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Sample records for dissociation curve analysis

  1. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  2. Molecular diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia by combining real-time PCR with SYBR Green1 and dissociation curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingzhong; Yan, Mei; Wang, Zhangyong; Wang, Lirong; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Bai

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to set up an automatic molecular diagnostic method for deletional alpha-thalassemia without gel electrophoresis and TaqMan probe. Four real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with SYBR Green1 and ABI7000 (SYBR-PCR) followed by dissociation curve (DC) analysis were used to detect the --(SEA), - alpha(3.7), -alpha(4.2), and non-deletion-type alleles (alpha alpha or alpha(T)alpha), respectively. Positive results of the SYBR-PCRs were defined by the special shapes of the dissociation curves and the peak height at specific Tm for each predetermined PCR at a specific Tm for each PCR amplicon > or = cutoff values. Molecular diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia was determined by combining all four SYBR-PCR results. The specific Tms for the SYBR-PCR1-4, which was used to detect the --(SEA), - alpha(3.7), -alpha(4.2), and non-deletion-type alleles were 82.5 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, 82.8 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, 81.5 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, and 83.0 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, respectively. The cutoff values of the specific peaks for the positive amplificons were 40, 20, 10, and 70. The C(T) VS log copies of a recombinant plasmid DNA showed a good linear relationship between 10(5) approximately 10(0). Sensitivity of the SYBR-PCR-based method was at least 16 times higher than the multiplex PCR (mPCR)/gel electrophoresis method. Diagnostic outcomes of the 120 alpha-thalassemia cases by using the SYBR-PCR and DC analysis techniques were shown to be the same as that by using the mPCR/gel electrophoresis methods. The SYBR-PCR combined with the DC analysis technique is an alternative assay for the routine molecular diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia.

  3. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve

    PubMed Central

    Trembath, P. W.; Taylor, E. A.; Turner, P.; Roberts, M.; Cole, P.; Amess, J.

    1981-01-01

    1 The effects of several β-adrenoceptor antagonists and lignocaine on blood oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curves have been studied in healthy non-smoking subjects. 2 The PO2 at 50% saturation (P50) did not significantly change after oral propranolol 80 mg (single dose, and following 2 weeks' administration of 80 mg twice daily), or following separate intravenous injection of propranolol (0.2 mg/kg), practolol (1 mg/kg), atenolol (0.2 mg/kg) and SL 75212 (0.15 and 0.6 mg/kg). 3 Increases in P50 were found after the addition of propranolol 100 and 500 μg/ml, and lignocaine 5 μg/ml to whole blood, but incubation with propranolol at 1000 ng/ml or less, or sotalol 5 and 500 μg/ml and 5 mg/ml resulted in no significant change in P50. 4 These results suggest that to increase P50 with propranolol requires plasma propranolol concentrations far in excess of concentrations normally achieved, and that the therapeutic effect of propranolol in patients with ischaemic heart disease cannot be attributed to an increase in P50. PMID:6111330

  4. Modeling heating curve for gas hydrate dissociation in porous media.

    PubMed

    Dicharry, Christophe; Gayet, Pascal; Marion, Gérard; Graciaa, Alain; Nesterov, Anatoliy N

    2005-09-15

    A method for modeling the heating curve for gas hydrate dissociation in porous media at isochoric conditions (constant cell volume) is presented. This method consists of using an equation of state of the gas, the cumulative volume distribution (CVD) of the porous medium, and a van der Waals-Platteeuw-type thermodynamic model that includes a capillary term. The proposed method was tested to predict the heating curves for methane hydrate dissociation in a mesoporous silica glass for saturated conditions (liquid volume = pore volume) and for a fractional conversion of water to hydrate of 1 (100% of the available water was converted to hydrate). The shape factor (F) of the hydrate-water interface was found equal to 1, supporting a cylindrical shape for the hydrate particles during hydrate dissociation. Using F = 1, it has been possible to predict the heating curve for different ranges of pressure and temperature. The excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental heating curves supports the validity of our approach.

  5. Dissociation curves of diatomic molecules: A DC-DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Eunji; Kim, Min-Cheol; Burke, Kieron

    2015-12-31

    We investigate dissociation of diatomic molecules using standard density functional theory (DFT) and density-corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT) compared with CCSD(T) results as reference. The results show the difference between the HOMO values of dissociated atomic species often can be used as an indicator whether DFT would predict the correct dissociation limit. DFT predicts incorrect dissociation limits and charge distribution in molecules or molecular ions when the fragments have large HOMO differences, while DC-DFT and CCSD(T) do not. The criteria for large HOMO difference is about 2 ∼ 4 eV.

  6. Identification of non-specific hybridization using an empirical equation fitted to non-equilibrium dissociation curves

    PubMed Central

    Baushke, Samuel W; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tourlousse, Dieter M; Ahmad, Farhan; Wick, Lukas M; Gulari, Erdogan; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A

    2012-01-01

    Non-equilibrium dissociation curves (NEDCs) have the potential to identify non-specific hybridizations on high throughput, diagnostic microarrays. We report a simple method for identification of non-specific signals by using a new parameter that does not rely on comparison of perfect match and mismatch dissociations. The parameter is the ratio of specific dissociation temperature (Td-w) to theoretical melting temperature (Tm) and can be obtained by automated fitting of a four-parameter, sigmoid, empirical equation to the thousands of curves generated in a typical experiment. The curves fit perfect match NEDCs from an initial experiment with an R2 of 0.998±0.006 and root mean square of 108±91 fluorescent units. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed low temperature hybridization signals (20–48 °C) to be as effective as area under the curve as primary data filters. Evaluation of three datasets that target 16S rRNA and functional genes with varying degrees of target sequence similarity showed that filtering out hybridizations with Td-w/Tm < 0.78 greatly reduced false positive results. In conclusion, Td-w/Tm successfully screened many non-specific hybridizations that could not be identified using single temperature signal intensities alone, while the empirical modeling allowed a simplified approach to the high throughput analysis of thousands of NEDCs. PMID:22537822

  7. Curve Crossing and Branching Ratios in the Dissociative Recombination of HD{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Zajfman, D.; Amitay, Z.; Lange, M.; Hechtfischer, U.; Knoll, L.; Schwalm, D.; Wester, R.; Wolf, A.; Urbain, X.

    1997-09-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the branching ratios in the dissociative recombination of HD{sup +} with low energy electrons. The results give direct insight into the dynamics of the avoided curve crossing process between the dissociative state and the Rydberg series of the neutral molecule. Excellent agreement between the experimental results and the theory, based on a Landau-Zener formulation of the crossing process, is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Potential energy curves and dissociation energy of group IIA diatomic fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, M. P.; Ishwar, N. B.; Jha, B. L.

    1982-04-01

    Reliable (RKRV) potential energy curves have been constructed for different experimentally observed electronic states of BeF, MgF, CaF, SrF and BaF molecules from the latest spectroscopic data using the method of Rao and Venkateswarlu. Using a three-parameters Lippincott potential function the precise values of ground state dissociation energies of these molecules have been obtained. Values so obtained are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results.

  9. RKRV potential energy curves and dissociation energies of NH and PH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Viswanath, R.

    1989-05-01

    The turning points of the potential energy curves for the ground states of NH and PH molecules were calculated using the approach of Rydberg-Klein-Rees modified by Vanderslice et al. (1960), together with the energy values obtained from the Lippincott potential function. These values were compared with those obtained by Jarmain (1960). The values of the dissociation energies of the NH and PH were estimated to be about 3.45 and 3.16, respectively.

  10. Acid-base titration curves for acids with very small ratios of successive dissociation constants.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B H; Meites, L

    1974-02-01

    The shapes of the potentiometric acid-base titration curves obtained in the neutralizations of polyfunctional acids or bases for which each successive dissociation constant is smaller than the following one are examined. In the region 0 < < 1 (where is the fraction of the equivalent volume of reagent that has been added) the slope of the titration curve decreases as the number j of acidic or basic sites increases. The difference between the pH-values at = 0.75 and = 0.25 has (1 j)log 9 as the lower limit of its maximum value.

  11. Analytical determination of receptor-ligand dissociation constants of two populations of receptors from displacement curves.

    PubMed Central

    Almagor, H; Levitzki, A

    1990-01-01

    The determination of receptor-ligand dissociation constants from displacement data has been restricted until recently to the condition of receptor saturation, in which the concentration of receptor is negligible as compared to the displaced ligand and the displacing ligand used. This restriction has lately been removed since an accurate method has been developed for the determination of the dissociation constants for all experimental conditions for a system that includes a single type of binding site. In many cases, however, there are two types of receptor binding sites that exhibit different affinities toward the ligand. The present study provides an analytic solution for the problem of determination of the two dissociation constants as well as the proportion of the two receptor types. The formal derivation of the equations is described, along with analysis of a displacement simulation. The sensitivity of the method to the ratio between the two dissociation constants is also investigated. The application of the method is demonstrated for the analysis of the binding of beta-adrenergic receptors to the agonist isoproterenol as monitored by the displacement of the beta-antagonist 125I-labeled cyanopindolol. PMID:2168549

  12. Dissociation in Psychiatric Disorders: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    PubMed

    Lyssenko, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Bockhacker, Laura; Vonderlin, Ruben; Bohus, Martin; Kleindienst, Nikolaus

    2017-09-26

    Dissociation is a complex, ubiquitous construct in psychopathology. Symptoms of dissociation are present in a variety of mental disorders and have been connected to higher burden of illness and poorer treatment response, and not only in disorders with high levels of dissociation. This meta-analysis offers a systematic and evidence-based study of the prevalence and distribution of dissociation, as assessed by the Dissociative Experiences Scale, within different categories of mental disorders, and it updates an earlier meta-analysis. More than 1,900 original publications were screened, and 216 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 15,219 individuals in 19 diagnostic categories. The largest mean dissociation scores were found in dissociative disorders (mean scores >35), followed by posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and conversion disorder (mean scores >25). Somatic symptom disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, feeding and eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, OCD, and most affective disorders also showed mean dissociation scores >15. Bipolar disorders yielded the lowest dissociation scores (mean score, 14.8). The findings underline the importance of careful psychopathological assessment of dissociative symptoms in the entire range of mental disorders.

  13. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  14. Configuration of the Hemoglobin Oxygen Dissociation Curve Demystified: A Basic Mathematical Proof for Medical and Biological Sciences Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of hemoglobin (Hb) has been widely studied and mathematically described for nearly a century. Numerous mathematical models have been designed to predict with ever-increasing accuracy the behavior of oxygen transport by Hb in differing conditions of pH, carbon dioxide, temperature, Hb levels, and…

  15. Configuration of the Hemoglobin Oxygen Dissociation Curve Demystified: A Basic Mathematical Proof for Medical and Biological Sciences Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of hemoglobin (Hb) has been widely studied and mathematically described for nearly a century. Numerous mathematical models have been designed to predict with ever-increasing accuracy the behavior of oxygen transport by Hb in differing conditions of pH, carbon dioxide, temperature, Hb levels, and…

  16. THE BICARBONATE RESERVE AND THE DISSOCIATION CURVE OF OXYHEMOGLOBIN IN FEBRILE CONDITIONS.

    PubMed

    White, A C

    1925-02-28

    From Fig. 1 it may be seen that the effect of elevated temperature during the pyrexial period upon 1/K and therefore on the dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin was, on the average, greater than would have been expected from experiments on normal blood in vitro, and greater than would be expected in view of the alkalosis occurring See PDF for Structure during fever. Temperature rise, and excess hydroxyl ion acting in vitro in the opposite directions, seemed to indicate a more stable state of affairs than was found. Apparently other factors have come into play, as, for example, alterations in the proportions and concentrations of the various electrolytes. In pneumonia, for instance, there is a retention of chloride during the febrile period with excessive loss of phosphates. The variations were not due to variations in the hemoglobin molecule itself since from the work of Adair, Barcroft, and Bock (18) hemoglobin must apparently be reckoned as having identical properties in normal individuals of the same species. If Barcroft's (19) hypothesis be right, namely that the C(H) within the corpuscle is higher than that of the plasma, the observed variations of 1/K may not be so surprising. In view of the fact that the hemoglobin inside the corpuscle is enclosed within a semipermeable membrane, the possibility arises of the setting up of membrane equilibria which will protect the respiratory pigment from excessive changes of reaction that may occur in the plasma, and thus the optimum conditions for the carriage of oxygen to the tissues may be maintained. Krogh and Leitch (10) in 1919 also drew attention to the protected situation of hemoglobin inside the corpuscle. In Case 6 it seems as if the alkalosis consequent on the febrile state had gained the upper hand and had extinguished the normal temperature reaction. This is rather confirmed by the fact that clinically the case showed one of the earlier signs of an alkalosis; namely, twitching of the facial muscles. Case 10

  17. Analysis of HCO dissociation using classical trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Karin R.; Zhao, Xinsheng

    1995-12-01

    We investigated dissociation of the formyl radical, HCO, by classical trajectories, and found evidence of non RRKM behavior. Studies of DCO support our contention that non RRKM behavior in this system is the consequence of dynamic bottlenecks in phase space.

  18. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs.

  19. A Latent Class Analysis of Dissociation and PTSD: Evidence for a Dissociative Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Ryabchenko, Karen A.; Castillo, Diane; Freund, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Context The nature of the relationship of dissociation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is controversial and of considerable clinical and nosological importance. Objective To examine evidence for a distinct subtype of PTSD characterized by high levels of dissociation. Design A latent profile analysis of cross-sectional data from structured clinical interviews indexing DSM-IV symptoms of current PTSD and dissociation. Setting VA Boston and New Mexico VA Healthcare Systems. Participants 492 Veterans and their intimate partners, all of whom had histories of trauma. Participants reported exposure to a variety of traumatic events including combat, childhood physical and sexual abuse, partner abuse, motor vehicle accidents, and natural disasters, with most participants reporting exposure to multiple types of traumatic events. Forty-two percent of the sample met criteria for a current diagnosis of PTSD. Main Outcome Measures Item-level scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Results A latent profile analysis suggested a three class solution: a low severity subgroup, a high PTSD severity subgroup characterized by elevations across the 17 core symptoms of the disorder, and a small but distinctly dissociative subgroup that comprised 12% of individuals with a current diagnosis of PTSD. The latter group was characterized by severe PTSD symptoms combined with marked elevations on items assessing flashbacks, derealization, and depersonalization. Individuals in this subgroup also endorsed greater exposure to childhood and adult sexual trauma compared to the other two groups suggesting a possible etiologic link with the experience of repeated sexual trauma. Conclusions Results support the subtype hypothesis of the association between PTSD and dissociation and suggest that dissociation is a highly salient facet of posttraumatic psychopathology in a subset of individuals with the disorder. PMID:22752235

  20. A latent class analysis of dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence for a dissociative subtype.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Ryabchenko, Karen A; Castillo, Diane; Freund, Rachel

    2012-07-01

    The nature of the relationship of dissociation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is controversial and of considerable clinical and nosologic importance. To examine evidence for a dissociative subtype of PTSD and to examine its association with different types of trauma. A latent profile analysis of cross-sectional data from structured clinical interviews indexing DSM-IV symptoms of current PTSD and dissociation. The VA Boston Healthcare System and the New Mexico VA Health Care System. A total of 492 veterans and their intimate partners, all of whom had a history of trauma. Participants reported exposure to a variety of traumatic events, including combat, childhood physical and sexual abuse, partner abuse, motor vehicle accidents, and natural disasters, with most participants reporting exposure to multiple types of traumatic events. Forty-two percent of the sample met the criteria for a current diagnosis of PTSD. Item-level scores on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. A latent profile analysis suggested a 3-class solution: a low PTSD severity subgroup, a high PTSD severity subgroup characterized by elevations across the 17 core symptoms of the disorder, and a small but distinctly dissociative subgroup that composed 12% of individuals with a current diagnosis of PTSD. The latter group was characterized by severe PTSD symptoms combined with marked elevations on items assessing flashbacks, derealization, and depersonalization. Individuals in this subgroup also endorsed greater exposure to childhood and adult sexual trauma compared with the other 2 groups, suggesting a possible etiologic link with the experience of repeated sexual trauma. These results support the subtype hypothesis of the association between PTSD and dissociation and suggest that dissociation is a highly salient facet of posttraumatic psychopathology in a subset of individuals with the disorder.

  1. An operational model of pharmacological agonism: the effect of E/[A] curve shape on agonist dissociation constant estimation.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J. W.; Leff, P.; Shankley, N. P.; Wood, J.

    1985-01-01

    An operational model of pharmacological agonism has been analysed to predict the behaviour of rectangular hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic agonist-concentration effect, E/[A], curves with variation in receptor concentration, [Ro]. Irreversible antagonism is predicted to cause E/[A] curve gradient changes in non-hyperbolic cases but not in hyperbolic cases; in both cases estimation of agonist dissociation constants (KAS) is theoretically valid. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced "steep' E/[A] curves in contracting the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. Irreversible antagonism by phenoxybenzamine (Pbz) produced a flattened E/[A] curve, consistent with theoretical predictions. Fitting 5-HT E/[A] curves in the presence and absence of Pbz to the model provided an estimate of KA for 5-HT which was not significantly different from the estimate obtained using Furchgott's null method. The operational model of agonism appears to account qualitatively and quantitatively for the effects of [Ro] changes on hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic E/[A] curves. Under conditions where irreversible antagonism may be used to estimate KAS, fitting the operational model directly to E/[A] data represents a valid, economical and analytically simple alternative to the conventional null method. PMID:3978322

  2. Configuration of the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve demystified: a basic mathematical proof for medical and biological sciences undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2007-06-01

    The oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of hemoglobin (Hb) has been widely studied and mathematically described for nearly a century. Numerous mathematical models have been designed to predict with ever-increasing accuracy the behavior of oxygen transport by Hb in differing conditions of pH, carbon dioxide, temperature, Hb levels, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentrations that enable their applications in various clinical situations. The modeling techniques employed in many existing models are notably borrowed from advanced and highly sophisticated mathematics that are likely to surpass the comprehensibility of many medical and bioscience students due to the high level of "mathematical maturity" required. It is, however, a worthy teaching point in physiology lectures to illustrate in simple mathematics the fundamental reason for the crucial sigmoidal configuration of the ODC such that the medical and bioscience undergraduates can readily appreciate it, which is the objective of this basic dissertation.

  3. Clinical implications of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve in the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Oski, F A

    1979-09-01

    Factors responsible for determining the position of the oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve during the neonatal period are briefly reviewed and the clinical implications of these changes are examined. Two clinical trials employing exchange transfusions as an adjunct to conventional therapy of the severe respiratory distress syndrome have both demonstrated that this procedure reduces mortality. In neither study was it possible to demonstrate that the improvement was a direct consequence of the reduction in hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen that was produced by the substitution of fetal hemoglobin by adult hemoglobin. Data on the role of the position of the oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve in the regulation of erythropoiesis during the "anemia of prematurity" demonstrate that the ability to unload oxygen is more important than the absolute hemoglobin level in both the stimulus to erythropoietin production and the clinical manifestations of anemia. The gradual shift of the position of the oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve which occurs during the early months of life may not be sufficient in all infants to meet the growing preterm infants' metabolic needs without evoking additional cardiac compensation.

  4. Analysis of light curve of LP Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present photometric analysis of the RRab type pulsating star LP Cam. The star was observed at Brno Observatory and Planetarium during nine nights. Measurements were calibrated to the Johnson photometric system. Four captured and thirteen previously published maxima timings allowed us to refine the pulsation period and the zero epoch. The light curve was Fourier decomposed to estimate physical parameters using empirical relations. Our results suggest that LP Cam is a common RR Lyrae star with high, almost solar metallicity.

  5. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  6. Dissociation potential curves of low-lying states in transition metal hydrides. 3. Hydrides of groups 6 and 7.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shiro; Matsushita, Takeshi; Gordon, Mark S

    2006-02-23

    The dissociation curves of low-lying spin-mixed states in monohydrides of groups 6 and 7 were calculated by using an effective core potential (ECP) approach. This approach is based on the multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) method, followed by first-order configuration interaction (FOCI) calculations, in which the method employs an ECP basis set proposed by Stevens and co-workers (SBKJC) augmented by a set of polarization functions. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects are estimated within the one-electron approximation by using effective nuclear charges, since SOC splittings obtained with the full Breit-Pauli Hamitonian are underestimated when ECP basis sets are used. The ground states of group 6 hydrides have Omega = (1)/(2)(X(6)Sigma(+)(1/2)), where Omega is the z component of the total angular momentum quantum number. Although the ground states of group 7 hydrides have Omega = 0(+), their main adiabatic components are different; the ground state in MnH originates from the lowest (7)Sigma(+), while in TcH and ReH the main component of the ground state is the lowest (5)Sigma(+). The present paper reports a comprehensive set of theoretical results including the dissociation energies, equilibrium distances, electronic transition energies, harmonic frequencies, anharmonicities, and rotational constants for several low-lying spin-mixed states in these hydrides. Transition dipole moments were also computed among the spin-mixed states and large peak positions of electronic transitions are suggested theoretically for these hydrides. The periodic trends of physical properties of metal hydrides are discussed, based on the results reported in this and other recent studies.

  7. NEXT Performance Curve Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, Pratik; Cardiff, Eric; Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Performance curves of the NEXT thruster are highly important in determining the thruster's ability in performing towards mission-specific goals. New performance curves are proposed and examined here. The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is used to verify variations in mission solutions based on both available thruster curves and the new curves generated. Furthermore, variations in BOL and EOL curves are also examined. Mission design results shown here validate the use of EMTG and the new performance curves.

  8. Phenomenological analysis of the clotting curve.

    PubMed

    De Cristofaro, R; Di Cera, E

    1991-10-01

    A model-independent (phenomenological) characterization of the clotting curve is proposed. Three parameters are used to encapsulate the main features of the increase in absorbance observed at 350 nm due to the reaction of thrombin with fibrinogen that leads to clot formation: (1) the maximum increase in absorbance per unit time, delta Am, at the inflection point of the clotting curve; (2) the time needed to reach the maximum increase in absorbance, tm; and (3) the clotting time, tc, obtained from extrapolation of the slope at tm to the zero absorbance baseline. Clotting curves at low fibrinogen concentrations (0.125 divided by 0.250 microM), well below the Km, where thrombin amidase activity is rate-limiting with respect to the subsequent aggregation process, have been measured under a wide variety of experimental conditions, (i.e., as a function of thrombin concentration, pH and temperature) in order to explore the basic response of each parameter to changes in solution conditions. Under all conditions examined in this study we have observed that tm and tc are linked through a linear relationship that appears to be an important invariant property of the clotting curve, regardless of experimental conditions. No such clear relationship exists between delta Am and tc, with tc being associated with several possible values of delta Am and vice versa, depending upon solution conditions. It is proposed that tc is strictly dependent on thrombin amidase activity, while delta Am reflects properties of the aggregation process leading to clot formation. The clotting time shows a pH and temperature dependence that closely resembles that of Km/Vm for synthetic amide substrates. Furthermore, tc changes linearly with either the inverse thrombin concentration and the concentration of competitive inhibitors of fibrinogen binding to thrombin, as expected for the ratio Km/Vm. We show how the analysis of clotting curves obtained at different thrombin and inhibitor concentrations

  9. Analysis of the vitreoretinal surgery learning curve.

    PubMed

    Martín-Avià, J; Romero-Aroca, P

    2017-06-01

    To describe intra- and post-operative complications, as well as the evolution of the surgical technique in first 4years of work of a novice retina surgeon, and evaluate minimal learning time required to reduce its complications, deciding which pathologies should still be referred to higher level hospitals, until further experience may be achieved. A study was conducted on patients that had undergone vitreoretinal surgery by a novice surgeon in Tarragona between 23rd October 2007 and 31st December 2011. The primary diagnosis, surgeon learning time, surgical technique, intra-operative and post-operative complications were recorded. A total of 247 surgeries were studied. The percentage of use of 20G and 23G calibres during the time, marks a change towards trans-conjunctival surgery from the ninth trimester (98 surgeries). Surgical complications decreased towards twelfth trimester (130 surgeries) with an increase in the previous months. The shift towards 23G technique around 100 surgeries is interpreted as greater comfort and safety by the surgeon. Increased surgical complications during the following months until its decline around 130 surgeries can be interpreted as an 'overconfidence'. It is arguable that the learning curve is slower than what the surgeon believes. An individual analysis of the complications and surgical outcomes is recommended to ascertain the status of the learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments

    SciTech Connect

    Fertitta, E.; Paulus, B.; Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö.

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be{sub n} of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  11. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments.

    PubMed

    Fertitta, E; Paulus, B; Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be(n) of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  12. In vitro analysis of human immunodeficiency virus particle dissociation: gag proteolytic processing influences dissociation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara; Anders, Maria; Reinstein, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus particles undergo a step of proteolytic maturation, in which the main structural polyprotein Gag is cleaved into its mature subunits matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC) and p6. Gag proteolytic processing is accompanied by a dramatic structural rearrangement within the virion, which is necessary for virus infectivity and has been proposed to proceed through a sequence of dissociation and reformation of the capsid lattice. Morphological maturation appears to be tightly regulated, with sequential cleavage events and two small spacer peptides within Gag playing important roles by regulating the disassembly of the immature capsid layer and formation of the mature capsid lattice. In order to measure the influence of individual Gag domains on lattice stability, we established Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter virions and employed rapid kinetic FRET and light scatter measurements. This approach allowed us to measure dissociation properties of HIV-1 particles assembled in eukaryotic cells containing Gag proteins in different states of proteolytic processing. While the complex dissociation behavior of the particles prevented an assignment of kinetic rate constants to individual dissociation steps, our analyses revealed characteristic differences in the dissociation properties of the MA layer dependent on the presence of additional domains. The most striking effect observed here was a pronounced stabilization of the MA-CA layer mediated by the presence of the 14 amino acid long spacer peptide SP1 at the CA C-terminus, underlining the crucial role of this peptide for the resolution of the immature particle architecture.

  13. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Lilienfield, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Dissociation is typically defined as the lack of normal integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiences into consciousness and memory. The present article critically evaluates the research literature on cognitive processes in dissociation. The authors' review indicates that dissociation is characterized by subtle deficits in neuropsychological…

  14. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Lilienfield, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Dissociation is typically defined as the lack of normal integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiences into consciousness and memory. The present article critically evaluates the research literature on cognitive processes in dissociation. The authors' review indicates that dissociation is characterized by subtle deficits in neuropsychological…

  15. Mathematics analysis of polymerase chain reaction kinetic curves.

    PubMed

    Sochivko, D G; Fedorov, A A; Varlamov, D A; Kurochkin, V E; Petrov, R V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches to the mathematical analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kinetic curves. The basic principles of PCR mathematical analysis are presented. Approximation of PCR kinetic curves and PCR efficiency curves by various functions is described. Several PCR models based on chemical kinetics equations are suggested. Decision criteria for an optimal function to describe PCR efficiency are proposed.

  16. Method comparison study for weak acid dissociation cyanide analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Joseph D; Thompson, Leslie; Clark, Patrick J; Beckman, Scott W

    2003-02-01

    Method comparison studies of two different methods for the analysis of weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide revealed analytical flaws and/or matrix interference problems with both procedures. EPA "draft" method 1677 using a Perstorp 3202 CN analyzer was compared to Standard Method 4500 CN I. It was discovered that the Perstorp analyzer produced more precise and more accurate results once appropriate and necessary procedural steps from the EPA draft method were modified. Comparison of these two methods, was based on "real world" samples collected from a mine-tailing solution. The mine-tailing solution contained high concentrations of cyanide and metals. Inconsistencies in method procedures were traced to sulfide interferences and high concentrations of WAD metals. Conclusions were based upon a large sample base collected from a mine site over a 90-day period.

  17. Where pseudo-hallucinations meet dissociation: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Wearne, Deborah; Curtis, Guy J; Genetti, Amanda; Samuel, Mathew; Sebastian, Justin

    2017-08-01

    The possible link between cognitive areas of perception and integration of consciousness was examined using assessments of hallucinations and derealisation/depersonalization. Sixty-five subjects in three main diagnostic groups - posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia - identified by their treating psychiatrist as hearing voices were surveyed regarding characteristics of hallucinations, derealisation/depersonalization, delusions and childhood/adult trauma. A cluster analysis produced two clusters predominantly determined by variables of hallucinations measures, childhood sexual abuse and derealisation/depersonalization scores. History of childhood trauma and variability in derealisation/depersonalization scores were better predictors of external, negative, uncontrollable voices than diagnosis of BPD or PTSD. The potential links between dissociative states and pseudo-hallucinations are discussed.

  18. Unrestricted prescriptions for open-shell singlet diradicals: using economical ab initio and density functional theory to calculate singlet-triplet gaps and bond dissociation curves.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H; Cook, Thomas C

    2012-05-24

    Here we present and test several computational prescriptions for calculating singlet-triplet (ST) gap energies and bond dissociation curves for open-shell singlet diradicals using economical unrestricted single reference type calculations. For ST gap energies from Slipchenko and Krylov's atom and molecule test set (C, O, Si, NH, NF, OH(+), O(2), CH(2), and NH(2)(+)) spin unrestricted Hartree-Fock and MP2 energies result in errors greater than 15 kcal/mol. However, spin-projected (SP) Hartree-Fock theory in combination with spin-component-scaled (SCS) or scaled-opposite-spin (SOS) second-order perturbation theory gives ST gap energies with a mean unsigned error (MUE) of less than 2 kcal/mol. Density functionals generally give poor results for unrestricted energies and only the ωB97X-D, the M06, and the M06-2X functionals provide reasonable accuracy after spin-projection with MUE values of 4.7, 4.3, and 3.0 kcal/mol, respectively, with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. We also present a new one parameter hybrid density functional, diradical-1 (DR-1), based on Adamo and Barone's modified PW exchange functional with the PW91 correlation functional. This DR-1 method gives a mean error (ME) of 0.0 kcal/mol and a MUE value of 1.3 kcal/mol for ST gap energies. As another test of unrestricted methods the bond dissociation curves for methane (CH(4)) and hydrofluoric acid (H-F) were calculated with the M06-2X, DR-1, and ωB97X-D density functionals. All three of these functionals give reasonable results for the methane C-H bond but result in errors greater than 50 kcal/mol for the H-F bond dissociation. Spin-projection is found to significantly degrade bond dissociation curves past ~2.2 Å. Although unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory provides a very poor description of H-F bond dissociation, unrestricted SCS-MP2 and SOS-MP2 methods give accurate results.

  19. Recession curve analysis for groundwater levels: case study in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.; Abramenko, K.; Lauva, D.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Dimanta, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Recession curve analysis is powerful and effective analysis technique in many research areas related with hydrogeology where observations have to be made, such as water filtration and absorption of moisture, irrigation and drainage, planning of hydroelectric power production and chemical leaching (elution of chemical substances) as well as in other areas. The analysis of the surface runoff hydrograph`s recession curves, which is performed to conceive the after-effects of interaction of precipitation and surface runoff, has approved in practice. The same method for analysis of hydrograph`s recession curves can be applied for the observations of the groundwater levels. There are manually prepared hydrograph for analysis of recession curves for observation wells (MG2, BG2 and AG1) in agricultural monitoring sites in Latvia. Within this study from the available monitoring data of groundwater levels were extracted data of declining periods, splitted by month. The drop-down curves were manually (by changing the date) moved together, until to find the best match, thereby obtaining monthly drop-down curves, representing each month separately. Monthly curves were combined and manually joined, for obtaining characterizing drop-down curves of the year for each well. Within the process of decreased recession curve analysis, from the initial curve was cut out upward areas, leaving only the drops of the curve, consequently, the curve is transformed more closely to the groundwater flow, trying to take out the impact of rain or drought periods from the curve. Respectively, the drop-down curve is part of the data, collected with hydrograph, where data with the discharge dominates, without considering impact of precipitation. Using the recession curve analysis theory, ready tool "A Visual Basic Spreadsheet Macro for Recession Curve Analysis" was used for selection of data and logarithmic functions matching (K. Posavec et.al., GROUND WATER 44, no. 5: 764-767, 2006), as well as

  20. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  1. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  2. SS433 Trek 2: light curve analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, J.; Obana, Y.; Okugami, M.

    The authors have calculated theoretical light curves of SS433 during eclipse and precession, using a model in which SS433 consists of a geometrically thick torus around a compact star and a companion star filling the Roche lobe. The favorite combination is that the mass ratio is about 2 (a compact star is a black hole) and the surface temperature of the companion is around 17000K.

  3. PSD analysis of optical QSO light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simm, Torben; Salvato, M.; Saglia, R.; Ponti, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Nandra, K.; Bender, R.

    2016-08-01

    One of the elementary properties of quasar activity is continuous variability in the UV/optical bands. The power spectral density (PSD) potentially contains information about the underlying processes connected to variability. We applied a novel method based on continuous-time autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models (Kelly et al. 2014) to derive the PSD even for irregularly sampled light curves. Using a sample of ~100 X-ray selected non-local QSOs from the XMM-COSMOS catalog and optical light curves provided by the Pan-STARRS1 MDF survey we find that the PSD resembles a broken power-law with a high-frequency slope significantly steeper than observed in X-ray studies. The PSD normalization is observed to scale inversely with bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio, whereas there is no correlation between the characteristic bend timescale and black hole mass. We find a weak tendency for QSOs with higher black hole mass to have steeper high-frequency PSD slopes. In an ongoing work we extend these studies employing a sample of ~700 variable broad-line QSOs with high-quality black hole mass estimates and well-sampled light curves from the SDSS-RM project.

  4. Full Empirical Potential Curves and Improved Dissociation Energies for the X ^1Σ^+ and a ^1Π States of CH^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Le Roy, Robert

    2014-06-01

    CH^+ has been a species of interest since the dawn of molecular astrophysics,and it is an important intermediate in combustion processes. In the domain of `conventional' spectroscopy there have been a number of studies of low v' and v" portions of the A ^1Π-X ^1Σ^+ band system of various isotopologues, and Amano recently reported microwave measurements of the ground-state R(0) lines of 12CH^+, 13CH^+ and 12CD^+. used photodissociation spectroscopy to observe transitions to very high-J' tunneling-predissociation levels (shape resonances) involving v(A)=0-10, for many of which they also measured the photo-fragment kinetic energy release. More recently Hechtfischer et al. used photodissociation spectroscopy of `Feschbach resonance' levels at very high v'(A) and low J' to obtain the first direct measurement of the 12CH^+ dissociation energy with near-spectroscopic accuracy (± 1.1 cm-1). However, to date, all analyses of the data for this system had been performed using traditional band-constant or Dunham-expansion fits to data for the lowest vibrational levels, and there have been no attempts to combine the `conventional' low-v data with the high-J' and high-v' photodissociation data in a single treatment. The present work has addressed this problem by performing a Direct-Potential-Fit (DPF) analysis that obtains full analytic potential energy functions for the X ^1Σ^+ and A ^1Π states of CH^+ that are able to account for all of the available data (on average) within their uncertainties. A.E. Douglas and G. Herzberg, Astrophys. J. 94, 381 (1941). T. Amano, Astrophys. J. Lett. {716}, L1 (2010) H. Helm, P.C. Crosby, M.M. Graff and J.T. Mosley, Phys. Rev. A 25, 304 (1982) U. Hechtfischer and C. J. Williams, M. Lange, J. Linkemann, D. Schwalm, R. Wester, A. Wolf and D. Zajfman, J.Chem.Phys. 117, 8754 (2002). H.S.P. Müller, Astron. Astrophys. 514, L7 (2010)

  5. Analysis of Gas Dissociation Solar Thermal Power System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    that have accumulated at the facility is effected by using reversible chemical reactions bottom of the reservoir. in a dosed- cycle gaseous working fluid...L.LJ facility at intermediate temperature by using a polyatomic gas in a closed cycle circulation system. For example, S gaseous SO, dissociates at 800... cycle fluid system by passing SO- vapor through a dissociation reactor in a that transfers energy from the collection field to the high temperature solar

  6. Segmented wave analysis of surface plasmon resonance on curved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunwoong; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-07-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been heavily used as biosensors and studied dominantly on a flat surface. Recently, flexible sensor platforms have emerged, for example, as wearable devices. Here, we report investigation of SPR characteristics on a curved film structure. A rigorous 3D computational model requires extremely heavy calculation time and resources. Therefore, we adopted segmentation analysis in which curved surface is divided into an array of flat segments. Such analysis allows fast and efficient calculation. The results indicate that increased curvature produces broader SPR due to wider momentum-matching. The segmentation analysis is expected to play a critical role for diverse optical elements on curved surface.

  7. Relations among peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty; van der Hart, Onno; van Ochten, Jacobien M; van Son, Maarten J M; Steele, Kathy; Breeman, Linda

    2008-10-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on the empirical literature which addressed the relationship of peritraumatic dissociation to posttraumatic stress (PTS). Extensive literature searches were conducted to identify as many relevant studies as possible, and revealed 59 independent eligible studies. All studies were coded using a detailed code sheet that included effect measures, variables that indicated the methodological quality of the studies, and substantial variables that might theoretically affect the relationship between peritraumatic dissociation and PTS. A significant positive relation between peritraumatic dissociation and PTS was found. Differences in the methodological rigor between studies - time elapsed since peritraumatic dissociation, design, sample type, and study type - significantly and sufficiently explained the variability in effect sizes between studies. Theoretical variables did not explain such variability. Although results underline earlier findings, due to designs of the reviewed studies no conclusions could be drawn as to causal relations between peritraumatic dissociation and PTS.

  8. Parametric receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using mathematica.

    PubMed

    Heckerling, Paul S

    2002-07-01

    Several computer programs have been written to perform receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and are available in the public domain. Here, the author provides the theory and description for 'rocMath', a Mathematica program that performs parametric ROC curve analysis. The 'rocMath' program has some advantages over other ROC curve programs, including the ability to provide, through optional arguments: (a) user-specified pointwise confidence limits, as well as default 95% limits, on ROC curve area and on true-positive rates; (b) ROC curve plots with data points, a fitted curve, and user-specified pointwise confidence bands; and (c) ROC curve areas, tables, and plots based on a logistic distribution as well as on a standard normal distribution. In addition, the code of 'rocMath' can be modified to address additional ROC curve applications. The program uses Mathematica's ability to operate on purely symbolic as well as numeric data to achieve substantial coding efficiency. Limitations of the 'rocMath' program are also discussed.

  9. High-Resolution Melt Curve Analysis in Cancer Mutation Screen.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Patel, Keyur P

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis is a PCR-based assay that identifies sequence alterations based on subtle variations in the melting curves of mutated versus wild-type DNA sequences. HRM analysis is a high-throughput, sensitive, and efficient alternative to Sanger sequencing and is used to assess for mutations in clinically important genes involved in cancer diagnosis. The technique involves PCR amplification of a target sequence in the presence of a fluorescent double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding dye, melting of the fluorescent amplicons, and subsequent interpretation of melt curve profiles.

  10. An analysis of the light curve of Pluto.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, A. A.; Fix, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The light curve of Pluto is analyzed in terms of a geometrical model consisting of bright and dark areas which are assumed to exhibit either a diffuse or a geometrical type of reflectivity. A Fourier analysis method is used to invert the observed light curve to obtain the longitudinal distribution of bright and dark areas for any combination of albedos selected for the two types of terrain. The analysis indicates that the light curve of Pluto can be readily understood in terms of a surface consisting of bright and dark areas. However, on the basis of the presently available photometric data, the existence or absence of limb-darkened material cannot be established.

  11. Dissociative mental states are canonically associated with decreased temporal theta activity on spectral analysis of EEG.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christa; Bartel, Peter; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) changes relating to dissociative experiences have only rarely been demonstrated, and dissociative states were not quantified in those studies. The aim of this study was to explore concurrent associations between quantified dissociative states and QEEG spectral parameters, in particular theta activity, in psychiatric patients. Fifty psychiatric patients completed the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD) immediately after a 15-min EEG recording. The EEG was assessed by conventional clinical visual analysis as well as by quantitative (QEEG) spectral analysis. Canonical analysis was performed between the set of SSD subscale scores and the following QEEG parameters: alpha-theta magnitude ratios, and relative as well as absolute theta magnitude obtained from right and left mid- to posterior-temporal and parieto-occipital derivations. The SSD transferred well to the present data in terms of reliability and internal criterion-related validity. The SSD and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) correlated significantly (r = .73, p < .001). Conventional EEG analysis identified 29 EEGs (58%) as abnormal. The main abnormality in 23 EEGs was slowing, maximal temporally in half of these cases. Canonical analyses confirmed a statistically significant relationship between the dissociation variables (especially conversion and depersonalization symptoms) and the QEEG variables (especially relative theta magnitude in the temporal regions; R = .72, p = .03, for SSD-QEEG; and R = .66, p = .04, for DES-QEEG). Quantified dissociative mental states are positively canonically associated with decreased temporal theta activity and increased alpha-theta ratios on QEEG in psychiatric patients with a high tendency to dissociate. The potential implications of the dissociation-theta-alpha relationship for understanding normal attentional processes need to be studied further.

  12. Light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas; Budavari, Tamas; Hendry, Martin A.; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2015-08-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Schematically, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We are applying the framework to a variety of problems in synoptic time-domain survey astronomy, including optimal detection of weak sources in multi-epoch data, and improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities from detailed demographic modeling of ensembles of Cepheid light curves.

  13. Analysis of alternative keyboards using learning curves.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Allison M; Mirka, Gary A; Joines, Sharon M B; Kaber, David B

    2009-02-01

    To quantify learning percentages for alternative keyboards (chord, contoured split, Dvorak, and split fixed angle) and understand how physical, cognitive, and perceptual demand affect learning. Alternative keyboards have been shown to offer ergonomic benefits over the conventional, single-plane QWERTY keyboard design, but productivity-related challenges may hinder their widespread acceptance. Sixteen participants repeatedly typed a standard text passage using each alternative keyboard. Completion times were collected and subsequent learning percentages were calculated. Participants were asked to subjectively rate the physical, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each keyboard, and these values were then related to the calculated learning percentages. Learning percentage calculations revealed the percentage for the split fixed-angle keyboard (90.4%) to be significantly different (p < .05) from the learning percentages for the other three keyboards (chord, 77.3%; contour split, 76.9%; Dvorak, 79.1%). The average task completion time for the conventional QWERTY keyboard was 40 s, and the average times for the fifth trial on the chord, contoured split, Dvorak, and split fixed-angle keyboards were 346, 69, 181, and 42 s, respectively. Productivity decrements can be quickly regained for the split fixed-angle and contour split keyboard but will take considerably longer for Dvorak and chord keyboards. The split fixed-angle keyboard involved physical learning, whereas the others involved some combination of physical and cognitive learning, a result supported by the subjective responses. Understanding the changes in task performance time that come with learning can provide additional information for a cost-benefit analysis when considering the implementation of ergonomic interventions.

  14. Functional principal component analysis of H-reflex recruitment curves.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Kristof; Johnson, Samuel T; Hoffman, Mark A

    2011-04-30

    The primary purpose of this study was to use functional principal component analysis (FPCA) to analyze Hoffman-reflex (H-reflex) recruitment curves. Smoothed and interpolated recruitment curves from 38 participants were used for analysis. Standard methods were used to calculate three discrete variables (i.e., H(max)/M(max) ratio, H(th), H(slp)). FPCA was then used to extract principal component functions (PCFs) from the processed recruitment curves. PCF scores were calculated to determine how much each PCF contributed to an individuals' recruitment curve. The analysis extracted three PCFs, and three sets of PCF scores. Correlation analyses and systematic variation in the PCF scores indicated that the scores for the first PCF were primarily correlated to H-reflex threshold (H(th)) and that the scores for the second and third PCFs were correlated to H-reflex magnitude (H(max)/M(max) ratio) and slope (H(slp)), respectively. In addition, results from the FPCA indicated that the first PCF explained 56.0% of the variance between all H-reflex recruitment curves, whereas the second and third PCFs explained 24.1% and 13.0%, respectively. The high correlations indicate FPCA-derived PCFs capture similar physiological information as the standard discrete variables and suggest that application of FPCA to H-reflex recruitment curves could be used in future studies to complement traditional analyses that investigate excitability of the motoneuron pool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cepheid light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hendry, Martin; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Roughly speaking, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We describe ongoing work applying the framework to improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities via FDA-based refinement and generalization of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation.

  16. Decision curve analysis revisited: overall net benefit, relationships to ROC curve analysis, and application to case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Decision curve analysis has been introduced as a method to evaluate prediction models in terms of their clinical consequences if used for a binary classification of subjects into a group who should and into a group who should not be treated. The key concept for this type of evaluation is the "net benefit", a concept borrowed from utility theory. Methods We recall the foundations of decision curve analysis and discuss some new aspects. First, we stress the formal distinction between the net benefit for the treated and for the untreated and define the concept of the "overall net benefit". Next, we revisit the important distinction between the concept of accuracy, as typically assessed using the Youden index and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the concept of utility of a prediction model, as assessed using decision curve analysis. Finally, we provide an explicit implementation of decision curve analysis to be applied in the context of case-control studies. Results We show that the overall net benefit, which combines the net benefit for the treated and the untreated, is a natural alternative to the benefit achieved by a model, being invariant with respect to the coding of the outcome, and conveying a more comprehensive picture of the situation. Further, within the framework of decision curve analysis, we illustrate the important difference between the accuracy and the utility of a model, demonstrating how poor an accurate model may be in terms of its net benefit. Eventually, we expose that the application of decision curve analysis to case-control studies, where an accurate estimate of the true prevalence of a disease cannot be obtained from the data, is achieved with a few modifications to the original calculation procedure. Conclusions We present several interrelated extensions to decision curve analysis that will both facilitate its interpretation and broaden its potential area of application. PMID:21696604

  17. Dissociation behavior of Methane Hydrate presumed by NMR log analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study has been conducted with the aim of comprehending dissociation behavior of MH. The production test was operated in the Daini-Atsumi knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. We corresponded the NMR log data acquired from the three wells, which drilled before the test (AT1-MC) and after the test (AT1-LWD1 and AT1-LWD2). NMR log measures T2 relaxation time, and calculates porosity and permeability. We especially focused on the T2 distribution. It is assumed that MH occupied larger pore space in the sandy sediment because the T2 distribution in the MH bearing layer has no peak in the longer time zone at the AT1-MC. However, T2 peak appeared over 33ms zone at the AT1-LWD1 and AT1-LWD2. This phenomenon is observed in the thin MH bearing layers rather than thick one. On the other hand, nothing T2 peak appeared over the 33ms zone in the thick MH bearing layer, but T2 distribution shifts to longer relaxation time in the short time interval. Hence, it is assumed that the MH was dissociated from the contact faces with the grain. In terms of the thermal conductivity, near the grain-grain contact faces are more dissociable than the MH-grain contact; however both of dissociation zones are essentially MH-grain contact faces. Nothing or few MH was observed in the muddy layer at the coring campaign near these wells. Abovementioned, NMR logging detected various changes on the T2 distribution. It seems to indicate the dissociation of MH. And these data gets into alignment with other log data and monitoring data, which are resistivity and temperature measurement. However, as this logging data acquired from each location, there is possibility that the initial condition was originally distinct. This research was conducted as a part of the MH21 research, and the authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to MH21 and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry for providing the permission to disclose this research.

  18. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Brown, Matthew F. D.; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. Conclusions The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. PMID:25854673

  19. Testing Main Effects and Interactions in Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Willoughby, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    A key strength of latent curve analysis (LCA) is the ability to model individual variability in rates of change as a function of 1 or more explanatory variables. The measurement of time plays a critical role because the explanatory variables multiplicatively interact with time in the prediction of the repeated measures. However, this interaction…

  20. Testing Main Effects and Interactions in Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Willoughby, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    A key strength of latent curve analysis (LCA) is the ability to model individual variability in rates of change as a function of 1 or more explanatory variables. The measurement of time plays a critical role because the explanatory variables multiplicatively interact with time in the prediction of the repeated measures. However, this interaction…

  1. Analysis of agonist dissociation constants as assessed by functional antagonism in guinea pig left atria

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, P.; Malta, E.

    1986-04-01

    In electrically driven guinea pig left atria, positive inotropic responses to (-)-isoprenaline and the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist RO363 were obtained in the absence and in the presence of the functional antagonists adenosine, carbachol, gallopamil, nifedipine, and Ro 03-7894. Each of the functional antagonists reduced the maximum response to both agonists and produced nonparallel rightward shifts in the cumulative concentration effect curves. For both agonists, dissociation constants (KA) were calculated using the equation described by Furchgott (1966) for irreversible antagonism. For RO363, which is a partial agonist with high agonist activity, the equations outlined for functional interaction by Mackay (1981) were also employed to calculate KA values. The KA values obtained by each method were compared with the dissociation constants (KD) for the two agonists determined from their ability to displace the radioligand (-)-(/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol from beta 1-adrenoceptors in guinea pig left atrial membrane preparations. The estimates of KA varied substantially from KD values. The KD values were taken as more accurate estimates of the true values for the dissociation constants because a high degree of correlation exists between pKD and pD2 values for a number of other beta-adrenoceptor agonists that behave as partial agonists and between pKD and pKB values for a number of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Thus, it appears that there are serious limitations in the current theory for using functional antagonism as a means of obtaining agonist dissociation constants.

  2. Analysis of Magnetization Curves and Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Uniaxial Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhova, M. B.; Zhdanova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the processes of magnetization of uniaxial ferromagnetic materials is performed within the Neel theory of magnetic phases. Relations are obtained for the constants of magnetic crystal anisotropy K 1, K 2, the form factor N, and the saturation magnetization I s , at which the magnetization curves exhibit jumps (FOMP). Formulas for computing the saturation fields H s and the jump fields H FOMP are derived for crystals with different types of magnetocrystalline anisotropy MCA. It is shown that the Sucksmith-Thompson method is applicable for computing the first too MCAconstants of uniaxial ferromagnets with any type of MCA. Constants K 1 and K 2 are computed with allowance for the form factor of the specimen. Model magnetization curves are plotted for uniaxial ferromagnets with different types of MCA along and perpendicularly to crystallographic axis c. The analytical results match the model curves well.

  3. SurvCurv database and online survival analysis platform update

    PubMed Central

    Ziehm, Matthias; Ivanov, Dobril K.; Bhat, Aditi; Partridge, Linda; Thornton, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Understanding the biology of ageing is an important and complex challenge. Survival experiments are one of the primary approaches for measuring changes in ageing. Here, we present a major update to SurvCurv, a database and online resource for survival data in animals. As well as a substantial increase in data and additions to existing graphical and statistical survival analysis features, SurvCurv now includes extended mathematical mortality modelling functions and survival density plots for more advanced representation of groups of survival cohorts. Availability and implementation: The database is freely available at https://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/SurvCurv/. All data are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License. Contact: matthias.ziehm@ebi.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26249811

  4. Binding Energy and Dissociation Barrier: Experimental Determination of the Key Parameters of the Potential Energy Curve of Diethyl Ether on Si(001).

    PubMed

    Reutzel, Marcel; Lipponer, Marcus; Dürr, Michael; Höfer, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    The key parameters of the potential energy curve of organic molecules on semiconductor surfaces, binding energy of the intermediate state and dissociation barrier, were experimentally investigated for the model system of diethyl ether (Et2O) on Si(001). Et2O adsorbs via a datively bonded intermediate from which it converts via ether cleavage into a covalently attached final state. This thermally activated conversion into the final state was followed in real-time by means of optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) at different temperatures and the associated energy barrier ϵa = 0.38 ± 0.05 eV and pre-exponential factor νa = 10(4±1) s(-1) were determined. From molecular beam experiments on the initial sticking probability, the difference between the desorption energy ϵd and ϵa was extracted and thus the binding energy of the intermediate state was determined (0.62 ± 0.08 eV). The results are discussed in terms of general chemical trends as well as with respect to a wider applicability on adsorbate reactions on semiconductor surfaces.

