulation of neuronal transport by muscle damage enhanced dissemination only of poliovirus. Our results suggest that these viruses access the CNS using different pathways. PMID:26479325

  18. Developing Nontraditional Partnerships to Disseminate the Space Science Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Charles; Allen, Jaclyn; Garcia, Javier; Martinez, Debra

    2010-01-01

    NASA Space Science Days (NSSD) was established in 2004 to bring the story of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) to a community far removed from areas NASA traditionally serves. The original NSSD invited 400 5th and 8th graders from the Texas Rio Grande Valley area to the University of Texas Brownsville campus to participate in a one day Saturday event filled with information about MER with related hands on activities. Currently the program has grown to over 700 5th and 8th grade participants who are mentored by trained university students from several Texas universities and community colleges and growing to include universities from throughout the U.S. A collaboration between three major institutions: The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate (ARES), the Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers/Advancing Hispanic Excellence in Technology Engineering, Math, and Science, (SHPE/AHETEMS), and the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) has been established to enable the dissemination of Solar System related educational materials throughout the U.S. Already in its 8th year, UTB has developed and tested a NSSD model that has successfully disseminated space science materials to students throughout South Texas Rio Grande Valley. With this newly formed collaboration this model s expansion will allow trained SHPE students and professionals to conduct events throughout its established nation-wide delivery systems. Each year a new NSSD site will be established through an application process solicited from SHPE student and professional chapters. Once a chapter is awarded, upper-level high school and university students will travel to NASA- JSC for a two day workshop where students learn about the current year s theme and are trained to present hands-on activities related to the theme. Additional training by ARES and UTB occurs one month before the new event in their own communities. Both local middle school teachers and

  19. Partnerships for Creating Learning Resources Fostering Discovery and Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2001-12-01

    Partnerships among educators and between educators and researchers within and among universities are especially important for fostering discovery, creating learning resources, and sharing materials for Earth system science education. Partners with diverse expertise motivate one another by contributing ideas and resources to the collaborative group, thus enabling discovery in the creation and enrichment of content being developed for the classroom or laboratory and also for informal education. The key to discovery in the interdisciplinary dimension of Earth system science requires knowledge and background experiences from many disciplines. Through sharing their expertise within collaborations, scientists and educators extend the usefulness of their work to others for use in their own classrooms, with perhaps modification of the resource to meet their specific needs. The new resource may be refined and redirected, and once again shared with other colleagues to extend the spiral of increasing utility and foster the broader use of the original resource. Collaborations enabling discovery become especially powerful when partnerships cross disciplines and extend horizons between fields of expertise in scientific research and professional education. Product dissemination and user community growth are natural results of a functioning collaborative of educators and researchers with common interests. This collaborative community-building concept forms the core of successful education endeavors within the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education Program (ESSE) which supported forty-five interdisciplinary teams between 1991 and 2000 to develop and offer courses on Earth system topics. Throughout this effort, ESSE recognized the value of partnerships, communication, and venues which promoted team building, and engaged in collaborations with the Inter-American Institute, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and Project ALERT aimed to foster discovery in the creation, review and

  20. Dissemination of Health-Related Research among Scientists in Three Countries: Access to Resources and Current Practices

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Wilson, Paul; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In public health and clinical settings insufficient dissemination of evidence-based practices limits the reach of new discoveries to broad populations. This study aimed to describe characteristics of the dissemination process by researchers across three countries (Brazil, United Kingdom, and United States), explore how designing for dissemination practices has been used, and analyze factors associated with dissemination. Methods. A similar online survey was used to query researchers across the three countries; data were pooled to draw cross-country conclusions. Findings. This study identified similarities and differences between countries. Importance of dissemination to nonresearcher audiences was widely recognized as important; however, traditional academic venues were the main dissemination method. Several factors were associated with self-rated dissemination effort in the pooled sample, but these predictive factors (e.g., support and resources for dissemination) had low prevalence. Less than one-third of researchers rated their level of effort for dissemination as excellent. Respondents reported limited support and resources to make it easier for researchers who might want to disseminate their findings. Conclusion. Though intentions show the importance of dissemination, researchers across countries lack supports to increase dissemination efforts. Additional resources and training in designing for dissemination along with improved partnerships could help bridge the research-practice gap. PMID:26495287