  5. PMAnalyzer: a new web interface for bacterial growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Daniel A; Edwards, Robert A

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial growth curves are essential representations for characterizing bacteria metabolism within a variety of media compositions. Using high-throughput, spectrophotometers capable of processing tens of 96-well plates, quantitative phenotypic information can be easily integrated into the current data structures that describe a bacterial organism. The PMAnalyzer pipeline performs a growth curve analysis to parameterize the unique features occurring within microtiter wells containing specific growth media sources. We have expanded the pipeline capabilities and provide a user-friendly, online implementation of this automated pipeline. PMAnalyzer version 2.0 provides fast automatic growth curve parameter analysis, growth identification and high resolution figures of sample-replicate growth curves and several statistical analyses. PMAnalyzer v2.0 can be found at https://edwards.sdsu.edu/pmanalyzer/ . Source code for the pipeline can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzer . Source code for the online implementation can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzerWeb . dcuevas08@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. Developmental trajectories of adolescent popularity: a growth curve modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2006-12-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.

  7. Peptide and protein sequence analysis by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Syka, John E. P.; Coon, Joshua J.; Schroeder, Melanie J.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.

    2004-01-01

    Peptide sequence analysis using a combination of gas-phase ion/ion chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is demonstrated. Singly charged anthracene anions transfer an electron to multiply protonated peptides in a radio frequency quadrupole linear ion trap (QLT) and induce fragmentation of the peptide backbone along pathways that are analogous to those observed in electron capture dissociation. Modifications to the QLT that enable this ion/ion chemistry are presented, and automated acquisition of high-quality, single-scan electron transfer dissociation MS/MS spectra of phosphopeptides separated by nanoflow HPLC is described. PMID:15210983

  8. DSMC-QCT Analysis of CO Internal Relaxation and Dissociation by CO-O Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Kazuhisa

    The coupled rotation-vibration-dissociation analysis of carbon monoxide is conducted by the state-resolved direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) model incorporated with a quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) model for computation of inter-molecular collision dynamics. The potential energy surface for the triatomic system is described by the London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (LEPS) potential, which is determined from the spectroscopic constants of diatomic molecules and the results of ab initio electronic structure calculations. A comparison is made between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the macroscopic relaxation parameters and the dissociation rate coefficients at moderate temperatures. Finally, the relaxation parameters and the dissociation rate coefficients at extremely high temperatures where the experimental data are unavailable have been estimated by the DSMC-QCT calculations.

  9. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, A.

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength photometric analysis of Ellerman Bomb (EB) observations obtained from the Dutch Open Telescope. In our data we have found 6 EBs located in the super-penumbra of the main spot in the active region NOAA 10781. We present light curves of EB observed in the Hα line centre and wing +0.7 Å, in the Ca II H line centre and wing~+2.35 Å, in the G-band and in the TRACE 1600 Å filter. We have shown that EBs were visible in the G-band and moreover, there was a good correlation between the light curves in the G-band and in the Hα line wings. We also found quasi-periodic oscillations of EBs brightness in the G-band, CaII H line and TRACE 1600 Å filter.

  10. Stress analysis in curved composites due to thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, Jared Cornelius

    Many structures in aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, machines, tools, bridges, and buildings, consist of curved sections. These sections vary from straight line segments that have curvature at either one or both ends, segments with compound curvatures, segments with two mutually perpendicular curvatures or Gaussian curvatures, and segments with a simple curvature. With the advancements made in multi-purpose composites over the past 60 years, composites slowly but steadily have been appearing in these various vehicles, compound structures, and buildings. These composite sections provide added benefits over isotropic, polymeric, and ceramic materials by generally having a higher specific strength, higher specific stiffnesses, longer fatigue life, lower density, possibilities in reduction of life cycle and/or acquisition cost, and greater adaptability to intended function of structure via material composition and geometry. To be able to design and manufacture a safe composite laminate or structure, it is imperative that the stress distributions, their causes, and effects are thoroughly understood in order to successfully accomplish mission objectives and manufacture a safe and reliable composite. The objective of the thesis work is to expand upon the knowledge of simply curved composite structures by exploring and ascertaining all pertinent parameters, phenomenon, and trends in stress variations in curved laminates due to thermal loading. The simply curved composites consist of composites with one radius of curvature throughout the span of the specimen about only one axis. Analytical beam theory, classical lamination theory, and finite element analysis were used to ascertain stress variations in a flat, isotropic beam. An analytical method was developed to ascertain the stress variations in an isotropic, simply curved beam under thermal loading that is under both free-free and fixed-fixed constraint conditions. This is the first such solution to Author's best knowledge

  11. Molecular identification of antelope horn by melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuru; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Jin, Yan; Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Luqi

    2016-11-01

    Antelope horn is a valuable Chinese traditional medicine and widely used in clinic. However, with the deterioration of antelope's living environment and a lot of killing, the saiga population begins falling and in some places plummet. Since the increasing demand of this expensive and good bioactive medicine, the horn of artiodactyla animals is often used as the antelope horn. The adulterated or impostor not only cause damage to clinical medicine but also affect the antelope resources protection and sustainable development. Here, in order to establish a melting curve analysis (MCA) method to distinguish the antelope horn from other animal horns and identify the decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicine in a fast and easy way, animal horns and its decoction pieces, Chinese patent medicines were collected from the market and the DNA of all the collected samples were extracted. The melting curve of two universal fragments (COI and Cyt b) was scanned and Cyt b was selected as feasibility fragment for identifying authentic antelope horn from eight adulterant animal horns. After optimizing the condition for MCA, inspecting the precision and the replication of the method, a reference melting curve modern was established and we performed MCA on the antelope horns, fakes, and adulterants on a 1:1 mix, decoction pieces, and Chinese patent medicine. Thus, this study provides fast and easy methods so that MCA can detect the truth, fakes, and adulterations of antelope horns.

  12. Dissection of the Hormetic Curve: Analysis of Components and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the dose of an effector and the biological response frequently is not described by a linear function and, moreover, in some cases the dose-response relationship may change from positive/adverse to adverse/positive with increasing dose. This complicated relationship is called “hormesis”. This paper provides a short analysis of the concept along with a description of used approaches to characterize hormetic relationships. The whole hormetic curve can be divided into three zones: I – a lag-zone where no changes are observed with increasing dose; II – a zone where beneficial/adverse effects are observed, and III – a zone where the effects are opposite to those seen in zone II. Some approaches are proposed to analyze the molecular components involved in the development of the hormetic character of dose-response relationships with the use of specific genetic lines or inhibitors of regulatory pathways. The discussion is then extended to suggest a new parameter (half-width of the hormetic curve at zone II) for quantitative characterization of the hormetic curve. The problems limiting progress in the development of the hormesis concept such as low reproducibility and predictability may be solved, at least partly, by deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormetic dose-effect relationship. PMID:25249836

  13. Dissection of the hormetic curve: analysis of components and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the dose of an effector and the biological response frequently is not described by a linear function and, moreover, in some cases the dose-response relationship may change from positive/adverse to adverse/positive with increasing dose. This complicated relationship is called "hormesis". This paper provides a short analysis of the concept along with a description of used approaches to characterize hormetic relationships. The whole hormetic curve can be divided into three zones: I - a lag-zone where no changes are observed with increasing dose; II - a zone where beneficial/adverse effects are observed, and III - a zone where the effects are opposite to those seen in zone II. Some approaches are proposed to analyze the molecular components involved in the development of the hormetic character of dose-response relationships with the use of specific genetic lines or inhibitors of regulatory pathways. The discussion is then extended to suggest a new parameter (half-width of the hormetic curve at zone II) for quantitative characterization of the hormetic curve. The problems limiting progress in the development of the hormesis concept such as low reproducibility and predictability may be solved, at least partly, by deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormetic dose-effect relationship.

  14. Oxygen dissociation curves for whole blood, recorded with an instrument that continuously measures pO2 and sO2 independently at constant t, pCO2, and pH.

    PubMed

    Zwart, A; Kwant, G; Oeseburg, B; Zijlstra, W G

    1982-06-01

    We describe a method for recording oxygen dissociation curves for whole-blood specimens. The blood sample is placed in a thermostated measuring chamber, and pO2 and SO2 are measured continuously by polarography and by reflectometry, respectively. During the recording of an oxygen dissociation curve, the pO2 and SO2 signals are stored in a data-acquisition system, while pH, pCO2, and temperature are kept constant. Determination of precision and error discussion indicated that the coefficient of variation (CV) of the determination of the oxygen dissociation curve is mainly determined by the error in the measurement of SO2. The overall CV of pO2 values belonging to the lower, mid-, and upper parts of the SO2 range is estimated to be about 2.6, 3.1, and 2.1%, respectively. In practice the measurements are about 30% more precise than estimated. With our method, the fixed-acid-induced Bohr effect (H+ factor) can be determined over the entire SO2 range with much greater precision than hitherto.

  15. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules.

  16. Entropy analysis of pressure driven flow in a curved duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narla, V. K.; Jaliparthi, Vijayasekhar

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to present a theoretical model describing entropy generation analysis using second law of thermodynamics. A two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous MHD fluid flow in a curved duct undergoing peristalsis with prescribed wall motions in the presence of heat transfer is applied and demonstrated. In this problem, It is assumed that the inertial effect is very small and the wall wave length is comparatively large with duct width. The velocity and temperature fields are obtained analytically by solving momentum and energy equations. The entropy generation number is calculated by utilizing velocity and temperature profiles. The influence of various physical parameters on entropy generation are discussed numerically with the help of graphs.

  17. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules.

  18. Analysis of rotation curves in the framework of Rn gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio Martins, C.; Salucci, P.

    2007-11-01

    We present an analysis of a devised sample of rotation curves (RCs), with the aim of checking the consequences of a modified f(R) gravity on galactic scales. Originally motivated by the mystery of dark energy, this theory may explain the observed non-Keplerian profiles of galactic RCs in terms of a breakdown of Einstein general relativity. We show that, in general, the power-law f(R) version could fit the observations well, with reasonable values for the mass model parameters. This could encourage further investigation into Rn gravity from both observational and theoretical points of view.

  19. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for recession curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea; Nakić, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    A Visual Basic program for an Excel spreadsheet was written to construct a master recession curve (MRC), using the adapted matching strip method, for recession analysis of ground water level time series. The program uses five different linear/nonlinear regression models to adjust individual recession segments to their proper positions in the MRC. The program can also be used to analyze the recession segments of other time series, such as daily stream discharge or stage. Some examples of field data from Croatia are used to illustrate the usefulness of its application.

  20. Cusum analysis for learning curve of videothoracoscopic lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Avcı, Alper; Türktan, Mediha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Video assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy has a demanding learning curve due to its technical complexity and risk of uncontrollable bleeding. We investigated the case number required for gaining technical proficiency by applying cumulative sum analysis on initial VATS lobectomy operations of a single surgeon. Methods CALGB definition was used for the definition of VATS lobectomy. The data of the initial cases evaluated and cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was applied to duration of the operations and length of hospital stay. Results Fifty-eight patients underwent VATS lobectomy. Of those 51 were malignant and 7 were benign. Fifty-five of the procedures were lobectomy, 2 were inferior bi-lobectomy and 1 was left upper lobectomy with chest wall resection. CUSUM analysis reached to proficiency at 27 cases for duration of the operations. Conclusions The length of learning curve depends on previous experience of the surgeon on open lobectomy and simpler VATS operations, potential number of VATS lobectomy cases and VATS capability of the surgeon. Depending on these factors, it is possible to obtain technical proficiency with an inferior number of procedures compared with existing literature (50-200). PMID:28352848

  1. FMRI Signal Analysis Using Empirical Mean Curve Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fan; Zhu, Dajiang; Lv, Jinglei; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series is non-linear and composed of components at multiple temporal scales, which presents significant challenges to its analysis. In the literature, significant effort has been devoted into model-based fMRI signal analysis, while much less attention has been directed to data-driven fMRI signal analysis. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven multi-scale signal decomposition framework named Empirical Mean Curve Decomposition (EMCD). Targeted on functional brain mapping, the EMCD optimizes mean envelopes from fMRI signals and iteratively extracts coarser-to-finer scale signal components. The EMCD framework was applied to infer meaningful low-frequency information from Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals from resting state fMRI, task-based fMRI, and natural stimulus fMRI, and promising results are obtained. PMID:23047856

  2. Multivariate analysis of electron detachment dissociation and infrared multiphoton dissociation mass spectra of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides differing only in hexuronic acid stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Oh, Han Bin; Leach, Franklin E; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates by mass spectrometry has been a long-standing analytical challenge due to the inherent heterogeneity of these biomolecules, specifically polydispersity, variability in sulfation, and hexuronic acid stereochemistry. Recent advances in tandem mass spectrometry methods employing threshold and electron-based ion activation have resulted in the ability to determine the location of the labile sulfate modification as well as assign the stereochemistry of hexuronic acid residues. To facilitate the analysis of complex electron detachment dissociation (EDD) spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to differentiate the hexuronic acid stereochemistry of four synthetic GAG epimers whose EDD spectra are nearly identical upon visual inspection. For comparison, PCA is also applied to infrared multiphoton dissociation spectra (IRMPD) of the examined epimers. To assess the applicability of multivariate methods in GAG mixture analysis, PCA is utilized to identify the relative content of two epimers in a binary mixture.

  3. Dissociation of biomolecules using a ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight/curved field reflectron tandem mass spectrometer equipped with a differential-pumped collision cell.

    PubMed

    Belgacem, Omar; Bowdler, Andrew; Brookhouse, Ian; Brancia, Francesco L; Raptakis, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    A commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) instrument equipped with a curved field reflectron (CFR) was modified in order to perform collision-induced dissociation (CID) on a variety of biomolecules. The incorporation of a high-resolution ion gate together with a collision cell within the field-free region allowed tandem mass analysis (MS/MS), without the necessity to decelerate the precursor ions prior to activation. The simultaneous detection of all product ions remained possible by using the CFR. To test the MS/MS performances, ACTH (fragment 1-17), a complex high mannose carbohydrate (Man)(8)(GlcNac)(2) and a lysophosphatidylcholine lipid (18:1) were analysed on the modified instrument. Direct comparison with the low-energy product ion spectra, acquired on a MALDI quadrupole ion trap (QIT) two-stage reflectron time-of flight (ReToF) mass spectrometer, showed significant differences in the types of product ions observed. The additional ions detected were a clear indication of the high-energy fragmentation processes occurring in the collision cell.

  4. Analysis of velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    To reduce interpolation time and Max interpolation error in NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) inter-polation caused by planning Velocity. This paper proposed a velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve. Firstly, the second-order Taylor expansion is applied on the numerator in NURBS curve representation with parameter curve. Then, velocity planning interpolation algorithm can meet with NURBS curve interpolation. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished.

  5. Dissociative Experiences are Associated with Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Non-clinical Sample: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BOYSAN, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been a burgeoning literature considering the significant associations between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative experiences. In this study, the relationsips between dissociative symtomotology and dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were examined in homogeneous sub-groups obtained with latent class algorithm in an undergraduate Turkish sample. Method Latent profile analysis, a recently developed classification method based on latent class analysis, was applied to the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) item-response data from 2976 undergraduates. Differences in severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression across groups were evaluated by running multinomial logistic regression analyses. Associations between latent class probabilities and psychological variables in terms of obsessive-compulsive sub-types, anxiety, and depression were assessed by computing Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients. Results The findings of the latent profile analysis supported further evidence for discontinuity model of dissociative experiences. The analysis empirically justified the distinction among three sub-groups based on the DES items. A marked proportion of the sample (42%) was assigned to the high dissociative class. In the further analyses, all sub-types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms significantly differed across latent classes. Regarding the relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptomatology, low dissociation appeared to be a buffering factor dealing with obsessive-compulsive symptoms; whereas high dissociation appeared to be significantly associated with high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Conclusion It is concluded that the concept of dissociation can be best understood in a typological approach that dissociative symptomatology not only exacerbates obsessive-compulsive symptoms but also serves as an adaptive coping mechanism. PMID:28360635

  6. Optimized hyperbolic decline curve analysis of gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.

    1982-02-15

    Based on analyses of gas production from tight formations conducted for the Department of Energy's Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP) it has been found that, at least for this category of gas wells, significantly better results are obtained by using regression analysis to determine optimal values of the three hyperbolic decline function parameters. It is shown that the least-squares generalized hyperbolic decline model, as described, has the disadvantage of requiring starting values for the iteration and requiring more memory than is available in a handheld calculator. However, it was found that for analysis of gas wells producing from tight formations in the various Western basins, the improvement in the curve fit obtained by optimizing the decline exponent (as well as the other two hyperbolic parameters) justified the increased complication.

  7. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... last minutes, hours, or rarely, months or years. Dissociative identity disorder. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this disorder ... each identity is with the others. People with dissociative identity disorder typically also have dissociative amnesia and often have ...

  8. Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.).

  9. WASP-14 b: transit timing analysis of 19 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Maciejewski, G.; Seeliger, M.; Marka, C.; Fernández, M.; Güver, T.; Göğüş, E.; Nowak, G.; Vaňko, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Mugrauer, M.; Trepl, L.; Gelszinnis, J.

    2015-08-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light-curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis, we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed us to refine the transit ephemeris. We derived an orbital period 1.2 s longer and 10 times more precise than the one given in the discovery paper. We found no significant periodic signal in the timing-residuals and, hence, no evidence for TTV in the system.

  10. Light Curve and Orbital Period Analysis of VX Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, M.; Nelson, R. H.; Şenavcı, H. V.; İzci, D.; Özavcı, İ.; Gümüş, D.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we performed simultaneously light curve and radial velocity, and also period analyses of the eclipsing binary system VX Lac. Four color (BVRI) light curves of the system were analysed using the W-D code. The results imply that VX Lac is a classic Algol-type binary with a mass ratio of q=0.27, of which the less massive secondary component fills its Roche lobe. The orbital period behaviour of the system was analysed by assuming the light time effect (LITE) from a third body. The O-C analysis yielded a mass transfer rate of dM/dt=1.86×10-8M⊙yr-1 and the minimal mass of the third body to be M3=0.31M⊙. The residuals from mass transfer and the third body were also analysed because another cyclic variation is seen in O-C diagram. This periodic variation was examined under the hypotheses of stellar magnetic activity and fourth body.

  11. Rapid Diagnosis of α-Thalassemia by Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munkongdee, Thongperm; Vattanaviboon, Phantip; Thummarati, Parichut; Sewamart, Paijit; Winichagoon, Pranee; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2010-01-01

    α-Thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder that results from defective synthesis of α-globin protein. Couples who both carry the α-thalassemia-1 gene are at risk of having a fetus with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. Rapid and accurate screening for individuals carrying the α-thalassemia-1 gene is the most effective strategy to prevent and control this severe form of thalassemia. In this study, a new and accurate method for α-thalassemia diagnosis was developed by genotyping α-thalassemia-1, the Southeast Asian type (−−SEA) and Thai type (−−THAI) deletions, using multiplex PCR followed by a melting curve analysis. Primers were designed to specifically amplify two deletion fragments, the −−SEA and −−THAI deletions and two normal fragments, ψζ- and α2-globin gene. The primers were capable of distinguishing α-thalassemia 1 heterozygotes from α-thalassemia 2 homozygotes, which are unable to be diagnosed by standard hematological data and hemoglobin typing. The melting temperatures of the −−THAI, −−SEA, ψζ-globin, and α2-globin gene fragments were 79.9 ± 0.2, 89.4 ± 0.5, 92.8 ± 0.2, and 85.0 ± 0.2°C, respectively. Melting curve analysis was performed in 130 subjects in parallel with conventional gap-PCR analysis, and results showed 100% concordance. This method eliminates the post-PCR electrophoresis process, which is laborious, and allows high throughput screening suitable for large population screening for prevention and control of thalassemia. PMID:20190015

  12. ALE meta‐analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emotionally‐laden tactile stimulation—such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet—may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta‐analysis was performed. This meta‐analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta‐analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta‐analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta‐analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network‐level co‐activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective‐related PI and discriminative‐related SI regions co‐activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co‐activations. Taken together, these meta‐analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct

  13. ALE meta-analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch.

    PubMed

    Morrison, India

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally-laden tactile stimulation-such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet-may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis was performed. This meta-analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta-analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta-analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta-analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network-level co-activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective-related PI and discriminative-related SI regions co-activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co-activations. Taken together, these meta-analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct pathways. © 2016 The Authors Human

  14. Associating and Dissociating Nanodimer Analysis for Quantifying Ultrasmall Amounts of DNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunsuk; Oh, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Young Kwang; Son, Jiwoong; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2017-08-07

    The amplification- and enzyme-free quantification of DNA at ultralow concentrations, on the order of 10-1000 targets, is highly beneficial but extremely challenging. To address this challenge, true detection signals must be reliably discriminated from false or noise signals. Herein, we describe the development of associating and dissociating nanodimer analysis (ADNA) as a method that enables a maximum number of detection signals to be collected from true target-binding events while keeping nonspecific signals at a minimum level. In the ADNA assay for ultralow target concentrations, Au nanoprobes on a lipid micropattern were monitored and analyzed in situ, and newly defined dissociating dimers, which are eventually decoupled into monomers again, were incorporated into the detection results. Tens to thousands of DNA copies can be reliably quantified with excellent single-base-mismatch differentiation capability by this non-enzymatic, amplification-free ADNA method. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  16. Learning curve analysis of mitral valve repair using telemanipulative technology.

    PubMed

    Charland, Patrick J; Robbins, Tom; Rodriguez, Evilio; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, Randolph W

    2011-08-01

    To determine if the time required to perform mitral valve repairs using telemanipulation technology decreases with experience and how that decrease is influenced by patient and procedure variables. A single-center retrospective review was conducted using perioperative and outcomes data collected contemporaneously on 458 mitral valve repair surgeries using telemanipulative technology. A regression model was constructed to assess learning with this technology and predict total robot time using multiple predictive variables. Statistical analysis was used to determine if models were significantly useful, to rule out correlation between predictor variables, and to identify terms that did not contribute to the prediction of total robot time. We found a statistically significant learning curve (P < .01). The institutional learning percentage∗ derived from total robot times† for the first 458 recorded cases of mitral valve repair using telemanipulative technology is 95% (R(2) = .40). More than one third of the variability in total robot time can be explained through our model using the following variables: type of repair (chordal procedures, ablations, and leaflet resections), band size, use of clips alone in band implantation, and the presence of a fellow at bedside (P < .01). Learning in mitral valve repair surgery using telemanipulative technology occurs at the East Carolina Heart Institute according to a logarithmic curve, with a learning percentage of 95%. From our regression output, we can make an approximate prediction of total robot time using an additive model. These metrics can be used by programs for benchmarking to manage the implementation of this new technology, as well as for capacity planning, scheduling, and capital budget analysis. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermochemistry and Kinetic Analysis of the Unimolecular Oxiranyl Radical Dissociation Reaction: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-07-04

    Oxirane structures are important in organic synthesis, and they are important initial products in the oxidation reactions of alkyl radicals. The thermochemical properties (enthalpy of formation, entropy, and heat capacity) for the reaction steps of the unimolecular oxiranyl radical dissociation reaction are determined and compared with the available literature. The overall ring opening and subsequent steps involve four types of reactions: β-scission ring opening, intramolecular hydrogen transfer, β-scission hydrogen elimination, and β-scission methyl radical elimination. The enthalpies of formation of the transition states are determined and evaluated using six popular Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation methods (B3LYP, B2PLYP, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, ωB97XD), each combined with three different basis sets. The DFT enthalpy values are compared with five composite calculation methods (G3, G4, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, W1U), and by CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ. Kinetic parameters are determined versus pressure and temperature for the unimolecular dissociation pathways of an oxiranyl radical, which include the chemical activation reactions of the ring-opened oxiranyl radical relative to the ring-opening barrier. Multifrequency quantum Rice Ramsperger Kassel (QRRK) analysis is used to determine k(E) with master equation analysis for falloff. The major overall reaction pathway at lower combustion temperatures is oxiranyl radical dissociation to a methyl radical and carbon monoxide. Oxiranyl radical dissociation to a ketene and hydrogen atom is the key reaction path above 700 K.

  18. Bifurcation analysis of an automobile model negotiating a curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Mastinu, Giampiero; Piccardi, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    The paper deals with the bifurcation analysis of a rather simple model describing an automobile negotiating a curve. The mechanical model has two degrees of freedom and the related equations of motion contain the nonlinear tyre characteristics. Bifurcation analysis is adopted as the proper procedure for analysing steady-state cornering. Two independent parameters referring to running conditions, namely steering angle and speed, are varied. Ten different combinations of front and rear tyre characteristics (featuring understeer or oversteer automobiles) are considered for the bifurcation analysis. Many different dynamical behaviours of the model are obtained by slightly varying the parameters describing the tyre characteristics. Both simple and extremely complex bifurcations may occur. Homoclinic bifurcations, stable and unstable limit cycles (of considerable amplitude) are found, giving a sound and ultimate interpretation to some actual (rare but very dangerous) dynamic behaviours of automobiles, as reported by professional drivers. The presented results are cross-validated by exploiting handling diagram theory. The knowledge of the derived set of bifurcations is dramatically important to fully understand the actual vehicle yaw motions occurring while running on an even surface. Such a knowledge is a pre-requisite for robustly designing the chassis and for enhancing the active safety of vehicles.

  19. Analysis of selected Kepler Mission planetary light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Budding, E.

    2014-06-01

    We have modified the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program CurveFit to the form WinKepler and applied it to 16 representative planetary candidate light curves found in the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu, with an aim to compare different analytical approaches. WinKepler has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity-brightening and structural parameters derived from the relevant Radau equation. We tested our best-fitting parameter-sets for formal determinacy and adequacy. A primary aim is to compare our parameters with those listed in the NEA. Although there are trends of agreement, small differences in the main parameter values are found in some cases, and there may be some relative bias towards a 90∘ value for the NEA inclinations. These are assessed against realistic error estimates. Photometric variability from causes other than planetary transits affects at least 6 of the data-sets studied; with small pulsational behaviour found in 3 of those. For the false positive KOI 4.01, we found that the eclipses could be modelled by a faint background classical Algol as effectively as by a transiting exoplanet. Our empirical checks of limb-darkening, in the cases of KOI 1.01 and 12.01, revealed that the assigned stellar temperatures are probably incorrect. For KOI 13.01, our empirical mass-ratio differs by about 7 % from that of Mislis and Hodgkin (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 422:1512, 2012), who neglected structural effects and higher order terms in the tidal distortion. Such detailed parameter evaluation, additional to the usual main geometric ones, provides an additional objective for this work.

  20. Application of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in rapid Diego blood group genotyping.

    PubMed

    Novaretti, M C Z; Ruiz, A S; Dorlhiac-Llacer, P E; Chamone, D A F

    2010-01-01

    The paucity of appropriate reagents for serologic typing of the Diego blood group antigens has prompted the development of a real-time PCR and melting curve analysis for Diego blood group genotyping. In this study, we phenotyped 4326 donor blood samples for Di(a) using semiautomated equipment. All 157 Di(a+) samples were then genotyped by PCR using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) for DI*02 because of anti-Di(b) scarcity. Of the 4326 samples, we simultaneously tested 160 samples for Di(a) and Di(b) serology, and DI*01 and DI*02 by PCR-SSP and by real-time PCR. We used the same primers for Diego genotyping by real-time PCR and PCR-SSP. Melting curve profiles obtained using the dissociation software of the real-time PCR apparatus enabled the discrimination of Diego alleles. Of the total samples tested, 4169 blood donors, 96.4 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.8-96.9%), were homozygous for DI*02 and 157, 3.6 percent (95% CI, 3.1%-4.2%), were heterozygous DI*01/02. No blood donor was found to be homozygous for DI*01 in this study. The calculated DI*01 and DI*02 allele frequencies were 0.0181 (95% CI, 0.0173-0.0189) and 0.9819 (95% CI, 0.9791-0.9847), respectively, showing a good fit for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was full concordance among Diego phenotype results by PCR-SSP and real-time PCR. DI*01 and DI*02 allele determination with SYBR Green I and thermal cycler technology are useful methods for Diego determination. The real-time PCR with SYBR Green I melting temperature protocol can be used as a rapid screening tool for DI*01 and DI*02 blood group genotyping.

  1. Hybrid analytical technique for the nonlinear analysis of curved beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of a two-step hybrid technique to the geometrically nonlinear analysis of curved beams is used to demonstrate the potential of hybrid analytical techniques in nonlinear structural mechanics. The hybrid technique is based on successive use of the perturbation method and a classical direct variational procedure. The functions associated with the various-order terms in the perturbation expansion of the fundamental unknowns, and their sensitivity derivatives with respect to material and geometric parameters of the beam, are first obtained by using the perturbation method. These functions are selected as coordinate functions (or modes) and the classical direct variational technique is then used to compute their amplitudes. The potential of the proposed hybrid technique for nonlinear analysis of structures is discussed. The effectiveness of the hybrid technique is demonstrated by means of numerical examples. The symbolic computation system Mathematica is used in the present study. The tasks performed on Mathematica include: (1) generation of algebraic expressions for the perturbation functions of the different response quantities and their sensitivity derivatives: and (2) determination of the radius of convergence of the perturbation series.

  2. Light curve analysis of southern eclipsing binary EM Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, C.; Bulut, I.; Bulut, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ASAS light curve of the eclipsing binary EM Car (Sp = O8V, P = 3.4 days) has been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney method. The light curve analyses have found that EM Car is a detached eclipsing binary system with small eccentric orbit

  3. Direct profiling of environmental microbial populations by thermal dissociation analysis of native rRNAs hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El Fantroussi, Said; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Bernhard, Anne E.; Kelly, John J.; Noble, Peter A.; Smidt, H.; Yershov, G. M.; Stahl, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile directly extracted rRNA from environmental microbial populations without PCR amplification. In our initial inspection of two distinct estuarine study sites, the hybridization patterns were reproducible and varied between estuarine sediments of differing salinities. The determination of a thermal dissociation curve (i.e., melting profile) for each probe-target duplex provided information on hybridization specificity, which is essential for confirming adequate discrimination between target and nontarget sequences.

  4. Direct profiling of environmental microbial populations by thermal dissociation analysis of native rRNAs hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El Fantroussi, Said; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Bernhard, Anne E.; Kelly, John J.; Noble, Peter A.; Smidt, H.; Yershov, G. M.; Stahl, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile directly extracted rRNA from environmental microbial populations without PCR amplification. In our initial inspection of two distinct estuarine study sites, the hybridization patterns were reproducible and varied between estuarine sediments of differing salinities. The determination of a thermal dissociation curve (i.e., melting profile) for each probe-target duplex provided information on hybridization specificity, which is essential for confirming adequate discrimination between target and nontarget sequences.

  5. Three-Dimensional Postbuckling Analysis of Curved Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. Frank; Lee, Seung-Yoon

    2002-01-01

    Presented here is a method of solving highly flexible curved beam undergoing huge static or quasi-static deformations. A geometrically exact beam theory based on the use of Jaumann stresses and strains and exact coordinate transformation is presented in terms of 17 first-order ordinary differential equations, and a multiple shooting method is used to solve the corresponding nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The geometrically exact beam theory accounts far large rotations, large displacements, initial curvatures, extensionality, and transverse shear strains. Four examples are used to demonstrate this method, including a rotating clamped-free beam under the influence of gravity and centrifugal forces, an L-frame subjected to an in-plane tip load, a circular arch subjected to a concentrated load, and a clamped-hinged helical spring subjected to an axial displacement. Results show that the combination of the multiple shooting method and the geometrically exact beam theory works very well. Moreover, the obtained numerically exact solutions can be used to verify the accuracy of nonlinear finite element codes for nonlinear analysis of complex structures.

  6. Higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) product ion-triggered electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry for the analysis of N-linked glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charandeep; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Creese, Andrew J; Cooper, Helen J

    2012-09-07

    Large scale mass spectrometry analysis of N-linked glycopeptides is complicated by the inherent complexity of the glycan structures. Here, we evaluate a mass spectrometry approach for the targeted analysis of N-linked glycopeptides in complex mixtures that does not require prior knowledge of the glycan structures or pre-enrichment of the glycopeptides. Despite the complexity of N-glycans, the core of the glycan remains constant, comprising two N-acetylglucosamine and three mannose units. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry of N-glycopeptides results in the formation of the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oxonium ion and a [mannose+GlcNAc] fragment (in addition to other fragments resulting from cleavage within the glycan). In ion-trap CID, those ions are not detected due to the low m/z cutoff; however, they are detected following the beam-type CID known as higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) on the orbitrap mass spectrometer. The presence of these product ions following HCD can be used as triggers for subsequent electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry analysis of the precursor ion. The ETD mass spectrum provides peptide sequence information, which is unobtainable from HCD. A Lys-C digest of ribonuclease B and trypsin digest of immunoglobulin G were separated by ZIC-HILIC liquid chromatography and analyzed by HCD product ion-triggered ETD. The data were analyzed both manually and by search against protein databases by commonly used algorithms. The results show that the product ion-triggered approach shows promise for the field of glycoproteomics and highlight the requirement for more sophisticated data mining tools.

  7. Magneto-electro-elastic buckling analysis of nonlocal curved nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent curved beam model is developed to take into account the effects of nonlocal stresses on the buckling behavior of curved magneto-electro-elastic FG nanobeams for the first time. The governing differential equations are derived based on the principle of virtual work and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The power-law function is employed to describe the spatially graded magneto-electro-elastic properties. By extending the radius of the curved nanobeam to infinity, the results of straight nonlocal FG beams can be rendered. The effects of magnetic potential, electric voltage, opening angle, nonlocal parameter, power-law index and slenderness ratio on buckling loads of curved MEE-FG nanobeams are studied.

  8. Analysis of the pentafecta learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Good, D W; Stewart, G D; Stolzenburg, J U; McNeill, S A

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) has a long learning curve; however, little is known about the pentafecta learning curve for LRP. We analysed the learning curve for a fellowship trained surgeon with regard to the pentafecta with up to 6-year follow-up. A retrospective review was performed in 550 cases, by dividing these cases into 11 groups of 50 patients. Outcomes analysed were the following: (1) the pentafecta (complication rate, positive surgical margin (PSM) rate, continence, potency and biochemical recurrence); (2) operative time and blood loss; and (3) overall pentafecta attainment. The mean complication rate for the entire series was 9 %; this plateaued after 150 cases. The overall PSM rate for the series was 23.5 %, 16.3 % for pT2 and 40.5 % for pT3. PSM plateaued after 200 cases. Excluding the first 100 cases, the overall PSM rate for pT2 was 10.9 % and 37.8 % for pT3. The continence rate stabilised after approximately 250 cases. The rate of male sling/artificial urinary sphincter plateaued after 200 cases. The potency learning curve continues to improve after 250 cases of nerve-sparing (ns) endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy (EERPE) as does the pentafecta learning curve which closely follows the pattern of the potency learning curve. The last group of nsEERPE achieved pentafecta in 63 %. This study shows multiple learning curves: an initial for peri-operative outcomes, then stabilisation of oncologic outcomes and the final for stabilisation of functional outcomes. In this series over 250 cases were required to achieve the learning curve.

  9. Analysis of Thermoluminescence Glow Curves Using Derivatives of Different Orders.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Mahua; Bhattacharyya, S; Sarkar, A; Mazumdar, P S; Singh, S D

    2017-01-16

    The suitability of the second derivative method for locating component peaks in complex thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves has been investigated in this work by considering both numerically simulated and experimental TL peaks. This technique is useful to acquire knowledge of the number of component peaks in a complex TL curve which in turn serves as a basic information before applying the deconvolution technique to the glow curve. To check the consistency of the results so obtained, we have also applied the first derivative technique to TL glow curves. It is well-known that kinetic order formalism fails for saturated TL peaks with heavy retrapping. Such peaks are usually broad and, to the best of our knowledge, have not yet been observed experimentally. The present derivative technique has been used to detect whether such broad peaks are truly single or not by considering a number of numerically simulated saturated glow curves with heavy retrapping where the conventional peak shape method fails. In all the cases considered here, the second derivative technique proves to be a potential candidate for estimating the number of peaks and their respective locations in a complex TL glow curve.

  10. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways ... at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative ...

  11. Energy and density analysis of the H2 molecule from the united atom to dissociation: The 3Σg+ and 3Σu+ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corongiu, Giorgina; Clementi, Enrico

    2009-11-01

    The first 14 Σ3g+ and the first 15 Σ3u+ states of the H2 molecule are computed with full configuration interaction both from Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals and Heitler-London atomic orbitals within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, following recent studies for the Σ1g+ and Σ1u+ manifolds [Corongiu and Clementi, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 034301 (2009) and J. Phys. Chem. (in press)]. The basis sets utilized are extended and optimized Slater-type functions and spherical Gaussian functions. The states considered correspond to the configurations (1s1nl1) with n from 1 to 5; the internuclear separations sample the distances from 0.01 to 10 000 bohrs. For the first three Σ3g+ and Σ3u+ states and for the fourth and fifth Σ3g+ states, our computed energies at the equilibrium internuclear separation, when compared to the accurate values by Staszewska and Wolniewicz and by Kołos and Rychlewski, show deviations of about 0.006 kcal/mol, a test on the quality of our computations. Motivation for this work comes not only from obtaining potential energy curves for the high excited states of H2 but also from characterizing the electronic density evolution from the united atom to dissociation to provide a detailed analysis of the energy contributions from selected basis subsets and to quantitatively decompose the state energies into covalent and ionic components. Furthermore, we discuss the origin of the seemingly irregular patterns in potential energy curves in the two manifolds, between 4 and 6-9 bohrs—there are two systems of states: the first, from the united atom to about 4 bohrs, is represented by functions with principal quantum number higher than the one needed at dissociation; this system interacts at around 4 bohrs with the second system, which is represented by functions with principal quantum number corresponding to one of the dissociation products.

  12. Electron capture dissociation mass spectrometric analysis of lysine-phosphorylated peptides.

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Karolina; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Ruman, Tomasz; Fraczyk, Tomasz; Rode, Wojciech; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins is an essential signalling mechanism in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Although N-phosphorylation of basic amino acid is known for its importance in biological systems, it is still poorly explored in terms of products and mechanisms. In the present study, two MS fragmentation methods, ECD (electron-capture dissociation) and CID (collision-induced dissociation), were tested as tools for analysis of N-phosphorylation of three model peptides, RKRSRAE, RKRARKE and PLSRTLSVAAKK. The peptides were phosphorylated by reaction with monopotassium phosphoramidate. The results were confirmed by 1H NMR and 31P NMR studies. The ECD method was found useful for the localization of phosphorylation sites in unstable lysine-phosphorylated peptides. Its main advantage is a significant reduction of the neutral losses related to the phosphoramidate moiety. Moreover, the results indicate that the ECD-MS may be useful for analysis of regioselectivity of the N-phosphorylation reaction. Stabilities of the obtained lysine-phosphorylated peptides under various conditions were also tested.

  13. Empirical Bayes Analysis of Families of Survival Curves: Applications to the Analysis of Degree Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry I.; Zwick, Rebecca

    1993-01-01

    An approach to empirical Bayes analysis of aggregated survival data from different groups of subjects is presented based on a contingency table representation of data using transformations to permit the use of normal priors. Analysis of families of survival curves leads to improvements over classical estimates. (SLD)

  14. Optical analysis of miniature lenses with curved imaging surfaces.

    PubMed

    Reshidko, Dmitry; Sasian, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Miniature cameras for consumer electronics and mobile phones have been, and continue to be, in fast development. The system level requirements, such as manufacturing cost, packaging, and sensor characteristics, impose unique challenges for optical designers. In this paper, we discuss the potential optical benefits of having a curved image surface rather than a flat one. We show that curved sensor technology allows for optically faster lens solutions. We discuss trade-offs of several relevant characteristics, such as packaging, chief ray angle, image quality, and tolerance sensitivity. A comparison of a benchmark flat field lens, and an evaluation design imaging on a curved surface and working at f/1.6, provides useful specific insights. For a given image quality, departing from a flat imaging surface does not allow significantly reducing the total length of a lens.

  15. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  16. Multiresolution Analysis of UTAT B-spline Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamnii, A.; Mraoui, H.; Sbibih, D.; Zidna, A.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a multiresolution curve representation based on periodic uniform tension algebraic trigonometric (UTAT) spline wavelets of class ??? and order four. Then we determine the decomposition and the reconstruction vectors corresponding to UTAT-spline spaces. Finally, we give some applications in order to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Popularity: A Growth Curve Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2006-01-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were…

  18. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  19. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  20. Use of the Zoom in the Analysis of a Curve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montaner, F. Rubio

    1987-01-01

    How the computer can aid the teacher in discussing plane curves is shown. Use of the zoom enables the teacher to illustrate aspects of graphs that would be difficult and time-consuming to show in other ways. Many illustrative graphs are included, and four programs are listed. (MNS)

  1. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  2. Evaluation of lung elastic recoil by exponential curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Knudson, R J; Kaltenborn, W T

    1981-10-01

    Static deflation pressure-volume curves for the lungs of 104 subjects were satisfactorily fitted to an exponential function, V = Vmax - Ae-kP (where Vmax is volume V extrapolated to infinite transpulmonary pressure P, and A and k are constants). Subjects included 48 who met rigorous criteria defining normal, 35 were PiM phenotype for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and 21 were PiMZ phenotype. The shape constant k was significantly related to age, whereas an index of curve position was not. Values for k corresponded closely to the data of other investigators suggesting that it was independent of size and insensitive to differences in experimental technique. Elevated values of k, indicative of emphysema, were no more prevalent among PiMZ subjects than among subjects with no alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency. The natural logarithm (1n) of k, rather than k itself, appears to provide a useful, normally distributed, expression of lung distensibility.

  3. Curved Thermopiezoelectric Shell Structures Modeled by Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2000-01-01

    "Smart" structures composed of piezoelectric materials may significantly improve the performance of aeropropulsion systems through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. The development of analytical models for piezoelectric smart structures is an ongoing, in-house activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field focused toward the experimental characterization of these materials. Research efforts have been directed toward developing analytical models that account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. Current work revolves around implementing thermal effects into a curvilinear-shell finite element code. This enhances capabilities to analyze curved structures and to account for coupling effects arising from thermal effects and the curved geometry. The current analytical model implements a unique mixed multi-field laminate theory to improve computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy. The mechanics can model both the sensory and active behavior of piezoelectric composite shell structures. Finite element equations are being implemented for an eight-node curvilinear shell element, and numerical studies are being conducted to demonstrate capabilities to model the response of curved piezoelectric composite structures (see the figure).

  4. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis of natural onyx from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Tamer; Toktamış, Hüseyin; Yüksel, Mehmet; Topaksu, Mustafa; Yazici, A Necmeddin

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the thermoluminesce (TL) properties of natural onyx were determined after β-irradiation ((90)Sr/(90)Y) at room temperature. The effect of the additive dose and variable heating rate for TL glow peaks of the sample were investigated. Computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods were used to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in natural onyx from Turkey. It was also determined kinetic parameters of onyx by means of the variable heating rate (VHR) method. The sample was exposed to β-irradiation between 2.4 Gy and 2.457 kGy. The CGCD methods showed that the glow curve of sample is the superposition of at least six first order components which were ascribed as P1-P6. The dose responses of some peaks have similar patterns and they follow linearity. The effect of heating rates on the response of dosimetric glow peaks of sample was studied. The maximum TL peak intensities of glow curve are decreasing with increasing heating rate and maximum TL peak intensities at 1 °C/s drops to 20% of the initial value when the sample is read at 6 °C/s.

  5. Rapid analysis of fold shape using Bézier curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Deepak C.; Lisle, Richard J.

    2004-09-01

    We approximate and classify the forms of profile sections of folded surfaces by comparison with cubic Bézier curves. The method analyses a digital image of the fold profile, by interactive visual comparison, with the curves generated by the Bézier drawing tool available commonly in graphics software products. Simplified equations of cubic Bézier curves form the basis of the classification in terms of two parameters. The first parameter, L, is related to the distribution of curvature on a single limb of a fold between the hinge point and the inflection point. It places the fold within a shape spectrum that ranges from straight-limbed chevron folds ( L=0) in which curvature is concentrated in the hinge region through to rounded folds with a uniform curvature distribution ( L=1). The second parameter, R, is related to the ratio of amplitude to wavelength. A graph of L against R serves to group samples of folds into 'shape groups'. This classification can be used as a tool to assist the determination of relative competence of folded layers and of the folding mechanism. The new method, which has the advantages of speed and simplicity, is applied to examples of natural and experimentally developed folds to demonstrate its versatility for analysing a wide range of fold geometries.

  6. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  7. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  8. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/∼eprice.

  9. Transit Light Curves with Finite Integration Time: Fisher Information Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-01

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/~eprice.

  10. Dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    Dissociative amnesia is one of the most enigmatic and controversial psychiatric disorders. In the past two decades, interest in the understanding of its pathophysiology has surged. In this report, we review new data about the epidemiology, neurobiology, and neuroimaging of dissociative amnesia and show how advances in memory research and neurobiology of dissociation inform proposed pathogenetic models of the disorder. Dissociative amnesia is characterised by functional impairment. Additionally, preliminary data suggest that affected people have an increased and possibly underestimated suicide risk. The prevalence of dissociative amnesia differs substantially across countries and populations. Symptoms and disease course also vary, indicating a possibly heterogeneous disorder. The accompanying clinical features differ across cultural groups. Most dissociative amnesias are retrograde, with memory impairments mainly involving the episodic-autobiographical memory domain. Anterograde dissociative amnesia occurring without significant retrograde memory impairments is rare. Functional neuroimaging studies of dissociative amnesia with prevailing retrograde memory impairments show changes in the network that subserves autobiographical memory. At present, no evidence-based treatments are available for dissociative amnesia and no broad framework exists for its rehabilitation. Further research is needed into its neurobiology, course, treatment options, and strategies to improve differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Genetic Analysis of Individual Differences in Dissociative Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Eley, Thalia; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Stevenson, Jim; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dissociation--a pattern of general disruption in memory and consciousness--has been found to be an important cognitive component of children's and adults' coping with severe trauma. Dissociative experiences include amnesia, identity disturbance, age regression, difficulty with concentration, and trance states. Stable individual…

  12. A Genetic Analysis of Individual Differences in Dissociative Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Eley, Thalia; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Stevenson, Jim; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dissociation--a pattern of general disruption in memory and consciousness--has been found to be an important cognitive component of children's and adults' coping with severe trauma. Dissociative experiences include amnesia, identity disturbance, age regression, difficulty with concentration, and trance states. Stable individual…

  13. Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Analysis of Cysteinyl-Modified Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Oleg V.; Goshe, Michael B. ); Conrads, Thomas P. ); Rakov, Vsevolod S. ); Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of D. radiodurans, the presence of these labeled-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys-residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-D0 or ICAT-D8.

  14. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragmentation analysis of cysteinyl-modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Oleg V; Goshe, Michael B; Conrads, Thomas P; Rakov, V Sergey; Veenstra, Timothy D; Smith, Richard D

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue-containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of Deinococcus radiodurans, the presence of these label-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-d0 or ICAT-d8.

  15. Dissociation and dissociative ionization of H2+ using the time-dependent surface flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-12-01

    The time-dependent surface flux method developed for the description of electronic spectra L. Tao and A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 013021 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/1/013021; A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 085008 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/8/085008] is extended to treat dissociation and dissociative ionization processes of H2+ interacting with strong laser pulses. By dividing the simulation volume into proper spatial regions associated with the individual reaction channels and monitoring the probability flux, the joint energy spectrum for the dissociative ionization process and the energy spectrum for dissociation is obtained. The methodology is illustrated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a collinear one-dimensional model of H2+ with electronic and nuclear motions treated exactly and validated by comparison with published results for dissociative ionization. The results for dissociation are qualitatively explained by analysis based on dressed diabatic Floquet potential energy curves, and the method is used to investigate the breakdown of the two-surface model.

  16. Method and apparatus for enhanced sequencing of complex molecules using surface-induced dissociation in conjunction with mass spectrometric analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Futrell, Jean H [Richland, WA

    2008-04-29

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhanced sequencing of complex molecules using surface-induced dissociation (SID) in conjunction with mass spectrometric analysis. Results demonstrate formation of a wide distribution of structure-specific fragments having wide sequence coverage useful for sequencing and identifying the complex molecules.

  17. Modeling and analysis of doubly curved aerobrake truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Gregory; Klang, Eric

    1992-01-01

    An aerobrake structural concept featuring a double curved tetrahedral truss support system and hexagonal heat shield panels was modeled and analyzed. Modeling equations for a sphere, cone, and paraboloid were developed for the purpose. Design equation and computer codes were also evolved and employed to determine the total mass of the aerobrake as well as any parameters that had an adverse effect on the total aerobrake mass. These data were used in a point design for a Mars mission aerobrake. A 131-ft diameter aerobrake was found to be viable using the present structural concept (i.e., the total aerobrake mass is not greater than 450,000 lb, which is the attached spacecraft mass). It is also shown that curvature, load point placement, number of load points, number of strut designs, and number of rings all have an effect on the mass of the aerobrake.

  18. Dissociation and recombination of D{sub 2} on Cu(111): Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations and improved analysis of desorption experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nattino, Francesco Genova, Alessandro; Guijt, Marieke; Kroes, Geert-Jan; Muzas, Alberto S.; Díaz, Cristina; Auerbach, Daniel J.

    2014-09-28

    Obtaining quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on and associative desorption of hydrogen from Cu(111) remains challenging. Particularly troubling is the fact that theory gives values for the high energy limit to the dissociative adsorption probability that is as much as two times larger than experiment. In the present work we approach this discrepancy in three ways. First, we carry out a new analysis of the raw experimental data for D{sub 2} associatively desorbing from Cu(111). We also perform new ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations that include effects of surface atom motion. Finally, we simulate time-of-flight (TOF) spectra from the theoretical reaction probability curves and we directly compare them to the raw experimental data. The results show that the use of more flexible functional forms for fitting the raw TOF spectra gives fits that are in slightly better agreement with the raw data and in considerably better agreement with theory, even though the theoretical reaction probabilities still achieve higher values at high energies. The mean absolute error (MAE) for the energy E{sub 0} at which the reaction probability equals half the experimental saturation value is now lower than 1 kcal/mol, the limit that defines chemical accuracy, while a MAE of 1.5 kcal/mol was previously obtained. The new AIMD results are only slightly different from the previous static surface results and in slightly better agreement with experiment.

  19. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  20. Can posture analysis point towards curve progression in scoliotic subjects?

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Rahmatalla, Aziz; Dangerfield, Peter; Ahmed, El-Nasri

    2006-01-01

    Previous research employing biomechanical measurement has demonstrated asymmetries in kinematics and kinetics. Similar asymmetries have been reported from anthropometric studies. These findings suggest that asymmetry may play an important aetiological role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The present study is a part of a wider comprehensive investigation aimed at identifying asymmetries in lower limb kinematics and pelvic and back movements during level walking in a sample of scoliotic subjects. Such asymmetries may be related to the spinal deformity. While previous studies indicate that force platform measurements provide a good estimation of the static balance of individuals, there remains a paucity of information on dynamic balance during walking. There is published evidence on the use of Centre of Pressure (CoP) and net joint moments in gait assessment. Although these investigations have assessed Centre of Mass (CoM)-CoP distance relationships in clinical conditions, there is a paucity of data relating to the moments about CoM. An objective of the present study was to assess and establish the asymmetry in the CoP pattern and moments about CoM during level walking and its relationship to spinal deformity. Results indicate differences across the subjects depending on the laterality of the major curve. Furthermore, the results indicate that the variables identified in this study could be applied to initial screening and surgical evaluation of scoliosis and other spinal deformities. Further studies are being undertaken to validate these findings.

  1. Analysis of driver's characteristics on a curved road in a lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Sharma, Sapna

    2017-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of driver's behavior on the curved road via lattice hydrodynamic approach. The basic model for straight road is extended for the curved road and the characteristics of driver's behavior is incorporated in the lattice model. The extended model is investigated theoretically by the means of linear stability analysis and the effect of curved road and intensity of influence of driver's behavior on the traffic flow stability is examined. Through nonlinear stability analysis, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to validate the theoretical results which indicates that the curved road has a negative influence on the stability of the traffic flow. It is also seen that the traffic jam on a curved road can be suppressed efficiently via taking into account aggressive drivers.

  2. Electrochemical and theoretical analysis of the reactivity of shikonin derivatives: dissociative electron transfer in esterified compounds.

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Vidales, Georgina; Frontana, Carlos

    2014-09-07

    An electrochemical and theoretical analysis of a series of shikonin derivatives in aprotic media is presented. Results showed that the first electrochemical reduction signal is a reversible monoelectronic transfer, generating a stable semiquinone intermediate; the corresponding E(I)⁰ values were correlated with calculated values of electroaccepting power (ω(+)) and adiabatic electron affinities (A(Ad)), obtained with BH and HLYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) and considering the solvent effect, revealing the influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the substituting group at position C-2 in the experimental reduction potential. For the second reduction step, esterified compounds isobutyryl and isovalerylshikonin presented a coupled chemical reaction following dianion formation. Analysis of the variation of the dimensionless cathodic peak potential values (ξ(p)) as a function of the scan rate (v) functions and complementary experiments in benzonitrile suggested that this process follows a dissociative electron transfer, in which the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer is slow (~0.2 cm s(-1)), and the rate constant of the chemical process is at least 10(5) larger.

  3. Trans-Proteomic Pipeline supports and improves analysis of electron transfer dissociation data sets.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Eric W; Shteynberg, David; Lam, Henry; Sun, Zhi; Eng, Jimmy K; Carapito, Christine; von Haller, Priska D; Tasman, Natalie; Mendoza, Luis; Farrah, Terry; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2010-03-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is an alternative fragmentation technique to CID that has recently become commercially available. ETD has several advantages over CID. It is less prone to fragmenting amino acid side chains, especially those that are modified, thus yielding fragment ion spectra with more uniform peak intensities. Further, precursor ions of longer peptides and higher charge states can be fragmented and identified. However, analysis of ETD spectra has a few important differences that require the optimization of the software packages used for the analysis of CID data or the development of specialized tools. We have adapted the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to process ETD data. Specifically, we have added support for fragment ion spectra from high-charge precursors, compatibility with charge-state estimation algorithms, provisions for the use of the Lys-C protease, capabilities for ETD spectrum library building, and updates to the data formats to differentiate CID and ETD spectra. We show the results of processing data sets from several different types of ETD instruments and demonstrate that application of the ETD-enhanced Trans-Proteomic Pipeline can increase the number of spectrum identifications at a fixed false discovery rate by as much as 100% over native output from a single sequence search engine.

  4. GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF KOI-977: SPECTROSCOPY, ASTEROSEISMOLOGY, AND PHASE-CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Masuda, Kento; Benomar, Othman; Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki

    2015-01-20

    We present a global analysis of KOI-977, one of the planet host candidates detected by Kepler. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) reports that KOI-977 is a red giant, for which few close-in planets have been discovered. Our global analysis involves spectroscopic and asteroseismic determinations of stellar parameters (e.g., mass and radius) and radial velocity (RV) measurements. Our analyses reveal that KOI-977 is indeed a red giant, possibly in the red clump, but its estimated radius (≳ 20 R {sub ☉} = 0.093 AU) is much larger than KOI-977.01's orbital distance (∼0.027 AU) estimated from its period (P {sub orb} ∼ 1.35 days) and host star's mass. RV measurements show a small variation, which also contradicts the amplitude of ellipsoidal variations seen in the light curve folded with KOI-977.01's period. Therefore, we conclude that KOI-977.01 is a false positive, meaning that the red giant, for which we measured the radius and RVs, is different from the object that produces the transit-like signal (i.e., an eclipsing binary). On the basis of this assumption, we also perform a light curve analysis including the modeling of transits/eclipses and phase-curve variations, adopting various values for the dilution factor D, which is defined as the flux ratio between the red giant and eclipsing binary. Fitting the whole folded light curve as well as individual transits in the short cadence data simultaneously, we find that the estimated mass and radius ratios of the eclipsing binary are consistent with those of a solar-type star and a late-type star (e.g., an M dwarf) for D ≳ 20.

  5. Formulation and numerical analysis of diatomic molecular dissociation using Boltzmann kinetic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kojiro; Kuroda, Hisayasu

    2007-01-01

    The direct description of chemical reactions by the Boltzmann equation still involves some difficulties in the kinetic theory. In this paper, we describe diatomic molecular dissociation due to transitions of vibrational quantum states resulting from inelastic collisions. These can be described by the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation. To avoid direct evaluation of the strong nonlinear collision kernel of the WCU equation, we used a kinetic equation. For accurate description of the dissociation process, we describe improvements we made to the conventional inelastic collision model (the so-called Morse model). Combining this inelastic collision model with the gas mixture model by Oguchi, we formulated a model for representing diatomic molecular dissociations. We validated this model by simulating a hypersonic shock layer with diatomic molecular dissociation.

  6. A Brief Review: The Z-curve Theory and its Application in Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2014-01-01

    In theoretical physics, there exist two basic mathematical approaches, algebraic and geometrical methods, which, in most cases, are complementary. In the area of genome sequence analysis, however, algebraic approaches have been widely used, while geometrical approaches have been less explored for a long time. The Z-curve theory is a geometrical approach to genome analysis. The Z-curve is a three-dimensional curve that represents a given DNA sequence in the sense that each can be uniquely reconstructed given the other. The Z-curve, therefore, contains all the information that the corresponding DNA sequence carries. The analysis of a DNA sequence can then be performed through studying the corresponding Z-curve. The Z-curve method has found applications in a wide range of areas in the past two decades, including the identifications of protein-coding genes, replication origins, horizontally-transferred genomic islands, promoters, translational start sides and isochores, as well as studies on phylogenetics, genome visualization and comparative genomics. Here, we review the progress of Z-curve studies from aspects of both theory and applications in genome analysis. PMID:24822026

  7. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  8. Analysis of the Effects of Fixed Costs on Learning Curve Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Gansler, Jacques S. The Defense Industry. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1980. 11. Horngren , Charles T. and George Foster. Cost Accounting: A Managerial...Best Available Copy AD-A285 040Q "𔃻 EU 󈧒 4 44 ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF FIXED COSTS ON LEARNING CURVE CALCULATIONS THESIS . . . - Charles B. Shea...Justification ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF FIXED COSTS ON LEARNING CURVE CALCULATIONS ............................Distribution I THESIS Charles B. Shea

  9. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  10. Improving Software Performance for Peptide Electron Transfer Dissociation Data Analysis by Implementation of Charge State- and Sequence-Dependent Scoring*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Peter R.; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Chalkley, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation for analysis of peptides eluting in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry experiments is increasingly common and can allow identification of many peptides and proteins in complex mixtures. Peptide identification is performed through the use of search engines that attempt to match spectra to peptides from proteins in a database. However, software for the analysis of ETD fragmentation data is currently less developed than equivalent algorithms for the analysis of the more ubiquitous collision-induced dissociation fragmentation spectra. In this study, a new scoring system was developed for analysis of peptide ETD fragmentation data that varies the ion type weighting depending on the precursor ion charge state and peptide sequence. This new scoring regime was applied to the analysis of data from previously published results where four search engines (Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), Spectrum Mill, and X!Tandem) were compared (Kandasamy, K., Pandey, A., and Molina, H. (2009) Evaluation of several MS/MS search algorithms for analysis of spectra derived from electron transfer dissociation experiments. Anal. Chem. 81, 7170–7180). Protein Prospector identified 80% more spectra at a 1% false discovery rate than the most successful alternative searching engine in this previous publication. These results suggest that other search engines would benefit from the application of similar rules. PMID:20513802

  11. Multiwavelength spectrophotometric determination of acid dissociation constants: Part II. First derivative vs. target factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Tam, K Y; Takács-Novák, K

    1999-03-01

    Acid dissociation constants (pKa values) denote the extent of ionization of drug molecules at different pH values, which is important in understanding their penetration through biological membranes and their interaction with the receptors. However, many drug molecules are sparingly soluble in water or contain ionization centres with overlapping pKa values, making precise pKa determination difficult using conventional spectrophotometric titration. In this work, we investigate a multiwavelength spectrophotometric titration (WApH) method for the determination of pKa values. Spectral changes which arise during pH-metric titrations of substances with concentration of about 10(-5) M were captured by means of an optical system developed in this study. All experiments were carried out in 0.15 M KCI solution at 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Mathematical treatments based on the first derivative spectrophotometry procedure and the target factor analysis method were applied to calculate the pKa values from the multiwavelength absorption titration data. pKa values were determined by the WApH technique for six ionizable substances, namely, benzoic acid, phenol, phthalic acid, nicotinic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid and phenolphthalein. The pKa values measured using the WApH technique are in excellent agreement with those measured pH-metrically. We have demonstrated that the first derivative spectrophometry procedure provides a relatively simple way to visualize the pKa values which are consistent with those determined using the target factor analysis method. However, for ionization systems with insufficient spectral data obtained around the sought pKa values or with closely overlapping pKa values, the target factor analysis method outperforms the first derivative procedure in terms of obtaining the results. Using the target factor analysis method, it has been shown that the two-step ionization of phenolphthalein involves a colorless anion intermediate and a red colored di-anion.

  12. Improved peptide identification for proteomic analysis based on comprehensive characterization of electron transfer dissociation spectra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui-Xiang; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Song, Chun-Qing; Chi, Hao; Yang, Bing; Xiu, Li-Yun; Tao, Li; Jing, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Chao; Wang, Le-Heng; Fu, Yan; He, Si-Min

    2010-12-03

    In recent years, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has enjoyed widespread applications from sequencing of peptides with or without post-translational modifications to top-down analysis of intact proteins. However, peptide identification rates from ETD spectra compare poorly with those from collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra, especially for doubly charged precursors. This is in part due to an insufficient understanding of the characteristics of ETD and consequently a failure of database search engines to make use of the rich information contained in the ETD spectra. In this study, we statistically characterized ETD fragmentation patterns from a collection of 461 440 spectra and subsequently implemented our findings into pFind, a database search engine developed earlier for CID data. From ETD spectra of doubly charged precursors, pFind 2.1 identified 63-122% more unique peptides than Mascot 2.2 under the same 1% false discovery rate. For higher charged peptides as well as phosphopeptides, pFind 2.1 also consistently obtained more identifications. Of the features built into pFind 2.1, the following two greatly enhanced its performance: (1) refined automatic detection and removal of high-intensity peaks belonging to the precursor, charge-reduced precursor, or related neutral loss species, whose presence often set spectral matching askew; (2) a thorough consideration of hydrogen-rearranged fragment ions such as z + H and c - H for peptide precursors of different charge states. Our study has revealed that different charge states of precursors result in different hydrogen rearrangement patterns. For a fragment ion, its propensity of gaining or losing a hydrogen depends on (1) the ion type (c or z) and (2) the size of the fragment relative to the precursor, and both dependencies are affected by (3) the charge state of the precursor. In addition, we discovered ETD characteristics that are unique for certain types of amino acids (AAs), such as a prominent

  13. Monte Carlo analysis of dissociation and recombination behind strong shock waves in nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, I. D.

    1991-01-01

    Computations are presented for the relaxation zone behind strong, 1D shock waves in nitrogen. The analysis is performed with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The DSMC code is vectorized for efficient use on a supercomputer. The code simulates translational, rotational and vibrational energy exchange and dissociative and recombinative chemical reactions. A model is proposed for the treatment of three body-recombination collisions in the DSMC technique which usually simulates binary collision events. The model improves previous models because it can be employed with a large range of chemical-rate data, does not introduce into the flow field troublesome pairs of atoms which may recombine upon further collision (pseudoparticles) and is compatible with the vectorized code. The computational results are compared with existing experimental data. It is shown that the derivation of chemical-rate coefficients must account for the degree of vibrational nonequilibrium in the flow. A nonequilibrium-chemistry model is employed together with equilibrium-rate data to compute the flow in several different nitrogen shock waves.

  14. Infrared spectrum analysis of the dissociated states of simple amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sebben, Damien; Pendleton, Phillip

    2014-11-11

    In this work, we present detailed analyses of the dissociation of dilute aqueous solutions of glycine and of lysine over the range 1Analysis of the deconvoluted peak areas due to CO and COO- at pH ranges<4.5 and those due to NH2 and NH3+ for pH>8 resulted in consistent pKa values for the amino acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Infrared spectrum analysis of the dissociated states of simple amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebben, Damien; Pendleton, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we present detailed analyses of the dissociation of dilute aqueous solutions of glycine and of lysine over the range 1 < pH < 12. Using appropriate spectrum subtraction methods, we obtained ATR-IR spectra of the solvated species as a function of pH. Discernible changes in the ionic species were identified in the absorption region between 1800 and 1100 cm-1. By applying peak deconvolution techniques to the spectra, we correctly interpret the apparent peak shift from 1615 to 1600 cm-1 as being due to the receding NH3+ asymmetric deformation alongside the appearing COO- asymmetric stretching. The effect of aqueous solution environment was also investigated in terms of 10 and 100 mmol/L NaCl. Salt solution spectra at each pH were also subtracted from each solution phase spectrum. Analysis of the deconvoluted peak areas due to Cdbnd O and COO- at pH ranges < 4.5 and those due to NH2 and NH3+ for pH > 8 resulted in consistent pKa values for the amino acids.

  16. Principles of electron capture and transfer dissociation mass spectrometry applied to peptide and protein structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhurov, Konstantin O; Fornelli, Luca; Wodrich, Matthew D; Laskay, Ünige A; Tsybin, Yury O

    2013-06-21

    This tutorial review describes the principles and practices of electron capture and transfer dissociation (ECD/ETD or ExD) mass spectrometry (MS) employed for peptide and protein structure analysis. ExD MS relies on interactions between gas phase peptide or protein ions carrying multiple positive charges with either free low-energy (~1 eV) electrons (ECD), or with reagent radical anions possessing an electron available for transfer (ETD). As a result of recent implementation on sensitive, high resolution, high mass accuracy, and liquid chromatography timescale-compatible mass spectrometers, ExD, more specifically, ETD MS has received particular interest in life science research. In addition to describing the fundamental aspects of ExD radical ion chemistry, this tutorial provides practical guidelines for peptide de novo sequencing with ExD MS, as well as reviews some of the current capabilities and limitations of these techniques. The merits of ExD MS are discussed primarily within the context of life science research.

  17. Energy and density analysis of the H2 molecule from the united atom to dissociation: the 3Sigma(g)+ and 3Sigma(u)+ states.

    PubMed

    Corongiu, Giorgina; Clementi, Enrico

    2009-11-14

    The first 14 (3)Sigma(g)(+) and the first 15 (3)Sigma(u)(+) states of the H(2) molecule are computed with full configuration interaction both from Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals and Heitler-London atomic orbitals within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, following recent studies for the (1)Sigma(g)(+) and (1)Sigma(u)(+) manifolds [Corongiu and Clementi, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 034301 (2009) and J. Phys. Chem. (in press)]. The basis sets utilized are extended and optimized Slater-type functions and spherical Gaussian functions. The states considered correspond to the configurations (1s(1)nl(1)) with n from 1 to 5; the internuclear separations sample the distances from 0.01 to 10,000 bohrs. For the first three (3)Sigma(g)(+) and (3)Sigma(u)(+) states and for the fourth and fifth (3)Sigma(g)(+) states, our computed energies at the equilibrium internuclear separation, when compared to the accurate values by Staszewska and Wolniewicz and by Kołos and Rychlewski, show deviations of about 0.006 kcal/mol, a test on the quality of our computations. Motivation for this work comes not only from obtaining potential energy curves for the high excited states of H(2) but also from characterizing the electronic density evolution from the united atom to dissociation to provide a detailed analysis of the energy contributions from selected basis subsets and to quantitatively decompose the state energies into covalent and ionic components. Furthermore, we discuss the origin of the seemingly irregular patterns in potential energy curves in the two manifolds, between 4 and 6-9 bohrs--there are two systems of states: the first, from the united atom to about 4 bohrs, is represented by functions with principal quantum number higher than the one needed at dissociation; this system interacts at around 4 bohrs with the second system, which is represented by functions with principal quantum number corresponding to one of the dissociation products.

  18. Evaluation of PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis for differentiation of Salmonella isolates.

    PubMed

    Saeidabadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Nili, Hassan; Dadras, Habibollah; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Connolly, Joanne; Valcanis, Mary; Raidal, Shane; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali

    2016-12-21

    Consumption of poultry products contaminated with Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases worldwide and therefore detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp. in poultry is important. In this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed from hem-D gene and a PCR followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for rapid differentiation of Salmonella isolates. Amplicons of 228 bp were generated from 16 different Salmonella reference strains and from 65 clinical field isolates mainly from poultry farms. High resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of the amplicons differentiated Salmonella isolates and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from selected isolates revealed that each melting curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The relationship between reference strains and tested specimens was also evaluated using a mathematical model without visual interpretation of HRM curves. In addition, the potential of the PCR-HRM curve analysis was evaluated for genotyping of additional Salmonella isolates from different avian species. The findings indicate that PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping of Salmonella isolates to determine the serovar/serotype.

  19. Decline Curve Analysis for Production Forecast and Optimization of Liquid-Dominated Geothermal Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, I.

    2016-09-01

    Power projects in the geothermal field has a long span of about 30 years. The power supply should be maintained at a certain value across a range of time. A geothermal field, however, has the characteristics of natural production decline with time. In a geothermal field, development of decline curve model of steam production is important for forecasting production decline in the future. This study was developed using decline curve by production data along 3 years liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir in Ulubelu field. Decline curve in geothermal field based on decline curve in petroleum industry. The decline curve was correlated by reservoir management in geothermal. The purposes of this study to get best match model decline curve and forecasting production in the future. Based on decline curve analysis by production data in Ulubelu field, the result model decline curve is exponential model. From the model, we can get the value of decline rate in the field is 9.4 %/year. Then, the formula of forecasting steam flow used exponent decline to forecast in the future. By using separated system cycle in Ulubelu field, the minimal steam flowrate towards turbine was 502018.4 ton/month. Based on formula of forecasting production and minimal steam flowrate, we can get the time make up wells to maintain steam supply for stability in generator power capacity.

  20. Genetic analysis of growth curves using the SAEM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jaffrézic, Florence; Meza, Cristian; Lavielle, Marc; Foulley, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of nonlinear function-valued characters is very important in genetic studies, especially for growth traits of agricultural and laboratory species. Inference in nonlinear mixed effects models is, however, quite complex and is usually based on likelihood approximations or Bayesian methods. The aim of this paper was to present an efficient stochastic EM procedure, namely the SAEM algorithm, which is much faster to converge than the classical Monte Carlo EM algorithm and Bayesian estimation procedures, does not require specification of prior distributions and is quite robust to the choice of starting values. The key idea is to recycle the simulated values from one iteration to the next in the EM algorithm, which considerably accelerates the convergence. A simulation study is presented which confirms the advantages of this estimation procedure in the case of a genetic analysis. The SAEM algorithm was applied to real data sets on growth measurements in beef cattle and in chickens. The proposed estimation procedure, as the classical Monte Carlo EM algorithm, provides significance tests on the parameters and likelihood based model comparison criteria to compare the nonlinear models with other longitudinal methods.

  1. Analysis of Intact Monoclonal Antibody IgG1 by Electron Transfer Dissociation Orbitrap FTMS*

    PubMed Central

    Fornelli, Luca; Damoc, Eugen; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Aizikov, Konstantin; Denisov, Eduard; Makarov, Alexander; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The primary structural information of proteins employed as biotherapeutics is essential if one wishes to understand their structure–function relationship, as well as in the rational design of new therapeutics and for quality control. Given both the large size (around 150 kDa) and the structural complexity of intact immunoglobulin G (IgG), which includes a variable number of disulfide bridges, its extensive fragmentation and subsequent sequence determination by means of tandem mass spectrometry (MS) are challenging. Here, we applied electron transfer dissociation (ETD), implemented on a hybrid Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), to analyze a commercial recombinant IgG in a liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) top-down experiment. The lack of sensitivity typically observed during the top-down MS of large proteins was addressed by averaging time-domain transients recorded in different LC-MS/MS experiments before performing Fourier transform signal processing. The results demonstrate that an improved signal-to-noise ratio, along with the higher resolution and mass accuracy provided by Orbitrap FTMS (relative to previous applications of top-down ETD-based proteomics on IgG), is essential for comprehensive analysis. Specifically, ETD on Orbitrap FTMS produced about 33% sequence coverage of an intact IgG, signifying an almost 2-fold increase in IgG sequence coverage relative to prior ETD-based analysis of intact monoclonal antibodies of a similar subclass. These results suggest the potential application of the developed methodology to other classes of large proteins and biomolecules. PMID:22964222

  2. Weak lensing and spectroscopic analysis of the nearby dissociative merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro-Oliveira, R.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Machado, R. E. G.; Capelato, H. V.; Laganá, T. F.; Durret, F.; Bagchi, J.

    2017-07-01

    The galaxy cluster Abell 3376 is a nearby (\\bar{z}=0.046) dissociative merging cluster surrounded by two prominent radio relics and showing an X-ray comet-like morphology. The merger system is comprised of the subclusters A3376W and A3376E. Based on new deep multiwavelength large-field images and published redshifts, we bring new insights about the history of this merger. Despite the difficulty of applying the weak lensing technique at such low redshift, we successfully recovered the mass distribution in the cluster field. Moreover, with the application of a two-body model, we have addressed the dynamics of this merging system. We have found the individual masses of M_{200}^W=3.0_{-1.7}^{+1.3}× 10^{14} M⊙ and M_{200}^E=0.9_{-0.8}^{+0.5}× 10^{14} M⊙. The cometary-shaped X-ray distribution shows only one peak spatially coincident with both eastern BCG and the A3376E mass peak whereas the gas content of A3376W seems to be stripped out. Our data allowed us to confirm the existence of a third subcluster located at the north, 1147 ± 62 kpc apart from the neighbour subcluster A3376E and having a mass M_{200}^N=1.4_{-1.0}^{+0.7}× 10^{14} M⊙. From our dynamical analysis, we found the merging is taking place very close to the plane of the sky, with the merger axis just 10° ± 11° from it. The application of a two-body analysis code showed that the merging cluster is seen 0.9_{-0.3}^{+0.2} Gyr after the pericentric passage and it is currently going to the point of maximum separation between the subclusters.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of CO2 hydrate dissociation: Fluctuation-dissipation and non-equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Niall J.; Clarke, Elaine T.

    2013-09-01

    Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of planar CO2 hydrate interfaces in liquid water at 300-320 K. Different guest compositions, at 85%, 95%, and 100% of maximum theoretical occupation, led to statistically-significant differences in the observed initial dissociation rates. The melting temperatures of each interface were estimated, and dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher dissociation rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. A simple coupled mass and heat transfer model developed previously was applied to fit the observed dissociation profiles, and this helps to identify clearly two distinct régimes of break-up; a second well-defined region is essentially independent of composition and temperature, in which the remaining nanoscale, de facto two-dimensional system's lattice framework is intrinsically unstable. From equilibrium MD of the two-phase systems at their melting point, the relaxation times of the auto-correlation functions of fluctuations in number of enclathrated guest molecules were used as a basis for comparison of the variation in the underlying, non-equilibrium, thermal-driven dissociation rates via Onsager's hypothesis, and statistically significant differences were found, confirming the value of a fluctuation-dissipation approach in this case.

  4. A light-curve distortion-wave analysis of eight RS Canum Venaticorum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    A program of differential U,B,V photometry of 14 RS CVn systems carried out at Rosemary Hill Observatory in 1978 - 1981 is described, and an analysis of the light curves for the characteristic distortion wave for eight of the systems is presented. The V light curves of the systems are shown. Significant waves were observed in RS CVn, RZ Eri, and RW UMa. No significant waves were found in UX Com, GK Hya, AR Lac, LX Per, or TY Pyx. Unusual light curve distortions were observed in UX Com and AR Lac.

  5. Analysis of the curve of Spee and the curve of Wilson in adult Indian population: A three-dimensional measurement study.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Sowmya Velekkatt; Hussain, Sharmila; Bhoominthan, S; Nayar, Sanjna; Jayesh, Ragavendra

    2016-01-01

    When reconstructing the occlusal curvatures dentists often use a 4-inch radii arc as a rough standard based on Monson spherical theory. The use of an identical radius for the curve of Spee for all patients may not be appropriate because each patient is individually different. The validity of application of this theory in the Indian population and the present study has been undertaken. This study is an attempt to evaluate the curve of Spee and curve of Wilson in young Indian population using three dimensional analysis. This study compared the radius and the depth of right and left, maxillary and mandibular curves of Spee and the radius of maxillary and mandibular curves of Wilson in males and females. The cusp tips of canines, buccal cusp tips of premolars and molars and palatal/lingual cusp tips of second molars of 60 maxillary and 60 mandibular casts were obtained. Three-dimensional (x, y, z) coordinates of the cusp tips of the molars, premolars, and canines of the right and left sides of the maxilla and mandible were obtained with three dimensional coordinate measuring machine. The radius and the depth of right and left, maxillary and mandibular curves of Spee and the radius of maxillary and mandibular curves of Wilson were measured by means of computer software Metrologic-XG. Pearson's correlation test and Independent t-test were used to test the statistical significance (α=.05). The values of curve of Spee and curve of Wilson in Indian population obtained from this study were higher than the 4 inch (100 mm) radius proposed by Monson. These findings suggest ethnic differences in the radius of curve of Spee and curve of Wilson.

  6. Analysis and Simulation of Long-Range Correlations in Curved Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Ali Reza; Sahimi, Muhammad

    Numerical simulation and analysis of long-range correlations in curved space are studied. The study is motivated by the problem of constructing accurate models of large-scale porous media which usually contain long-range correlations in their various properties (such as their permeability, porosity, and elastic moduli) within and between their strata that are typically curved layers. The problem is, however, relevant to many other important models and phenomena in which extended correlations in curved space play a prominent role. Examples include the nonlinear σ-model in a curved space, models for describing the long-range structural correlations of amorphous semiconductors that consist of polytopes (tilings of positively-curved three-dimensional space), long-range correlations in the extrapolar total zone, and models in which the Universe is created by bubble nucleations and contain long-range correlations in the fluctuations in the curved spacetime. The study is also relevant to the important industrial problem of designing highly curved objects, such as cars and ships, which use composite materials that contain extended correlations in their property values. We study such correlations along two- and three-dimensional curves, as well as curved surfaces. We show that such correlations are well-defined only on developable surfaces, i.e. those that can be flattened to form planar surfaces without any stretching or distortion, and preserve the distance between two points on such surfaces after the stretching. If a given curved surface is not developable, but can be approximated as piecewise developable, one may still define and analyze extended correlations on it. Representative examples are presented and analyzed.

  7. COIL chemical kinetics package revisited: a re-analysis of molecular iodine dissociation rate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschkewitz, John S.; Heaven, Michael C.

    2000-05-01

    New fits to the molecular iodine dissociation rate data of Heidner et al. Were obtained with the goals of achieving a better overall representation of the experimental data and determining a set of rate constants compatible with the assumption that the dissociation intermediate I2dagger is vibrationally excited I2. Improved rate constants were obtained that are significantly different from those used in current computational models of COIL systems. While the new rate constants provided a better representation of the experimental dat, troubling discrepancies remain. New reactions involving electronically excited iodine (I2*) were then added to the model in an attempt to resolve these discrepancies. Preliminary calculations indicate that I2* kinetics provide only a minor path to dissociation and that these model deficiencies will not be resolved by adding electronically excited iodine channels.

  8. Type Ia Supernova Light-Curve Inference: Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis in the Near-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2009-10-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHKs SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are σ(MJ ) = 0.17 ± 0.03, σ(MH ) = 0.11 ± 0.03, and σ(MKs ) = 0.19 ± 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms-1 is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  9. Strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+: Nuclear wave packet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, A.; Borbély, S.; Halász, G. J.; Vibók, Á.

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical ab initio investigation of strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+ molecule in the multiphoton regime is reported. The dynamics is initiated by ultrashort laser pulses for fixed molecular axis orientations. Nuclear wave packet calculations are performed to provide the joint energy spectra (JES): ionization-dissociation probability density via electron (Ee) and nuclear (En) kinetic energy. Analyzing the time-dependent nuclear wave packet densities we have successfully identified the exact path followed by the D2+ target for each multiphoton peak.

  10. Development of synthetic flood damage curve by explicit costs analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Mario; Molinari, Daniela; Dottori, Francesco; Scorzini, Annarita

    2015-04-01

    characteristics. Such functions were developed using a what-if analysis using data collected after the 2012 flood in the Umbria Region in Central Italy, as well as authors' experience, as reference to understand damage mechanisms. Observed damage data were also used to calibrate the functions.

  11. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 1u state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, M. E.; Baturo, V. V.; Lukashov, S. S.; Poretsky, S. A.; Pravilov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-color laser population of the I2(β1g, νβ, Jβ) rovibronic states via the B0u+, νB, JB rovibronic states and rovibronic levels of the 1u(bb) and 0g+(bb) states mixed by hyperfine interaction is used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound I2(1u(bb)) state. Dunham coefficients of the state, Yi0 (i = 0-3), Yi1 (i = 0-2), Y02 and Y12 for the {{v}{{1u}}} = 1-5, 8, 10, 15 and {{J}{{1u}}} ≈ 9-87 ranges, the dissociation energy of the state, De, and equilibrium I-I distance, Re, as well as the potential energy curve are determined. There are aperiodicities in the excitation spectrum corresponding to the β, νβ = 23, Jβ ← 1u(bb), ν1u = 4, 5, J1u progressions in the I2 + Rg = He, Ar mixture, namely, a great number of lines which do not coincide with the R or P line progressions. Their positions conflict with the ΔJ-even selection rule. Furthermore, they do not correspond to the ΔJ-odd progression.

  12. Dissociative electron transfer in polychlorinated aromatics. Reduction potentials from convolution analysis and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Romańczyk, Piotr P; Rotko, Grzegorz; Kurek, Stefan S

    2016-08-10

    Formal potentials of the first reduction leading to dechlorination in dimethylformamide were obtained from convolution analysis of voltammetric data and confirmed by quantum chemical calculations for a series of polychlorinated benzenes: hexachlorobenzene (-2.02 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc), pentachloroanisole (-2.14 V), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acids (-2.35 V and -2.34 V, respectively). The key parameters required to calculate the reduction potential, electron affinity and/or C-Cl bond dissociation energy, were computed at both DFT-D and CCSD(T)-F12 levels. Comparison of the obtained gas-phase energies and redox potentials with experiment enabled us to verify the relative energetics and the performance of various implicit solvent models. Good agreement with the experiment was achieved for redox potentials computed at the DFT-D level, but only for the stepwise mechanism owing to the error compensation. For the concerted electron transfer/C-Cl bond cleavage process, the application of a high level coupled cluster method is required. Quantum chemical calculations have also demonstrated the significant role of the π*ring and σ*C-Cl orbital mixing. It brings about the stabilisation of the non-planar, C2v-symmetric C6Cl6˙(-) radical anion, explains the experimentally observed low energy barrier and the transfer coefficient close to 0.5 for C6Cl5OCH3 in an electron transfer process followed by immediate C-Cl bond cleavage in solution, and an increase in the probability of dechlorination of di- and trichlorophenoxyacetic acids due to substantial population of the vibrational excited states corresponding to the out-of-plane C-Cl bending at ambient temperatures.

  13. Sex determination in beef by melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Nicolai Z; Madsen, Knud G

    2007-11-01

    Sex determination of beef is important to meet the rules of the Commission Regulation (EC) 765/2002 that qualify for export refunds. A SYBR Green sex identification assay based on melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus (AMELX and AMELY) was developed. The PCR amplicons of 130/130 and 130/67 base pairs produced from female and male beef, respectively, are easily distinguished by both melting curve analysis and gel electrophoresis. Results from the melting curve analysis of amplicons are ready in less than three minutes, and requires no additional work in addition to the PCR setup. Applicability of the sex determination assay was studied by analysis of 12 unknown beef samples and the results were compared to an accredited method based on gel electrophoresis. In addition, six different cattle breeds were examined. All test results were correct in respect to sex.

  14. The mathematical analysis of the heart rate and blood lactate curves during incremental exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Mirko; Ilic, V; Obradovic, Z; Pantovic, S; Rosic, G

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a new mathematical approach for the analysis of HR (heart rate) and BL (blood lactate) curves during incremental exercise testing using a HR/BL curve and its derivatives, taking into account the native shape of all curves, without any linear approximation. Using this approach the results indicate the appearance of three characteristic points (A, B and C) on the HR/BL curve. The point A on the HR/BL curve which is the value that corresponds to the load (12.73 ± 0.46 km h-1) at which BL starts to increase above the resting levels (0.9 ± 0.06 mM), and is analogous to Lactate Turn Point 1 (LTP1). The point C on the HR/BL curve which corresponds to a BL of approximately 4mM, and is analogous to LTP2. The point B on the HR/BL curve, which corresponds to the load (16.32 ± 0.49 km h-1) at which the moderate increase turns into a more pronounced increase in BL. This point has not been previously recognized in literature. We speculate this point represents attenuation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, accompanied by the decrease in diastolic time duration during incremental exercise testing. Proposed mathematical approach allows precise determination of lactate turnpoints during incremental exercise testing.

  15. Rapid genotyping of beak and feather disease virus using high-resolution DNA melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2014-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a significant pathogen both for wild and captive psittacine birds globally. Genotypic differentiation of BFDV isolates is crucial to establish effective control strategies for the conservation of endangered species and epidemiological investigations of disease outbreaks. The technique developed in this study is a simple, rapid and inexpensive genotyping method for BFDV using PCR and subsequent high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis. This was achieved using PCR amplification of the conserved Rep gene in the presence of a fluorescent DNA intercalating dye (SYTO9). HRM curve analysis of the resultant amplicon could readily differentiate between reference strain (92-SR14) and 18 other BFDV isolates used in this study. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the amplicon from each isolate revealed that each melt curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The potential of the PCR-HRM curve analysis to differentiate inter-host genetic variation among critically endangered orange-bellied parrots, lorikeets and cockatoos was also evaluated. Phylogenetic tree topology based on partial Rep gene sequences used in this study showed that BFDV Rep gene sequence patterns were correlated with the results of HRM curve analysis. The results presented in this study indicate that this technique could be used in both clinical research and differentiation of BFDV isolates in a fraction of time without further nucleotide sequencing and provides a novel approach for the genetic screening of BFDV in clinical virology laboratories.

  16. Peristaltic Flow of Rabinowitsch Fluid in a Curved Channel: Mathematical Analysis Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Sajid, Muhammad; Javid, Khurram; Ahmed, Raheel

    2017-03-01

    Recently, Maraj and Nadeem (E. N. Maraj, S. Nadeem, Z. Naturforsch. A 70, 513 (2015)) discussed the application of Rabinowitsch fluid model for the mathematical analysis of peristaltic flow in a curved channel. The mathematical analysis presented by these authors is scrutinised in detail and certain subtle details are pointed out which affect the final results.

  17. Application of the normalization data analysis technique for single specimen R-curve determination

    SciTech Connect

    Porr, W.C.; Mills, W.J.

    1999-03-01

    The authors conclude that the normalization technique for single specimen R-curve and J{sub IC} determination can be very effective. Much like EPD, this technique requires some user interpretation/judgement during data analysis and may be difficult to standardize or fully automate even with strict analysis rules.

  18. Numerical analysis of curved frequency selective surface by finite-difference time-domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yi; Wang, Jian-bo; Chen, Gui-bo; Sun, Guan-cheng; Lu, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Frequency selective surface is a monolayer or multilayer 2D periodic structure which is composed of multiple resonance units scattering by a two-dimensional periodic array on dielectric layer. FSS can't absorb radio frequency energy, but can filter the frequency which is therefore applied in microwave technique or stealth technology. The relative research on curved FSS is relatively scarce since the curved FSS structure can be obtained only when FSS is attached on the materials surfaces of curved structures in engineering application. However, curved FSS is widely applied in practical engineering; therefore, the research on curved FSS structure has important significance. In this paper, a curved FSS structure model of Y-pore unit is established and numerical simulated by means of FDTD. The influence of curvature on FSS transmission characteristics is studied according to the analysis on the changing of radar cross section (RCS). The results show: the center frequency point of the plane band pass FSS structure drifts after the curve surface deformation of the structure; the center frequency point of the curved band pass FSS structure drifts with the changing of the curvature radius, i. e. with the decreasing of curvature radius, the frequency point drifts towards high points and the transmittance decreases. The design of FSS radome demands of accurate and stable center resonance frequency; therefore, the actual situation of curved surface should be considered in practical engineering application when band pass FSS is made into frequency selection filtering radome. The curvature radius should be long enough to avoid center frequency drifting and transmittance deceasing.

  19. A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

  20. The random walk function in the analysis of time-activity curves from dynamic radionuclide studies.

    PubMed

    Hart, G C; Bunday, B; Kiri, V

    1987-04-01

    The random walk function is a mathematical function derived from studies of the mass transport and flow of diffusible materials through tubes. Approximations to the function were first used some time ago in the field of cardiac tracer dilution curves, but in the absence of rapid and reproducible curve fitting the method never became commonplace. The current study uses the latest curve-fitting techniques and shows how the method may be used with precision in the analysis of time-activity curves from dynamic oesophageal and blood flow studies. The physiological basis of the method is given and parameters obtained which relate to both the rate of flow and the local dispersion of the bolus.

  1. A Computational Analysis of Mental Image Generation: Evidence from Functional Dissociations in Split-Brain Patients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-20

    neuropsychological data on the apraxias and the visual agnosias imply that motor and visual memories can be separately spared or destroyed after brain...agraphia Imagery dissociations 53 and (vice versa), and visual object agnosia without apraxia (and vice versa). We next asked him to *draw the letters in

  2. Characterization of Gas Hydrates Formation and Dissociation Using Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudow, M.; Lilova, K.

    2015-12-01

    In general, the gas hydrates are formed at low temperature and high pressure which requires a special technique to mimic the natural conditions. The hydrate thermal properties: heat capacity, heat of dissociation, are crucial for evaluating the effects on climate change and for a prediction of the gas production rates from hydrate reservoirs. The effect of the porous materials on the dissociation of synthetic methane hydrates was investigated at 150 - 300 K and atmospheric pressure. Another experiment with methane hydrates, but at high pressure (20 MPa) was performed at near room temperature using a highly sensitive micro-differential scanning calorimeter with a specifically design high pressure vessel (the vessel can withstand a pressure up to 1000 bars). The thermal cycle for measuring the methane hydrate dissociation in water includes cooling down a water solution under a certain methane pressure (30 to 350 bars) to -30 C to allow water crystallization and hydrate formation, then heated up to room temperature. The endothermic peak, following the ice melting is associated to the hydrate dissociation process and gives the enthalpy of the hydrate decomposition. The kinetics of the hydrates formation could also be predicted by a rapid DSC cooling experiment followed by isothermal step and heating. Both dissociation and specific heats of synthetic methane and ethane hydrates were measured under high-pressure condition by using a heat-flow type calorimeter to understand thermodynamic properties of gas hydrates under submarine/sublacustrine environments. The large reserves of natural gas are present as clathrate hydrates in permafrost regions and beneath the oceans have generated interest in the study of their thermophysical properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The effect of isotopic substitution in both THF and water on the eutectic and hydrate melting temperatures in water-tetrahydrofuran systems studied by DSC will be shown as an example.

  3. AtomicJ: an open source software for analysis of force curves.

    PubMed

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  4. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanowicz, Paweł Gabryś, Halina; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-06-15

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  5. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  6. Time-dependent ROC curve analysis in medical research: current methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Adina Najwa; Cox, Trevor; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi

    2017-04-07

    ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis is well established for assessing how well a marker is capable of discriminating between individuals who experience disease onset and individuals who do not. The classical (standard) approach of ROC curve analysis considers event (disease) status and marker value for an individual as fixed over time, however in practice, both the disease status and marker value change over time. Individuals who are disease-free earlier may develop the disease later due to longer study follow-up, and also their marker value may change from baseline during follow-up. Thus, an ROC curve as a function of time is more appropriate. However, many researchers still use the standard ROC curve approach to determine the marker capability ignoring the time dependency of the disease status or the marker. We comprehensively review currently proposed methodologies of time-dependent ROC curves which use single or longitudinal marker measurements, aiming to provide clarity in each methodology, identify software tools to carry out such analysis in practice and illustrate several applications of the methodology. We have also extended some methods to incorporate a longitudinal marker and illustrated the methodologies using a sequential dataset from the Mayo Clinic trial in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) of the liver. From our methodological review, we have identified 18 estimation methods of time-dependent ROC curve analyses for censored event times and three other methods can only deal with non-censored event times. Despite the considerable numbers of estimation methods, applications of the methodology in clinical studies are still lacking. The value of time-dependent ROC curve methods has been re-established. We have illustrated the methods in practice using currently available software and made some recommendations for future research.

  7. Evaluation of several MS/MS search algorithms for analysis of spectra derived from electron transfer dissociation experiments.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Kumaran; Pandey, Akhilesh; Molina, Henrik

    2009-09-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is increasingly becoming popular for high-throughput experiments especially in the identification of the labile post-translational modifications. Most search algorithms that are currently in use for querying MS/MS data against protein databases have been optimized on the basis of matching fragment ions derived from collision induced dissociation of peptides, which are dominated by b and y ions. However, electron transfer dissociation of peptides generates completely different types of fragments: c and z ions. The goal of our study was to test the ability of different search algorithms to handle data from this fragmentation method. We compared four MS/MS search algorithms (OMSSA, Mascot, Spectrum Mill, and X!Tandem) using approximately 170,000 spectra generated from a standard protein mix, as well as from complex proteomic samples which included a large number of phosphopeptides. Our analysis revealed (1) greater differences between algorithms than has been previously reported for CID data, (2) a significant charge state bias resulting in >60-fold difference in the numbers of matched doubly charged peptides, and (3) identification of 70% more peptides by the best performing algorithm than the algorithm identifying the least number of peptides. Our results indicate that the search engines for analyzing ETD derived MS/MS spectra are still in their early days and that multiple search engines could be used to reduce individual biases of algorithms.

  8. Retrospective North American CFL Experience Curve Analysis and Correlation to Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sarah J.; Wei, Max; Sohn, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective experience curves are a useful tool for understanding historic technology development, and can contribute to investment program analysis and future cost estimation efforts. This work documents our development of an analysis approach for deriving retrospective experience curves with a variable learning rate, and its application to develop an experience curve for compact fluorescent lamps for the global and North American markets over the years 1990-2007. Uncertainties and assumptions involved in interpreting data for our experience curve development are discussed, including the processing and transformation of empirical data, the selection of system boundaries, and the identification of historical changes in the learning rate over the course of 15 years. In the results that follow, we find that that the learning rate has changed at least once from 1990-2007. We also explore if, and to what degree, public deployment programs may have contributed to an increased technology learning rate in North America. We observe correlations between the changes in the learning rate and the initiation of new policies, abrupt technological advances, including improvements to ballast technology, and economic and political events such as trade tariffs and electricity prices. Finally, we discuss how the findings of this work (1) support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective analysis and (2) may imply that investments in technological research and development have contributed to a change in market adoption and penetration.

  9. Testing and analysis of flat and curved panels with multiple cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broek, David; Jeong, David Y.; Thomson, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation of multiple cracking in various types of test specimens is described in this paper. The testing phase is comprised of a flat unstiffened panel series and curved stiffened and unstiffened panel series. The test specimens contained various configurations for initial damage. Static loading was applied to these specimens until ultimate failure, while loads and crack propagation were recorded. This data provides the basis for developing and validating methodologies for predicting linkup of multiple cracks, progression to failure, and overall residual strength. The results from twelve flat coupon and ten full scale curved panel tests are presented. In addition, an engineering analysis procedure was developed to predict multiple crack linkup. Reasonable agreement was found between predictions and actual test results for linkup and residual strength for both flat and curved panels. The results indicate that an engineering analysis approach has the potential to quantitatively assess the effect of multiple cracks in the arrest capability of an aircraft fuselage structure.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Study of Hsp90 and ADP: Hydrogen Bond Analysis for ADP Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kazutomo; Saito, Hiroaki; Nagao, Hidemi

    The contacts between the N-terminal domain of heat shock protein 90 (N-Hsp90) and ADP involve both direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonds in X-ray crystallographic structure. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of N-Hsp90 and ADP to investigate the changes of the hydrogen bond lengths during ADP dissociation. We show the difference between the hydrogen bonds in the crystal structure and MD simulations. Moreover, the N6 group of ADP does not contact with the Cγ group of Asp93, and the hydrogen bonds between Asn51 side chain and ADP are stable in the early step of ADP dissociation.

  11. Flood Envelope Curves for the Setouchi Region Derived by Spatial Distribution Analysis of Radar Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamori, Hidetaka; Nagai, Akihiro

    This paper presents the estimation procedure of a flood envelope curve originally developed by Kadoya and Nagai (1979) on the basis of depth-area-duration (DAD) analysis of radar precipitation data in order to examine the availability of spatial distribution data of precipitation for statistical flood peak analysis. The estimated flood envelope curves by applying the presented procedure to the Yoshii River Basin located in Okayama Prefecture of the western Japan well enveloped the flood peaks observed in the Hiroshima and Okayama Prefectures; the curves tended, however, to overestimate flood peaks for small catchments. It was explained by the fact that very limited areas are with regionally maximum areal rainfall arising maximum flood peak discharge and the other areas are with smaller areal rainfall than maximum in the objective region. Flood envelope curve equation considering spatial probability of regionally maximum areal rainfall was presented and applied to the Yoshii River Basin to show the effect of adjusting the spatial probability for mitigating overestimation of maximum flood peaks for small basin. This result shows probabilistic aspects of flood envelope curves deterministically estimated from hydrological records, which should be considered when determining design flood discharge for dam planning.

  12. Leveraging Electron Transfer Dissociation for Site Selective Radical Generation: Applications for Peptide Epimer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Yana A.; Beran, Gregory; Julian, Ryan R.

    2017-07-01

    Traditional electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) experiments operate through a complex combination of hydrogen abundant and hydrogen deficient fragmentation pathways, yielding c and z ions, side-chain losses, and disulfide bond scission. Herein, a novel dissociation pathway is reported, yielding homolytic cleavage of carbon-iodine bonds via electronic excitation. This observation is very similar to photodissociation experiments where homolytic cleavage of carbon-iodine bonds has been utilized previously, but ETD activation can be performed without addition of a laser to the mass spectrometer. Both loss of iodine and loss of hydrogen iodide are observed, with the abundance of the latter product being greatly enhanced for some peptides after additional collisional activation. These observations suggest a novel ETD fragmentation pathway involving temporary storage of the electron in a charge-reduced arginine side chain. Subsequent collisional activation of the peptide radical produced by loss of HI yields spectra dominated by radical-directed dissociation, which can be usefully employed for identification of peptide isomers, including epimers.

  13. DIFFRACTION DISSOCIATION - 50 YEARS LATER.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.N.

    2005-04-27

    The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d {yields} n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

  14. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on Explicit Rule Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwu, Fenfang; Pan, Wei; Sun, Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Finding the match between individuals and educational treatments is the aim of both educators and the aptitude-treatment interaction research paradigm. Using the latent growth curve analysis, the present study investigates the interaction between the type of explicit instructional approaches (deductive vs. explicit-inductive) and the level of…

  15. Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the…

  16. Taxometrics, Polytomous Constructs, and the Comparison Curve Fit Index: A Monte Carlo Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; McGrath, Robert E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2010-01-01

    The taxometric method effectively distinguishes between dimensional (1-class) and taxonic (2-class) latent structure, but there is virtually no information on how it responds to polytomous (3-class) latent structure. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that the mean comparison curve fit index (CCFI; Ruscio, Haslam, & Ruscio, 2006) obtained with 3…

  17. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on Explicit Rule Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwu, Fenfang; Pan, Wei; Sun, Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Finding the match between individuals and educational treatments is the aim of both educators and the aptitude-treatment interaction research paradigm. Using the latent growth curve analysis, the present study investigates the interaction between the type of explicit instructional approaches (deductive vs. explicit-inductive) and the level of…

  18. Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the…

  19. Identification of Chlamydial species in crocodiles and chickens by PCR-HRM curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, T; Bibby, S; O'Rourke, D; Belfiore, T; Agnew-Crumpton, R; Noormohammadi, A H

    2010-10-26

    Recently, a PCR protocol (16SG), targeting 16S rRNA gene coupled with high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed in our laboratory and shown to reliably detect and identify the seven different Chlamydiaceae spp. In this study, the potential of this method was assessed for detection and differentiation of Chlamydiosis in clinical specimens. Of the total number of 733 specimens from a range of animal species, 219 (30%) were found positive by 16SG PCR. When a sufficient amount of DNA was available (64 submissions), amplicons generated by the 16SG PCR were subjected to HRM curve analysis and results were compared to that of nucleotide sequencing. In all instances, the infecting Chlamydiaceae spp. was genotyped according to the identity of its nucleotide sequence to a reference species. Analysis of the HRM curves and nucleotide sequences from 16SG PCR amplicons also revealed the occurrence of a Chlamydophila-like, a Parachlamydia-like and a variant of Chlamydophila psittaci in chickens. These results reveal the potential of 16SG PCR-HRM curve analysis for rapid and simultaneous detection and identification of Chlamydiaceae spp. in animals and demonstrate the capacity of this system for rapid identification of new Chlamydiaceae spp. in animals during routine diagnostic testings.

  20. Comparison of sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally activated dissociation and multipole storage-assisted dissociation for top-down protein analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Karin M; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometric data acquired for small (8--18 kDa) intact proteins by sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally activated dissociation (SORI-CAD) and multipole storage-assisted dissociation (MSAD) were compared, and the results indicate that the two activation methods do not always provide the same fragmentation patterns. In MSAD experiments, the charge state distribution made available by the ionization conditions may dictate the range of fragment ions that can be generated. In addition, conditions of high space charge within the hexapole impair transmission and/or trapping of high m/z species, which can result in loss of important precursor and product ions. Finally, the non-resonant nature of activation in MSAD can provide access to secondary dissociation processes that are not available by SORI. Because of these considerations, MSAD is less reliable than SORI for generating sequence tag data. However, it appears that MSAD samples 'preferred' cleavage processes (i.e. those occurring at D and P residues) just as well as SORI, which implies that MSAD data may be somewhat more compatible with search algorithms that utilize unprocessed fragment ion masses.

  1. A Novel Representation for Riemannian Analysis of Elastic Curves in ℝn

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shantanu H.; Klassen, Eric; Srivastava, Anuj; Jermyn, Ian

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel representation of continuous, closed curves in ℝn that is quite efficient for analyzing their shapes. We combine the strengths of two important ideas - elastic shape metric and path-straightening methods -in shape analysis and present a fast algorithm for finding geodesics in shape spaces. The elastic metric allows for optimal matching of features while path-straightening provides geodesics between curves. Efficiency results from the fact that the elastic metric becomes the simple 2 metric in the proposed representation. We present step-by-step algorithms for computing geodesics in this framework, and demonstrate them with 2-D as well as 3-D examples. PMID:21311729

  2. IMAGE-PLANE ANALYSIS OF n-POINT-MASS LENS CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Danek, Kamil; Heyrovský, David E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz

    2015-06-10

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point-mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. Utilizing this property further, we introduce the cusp curve to identify cusp-image positions on all contours simultaneously. In order to track cusp-number changes in caustic metamorphoses, we define the morph curve, which pinpoints the positions of metamorphosis-point images along the cusp curve. We demonstrate the usage of both curves on simple two- and three-point-mass lens examples. For the three simplest caustic metamorphoses we illustrate the local structure of the image and source planes.

  3. Asymptotic analysis of a cohesive crack. 2: Influence of the softening curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planas, J.; Elices, M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical method well suited to solve the integral equation governing the asymptotic behavior of a cohesive crack, and uses it to analyze the influence of the softening curve on the cracking response of large specimens. The analysis is performed with two main objectives in mind: (1) providing criteria to determine when a simplified linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach can be applied, and (2) providing possible procedures of extracting information on the softening behavior from experimental data. The main conclusion is that the effective crack extension prior to peak is nearly determined by the length of the softening curve (the critical crack opening) and so is the deviation from LEFM. Furthermore, a simplified R-curve approach is proposed as an approximate alternative to solving the governing integral equation.

  4. Dissociation energies of PH and PH+.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, T. V. R.

    1995-12-01

    Dissociation energies for the ground electronic states of diatomic PH and PH+ are determined by fitting empirical potential functions to the respective RKRV curves using correlation coefficients. The estimated ground state dissociation energies of PH and PH+ are 3.10 and 3.20 eV respectively by the curve fitting procedure using the Lippincott potential function. The computed values are in good agreement with experimental values.

  5. The analysis of dose-response curve from bioassays with quantal response: Deterministic or statistical approaches?

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, G; Sfara, V

    2016-04-25

    Dose-response relations can be obtained from systems at any structural level of biological matter, from the molecular to the organismic level. There are two types of approaches for analyzing dose-response curves: a deterministic approach, based on the law of mass action, and a statistical approach, based on the assumed probabilities distribution of phenotypic characters. Models based on the law of mass action have been proposed to analyze dose-response relations across the entire range of biological systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the principles that determine the dose-response relations. Dose-response curves of simple systems are the result of chemical interactions between reacting molecules, and therefore are supported by the law of mass action. In consequence, the shape of these curves is perfectly sustained by physicochemical features. However, dose-response curves of bioassays with quantal response are not explained by the simple collision of molecules but by phenotypic variations among individuals and can be interpreted as individual tolerances. The expression of tolerance is the result of many genetic and environmental factors and thus can be considered a random variable. In consequence, the shape of its associated dose-response curve has no physicochemical bearings; instead, they are originated from random biological variations. Due to the randomness of tolerance there is no reason to use deterministic equations for its analysis; on the contrary, statistical models are the appropriate tools for analyzing these dose-response relations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning Curve Analysis of Different Stages of Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Feng-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the learning curves of the different stages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. Design. Retrospective analysis. Design Classification. Canadian Task Force classification II-2. Setting. Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Patient Intervention. Women receiving robotic-assisted total and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomies for benign conditions from May 1, 2013, to August 31, 2015. Measurements and Main Results. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), and uterine weight were 46.44 ± 5.31 years, 23.97 ± 4.75 kg/m2, and 435.48 ± 250.62 g, respectively. The most rapid learning curve was obtained for the main surgery console stage; eight experiences were required to achieve duration stability, and the time spent in this stage did not violate the control rules. The docking stage required 14 experiences to achieve duration stability, and the suture stage was the most difficult to master, requiring 26 experiences. BMI did not considerably affect the duration of the three stages. The uterine weight and the presence of adhesion did not substantially affect the main surgery console time. Conclusion. Different stages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy have different learning curves. The main surgery console stage has the most rapid learning curve, whereas the suture stage has the slowest learning curve. PMID:28373977

  7. A computational model-based validation of Guyton's analysis of cardiac output and venous return curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Guyton developed a popular approach for understanding the factors responsible for cardiac output (CO) regulation in which 1) the heart-lung unit and systemic circulation are independently characterized via CO and venous return (VR) curves, and 2) average CO and right atrial pressure (RAP) of the intact circulation are predicted by graphically intersecting the curves. However, this approach is virtually impossible to verify experimentally. We theoretically evaluated the approach with respect to a nonlinear, computational model of the pulsatile heart and circulation. We developed two sets of open circulation models to generate CO and VR curves, differing by the manner in which average RAP was varied. One set applied constant RAPs, while the other set applied pulsatile RAPs. Accurate prediction of intact, average CO and RAP was achieved only by intersecting the CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs because of the pulsatility and nonlinearity (e.g., systemic venous collapse) of the intact model. The CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs were also practically independent. This theoretical study therefore supports the validity of Guyton's graphical analysis.

  8. Split calibration curve: an approach to avoid repeat analysis of the samples exceeding ULOQ.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sudipta; Basit, Abdul; Ravindran, Selvan; Patel, Vandana B; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Patel, Hitesh

    2012-10-01

    The current practice of using calibration curves with narrow concentration ranges during bioanalysis of new chemical entities has some limitations and is time consuming. In the present study we describe a split calibration curve approach, where sample dilution and repeat analysis can be avoided without compromising the quality and integrity of the data obtained. A split calibration curve approach is employed to determine the drug concentration in plasma samples with accuracy and precision over a wide dynamic range of approximately 0.6 to 15,000 ng/ml for dapsone and approximately 1 to 25,000 ng/ml for cyclophosphamide and glipizide. A wide dynamic range of concentrations for these three compounds was used in the current study to construct split calibration curves and was successfully validated for sample analysis in a single run. Using this method, repeat analysis of samples can be avoided. This is useful for the bioanalysis of toxicokinetic studies with wide dose ranges and studies where the sample volume is limited.

  9. Z-analysis: a new approach to analyze stimulation curves with intrinsic basal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Peter B; von Euler, Gabriel

    2005-07-01

    In the study of receptor biology it is of considerable importance to describe the stimulatory properties of an agonist according to mathematically defined models. However, the presently used models are insufficient if the experimental preparation contains an intrinsic basal stimulation. We have developed a novel approach, tentatively named Z-analysis. In this approach, the concentration of endogenous agonist is calculated by extending the stimulation curve to zero effect. The concentration of endogenous agonist is then combined with the concentration of added agonist to estimate the true EC(50) value. We developed a new model, the Z-model, specifically for this purpose, but in addition, we describe how Z-analysis can be applied to the traditional E(0)-model. Models were applied to computer-generated curves with different Hill coefficients, using iterative curve fitting procedures. In addition to applying the models to ideal cases, we also used Monte Carlo-simulated data. Specific transformations were used to enable comparisons between parameters determined from these models. Both models were able to provide estimates of all eight parameters analyzed, both using ideal data and on Monte Carlo-simulated data. The Z-model was found to provide better estimates of the concentration of endogenous agonist, the EC(50) values, and the Hill value, in curves with Hill coefficient deviating from one. In conclusion, Z-analysis was suitable both to determine the concentration of endogenous agonists and to determine true EC(50) values. We found several advantages with the Z-model compared to traditional E(0)-model for analysis of stimulation curves that contain basic intrinsic stimulation.

  10. Learning Factors Transfer Analysis: Using Learning Curve Analysis to Automatically Generate Domain Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I. Jr.; Cen, Hao; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to create a quantitative model of an educational content domain of related practice item-types using learning curves. By using a pairwise test to search for the relationships between learning curves for these item-types, we show how the test results in a set of pairwise transfer relationships that can be…

  11. Bond dissociation energies from the topology of the charge density using gradient bundle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Amanda; Eberhart, Mark

    2016-02-01

    New and more robust models of chemical bonding are necessary to further our understanding of chemical phenomena. Among these are bond bundle and gradient bundle methods, which analyze bonding interactions in terms of property distributions over geometrically defined volumes. These methods have been shown to provide a systematic framework from which to search for structure-property relationships. In addition to providing a brief review of some of the relationships found using this framework, we present new findings that relate the lowering of kinetic energy in bonding regions to bond dissociation energy.

  12. ATWS Analysis with an Advanced Boiling Curve Approach within COBRA 3-CP

    SciTech Connect

    Gensler, A.; Knoll, A.; Kuehnel, K.

    2007-07-01

    In 2005 the German Reactor Safety Commission issued specific requirements on core coolability demonstration for PWR ATWS (anticipated transients without scram). Thereupon AREVA NP performed detailed analyses for all German PWRs. For a German KONVOI plant the results of an ATWS licensing analysis are presented. The plant dynamic behavior is calculated with NLOOP, while the hot channel analysis is performed with the thermal hydraulic computer code COBRA 3-CP. The application of the fuel rod model included in COBRA 3-CP is essential for this type of analysis. Since DNB (departure from nucleate boiling) occurs, the advanced post DNB model (advanced boiling curve approach) of COBRA 3-CP is used. The results are compared with those gained with the standard BEEST model. The analyzed ATWS case is the emergency power case 'loss of main heat sink with station service power supply unavailable'. Due to the decreasing coolant flow rate during the transient the core attains film boiling conditions. The results of the hot channel analysis strongly depend on the performance of the boiling curve model. The BEEST model is based on pool boiling conditions whereas typical PWR conditions - even in most transients - are characterized by forced flow for which the advanced boiling curve approach is particularly suitable. Compared with the BEEST model the advanced boiling curve approach in COBRA 3-CP yields earlier rewetting, i.e. a shorter period in film boiling. Consequently, the fuel rod cladding temperatures, that increase significantly due to film boiling, drop back earlier and the high temperature oxidation is significantly diminished. The Baker-Just-Correlation was used to calculate the value of equivalent cladding reacted (ECR), i.e. the reduction of cladding thickness due to corrosion throughout the transient. Based on the BEEST model the ECR value amounts to 0.4% whereas the advanced boiling curve only leads to an ECR value of 0.2%. Both values provide large margins to the 17

  13. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness.

  14. Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Glycosphingolipids Using Shotgun Ozone-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, Rodell C.; Vu, Ngoc; Zhang, Qibin

    2017-08-01

    Glycosphingolipids are essential biomolecules widely distributed across biological kingdoms yet remain relatively underexplored owing to both compositional and structural complexity. While the glycan head group has been the subject of most studies, there is paucity of reports on the lipid moiety, particularly the location of unsaturation. In this paper, ozone-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (OzID-MS) implemented in a traveling wave-based quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) mass spectrometer was applied to study unsaturated glycosphingolipids using shotgun approach. Resulting high resolution mass spectra facilitated the unambiguous identification of diagnostic OzID product ions. Using [M+Na]+ adducts of authentic standards, we observed that the long chain base and fatty acyl unsaturation had distinct reactivity with ozone. The reactivity of unsaturation in the fatty acyl chain was about 8-fold higher than that in the long chain base, which enables their straightforward differentiation. Influence of the head group, fatty acyl hydroxylation, and length of fatty acyl chain on the oxidative cleavage of double bonds was also observed. Application of this technique to bovine brain galactocerebrosides revealed co-isolated isobaric and regioisomeric species, which otherwise would be incompletely identified using contemporary collision-induced dissociation (CID) alone. These results highlight the potential of OzID-MS in glycosphingolipids research, which not only provides complementary structural information to existing CID technique but also facilitates de novo structural determination of these complex biomolecules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Scapholunate Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise; McSwigan, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Wrist injuries are a common complaint in the emergency setting. Any disruption of the anatomy of the carpal bones can impair hand function, leading to pain, weakness, and complications. One of the most common forms of carpal bone instability is scapholunate dissociation. This injury can lead to significant morbidity including avascular necrosis, impaired healing, limited function, and arthritis. These diagnostic findings may be subtle, thus identifying high-risk mechanisms of injury, and clinical manifestations will assist the emergency practitioner with early diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk injury.

  16. Differentiating between monozygotic twins through DNA methylation-specific high-resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Leander; Evans, Neil; Bexon, Kimberley J; van der Meer, Dieudonne J; Williams, Graham A

    2015-05-01

    Although short tandem repeat profiling is extremely powerful in identifying individuals from crime scene stains, it is unable to differentiate between monozygotic (MZ) twins. Efforts to address this include mutation analysis through whole genome sequencing and through DNA methylation studies. Methylation of DNA is affected by environmental factors; thus, as MZ twins age, their DNA methylation patterns change. This can be characterized by bisulfite treatment followed by pyrosequencing. However, this can be time-consuming and expensive; thus, it is unlikely to be widely used by investigators. If the sequences are different, then in theory the melting temperature should be different. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether high-resolution melt curve analysis can be used to differentiate between MZ twins. Five sets of MZ twins provided buccal swabs that underwent extraction, quantification, bisulfite treatment, polymerase chain reaction amplification and high-resolution melting curve analysis targeting two markers, Alu-E2F3 and Alu-SP. Significant differences were observed between all MZ twins targeting Alu-E2F3 and in four of five MZ twins targeting Alu-SP (P<0.05). Thus, it has been demonstrated that bisulfite treatment followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis could be used to differentiate between MZ twins.

  17. Theoretical study of the unimolecular dissociation HO2 --> H+O2. I. Calculation of the bound states of HO2 up to the dissociation threshold and their statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbyn, Abigail J.; Stumpf, Michael; Keller, Hans-Martin; Schinke, Reinhard

    1995-12-01

    This is the first of a series of papers in which we investigate the unimolecular dissociation of hydroperoxyl. Using the DMBE IV potential energy surface [Pastrana et al., J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8073 (1990)], in the present study 726 bound states of HO2(X˜) up to the H+O2 dissociation threshold are calculated in an attempt to access the extent of the coupling between the modes of the system. The first approach involves an analysis of the nodal structure of the wave functions. While the wave functions for the lowest states are regular and assignable, the degree of mixing and complexity rapidly increases with energy. The wave functions close to the dissociation threshold are mostly irregular without any clear cut nodal structure and fill the entire coordinate space available. Nevertheless, a small number of regular states, that are associated with large excitation in the O2 stretching coordinate and no or only little excitation in the other modes, are found even at high energies. The second approach used to study the degree of intramolecular coupling is an analysis of the energy spectrum. The nearest neighbor level spacing distribution, which probes the short-range correlation, as well as the Σ2 and Δ3 statistics, which are sensitive to the long-range correlations in the spectrum, are investigated and compared to the distributions predicted for regular and irregular spectra. Both of these approaches indicate that the system is almost totally irregular with a Brody parameter of about 92%. In addition, the sum of states at a particular energy, which is extremely important in all statistical models for unimolecular dissociation, is approximately calculated from the volume of classical phase space and found to be in excellent agreement with the exact quantum mechanical result.

  18. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy: Analysis of the surgical learning curve in benign conditions.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Hasan; Biler, Alper; Demirtas, Omer; Guler, Omer Tolga; Peker, Nuri; Kale, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    To assess the learning curve for total laparoscopic hysterectomy. This study was a retrospective analysis of the learning curve for two surgeons during their first 257 consecutive cases of total laparoscopic hysterectomy at a teaching hospital. Patients were divided sequentially into groups comprising the first 75 patients, the next 75, and the final 107 patients. Age, body mass index, gestational parity, indications for laparoscopic hysterectomy, previous pelvic surgery, operating time, haemoglobin decline, complications, need for transfusion, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. The mean operating time for total laparoscopic hysterectomy reduced significantly from 76.2 min to 68.9 min (p = 0.001) between the first and second 75-patient groups. Linear regression analysis showed a plateau was reached on the learning curve after 71-80 cases. The rate of all complications started at 8% in the first group of 75 patients, reduced to 6.7% in the next group, and decreased further in the final group to 4.7%. The decline was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The difference in the need for transfusion was statistically significant between the first 75 patients and the second group of 75 (p = 0.04). Conversion from laparoscopy to laparotomy was required in five patients, four in the early group and one in the final group. Age, body mass index, parity, previous pelvic surgery, decline in haemoglobin, and length of hospital stay were similar among the three groups. A plateau in the learning curve for TLH was reached after the first 75 cases. We can infer that there is a learning curve for TLH as confirmed by the decrease in operating time (accompanied by no change in complications) correlated to gain in experience. On the other hand, one should not disregard the fact that laparoscopy is not a complication-free surgery and achievement of the learning curve does not exclude complications. Gynaecological surgeons can perform TLH securely during the learning

  19. Monitoring for idiopathic scoliosis curve progression using surface topography asymmetry analysis of the torso in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Komeili, Amin; Westover, Lindsey; Parent, Eric C; El-Rich, Marwan; Adeeb, Samer

    2015-04-01

    At first visit and each clinical follow-up session, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) undergo radiographic examination, from which the Cobb angle is measured. The cumulative exposure to X-ray radiation justifies efforts in developing noninvasive methods for scoliosis monitoring. To determine the capability of the three-dimensional markerless surface topography (ST) asymmetry analysis to detect ≥5° progression in the spinal curvature in patients with AIS over 1-year follow-up interval. Cross-sectional study in a specialized scoliosis clinic. In this study, baseline and 1-year follow-up full torso ST scans of 100 patients with AIS were analyzed using three-dimensional markerless asymmetry analysis. Patients with ΔCobb≥5° and ΔCobb<5° were categorized into progression and nonprogression groups, respectively. The ST scan of each full torso was analyzed to calculate the best plane of symmetry by minimizing the distances between the torso and its reflection about the plane of symmetry. Distance between the torso and its reflection was measured and displayed as deviation color maps. The difference of ST measurements between two successive acquisitions was used to determine if the scoliosis has progressed at least 5° or not. The classification tree technique was implemented using the local deformity of the torso in the thoracic-thoracolumbar (T-TL) and lumbar (L) regions to categorize curves into progression and nonprogression groups. The change in maximum deviation and root mean square of the deviations in the torso were the parameters effective in capturing the curve progression. Funding for this research is provided by the Scoliosis Research Society, and Women and Children's Health Research Institute. The classification model detected 85.7% of the progression and 71.6% of the nonprogression cases. The resulting false-negative rate of 4% for T-TL curves, representing the proportion of undetected progressions, confirmed that the technique shows

  20. Mathematical analysis of the heart rate performance curve during incremental exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Rosic, G; Pantovic, S; Niciforovic, J; Colovic, V; Rankovic, V; Obradovic, Z; Rosic, Mirko

    2011-03-01

    In this study we performed laboratory treadmill protocols of increasing load. Heart rate was continuously recorded and blood lactate concentration was measured for determination of lactate threshold by means of LTD-max and LT4.0 methods.Our results indicate that the shape of heart rate performance curve (HRPC) during incremental testing depends on the applied exercise protocol (change of initial speed and the step of running speed increase, with the constant stage duration). Depending on the applied protocol, the HRPC can be described by linear, polynomial (S-shaped), and exponential mathematical expression.We presented mathematical procedure for estimation of heart rate threshold points at the level of LTD-max and LT4.0, by means of exponential curve and its relative deflection from the initial trend line (tangent line to exponential curve at the point of starting heart rate). The relative deflection of exponential curve from the initial trend line at the level of LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be defined, based on the slope of the initial trend line. Using originally developed software that allows mathematical analysis of heart rate-load relation, LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be estimated without direct measurement of blood lactate concentration.

  1. Learning curve analysis of intracorporeal cuff suturing during robotic single-site total hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Ali; Zeybek, Burak; Ozgurel, Banu; Oztekin, Mehmet Kemal; Sendag, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the learning curve of intracorporeal cuff suturing during robotic single-site total hysterectomy. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). University hospital. Twenty-four patients with benign indications for hysterectomy. Twenty-four patients who underwent robotic single-site total hysterectomy to treat benign indications were included in the study. Surgical procedures were performed by a single surgeon with extensive experience in laparoscopy, using the single-site platform of the da Vinci Surgical System. All vaginal cuffs were closed intracorporeally using semi-rigid single-site instruments. An exponential learning curve technique was used to analyze the learning curve. The overall mean (SD) vaginal cuff closure time was 23.2 (7) minutes. Learning curve analysis revealed a decrease in vaginal closure time after 14 procedures. An experienced robotic surgeon requires approximately 14 procedures to achieve proficiency in intracorporeal cuff suturing during robotic single-site total hysterectomy. Novel instruments that create perfect triangulation are needed to overcome the current challenges of suturing and to shorten operative time. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Light curve analysis of beta Lyrae type binary star EM TrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of photometric observations of the eclipsing binary system EM TrA (TYC 9258-211-1=CD-67 1660) is presented in this study. The V light curve of the system from All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) was solved using the Wilson-Devinney code. The final solution describes EM TrA as a detached system. The absolute parameters of the components of the system were estimated.

  3. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  4. Efficient curve-skeleton computation for the analysis of biomedical 3d images - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Brun, Francesco; Dreossi, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Advances in three dimensional (3D) biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT), make it easy to reconstruct high quality 3D models of portions of human body and other biological specimens. A major challenge lies in the quantitative analysis of the resulting models thus allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the object under investigation. An interesting approach is based on curve-skeleton (or medial axis) extraction, which gives basic information concerning the topology and the geometry. Curve-skeletons have been applied in the analysis of vascular networks and the diagnosis of tracheal stenoses as well as a 3D flight path in virtual endoscopy. However curve-skeleton computation is a crucial task. An effective skeletonization algorithm was introduced by N. Cornea in [1] but it lacks in computational performances. Thanks to the advances in imaging techniques the resolution of 3D images is increasing more and more, therefore there is the need for efficient algorithms in order to analyze significant Volumes of Interest (VOIs). In the present paper an improved skeletonization algorithm based on the idea proposed in [1] is presented. A computational comparison between the original and the proposed method is also reported. The obtained results show that the proposed method allows a significant computational improvement making more appealing the adoption of the skeleton representation in biomedical image analysis applications.

  5. A rapid Bézier curve method for shape analysis and point representation of asymmetric folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Deepak C.; Rastogi, Vipul; Ghosh, Rajit

    2010-05-01

    Point representation of fold shapes is useful, in particular, for classification of a large number of folds into different geometric populations. The methods for shape analysis and point representation of asymmetric folds are a few and tedious, although several methods exist for the analysis of the individual fold limbs, or symmetric folds. This article gives a rapid method that uses the Bézier curve tool, available in any common computer graphics software, for the analysis of a complete asymmetric fold and its point representation in the two-dimensional frame. The new method is based on the reduction of variables in the parametric equations of a cubic Bézier curve. It makes the length of one Bézier handle zero, pins the end point of the other Bézier handle at the origin of the X- Y frame and drags its control point along the Y-axis to fit the Bézier curve on the given asymmetric fold. A Cartesian plot between normalised length of the Bézier handle and the lift, i.e., difference between the heights of the two inflection points, gives the unique point that represents the given asymmetric fold shape. We test the validity of the new method on several computer simulated asymmetric folds and demonstrate its usefulness with the help of a natural example.

  6. Enrichment and Analysis of Non-enzymatically Glycated Peptides: Boronate Affinity Chromatography Coupled with Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Brock, Jonathan W. C.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ames, Jennifer M.; Baynes, John W.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. However, no effective high-throughput methods exist for identifying proteins containing this low abundance post-translational modification in bottom-up proteomic studies. In this report, phenylboronate affinity chromatography was used in a two-step enrichment scheme to selectively isolate first glycated proteins and then glycated, tryptic peptides from human serum glycated in vitro. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by alternating electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. ETD fragmentation mode permitted identification of a significantly higher number of glycated peptides (87.6% of all identified peptides) versus CID mode (17.0% of all identified peptides), when utilizing enrichment on first the protein and then the peptide level. This study illustrates that phenylboronate affinity chromatography coupled with LC-MS/MS and using ETD as the fragmentation mode is an efficient approach for analysis of glycated proteins and may have broad application in studies of diabetes mellitus. PMID:17488106

  7. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis and CGCD method for erbium doped CaZrO{sub 3} phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ratnesh; Chopra, Seema

    2016-05-06

    The manuscript report the synthesis, thermoluminescence study at fixed concentration of Er{sup 3+} (1 mol%) doped CaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. The phosphors were prepared by modified solid state reaction method. The powder sample was characterized by thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve analysis. In TL glow curve the optimized concentration in 1mol% for UV irradiated sample. The kinetic parameters were calculated by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) techniaue. Trapping parameters gives the information of dosimetry loss in prepared phosphor and its usability in environmental monitoring and for personal monitoring. CGCD is the advance tool for analysis of complicated TL glow curves.

  8. Robotic right hemicolectomy: Analysis of 108 consecutive procedures and multidimensional assessment of the learning curve.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Amilcare; Scrucca, Luca; Desiderio, Jacopo; Gemini, Alessandro; Guarino, Salvatore; Ricci, Francesco; Cirocchi, Roberto; Palazzini, Giorgio; D'Andrea, Vito; Minelli, Liliana; Trastulli, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Surgeons tend to view the robotic right colectomy (RRC) as an ideal beginning procedure to gain proficiency in robotic general and colorectal surgery. Nevertheless, oncological RRC, especially if performed with intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis confectioning, cannot be considered a technically easier procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the learning curve of the RRC performed for oncological purposes and to evaluate its safety and efficacy investigating the perioperative and pathology outcomes in the different learning phases. Data on a consecutive series of 108 patients undergoing RRC with intracorporeal anastomosis between June 2011 and September 2015 at our institution were prospectively collected to evaluate surgical and short-term oncological outcomes. CUSUM (Cumulative Sum) and Risk-Adjusted (RA) CUSUM analysis were performed in order to perform a multidimensional assessment of the learning curve for the RRC surgical procedure. Intraoperative, postoperative and pathological outcomes were compared among the learning curve phases. Based on the CUSUM and RA-CUSUM analyses, the learning curve for RRC could be divided into 3 different phases: phase 1, the initial learning period (1st-44th case); phase 2, the consolidation period (45th-90th case); and phase 3, the mastery period (91th-108th case). Operation time, conversion to open surgery rate and the number of harvested lymph nodes significantly improve through the three learning phases. The learning curve for oncological RRC with intracorporeal anastomosis is composed of 3 phases. Our data indicate that the performance of RRC is safe from an oncological point of view in all of the three phases of the learning curve. However, the technical skills necessary to significantly reduce operative time, conversion to open surgery rate and to significantly improve the number of harvested lymph nodes were achieved after 44 procedures. These data suggest that it might be prudent to start the RRC learning curve

  9. Determination of the dissociation kinetics of a transient intermediate.

    PubMed

    Asam, M R; Glish, G L

    1999-02-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry provides information on the dissociation pathways of gas-phase ions by providing a link between product ions and parent ions. However, there exists a distinct possibility that a parent ion does not dissociate directly to the observed product ion, but that the reaction proceeds through unobserved reaction intermediates. This work describes the discovery and kinetic analysis of an unobserved reaction intermediate with a quadrupole ion trap. [a4 - NH3] ions formed from [YG beta FL + H] ions dissociate to [(F*YG - NH3) - CO] ions. It is expected, however, from previous results, that [F*YG - NH3] ions should form prior to [(F*YG - NH3) - CO] ions. Double-resonance experiments are used to demonstrate the existence of intermediate [F*YG - NH3] ions. Various kinetic analyses are then performed using traditional collision-induced dissociation kinetics and double-resonance experiments. The phenomenological rates of formation and decay of peptide rearrangement ion dissociation products are determined by curve fitting decay and formation data generated with the kinetics experiments. The data generated predict an observable level of the intermediate in a time frame accessible but previously not monitored. By examining early product-ion formation, the intermediate ions, [F*YG - NH3]+, are observed.

  10. Hierarchical band-target entropy minimization curve resolution and Pearson VII curve-fitting analysis of cellular protein infrared imaging spectra.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiyin; Chen, Kejia; Liang, Dayang; Chew, Wee

    2009-04-01

    A soft-modeling multivariate numerical approach that combines self-modeling curve resolution (SMCR) and mixed Lorentzian-Gaussian curve fitting was successfully implemented for the first time to elucidate spatially and spectroscopically resolved spectral information from infrared imaging data of oral mucosa cells. A novel variant form of the robust band-target entropy minimization (BTEM) SMCR technique, coined as hierarchical BTEM (hBTEM), was introduced to first cluster similar cellular infrared spectra using the unsupervised hierarchical leader-follower cluster analysis (LFCA) and subsequently apply BTEM to clustered subsets of data to reconstruct three protein secondary structure (PSS) pure component spectra-alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and ambiguous structures-that associate with spatially differentiated regions of the cell infrared image. The Pearson VII curve-fitting procedure, which approximates a mixed Lorentzian-Gaussian model for spectral band shape, was used to optimally curve fit the resolved amide I and II bands of various hBTEM reconstructed PSS pure component spectra. The optimized Pearson VII band-shape parameters and peak center positions serve as means to characterize amide bands of PSS spectra found in various cell locations and for approximating their actual amide I/II intensity ratios. The new hBTEM methodology can also be potentially applied to vibrational spectroscopic datasets with dynamic or spatial variations arising from chemical reactions, physical perturbations, pathological states, and the like.

  11. High resolution melting curve analysis of DNA samples isolated by different DNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Martín-Núñez, Gracia M; Gómez-Zumaquero, Juan M; Soriguer, Federico; Morcillo, Sonsoles

    2012-01-18

    High resolution melting is a post-PCR-based method for detecting DNA sequence variation by measuring changes in the melting of a DNA duplex. Melting of double-stranded DNA molecules is influenced by several factors. We evaluated the influence of the DNA isolation method in the melting curve analysis to detect genetic variations. We isolated DNA from whole blood of 547 subjects by two different methods: Maxwell 16 Instrument and DNA FlexiGene Kit. A fragment of 159 bp was amplified and analyzed by high resolution melting. Those samples that showed a different melting curve pattern were sequenced. Of the samples extracted with the Maxwell 16 Instrument, 42% showed variation compared with 0.18% of the samples extracted with DNA FlexiGene Kit. After sequencing, we showed that all samples extracted with the Maxwell 16 Instrument were false positive except one, which coincided with the only sample that showed variation in those extracted with the DNA FlexiGene Kit. The method used to extract DNA is an important factor to consider in the analysis of melting curves obtained by high resolution melting, as it may influence the melting behaviour of the samples, giving false positive results in the detection of genetic variants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexuality of dissocial persons.

    PubMed

    Janus, Marta; Szulc, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The development of personality disorders as well as sexual disorders is defined by the common time spectrum as well as deficits and changes in such areas as biological, environmental and mental area. Dissocial (antisocial) personality disorder is characterised by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. The indices of the discussed disorder can be found in specific patterns of social inadequacy occurring during childhood and puberty. At the same time, characteristic indices of social functioning at a young age often indicate subsequent dysfunctions in the area of sexuality. The aim of this paper is to explain sexual functioning of persons with dissocial personality disorder (including the relation with sexual dysfunctions), and to ascertain issues that need further empirical studies. As a result of analysis of available literature (matched with EBSCO database search fulfilling criteria of sample size, accuracy of examination procedure, conclusions and discussion) 5 articles fulfilling criteria cited above has been found. Based on literature overview, it appeared to be impossible to determine one coherent way of sexual functioning of dissocial persons, and to establish causal relationship of sexual dysfunctions and dissocial personality disorder. However, it is possible to indicate group of most characteristic dysfunctional sexual behaviours. Noteworthy, available publication analyse only selected aspects of sexual behaviours in small, homogenous groups. There is a lack of review studies as well as multi-faceted studies.

  13. An analysis of the massless planet approximation in transit light curve models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Many extrasolar planet transit light curve models use the approximation of a massless planet. They approximate the planet as orbiting elliptically with the host star at the orbit’s focus instead of depicting the planet and star as both orbiting around a common center of mass. This approximation should generally be very good because the transit is a small fraction of the full-phase curve and the planet to stellar mass ratio is typically very small. However, to fully examine the legitimacy of this approximation, it is useful to perform a robust, all-parameter space-encompassing statistical comparison between the massless planet model and the more accurate model.Towards this goal, we establish two questions: (1) In what parameter domain is the approximation invalid? (2) If characterizing an exoplanetary system in this domain, what is the error of the parameter estimates when using the simplified model? We first address question (1). Given each parameter vector in a finite space, we can generate the simplified and more complete model curves. Associated with these model curves is a measure of the deviation between them, such as the root mean square (RMS). We use Gibbs sampling to generate a sample that is distributed according to the RMS surface. The high-density regions in the sample correspond to a large deviation between the models. To determine the domains of these high-density areas, we first employ the Ordering Points to Identify the Clustering Structure (OPTICS) algorithm. We then characterize the subclusters by performing the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) on the transformed Principal Component spaces of each cluster. This process yields descriptors of the parameter domains with large discrepancies between the models.To consider question (2), we start by generating synthetic transit curve observations in the domains specified by the above analysis. We then derive the best-fit parameters of these synthetic light curves according to each model and examine

  14. Site-specific analysis of the O-glycosylation of bovine fetuin by electron-transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Windwarder, Markus; Altmann, Friedrich

    2014-08-28

    Bovine fetuin often finds use as a test model for analytical methods, but the exact occupancy of its O-glycosylation sites has not yet been determined. An obstacle for a closer inspection of the five or six O-glycosylation sites is the close spacing of several sites on the same tryptic peptide. The advent of ion-trap instruments with electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) capability and - for the type of instrument - high resolution prompted us to probe this technology for the investigation of the intricate posttranslational modifications O-glycosylation and phosphorylation. Much information could be obtained by direct-infusion ETD analysis of the fully sialylated tryptic 61-residue peptide harboring 8 hydroxyl amino acids of which four were indeed found to be, if only partially, glycosylated. The middle-down approach allowed recognizing an order of action of O-GalNAc transferase(s). No such hierarchy could be observed for phosphorylation. ETD fragmentation on an ion trap thus allowed in-depth analysis of a large, multiply O-glycosylated peptide, however, only by data accumulation over several minutes by direct infusion of a prefractionated sample. O-glycosylation and phosphorylation sites re-defined and their occupancy including that of N-glycans were defined by this study. O-glycosylation of natural or recombinant proteins poses a challenge because of the lack of unambiguous consensus sites, the agglomeration of several O-glycans in close proximity and the lack of efficient O-glycosidases. Even bovine fetuin, a frequently used test glycoprotein for glycosylation analysis, has hitherto not been fully characterized in terms of site occupancy. This gap shall hereby be closed by application of electron-transfer dissociation mass spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Consequence analysis to determine the damage to humans from vapour cloud explosions using characteristic curves.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Fernando Díaz; Ferradás, Enrique González; Sánchez, Teresa de Jesús Jiménez; Aznar, Agustín Miñana; Gimeno, José Ruiz; Alonso, Jesús Martínez

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide a methodology to facilitate consequence analysis for vapour cloud explosions (VCE). Firstly, the main PROBIT equations to evaluate direct damage on humans from those accidents (eardrum rupture, death due to skull fracture, death due to whole body impact and lung damage) are discussed and the most suitable ones are selected. Secondly, a new methodology is developed to relate characteristic overpressure-impulse-distance curves for VCE, obtained in a previous paper (F. Diaz Alonso et al., Characteristic overpressure-impulse-distance curves for vapour cloud explosions using the TNO Multi-Energy model, J. Hazard. Mater. A137 (2006) 734-741) with the selected PROBIT equations. This methodology allows the determination of damage as a function of distance to the accident's origin in only one step, using explosion energy and VCE Multi-Energy charge strength as input parameters.

  16. Analysis of Characteristics of Light Curve Profiles of the Flares Erupted from Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duo, Yun; Hua-ning, Wang; Han, He

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares belong to a kind of eruptive phenomena caused by the sudden release of magnetic energy nearby sunspots. It is found that similar flares occurred as well in many Sun-like stars (called as Sun-like star flares). From the data acquired by the Kepler space telescope the SC (Short Cadence) data are mainly selected to make analysis, in order to find the characteristic parameters of light curve profiles of the flares erupted from Sun-like stars for a statistical study, and to summarize the activity features of these stellar flares. The analyzed results show that the light curve profiles and characteristic timescales of the flares of Sun-like stars are quite similar to those of solar flares, which may indicate the same physical mechanism for these two kinds of flares.

  17. Anthropometry, CT, and DXA as predictors of GH deficiency in premenopausal women: ROC curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Utz, Andrea L.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy; Schoenfeld, David A.; Miller, Karen K.

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is a strong determinant of growth hormone (GH) secretion, and states of GH deficiency are associated with increased visceral adiposity and decreased lean body mass. The purpose of our study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different methods of assessing body composition [anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and computed tomography (CT)] to predict GH deficiency in premenopausal women and threshold values for each technique to predict GH deficiency, using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We studied a group of 45 healthy lean, overweight, and obese premenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, skin fold thickness), DXA, CT, and a GH-releasing hormone-arginine stimulation test. ROC curve analysis was used to determine cutoff values for each method to identify GH deficiency. Visceral adiposity measured by CT showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying subjects with GH deficiency with a cutoff of >9,962 mm2 [area under the curve (AUC), 0.95; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 77.8%; P = 0.0001]. Largest waist circumference showed high sensitivity and specificity with a cutoff of >101.7 cm (AUC, 0.89; sensitivity, 88.9%; specificity, 75%; P = 0.0001). When the ROC curves of visceral fat measured by CT and largest waist circumference were compared, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P = 0.36). Our study showed that the largest waist circumference predicts the presence of GH deficiency in healthy premenopausal women with high sensitivity and specificity and nearly as well as CT measurement of visceral adiposity. It can be used to identify women in whom GH deficiency is likely and therefore in whom formal GH stimulation testing might be indicated. PMID:19095751

  18. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of H3.3 dissociation reveals high nucleosome turnover at distal regulatory regions of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Misook; Kraushaar, Daniel C; Zhao, Keji

    2014-01-01

    The histone variant H3.3 plays a critical role in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by regulating gene expression programs important for lineage specification. H3.3 is deposited by various chaperones at regulatory sites, gene bodies, and certain heterochromatic sites such as telomeres and centromeres. Using Tet-inhibited expression of epitope-tagged H3.3 combined with ChIP-Seq we undertook genome-wide measurements of H3.3 dissociation rates across the ESC genome and examined the relationship between H3.3-nucleosome turnover and ESC-specific transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, and epigenetic marks. Our comprehensive analysis of H3.3 dissociation rates revealed distinct H3.3 dissociation dynamics at various functional chromatin domains. At transcription start sites, H3.3 dissociates rapidly with the highest rate at nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) just upstream of Pol II binding, followed by low H3.3 dissociation rates across gene bodies. H3.3 turnover at transcription start sites, gene bodies, and transcription end sites was positively correlated with transcriptional activity. H3.3 is found decorated with various histone modifications that regulate transcription and maintain chromatin integrity. We find greatly varying H3.3 dissociation rates across various histone modification domains: high dissociation rates at active histone marks and low dissociation rates at heterochromatic marks. Well- defined zones of high H3.3-nucleosome turnover were detected at binding sites of ESC-specific pluripotency factors and chromatin remodelers, suggesting an important role for H3.3 in facilitating protein binding. Among transcription factor binding sites we detected higher H3.3 turnover at distal cis-acting sites compared to proximal genic transcription factor binding sites. Our results imply that fast H3.3 dissociation is a hallmark of interactions between DNA and transcriptional regulators. Our study demonstrates that H3.3 turnover and

  20. Fragmentation pathways analysis for the gas phase dissociation of protonated carnosine-oxaliplatin complexes.

    PubMed

    Ritacco, Ida; Moustafa, Eslam M; Sicilia, Emilia; Russo, Nino; Shoeib, Tamer

    2015-03-14

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the protonated carnosine-oxaliplatin complex, [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) using several collision energies were shown to yield nine different fragment ions. Energy-resolved CID experiments on [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) showed that the generation of the product ion [Carnosine - H + Pt(dach)](+) (where dach is 1,2-diaminocyclohexane) is the lowest energy process. At slightly higher collision energies, the loss of neutral carnosine from [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) to produce [OxPt + H](+) was observed, followed by the loss of oxaliplatin from the same precursor ion to produce [Carnosine + H](+). At significantly higher energies, the ion [OxPt - CO2 + H](+) was shown to be formed, while the last two investigated ions [Carnosine + OxPt - CO2 + H](+) and [Carnosine - NH3 - H + Pt(dach)](+) did not attain any significant relative abundance. Density functional calculations at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level were employed to probe the fragmentation mechanisms that account for all experimental data. The lowest free energy barriers for the generation of each of the ions [Carnosine - H + Pt(dach)](+), [OxPt + H](+), [Carnosine + H](+), [Carnosine + OxPt - CO2 + H](+) and [Carnosine - NH3 - H + Pt(dach)](+) from [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) according to the fragmentation mechanisms offered here were calculated to be 31.9, 38.8, 49.3, 75.2, and 85.6 kcal mol(-1), respectively.

  1. Comparison of arthroscopic and open Latarjet with a learning curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, G; Benchouk, S; Kherad, O; Lädermann, A

    2016-02-01

    To compare arthroscopic and open Latarjet performed by a single shoulder surgeon with learning curve analysis A comparative and learning curve analysis was carried out on a prospectively gathered database of 2 consecutive series of patients treated with arthroscopic and open Latarjet procedures performed by a single shoulder surgeon between 2008 and 2014. The database included patient characteristics, ISIS scores, operative time, intra- and postoperative complications, graft and screws positioning, as well as pre- and postoperative Walch-Duplay scores. Sixty-four patients were included in the study, 28 in the arthroscopic group and 36 in the open group with similar age, sex ratio and preoperative ISIS score. Operative time was significantly higher in the arthroscopic group (146 versus 81 min, p = 0.001), and although no intra-operative complications were recorded in either group, there were significantly more postoperative complications in the arthroscopic group (29 vs. 11 %, p = 0.03). Screw placement was more accurate in the open group, and postoperative Walch-Duplay score did not show any significant difference between the groups (88 points in the arthroscopic group and 91 points in the open group). The arthroscopic Latarjet learning curve analysis showed that the need for conversion ceased after the first 10 patients and that surgical time came close to that of open procedure after 20 procedures. In this study, 10 arthroscopic Latarjet procedures were needed to overcome the need for conversion, and 20 procedures to achieve equal operating time to the open technique. Even though functional outcome and patient satisfaction were similar in both techniques, complications, screw placement inaccuracy, persistent apprehension and recurrences still remain higher with the arthroscopic technique. Retrospective comparative analysis, Level III.

  2. Improved protocol for rapid identification of certain spa types using high resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Benjamin; Stöger, Anna; Pietzka, Ariane T; Fernandez, Haizpea Lasa; Prewein, Bernhard; Sorschag, Sieglinde; Kunert, Renate; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens associated with health care. For efficient surveillance, control and outbreak investigation, S. aureus typing is essential. A high resolution melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated for rapid identification of the most frequent spa types found in an Austrian hospital consortium covering 2,435 beds. Among 557 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates 38 different spa types were identified by sequence analysis of the hypervariable region X of the protein A gene (spa). Identification of spa types through their characteristic high resolution melting curve profiles was considerably improved by double spiking with genomic DNA from spa type t030 and spa type t003 and allowed unambiguous and fast identification of the ten most frequent spa types t001 (58%), t003 (12%), t190 (9%), t041 (5%), t022 (2%), t032 (2%), t008 (2%), t002 (1%), t5712 (1%) and t2203 (1%), representing 93% of all isolates within this hospital consortium. The performance of the assay was evaluated by testing samples with unknown spa types from the daily routine and by testing three different high resolution melting curve analysis real-time PCR instruments. The ten most frequent spa types were identified from all samples and on all instruments with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Compared to classical spa typing by sequence analysis, this gene scanning assay is faster, cheaper and can be performed in a single closed tube assay format. Therefore it is an optimal screening tool to detect the most frequent endemic spa types and to exclude non-endemic spa types within a hospital.

  3. Improved Protocol for Rapid Identification of Certain Spa Types Using High Resolution Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayerhofer, Benjamin; Stöger, Anna; Pietzka, Ariane T.; Fernandez, Haizpea Lasa; Prewein, Bernhard; Sorschag, Sieglinde; Kunert, Renate; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens associated with health care. For efficient surveillance, control and outbreak investigation, S. aureus typing is essential. A high resolution melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated for rapid identification of the most frequent spa types found in an Austrian hospital consortium covering 2,435 beds. Among 557 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates 38 different spa types were identified by sequence analysis of the hypervariable region X of the protein A gene (spa). Identification of spa types through their characteristic high resolution melting curve profiles was considerably improved by double spiking with genomic DNA from spa type t030 and spa type t003 and allowed unambiguous and fast identification of the ten most frequent spa types t001 (58%), t003 (12%), t190 (9%), t041 (5%), t022 (2%), t032 (2%), t008 (2%), t002 (1%), t5712 (1%) and t2203 (1%), representing 93% of all isolates within this hospital consortium. The performance of the assay was evaluated by testing samples with unknown spa types from the daily routine and by testing three different high resolution melting curve analysis real-time PCR instruments. The ten most frequent spa types were identified from all samples and on all instruments with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Compared to classical spa typing by sequence analysis, this gene scanning assay is faster, cheaper and can be performed in a single closed tube assay format. Therefore it is an optimal screening tool to detect the most frequent endemic spa types and to exclude non-endemic spa types within a hospital. PMID:25768007

  4. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior.

    PubMed

    Byers, John A

    2013-08-01

    Dose-response curves of the effects of semiochemicals on neurophysiology and behavior are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology. Most curves are shown in figures representing points connected by straight lines, in which the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosage vs. responses on the y-axis. The lack of regression curves indicates that the nature of the dose-response relationship is not well understood. Thus, a computer model was developed to simulate a flux of various numbers of pheromone molecules (10(3) to 5 × 10(6)) passing by 10(4) receptors distributed among 10(6) positions along an insect antenna. Each receptor was depolarized by at least one strike by a molecule, and subsequent strikes had no additional effect. The simulations showed that with an increase in pheromone release rate, the antennal response would increase in a convex fashion and not in a logarithmic relation as suggested previously. Non-linear regression showed that a family of kinetic formation functions fit the simulated data nearly perfectly (R(2) >0.999). This is reasonable because olfactory receptors have proteins that bind to the pheromone molecule and are expected to exhibit enzyme kinetics. Over 90 dose-response relationships reported in the literature of electroantennographic and behavioral bioassays in the laboratory and field were analyzed by the logarithmic and kinetic formation functions. This analysis showed that in 95% of the cases, the kinetic functions explained the relationships better than the logarithmic (mean of about 20% better). The kinetic curves become sigmoid when graphed on a log scale on the x-axis. Dose-catch relationships in the field are similar to dose-EAR (effective attraction radius, in which a spherical radius indicates the trapping effect of a lure) and the circular EARc in two dimensions used in mass trapping models. The use of kinetic formation functions for dose-response curves of attractants, and kinetic decay curves for

  5. Design curves for non-linear analysis of simply-supported, uniformly-loaded rectangular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D.

    1979-01-01

    Design curves for the non-linear analysis of simply-supported rectangular plates subjected to uniform normal pressure loads have been developed. These curves yield the center deflection, center stress and corner stress in non-dimensionalized form plotted against a dimensionless parameter describing the load intensity. The results presented are based on extensive non-linear finite element analysis employing the ARGUS structural analysis program. Plates with length to width ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 are included. The load range considered extends to 1000 times the load at which the behavior of the plate becomes significantly non-linear. Over the load range considered, the analysis shows that the ratio of center deflection to plate thickness for a square plate is less than 16 to 1, whereas linear theory would predict a center deflection 400 times the plate thickness. Likewise, the stress is markedly lower than would be predicted by linear theory. The present results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the classical linear theory up to a central deflection to plate thickness ratio of about one-half. In the non-linear regime the present results for deflection and stress are in very good agreement with the analytical and experimental work of other investigators.

  6. Bayesian analysis of stage-fall-discharge rating curves and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansanarez, V.; Le Coz, J.; Renard, B.; Lang, M.; Pierrefeu, G.; Vauchel, P.

    2016-09-01

    Stage-fall-discharge (SFD) rating curves are traditionally used to compute streamflow records at sites where the energy slope of the flow is variable due to variable backwater effects. We introduce a model with hydraulically interpretable parameters for estimating SFD rating curves and their uncertainties. Conventional power functions for channel and section controls are used. The transition to a backwater-affected channel control is computed based on a continuity condition, solved either analytically or numerically. The practical use of the method is demonstrated with two real twin-gauge stations, the Rhône River at Valence, France, and the Guthusbekken stream at station 0003ṡ0033, Norway. Those stations are typical of a channel control and a section control, respectively, when backwater-unaffected conditions apply. The performance of the method is investigated through sensitivity analysis to prior information on controls and to observations (i.e., available gaugings) for the station of Valence. These analyses suggest that precisely identifying SFD rating curves requires adapted gauging strategy and/or informative priors. The Madeira River, one of the largest tributaries of the Amazon, provides a challenging case typical of large, flat, tropical river networks where bed roughness can also be variable in addition to slope. In this case, the difference in staff gauge reference levels must be estimated as another uncertain parameter of the SFD model. The proposed Bayesian method is a valuable alternative solution to the graphical and empirical techniques still proposed in hydrometry guidance and standards.

  7. Analysis of microstrip antennas on a curved surface using the conformal grids FD-TD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukai, Ichiro; Onishi, Teruo; Kashiwa, Tatsuya

    1994-03-01

    The need for small, potable antennas for mobile communications has recently spurred the study of microstrip antennas (MSA). MSA are quite flexible and have been used as conformal antennas on arbitrary curved surfaces. The characteristics of conformal MSA can be expected to differ from those of planar models. Dependable numerical analyses will obviate many of the costs and other inconveniences associated with experiments, but as antennas may be mounted on the surfaces of arbitrary topological complexity, analysis methods must have as general applicability as possible. The curvilinear finite difference time-domain (FD-TD) method has shown excellent versatility. In this paper, the curvilinear FD-TD method is applied to analyze microstrip antennas mounted on curved surfaces. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental values. The results confirm the predictions within acceptable limits and appear to confirm the validity of the method. As a result, it was confirmed that the input impedance and directivity of MSA on curved surfaces are different from the flat MSA.

  8. STR melting curve analysis as a genetic screening tool for crime scene samples.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang; McKinney, Jason; Johnson, Donald J; Roberts, Katherine A; Hardy, Winters R

    2012-07-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, high-resolution melt curve (HRMC) analysis was investigated as a postquantification screening tool to discriminate human CSF1PO and THO1 genotypes amplified with mini-STR primers in the presence of SYBR Green or LCGreen Plus dyes. A total of 12 CSF1PO and 11 HUMTHO1 genotypes were analyzed on the LightScanner HR96 and LS-32 systems and were correctly differentiated based upon their respective melt profiles. Short STR amplicon melt curves were affected by repeat number, and single-source and mixed DNA samples were additionally differentiated by the formation of heteroduplexes. Melting curves were shown to be unique and reproducible from DNA quantities ranging from 20 to 0.4 ng and distinguished identical from nonidentical genotypes from DNA derived from different biological fluids and compromised samples. Thus, a method is described which can assess both the quantity and the possible probative value of samples without full genotyping.

  9. Direct determination of enzyme kinetic parameters from single reactions using a new progress curve analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Bäuerle, Felix; Zotter, Agnes; Schreiber, Gideon

    2016-10-15

    With computer-based data-fitting methods becoming a standard tool in biochemistry, progress curve analysis of enzyme kinetics is a feasible, yet seldom used tool. Here we present a versatile Matlab-based tool (PCAT) to analyze catalysis progress curves with three complementary model approaches. The first two models are based on the known closed-form solution for this problem: the first describes the required Lambert W function with an analytical approximation and the second provides a numerical solution of the Lambert W function. The third model is a direct simulation of the enzyme kinetics. Depending on the chosen model, the tools excel in speed, accuracy or initial value requirements. Using simulated and experimental data, we show the strengths and pitfalls of the different fitting models. Direct simulation proves to have the highest level of accuracy, but it also requires reasonable initial values to converge. Finally, we propose a standard procedure to obtain optimized enzyme kinetic parameters from single progress curves.

  10. Pg 1115+080: New Analysis of the Light Curves Confirms Old Time Delay Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, B.; Koptelova, E.; Oknyanskij, V.; Shimanovskaya, E.

    We analyze all publicly available long-term optical observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar PG1115+080 with the aim of measuring time delays between its four components. In particular, we present analysis of the Maidanak light curves of the PG1115+080 components obtained between 2001 and 2006 (Tsvetkova et al. 2010). We find that the light curves of the 2006 observational season show almost linear trend with some fast variations seen only in the A1 and C components. This can be as due to microlensing or observational errors. These fast variations can decrease statistical significance of the time delay estimates or even produce misleading results. Application of the MCCF technique (Oknyanskij 1993) to photometric data collected in the 2004-2005 seasons gives time delay values tBC = 22±3, tAC = 12±3, and tBA = 10±3 days, which are in agreement with previous results of Schechter et al. (1997) and Barkana (1997) reported for the 1995-1996 light curves analyzed using two different statistical methods. The ratio tAC/tBA between our intermediate delays is about 1.2 that is close to the value reported by Barkana ( ∼1.13) and predicted by lens models (∼1.4) unlike the Schechter's and Vakulik's (2009) values (∼ 0.7 and ∼2.7).

  11. An elastic-plastic finite-element analysis of the J-resistance curve using a CTOD criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Booth, B. C.; Shivakumar, K. N.

    1988-01-01

    The fracture process in compact and bend specimens was simulated using a two-dimensional finite-element analysis of the J-resistance (J-R) curve and a CTOD criterion. The J-R curves were calculated from the numerical results for each specimen type using several different methods. In general, the J-R curves obtained for the bend specimens were found to be higher than those for the compact specimens, especially beyond maximum load. However, below the maximum load, the modified deformation theory of plasticity and the contour-integral J(r) method resulted in very similar J-R curves for both specimen types.

  12. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  13. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  14. Urgent and Elective Robotic Single-Site Cholecystectomy: Analysis and Learning Curve of 150 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Kubat, Eric; Hansen, Nathan; Nguyen, Huy; Wren, Sherry M; Eisenberg, Dan

    2016-03-01

    The use of robotic single-site cholecystectomy has increased exponentially. There are few reports describing the safety, efficacy, and operative learning curve of robotic single-site cholecystectomy either in the community setting or with nonelective surgery. We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of our initial experience with robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Demographics and perioperative outcomes were evaluated for both urgent and elective cholecystectomy. Cumulative sum analysis was performed to determine the surgeon's learning curve. One hundred fifty patients underwent robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Seventy-four (49.3%) patients underwent urgent robotic single-site cholecystectomy, and 76 (50.7%) underwent elective robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Mean total operative time for robotic single-site cholecystectomy was 83.3 ± 2.7 minutes. Mean operative time for the urgent cohort was significantly longer than for the elective cohort (95.0 ± 4.4 versus 71.9 ± 2.6 minutes; P < .001). There was one conversion in the urgent cohort and none in the elective cohort. There was one bile duct injury (0.7%) in the urgent cohort. Perioperative complications occurred in 8.7% of patients, and most consisted of superficial surgical-site infections. There were no incisional hernias detected. The surgeon's learning curve, inclusive of urgent and elective cases, was 48 operations. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy can be performed safely and effectively in both elective and urgent cholecystectomy with a reasonable learning curve and acceptable perioperative outcomes.

  15. Towards a new classification of galaxies: principal component analysis of CALIFA circular velocity curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, V.; Colombo, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Kannan, R.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Costantin, L.; Florido, E.; Kodaira, K.; Marino, R. A.; Läsker, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a galaxy classification system for 238 (E1-Sdm) CALIFA (Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area) galaxies based on the shapes and amplitudes of their circular velocity curves (CVCs). We infer the CVCs from the de-projected surface brightness of the galaxies, after scaling by a constant mass-to-light ratio based on stellar dynamics - solving axisymmetric Jeans equations via fitting the second velocity moment V_{rms}=√{V^2+σ ^2} of the stellar kinematics. We use principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the CVC shapes to find characteristic features and use a k-means classifier to separate circular curves into classes. This objective classification method identifies four different classes, which we name slow-rising (SR), flat (FL), round-peaked (RP) and sharp-peaked (SP) circular curves. SR are typical for low-mass, late-type (Sb-Sdm), young, faint, metal-poor and disc-dominated galaxies. SP are typical for high-mass, early-type (E1-E7), old, bright, metal-rich and bulge-dominated galaxies. FL and RP appear presented by galaxies with intermediate mass, age, luminosity, metallicity, bulge-to-disc ratio and morphologies (E4-S0a, Sa-Sbc). The discrepancy mass factor, fd = 1 - M*/Mdyn, have the largest value for SR and SP classes (∼ 74 per cent and ∼ 71 per cent, respectively) in contrast to the FL and RP classes (with ∼ 59 per cent and ∼ 61 per cent, respectively). Circular curve classification presents an alternative to typical morphological classification and appears more tightly linked to galaxy evolution.

  16. On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

    2008-01-01

    The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

  17. On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

    2008-01-01

    The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

  18. Evaluation of the formation of a junctional DNA nanostructure through annealing curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-02-20

    During the self-assembly of different numbers of oligonucleotides comprising junctional DNA nanostructures, a change in environmental variables (e.g., temperature or salt concentration) has a substantial influence on the final products. Further, distinctive annealing temperatures of oligonucleotides are observed depending on the state of hybridization. Here, we present an evaluation of the annealing characteristics of oligonucleotides for the formation of a simple junctional DNA nanostructure using an annealing curve analysis. This method may be useful for analyzing the formation of complex junctional DNA nanostructures.

  19. Improved factor analysis of dynamic PET images to estimate arterial input function and tissue curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchko, Rostyslav; Mitra, Debasis; Pan, Hui; Jagust, William; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2015-03-01

    Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is a methodology of extracting time-activity curves (TACs) for corresponding different tissue types from noisy dynamic images. The challenges of FADS include long computation time and sensitivity to the initial guess, resulting in convergence to local minima far from the true solution. We propose a method of accelerating and stabilizing FADS application to sequences of dynamic PET images by adding preliminary cluster analysis of the time activity curves for individual voxels. We treat the temporal variation of individual voxel concentrations as a set of time-series and use a partial clustering analysis to identify the types of voxel TACs that are most functionally distinct from each other. These TACs provide a good initial guess for the temporal factors for subsequent FADS processing. Applying this approach to a set of single slices of dynamic 11C-PIB images of the brain allows identification of the arterial input function and two different tissue TACs that are likely to correspond to the specific and non-specific tracer binding-tissue types. These results enable us to perform direct classification of tissues based on their pharmacokinetic properties in dynamic PET without relying on a compartment-based kinetic model, without identification of the reference region, or without using any external methods of estimating the arterial input function, as needed in some techniques.

  20. Asymptotic analysis of a newtonian fluid in a curved pipe with moving walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiñeira, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, José M.

    2016-06-01

    This communication is devoted to the presentation of our recent results regarding the asymptotic analysis of a viscous flow in a tube with elastic walls. This study can be applied, for example, to the blood flow in an artery. With this aim, we consider the dynamic problem of the incompressible flow of a viscous fluid through a curved pipe with a smooth central curve. Our analysis leads to the obtention of an one dimensional model via singular perturbation of the Navier-Stokes system as ɛ, a non dimensional parameter related to the radius of cross-section of the tube, tends to zero. We allow the radius depend on tangential direction and time, so a coupling with an elastic or viscoelastic law on the wall of the pipe is possible. To perform the asymptotic analysis, we do a change of variable to a reference domain where we assume the existence of asymptotic expansions on ɛ for both velocity and pressure which, upon substitution on Navier-Stokes equations, leads to the characterization of various terms of the expansion. This allows us to obtain an approximation of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  1. The thermodynamic dissociation constants of ambroxol, antazoline, naphazoline, oxymetazoline and ranitidine by the regression analysis of spectrophotometric data.

    PubMed

    Meloun, Milan; Syrový, Tomás; Vrána, Ales

    2004-02-27

    The mixed dissociation constants of five drug acids-ambroxol, antazoline, naphazoline, oxymetazoline and ranitidine-at various ionic strengths I of range 0.01 and 1.0 and at temperatures of 25 and 37 degrees C were determined using SQUAD(84) regression analysis of the pH-spectrophotometric titration data. A proposed strategy of efficient experimentation in a protonation constants determination, followed by a computational strategy for the chemical model with a protonation constants determination, is presented on the protonation equilibria of ambroxol. The thermodynamic dissociation constant pK(a)(T) was estimated by non-linear regression of {pK(a), I} data at 25 and 37 degrees C: for ambroxol p K (a ,1)(T )=8.05 (6) and 8.25 (4), logbeta (21)(T )=11.67 (6) and 11.83 (8), for antazoline p K (a ,1)(T )=7.79 (2) and 7.83 (6), p K (a ,2)(T )=9.74 (3) and 9.55 (2), for naphazoline pK (a ,1)(T )=10.81 (1) and 10.63 (1), for oxymethazoline pK (a ,1)(T )=10.62 (2) and 10.77 (7), pK(a,2)(T)=12.03(3) and 11.82 (4) and for ranitidine p K (a ,1)(T )=1.89 (1) and 1.77 (1). Goodness-of-fit tests for various regression diagnostics enabled the reliability of the parameter estimates to be found.

  2. Tectonic and kinematics of curved orogenic systems: insights from AMS analysis and paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, Francesca; Mattei, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    During the past few years, paleomagnetism has been considered a unique tool for constraining kinematic models of curved orogenic systems, because of its great potential in quantifying vertical axis rotations and in discriminating between primary and secondary (orocline s.l.) arcs. In fact, based on the spatio-temporal relationships between deformation and vertical axis rotation, curved orogens can be subdivided as primary or secondary (oroclines s.l.), if they formed respectively in a self-similar manner without undergoing important variations in their original curved shape or if their curvature in map-view is the result of a bending about a vertical axis of rotation. In addition to the kinematics of the arc and the timing of its curvature, a crucial factor for understanding the origin of belts curvature is the knowledge of the geodynamic process governing arc formation. In this context, the detailed reconstruction of the rotational history is mainly based on paleomagnetic and structural analyses (fold axes, kinematic indicators), which include the magnetic fabric. In fact, in curved fold and thrust belts, assuming that the magnetic lineation is tectonically originated and formed during layer-parallel shortening (LPS) before vertical axis rotations, the orientation of the magnetic lineation often strictly follows the curvature of the orogeny. This assumption represents a fundamental prerequisite to fully understand the origin of orogenic arcs and to unravel the geodynamic processes responsible for their curvature. We present two case studies: the central Mediterranean arcs and the Alborz Mts in Iran. The Mediterranean area has represented an attractive region to apply paleomagnetic analysis, as it shows a large number of narrow arcs, whose present-day shape has been driven by the space-time evolution of the Mediterranean subduction system, which define a irregular and rather diffuse plate boundary. The Alborz Mts. form a sinuous range over 1,200 km long, defining

  3. Detection and differentiation of coccidian oocysts by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Laura F; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid and reliable detection and identification of coccidian oocysts are essential for animal health and foodborne disease outbreak investigations. Traditional microscopy and morphological techniques can identify large and unique oocysts, but they are often subjective and require parasitological expertise. The objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay using melting curve analysis (MCA) to detect, differentiate, and identify DNA from coccidian species of animal health, zoonotic, and food safety concern. A universal coccidia primer cocktail was designed and employed to amplify DNA from Cryptosporidium parvum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and several species of Eimeria, Sarcocystis, and Isospora using qPCR with SYBR Green detection. MCA was performed following amplification, and melting temperatures (T(m)) were determined for each species based on multiple replicates. A standard curve was constructed from DNA of serial dilutions of T. gondii oocysts to estimate assay sensitivity. The qPCR assay consistently detected DNA from as few as 10 T. gondii oocysts. T(m) data analysis showed that C. cayetanensis, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muris, T. gondii, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria acervulina, Isospora suis, and Sarcocystis cruzi could each be identified by unique melting curves and could be differentiated based on T(m). DNA of coccidian oocysts in fecal, food, or clinical diagnostic samples could be sensitively detected, reliably differentiated, and identified using qPCR with MCA. This assay may also be used to detect other life-cycle stages of coccidia in tissues, fluids, and other matrices. MCA studies on multiple isolates of each species will further validate the assay and support its application as a routine parasitology screening tool.

  4. Conformal invariants for multiply connected surfaces: Application to landmark curve-based brain morphometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Tang, Miao; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    Landmark curves were widely adopted in neuroimaging research for surface correspondence computation and quantified morphometry analysis. However, most of the landmark based morphometry studies only focused on landmark curve shape difference. Here we propose to compute a set of conformal invariant-based shape indices, which are associated with the landmark curve induced boundary lengths in the hyperbolic parameter domain. Such shape indices may be used to identify which surfaces are conformally equivalent and further quantitatively measure surface deformation. With the surface Ricci flow method, we can conformally map a multiply connected surface to the Poincaré disk. Our algorithm provides a stable method to compute the shape index values in the 2D (Poincaré Disk) parameter domain. The proposed shape indices are succinct, intrinsic and informative. Experimental results with synthetic data and 3D MRI data demonstrate that our method is invariant under isometric transformations and able to detect brain surface abnormalities. We also applied the new shape indices to analyze brain morphometry abnormalities associated with Alzheimer' s disease (AD). We studied the baseline MRI scans of a set of healthy control and AD patients from the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 30 healthy control subjects vs. 30 AD patients). Although the lengths of the landmarks in Euclidean space, cortical surface area, and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our conformal invariant based shape indices revealed significant differences by Hotelling' s T(2) test. The novel conformal invariant shape indices may offer a new sensitive biomarker and enrich our brain imaging analysis toolset for studying diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood emotional abuse and dissociation in patients with conversion symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Islam, Serkan; Oztürk, Erdinç

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between reported childhood trauma and dissociation in patients who have a conversion symptom. Thirty-two outpatients with a conversion symptom were evaluated using Dissociative Experiences Scale, Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory, Clinician-Administered Dissociative State Scale, and Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule. A DSM-IV dissociative disorder was diagnosed in 46.9% of the patients. Conversion patients with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder more frequently than those without a dissociative disorder. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse was the only significant predictor of dissociation in regression analysis. None of the childhood trauma types predicted borderline personality disorder criteria. Borderline personality disorder, dissociation and reports of childhood emotional abuse refer to a subgroup among patients with conversion symptom. Dissociation seems to be a mediator between childhood trauma and borderline phenomena among these patients.

  6. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  7. Antigen-antibody biorecognition events as discriminated by noise analysis of force spectroscopy curves.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-08-22

    Atomic force spectroscopy is able to extract kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of biomolecular complexes provided that the registered unbinding force curves could be reliably attributed to the rupture of the specific complex interactions. To this aim, a commonly used strategy is based on the analysis of the stretching features of polymeric linkers which are suitably introduced in the biomolecule-substrate immobilization procedure. Alternatively, we present a method to select force curves corresponding to specific biorecognition events, which relies on a careful analysis of the force fluctuations of the biomolecule-functionalized cantilever tip during its approach to the partner molecules immobilized on a substrate. In the low frequency region, a characteristic 1/f (α) noise with α equal to one (flickering noise) is found to replace white noise in the cantilever fluctuation power spectrum when, and only when, a specific biorecognition process between the partners occurs. The method, which has been validated on a well-characterized antigen-antibody complex, represents a fast, yet reliable alternative to the use of linkers which may involve additional surface chemistry and reproducibility concerns.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Quasar Light Curves from Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Betsy; Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of variable quasars in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS). PS1 MDS obtained multi-epoch images of 10 fields, each 8 square degrees in size, over 4 years, starting in May 2010. The MDS fields were observed in 5 filters (gp1, rp1, ip1, zp1, and yp1) during their season of visibility, with a typical cadence per filter of 3 days. We extracted the light curves of 670 color-selected quasars in the PS1 MDS using Point Spread Function photometry from the Image Processing Pipeline data products. From the quasar sample, we selected 104 quasars whose variability was at least 2 standard deviations higher than the non-variable reference star sample. We performed a statistical analysis of the light curves of the selected quasars in the g,r,i and z bands using a maximum likelihood method to find the best-fit Damped Random Walk parameters (sigma and tau - also incorporating the Zoghbi et al. 2013 method for uneven sampling). The resulting distributions for sigma and tau were similar to those found in previous studies of quasars.

  9. An explicit solution for progress curve analysis in systems characterized by endogenous substrate production.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2012-05-01

    The Lambert W function was used to explicitly relate substrate concentration S, to time t, and the kinetic parameters V (m), K (m), and R in the modified Michaelis-Menten equation that accounts for endogenous substrate production. The applicability of this explicit formulation for kinetic parameter estimation by progress curve analysis was demonstrated using a combination of synthetic and experimental substrate depletion data. Synthetic substrate depletion data were generated using S (0) values of 1, 2, and 3 μM and V (m), K (m), and R values of 1.0 μM h(-1), 1.0 μM, and 0.1 μM h(-1), respectively, and contained 5% normally distributed error. Experimental data were obtained from two previously published studies on hydrogen depletion in four experimental systems. In all instances, experimental data were well described by the explicit solution presented in this study. Differential equation solution and iterative S estimation are eliminated with the explicit solution approach, thereby simplifying progress curve analysis in systems characterized by endogenous substrate production.

  10. Antigen-antibody biorecognition events as discriminated by noise analysis of force spectroscopy curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-08-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy is able to extract kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of biomolecular complexes provided that the registered unbinding force curves could be reliably attributed to the rupture of the specific complex interactions. To this aim, a commonly used strategy is based on the analysis of the stretching features of polymeric linkers which are suitably introduced in the biomolecule-substrate immobilization procedure. Alternatively, we present a method to select force curves corresponding to specific biorecognition events, which relies on a careful analysis of the force fluctuations of the biomolecule-functionalized cantilever tip during its approach to the partner molecules immobilized on a substrate. In the low frequency region, a characteristic 1/f α noise with α equal to one (flickering noise) is found to replace white noise in the cantilever fluctuation power spectrum when, and only when, a specific biorecognition process between the partners occurs. The method, which has been validated on a well-characterized antigen-antibody complex, represents a fast, yet reliable alternative to the use of linkers which may involve additional surface chemistry and reproducibility concerns.

  11. School-based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: a growth-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Hagewen, Kellie J

    2011-05-01

    Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent's participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of domains, and some research indicates that these relationships may be dependent on the type of activities in which adolescents participate. Building on previous research, a growth-curve analysis was utilized to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5,399; 47.8% male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The results indicated that age had a linear relationship with self-esteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of self-esteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The findings were consistent across race and sex. The results support the utility of examining the longitudinal impact of portfolio type on well-being outcomes.

  12. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  13. A Scientific Analysis of Galaxy Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taff, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    I last reported on my preliminary analysis of 350 + spiral, lenticular, irregular, polar ring, ring, and dwarf elliptical galaxies' tangential speed of revolution curves [TSRCs; and not rotation (sic) curves]. I now know that the consensus opinion in the literature--for which I can find no geometrical, numerical, statistical, nor scientific testing in 2,500 + publications--that the TSRC, vB(r), in the central bulges of these galaxies, is a linear function of the radial distance from the minor axis of symmetry r--is false. For the majority (>98%) vB(r) is rarely well represented by vB(r) = ωB r (for which the unique material model is an homogeneous, oblate, spheroid). Discovered via a scientific analysis of the gravitational potential energy computed directly from the observational data, vB(r) is almost exactly given by vB2(r) = (ωB r)2(1 + η r2) with | η | < 10-2 and frequently orders of magnitude less. The corresponding mass model is the simplest generalization: a two component homoeoid. The set of possible periodic orbits, based on circular trigonometric functions, becomes a set of periodic orbits based on the Jacobian elliptic functions. Once again it is possible to prove that the mass-to-light ratio can neither be a constant nor follow the de Vaucouleurs R1/4 rule.

  14. The learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy: an analysis of over 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Keishiro; Miyajima, Akira; Hattori, Seiya; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Abe, Takayuki; Kurihara, Isao; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy (LESS-A) has been developed as an alternative treatment for adrenal tumors. Although LESS-A is more technically complex than conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy, its learning curve and the factors associated with poor surgical outcomes are poorly understood. We analyzed the learning curve of LESS-A and attempted to identify risk factors associated with worse surgical outcomes. We identified 103 patients who underwent LESS-A [performed by the same surgeon (A.M.)] from 2009 to 2015. The learning curve was analyzed using the moving average method (the 10-case moving average), and we assessed potential risk factors for a prolonged pneumoperitoneum time. The learning curve stabilized at 30 cases. The cases were divided into two groups, the learning stage (LS) (cases 1-29) and master stage (MS) (cases 30-103) groups. The percentage of females and the frequency of previous abdominal surgery were higher in the LS group (p = 0.022 and 0.001, respectively). In the LS group, the mean pneumoperitoneum time was 92 ± 35 min, which was significantly longer than the equivalent value for the MS group (55 ± 18 min, p < 0.001). In the LS group, univariate analysis revealed that tumor size (≥50 mm) and the visceral fat area (VFA)/total fat area (TFA) ratio (≥0.49) were significantly associated with a prolonged pneumoperitoneum time (p = 0.046 and 0.046, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, tumor size and the VFA/TFA ratio were confirmed to be associated with a prolonged pneumoperitoneum time (p = 0.029 and 0.029, odds ratio 20.83 and 20.83, respectively). On the other hand, none of the examined factors were found to be associated with a prolonged pneumoperitoneum time in the MS group. LESS-A was performed safely in most cases. However, surgeons who are learning the LESS-A procedure need to pay attention to tumor size and visceral obesity.

  15. A Statistical Theory for Shape Analysis of Curves and Surfaces with Applications in Image Analysis, Biometrics, Bioinformatics and Medical Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-10

    investigated. For further details, please refer to the article [14]. 5 2. Shape Analysis of Elastic Curves in Euclidean Spaces: This work introduces...predicting shapes from novel poses. For further details, please refer to the conference articles [3, 4] and the journal article [18]. 3. Path...this framework in shapebased object recognition or classification. For further details, please refer to the article [5]. Figure 2: Two examples of

  16. Dissociation and serenity induction.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Lori A; Sacks, Matthew B; Foa, Edna B

    2007-09-01

    Dissociation is a common experience during or immediately after a traumatic event; yet, most of the current knowledge regarding dissociation is retrospective in nature. The aim of the present study investigated a non-pharmacological method of dissociative induction with a clinical sample. Participants with PTSD and non-trauma exposed participants were randomly assigned to receive either a dissociative induction, or a serenity induction, based on modified Velten mood induction procedures. Participants receiving the dissociative induction reported higher state-dissociation than those receiving the serenity induction. The PTSD group reported greater state dissociation than the non-trauma exposed group, regardless of induction. State dissociation was related to trait dissociation, PTSD severity, and depression. The present results provide an initial demonstration of the viability for inducing state dissociation in the laboratory with a PTSD sample.

  17. Incorporating Measurement Non-Equivalence in a Cross-Study Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flora, David B.; Curran, Patrick J.; Hussong, Andrea M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    A large literature emphasizes the importance of testing for measurement equivalence in scales that may be used as observed variables in structural equation modeling applications. When the same construct is measured across more than one developmental period, as in a longitudinal study, it can be especially critical to establish measurement equivalence, or invariance, across the developmental periods. Similarly, when data from more than one study are combined into a single analysis, it is again important to assess measurement equivalence across the data sources. Yet, how to incorporate non-equivalence when it is discovered is not well described for applied researchers. Here, we present an item response theory approach that can be used to create scale scores from measures while explicitly accounting for non-equivalence. We demonstrate these methods in the context of a latent curve analysis in which data from two separate studies are combined to create a single longitudinal model spanning several developmental periods. PMID:19890440

  18. Z curve theory-based analysis of the dynamic nature of nucleosome positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueting; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hongbo; Su, Jianzhong; Lv, Jie; Cui, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Nucleosome is the elementary structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin. Instability of nucleosome positioning plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling in differentiation and disease. In this study, we investigated nucleosome dynamics in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using a geometric model based on Z curve theory. We identified 52,941 stable nucleosomes and 7607 dynamic nucleosomes, compiling them into a genome-wide nucleosome dynamic positioning map and constructing a user-friendly visualization platform (http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/nucleosome). Our approach achieved a sensitivity of 90.31% and a specificity of 87.76% for S. cerevisiae. Analysis revealed transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) were enriched in linkers. And among the sparse nucleosomes around TFBSs, dynamic nucleosomes were slightly preferred. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that stable and dynamic nucleosomes were enriched on genes involved in different biological processes and functions. This study provides an approach for comprehending chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of genes.

  19. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids.

  20. Buckling analysis of curved composite sandwich panels subjected to inplane loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.

    1993-01-01

    Composite sandwich structures are being considered for primary structure in aircraft such as subsonic and high speed civil transports. The response of sandwich structures must be understood and predictable to use such structures effectively. Buckling is one of the most important response mechanisms of sandwich structures. A simple buckling analysis is derived for sandwich structures. This analysis is limited to flat, rectangular sandwich panels loaded by uniaxial compression (N(sub x)) and having simply supported edges. In most aerospace applications, however, the structure's geometry, boundary conditions, and loading are usually very complex. Thus, a general capability for analyzing the buckling behavior of sandwich structures is needed. The present paper describes and evaluates an improved buckling analysis for cylindrically curved composite sandwich panels. This analysis includes orthotropic facesheets and first-order transverse shearing effects. Both simple support and clamped boundary conditions are also included in the analysis. The panels can be subjected to linearly varying normal loads N(sub x) and N(sub y) in addition to a constant shear load N(sub xy). The analysis is based on the modified Donnell's equations for shallow shells. The governing equations are solved by direct application of Galerkin's method. The accuracy of the present analysis is verified by comparing results with those obtained from finite element analysis for a variety of geometries, loads, and boundary conditions. The limitations of the present analysis are investigated, in particular those related to the shallow shell assumptions in the governing equations. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present analysis is considered.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB X-ray afterglows light curves analysis (Racusin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Kocevski, D.

    2016-09-01

    All GRBs discovered with Swift-BAT, with X-ray afterglows detected by Swift-XRT and measured redshifts, between 2004 December and 2014 March are included in the analysis. We include only those X-ray afterglows with at least three light-curve bins (>~60 counts) and T90 measurements are available in the BAT catalogs (Sakamoto+ 2008, J/ApJS/175/179; 2011, J/ApJS/195/2 and Lien+ 2016, arXiv:1606.01956). The final sample includes 237 long-duration GRBs (9 short), 47 of which also appear in the Oates et al. (2012MNRAS.426L..86O; 2015MNRAS.453.4121O) sample for the UVOT correlation (sample only extends through 2010). The redshift measurements come from a convolution of databases and the literature and are listed in Table 1. All light curves were retrieved from the University of Leicester Swift XRT Team GRB repository (Evans et al. 2007A&A...469..379E; 2009, J/MNRAS/397/1177). See section 2.2 for further explanations. (2 data files).

  2. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  3. Determination of secondary flow morphologies by wavelet analysis in a curved artery model with physiological inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Hussain, Shadman; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Secondary flow vortical patterns in arterial curvatures have the potential to affect several cardiovascular phenomena, e.g., progression of atherosclerosis by altering wall shear stresses, carotid atheromatous disease, thoracic aortic aneurysms and Marfan's syndrome. Temporal characteristics of secondary flow structures vis-à-vis physiological (pulsatile) inflow waveform were explored by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of phase-locked, two-component, two-dimensional particle image velocimeter data. Measurements were made in a 180° curved artery test section upstream of the curvature and at the 90° cross-sectional plane. Streamwise, upstream flow rate measurements were analyzed using a one-dimensional antisymmetric wavelet. Cross-stream measurements at the 90° location of the curved artery revealed interesting multi-scale, multi-strength coherent secondary flow structures. An automated process for coherent structure detection and vortical feature quantification was applied to large ensembles of PIV data. Metrics such as the number of secondary flow structures, their sizes and strengths were generated at every discrete time instance of the physiological inflow waveform. An autonomous data post-processing method incorporating two-dimensional CWT for coherent structure detection was implemented. Loss of coherence in secondary flow structures during the systolic deceleration phase is observed in accordance with previous research. The algorithmic approach presented herein further elucidated the sensitivity and dependence of morphological changes in secondary flow structures on quasiperiodicity and magnitude of temporal gradients in physiological inflow conditions.

  4. Analysis of complete fold shape based on quadratic Bézier curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun; Zhang, Yikun; Wang, Yuan

    2009-06-01

    Six segments of quadratic Bézier curve are joined together according to some geometrical rules to approximate fold shape. In a classification of folds based on this method, an ideal fold shape is determined by two parameters. The first one, u c, termed the axial lift-up ratio of the central part, generates the folds within a broad spectrum of forms ranging from box folds to chevron folds. The other one, γ, is the interlimb angle. In the quantitative description of complete folds with multiple layers, three new parameters, θ, T and E are used to describe the deflection angle of the axial plane, the thickness increment of hinge zone and the limb elongation, respectively. Based on the modeling method, the program "Bézier Fold Profiler" has been developed, with which most types of folds can be simulated by varying thirteen parameters. Two description methods, complete fold description and individual layer description, can be used for the quantitative analysis of folds. The description methods are carried out by the visual matching of the fold profile displayed on-screen from an imported digital image. The layer curves of the model are displayed on the fold image. This method has the advantage of speed and simplicity.

  5. Estimating site index of ponderosa pine in Northern California...standard curves, soil series, stem analysis

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    1972-01-01

    Four sets of standard site index curves based on statewide or regionwide averages were compared with data on natural growth from nine young stands of ponderosa pine in northern California. The curves tested were by Meyer; Dunning; Dunning and Reineke; and Arvanitis, Lindquist, and Palley. The effects of soils on height growth were also studied. Among the curves tested...

  6. Testing and analysis of curved frame specimens made from a Long Discontinuous Fiber (LDF) material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1993-01-01

    A long discontinuous fiber (LDF) material may be useful for constructing composite parts with complex curvature. Graphite-thermoplastic LDF curved frame specimens were studied to investigate the behavior of curved frame structures made from this material form. Experimental results for three curved frame specimens loaded in a four-point-bending configuration and finite-element predictions of strains and displacements are presented.

  7. Genetic analysis of growth curves for a woody perennial species, Pinus taeda L.

    Treesearch

    D.P. Gwaze; F.E. Bridgwater; C.G. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Inheritance of growth curves is critical for understanding evolutionary change and formulating efficient breeding plans, yet has received limited attention. Growth curves, like other characters that change in concert with development, often have higher heritability than age-specific traits. This study compared genetic parameters of height-growth curves with those of...

  8. Finite element analysis of the effect of loading curve shape on brain injury predictors.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Hoshizaki, Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2012-02-23

    Prediction of traumatic and mild traumatic brain injury is an important factor in managing their prevention. Currently, the prediction of these injuries is limited to peak linear and angular acceleration loading curves derived from laboratory reconstructions. However it remains unclear as to what aspect of these loading curves contributes to brain tissue damage. This research uses the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model (UCDBTM) to analyse three distinct loading curve shapes meant to represent different helmet loading scenarios. The loading curves were applied independently in each axis of linear and angular acceleration and their effect on currently used predictors of TBI and mTBI was examined. Loading curve shape A had a late time to peak, B an early time to peak and C had a consistent plateau. The areas under the curve for all three loading curve shapes were identical. The results indicate that loading curve A produced consistently higher maximum principal strains and Von Mises stress than the other two loading curve types. Loading curve C consistently produced the lowest values of maximum principal strain and Von Mises stress, with loading curve B being lowest in only 2 cases. The areas of peak Von Mises stress and Principal strain also varied depending on loading curve shape and acceleration input.

  9. Differentiation of five enterohepatic Helicobacter species by nested PCR with high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miaoli; Rao, Dan; Zhu, Yujun; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ren; Guo, Pengju

    2017-04-01

    Enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) are widespread in rodent species around the world. Several studies have demonstrated that infection with EHS can interfere with the outcomes of animal experiments in cancer research and significantly influence the study results. Therefore, it is essential to establish a rapid detection and identification of EHS for biomedical research using laboratory rodents. Our study aimed to develop a rapid and sensitive method to detect and distinguish five enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Nested PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) was developed for identification of H. bilis, H. rodentium, H. muridarum, H. typhlonius, as well as H. hepaticus. To validate the accuracy of nested PCR-HRM analysis, quantitative real-time PCR methods for five different enterohepatic Helicobacter species were developed. A total of 50 cecal samples were tested using both nested PCR-HRM analysis and qPCR method. The nested PCR-HRM method could distinguish five enterohepatic Helicobacter species by different melting temperatures. The melting curve were characterized by peaks of 78.7 ± 0.12°C for H. rodentium, 80.51 ± 0.09°C for H. bilis, 81.6 ± 0.1°C for H. typhlonius, 82.11 ± 0.18°C for H. muridarum, and 82.95 ± 0.09°C for H. hepaticus. The nested PCR-HRM assay is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective assay. This assay could be a useful tool for molecular epidemiology study of enterohepatic Helicobacter infection and an attractive alternative for genotyping of enterohepatic Helicobacter species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Methylation-Sensitive Melt Curve Analysis of the Reprimo Gene Methylation in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Junzhong; Luo, Qianping; Ke, Huican; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Reprimo (RPRM) is a p53-induced tumor suppressor gene. Its aberrant DNA methylation is correlated with carcinogenesis and may be used as a surrogate marker for the early detection of gastric cancer. However, the detail information regarding its DNA methylation has not been revealed. Here, we investigated the RPRM gene methylation in gastric cancer tumor and plasma samples by methylation-sensitive melt curve analysis (MS-MCA) and bisulfite sequencing in depth. We developed a semi-quantitative method based on MS-MCA for detecting DNA methylation and unraveled the RPRM gene methylation pattern in gastric cancer. This study provides a solid foundation for the future application of detecting RPRM gene methylation in human plasma or serum samples to help diagnose gastric cancer or for prognosis evaluation. PMID:27992600

  11. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  12. Magnetostatic interaction in soft magnetic bilayer ribbons unambiguously identified by first-order reversal curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, M.; Martínez-García, J. C.; Škorvánek, I.; Marcin, J.; Švec, P.; Gorria, P.

    2015-09-01

    Monolithic amorphous Fe73.5Nb3Si13.5B9Cu1/Fe74.5Nb3Si13.5B9 bilayer ribbons were obtained by double-nozzle melt-spinning and subsequently annealed to produce a composite with a tailored nano/micro-crystalline structure. The overall magnetic behavior is characterized by butterfly-shaped high field hysteresis loops and positively biased low field ones. The main questions we wish to address here are whether the global magnetic behavior of the bilayer can be separated into the individual contributions of each layer and the magneto-coupling between them can be well understood. For that purpose, we performed first-order reversal curve analysis, which enabled us to distinctly identify two phases, of ultra-soft and semi-soft magnetic natures, whose mutual predominant interaction is the magnetostatic coupling.

  13. Recurrence plot analysis of nonstationary data: The understanding of curved patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, A.; Kantz, H.; Tiezzi, E.

    2005-08-01

    Recurrence plots of the calls of the Nomascus concolor (Western black crested gibbon) and Hylobates lar (White-handed gibbon) show characteristic circular, curved, and hyperbolic patterns superimposed to the main temporal scale of the signal. It is shown that these patterns are related to particular nonstationarities in the signal. Some of them can be reproduced by artificial signals like frequency modulated sinusoids and sinusoids with time divergent frequency. These modulations are too faint to be resolved by conventional time-frequency analysis with similar precision. Therefore, recurrence plots act as a magnifying glass for the detection of multiple temporal scales in slightly modulated signals. The detected phenomena in these acoustic signals can be explained in the biomechanical context by taking in account the role of the muscles controlling the vocal folds.

  14. Multivariate Curve Resolution Applied to Hyperspectral Imaging Analysis of Chocolate Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; de Juan, Anna; Tauler, Romà

    2015-08-01

    This paper shows the application of Raman and infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to the analysis of the constituents of commercial chocolate samples. The combination of different spectral data pretreatment methods allowed decreasing the high fluorescent Raman signal contribution of whey in the investigated chocolate samples. Using equality constraints during MCR analysis, estimations of the pure spectra of the chocolate sample constituents were improved, as well as their relative contributions and their spatial distribution on the analyzed samples. In addition, unknown constituents could be also resolved. White chocolate constituents resolved from Raman hyperspectral image indicate that, at macro scale, sucrose, lactose, fat, and whey constituents were intermixed in particles. Infrared hyperspectral imaging did not suffer from fluorescence and could be applied for white and milk chocolate. As a conclusion of this study, micro-hyperspectral imaging coupled to the MCR method is confirmed to be an appropriate tool for the direct analysis of the constituents of chocolate samples, and by extension, it is proposed for the analysis of other mixture constituents in commercial food samples.

  15. Multivariate curve resolution for hyperspectral image analysis :applications to microarray technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Sinclair, Michael B.; Haaland, David Michael; Martinez, M. Juanita (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Anthony D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) using constrained alternating least squares algorithms represents a powerful analysis capability for a quantitative analysis of hyperspectral image data. We will demonstrate the application of MCR using data from a new hyperspectral fluorescence imaging microarray scanner for monitoring gene expression in cells from thousands of genes on the array. The new scanner collects the entire fluorescence spectrum from each pixel of the scanned microarray. Application of MCR with nonnegativity and equality constraints reveals several sources of undesired fluorescence that emit in the same wavelength range as the reporter fluorphores. MCR analysis of the hyperspectral images confirms that one of the sources of fluorescence is due to contaminant fluorescence under the printed DNA spots that is spot localized. Thus, traditional background subtraction methods used with data collected from the current commercial microarray scanners will lead to errors in determining the relative expression of low-expressed genes. With the new scanner and MCR analysis, we generate relative concentration maps of the background, impurity, and fluorescent labels over the entire image. Since the concentration maps of the fluorescent labels are relatively unaffected by the presence of background and impurity emissions, the accuracy and useful dynamic range of the gene expression data are both greatly improved over those obtained by commercial microarray scanners.

  16. Light curve analysis of GSC 2750-0054 and GSC 03208-02644

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhateeb, M. M.; Nouh, M. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first photometric analysis for the newly discovered eclipsing binary systems of Algole-type GSC 2750-0054 and GSC 03208-02644. Our analysis was carried out by means of the most recent version of Wilson Devinney (WD) code, which applies the model atmosphere by (Kurucz, R., 1993. In: Milon, E. (Ed.), Light Curve Modeling of Eclipsing Binary Stars. Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 93) with a prescription in passband for the radiative treatment. The accepted light curve solutions reveal absolute physical parameters and the spectral classifications for the components are adopted. We derived the spectral types of the system GSC 2750-0054 as K3 and K7. The physical parameters of the system are M1 = 0.72 ± 0.03 M⊙, M2 = 0.47 ± 0.02 M⊙, R1 = 0.81 ± 0.03 R⊙, R2 = 0.62 ± 0.03 R⊙, L1 = 0.27 ± 0.01 L⊙ and L2 = 0.1 ± 0.004 L⊙. For the system, GSC 03208 02644 the spectral types of the components are A5 and A8. The physical parameters are M1 = 1.86 ± 0.076 M⊙, M2 = 1.21 ± 0.049 M⊙, R1 = 1.84 ± 0.075 R⊙, R2 = 1.75 ± 0.072 R⊙, L1 = 13.58 ± 0.55 L⊙ and L2 = 9.94 ± 0.41 L⊙. Comparison with the evolutionary models as well as the empirical databases is presented.

  17. Classification of Fowl Adenovirus Serotypes by Use of High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis of the Hexon Gene Region▿

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Penelope A.; Kirkpatrick, Naomi C.; O'Rourke, Denise; Noormohammadi, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) serotypes is of importance in epidemiological studies of disease outbreaks and the adoption of vaccination strategies. In this study, real-time PCR and subsequent high-resolution melting (HRM)-curve analysis of three regions of the hexon gene were developed and assessed for their potential in differentiating 12 FAdV reference serotypes. The results were compared to previously described PCR and restriction enzyme analyses of the hexon gene. Both HRM-curve analysis of a 191-bp region of the hexon gene and restriction enzyme analysis failed to distinguish a number of serotypes used in this study. In addition, PCR of the region spanning nucleotides (nt) 144 to 1040 failed to amplify FAdV-5 in sufficient quantities for further analysis. However, HRM-curve analysis of the region spanning nt 301 to 890 proved a sensitive and specific method of differentiating all 12 serotypes. All melt curves were highly reproducible, and replicates of each serotype were correctly genotyped with a mean confidence value of more than 99% using normalized HRM curves. Sequencing analysis revealed that each profile was related to a unique sequence, with some sequences sharing greater than 94% identity. Melting-curve profiles were found to be related mainly to GC composition and distribution throughout the amplicons, regardless of sequence identity. The results presented in this study show that the closed-tube method of PCR and HRM-curve analysis provides an accurate, rapid, and robust genotyping technique for the identification of FAdV serotypes and can be used as a model for developing genotyping techniques for other pathogens. PMID:19036935

  18. Learning curve and case selection in laparoscopic colorectal surgery: systematic review and international multicenter analysis of 4852 cases.

    PubMed

    Miskovic, Danilo; Ni, Melody; Wyles, Susannah M; Tekkis, Paris; Hanna, George B

    2012-12-01

    The learning curve for laparoscopic colorectal surgery has not been conclusively analyzed. No reliable framework for case selection during training is available. The aim of this study was to analyze the length of the learning curve of laparoscopic colorectal surgeons and to recommend a case selection framework at the early stage of independent practice. Medline (1988-2010, October week 4) and Embase (1988-2010) were used for the literature review, databases were retrieved from the authors, and expert opinion was surveyed. Studies describing the learning curve of laparoscopic or laparoscopically assisted colorectal surgery were selected. No interventions were performed. Learning curves were analyzed by using risk-adjusted, bootstrapped cumulative sum curves. Conversions and complications were independent variables in a multilevel random-effects regression model. Recommendations are based on analysis of ORs and a structured expert opinion gauging process. Twenty-three studies were identified, showing great disparity on the length of the learning curve. Seven studies, representing 4852 cases (19 surgeons), were analyzed. Risk-adjusted cumulative sum charts demonstrated the length of the learning curves to be 152 cases for conversions, 143 for complications, 96 for operating time, 87 for blood loss, and 103 for length of stay. Body mass index and pelvic dissection (rectum), especially in male patients, independently increased the risk of complication and conversion. The expert survey revealed that increasing T stage and complicated inflammatory disease are likely to increase the complexity of the case. Based on this evidence, a framework for case selection in training was proposed. The generalizability of the study results maybe reduced because of inconsistent data quality and individual variations in the length of the learning curve This multicenter database suggests a length of the learning curve of 88 to 152 cases. The use of the suggested framework may prevent high

  19. DISSOCIATION REDUCTION IN BODY THERAPY DURING SEXUAL ABUSE RECOVERY

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine dissociation in body therapy for women receiving psychotherapy for childhood sexual abuse. An initial intervention study provided an opportunity to examine dissociation; the sample of 24 women received eight, one-hour body therapy sessions. The Dissociative Experiences Scale served as the predictor variable, and the outcome measures reflected psychological and physical health, and body connection. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine dissociation reduction across time. Pearson correlations were used to describe associations between the relative change in dissociation and outcomes. The results demonstrated that the greatest change was the reduction of dissociation; there was an incremental effect across time and a strong association between change in dissociation and health outcomes. High dissociation at baseline (moderate levels) predicted positive outcomes. The results demonstrated the importance of moderate dissociation as an indicator of distress, and the central role of dissociation reduction in health and healing. PMID:17400147

  20. Using state-trace analysis to dissociate the functions of the human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Fell, Juergen; Dunn, John C; Axmacher, Nikolai; Henson, Richard N

    2013-02-19

    A recurring issue in neuroscience concerns evidence as to whether two or more brain regions implement qualitatively different functions. Here we introduce the application of state-trace analysis to measures of neural activity, illustrating how this analysis can furnish compelling evidence for qualitatively different functions, even when the precise "neurometric" mapping between function and brain measure is unknown. In doing so, we address a long-standing debate about the brain systems supporting human memory: whether the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex, two key components of the medial temporal lobe memory system, provide qualitatively different contributions to recognition memory. An alternative account has been that both regions support a single shared function, such as memory strength, with the apparent dissociations obtained by previous neuroimaging studies merely reflecting different, nonlinear neurometric mappings across regions. To adjudicate between these scenarios, we analyze intracranial electroencephalographic data obtained directly from human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex during a recognition paradigm and apply state-trace analysis to responses evoked by the retrieval cue as a function of different types of memory judgment. Assuming only that the neurometric mapping in each region is monotonic, any unidimensional theory (such as the memory-strength account) will produce a monotonic state trace. Critically, results showed a nonmonotonic state trace; that is, activity levels in the two regions did not show the same relative ordering across memory conditions. This nonmonotonic state trace demonstrates that there are at least two different functions implemented across the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, allowing formal rejection of a single-process account of medial temporal lobe contributions to recognition memory.

  1. Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Curves with a Novel Sigmoid-Asymmetric Fitting Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jang, Daeho; Chae, Geunhyoung; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study introduces a novel curve-fitting algorithm for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curves using a self-constructed, wedge-shaped beam type angular interrogation SPR spectroscopy technique. Previous fitting approaches such as asymmetric and polynomial equations are still unsatisfactory for analyzing full SPR curves and their use is limited to determining the resonance angle. In the present study, we developed a sigmoid-asymmetric equation that provides excellent curve-fitting for the whole SPR curve over a range of incident angles, including regions of the critical angle and resonance angle. Regardless of the bulk fluid type (i.e., water and air), the present sigmoid-asymmetric fitting exhibited nearly perfect matching with a full SPR curve, whereas the asymmetric and polynomial curve fitting methods did not. Because the present curve-fitting sigmoid-asymmetric equation can determine the critical angle as well as the resonance angle, the undesired effect caused by the bulk fluid refractive index was excluded by subtracting the critical angle from the resonance angle in real time. In conclusion, the proposed sigmoid-asymmetric curve-fitting algorithm for SPR curves is widely applicable to various SPR measurements, while excluding the effect of bulk fluids on the sensing layer.

  2. Kepler light-curve analysis of the blazar W2R 1926+42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Bachev, Rumen; Strigachev, Anton

    2016-02-01

    We study the long term Kepler light curve of the blazar W2R 1926+42 (˜1.6 yr) which indicates a variety of variability properties during different intervals of observation. The normalized excess variance, Fvar ranges from 1.8 per cent in the quiescent phase and 43.3 per cent in the outburst phase. We find no significant deviation from linearity in the Fvar-flux relation. Time series analysis is conducted using the Fourier power spectrum and the wavelet analysis methods to study the power spectral density (PSD) shape, infer characteristic time-scales and statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). A bending power law with an associated time-scale of T_B = 6.2^{+6.4}_{-3.1} hours is inferred in the PSD analysis. We obtain a black hole mass of M• = (1.5-5.9) × 107 M⊙ for the first time using Fvar and the bend time-scale for this source. From a mean outburst lifetime of days, we infer a distance from the jet base r ≤ 1.75 pc indicating that the outburst originates due to a shock. A possible QPO peaked at 9.1 d and lasting 3.4 cycles is inferred from the wavelet analysis. Assuming that the QPO is a true feature, r = (152-378)GM•/c2 and supported by the other timing analysis products such as a weighted mean PSD slope of -1.5 ± 0.2 from the PSD analysis, we argue that the observed variability and the weak and short duration QPO could be due to jet based processes including orbital features in a relativistic helical jet and others such as shocks and turbulence.

  3. The multidimensional inventory of dissociation (MID): A comprehensive measure of pathological dissociation.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). The MID is a 218-item, self-administered, multiscale instrument that comprehensively assesses the phenomenological domain of pathological dissociation and diagnoses the dissociative disorders. The MID measures 14 major facets of pathological dissociation; it has 23 dissociation diagnostic scales that simultaneously operationalize (1) the subjective/ phenomenological domain of pathological dissociation and (2) the hypothesized dissociative symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (Dell, 2001a). The MID was designed for clinical research and for diagnostic assessment of patients who present with a mixture of dissociative, posttraumatic, and borderline symptoms. The MID demonstrated internal reliability, temporal stability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity. The MID also exhibited incremental validity over the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) by predicting an additional 18% of the variance in weighted abuse scores on the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire (TEQ). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) did not support a one-factor model of the MID's clinical scales (i.e., the 14 facets and the 23 diagnostic symptoms). In contrast, however, CFA of the MID's factor scales (Dell & Lawson, 2005) has strongly supported a one-factor model. It was concluded that both the MID's 168 dissociation items and the construct of pathological dissociation have a second-order, unifactorial structure.

  4. Evaluation of drug-polymer solubility curves through formal statistical analysis: comparison of preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Per; Löbmann, Korbinian; Holm, René; Langguth, Peter; Rades, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the preparation technique (ball milling, spray drying, and film casting) of a supersaturated amorphous dispersion on the quality of solubility determinations of indomethacin in polyvinylpyrrolidone was investigated by means of statistical analysis. After annealing of the amorphous dispersions above the crystallization temperature for 2 h, the solubility curve was derived from the glass transition temperature of the demixed material using the Gordon-Taylor relationship and fitting with the Flory-Huggins model. The study showed that the predicted solubility from the ball-milled mixtures was not consistent with those from spray drying and film casting, indicating fundamental differences between the preparation techniques. Through formal statistical analysis, the best combination of fit to the Flory-Huggins model and reproducibility of the measurements was analyzed. Ball milling provided the best reproducibility of the three preparation techniques; however, an analysis of residuals revealed a systematic error. In contrast, film casting demonstrated a good fit to the model but poor reproducibility of the measurements. Therefore, this study recommends that techniques such as spray drying or potentially film casting (if experimental reproducibility can be improved) should be used to prepare the amorphous dispersions when performing solubility measurements of this kind.

  5. Application of decline curve analysis to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jahediesfanjani, Hossein

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn the decline curve analysis (DCA) method of estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, the analyst uses historical production data from a well, lease, group of wells (or pattern), or reservoir and plots production rates against time or cumu­lative production for the analysis. The DCA of an individual well is founded on the same basis as the fluid-flow principles that are used for pressure-transient analysis of a single well in a reservoir domain and therefore can provide scientifically reasonable and accurate results. However, when used for a group of wells, a lease, or a reservoir, the DCA becomes more of an empirical method. Plots from the DCA reflect the reservoir response to the oil withdrawal (or production) under the prevailing operating and reservoir conditions, and they continue to be good tools for estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes and future production rates. For predicting the total recov­erable hydrocarbon volume, the DCA results can help the analyst to evaluate the reservoir performance under any of the three phases of reservoir productive life—primary, secondary (waterflood), or tertiary (enhanced oil recovery) phases—so long as the historical production data are sufficient to establish decline trends at the end of the three phases.

  6. Biological analysis of Jeffrey nanofluid in a curved channel with heat dissipation.

    PubMed

    Maraj, E N; Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a curved channel. The governing equations of Jeffrey nanofluid model for curved channel are derived including the effects of curvature. The highly nonlinear partial differential equations are simplified by using the long wave length and low Reynolds number assumptions. The reduced nonlinear partial differential equations are solved analytically with the help of homotopy perturbation method. The expression for pressure rise is computed through numerical integration. The physical features of pertinent parameters have been discussed by plotting the graphs of pressure rise, velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction and stream functions. It is observed that the curve-ness of the channel decreases the pressure rise in the peristaltic pumping region. Moreover, curve-ness of the channel effects the fluid flow by decreasing the fluid velocity near inner wall and increasing the velocity near the outer wall of the channel.

  7. Dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Yu; Lu, Tsai-Lien; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chang, Yung-Yung; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2010-07-01

    The dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH was determined by analyzing the observed near dissociation rovibrational levels. These levels were reached by stimulated emission pumping and fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. A total of 114 rovibrational levels in the ranges 9≤v″≤21 and 1≤J″≤14 were assigned to the X Σ1+ state of NaH. The highest vibrational level observed was only about 40 cm-1 from the dissociation limit in the ground state. One quasibound state, above the dissociation limit and confined by the centrifugal barrier, was observed. Determining the vibrational quantum number at dissociation vD from the highest four vibrational levels yielded the dissociation energy De=15 815±5 cm-1. Based on new observations and available data, a set of Dunham coefficients and the rotationless Rydberg-Klein-Rees curve were constructed. The effective potential curve and the quasibound states were discussed.

  8. Dissociation between recognition and detection advantage for facial expressions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Calvo, Manuel G

    2015-04-01

    Happy facial expressions are recognized faster and more accurately than other expressions in categorization tasks, whereas detection in visual search tasks is widely believed to be faster for angry than happy faces. We used meta-analytic techniques for resolving this categorization versus detection advantage discrepancy for positive versus negative facial expressions. Effect sizes were computed on the basis of the r statistic for a total of 34 recognition studies with 3,561 participants and 37 visual search studies with 2,455 participants, yielding a total of 41 effect sizes for recognition accuracy, 25 for recognition speed, and 125 for visual search speed. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate effect sizes at population level. For recognition tasks, an advantage in recognition accuracy and speed for happy expressions was found for all stimulus types. In contrast, for visual search tasks, moderator analysis revealed that a happy face detection advantage was restricted to photographic faces, whereas a clear angry face advantage was found for schematic and "smiley" faces. Robust detection advantage for nonhappy faces was observed even when stimulus emotionality was distorted by inversion or rearrangement of the facial features, suggesting that visual features primarily drive the search. We conclude that the recognition advantage for happy faces is a genuine phenomenon related to processing of facial expression category and affective valence. In contrast, detection advantages toward either happy (photographic stimuli) or nonhappy (schematic) faces is contingent on visual stimulus features rather than facial expression, and may not involve categorical or affective processing.

  9. Fully non-parametric receiver operating characteristic curve estimation for random-effects meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Meta-analyses, broadly defined as the quantitative review and synthesis of the results of related but independent comparable studies, allow to know the state of the art of one considered topic. Since the amount of available bibliography has enhanced in almost all fields and, specifically, in biomedical research, its popularity has drastically increased during the last decades. In particular, different methodologies have been developed in order to perform meta-analytic studies of diagnostic tests for both fixed- and random-effects models. From a parametric point of view, these techniques often compute a bivariate estimation for the sensitivity and the specificity by using only one threshold per included study. Frequently, an overall receiver operating characteristic curve based on a bivariate normal distribution is also provided. In this work, the author deals with the problem of estimating an overall receiver operating characteristic curve from a fully non-parametric approach when the data come from a meta-analysis study i.e. only certain information about the diagnostic capacity is available. Both fixed- and random-effects models are considered. In addition, the proposed methodology lets to use the information of all cut-off points available (not only one of them) in the selected original studies. The performance of the method is explored through Monte Carlo simulations. The observed results suggest that the proposed estimator is better than the reference one when the reported information is related to a threshold based on the Youden index and when information for two or more points are provided. Real data illustrations are included.

  10. Quantitative analysis of a spinal surgeon's learning curve for scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Ryu, K J; Suh, S W; Kim, H W; Lee, D H; Yoon, Y; Hwang, J H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was a quantitative analysis of a surgeon's learning curve for scoliosis surgery and the relationship between the surgeon's experience and post-operative outcomes, which has not been previously well described. We have investigated the operating time as a function of the number of patients to determine a specific pattern; we analysed factors affecting the operating time and compared intra- and post-operative outcomes. We analysed 47 consecutive patients undergoing scoliosis surgery performed by a single, non-trained scoliosis surgeon. Operating time was recorded for each of the four parts of the procedures: dissection, placement of pedicle screws, reduction of the deformity and wound closure. The median operating time was 310 minutes (interquartile range 277.5 to 432.5). The pattern showed a continuous decreasing trend in operating time until the patient number reached 23 to 25, after which it stabilised with fewer patient-dependent changes. The operating time was more affected by the patient number (r =- 0.75) than the number of levels fused (r = 0.59). Blood loss (p = 0.016) and length of stay in hospital (p = 0.012) were significantly less after the operating time stabilised. Post-operative functional outcome scores and the rate of complications showed no significant differences. We describe a detailed learning curve for scoliosis surgery based on a single surgeon's practise, providing useful information for novice scoliosis surgeons and for those responsible for training in spinal surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:679-85. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. High-throughput sex identification by melting curve analysis in blue-breasted quail and chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C; Liu, Y-S; Cheng, C-C; Wang, C-L; Liao, M-H; Tseng, C-N; Chang, H-W

    2012-06-01

    The objective was to develop a high-throughput method of identifying sex in both Coturnix chinensis and Gallus gallus, which would be useful for biomedical research and hatcheries. Because chromo-helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-based Griffiths P2/P8 primers do not produce polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products with distinguishable sex-specific curves in melting curve analysis (MCA), these primers are unsuitable for high throughput application in either species. Conserved regions were identified by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of cloned CHD-Z and CHD-W genes of C. chinensis. Based on sequence alignment, a female-specific CHD-W primer (W-cot-F1) and a female/male (or CHD-W/CHD-Z)-common primer (ZW-cot-F1) were redesigned for use in combination with the Griffiths P2 primer for MCA-based PCR reaction. In C. chinensis and G. gallus, W-cot-F1/P2 and ZW-cot-F1/P2 had amplicon lengths of 315/318 and 114 base pairs and melting temperatures (Tm) of approximately 79.5 °C to 80 °C and approximately 78.5 °C to 79°C, respectively. Thus, MCA distinguished sex based on two distinct Tm peaks in females versus only one Tm peak in males. The MCA-based real-time PCR combined with the proposed primer redesign provided a high-throughput method of identifying sex in C. chinensis and G. gallus.

  12. Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus strains using real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed A; O'Rourke, Denise; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains is crucial for effective vaccination programs and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a combination of real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of IBDV strains/isolates. The hypervariable region of VP2 gene was amplified from several IBDV strains and subjected to HRM curve analysis. The method could readily differentiate between classical vaccines/isolates and variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from each strain revealed that each melt curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The real-time RT-PCR HRM curve analysis was also able to differentiate IBDV strains/isolates directly in bursal tissues from field submissions and from vaccinated commercial flocks. The differences between melting peaks generated from IBDV strains were significantly different (P<0.0001) demonstrating the high discriminatory power of this technique. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time RT-PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping IBDV isolates/strains and can contribute to effective control of IBDV outbreaks.

  13. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H.; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. PMID:26394042

  14. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  15. Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: a detailed look.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, Marilyn I; Dell, Paul F; Links, Paul S; Thabane, Lehana; Fougere, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess in detail the whole spectrum of normal and pathological dissociative experiences and dissociative disorder (DD) diagnoses in borderline personality disorder (BPD) as diagnosed with the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Dissociation was measured comprehensively in 21 BPD outpatients using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID), the Dissociative Experiences Scale pathological taxon analysis, and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. The frequencies of DDs in this BPD sample were as follows: 24% no DD, 29% mild DD (dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder), 24% DD Not Otherwise Specified (DDNOS), and 24% dissociative identity disorder. With regard to the dissociative experiences endorsed, almost all patients reported identity confusion, unexplained mood changes, and depersonalization. Even those BPD patients with mild DD reported derealization, depersonalization, and dissociative amnesia. BPD patients with DDNOS reported frequent depersonalization, frequent amnesia, and notable experiences of identity alteration. BPD patients with dissociative identity disorder endorsed severe dissociative symptoms in all categories. Analysis of the MID pathological dissociation items revealed that 32% of the items were endorsed at a clinically significant level of frequency by more than 50% of our BPD patients. In conclusion, the frequencies of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) DDs in these patients with BPD were surprisingly high. Likewise, the "average" BPD patient endorsed a wide variety of recurrent pathological dissociative symptoms.

  16. Decline curve analysis of production data from The Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    Production data for over two hundred wells at The Geysers geothermal field were compiled and analyzed. Decline curves for groups of wells with 5, 10, and 40 acre spacing are presented and compared to curves published previously by Budd (1972) and Dykstra (1981). Decline curves for several individual wells and leases are discussed to illustrate the effects of well spacing and location, as well as the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir.

  17. Decline Curve Analysis of Production Data from the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1987-01-20

    Production data for over two hundred wells at The Geysers geothermal field were compiled and analysed. Decline curves for groups of wells with 5, 10, and 40 acre spacing are presented and compared to curves published previously by Budd (1972) and Dykstra (1981). Decline curves for several individual wells and leases are discussed to illustrate the effects of well spacing and location, as well as the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. 6 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  18. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-03

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well.

  19. Collision-induced thermochemistry of reactions of dissociation of glycyl-homopeptides-An experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The research draws on experimental and theoretical data about energetics and kinetics of mass spectrometric (MS) reactions of glycyl homopenta- (G5) and glycyl homohexapeptides (G6). It shows the great applicability of the methods of quantum chemistry to predict MS profile of peptides using energetics of collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment species. Mass spectrometry is among irreplaceable methods, providing unambiguous qualitative, quantitative and structural information about analytes, applicable to many scientific areas like environmental chemistry; food chemistry; medicinal chemistry; and more. Our study could be considered of substantial interdisciplinary significance, where MS proteomics is widely used. The experimental design involves electrospray ionization (ESI) and CID MS/MS. Theoretical design is based on ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Experimental MS and theoretical free Gibbs energies as well as rate constants of fragment reactions are compared. The thermodynamic encompasses gas-phase and polar continuum analysis, including polar protic and aprotic solvents within temperature T = 10-500 K; dielectric constant ε = 0-78, pH, and ionic strengths μ = 0.001-1.0 mol dm(-1) . There are computed and discussed 39 protonated forms of peptides at amide N- and -(NHC)=O centers; corresponding fragment ions studying their thermodynamic stability depending on experimental conditions. A correlation analysis between molecular conformations of parent ions and fragment species; their proton accepting ability and internal energy distribution is carried out. Data about ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) are discussed, as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gas chromatography/chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis of anabolic steroids: ionization and collision-induced dissociation behavior.

    PubMed

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-02-28

    The detection of new anabolic steroid metabolites and new designer steroids is a challenging task in doping analysis. Switching from electron ionization gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS) to chemical ionization (CI) has proven to be an efficient way to increase the sensitivity of GC/MS/MS analyses and facilitate the detection of anabolic steroids. CI also extends the possibilities of GC/MS/MS analyses as the molecular ion is retained in its protonated form due to the softer ionization. In EI it can be difficult to find previously unknown but expected metabolites due to the low abundance or absence of the molecular ion and the extensive (and to a large extent unpredictable) fragmentation. The main aim of this work was to study the CI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of a large number of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in order to determine correlations between structures and CID fragmentation. Clarification of these correlations is needed for the elucidation of structures of unknown steroids and new metabolites. The ionization and CID behavior of 65 AAS have been studied using GC/CI-MS/MS with ammonia as the reagent gas. Glucuronidated AAS reference standards were first hydrolyzed to obtain their free forms. Afterwards, all the standards were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl forms. Full scan and product ion scan analyses were used to examine the ionization and CID behavior. Full scan and product ion scan analyses revealed clear correlations between AAS structure and the obtained mass spectra. These correlations were confirmed by analysis of multiple hydroxylated, methylated, chlorinated and deuterated analogs. AAS have been divided into three groups according to their ionization behavior and into seven groups according to their CID behavior. Correlations between fragmentation and structure were revealed and fragmentation pathways were postulated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  1. Combined Use of Post-Ion Mobility/Collision-Induced Dissociation and Chemometrics for b Fragment Ion Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekavat, Behrooz; Miladi, Mahsan; Becker, Christopher; Munisamy, Sharon M.; Solouki, Touradj

    2013-09-01

    Although structural isomers may yield indistinguishable ion mobility (IM) arrival times and similar fragment ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS), it is demonstrated that post-IM/collision-induced dissociation MS (post-IM/CID MS) combined with chemometrics can enable independent study of the IM-overlapped isomers. The new approach allowed us to investigate the propensity of selected b type fragment ions from AlaAlaAlaHisAlaAlaAla-NH2 (AAA(His)AAA) heptapeptide to form different isomers. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the unresolved post-IM/CID profiles indicated the presence of two different isomer types for b4 +, b5 +, and b6 + and a single isomer type for b7 + fragments of AAA(His)AAA. We employed a simple-to-use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis (SIMPLISMA) to calculate the total IM profiles and CID mass spectra of b fragment isomers. The deconvoluted CID mass spectra showed discernible fragmentation patterns for the two isomers of b4 +, b5 +, and b6 + fragments. Under our experimental conditions, calculated percentages of the "cyclic" isomers (at the 95 % confidence level for n = 3) for b4 +, b5 +, and b6 + were 61 (± 5) %, 36 (± 5) %, and 48 (± 2) %, respectively. Results from the SIMPLISMA deconvolution of b5 + species resembled the CID MS patterns of fully resolved IM profiles for the two b5 + isomers. The "cyclic" isomers for each of the two-component b fragment ions were less susceptible to ion fragmentation than their "linear" counterparts.

  2. [Application of calibration curve method and partial least squares regression analysis to quantitative analysis of nephrite samples using XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Su, Bo-min; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2015-01-01

    The authors tried to find a method for quantitative analysis using pXRF without solid bulk stone/jade reference samples. 24 nephrite samples were selected, 17 samples were calibration samples and the other 7 are test samples. All the nephrite samples were analyzed by Proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) quantitatively. Based on the PIXE results of calibration samples, calibration curves were created for the interested components/elements and used to analyze the test samples quantitatively; then, the qualitative spectrum of all nephrite samples were obtained by pXRF. According to the PIXE results and qualitative spectrum of calibration samples, partial least square method (PLS) was used for quantitative analysis of test samples. Finally, the results of test samples obtained by calibration method, PLS method and PIXE were compared to each other. The accuracy of calibration curve method and PLS method was estimated. The result indicates that the PLS method is the alternate method for quantitative analysis of stone/jade samples.

  3. Rapid detection of non-deletional mutations causing α-thalassemia by multicolor melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuying; Wang, Xudong; Tang, Ning; Zhu, Chunjiang; Yan, Tizhen; Chen, Ping; Li, Qingge

    2016-03-01

    α-Thalassemia, caused by mutations in the α-globin genes, is one of the most common monogenic inherited disorders in the world. However, non-deletional α-thalassemia mutations remain undetected in routine clinical testing due to the lack of a suitable method. In this study, a closed- and single-tube assay for the detection of six common non-deletional α-thalassemia mutations in the HBA2 gene was developed based on multicolor melting curve analysis. The assay consisted of one pair of primers specific for the HBA2 gene and four dual-labeled, self-quenched probes targeting six non-deletional α-thalassemia mutations. The sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the method were validated via 700 genomic DNA samples. The assay had a reproducibility of 100%, could detect gDNA of different genotype as low as 1 ng per reaction, and had an overall accuracy of 100% when compared with RDB analysis and Sanger sequencing. The developed assay is rapid, robust, and cost-effective while maintaining high sensitivity, specificity, and throughput.

  4. An interactive computer program for randomization analysis of response curves with facilities for multiple comparisons.

    PubMed

    Tan, E S; Roos, J M; Volovics, A; Van Baak, M A; Does, R J

    1992-04-01

    An interactive Fortran program, MUCRA, is presented. The program can perform randomization analysis of a completely randomized or randomized-blocks design extended to growth and response curves. A single-step Scheffé-type procedure as well as the Peritz's closed step-down procedure have been implemented which control the familywise type I error-rate. In general, MUCRA is suitable as a computer tool for a distribution-free analysis of variance with repeated measures. The use of MUCRA is demonstrated by analyzing the effects oxprenolol and atenolol have on exercise heart rate. Oxprenolol is a non-selective beta-blocker with moderate intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), given by the Oros delivery system. Atenolol is a beta 1-selective blocker without ISA. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover design was used to compare the effects of the beta 1-blockers on heart rate during a progressive maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Application of the Scheffé-type procedure showed that the two drugs significantly (alpha = .05) reduce the heart rate during the exercise test at the three prechosen times (2, 5, and 24 hr) after intake. The reduction from atenolol is more pronounced than from oxprenolol Oros at 2 and 5 hr.

  5. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  6. Flow Curve Analysis of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel under Hot Compression Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Hamed; Najafizadeh, Abbas; Moazeny, Mohammad

    2009-12-01

    The hot compression behavior of a 17-4 PH stainless steel (AISI 630) has been investigated at temperatures of 950 °C to 1150 °C and strain rates of 10-3 to 10 s-1. Glass powder in the Rastegaev reservoirs of the specimen was used as a lubricant material. A step-by-step procedure for data analysis in the hot compression test was given. The work hardening rate analysis was performed to reveal if dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred. Many samples exhibited typical DRX stress-strain curves with a single peak stress followed by a gradual fall toward the steady-state stress. At low Zener-Hollomon ( Z) parameter, this material showed a new DRX flow behavior, which was called multiple transient steady state (MTSS). At high Z, as a result of adiabatic deformation heating, a drop in flow stress was observed. The general constitutive equations were used to determine the hot working constants of this material. Moreover, after a critical discussion, the deformation activation energy of 17-4 PH stainless steel was determined as 337 kJ/mol.

  7. Impact Analysis of Embedded Delamination Location in Hybrid Curved Laminated Composite Stiffened Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naini, Jeevan Kumar; P, Ramesh Babu

    2016-08-01

    Modern, aero structures are predominantly of curved construction characterized by a skin and stiffeners. The latest generation of large passenger aircraft also uses mostly composite material in their primary structure and there is trend towards the utilization of bonding of subcomponents. The presence of delamination is a major problem in composite laminated panels and so, it is of great concern to both the academic and aeronautical industrial worlds Indeed delamination can strongly affect the material strength and, sometimes, can cause their breaking up in service. A Pre-damaged configuration is loaded to study the delamination location and mode for delamination initiation and propagation. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of the location of the delamination propagation when delamination is embedded inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface, with the cases i) delamination located at front and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface ii) delamination located in middle and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface iii) delamination located at the end and inbetween plies of the skin- stiffener interface. Further the influence of the location of the delamination on load carrying capacity of the panel is investigated. The effect of location of debonds on crack growth and collapse behavior is analyzed using analysis tool. An analysis tool is applied that includes an approach for predicting interlaminar damage initiation and interlaminar damage growth as well as in-plane damage mechanisms to predict the design of defect free panel.

  8. Application of high-resolution melt curve analysis for classification of infectious bronchitis viruses in field specimens.

    PubMed

    Hewson, K A; Browning, G F; Devlin, J M; Ignjatovic, J; Noormohammadi, A H

    2010-10-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis protocol was developed in our laboratory to differentiate infectious bronchitis (IB) virus reference strains. In the current study, this method was used to detect and classify IB viruses in field submissions. Over an 11-month period samples from 40 cases of suspected IB virus were received and 17 submissions were positive for IB virus by polymerase chain reaction. HRM curve analysis classified each strain as subgroup 1, 2 or 3 strain (12 submissions) or a strain that was unable to be classified (5 submissions). The 3' untranslated region (UTR) and partial S1 gene nucleotide sequences for the 17 IB virus strains were determined and their identity with those of the relative reference strains compared to confirm the classifications generated using the HRM curve analysis. Of the 12 IB field viruses classified as subgroup 1, 2, or 3 using HRM curve analysis, the 3'UTR and S1 gene nucleotide sequences had identities ≥99% with the respective subgroup reference strain. Analysis of the 3' UTR and S1 gene nucleotide sequences for the five IB virus strains that could not be classified indicated that four belonged to one of the subgroups, and one was a potential recombinant strain (between strains from subgroups 2 and 3). A novel recombinant strain was also detected. HRM curve analysis can rapidly assign the majority of IB viruses present in field submissions to known subgroups. Importantly, HRM curve analysis also identified variant genotypes that require further investigation. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. CUSUM analysis of learning curves for the head-mounted microscope in phonomicrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Vamos, Andrew C; Dailey, Seth H; Jiang, Jack J

    2016-10-01

    To observe the learning curve of the head-mounted microscope in a phonomicrosurgery simulator using cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis, which incorporates a magnetic phonomicrosurgery instrument tracking system (MPTS). Retrospective case series. Eight subjects (6 medical students and 2 surgeons inexperienced in phonomicrosurgery) operated on phonomicrosurgical simulation cutting tasks while using the head-mounted microscope for 400 minutes total. Two 20-minute sessions occurred each day for 10 total days, with operation quality (Qs ) and completion time (T) being recorded after each session. Cumulative summation analysis of Qs and T was performed by using subjects' performance data from trials completed using a traditional standing microscope as success criteria. The motion parameters from the head-mounted microscope were significantly better than the standing microscope (P < 0.01), but T was longer than that from the standing microscope (P < 0.01). No subject successfully adapted to the head-mounted microscope, as assessed by CUSUM analysis. Cumulative summation analysis can objectively monitor the learning process associated with a phonomicrosurgical simulator system, ultimately providing a tool to assess learning status. Also, motion parameters determined by our MPTS showed that, although the head-mounted microscope provides better motion control, worse Qs and longer T resulted. This decrease in Qs is likely a result of the relatively unstable visual environment that it provides. Overall, the inexperienced surgeons participating in this study failed to adapt to the head-mounted microscope in our simulated phonomicrosurgery environment. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2295-2300, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Functional genomic screen and network analysis reveal novel modifiers of tauopathy dissociated from tau phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Jackson, George R.

    2011-01-01

    A functional genetic screen using loss-of-function and gain-of-function alleles was performed to identify modifiers of tau-induced neurotoxicity using the 2N/4R (full-length) isoform of wild-type human tau expressed in the fly retina. We previously reported eye pigment mutations, which create dysfunctional lysosomes, as potent modifiers; here, we report 37 additional genes identified from ∼1900 genes screened, including the kinases shaggy/GSK-3beta, par-1/MARK, CamKI and Mekk1. Tau acts synergistically with Mekk1 and p38 to down-regulate extracellular regulated kinase activity, with a corresponding decrease in AT8 immunoreactivity (pS202/T205), suggesting that tau can participate in signaling pathways to regulate its own kinases. Modifiers showed poor correlation with tau phosphorylation (using the AT8, 12E8 and AT270 epitopes); moreover, tested suppressors of wild-type tau were equally effective in suppressing toxicity of a phosphorylation-resistant S11A tau construct, demonstrating that changes in tau phosphorylation state are not required to suppress or enhance its toxicity. Genes related to autophagy, the cell cycle, RNA-associated proteins and chromatin-binding proteins constitute a large percentage of identified modifiers. Other functional categories identified include mitochondrial proteins, lipid trafficking, Golgi proteins, kinesins and dynein and the Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein (Hop). Network analysis uncovered several other genes highly associated with the functional modifiers, including genes related to the PI3K, Notch, BMP/TGF-β and Hedgehog pathways, and nuclear trafficking. Activity of GSK-3β is strongly upregulated due to TDP-43 expression, and reduced GSK-3β dosage is also a common suppressor of Aβ42 and TDP-43 toxicity. These findings suggest therapeutic targets other than mitigation of tau phosphorylation. PMID:21949350

  11. Sendai virus-erythrocyte membrane interaction: quantitative and kinetic analysis of viral binding, dissociation, and fusion.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, D; Klappe, K

    1986-04-01

    A kinetic and quantitative analysis of the binding and fusion of Sendai virus with erythrocyte membranes was performed by using a membrane fusion assay based on the relief of fluorescence self-quenching. At 37 degrees C, the process of virus association displayed a half time of 2.5 min; at 4 degrees C, the half time was 3.0 min. The fraction of the viral dose which became cell associated was independent of the incubation temperature and increased with increasing target membrane concentration. On the average, one erythrocyte ghost can accommodate ca. 1,200 Sendai virus particles. The stability of viral attachment was sensitive to a shift in temperature: a fraction of the virions (ca. 30%), attached at 4 degrees C, rapidly (half time, ca. 2.5 min) eluted from the cell surface at 37 degrees C, irrespective of the presence of free virus in the medium. The elution can be attributed to a spontaneous, temperature-induced release, rather than to viral neuraminidase activity. Competition experiments with nonlabeled virus revealed that viruses destined to fuse do not exchange with free particles in the medium but rather bind in a rapid and irreversible manner. The fusion rate of Sendai virus was affected by the density of the virus particles on the cell surface and became restrained when more than 170 virus particles were attached per ghost. In principle, all virus particles added displayed fusion activity. However, at high virus-to-ghost ratios, only a fraction actually fused, indicating that a limited number of fusion sites exist on the erythrocyte membrane. We estimate that ca. 180 virus particles maximally can fuse with one erythrocyte ghost.

  12. Dancing with the Muses: dissociation and flow.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated dissociative psychological processes and flow (dispositional and state) in a group of professional and pre-professional dancers (n=74). In this study, high scores for global (Mdn=4.14) and autotelic (Mdn=4.50) flow suggest that dancing was inherently integrating and rewarding, although 17.6% of the dancers were identified as possibly having clinical levels of dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon cutoff score≥20). The results of the multivariate analysis of variance indicated that subjects with high levels of dissociation had significantly lower levels of global flow (p<.05). Stepwise linear regression analyses demonstrated that dispositional flow negatively predicted the dissociative constructs of depersonalization and taxon (p<.05) but did not significantly predict the variance in absorption/imagination (p>.05). As hypothesized, dissociation and flow seem to operate as different mental processes.

  13. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dose-response curves with semiochemicals are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology regarding neurophysiology and behavioral bioassays. Most such curves are shown in figures where the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosages versus responses on the y-axis represented by point...

  14. Imaging the shallow subsurface with surface waves: dispersion curve analysis versus full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés Pérez Solano, Carlos; Donno, Daniela; Strobbia, Claudio; Chauris, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Seismic surface wave analysis is a standard tool in geotechnical engineering for imaging the shallow subsurface. Most current surface wave analysis methods assume a horizontally layered medium, and estimate the near-surface shear velocity profile from dispersion curves, which are picked on frequency-wavenumber (f-k) gathers and then inverted using 1D modelling approaches. Media containing high velocity contrasts and irregular lateral variations might be difficult to be handled with the local 1D approximation. For 2D model estimation, full waveform inversion (FWI) is an alternative and can estimate high resolution models. The classical FWI objective function consists of the least-squares misfit between observed and modelled shot gathers (Tarantola, 1986). Classical FWI needs an accurate initial model for achieving convergence. Data sets containing surface waves could be inverted, without falling into secondary minima, if the data contains sufficiently low frequencies and large offsets such that multi-scale and time windowing approaches can be applied. We propose to invert surface waves with an alternative FWI-based approach that uses a modified objective function. It is based on the least-squares misfit between the absolute value of the f-k transform of windowed shot gathers. We refer to this approach as the windowed-Amplitude Waveform Inversion (w-AWI). Some secondary minima problems are mitigated: the choice of an initial model is easier in w-AWI than in FWI. The alternative objective function is intermediary between the one used in the 1D inversion approach (dispersion curves) and classical FWI. As most of the phase information is neglected in w-AWI, we use it as a first step before classical FWI. This sequential inversion approach using w-AWI followed by classical FWI aims at estimating a high-resolution near-surface velocity model, by explaining the complete elastic wavefield, even when the initial velocity model is far from the exact one. The proposed approach

  15. An analysis of watershed hydrological double mass curve based on elasticity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Ning, Tingting; Lin, Wen; Cheng, Liping; Han, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    The method of double mass curve (DMC) is often used in the analysis of the consistency of hydro-meteorological factors and their inter-annual variations. The trend and slope of DMC are the focus of general concern. By taking the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff in a watershed as an example, this paper analyzed the characteristics of DMC variations by means of the elasticity index obtained by the curve slope divided by the ratio of accumulated runoff to accumulated precipitation at corresponding location. Using a year as a time step, the index was further simplified to be the ratio of annual runoff coefficient to the runoff coefficient averaged over the period from starting year to computing year. An elasticity index greater than, less than, or equal to one indicated rising, decline, or stability of average annual runoff coefficient, respectively. Variation trend of elasticity index was analyzed to extract the information on the years with significant change and then, dominant factors and their impacts could be enquired further. The Jinghe River is located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, being the largest tributary of the Weihe River. The elasticity index was used to analyze the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff on the scale of water year for the Jinghe River watershed from 1961 to 2012 and the two years of 1971 and 1997 were first chosen as the years showing abrupt changes. The elasticity indices in three periods separated by the two years in the past 50 years averaged 1.08, 0.89 and 0.64 and annual runoff coefficients, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.05, respectively. The human activities disturbing underlying surface were found to be the important factor responsible for the remarkable decline of runoff coefficient. The large-scale comprehensive control of soil erosion and the adjustment of landuse structure had made some achievements in the recent twenty years. However, their disturbing effects on underlying surface interacted with the impacts of climate change

  16. Nonlinearities and adaptation of color vision from sequential principal curves analysis.

    PubMed

    Laparra, Valero; Jiménez, Sandra; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Malo, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms of human color vision are characterized by two phenomenological aspects: the system is nonlinear and adaptive to changing environments. Conventional attempts to derive these features from statistics use separate arguments for each aspect. The few statistical explanations that do consider both phenomena simultaneously follow parametric formulations based on empirical models. Therefore, it may be argued that the behavior does not come directly from the color statistics but from the convenient functional form adopted. In addition, many times the whole statistical analysis is based on simplified databases that disregard relevant physical effects in the input signal, as, for instance, by assuming flat Lambertian surfaces. In this work, we address the simultaneous statistical explanation of the nonlinear behavior of achromatic and chromatic mechanisms in a fixed adaptation state and the change of such behavior (i.e., adaptation) under the change of observation conditions. Both phenomena emerge directly from the samples through a single data-driven method: the sequential principal curves analysis (SPCA) with local metric. SPCA is a new manifold learning technique to derive a set of sensors adapted to the manifold using different optimality criteria. Here sequential refers to the fact that sensors (curvilinear dimensions) are designed one after the other, and not to the particular (eventually iterative) method to draw a single principal curve. Moreover, in order to reproduce the empirical adaptation reported under D65 and A illuminations, a new database of colorimetrically calibrated images of natural objects under these illuminants was gathered, thus overcoming the limitations of available databases. The results obtained by applying SPCA show that the psychophysical behavior on color discrimination thresholds, discount of the illuminant, and corresponding pairs in asymmetric color matching emerge directly from realistic data regularities, assuming no a priori

  17. Vibrational analysis of HOCl up to 98{percent} of the dissociation energy with a Fermi resonance Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, R.; Joyeux, M.; Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.

    1999-10-01

    We have analyzed the vibrational energies and wave functions of HOCl obtained from previous {ital ab initio} calculations [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 109}, 2662 (1998); {bold 109}, 10273 (1998)]. Up to approximately 13&hthinsp;000 cm{sup {minus}1}, the normal modes are nearly decoupled, so that the analysis is straightforward with a Dunham model. In contrast, above 13&hthinsp;000 cm{sup {minus}1} the Dunham model is no longer valid for the levels with no quanta in the OH stretch (v{sub 1}=0). In addition to v{sub 1}, these levels can only be assigned a so-called polyad quantum number P=2v{sub 2}+v{sub 3}, where 2 and 3 denote, respectively, the bending and OCl stretching normal modes. In contrast, the levels with v{sub 1}{ge}2 remain assignable with three v{sub i} quantum numbers up to the dissociation (D{sub 0}=19&hthinsp;290&hthinsp;cm{sup {minus}1}). The interaction between the bending and the OCl stretch ({omega}{sub 2}{congruent}2{omega}{sub 3}) is well described with a simple, fitted Fermi resonance Hamiltonian. The energies and wave functions of this model Hamiltonian are compared with those obtained from {ital ab initio} calculations, which in turn enables the assignment of many additional {ital ab initio} vibrational levels. Globally, among the 809 bound levels calculated below dissociation, 790 have been assigned, the lowest unassigned level, No. 736, being located at 18&hthinsp;885 cm{sup {minus}1} above the (0,0,0) ground level, that is, at about 98{percent} of D{sub 0}. In addition, 84 {open_quotes}resonances{close_quotes} located above D{sub 0} have also been assigned. Our best Fermi resonance Hamiltonian has 29 parameters fitted with 725 {ital ab initio} levels, the rms deviation being of 5.3 cm{sup {minus}1}. This set of 725 fitted levels includes the full set of levels up to No. 702 at 18&hthinsp;650 cm{sup {minus}1}. The {ital ab initio} levels, which are assigned but not included in the fit, are reasonably predicted by the model Hamiltonian, but with a

  18. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment. PMID:28824130

  19. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-12-12

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  20. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. II. EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION IN THE PHASE CURVES OF THREE KEPLER HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-02-10

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  1. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves. II. Evidence for Superrotation in the Phase Curves of Three Kepler Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  2. Predicting the probability of successful efficacy of a dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor from dose-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Conrado, Daniela J; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Shoji, Satoshi; Kolluri, Sheela; Hey-Hadavi, Judith; McCabe, Dorothy; Rojo, Ricardo; Tammara, Brinda K

    2016-06-01

    PF-04171327 is a dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (DAGR) being developed to retain anti-inflammatory efficacy while reducing unwanted effects. Our aim was to conduct a longitudinal dose-response analysis to identify the DAGR doses with efficacy similar to or greater than prednisone 10 mg once daily (QD). The data included were from a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in 323 subjects with active rheumatoid arthritis on a background of methotrexate. Subjects received DAGR 1, 5, 10 or 15 mg, prednisone 5 or 10 mg, or placebo QD for 8 weeks. The Disease Activity Score 28-4 calculated using C-Reactive Protein (DAS28-4 CRP) was the efficacy endpoint utilized in this dose-response model. For DAGR, the maximum effect (Emax) on DAS28-4 CRP was estimated to be -1.2 points (95 % CI -1.7, -0.84), and the evaluated dose range provided 31-87 % of the Emax; for prednisone 5 and 10 mg, the estimated effects were -0.27 (95 % CI -0.55, 0.006) and -0.94 point (95 % CI -1.3, -0.59), respectively. Stochastic simulations indicated that the DAGR 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg have probabilities of 0.9, 29, 54 and 62 %, respectively, to achieve efficacy greater than prednisone 10 mg at week 8. DAGR 9 mg estimated probability was 50 % suggesting that DAGR ≥9 mg QD has an effect on DAS28-4 CRP comparable to or greater than prednisone 10 mg QD. This work informs dose selection for late-stage confirmatory trials.

  3. Detection and Characterization of Low Abundance Glycopeptides Via Higher-Energy C-Trap Dissociation and Orbitrap Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Raftery, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale mass spectrometric analyses of glycopeptides are constrained by the considerable complexity inherent to glycoproteomics, and techniques are still being actively developed to address the associated analytical difficulties. Here we apply Orbitrap mass analysis and higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) to facilitate detailed insights into the compositions and heterogeneity of complex mixtures of low abundance glycopeptides. By generating diagnostic oxonium product ions at mass measurement errors of <5 ppm, highly selective glycopeptide precursor ion detections are made at sub-fmol limits of detection: analyses of proteolytic digests of a hen egg glycoprotein mixture detect 88 previously uncharacterized glycopeptides from 666 precursor ions selected for MS/MS, with only one false positive due to co-fragmentation of a non-glycosylated peptide with a glycopeptide. We also demonstrate that by (1) identifying multiple series of glycoforms using high mass accuracy single stage MS spectra, and (2) performing product ion scans at optimized HCD collision energies, the identification of peptide + N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) ions (Y1 ions) can be readily achieved at <5 ppm mass measurement errors. These data allow base peptide sequences and glycan compositional information to be attained with high confidence, even for glycopeptides that produce weak precursor ion signals and/or low quality MS/MS spectra. The glycopeptides characterized from low fmol abundances using these methods allow two previously unreported glycosylation sites on the Gallus gallus protein ovoglycoprotein (amino acids 82 and 90) to be confirmed; considerable glycan heterogeneities at amino acid 90 of ovoglycoprotein, and amino acids 34 and 77 of Gallus gallus ovomucoid are also revealed.

  4. Oxygen association-dissociation and stability analysis on mouse hemoglobins with mutant alpha- and beta-globins.

    PubMed

    D'Surney, S J; Popp, R A

    1992-10-01

    Oxygen association-dissociation and hemoglobin stability analysis were performed on mouse hemoglobins with amino acid substitutions in an alpha-globin (alpha 89, His to Leu) and a beta-globin (beta 59, Lys to Ile). The variant alpha-globin, designated chain 5m in the Hbag2 haplotype, had an high oxygen affinity and was stable. The variant beta-globin, (beta s2) of the Hbbs2 haplotype, also had an elevated oxygen affinity and in addition was moderately unstable in 19% isopropanol. Hemoglobins from the expected nine (Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs x Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs2/Hbbs2) F2 genotypes can be grouped into five classes of P50 values characterized by strict additivity and dependency on mutant globin gene dosage; physiologically, both globin variants gave indistinguishable effects on oxygen affinity. The hemoglobin of normal mice (Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs/Hbbs) had a P50 = 40 mm Hg and the hemoglobin of Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 F2 mice had a P50 = 25 mm Hg (human P50 = 26 mm Hg). Peripheral blood from Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs, Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 and Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice exhibited normal hematological values except for a slightly higher hematocrit for Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs and Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice, slightly elevated red cell counts for mice of the three mutant genotypes, and significantly lower values for the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin for Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice.

  5. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-yi, Wang; Xiang-long, Lu; Qiu-wen, Zhao; Dian-qiao, Dong; Bao-qiang, Lao; Yang, Lu; Yan-heng, Wei; Xiao-cong, Wu; Tao, An

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  6. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  7. Selecting a linear mixed model for longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern model, and growth curve approaches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-03-01

    With increasing popularity, growth curve modeling is more and more often considered as the 1st choice for analyzing longitudinal data. Although the growth curve approach is often a good choice, other modeling strategies may more directly answer questions of interest. It is common to see researchers fit growth curve models without considering alterative modeling strategies. In this article we compare 3 approaches for analyzing longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern models, and growth curve models. As all are members of the general linear mixed model family, they represent somewhat different assumptions about the way individuals change. These assumptions result in different patterns of covariation among the residuals around the fixed effects. In this article, we first indicate the kinds of data that are appropriately modeled by each and use real data examples to demonstrate possible problems associated with the blanket selection of the growth curve model. We then present a simulation that indicates the utility of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion in the selection of a proper residual covariance structure. The results cast doubt on the popular practice of automatically using growth curve modeling for longitudinal data without comparing the fit of different models. Finally, we provide some practical advice for assessing mean changes in the presence of correlated data.

  8. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves. III. Spectroscopic confirmation of seventy new beaming binaries discovered in CoRoT light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The BEER algorithm searches stellar light curves for the BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection photometric modulations that are caused by a short-period companion. These three effects are typically of very low amplitude and can mainly be detected in light curves from space-based photometers. Unlike eclipsing binaries, these effects are not limited to edge-on inclinations. Aims: Applying the algorithm to wide-field photometric surveys such as CoRoT and Kepler offers an opportunity to better understand the statistical properties of short-period binaries. It also widens the window for detecting intrinsically rare systems, such as short-period brown-dwarf and massive-planetary companions to main-sequence stars. Methods: Applying the search to the first five long-run center CoRoT fields, we identified 481 non-eclipsing candidates with periodic flux amplitudes of 0.5-87 mmag. Optimizing the Anglo-Australian-Telescope pointing coordinates and the AAOmega fiber-allocations with dedicated softwares, we acquired six spectra for 231 candidates and seven spectra for another 50 candidates in a seven-night campaign. Analysis of the red-arm AAOmega spectra, which covered the range of 8342-8842 Å, yielded a radial-velocity precision of ~1 km s-1. Spectra containing lines of more than one star were analyzed with the two-dimensional correlation algorithm TODCOR. Results: The measured radial velocities confirmed the binarity of seventy of the BEER candidates - 45 single-line binaries, 18 double-line binaries, and 7 diluted binaries. We show that red giants introduce a major source of false candidates and demonstrate a way to improve BEER's performance in extracting higher fidelity samples from future searches of CoRoT light curves. The periods of the confirmed binaries span a range of 0.3-10 days and show a rise in the number of binaries per ΔlogP toward longer periods. The estimated mass ratios of the double-line binaries and the mass ratios assigned to the single

  9. Recalcitrant vulnerability curves: methods of analysis and the concept of fibre bridges for enhanced cavitation resistance.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Li, Shan; Zhang, Haixin; Zhang, Shuoxin; Tyree, Melvin T

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability curves (VCs) generally can be fitted to the Weibull equation; however, a growing number of VCs appear to be recalcitrant, that is, deviate from a Weibull but seem to fit dual Weibull curves. We hypothesize that dual Weibull curves in Hippophae rhamnoides L. are due to different vessel diameter classes, inter-vessel hydraulic connections or vessels versus fibre tracheids. We used dye staining techniques, hydraulic measurements and quantitative anatomy measurements to test these hypotheses. The fibres contribute 1.3% of the total stem conductivity, which eliminates the hypothesis that fibre tracheids account for the second Weibull curve. Nevertheless, the staining pattern of vessels and fibre tracheids suggested that fibres might function as a hydraulic bridge between adjacent vessels. We also argue that fibre bridges are safer than vessel-to-vessel pits and put forward the concept as a new paradigm. Hence, we tentatively propose that the first Weibull curve may be accounted by vessels connected to each other directly by pit fields, while the second Weibull curve is associated with vessels that are connected almost exclusively by fibre bridges. Further research is needed to test the concept of fibre bridge safety in species that have recalcitrant or normal Weibull curves. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The application of latent curve analysis to testing developmental theories in intervention research.

    PubMed

    Curran, P J; Muthén, B O

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a prevention or intervention program has traditionally been assessed using time-specific comparisons of mean levels between the treatment and the control groups. However, many times the behavior targeted by the intervention is naturally developing over time, and the goal of the treatment is to alter this natural or normative developmental trajectory. Examining time-specific mean levels can be both limiting and potentially misleading when the behavior of interest is developing systematically over time. It is argued here that there are both theoretical and statistical advantages associated with recasting intervention treatment effects in terms of normative and altered developmental trajectories. The recently developed technique of latent curve (LC) analysis is reviewed and extended to a true experimental design setting in which subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment intervention or a control condition. LC models are applied to both artificially generated and real intervention data sets to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program. Not only do the LC models provide a more comprehensive understanding of the treatment and control group developmental processes compared to more traditional fixed-effects models, but LC models have greater statistical power to detect a given treatment effect. Finally, the LC models are modified to allow for the computation of specific power estimates under a variety of conditions and assumptions that can provide much needed information for the planning and design of more powerful but cost-efficient intervention programs for the future.

  11. Quantitative analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on generalized curves of growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón, C.; Aguilera, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    A method for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed. The method (Cσ-LIBS) is based on Cσ graphs, generalized curves of growth which allow including several lines of various elements at different concentrations. A so-called homogeneous double (HD) model of the laser-induced plasma is used, defined by an integration over a single-region of the radiative transfer equation, combined with a separated treatment for neutral atoms (z = 0) and singly-charged ions (z = 1) in Cσ graphs and characteristic parameters. The procedure includes a criterion, based on a model limit, for eliminating data which, due to a high line intensity or concentration, are not well described by the HD model. An initial procedure provides a set of parameters (βA)z, (ηNl)z, Tz and Nez (z = 0, 1) which characterize the plasma and the LIBS system. After characterization, two different analytical procedures, resulting in relative and absolute concentrations, may be applied. To test the method, fused glass samples prepared from certified slags and pure compounds are analyzed. We determine concentrations of Ca, Mn, Mg, V, Ti, Si and Al relative to Fe in three samples prepared from slags, and absolute concentrations of Fe, Ca and Mn in three samples prepared from Fe2O3, CaCO3 and Mn2O3. The accuracy obtained is 3.2% on the average for relative concentrations and 9.2% for absolute concentrations.

  12. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  13. Rapid and Reliable Detection of Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss Mutations by Multicolor Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xudong; Hong, Yongjun; Cai, Peihong; Tang, Ning; Chen, Ying; Yan, Tizhen; Liu, Yinghua; Huang, Qiuying; Li, Qingge

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common birth defect worldwide. The GJB2, SLC26A4, MT-RNR1 and MT-TS1 genes have been reported as major pathogenic genes in nonsyndromic hearing loss. Early genetic screening is recommended to minimize the incidence of hearing loss. We hereby described a multicolor melting curve analysis (MMCA)-based assay for simultaneous detection of 12 prevalent nonsyndromic hearing loss-related mutations. The three-reaction assay could process 30 samples within 2.5 h in a single run on a 96-well thermocycler. Allelic types of each mutation could be reproducibly obtained from 10 pg ~100 ng genomic DNA per reaction. For the mitochondrial mutations, 10% ~ 20% heteroplasmic mutations could be detected. A comparison study using 501 clinical samples showed that the MMCA assay had 100% concordance with both SNaPshot minisequencing and Sanger sequencing. We concluded that the MMCA assay is a rapid, convenient and cost-effective method for detecting the common mutations, and can be expectedly a reliable tool in preliminary screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss in the Chinese Han population. PMID:28225033

  14. An explicit expression for determining cometabolism kinetics using progress curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2012-05-31

    We present an explicit expression for describing the kinetics of cometabolic biotransformation of environmental pollutants. This expression is based on the Lambert W function and explicitly relates the substrate concentration, S, to time, t, the two experimentally measured variables. This explicit relationship simplifies kinetic parameter estimation as differential equation solution and iterative estimation of the substrate concentration are eliminated. The applicability of this new expression for nonlinear kinetic parameter estimation was first demonstrated using noise containing synthetic data where final estimates of the kinetic parameters were very close to their actual values. Subsequently 1.1.1-trichloroethane degradation data at initial concentrations of 750 and 375 μM were described using the explicit expression resulting in r and K(s) estimates of 0.26 μM/mg d and 28.08 μM and 0.30 μM/mg d and 28.70 μM, respectively, very similar to 0.276 μM/mg d and 31.2 μM, respectively, that were reported in the original study. The new explicit expression presented in this study simplifies estimation of cometabolic kinetic parameters and can be easily used across all computational platforms thereby providing an attractive alternative for progress curve analysis.

  15. Reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for train axle diagnostics based on model assisted POD curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. S.; Cavuto, A.; Martarelli, M.; Pandarese, G.; Revel, G. M.

    2014-05-01

    High speed train axles are integrated for a lifetime and it is time and resource consuming to conduct in service inspection with high accuracy. Laser ultrasonics is a proposed solution as a subset of non-contact measuring methods effective also for hard to reach areas and even recently proved to be effective using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) or air-coupled probes in reception. A reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for this specific application is here performed. The research is mainly based on numerical study of the effect of high energy laser pulses on the surface of a steel axle and of the behavior of the ultrasonic waves in detecting possible defects. Probability of Detection (POD) concept is used as an estimated reliability of the inspection method. In particular Model Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD), a modified form of POD where models are used to infer results for making a decisive statistical approach of POD curve, is here adopted. This paper implements this approach by taking the inputs from limited experiments conducted on a high speed train axle using laser ultrasonics (source pulsed Nd:Yag, reception by high-frequency LDV) to calibrate a multiphysics FE model and by using the calibrated model to generate data samples statistically representative of damaged train axles. The simulated flaws are in accordance with the real defects present on the axle. A set of flaws of different depth has been modeled in order to assess the laser ultrasonics POD for this specific application.

  16. On the applicability of numerical image mapping for PIV image analysis near curved interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masullo, Alessandro; Theunissen, Raf

    2017-07-01

    This paper scrutinises the general suitability of image mapping for particle image velocimetry (PIV) applications. Image mapping can improve PIV measurement accuracy by eliminating overlap between the PIV interrogation windows and an interface, as illustrated by some examples in the literature. Image mapping transforms the PIV images using a curvilinear interface-fitted mesh prior to performing the PIV cross correlation. However, degrading effects due to particle image deformation and the Jacobian transformation inherent in the mapping along curvilinear grid lines have never been deeply investigated. Here, the implementation of image mapping from mesh generation to image resampling is presented in detail, and related error sources are analysed. Systematic comparison with standard PIV approaches shows that image mapping is effective only in a very limited set of flow conditions and geometries, and depends strongly on a priori knowledge of the boundary shape and streamlines. In particular, with strongly curved geometries or streamlines that are not parallel to the interface, the image-mapping approach is easily outperformed by more traditional image analysis methodologies invoking suitable spatial relocation of the obtained displacement vector.

  17. Comparison of five digital scintigraphic display modes. An ROC curve analysis of detection performance.

    PubMed

    Goin, J E; Preston, D F; Gallagher, J H; Wegst, A V

    1983-01-01

    In the last decade diagnostic imaging departments, even those of moderate size, have experienced unprecedented growth. Much of this expansion can be attributed directly to technological developments, including systems for the acquisition of diagnostic images in digital format. In modern imaging departments, digital-based systems are quite common and are found across the specialities of nuclear medicine, ultrasound, transmission and emission computed tomography, and angiography. Nuclear magnetic resonance is the newest digital-based modality, and it appears destined to achieve its place in the diagnostic arsenal. These systems all have one trait in common, which is the topic of this paper. They offer the potential of increasing diagnostic accuracy by varying the methods used to process and display the acquired imaged data. We present the results of a nuclear medicine study designed to compare observer performance among five digital scintigraphic display modes. The observer's task was to detect artificially created lesions in brain scintigrams. Each mode is defined by a combination of an image processing function and a method of display. Using 40 trained observers, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. The results support the use of color displays in nuclear medicine.

  18. First-order-reversal-curve analysis of Pr-Fe-B-based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, D. R.; Peixoto, T. R. F.; Reboh, S.; Fichtner, P. F. P.; de Franco, V. C.; Villas-Boas, V.; Missell, F. P.

    2010-04-01

    Ribbons of nominal composition (Pr9.5Fe84.5B6)0.96Cr0.01(TiC)0.03 were produced by arc-melting and melt-spinning the alloys on a Cu wheel. X-ray diffraction reveals two main phases, one based upon α-Fe and the other upon Pr2Fe14B. The ribbons show exchange spring behavior with Hc=12.5 kOe and (BH)max=13.6 MGOe when these two phases are well coupled. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the coupled behavior is observed when the microstructure consists predominantly of α-Fe grains (diameter ˜100 nm.) surrounded by hard material containing Pr2Fe14B. A first-order-reversal-curve (FORC) analysis was performed for both a well-coupled sample and a partially-coupled sample. The FORC diagrams show two strong peaks for both the partially-coupled sample and for the well-coupled material. In both cases, the localization of the FORC probability suggests demagnetizing interactions between particles. Switching field distributions were calculated and are consistent with the sample microstructure.

  19. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis for Identification of Pasteurellaceae Species in Experimental Animal Facilities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Manuel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from mice housed in experimental animal facilities. Reliable detection and differentiation of Pasteurellaceae are essential for high-quality health monitoring. In this study, we combined a real-time PCR assay amplifying a variable region in the 16S rRNA sequence with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) to identify and differentiate among the commonly isolated species Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypes "Jawetz" and "Heyl", Actinobacillus muris, and Haemophilus influenzaemurium. We used a set of six reference strains for assay development, with the melting profiles of these strains clearly distinguishable due to DNA sequence variations in the amplicon. For evaluation, we used real-time PCR/HRM to test 25 unknown Pasteurellaceae isolates obtained from an external diagnostic laboratory and found the results to be consistent with those of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The real-time PCR/HRM method provides a sensitive, rapid, and closed-tube approach for Pasteurellaceae species identification for health monitoring of laboratory mice.

  20. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis for Identification of Pasteurellaceae Species in Experimental Animal Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Manuel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from mice housed in experimental animal facilities. Reliable detection and differentiation of Pasteurellaceae are essential for high-quality health monitoring. In this study, we combined a real-time PCR assay amplifying a variable region in the 16S rRNA sequence with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) to identify and differentiate among the commonly isolated species Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypes “Jawetz” and “Heyl”, Actinobacillus muris, and Haemophilus influenzaemurium. We used a set of six reference strains for assay development, with the melting profiles of these strains clearly distinguishable due to DNA sequence variations in the amplicon. For evaluation, we used real-time PCR/HRM to test 25 unknown Pasteurellaceae isolates obtained from an external diagnostic laboratory and found the results to be consistent with those of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The real-time PCR/HRM method provides a sensitive, rapid, and closed-tube approach for Pasteurellaceae species identification for health monitoring of laboratory mice. PMID:26556281

  1. Transanal Endoscopic Operation for Rectal Tumor: Short-term Outcomes and Learning Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Hyuk; Bae, Sung Uk; Han, Yoon Dae; Kang, Jeonghyun; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2016-06-01

    We aim to report outcomes and learning curve of transanal endoscopic operation (TEO) for rectal tumors, using standard laparoscopic instruments under a magnifying laparoscopic monitor view. From January 2012 to July 2014, local excision was performed using a TEO system in 46 consecutive patients with rectal tumors. Patient and tumor characteristics and perioperative outcomes were prospectively assessed. The median patient age was 56 years for 15 women and 31 men. The mean tumor size was 1.8 cm, and the mean distance from the anal verge was 7.8 cm. The mean operative time was 85 minutes, and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.5 days. The postoperative pathologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma for 17 patients (37%), adenoma for 4 patients (9%), carcinoid tumor for 23 patients (50%), and leiomyoma and lipoma for the 2 remaining patients (2%). A positive resection margin was documented for 4 patients (9%). No mortality was associated with the procedure although postoperative bleeding, leakage, perianal fistula, fecal incontinence, and voiding difficulty developed in 8 patients. According to the cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis, the operation time and hospital stay significantly decreased after 17 case experiences. TEO is a feasible and safe treatment option for local excision of rectal tumors. TEO has the advantage of being a precise surgical procedure with a stable and magnifying endoscopic view. However, TEO requires a learning period and a careful selection of patients through proper indications and preoperative diagnostics.

  2. Analysis of the 1^3δ Potential Curve of NaK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael; Peet Hickman, A.

    2007-10-01

    The process of determining energy levels from a given potential is relatively straightforward; however, the inverse process, given certain energy levels how to determine the potential is more difficult. In this study, a potential curve of the 1^3δ state of NaK was created based on experimentally determined energy levels. The goal in this research was to suppress the unphysical wiggles at high internuclear separations found in a previous analysis by using a different method that would better determine the physical shape of the potential of the 1^3δ state of NaK. The potential fitting program DPotFit 1.1 by Robert J. Le Roy was used with a modified expanded Morse oscillator (EMO) potential. The modification made to the EMO potential was that a dispersion term, Vdispersion, was added to account for the behavior of the well at high internuclear separations. The modified EMO potential did not eliminate the wiggles, but it did reduce them. The rms deviation between the calculated and experimental energy levels was 0.021 cm-1 for the new fit, compared to 0.026 cm-1 for the previous fit. The use of parameters in fitting energy levels is essential; here, the number of fitting parameters was reduced from the previous study. The employment of the modified EMO potential allowed for a better fit to the experimental energy levels and a more realistic potential function for the 1^3δ state of NaK.

  3. On the analysis of glycomics mass spectrometry data via the regularized area under the ROC curve.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jingjing; Liu, Hao; Kirmiz, Crystal; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Rocke, David M

    2007-12-12

    Novel molecular and statistical methods are in rising demand for disease diagnosis and prognosis with the help of recent advanced biotechnology. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) is one of those biotechnologies that are highly promising to improve health outcome. Previous literatures have identified some proteomics biomarkers that can distinguish healthy patients from cancer patients using MS data. In this paper, an MS study is demonstrated which uses glycomics to identify ovarian cancer. Glycomics is the study of glycans and glycoproteins. The glycans on the proteins may deviate between a cancer cell and a normal cell and may be visible in the blood. High-resolution MS has been applied to measure relative abundances of potential glycan biomarkers in human serum. Multiple potential glycan biomarkers are measured in MS spectra. With the objection of maximizing the empirical area under the ROC curve (AUC), an analysis method was considered which combines potential glycan biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancer. Maximizing the empirical AUC of glycomics MS data is a large-dimensional optimization problem. The technical difficulty is that the empirical AUC function is not continuous. Instead, it is in fact an empirical 0-1 loss function with a large number of linear predictors. An approach was investigated that regularizes the area under the ROC curve while replacing the 0-1 loss function with a smooth surrogate function. The constrained threshold gradient descent regularization algorithm was applied, where the regularization parameters were chosen by the cross-validation method, and the confidence intervals of the regression parameters were estimated by the bootstrap method. The method is called TGDR-AUC algorithm. The properties of the approach were studied through a numerical simulation study, which incorporates the positive values of mass spectrometry data with the correlations between measurements within person. The simulation proved asymptotic properties that

  4. Performance curves of medical researchers during their career: analysis of scientific production from a retrospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Duclos, Antoine; Herquelot, Eléonore; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Malbezin, Muriel; Claris, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To establish the pattern of change in individual scientific production over the career of medical researchers. Design Retrospective cohort based on prospectively collected data in a hospital information system. Setting Multicentre university hospital in France. Participants Two distinct populations of 1835 researchers (full professors vs non-academic physicians) having produced 44 723 publications between 1995 and 2014. Main outcome measures Annual number of publications referenced in Medline/PubMed with a sensitivity analysis based on publications as first/last author and in high impact journals. The individual volume of publications was modelled by age using generalised estimating equations adjusted for birth cohort, biomedical discipline and academic position of researchers. Results Averaged over the whole career, the annual number of publications was 5.28 (95% CI 4.90 to 5.69) among professors compared to 0.82 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.89) among non-academic physicians (p<0.0001). The performance curve of professors evolved in three successive phases, including an initiation phase with a sharp increase in scientific production between 25 and 35 years (adjusted incidence rate ratio 102.20, 95% CI 60.99 to 171.30), a maturation phase with a slower increase from 35 to 50 years (2.10, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.51) until a stabilisation phase with constant production followed by a potential decline at the end of career (0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.06). The non-academic physicians experienced a slower pace of learning curve at the beginning of their careers (42.38, 95% CI 25.37 to 70.81) followed by a smaller increase in the annual number of publications (1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.51). Conclusions Compared to full professors, non-academic physicians had a poor capacity to publish, indicating a low productivity when medical doctors have limited time or little interest in undertaking research. This finding highlights the potential for rethinking the missions of medical doctors

  5. Temperature Effects on the Dissociative Electron Attachment to Dichlorobenzene Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi-Darian, M.; Mauracher, A.; Aleem, A.; Denifl, S.; Rittenschober, B.; Bacher, A.; Probst, M.; Märk, T. D.; Scheier, P.

    2009-10-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to all three isomers of dichlorobenzene has been investigated in the electron energy range from 0 to 2 eV and in the gas temperature range from 391 to 696 K using a crossed electron-molecular beam apparatus with a new temperature-regulated effusive molecular beam source. In the case of the dissociative electron attachment channel Cl-/1,2-dichlorobenzene and Cl-/1,4-dichlorobenzene, strong enhancement of the negative ion production with the gas temperature at low electron energies has been observed. The low-energy peak increases dramatically when the gas temperature is raised from 391 to 696 K. Activation energies for dissociative electron attachment of (482 ± 20) meV for 1,2-dichlorobenzene and (59 ± 20) meV for 1,4-dichlorobenzene have been determined. For the resonance at (0.49 ± 0.03) eV in 1,2-dichlorobenzene and (0.32 ± 0.03) eV in 1,4-dichlorobenzene, no dependence of the cross sections on the gas temperature has been observed. In the case of the dissociative electron attachment to Cl-/1,3-dichlorobenzene, the cross section does not depend on the temperature in the electron energy range from 0 to 2 eV. Quantum chemical calculations of the reaction energies and of the potential energy curves involved in the dissociation of Cl- have been performed, together with an analysis of the thermo dynamical accessibility of the relevant vibrational modes. Possible reasons for the different temperature dependences of the isomers are discussed.

  6. Ecological inference on bacterial succession using curve-based community fingerprint data analysis, demonstrated with rhizoremediation experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Anu; Lappi, Kaisa; Wallenius, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2011-12-01

    Nucleic acid-based community fingerprinting methods are valuable tools in microbial ecology, as they offer rapid and robust means to compare large series of replicates and references. To avoid the time-consuming and potentially subjective procedures of peak-based examination, we assessed the possibility to apply direct curve-based data analysis on community fingerprints produced with bacterial length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The dataset comprised 180 profiles from a 21-week rhizoremediation greenhouse experiment with three treatments and 10 sampling times. Curve-based analysis quantified the progressive effect of the plant (Galega orientalis) and the reversible effect of the contaminant (fuel oil) on bacterial succession. The major observed community shifts were assigned to changes in plant biomass and contamination level by canonical correlation analysis. A novel method to extract relative abundance data from the fingerprint curves for Shannon diversity index revealed contamination to reversibly decrease community complexity. By cloning and sequencing the fragment lengths, recognized to change in time in the averaged LH-PCR profiles, we identified Aquabacterium (Betaproteobacteria) as the putative r-strategic fuel oil degrader, and K-strategic Alphaproteobacteria growing in abundance later in succession. Curve-based community fingerprint analysis can be used for rapid data prescreening or as a robust alternative for the more heavily parameterized peak-based analysis. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FE analysis of the sensitivity of friction calibration curves to dimensional changes in a ring compression test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jeong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Min; Hwang, Beong Bok

    2011-04-01

    This paper is concerned with an analysis of the sensitivity of friction calibration curves to the frictional shear factor in a ring compression test. The main objective of this study is to examine the sensitivity of the FEA calibration curves of a ring compression test to the frictional shear factor. Different calibration curves were investigated by measuring dimensional changes at different positions of a ring specimen, including changes in the internal diameter at the middle and top section of the specimen, the outer diameter at the middle and top section, and the degree of surface expansion at the top surface. The initial ring geometries employed in the analysis maintain a fixed ratio of 6:3:2, i.e., the outer diameter: inner diameter: thickness ratio of the ring specimen, which is generally known as a `standard' specimen, in order only to determine the sensitivity of the calibration curves for the measurement of dimensional changes at different positions to the frictional shear factor. A perfectly plastic material was modeled for the simulations using rigid-plastic finite element code. Analyses were performed within a definite range of friction as well as over the entire range of friction to uncover the different sensitivities of calibration curves to interfacial friction given different ranges of friction. The results of this investigation are summarized in terms of a dimensionless gradient. It was determined from the results that the friction calibration curves according to measurements of the dimensional changes at different positions of a ring specimen show different degrees of linearity and sensitivity to the frictional condition on the contact surface. Among these differences, the friction calibration curve upon changes in the degree of surface expansion at the contact boundary was found to be relatively linear and sensitive to the frictional condition over the entire range of friction.

  8. The analysis of the withdrawal force curve of the wetting curve using 63Sn-37Pb and 96.5Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Yong; Kang, Choon Sik; Jung, Jae Pil

    1999-11-01

    To analyze the withdrawal force curve in the wetting balance curve, wetting balance tests using the 63Sn-37Pb and 96.5Sn-3.6Ag eutectic solders were conducted by varying the immersion speed, sample perimeter, and solder temperature. The mechanism of the withdrawal force curve was reviewed and a new method for calculating the surface tension of solders using the withdrawal force curve was introduced. The results showed that the maximum point of the withdrawal force curve is generated when the sliding solder meets the bottom corners of a sample and the contact angle is reduced to zero. The maximum withdrawal force subtracted by end force can be expressed using force balance equation as F=pγ. Therefore, the surface tension of the solder can be calculated by dividing the maximum withdrawal force by the sample parameter.

  9. Video meteor light curve analysis of Orionids and Geminids and developing a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of shower meteors from the single station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grašić, L.; Milanović, N.; Pavlović, D.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of the shower meteors from single station video data. We found that even though the height of a meteor atmospheric trajectory obtained by using this method may have a large error, the absolute light curve shape is preserved. We used our method to calculate the F parameters of the Orionid and Geminid light curves. The light curves were obtained from the single station video data by the instrument with a limiting sensitivity of 3.5m. We found that for our sample of the light curves the zenith distance of meteor radiant does not affect the F parameter for either of the two showers. The value of F parameter of the Orionids obtained in this paper matches the values obtained by other authors, whilst for the Geminids it is significantly different.

  10. Re-Analysis of the Solar Phase Curves of the Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah; Verbiscer, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Re-analysis of the solar phase curves of the icy Galilean satellites demonstrates that the quantitative results are dependent on the single particle scattering function incorporated into the photometric model; however, the qualitative properties are independent. The results presented here show that the general physical characteristics predicted by a Hapke model (B. Hapke, 1986, Icarus 67, 264-280) incorporating a two parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function are similar to the predictions given by the same model incorporating a three parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function as long as the data set being modeled has adequate coverage in phase angle. Conflicting results occur when the large phase angle coverage is inadequate. Analysis of the role of isotropic versus anisotropic multiple scattering shows that for surfaces as bright as Europa the two models predict very similar results over phase angles covered by the data. Differences arise only at those phase angles for which there are no data. The single particle scattering behavior between the leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa and Ganymede is commensurate with magnetospheric alterations of their surfaces. Ion bombardment will produce more forward scattering single scattering functions due to annealing of potential scattering centers within regolith particles (N. J. Sack et al., 1992, Icarus 100, 534-540). Both leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa are consistent with a high porosity model and commensurate with a frost surface. There are no strong differences in predicted porosity between the two hemispheres of Callisto, both are consistent with model porosities midway between that deduced for Europa and the Moon. Surface roughness model estimates predict that surface roughness increases with satellite distance from Jupiter, with lunar surface roughness values falling midway between those measured for Ganymede and Callisto. There is no obvious variation in predicted surface

  11. Analysis of substrate competition in regulatory network motifs: Stimulus-response curves, thresholds and ultrasensitivity.

    PubMed

    Straube, Ronny

    2015-09-07

    In the simplest case, substrate competition arises if two ligands compete for access to a single binding site of a receptor protein (or enzyme). If the two ligands exhibit different binding affinities the competition becomes biased: as long as the receptor concentration remains lower than that of the high-affinity ligand the latter blocks all of the available binding sites so that the concentration of the complex comprising the low-affinity ligand remains low. The latter only rises if the receptor concentration is increased beyond that of the high-affinity ligand. Depending on the binding affinity of the low-affinity ligand this increase may then occur in an ultrasensitive manner. Similar behavior has been observed in a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle involved in cell-cycle regulation. However, a steady state analysis shows that in this case the threshold concentration is modulated by the catalytic rate constants for phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the high-affinity substrate. As a consequence, there exists a trade-off between the dynamic range of the system as measured by the maximal phosphorylation level of the substrate and the sensitivity of the system as measured by the position of the threshold. Using the ratio of the binding affinities as a small parameter we derive explicit expressions for the stimulus-response curves as a function of the receptor (or enzyme) concentration as well as conditions for the occurrence of ultrasensitivity. Interestingly, the network motifs investigated in this study are described by structurally similar steady state equations indicating that the analysis presented here may be extendable for analyzing substrate competition in more complex regulatory networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Critical Analysis of the Learning Curve and Postlearning Curve Outcomes of Two Experience- and Volume-Matched Surgeons for Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Good, Daniel W; Stewart, Grant D; Laird, Alexander; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Cahill, Declan; McNeill, S Alan

    2015-08-01

    There remains equipoise with regard to whether laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) or robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has any benefit over the other. Despite this, there is a trend for the increasing adoption of RARP at great cost to health services across the world. The aim was to critically analyze the learning curve and outcomes for LRP and RARP for two experience- and volume-matched surgeons who have completed the learning curve for LRP and RARP. Two experience- and volume-matched LRP and RARP surgeons who have completed the learning curve were compared with respect to their learning curve and outcomes for RARP and LRP. There were 531 RARP and 550 LRPs analyzed from April 2003 until January 2012 at two relatively high-volume United Kingdom centers. Outcome measures included operative time, blood loss, complication rate (Clavien-Dindo grade III), positive surgical margin (PSM) rate, and early continence rate. Learning curves for blood loss, operative times, and complication rate were similar between groups. The overall PSM rate and pT2 PSM rate learning curves were longer for RARP compared with LRP but shorter for early continence. Apical PSM showed no learning curve for RARP; however, a long learning curve for LRP and the rate was lower for RARP than for LRP (P=<0.001). This study of RARP and LRP identified that both modalities had long learning curves. Despite the long learning curve for RARP, significant benefits in lower PSM rates and better early continence in comparison with LRP exist. There are benefits to patients with RARP over LRP, especially those linked to better apical dissection (apical PSM and early continence).

  13. Integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelasticity of curved panels based on a modified local piston theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhichun; Zhou, Jian; Gu, Yingsong

    2014-10-01

    A flow field modified local piston theory, which is applied to the integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelastic behaviors of curved panels, is proposed in this paper. The local flow field parameters used in the modification are obtained by CFD technique which has the advantage to simulate the steady flow field accurately. This flow field modified local piston theory for aerodynamic loading is applied to the analysis of static aeroelastic deformation and flutter stabilities of curved panels in hypersonic flow. In addition, comparisons are made between results obtained by using the present method and curvature modified method. It shows that when the curvature of the curved panel is relatively small, the static aeroelastic deformations and flutter stability boundaries obtained by these two methods have little difference, while for curved panels with larger curvatures, the static aeroelastic deformation obtained by the present method is larger and the flutter stability boundary is smaller compared with those obtained by the curvature modified method, and the discrepancy increases with the increasing of curvature of panels. Therefore, the existing curvature modified method is non-conservative compared to the proposed flow field modified method based on the consideration of hypersonic flight vehicle safety, and the proposed flow field modified local piston theory for curved panels enlarges the application range of piston theory.

  14. [A mathematical analysis of strain-gauge curves in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Vega Gómez, M E; Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Alvarez Sánchez, J A; Charles-Edouard Otrante, D; Fernández Boloña, A; Gutierrez Jiménez, O

    1991-01-01

    The plethysmographic strain gauge venous outflow curves were studied by means of an exponential function. The parameters analyzed made possible the establishment of differences between patients with and without DVT.

  15. Development of synthetic velocity - depth damage curves using a Weighted Monte Carlo method and Logistic Regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.

    2014-05-01

    Damage curves are the most significant component of the flood loss estimation models. Their development is quite complex. Two types of damage curves exist, historical and synthetic curves. Historical curves are developed from historical loss data from actual flood events. However, due to the scarcity of historical data, synthetic damage curves can be alternatively developed. Synthetic curves rely on the analysis of expected damage under certain hypothetical flooding conditions. A synthetic approach was developed and presented in this work for the development of damage curves, which are subsequently used as the basic input to a flood loss estimation model. A questionnaire-based survey took place among practicing and research agronomists, in order to generate rural loss data based on the responders' loss estimates, for several flood condition scenarios. In addition, a similar questionnaire-based survey took place among building experts, i.e. civil engineers and architects, in order to generate loss data for the urban sector. By answering the questionnaire, the experts were in essence expressing their opinion on how damage to various crop types or building types is related to a range of values of flood inundation parameters, such as floodwater depth and velocity. However, the loss data compiled from the completed questionnaires were not sufficient for the construction of workable damage curves; to overcome this problem, a Weighted Monte Carlo method was implemented, in order to generate extra synthetic datasets with statistical properties identical to those of the questionnaire-based data. The data generated by the Weighted Monte Carlo method were processed via Logistic Regression techniques in order to develop accurate logistic damage curves for the rural and the urban sectors. A Python-based code was developed, which combines the Weighted Monte Carlo method and the Logistic Regression analysis into a single code (WMCLR Python code). Each WMCLR code execution

  16. Dissociative symptomatology in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Civilotti, Cristina; Castelli, Lorys; Binaschi, Luca; Cussino, Martina; Tesio, Valentina; Di Fini, Giulia; Veglia, Fabio; Torta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the presence of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology in a sample of cancer patients; (2) examine the correlation of cancer-related dissociation and sociodemographic and medical variables, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology; (3) investigate the predictors of cancer-related dissociation. Methods: Ninety-two mixed cancer patients (mean age: 58.94, ds = 10.13) recruited from two hospitals in northern Italy were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the Karnofsky Scale to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression, the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) to quantify the traumatic dissociative symptomatology. Results: 31.5% of participants report a PDEQ score above the cutoff. The results indicated that dissociative symptomatology was positively correlated with HADS scores (HADS-Anxiety: r = 0.476, p < 0.001; HADS-Depression: r = 0.364, p < 0.001) and with IES-R scores (IES-R-Intrusion: r = 0.698, p < 0.001; IES-R-Avoidance: r = 0.619, p < 0.001; IES-R- Hypervigilance: r = 0.681, p < 0.001). A stepwise regression analysis was performed in order to find the predictors of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology. The results converged on a three predictor model revealing that IES-R-Intrusion, IES-R-Avoidance, and IES-R-Hyperarousal accounted for 53.9% of the explained variance. Conclusion: These findings allow us to hypothesize a specific psychological reaction which may be ascribed to the traumatic

  17. A Bayesian analysis of the effect of selection for growth rate on growth curves in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Agustín; Piles, Miriam; Varona, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Gompertz growth curves were fitted to the data of 137 rabbits from control (C) and selected (S) lines. The animals came from a synthetic rabbit line selected for an increased growth rate. The embryos from generations 3 and 4 were frozen and thawed to be contemporary of rabbits born in generation 10. Group C was the offspring of generations 3 and 4, and group S was the contemporary offspring of generation 10. The animals were weighed individually twice a week during the first four weeks of life, and once a week thereafter, until 20 weeks of age. Subsequently, the males were weighed weekly until 40 weeks of age. The random samples of the posterior distributions of the growth curve parameters were drawn by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. As a consequence of selection, the selected animals were heavier than the C animals throughout the entire growth curve. Adult body weight, estimated as a parameter of the Gompertz curve, was 7% higher in the selected line. The other parameters of the Gompertz curve were scarcely affected by selection. When selected and control growth curves are represented in a metabolic scale, all differences disappear. PMID:12605849

  18. Guilt by dissociation: guilt primes augment the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation.

    PubMed

    Rugens, Alex; Terhune, Devin Blair

    2013-03-30

    We examined the influence of guilt on the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation during mirror-gazing in a non-clinical sample. Dissociative tendencies correlated with state dissociation following guilt primes, but not after negative or neutral primes. This suggests that guilt augments the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  20. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  1. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software.

  2. Prediction Accuracy of the Washington and Illinois Risk Assessment Instruments: An Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    1995-01-01

    Compares the predictive performances of the Illinois CANTS 17B and the Washington State Risk Matrix on a sample of New Jersey child protective services cases using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both instruments predict case recidivism, closings, and substantiation with probabilities greater than chance.…

  3. Self-Esteem Trajectories among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Patterns and Predictors of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Melissa L.; Way, Niobe

    2005-01-01

    The current study presents a growth curve analysis of self-esteem among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to examine patterns and predictors of change in self-esteem over time. Results revealed an average increase in self-esteem with age. Although boys and girls experienced…

  4. Self-Esteem Trajectories among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Patterns and Predictors of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Melissa L.; Way, Niobe

    2005-01-01

    The current study presents a growth curve analysis of self-esteem among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to examine patterns and predictors of change in self-esteem over time. Results revealed an average increase in self-esteem with age. Although boys and girls experienced…

  5. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Lu, X. L.; Zhao, Q. W.; Dong, D. Q.; Lao, B. Q.; Lu, Y.; Wei, Y. H.; Wu, X. C.; An, T.

    2016-03-01

    SS 433 is the only X-ray binary to date that was detected to have a pair of well-collimated jets, and its orbital period, super orbital period, and nutation period were all detected at the same time. The study on the periodic X-ray variabilities is helpful for understanding its dynamic process of the central engine and the correlation with other bands. In the present paper, two time series analysis techniques, Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periodicities from the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope)(15--50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/All-Sky Monitor)(1.5--3, 3--5 and 5--12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed. For the 15--50 keV energy band, five significant periodic signals are detected, which are P_1(˜6.29 d), P_2 (˜6.54 d), P_3 (˜13.08 d), P_4 (˜81.50 d), and P_5 (˜162.30 d). For the 3--5 and 5--12 keV energy bands, periodic signals P_3 (˜13 d) and P_5 (˜162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5--3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P_5 has the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3--5, 5--12, and 15--50 keV, and it is consistent with that obtained by previous study in optical band. Further, due to the existence of relativistic radio jets, the X-ray and optical band variability of P_5 (˜162 d) is probably related to the precession of the relativistic jets. High coherence between X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical emissions are of the same physical origin. P_3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (˜13.07 d) first obtained by previous study, and P_2 and P_4 are the high frequency harmonic components of P_3 and P_5, respectively. P_1 is detected from the power spectrum of 15--50 keV energy band only, and it is consistent with the systematic nutation period. As the power of energy band decreases (from hard X-ray to

  6. High-Throughput Genome Editing and Phenotyping Facilitated by High Resolution Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Holly R.; Percival, Stefanie M.; Yoder, Bradley K.; Parant, John M.

    2014-01-01

    With the goal to generate and characterize the phenotypes of null alleles in all genes within an organism and the recent advances in custom nucleases, genome editing limitations have moved from mutation generation to mutation detection. We previously demonstrated that High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid and efficient means of genotyping known zebrafish mutants. Here we establish optimized conditions for HRM based detection of novel mutant alleles. Using these conditions, we demonstrate that HRM is highly efficient at mutation detection across multiple genome editing platforms (ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPRs); we observed nuclease generated HRM positive targeting in 1 of 6 (16%) open pool derived ZFNs, 14 of 23 (60%) TALENs, and 58 of 77 (75%) CRISPR nucleases. Successful targeting, based on HRM of G0 embryos correlates well with successful germline transmission (46 of 47 nucleases); yet, surprisingly mutations in the somatic tail DNA weakly correlate with mutations in the germline F1 progeny DNA. This suggests that analysis of G0 tail DNA is a good indicator of the efficiency of the nuclease, but not necessarily a good indicator of germline alleles that will be present in the F1s. However, we demonstrate that small amplicon HRM curve profiles of F1 progeny DNA can be used to differentiate between specific mutant alleles, facilitating rare allele identification and isolation; and that HRM is a powerful technique for screening possible off-target mutations that may be generated by the nucleases. Our data suggest that micro-homology based alternative NHEJ repair is primarily utilized in the generation of CRISPR mutant alleles and allows us to predict likelihood of generating a null allele. Lastly, we demonstrate that HRM can be used to quickly distinguish genotype-phenotype correlations within F1 embryos derived from G0 intercrosses. Together these data indicate that custom nucleases, in conjunction with the ease and speed of HRM, will facilitate future high

  7. Analysis of late-time light curves of Type IIb, Ib and Ic supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Johnson, V.; Clocchiatti, A.

    2015-06-01

    The shape of the light-curve peak of radioactive-powered core-collapse `stripped-envelope' supernovae constrains the ejecta mass, nickel mass and kinetic energy by the brightness and diffusion time for a given opacity and observed expansion velocity. Late-time light curves give constraints on the ejecta mass and energy, given the gamma-ray opacity. Previous work has shown that the principal light-curve peaks for SN IIb with small amounts of hydrogen and for hydrogen/helium-deficient SN Ib/c are often rather similar near maximum light, suggesting similar ejecta masses and kinetic energies, but that late-time light curves show a wide dispersion, suggesting a dispersion in ejecta masses and kinetic energies. It was also shown that SN IIb and SN Ib/c can have very similar late-time light curves, but different ejecta velocities demanding significantly different ejecta masses and kinetic energies. We revisit these topics by collecting and analysing well-sampled single-band and quasi-bolometric light curves from the literature. We find that the late-time light curves of stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae are heterogeneous. We also show that the observed properties, the photospheric velocity at peak, the rise time and the late decay time, can be used to determine the mean opacity appropriate to the peak. The opacity determined in this way is considerably smaller than common estimates. We discuss how the small effective opacity may result from recombination and asymmetries in the ejecta.

  8. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard J.; Li, Yuting; Muraszko, Joy R.; Channell, James E. T.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We describe a quantitative magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. For PCA, we resample FORC distributions on grids that capture diagnostic signatures of single-domain (SD), pseudosingle-domain (PSD), and multidomain (MD) magnetite, as well as of minerals such as hematite. Individual FORC diagrams are recast as linear combinations of end-member (EM) FORC diagrams, located at user-defined positions in PCA space. The EM selection is guided by constraints derived from physical modeling and imposed by data scatter. We investigate temporal variations of two EMs in bulk North Atlantic sediment cores collected from the Rockall Trough and the Iberian Continental Margin. Sediments from each site contain a mixture of magnetosomes and granulometrically distinct detrital magnetite. We also quantify the spatial variation of three EM components (a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite) in surficial sediments along the flow path of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). These samples were separated into granulometric fractions, which helped constrain EM definition. PCA-based unmixing reveals systematic variations in EM relative abundance as a function of distance along NADW flow. Finally, we apply PCA to the combined data set of Rockall Trough and NADW sediments, which can be recast as a four-EM mixture, providing enhanced discrimination between components. Our method forms the foundation of a general solution to the problem of unmixing multicomponent magnetic mixtures, a fundamental task of rock magnetic studies.

  9. First order reversal curves (FORC) analysis of individual magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Merlin; Eibisch, Paul; Akbari, Maryam; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Alongside the development of artificially created magnetic nanostructures, micro-Hall magnetometry has proven to be a versatile tool to obtain high-resolution hysteresis loop data and access dynamical properties. Here we explore the application of First Order Reversal Curves (FORC)-a technique well-established in the field of paleomagnetism for studying grain-size and interaction effects in magnetic rocks-to individual and dipolar-coupled arrays of magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall sensors. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on a macroscopic piece of a floppy disk as a reference sample well known in the literature demonstrates that the FORC diagrams obtained by magnetic stray field measurements using home-built magnetometers are in good agreement with magnetization data obtained by a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer. We discuss in detail the FORC diagrams and their interpretation of three different representative magnetic systems, prepared by the direct-write Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) technique: (1) an isolated Co-nanoisland showing a simple square-shaped hysteresis loop, (2) a more complex CoFe-alloy nanoisland exhibiting a wasp-waist-type hysteresis, and (3) a cluster of interacting Co-nanoislands. Our findings reveal that the combination of FORC and micro-Hall magnetometry is a promising tool to investigate complex magnetization reversal processes within individual or small ensembles of nanomagnets grown by FEBID or other fabrication methods. The method provides sub-μm spatial resolution and bridges the gap of FORC analysis, commonly used for studying macroscopic samples and rather large arrays, to studies of small ensembles of interacting nanoparticles with the high moment sensitivity inherent to micro-Hall magnetometry.

  10. First order reversal curves (FORC) analysis of individual magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlit, Merlin; Eibisch, Paul; Akbari, Maryam; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Alongside the development of artificially created magnetic nanostructures, micro-Hall magnetometry has proven to be a versatile tool to obtain high-resolution hysteresis loop data and access dynamical properties. Here we explore the application of First Order Reversal Curves (FORC)—a technique well-established in the field of paleomagnetism for studying grain-size and interaction effects in magnetic rocks—to individual and dipolar-coupled arrays of magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall sensors. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on a macroscopic piece of a floppy disk as a reference sample well known in the literature demonstrates that the FORC diagrams obtained by magnetic stray field measurements using home-built magnetometers are in good agreement with magnetization data obtained by a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer. We discuss in detail the FORC diagrams and their interpretation of three different representative magnetic systems, prepared by the direct-write Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) technique: (1) an isolated Co-nanoisland showing a simple square-shaped hysteresis loop, (2) a more complex CoFe-alloy nanoisland exhibiting a wasp-waist-type hysteresis, and (3) a cluster of interacting Co-nanoislands. Our findings reveal that the combination of FORC and micro-Hall magnetometry is a promising tool to investigate complex magnetization reversal processes within individual or small ensembles of nanomagnets grown by FEBID or other fabrication methods. The method provides sub-μm spatial resolution and bridges the gap of FORC analysis, commonly used for studying macroscopic samples and rather large arrays, to studies of small ensembles of interacting nanoparticles with the high moment sensitivity inherent to micro-Hall magnetometry.

  11. High-throughput quantitative analysis with cell growth kinetic curves for low copy number mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, James Z; Gabos, Stephan; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Huang, Min; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The mutation rate in cells induced by environmental genotoxic hazards is very low and difficult to detect using traditional cell counting assays. The established genetic toxicity tests currently recognized by regulatory authorities, such as conventional Ames and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) assays, are not well suited for higher-throughput screening as they require large amounts of test compounds and are very time consuming. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay for quantitative analysis of low numbers of cell copies with HPRT mutation induced by an environmental mutagen. The HPRT gene mutant cells induced by the mutagen were selected by 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and the cell's kinetic growth curve monitored by a real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system. When a threshold is set at a certain cell index (CI) level, samples with different initial mutant cell copies take different amounts of time in order for their growth (or CI accumulation) to cross this threshold. The more cells that are initially seeded in the test well, the faster the cell accumulation and therefore the shorter the time required to cross this threshold. Therefore, the culture time period required to cross the threshold of each sample corresponds to the original number of cells in the sample. A mutant cell growth time threshold (MT) value of each sample can be calculated to predict the number of original mutant cells. For mutagenesis determination, the RT-CES assay displayed an equal sensitivity (p > 0.05) and coefficients of variation values with good correlation to conventional HPRT mutagenic assays. Most importantly, the RT-CES mutation assay has a higher throughput than conventional cellular assays.

  12. Statistical model to perform error analysis of curve fits of wind tunnel test data using the techniques of analysis of variance and regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The considered research had the objective to design a statistical model that could perform an error analysis of curve fits of wind tunnel test data using analysis of variance and regression analysis techniques. Four related subproblems were defined, and by solving each of these a solution to the general research problem was obtained. The capabilities of the evolved true statistical model are considered. The least squares fit is used to determine the nature of the force, moment, and pressure data. The order of the curve fit is increased in order to delete the quadratic effect in the residuals. The analysis of variance is used to determine the magnitude and effect of the error factor associated with the experimental data.

  13. Bioinformatics analysis of Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta and its expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ming, Zongjuan; Guo, Chunli; Jiang, Meihua; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yuping; Fan, Na; Zhong, Yujie; Meng, Xia; Yang, Shuanying

    2014-11-04

    Lung cancer has been considered as one of the most important causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. To predict lung cancer, researchers identified several molecular markers. However, many underlying markers of lung cancer remain unclear. One of these markers is Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDIβ), which is related to tumorigenicity, development and invasion. This study was designed to analyze the biological characteristics of Rab GDIβ and to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of Rab GDIβ in lung cancer cells; this study also aimed to investigate the functions of this protein in lung cancer. Using online software from the websites of NCBI, ProtParam and so on, we analyzed the biological characteristics of Rab GDIβ. RT-PCR was performed to detect gene expressions in A549 and 16HBE cell lines and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was conducted to detect Rab GDIβ protein expression in 57 cases of human lung cancer tissues and 19 cases of normal lung tissues. The association of protein expression with patient clinical and pathological characteristics was assessed in each dataset. Bioinformatic analysis on Rab GDIβ: The mRNA of human Rab GDIβ contains two transcript variants; the common structural elements of the two proteins are mainly α-helix, random coil, β-turn and extended strand. Three and four transmembrane domains could be found in the entire polypeptide chain of protein variants 1 and 2, respectively; both transcript variants are hydrophilic and soluble proteins. The RT-PCR result: The mRNA expression of Rab GDIβ was down-regulation in A549 cells compared with that in 16HBE cells. The IHC result: The protein expression of Rab GDIβ in lung cancer cells was significantly lower than that in normal lung tissues (P <0.05) but was not correlated with patients' age, gender, tumor size, pathological type, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and TNM stage. The expression of Rab GDIβ was low in non-small cell lung

  14. Evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods for reliable biomarker discovery: bias, resolution, precision, and implications.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Pfaffl, Michael W; Zhao, Sheng; Spiess, Andrej N; Boggy, Gregory; Blom, Jochen; Rutledge, Robert G; Sisti, Davide; Lievens, Antoon; De Preter, Katleen; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts such as mRNA or microRNA are frequently used as biomarkers to determine disease state or response to therapy. Reverse transcription (RT) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice to quantify small amounts of such RNA molecules. In parallel with the democratization of RT-qPCR and its increasing use in biomedical research or biomarker discovery, we witnessed a growth in the number of gene expression data analysis methods. Most of these methods are based on the principle that the position of the amplification curve with respect to the cycle-axis is a measure for the initial target quantity: the later the curve, the lower the target quantity. However, most methods differ in the mathematical algorithms used to determine this position, as well as in the way the efficiency of the PCR reaction (the fold increase of product per cycle) is determined and applied in the calculations. Moreover, there is dispute about whether the PCR efficiency is constant or continuously decreasing. Together this has lead to the development of different methods to analyze amplification curves. In published comparisons of these methods, available algorithms were typically applied in a restricted or outdated way, which does not do them justice. Therefore, we aimed at development of a framework for robust and unbiased assessment of curve analysis performance whereby various publicly available curve analysis methods were thoroughly compared using a previously published large clinical data set (Vermeulen et al., 2009) [11]. The original developers of these methods applied their algorithms and are co-author on this study. We assessed the curve analysis methods' impact on transcriptional biomarker identification in terms of expression level, statistical significance, and patient-classification accuracy. The concentration series per gene, together with data sets from unpublished technical performance experiments, were analyzed in order to assess the

  15. More basic approach to the analysis of multiple specimen R-curves for determination of J/sub c/

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    Multiple specimen J-R curves were developed for groups of 1T compact specimens with different a/W values and depth of side grooving. The purpose of this investigation was to determine J/sub c/ (J at onset of crack extension) for each group. Judicious selection of points on the load versus load-line deflection record at which to unload and heat tint specimens permitted direct observation of approximate onset of crack extension. It was found that the present recommended procedure for determining J/sub c/ from multiple specimen R-curves, which is being considered for standardization, consistently yielded nonconservative J/sub c/ values. A more basic approach to analyzing multiple specimen R-curves is presented, applied, and discussed. This analysis determined J/sub c/ values that closely corresponded to actual observed onset of crack extension.

  16. Combined statistical analysis of vasodilation and flow curves in brachial ultrasonography: technique and its connection to cardiovascular risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisrobert, Loic; Laclaustra, Martin; Bossa, Matias; Frangi, Andres G.; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2005-04-01

    Clinical studies report that impaired endothelial function is associated with Cardio-Vascular Diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. One commonly used mean for assessing endothelial function is Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD). Classically, FMD is quantified using local indexes e.g. maximum peak dilation. Although such parameters have been successfully linked to CVD risk factors and other clinical variables, this description does not consider all the information contained in the complete vasodilation curve. Moreover, the relation between flow impulse and the vessel vasodilation response to this stimulus, although not clearly known, seems to be important and is not taken into account in the majority of studies. In this paper we propose a novel global parameterization for the vasodilation and the flow curves of a FMD test. This parameterization uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to describe independently and jointly the variability of flow and FMD curves. These curves are obtained using computerized techniques (based on edge detection and image registration, respectively) to analyze the ultrasound image sequences. The global description obtained through PCA yields a detailed characterization of the morphology of such curves allowing the extraction of intuitive quantitative information of the vasodilation process and its interplay with flow changes. This parameterization is consistent with traditional measurements and, in a database of 177 subjects, seems to correlate more strongly (and with more clinical parameters) than classical measures to CVD risk factors and clinical parameters such as LDL- and HDL-Cholesterol.

  17. Statistical signal processing methods for intraoral pressure curve analysis in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Klaus; Engelke, Wilfried; Knösel, Michael

    2012-08-01

    A thorough understanding of the intraoral pressure conditions of patients with different forms of malocclusion may help to characterize their aetiology in more detail and improve orthodontic treatment approaches by adding strategies to achieve a normalization of intraoral pressure levels. These pressure curve analyses should not only provide information on intraoral activity or during rest but also detail characterization of swallowing features and pressure plateau stages. For this purpose, algorithms for extracting swallowing peaks and plateau stages were developed and evaluated. Established curve characteristics such as the average or maximum pressure as well as the number of swallowing peaks or resting phases were compared between each other. Their usefulness and correlation (Kendall's τ) were evaluated in a data example of different occlusal groups (Angle Class I: n = 30; Angle Class II division 1: n = 12; and Angle Class II division 2: n = 13). Curve characteristics were compared among these groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Some of the derived curve characteristics were found to be uncorrelated, thus providing different information concerning the intraoral pressure condition of subjects. Based on these findings, it is recommended to employ the curve characteristics described in this study to obtain a holistic image of factors that may affect the formation of the dentition.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Biologically Relevant Response Curves in Gene Expression Experiments: Heteromorphy, Heterochrony, and Heterometry.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G

    2014-02-14

    To gain biological insights, investigators sometimes compare sequences of gene expression measurements under two scenarios (such as two drugs or species). For this situation, we developed an algorithm to fit, identify, and compare biologically relevant response curves in terms of heteromorphy (different curves), heterochrony (different transition times), and heterometry (different magnitudes). The curves are flat, linear, sigmoid, hockey-stick (sigmoid missing a steady state), transient (sigmoid missing two steady states), impulse (with peak or trough), step (with intermediate-level plateau), impulse+ (impulse with an extra parameter), step+ (step with an extra parameter), further characterized by upward or downward trend. To reduce overfitting, we fit the curves to every other response, evaluated the fit in the remaining responses, and identified the most parsimonious curves that yielded a good fit. We measured goodness of fit using a statistic comparable over different genes, namely the square root of the mean squared prediction error as a percentage of the range of responses, which we call the relative prediction error (RPE). We illustrated the algorithm using data on gene expression at 14 times in the embryonic development in two species of frogs. Software written in Mathematica is freely available.

  19. Does the Budyko curve reflect a maximum power state of hydrological systems? A backward analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Zehe, Erwin; Archambeau, Pierre; Dewals, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we applied the thermodynamic principle of maximum power as the organizing principle. In a top-down approach we derived mathematical formulations of the relation between relative wetness and gradients driving runoff and evaporation for a simple one-box model. We did this in an inverse manner such that when the conductances are optimized with the maximum power principle, the steady state behaviour of the model leads exactly to a point on the asymptotes of the Budyko curve. Subsequently, we added dynamics in forcing and actual evaporations, causing the Budyko curve to deviate from the asymptotes. Despite the simplicity of the model, catchment observations compare reasonably well with the Budyko curves subject to observed dynamics in rainfall and actual evaporation. Thus by constraining the - with the maximum power principle optimized - model with the asymptotes of the Budyko curve we were able to derive more realistic values of the aridity and evaporation index without any parameter calibration. Future work should focus on better representing the boundary conditions of real catchments and eventually adding more complexity to the model.

  20. An analysis of calibration curve models for solid-state heat-flow calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.; McCabe, G.

    2001-01-01

    Various calibration curve models for solid-state calorimeters are compared to determine which model best fits the calibration data. The calibration data are discussed. The criteria used to select the best model are explained. A conclusion regarding the best model for the calibration curve is presented. These results can also be used to evaluate the random and systematic error of a calorimetric measurement. A linear/quadratic model has been used for decades to fit the calibration curves for wheatstone bridge calorimeters. Excellent results have been obtained using this calibration curve model. The Multical software package uses this model for the calibration curve. The choice of this model is supported by 40 years [1] of calorimeter data. There is good empirical support for the linear/quadratic model. Calorimeter response is strongly linear. Calorimeter sensitivity is slightly lower at higher powers; the negative coefficient of the x{sup 2} term accounts for this. The solid-state calorimeter is operated using the Multical [2] software package. An investigation was undertaken to determine if the linear/quadratic model is the best model for the new sensor technology used in the solid-state calorimeter.

  1. Probing dissociative molecular dications by mapping vibrational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Puettner, R.; Sekushin, V.; Kaindl, G.; Arion, T.; Lischke, T.; Mucke, M.; Hergenhahn, U.; Foerstel, M.; Bradshaw, A. M.

    2011-04-15

    We present high-resolution photoelectron-Auger-electron coincidence spectra of methane (CH{sub 4}). Since the vibrational structure in the photoelectron spectrum is resolved, the Auger spectra corresponding to different vibrational levels can be separated. The seven final states of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} are either dissociative or metastable, but in any case are populated in a repulsive part of their potential-energy curve via the Auger decay. The Auger line shapes can therefore be obtained by mapping the vibrational wave functions of the core-hole state into energy space. We have implemented this connection in the data analysis. By simultaneously fitting the different Auger spectra, detailed information on the energies of the dicationic states and their repulsive potential-energy curves is derived.

  2. Learning curve evaluation using cumulative summation analysis-a clinical example of pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

    PubMed

    Cundy, Thomas P; Gattas, Nicholas E; White, Alan D; Najmaldin, Azad S

    2015-08-01

    The cumulative summation (CUSUM) method for learning curve analysis remains under-utilized in the surgical literature in general, and is described in only a small number of publications within the field of pediatric surgery. This study introduces the CUSUM analysis technique and applies it to evaluate the learning curve for pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RP). Clinical data were prospectively recorded for consecutive pediatric RP cases performed by a single-surgeon. CUSUM charts and tests were generated for set-up time, docking time, console time, operating time, total operating room time, and postoperative complications. Conversions and avoidable operating room delay were separately evaluated with respect to case experience. Comparisons between case experience and time-based outcomes were assessed using the Student's t-test and ANOVA for bi-phasic and multi-phasic learning curves respectively. Comparison between case experience and complication frequency was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A total of 90 RP cases were evaluated. The learning curve transitioned beyond the learning phase at cases 10, 15, 42, 57, and 58 for set-up time, docking time, console time, operating time, and total operating room time respectively. All comparisons of mean operating times between the learning phase and subsequent phases were statistically significant (P=<0.001-0.01). No significant difference was observed between case experience and frequency of post-operative complications (P=0.125), although the CUSUM chart demonstrated a directional change in slope for the last 12 cases in which there were high proportions of re-do cases and patients <6 months of age. The CUSUM method has a valuable role for learning curve evaluation and outcome quality monitoring. In applying this statistical technique to the largest reported single surgeon series of pediatric RP, we demonstrate numerous distinctly shaped learning curves and well-defined learning phase transition

  3. Binding and dissociation kinetics using fractals: an analysis of electrostatic effects and randomly coupled and oriented coupled receptors on biosensor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Butala, Harshala D; Sadana, Ajit

    2004-03-15

    A fractal analysis is used to analyze the influence of: (a) electrostatic interactions on binding and dissociation rate coefficients for antibodies HH8, HH10, and HH26 in solution to hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]; and (b) the binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Methods 20 (2000) 310]. Single- and dual-fractal models were employed to fit the data. Values of the binding and the dissociation rate coefficient(s) and the fractal dimensions were obtained from a regression analysis provided by Corel Quattro Pro 8.0 (Corel Corporation Limited, Ottawa, Canada. 1997). The binding rate coefficients are quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity on the sensor chip surface. It is of interest to compare the results obtained by the fractal analysis with that of the original analysis [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]. For example, as one goes from the binding of 21 nM HH10/HEL to the binding of 640 nM HH10/HEL(K97A), Sinha et al. [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 29461 indicate that the enhancement of diffusional encounter rates may be due to 'electrostatic steering' (a long-range interaction). Our analysis indicates that there is an increase in the value of the fractal dimension, Df1 by a factor of 1.12 from a value of 2.133-2.385. This increase in the degree of heterogeneity on the surface leads to an increase in the binding rate coefficient, k1 by a factor of 1.59 from 12.92 to 20.57. The fractal analysis of binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip [Methods 20 (2000) 310] surface are consistent with the degree of heterogeneity present on the sensor chip surface for the random and the oriented case. As expected, the random case will exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity than the oriented case

  4. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling for tuning-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Beau; Stevenson, Ian H; Sur, Mriganka; Körding, Konrad P

    2010-01-01

    A central theme of systems neuroscience is to characterize the tuning of neural responses to sensory stimuli or the production of movement. Statistically, we often want to estimate the parameters of the tuning curve, such as preferred direction, as well as the associated degree of uncertainty, characterized by error bars. Here we present a new sampling-based, Bayesian method that allows the estimation of tuning-curve parameters, the estimation of error bars, and hypothesis testing. This method also provides a useful way of visualizing which tuning curves are compatible with the recorded data. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using recordings of orientation and direction tuning in primary visual cortex, direction of motion tuning in primary motor cortex, and simulated data.

  5. A linear analysis of the transition curve for the baroclinic annulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L.; Gall, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A primitive equation linear model is shown to be capable of quantitatively predicting the neutral curve for a baroclinic annulus. Flows unstable to small nonaxisymmetric perturbations are assumed to lie on the nonaxisymmetric side of a transition curve, while the stable flows are on the axisymmetric side. The stability in the presence of perturbations is tested with linearized hydrostatic primitive equations. Attention is given to the fastest growing eigenmodes, demonstrating that the linear and nonlinear wave have similar structures at a particular point in the nonaxisymmetric regime. All the waves are similar to the Eddy wave except at the extreme to the transition curve, where the waves maintain little structure with height. The eddy kinetic energy is baroclinic with a potential energy suppresed by the large static stability of the basic state. Eddy dissipation is noted to be significant near all boundaries.

  6. Nonlinear stability analysis of double-curved shallow fgm panels on elastic foundations in thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Nguyen Dinh; Quan, Tran Quoc

    2012-09-01

    An analytical investigation into the nonlinear response of thick functionally graded double-curved shallow panels resting on elastic foundations and subjected to thermal and thermomechanical loads is presented. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are both graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. All formulations are based on the classical shell theory with account of geometrical nonlinearity and initial geometrical imperfection in the cases of Pasternak-type elastic foundations. By applying the Galerkin method, explicit relations for the thermal load-deflection curves of simply supported curved panels are found. The effects of material and geometrical properties and foundation stiffness on the buckling and postbuckling load-carrying capacity of the panels in thermal environments are analyzed and discussed.

  7. The mathematical analysis for peristaltic flow of nano fluid in a curved channel with compliant walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Maraj, E. N.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the peristaltic flow of nano fluid in a curved channel with compliant walls. The governing equations of nano fluid model for curved channel are derived including the effects of curvature. The highly nonlinear partial differential equations are simplified using the long wave length and low Reynolds number assumptions. The reduced nonlinear partial differential equation is solved analytically with the help of homotopy perturbation method. The physical features of pertinent parameters have been discussed by plotting the graphs of pressure rise, velocity, temperature, nano particle volume fraction and stream functions.

  8. New Spectroscopic Analysis and Light Curve Model of the Eclipsing Binary V356 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M.; Mennickent, R.; Djurasević, G.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new orbital solution for the V356 Sgr binary system based on new and accurate radial velocities. It consists of a B3 V star accreting matter from a Roche-Lobe filling A2 II star. The spectra were disentangled using KOREL. The UBV light curves by Popper (1957) and Wilson & Woodward (1995) as well as the ASAS V-band light curve were modeled with a multicomponent synthesis code including an accretion disk. The system parameters, such as the effective temperature and surface gravity for both stars as well as the disk temperature and radius, were determined.

  9. Optimizing a nonlinear mathematical approach for the computerized analysis of mood curves.

    PubMed

    Möller, H J; Leitner, M

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear mathematical model for computerized description of mood curves is presented. This model reaches a high goodness of fit to the real data. It seems superior to two other models recently proposed. Using this model in a computer program for describing the mood data of a large sample of inpatients, significant and clinically meaningful group differences between the mood curves of schizophrenic, endogenous-depressive, and neurotic-depressive inpatients could be demonstrated. The application of the methodology might be helpful, e.g. in the field of evaluative research.

  10. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  11. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  12. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  13. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  14. Harmonisation of coupled calibration curves to reduce correlated effects in the analysis of natural gas by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vargha, Gergely; Milton, Martin; Cox, Maurice; Kamvissis, Sarantis

    2005-01-14

    Quantitative analysis of natural gas depends on the calibration of a gas chromatograph with certified gas mixtures and the determination of a response relationship for each species by regression analysis. The uncertainty in this calibration is dominated by variations in the amount of the sample used for each analysis that are strongly correlated for all species measured in the same run. The "harmonisation" method described here minimises the influence of these correlations on the calculated calibration curves and leads to a reduction in the root-mean-square residual deviations from the fitted curve of a factor between 2 and 5. Consequently, it removes the requirement for each run in the calibration procedure to be carried out under the same external conditions, and opens the possibility that new data, measured under different environmental or instrumental conditions, can be appended to an existing calibration database.

  15. Dissociation techniques in mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew W; Cooper, Helen J

    2011-09-07

    The field of proteomics, the large-scale analysis of proteins, has undergone a huge expansion over the past decade. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics relies on the dissociation of peptide and/or protein ions to provide information on primary sequence and sites of post-translational modifications. Fragmentation techniques include collision-induced dissociation, electron capture dissociation and electron transfer dissociation. Here, we describe each of these techniques and their use in proteomics. The principles, advantages, limitations, and applications are discussed.

  16. Analysis of equi-intensity curves and NU distribution of EAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, G.

    1985-08-01

    The distribution of the number of muons in extensive air showers (EAS) and the equi-intensity curves of EAS are analyzed on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation of various cosmic ray composition and the interaction models. Problems in the two best combined models are discussed.

  17. An analysis of Pluto occultation light curves using an atmospheric radiative-conductive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalucha, Angela M.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Zhu, Xun; Strobel, Darrell F.; Elliot, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We use a radiative-conductive model to least-squares fit Pluto stellar occultation light curve data. This model predicts atmospheric temperature based on surface temperature, surface pressure, surface radius, and CH 4 and CO mixing ratios, from which model light curves are to be calculated. The model improves upon previous techniques for deriving Pluto's atmospheric thermal structure from stellar occultation light curves by calculating temperature (as a function of height) caused by heating and cooling by species in Pluto's atmosphere, instead of a general assumption that temperature follows a power law with height or some other idealized function. We are able to fit for model surface radius, surface pressure, and CH 4 mixing ratio with one of the 2006 datasets and for surface pressure and CH 4 mixing ratio for other datasets from the years 1988, 2002, 2006, and 2008. It was not possible to fit for CO mixing ratio and surface temperature because the light curves are not sensitive to these parameters. We determine that the model surface radius, under the assumption of a stratosphere only (i.e. no troposphere) model in radiative-conductive balance, is 1180-10+20km. The CH 4 mixing ratio results are more scattered with time and are in the range of 1.8-9.4 × 10 -3. The surface pressure results show an increasing trend from 1988 to 2002, although it is not as dramatic as the factor of 2 from previous studies.

  18. Analysis of the Curved Junction Edge between a Flat Plate and a Prolate Spheroid.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    report. Our approach to this problem is first to find the intersection point between a line (i.e., one edge of the plate) and the prolate spheroid. Then...one can follow the same idea to find the curved junction edge between a flat plate and the prolate spheroid. (Author)

  19. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  20. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Scores in Epilepsy Surgery Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores were analyzed for 82 epilepsy surgery candidates and used in combination with receiver operating characteristic curves to classify patients with left (LTL) and right (RTL) temporal lobe seizure onset. Results indicate that WMS-R scores used alone or in combination provide relatively poor discrimination…

  1. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  2. The Impact of Grading on a Curve: Assessing the Results of Kulick and Wright's Simulation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Gary L.; Steed, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Kulick and Wright concluded, based on theoretical mathematical simulations of hypothetical student exam scores, that assigning exam grades to students based on the relative position of their exam performance scores within a normal curve may be unfair, given the role that randomness plays in any given student's performance on any given exam.…

  3. Development of Oral Reading Fluency in Children with Speech or Language Impairments: A Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for 1,991 students with speech impairments (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade. The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental and persistent effect on early reading…

  4. Dissociative photoionization of ethyl acrylate: Theoretical and experimental insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanlin; Chen, Jun; Ding, Mengmeng; Wei, Bin; Cao, Maoqi; Shan, Xiaobin; Zhao, Yujie; Huang, Chaoqun; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Fuyi

    2015-08-01

    The photoionization and dissociation of ethyl acrylate have been investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source in the range of 9.0-20.0 eV. The photoionization mass spectrum (PIMS) for ethyl acrylate and photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for its major fragment ions: C5H7O2+, C4H5O2+, C3H5O2+, C3H4O+, C3H3O+, C2H5O+, C2H3O+, C2H5+ and C2H4+ have been obtained. The formation channels of main fragments are predicted by Gaussian 09 program at G3B3 level and examined via their dissociation energies from experimental results. Based on our analysis, nine main dissociative photoionization channels are proposed: C5H7O2+ + H, C4H5O2+ + CH3, C3H5O2+ + C2H3, C3H4O+ + C2H4O, C3H3O+ + C2H5O, C2H5O+ + C3H3O, C2H3O+ + C3H5O, C2H5+ + C3H3O2, C2H4+ + C3H4O2, respectively. The results of this work lead to a better understanding of photochemistry in the environment.

  5. An objective analysis of the pressure-volume curve in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harris, R S; Hess, D R; Venegas, J G

    2000-02-01

    To assess the interobserver and intraobserver variability in the clinical evaluation of the quasi-static pressure-volume (P-V) curve, we analyzed 24 sets of inflation and deflation P-V curves obtained from patients with ARDS. We used a recently described sigmoidal equation to curve-fit the P-V data sets and objectively define the point of maximum compliance increase of the inflation limb (P(mci, i)) and the true inflection point of the deflation limb (P(inf,d)). These points were compared with graphic determinations of lower Pflex by seven clinicians. The graphic and curve-fitting methods were also compared for their ability to reproduce the same parameter value in data sets with reduced number of data points. The sigmoidal equation fit the P-V data with great accuracy (R(2) = 0.9992). The average of Pflex determinations was found to be correlated with P(mci,i) (R = 0.89) and P(inf,d) (R = 0.76). Individual determinations of Pflex were less correlated with the corresponding objective parameters (R = 0.67 and 0.62, respectively). Pflex + 2 cm H(2)O was a more accurate estimator of P(inf,d) (2 SD = +/-6.05 cm H(2)O) than Pflex was of P(mci,i) (2 SD = +/-8.02 cm H(2)O). There was significant interobserver variability in Pflex, with a maximum difference of 11 cm H(2)O for the same patient (SD = 1.9 cm H(2)O). Clinicians had difficulty reproducing Pflex in smaller data sets with differences as great as 17 cm H(2)O (SD = 2.8 cm H(2)O). In contrast, the curve-fitting method reproduced P(mci,i) with great accuracy in reduced data sets (maximum difference of 1.5 cm H(2)O and SD = 0.3 cm H(2)O). We conclude that Pflex rarely coincided with the point of maximum compliance increase defined by a sigmoid curve-fit with large differences in Pflex seen both among and within observers. Calculating objective parameters such as P(mci,i) or P(inf,d) from curve-fitted P-V data can minimize this large variability.

  6. Evaluation of the influences of various force magnitudes and configurations on scoliotic curve correction using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi, Ali; McGarry, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    Scoliosis is a lateral curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine, and the curvature can be moderate to severe. Different treatment can be used based on severity and age of subjects, but most common treatment for this disease is using orthosis. To design orthosis types of force arrangement can be varied, from transverse loads to vertical loads or combination of them. But it is not well introduced how orthoses control scoliotic curve and how to achieve the maximum correction based on force configurations and magnitude. Therefore, it was aimed to determine the effect of various loads configurations and magnitudes on curve correction of a degenerative scoliotic subject. A scoliotic subject participated in this study. The CT-Scan of the subject was used to produce 3D model of spine. The 3D model of spine was produced by Mimics software and the finite element analysis and deformation of scoliotic curve of the spine under seven different forces and in three different conditions was determined by ABAQUS software. The Cobb angle in scoliosis curve decreased significantly by applying forces. In each condition depends on different forces, different corrections have been achieved. It can be concluded that the configurations of the force application mentioned in this study is effective to decrease the scoliosis curve. Although it is a case study, it can be used for a vast number of subjects to predict the correction of scoliosis curve before orthotic treatment. Moreover, it is recommended that this method and the outputs can be compared with clinical findings.

  7. A LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE: FREE-FREE EMISSION VERSUS PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2015-01-10

    We analyzed light curves of seven relatively slower novae, PW Vul, V705 Cas, GQ Mus, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, based on an optically thick wind theory of nova outbursts. For fast novae, free-free emission dominates the spectrum in optical bands rather than photospheric emission, and nova optical light curves follow the universal decline law. Faster novae blow stronger winds with larger mass-loss rates. Because the brightness of free-free emission depends directly on the wind mass-loss rate, faster novae show brighter optical maxima. In slower novae, however, we must take into account photospheric emission because of their lower wind mass-loss rates. We calculated three model light curves of free-free emission, photospheric emission, and their sum for various white dwarf (WD) masses with various chemical compositions of their envelopes and fitted reasonably with observational data of optical, near-IR (NIR), and UV bands. From light curve fittings of the seven novae, we estimated their absolute magnitudes, distances, and WD masses. In PW Vul and V705 Cas, free-free emission still dominates the spectrum in the optical and NIR bands. In the very slow novae, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, photospheric emission dominates the spectrum rather than free-free emission, which makes a deviation from the universal decline law. We have confirmed that the absolute brightnesses of our model light curves are consistent with the distance moduli of four classical novae with known distances (GK Per, V603 Aql, RR Pic, and DQ Her). We also discussed the reason why the very slow novae are about ∼1 mag brighter than the proposed maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation.

  8. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    PubMed

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric symptoms and dissociation in conversion, somatization and dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Espirito-Santo, Helena; Pio-Abreu, Jose Luis

    2009-03-01

    Conversion, dissociation and somatization are historically related in the long established concept of hysteria. Somewhere along the way they were separated due to the Cartesian dualistic view. The aim of the present study was to compare these pathologies and investigate whether symptoms of these pathologies overlap in their clinical appearance in a Portuguese sample. Twenty-six patients with conversion disorder, 38 with dissociative disorders, 40 with somatization disorder, and a comparison group of 46 patients having other psychiatric disorders answered questions about dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale), somatoform dissociation (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire), and psychopathological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory). Dissociative and somatoform symptoms were significantly more frequent in dissociative and conversion disorder than in somatization disorder and controls. There were no significant differences between dissociative and conversion patients. Conversion disorder is closely related to dissociative disorders. These results support the ICD-10 categorization of conversion disorder among dissociative disorders and the hypothesis of analogous psychopathological processes in conversion and dissociative disorders versus somatization disorder.

  10. Top-down analysis of immunoglobulin G isotypes 1 and 2 with electron transfer dissociation on a high-field orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fornelli, Luca; Ayoub, Daniel; Aizikov, Konstantin; Liu, Xiaowen; Damoc, Eugen; Pevzner, Pavel A; Makarov, Alexander; Beck, Alain; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-02-24

    The increasing importance of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) as biotherapeutics calls for improved structural characterization methods designed for these large (~150kDa) macromolecules. Analysis workflows have to be rapid, robust, and require minimal sample preparation. In a previous work we showed the potential of Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) combined with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) for the top-down investigation of an intact IgG1, resulting in ~30% sequence coverage. Here, we describe a top-down analysis of two IgGs1 (adalimumab and trastuzumab) and one IgG2 (panitumumab) performed with ETD on a mass spectrometer equipped with a high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. For the IgGs1, sequence coverage comparable to the previous results was achieved in a two-fold reduced number of summed transients, which corresponds, taken together with the significantly increased spectra acquisition rate, to ~six-fold improvement in analysis time. Furthermore, we studied the influence of ion-ion interaction times on ETD product ions for IgGs1, and the differences in fragmentation behavior between IgGs1 and IgG2, which present structural differences. Overall, these results reinforce the hypothesis that gas phase dissociation using both energy threshold-based and radical-driven ion activations is directed to specific regions of the polypeptide chains mostly by the location of disulfide bonds.

  11. Evaluation of dose-response curve analysis in delineating shared or different molecular sites of action for osteolathyrogens.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Douglas A; Scott, Brenda D; Ellenberger, M Jason; Pöch, Gerald; Rinaldi, Andrea C

    2004-03-01

    Single-chemical and mixture concentration-response curves generated using a frog embryo model were examined for value in assessing whether chemicals exert toxic effects at the same or at different molecular sites of action. Toxicity tests were conducted on a series of osteolathyrogens, i.e. chemicals that inhibit cross-linking of developing connective tissue fibers. Induction of osteolathyrism, which manifests as lesions in the notochord of exposed tadpoles, has several possible molecular sites of action, including agent-cofactor reactivity during the enzyme-mediated cross-linking process. UV-VIS spectrophotometry of osteolathyrogen-cofactor reactivity (i.e. in vitro analysis) was coupled with the 96-h frog embryo mixture toxicity assay (i.e. in vivo toxicity) to compare molecular sites of action for several osteolathyrogens with the combined osteolathyritic effects of the agents. Single-chemical concentration-response curves were used to calculate theoretical curves for the dose-addition model of combined effect. Slope and EC(50) values for both theoretical and experimental mixture curves were then generated to statistically examine the hypothesis that agents with shared sites of action have dose-response curve (DRC) slopes that are similar when given alone and in combination, and slope and EC(50) values that, when administered together, are consistent with those calculated for dose-addition. For combinations of cofactor-binding agents (semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide, aminoacetonitrile), slope values were generally similar with additivity quotients near 1.0 (1.0=dose-additive) and combined osteolathyritic effects that were consistent with dose-addition. None of these were true for combinations that included agents that did not show rapid cofactor binding (β-aminopropionitrile, methyleneaminoacetonitrile). The results suggest that DRC analysis could be a useful tool for delineating common or different molecular sites of toxic action and that the approaches used

  12. Variation in learning curves and competence for ERCP among advanced endoscopy trainees by using cumulative sum analysis.

    PubMed

    Wani, Sachin; Hall, Matthew; Wang, Andrew Y; DiMaio, Christopher J; Muthusamy, V Raman; Keswani, Rajesh N; Brauer, Brian C; Easler, Jeffrey J; Yen, Roy D; El Hajj, Ihab; Fukami, Norio; Ghassemi, Kourosh F; Gonzalez, Susana; Hosford, Lindsay; Hollander, Thomas G; Wilson, Robert; Kushnir, Vladimir M; Ahmad, Jawad; Murad, Faris; Prabhu, Anoop; Watson, Rabindra R; Strand, Daniel S; Amateau, Stuart K; Attwell, Augustin; Shah, Raj J; Early, Dayna; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Mullady, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data on learning curves and competence in ERCP. By using a standardized data collection tool, we aimed to prospectively define learning curves and measure competence among advanced endoscopy trainees (AETs) by using cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis. AETs were evaluated by attending endoscopists starting with the 26th hands-on ERCP examination and then every ERCP examination during the 12-month training period. A standardized ERCP competency assessment tool (using a 4-point scoring system) was used to grade the examination. CUSUM analysis was applied to produce learning curves for individual technical and cognitive components of ERCP performance (success defined as a score of 1, acceptable and unacceptable failures [p1] of 10% and 20%, respectively). Sensitivity analyses varying p1 and by using a less-stringent definition of success were performed. Five AETs were included with a total of 1049 graded ERCPs (mean ± SD, 209.8 ± 91.6/AET). The majority of cases were performed for a biliary indication (80%). The overall and native papilla allowed cannulation times were 3.1 ± 3.6 and 5.7 ± 4, respectively. Overall learning curves demonstrated substantial variability for individual technical and cognitive endpoints. Although nearly all AETs achieved competence in overall cannulation, none achieved competence for cannulation in cases with a native papilla. Sensitivity analyses increased the proportion of AETs who achieved competence. This study demonstrates that there is substantial variability in ERCP learning curves among AETs. A specific case volume does not ensure competence, especially for native papilla cannulation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes by LightCycler polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Lulitanond, Virapong; Intapan, Pewpan M; Pipitgool, Vichit; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2004-11-01

    A LightCycler real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in blood-fed mosquitoes. The assay is based on fluorescence melting curve analysis of the PCR product generated from a family of repeated DNA elements: the 182 bp SspI repeat, specific to the genus Wuchereria. According to the melting temperature, W. bancrofti infected-mosquitoes were differentiated from Brugia malayi-infected and non-infected mosquitoes as well as from genomic DNA of Dirofilaria immitis and human DNA. The method proved to be 100% sensitive in all W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. Melting curve analysis offers a rapid alternative for the specific detection of W. bancrofti in mosquitoes. It is very accurate and sensitive, allows a high throughput and can be performed on very small samples. The method therefore has great potential for application in epidemiological studies.

  14. Generalized semi-analytical finite difference method for dispersion curves calculation and numerical dispersion analysis for Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Packo, Pawel; Uhl, Tadeusz; Staszewski, Wieslaw J

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents an efficient and accurate method for dispersion curve calculation and analysis of numerical models for guided waves. The method can be used for any arbitrarily selected anisotropic material. The proposed approach utilizes the wave equation and through-thickness-only discretization of anisotropic, layered plates to obtain the Lamb wave characteristics. Thus, layered structures, such as composites, can be analyzed in a straightforward manner. A general framework for the proposed analysis is given, along with application examples. Although these examples are based on the local interaction simulation approach for elastic waves propagation, the proposed methodology can be easily adopted for other methods (e.g., finite elements). The method can be also used to study the influence of discretization parameters on dispersion curves estimates.

  15. Narrative, dialogue, and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Gedo, Paul M

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores dissociative phenomena as disruptions of dialogue between persons, and disruptions of internal narratives. A dissociating patient temporarily loses ability to convey his or her inner experience to the therapist. The disconnection between dialogue and internal experience can mislead both participants, or distract them from underlying connotations. Dissociation also disrupts the patient's sense of internal coherence and internal conversation. Dissociation represents a regression to an early, preverbal mode of (internal and external) communication. The challenge for the dyad is to restore dialogue and then to discern the multiply determined meanings of the dissociative communication. This therapeutic work allows the patient to achieve a more coherent sense of self and of his or her life course.

  16. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p < .05). All of the childhood trauma subscales used were correlated with the severity of symptoms of dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  17. Axial plane analysis of Lenke 1A adolescent idiopathic scoliosis as an aid to identify curve characteristics.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Halil; Inanmaz, Mustafa Erkan; Bal, Emre; Caliskan, Islam; Kose, Kamil Cagri

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex three-dimensional (3D) deformity of the spine involving deviations in the frontal plane, modifications of the sagittal profile, and rotations in the transverse plane. Although Lenke classification system is based on 2D radiographs and includes sagittal thoracic and coronal lumbar modifiers, Lenke et al. suggested inclusion of axial thoracic and lumbar modifiers in the analysis. To analyze axial plane of Lenke 1A curves to identify curve characteristics. Retrospective study. Seventy patients (49 women, 21 men) with Lenke Type 1A idiopathic scoliosis were analyzed. Coronal, sagittal, and axial parameters were measured from plain radiographs that were obtained at initial medical examination of the patients. Coronal and sagittal plane and whole spine segmental vertebra rotations from thoracic 1 to lumbar 5 were evaluated in 70 AIS patients with Lenke 1A curves by using Drerup method. Three different subgroups were identified according to magnitude and direction of lower end vertebra (LEV) rotation. In Group 1 (Lenke 1A1), the direction of LEV rotation was same with other vertebrae in the main curve and the magnitude of the LEV rotation was less than -0.5°. In Group 2 (Lenke 1A2), the rotation of LEV was between -0.5° and 0.5° and so was accepted as neutral. In Group 3 (Lenke 1A3), the rotation of LEV had opposite direction with vertebrae in the main curve and the magnitude of LEV rotation was more than 0.5°. The mean thoracic Cobb angle of patients with Lenke 1A idiopathic scoliosis was 51.1° (range 37°-80°), whereas the mean lumbar Cobb angle was 16.4° (range 0°-32°). The mean angle of trunk rotation of the patients was 5.7° (range 1°-16°). In terms of maximum thoracic vertebra rotation, the mean rotation angle of Lenke 1A idiopathic curves was -18.9° (range -(9.8°-44.7°)). The mean maximum lumbar vertebra rotation was 4.5° (range -7.2° to 15.1°). Addition of axial plane analysis to conventional

  18. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananaev, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power) model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  19. Fracture toughness master-curve analysis of the tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Pablo; Spätig, P.; Bonadé, R.; Odette, G. R.; Gragg, D.

    2009-04-01

    We report fracture toughness data for the reduced activation tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97 in the lower to middle transition region. The fracture toughness was measured from tests carried out on 0.35 T and 0.87 T pre-cracked compact tension specimens. The data were first analyzed using the ASTM E1921 standard. The toughness-temperature behavior and scatter were shown to deviate from the ASTM E1921 standard predictions near the lower shelf. Using the method of maximum likelihood, the athermal component of the master-curve was calculated to better fit the data from the lower to the middle transition region. We showed that these master-curve adjustments are necessary to make the To values obtained near the lower shelf with 0.35 TC( T) specimens consistent with those obtained in the middle transition region with 0.87 TC( T) specimens.

  20. Eigen analysis of tree-ring records: Part 1, a limited representativeness of regional curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bao; Sonechkin, Dmitry M.; Datsenko, Nina M.; Ivashchenko, Nadezda N.; Liu, Jingjing; Qin, Chun

    2011-12-01

    Based on a set of very long-living (2,000 years) Qilian junipers ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) from the north-eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau (the region of Dulan), we carefully consider the regional curve standardization (RCS) technique. For this goal, we correlate deviations of individual tree-ring width records from their regional mean age-dependent curve (RC). It turns out that these correlations keep their positivity for almost all shifts between ages compared (up to 500 years and even more) evidencing each Dulan juniper to be a unique "thermometer". Just the unification of these "thermometers" in the form RC creates a spurious positive trend in the Dulan chronology. We modify the RCS technique to closer attach RC to these "thermometers" in order to construct a new chronology in which the trend is absent.

  1. The learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic fundoplication in children: a prospective evaluation and CUSUM analysis.

    PubMed

    Cundy, Thomas P; Rowland, Simon P; Gattas, Nicholas E; White, Alan D; Najmaldin, Azad S

    2015-06-01

    Fundoplication is a leading application of robotic surgery in children, yet the learning curve for this procedure (RF) remains ill-defined. This study aims to identify various learning curve transition points, using cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis. A prospective database was examined to identify RF cases undertaken during 2006-2014. Time-based surgical process outcomes were evaluated, as well as clinical outcomes. A total of 57 RF cases were included. Statistically significant transitions beyond the learning phase were observed at cases 42, 34 and 37 for docking, console and total operating room times, respectively. A steep early learning phase for docking time was overcome after 12 cases. There were three Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3 complications, with two patients requiring redo fundoplication. We identified numerous well-defined learning curve trends to affirm that experience confers significant temporal improvements. Our findings highlight the value of the CUSUM method for learning curve evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Relationships between each part of the spinal curves and upright posture using Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sebastien; Boudot, Elsa; Houel, Nicolas

    2016-05-03

    Back pain is a common reason for consultation in primary healthcare clinical practice, and has effects on daily activities and posture. Relationships between the whole spine and upright posture, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between each spinal curve and centre of pressure position as well as velocity for healthy subjects. Twenty-one male subjects performed quiet stance in natural position. Each upright posture was then recorded using an optoelectronics system (Vicon Nexus) synchronized with two force plates. At each moment, polynomial interpolations of markers attached on the spine segment were used to compute cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angle curves. Mean of centre of pressure position and velocity was then computed. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the position and velocity of centre of pressure associated with each part of the spinal curves were defined as best predictors of the lumbar lordosis angle (R(2)=0.45; p=1.65*10-10) and the thoracic kyphosis angle (R(2)=0.54; p=4.89*10-13) of healthy subjects in quiet stance. This study showed the relationships between each of cervical, thoracic, lumbar curvatures, and centre of pressure's fluctuation during free quiet standing using non-invasive full spinal curve exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Open-Mode Debonding Analysis of Curved Sandwich Panels Subjected to Heating and Cryogenic Cooling on Opposite Faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing use of curved sandwich panels as aerospace structure components makes it vital to fully understand their thermostructural behavior and identify key factors affecting the open-mode debonding failure. Open-mode debonding analysis is performed on a family of curved honeycomb-core sandwich panels with different radii of curvature. The curved sandwich panels are either simply supported or clamped, and are subjected to uniform heating on the convex side and uniform cryogenic cooling on the concave side. The finite-element method was used to study the effects of panel curvature and boundary condition on the open-mode stress (radial tensile stress) and displacement fields in the curved sandwich panels. The critical stress point, where potential debonding failure could initiate, was found to be at the midspan (or outer span) of the inner bonding interface between the sandwich core and face sheet on the concave side, depending on the boundary condition and panel curvature. Open-mode stress increases with increasing panel curvature, reaching a maximum value at certain high curvature, and then decreases slightly as the panel curvature continues to increase and approach that of quarter circle. Changing the boundary condition from simply supported to clamped reduces the magnitudes of open-mode stresses and the associated sandwich core depth stretching.

  4. Kinetics of CH4 and CO2 hydrate dissociation and gas bubble evolution via MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Uddin, M; Coombe, D

    2014-03-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of gas hydrate dissociation comparing the behavior of CH4 and CO2 hydrates are presented. These simulations were based on a structurally correct theoretical gas hydrate crystal, coexisting with water. The MD system was first initialized and stabilized via a thorough energy minimization, constant volume-temperature ensemble and constant volume-energy ensemble simulations before proceeding to constant pressure-temperature simulations for targeted dissociation pressure and temperature responses. Gas bubble evolution mechanisms are demonstrated as well as key investigative properties such as system volume, density, energy, mean square displacements of the guest molecules, radial distribution functions, H2O order parameter, and statistics of hydrogen bonds. These simulations have established the essential similarities between CH4 and CO2 hydrate dissociation. The limiting behaviors at lower temperature (no dissociation) and higher temperature (complete melting and formation of a gas bubble) have been illustrated for both hydrates. Due to the shift in the known hydrate stability curves between guest molecules caused by the choice of water model as noted by other authors, the intermediate behavior (e.g., 260 K) showed distinct differences however. Also, because of the more hydrogen-bonding capability of CO2 in water, as reflected in its molecular parameters, higher solubility of dissociated CO2 in water was observed with a consequence of a smaller size of gas bubble formation. Additionally, a novel method for analyzing hydrate dissociation based on H-bond breakage has been proposed and used to quantify the dissociation behaviors of both CH4 and CO2 hydrates. Activation energies Ea values from our MD studies were obtained and evaluated against several other published laboratory and MD values. Intrinsic rate constants were estimated and upscaled. A kinetic reaction model consistent with macroscale fitted kinetic models has been proposed to

  5. Rapid Simultaneous Amplification and Detection of the MBR/JH Chromosomal Translocation by Fluorescence Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bohling, Sandra D.; King, Thomas C.; Wittwer, Carl T.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and product analysis for the detection of chromosomal translocations, such as the t(14;18), has traditionally been a two-step process. PCR product detection has generally entailed gel electrophoresis and/or hybridization or sequencing for confirmation of assay specificity. Using a microvolume fluorimeter integrated with a thermal cycler and a PCR-compatible double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding fluorescent dye (SYBR Green I), we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous thermal amplification and detection of MBR/JH translocation products by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We analyzed DNA from 30 cases of lymphoproliferative disorders comprising 19 cases of previously documented MBR/JH-positive follicle center lymphoma and 11 reactive lymphadenopathies. The samples were coded and analyzed blindly for the presence of MBR/JH translocations by fluorescence melting curve analysis. We also performed dilutional assays using the MBR/JH-positive cell line SUDHL-6. Multiplex PCR for MBR/JH and β-globin was used to simultaneously assess sample adequacy. All (100%) of the 19 cases previously determined to be MBR/JH positive by conventional PCR analysis showed a characteristic sharp decrease in fluorescence at ∼90°C by melting curve analysis after amplification. Fluorescence melting peaks obtained by plotting the negative derivative of fluorescence over temperature (−dF/dT) versus temperature (T) showed melting temperatures (Tm) at 88.85 ± 1.15°C. In addition, multiplex assays using both MBR/JH and β-globin primers yielded easily distinguishable fluorescence melting peaks at ∼90°C and 81.2°C, respectively. Dilutional assays revealed that fluorescence melting curve analysis was more sensitive than conventional PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis with ultraviolet transillumination by as much as 100-fold. Simultaneous amplification and fluorescence melting curve analysis is a simple, reliable, and sensitive method

  6. NEW REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NON LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF DOUBLY CURVED SHALLOW SHELL UNDER A THERMAL GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, S.

    2004-10-06

    The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented.

  7. Analysis of spatial variability of extreme rainfall at radar subpixel scale using IDF curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Marra, Francesco; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall is quantified in engineering practice using Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves (IDFs) that are traditionally derived from rain-gauges and, more recently, also from weather radars. These instruments measure rainfall at different spatial scales: rain-gauge samples rainfall at the point scale while weather radar averages precipitation over a relatively large area, generally around 1 km2. As such, a radar derived IDF curve is representative of the mean areal rainfall over a given radar pixel and neglects the within-pixel rainfall variability. In this study, we quantify subpixel variability of extreme rainfall by using a novel space-time rainfall generator (STREAP model) that downscales in space the rainfall within a given radar pixel. The study was conducted using a long radar data record (23 years) and a very dense rain-gauge network in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Radar-IDF curves, together with an ensemble of point-based IDF curves representing the radar subpixel extreme rainfall variability, were developed fitting GEV distributions to annual rainfall maxima. It was found that the mean areal extreme rainfall derived from the radar underestimate most of the extreme values computed for point locations within the radar pixel. The subpixel variability of extreme rainfall was found to increase with longer return periods and shorter durations. For the longer return periods, a considerable enhancement of extreme rainfall variability was found when stochastic (natural) climate variability was taken into account. Bounding the range of the subpixel extreme rainfall derived from radar-IDF can be of major importance for applications that require very local estimates of rainfall extremes.

  8. Effects of experimental design on calibration curve precision in routine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Neto, Benício de Barros; Saldanha, Teresa Cristina B.

    1998-01-01

    A computational program which compares the effciencies of different experimental designs with those of maximum precision (D-optimized designs) is described. The program produces confidence interval plots for a calibration curve and provides information about the number of standard solutions, concentration levels and suitable concentration ranges to achieve an optimum calibration. Some examples of the application of this novel computational program are given, using both simulated and real data. PMID:18924816

  9. An Analysis of Pluto Occultation Light Curves Using an Atmospheric Radiative-conductive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalucha, Angela M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zhu, X.; Strobel, D. F.; Elliot, J. L.

    2009-09-01

    Using the radiative equilibrium temperature profiles obtained from the radiative-conductive model of Strobel et al. 1996 (Icarus, 120, 266-289), we calculate a set of occultation light curves for Pluto for a range of surface pressures and methane mixing ratios, the latter of which is assumed to be constant with height. We have devised a method to interpolate a grid of model light curves in order to perform least-squares fitting to available Pluto occultation data. Fits without a troposphere and with a surface radius of 1152 km to the 2006 June 12 occultation by Pluto observed at Siding Spring (Elliot et al. 2007, AJ 134, 1-13) return a surface pressure and methane mixing ratio of 18.9 +/- 0.8 microbar and 0.0020 +/- 0.0003, respectively. Best fits to the 2002 August 21 occultation observed using the 2.24m University of Hawaii telescope (Pasachoff et al. 2005, AJ 129, 1718-1723) are 18.5 +/- 0.5 microbar and 0.0020 +/- 0.0001, respectively. For each of these fits, surface temperature and CO mixing ratio (also constant with height) were taken to be 37 K and 0.0005, respectively. The model light curves are not found to be sensitive to either of these parameters; CO mixing ratios as high as 0.02 are found to be consistent with the formal error bars on the fits above. The fitted surface pressure values are higher than those derived from the no troposphere models of Lellouch et al. 2009 (Astron. Astrophys. 495, L17-L21), while the methane mixing ratio values are lower. We will present our methodology of comparing atmospheric models to occultation data, fitting results for other stellar occultation light curves, and implications for Pluto's atmospheric structure. This work was supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AE92G, NNX07AK73G, and NNG05GO91G.

  10. CONFIRMATION OF HOT JUPITER KEPLER-41b VIA PHASE CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Morris, Robert L.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Ciardi, David R.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2013-04-20

    We present high precision photometry of Kepler-41, a giant planet in a 1.86 day orbit around a G6V star that was recently confirmed through radial velocity measurements. We have developed a new method to confirm giant planets solely from the photometric light curve, and we apply this method herein to Kepler-41 to establish the validity of this technique. We generate a full phase photometric model by including the primary and secondary transits, ellipsoidal variations, Doppler beaming, and reflected/emitted light from the planet. Third light contamination scenarios that can mimic a planetary transit signal are simulated by injecting a full range of dilution values into the model, and we re-fit each diluted light curve model to the light curve. The resulting constraints on the maximum occultation depth and stellar density combined with stellar evolution models rules out stellar blends and provides a measurement of the planet's mass, size, and temperature. We expect about two dozen Kepler giant planets can be confirmed via this method.

  11. Analysis of the early spectra and light curve of SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschildt, Peter H.; Ensman, Lisa M.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical modeling of supernova spectra, light curves, and hydrodynamics requires physical inputs, numerical techniques, approximations, and assumptions which must be thoroughly understood in order to study the details of supernova explosions. Here, we discuss some of these in the context of the early evolution of supernova 1987A. Gray radiation-hydrodynamics is used to calculate the bolometric light curve and the hydrodynamic evolution of the supernova. Synthetic spectra are then obtained for the resulting density and velocity structure. The spectrum calculations are performed using a special-relativistic treatment of the radiative transfer equation in the comoving frame, line blanketing by about 10(exp 5) spectral lines, and departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for H I, He I, Mg II, and Ca II. We find that we are able to simultaneously fit the early light curve and spectra reasonably well, using a progenitor model from Arnett (1991a), without fine-tuning the free parameters. Temperature structures and radiative equilibrium, non-LTE effects, homologous expansion, and mean opacities are discussed.

  12. Analysis of diffusion in curved surfaces and its application to tubular membranes.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Colin James Stockdale; Raghunathan, Krishnan; DiBenedetto, Emmanuele; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion of particles in curved surfaces is inherently complex compared with diffusion in a flat membrane, owing to the nonplanarity of the surface. The consequence of such nonplanar geometry on diffusion is poorly understood but is highly relevant in the case of cell membranes, which often adopt complex geometries. To address this question, we developed a new finite element approach to model diffusion on curved membrane surfaces based on solutions to Fick's law of diffusion and used this to study the effects of geometry on the entry of surface-bound particles into tubules by diffusion. We show that variations in tubule radius and length can distinctly alter diffusion gradients in tubules over biologically relevant timescales. In addition, we show that tubular structures tend to retain concentration gradients for a longer time compared with a comparable flat surface. These findings indicate that sorting of particles along the surfaces of tubules can arise simply as a geometric consequence of the curvature without any specific contribution from the membrane environment. Our studies provide a framework for modeling diffusion in curved surfaces and suggest that biological regulation can emerge purely from membrane geometry. © 2016 Klaus, Raghunathan, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Light Curve Analysis of the Short Period Solar-Type Binary, EK Comae Berenices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Gray, Jamison D.; Carrigan, Brian

    1995-05-01

    The thirteenth mag variable, EK Comae Berenices, was discovered by Kinman (1966) in a study of the fields near the North Galactic Pole. He identified it as a W UMa variable. This binary was brought to our attention by the AAVSO observer,Borovicka, who conducted a thorough visual investigation. Subsequently, we obtained complete B,V photoelectric light curves of the system phased from observations taken 11, 12 and 14 February and 9, 12 May, 1994 at Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona. The 0.78-m National Undergraduate Research Observatory reflector was used with a thermoelectrically cooled PMT. Five epochs of minimicrons light were determined from observations made during two secondary and three primary eclipses. The bisection-of-chords technique was utilized in their determination. Improved linear and quadratic ephemerides were calculated from all available epochs of minima. The quadratic term of the second ephemeris is marginally significant and negative. Because of its small magnitude and doubtful significance, we cannot regard it as proof that the orbital evolution of EK Com is now dominated by magnetic breaking. The B, V simultaneous light curve solution yields an extreme mass ratio of 3.3 and a fill-out of 10%. We also modeled a 12 degree super-luminous region on the cooler component, simultaneously adjusting its parameters in the WD differential corrections procedure along with the other light curve parameters.

  14. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  15. Analysis of diffusion in curved surfaces and its application to tubular membranes

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Colin James Stockdale; Raghunathan, Krishnan; DiBenedetto, Emmanuele; Kenworthy, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of particles in curved surfaces is inherently complex compared with diffusion in a flat membrane, owing to the nonplanarity of the surface. The consequence of such nonplanar geometry on diffusion is poorly understood but is highly relevant in the case of cell membranes, which often adopt complex geometries. To address this question, we developed a new finite element approach to model diffusion on curved membrane surfaces based on solutions to Fick’s law of diffusion and used this to study the effects of geometry on the entry of surface-bound particles into tubules by diffusion. We show that variations in tubule radius and length can distinctly alter diffusion gradients in tubules over biologically relevant timescales. In addition, we show that tubular structures tend to retain concentration gradients for a longer time compared with a comparable flat surface. These findings indicate that sorting of particles along the surfaces of tubules can arise simply as a geometric consequence of the curvature without any specific contribution from the membrane environment. Our studies provide a framework for modeling diffusion in curved surfaces and suggest that biological regulation can emerge purely from membrane geometry. PMID:27733625

  16. Breakthrough curve analysis of pressure swing adsorption for hydrogen isotope separation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoh, K.; Tanaka, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Asakura, Y.; Uda, T.; Sugiyama, T.

    2008-07-15

    For the purpose of developing an effective system for hydrogen isotope separation, we have been studying the adsorption-desorption dynamic behavior of hydrogen and deuterium in a packed-bed column with synthetic zeolites, aimed at applying the pressure swing adsorption process. The adsorption behavior of molecules in the packed-bed is reflected in the breakthrough curves. To understand the characteristic behaviors of hydrogen isotopes in the packed-bed, we carried out breakthrough experiments in a conventional adsorption process and in a practical process following sequential processes alternating between adsorption and desorption. From the former experiments, the results were obtained that the overall mass transfer was influenced by longitudinal dispersion relating to the superficial velocity and that the process governing the mass transfer within adsorbents was diffusion in the macro-pores of pellets. In the latter experiments, unique profile breakthrough curves were observed. These curves can be described with the numerical simulation assuming the initial distributions in a packed-bed. (authors)

  17. A light curve and its analysis of Type Ia SN 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Lee, Dae-Young; Mihn, Byeong-Hee

    2015-08-01

    SN 1604, known as Kepler’s supernova, was first detected by European observers, but a full light curve including its peak brightness and initial decline part can only be completed by extra data from Korean royal astronomers of four centuries ago. Nowadays, it is considered one of the Type Ia galactic supernovae, which show the empirical correlation between decline rate and peak luminosity - so called Phillips relation or width-luminosity (W-L) relation. Here, we reconstruct a new light curve based on both the Korean and European records of SN 1604. Using this light curve and W-L relation, we present an observed rise time and decline rates after peak, and derive its absolute peak magnitude and distance. In this study, observed rise time (≈ 19±1 days) shows a good agreement with typical mean time of Type Ia SNe, while the initial decline rates such as Δm15(V) and Δm20(V) represent steeper and faster values than the extra-galactic SNe Ia. Moreover, its absolute peak magnitude and distance derived from the W-L relation show much fainter and nearer values, respectively than the estimated results by different methods

  18. Observation and analysis of the hyperfine structure of near-dissociation levels of the NaCs c +3Σ state below the dissociation limit 3 S1 /2+6 P3 /2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenliang; Wu, Jizhou; Ma, Jie; Li, Peng; Sovkov, Vladimir B.; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-09-01

    We report photoassociation (PA) of ultracold Na and Cs atoms in a dual-species magneto-optical trap. Trap loss spectroscopy of the ultracold polar NaCs molecules formed by PA, which carries information about relative PA transition strengths, has been experimentally obtained by using highly sensitive modulation spectroscopy technique. The fine and hyperfine effects at near-dissociation levels of NaCs molecular c +3Σ state are observed and modeled. The interaction Hamiltonian is described in terms of the Hund's case (a ) coupling scheme. The molecular hyperfine structure of near-dissociation levels is simulated within a simplified model of four interacting vibrational levels belonging to different initially unperturbed electronic states. The results of the simulation infer that the interaction parameters of the observed near-dissociation levels are close to the asymptotic parameters of the pair of atoms. The coupling of the electronic states is essential for forming the hyperfine structure.

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D. E-mail: massa@derckmassa.net

    2009-07-10

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, {beta}, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as {beta} decreases, R(V) {identical_to} A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the {beta} increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to {+-}0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  20. Analysis of variation in calibration curves for Kodak XV radiographic film using model-based parameters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Kulasekere, Ravi; Roberson, Peter L

    2010-08-05

    Film calibration is time-consuming work when dose accuracy is essential while working in a range of photon scatter environments. This study uses the single-target single-hit model of film response to fit the calibration curves as a function of calibration method, processor condition, field size and depth. Kodak XV film was irradiated perpendicular to the beam axis in a solid water phantom. Standard calibration films (one dose point per film) were irradiated at 90 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD) for various doses (16-128 cGy), depths (0.2, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 10 cm) and field sizes (5 × 5, 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm²). The 8-field calibration method (eight dose points per film) was used as a reference for each experiment, taken at 95 cm SSD and 5 cm depth. The delivered doses were measured using an Attix parallel plate chamber for improved accuracy of dose estimation in the buildup region. Three fitting methods with one to three dose points per calibration curve were investigated for the field sizes of 5 × 5, 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm². The inter-day variation of model parameters (background, saturation and slope) were 1.8%, 5.7%, and 7.7% (1 σ) using the 8-field method. The saturation parameter ratio of standard to 8-field curves was 1.083 ± 0.005. The slope parameter ratio of standard to 8-field curves ranged from 0.99 to 1.05, depending on field size and depth. The slope parameter ratio decreases with increasing depth below 0.5 cm for the three field sizes. It increases with increasing depths above 0.5 cm. A calibration curve with one to three dose points fitted with the model is possible with 2% accuracy in film dosimetry for various irradiation conditions. The proposed fitting methods may reduce workload while providing energy dependence correction in radiographic film dosimetry. This study is limited to radiographic XV film with a Lumisys scanner.

  1. Enrichment and Analysis of Nonenzymatically Glycated Peptides: Boronate Affinity Chromatography Coupled with Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Brock, Jonathan W.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ames, Jennifer M.; Baynes, John; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2007-06-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. However, no effective high-throughput methods exist for identifying proteins containing this low abundance post-translational modification in bottom-up proteomic studies. In this report, phenylboronate affinity chromatography was used in a two-step enrichment scheme to selectively isolate first glycated proteins and then glycated, tryptic peptides from human serum glycated in vitro. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by alternating electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. It was observed that ETD fragmentation mode resulted in a significantly higher number of glycated peptide identifications (87.6% of all identified peptides) versus CID mode (17.0% of all identified peptides), when utilizing dual glycation enrichment on both the protein and peptide level. This study illustrates that phenylboronate affinity chromatography coupled with LC-MS/MS with ETD as the fragmentation mode is an efficient approach for analyses of glycated proteins and can have broad applications in studies of diabetes mellitus.

  2. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard; Li, Yuting; Piotrowski, Alexander; Channell, James; Muraszko, Joy; Hodell, David

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of entire first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. FORC diagrams are an advanced hysteresis technique that allows the quantitative characterisation of magnetic grain size, domain state, coercivity and spatial distribution of ensembles of particles within a sample. PCA has been previously applied on extracted central ridges from FORC diagrams of sediment samples containing single domain (SD) magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria (Heslop et al., 2014). We extend this methodology to the entire FORC space, which incorporates additional SD signatures, pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multi domain (MD) magnetite signatures, as well as fingerprints of other minerals, such as hematite (HEM). We apply the PCA by resampling the FORC distribution on a regular grid designed to encompass all significant features. Typically 80-90% of the variability within the FORC dataset is described by one or two principal components. Individual FORCs are recast as linear combinations of physically distinct end-member FORCs defined using the principal components and constraints derived from physical modelling. In a first case study we quantify the spatial variation of end-member components in surficial sediments along the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) from Iceland to Newfoundland. The samples have been physically separated into granulometric fractions, which added a further constraint in determining three end members used to model the magnetic ensemble, namely a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite (SD+HEM). Sediments from core tops proximal to Iceland are dominated by the SD+HEM component, whereas those closer to Greenland and Canada are increasingly dominated by MD grains. Iceland sediments follow a PSD to SD+HEM trend with increasing grain-size fraction, whereas the Greenland and North

  3. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD.

    PubMed

    Armour, Cherie; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Richardson, J Don

    2014-08-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity scores were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to investigate the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Subsequently, several covariates were added to the model to explore differences between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The LPA identified five classes: one of which constituted a severe PTSD group (30.5 %), and one of which constituted a dissociative-PTSD group (13.7 %). None of the included, demographic, trauma, or clinical covariates were significantly predictive of membership in the dissociative-PTSD group compared to the severe PTSD group. In conclusion, a significant proportion of individuals report high levels of dissociation alongside their PTSD, which constitutes a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Further investigation is needed to identify which factors may increase or decrease the likelihood of membership in a dissociative-PTSD subtype group compared to a severe PTSD only group.

  4. Conjoint and dissociated structural and functional abnormalities in first-episode drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder: a multimodal meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weina; Zhao, Youjin; Hu, Xinyu; Huang, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Weihong; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-09-04

    Published MRI evidence of structural and resting-state functional brain abnormalities in MDD has been inconsistent. To eliminate interference by repeated disease episodes and antidepressant treatment, we conducted the first multimodal voxel-wise meta-analysis of studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode drug-naive MDD patients, using the Seed-based d Mapping method (SDM). Fifteen VBM data sets and 11 ALFF data sets were included. SDM-based multimodal meta-analysis was used to highlight brain regions with both structural and functional abnormalities. This identified conjoint structural and functional abnormalities in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right supplementary motor area, and also dissociated abnormalities of structure (decreased grey matter in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right inferior temporal gyrus; increased grey matter in right insula, right putamen, left temporal pole, and bilateral thalamus) and function (increased brain activity in left supplementary motor area, left parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus; decreased brain activity in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex). This study reveals a complex pattern of conjoint and dissociated structural and functional abnormalities, supporting the involvement of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, representing emotional, cognitive and psychomotor abnormalities, in the pathophysiology of early-stage MDD. Specifically, this study adds to Psychoradiology, an emerging subspecialty of radiology, which seems primed to play a major clinical role in guiding diagnostic and treatment planning decisions in patients with mental disorder.

  5. The dissociative bond.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other.

  6. On the Limitations of Breakthrough Curve Analysis in Fixed-Bed Adsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Ebner, Armin D.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Coker, Robert F.; Ritter, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This work examined in detail the a priori prediction of the axial dispersion coefficient from available correlations versus obtaining it and also mass transfer information from experimental breakthrough data and the consequences that may arise when doing so based on using a 1-D axially dispersed plug flow model and its associated Danckwerts outlet boundary condition. These consequences mainly included determining the potential for erroneous extraction of the axial dispersion coefficient and/or the LDF mass transfer coefficient from experimental data, especially when non-plug flow conditions prevailed in the bed. Two adsorbent/adsorbate cases were considered, i.e., carbon dioxide and water vapor in zeolite 5A, because they both experimentally exhibited significant non-plug flow behavior, and the water-zeolite 5A system exhibited unusual concentration front sharpening that destroyed the expected constant pattern behavior (CPB) when modeled with the 1-D axially dispersed plug flow model. Overall, this work showed that it was possible to extract accurate mass transfer and dispersion information from experimental breakthrough curves using a 1-D axial dispersed plug flow model when they were measured both inside and outside the bed. To ensure the extracted information was accurate, the inside the bed breakthrough curves and their derivatives from the model were plotted to confirm whether or not the adsorbate/adsorbent system was exhibiting CPB or any concentration front sharpening near the bed exit. Even when concentration front sharpening was occurring with the water-zeolite 5A system, it was still possible to use the experimental inside and outside the bed breakthrough curves to extract fundamental mass transfer and dispersion information from the 1-D axial dispersed plug flow model based on the systematic methodology developed in this work.

  7. An analysis of the light curve of the post common envelope binary MT Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, A.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Diaz, M. P.

    2001-10-01

    Photometric observations of MT Ser, the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 41 are presented. The periodic modulations detected by Grauer & Bond (\\cite{Gra83}) are confirmed, thus firmly establishing the binary nature of MT Ser. The significantly enlarged time base permits us to derive more accurate ephemeris. The orbital period is either P1 = 0.113226533 days or twice that value, P2 = 0.226453066 days. We analyze the light curve (after a careful subtraction of the nebular contribution) with the Wilson-Devinney light curve synthesis routine. Since it is not a priori clear which is the true orbital period of MT Ser, two radically different models, one based on P1 the other on P2 are considered: (1) A low temperature component orbiting around a hot sub-dwarf. The variability is then due to a reflection effect together with ellipsoidal variations of one or both components. (2) Two hot sub-dwarfs of similar temperature and luminosity, partially eclipsing each other and exhibiting ellipsoidal variations. In both models, the primary as well as the secondary component are required to almost fill their respective Roche lobes. A contact configuration is possible. Pros and cons can be found for either of the two models. A final decision between them has to await the observations of a radial velocity curve. The orbital period is currently decreasing at a rate of dot {P}/P = -1.15 x 10-9 d-1. Interpreting this as due to mass loss via a stellar winds permits us to estimate mass loss rates depending on the different model assumptions. Based on observations obtained at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, LNA/MCT, Itajubá, Brazil.

  8. Buckling Analysis of Anisotropic Curved Panels and Shells with Variable Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    A buckling formulation for anisotropic curved panels with variable curvature is presented in this paper. The variable curvature panel is assumed to consists of two or more panels of constant but different curvatures. Bezier functions are used as Ritz functions Displacement (C(sup 0)), and slope (C(sup 1)) continuities between segments are imposed by manipulation of the Bezier control points. A first-order shear-deformation theory is used in the buckling formulation. Results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those from finite element simulations and are found to be in good agreement.

  9. Canonical analysis of scalar fields in two-dimensional curved space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeon, D. G. C.; Patrushev, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Scalar fields on a two-dimensional curved surface are considered and the canonical structure of this theory analyzed. Both the first- and second-order forms of the Einstein-Hilbert (EH) action for the metric are used (these being inequivalent in two dimensions). The Dirac constraint formalism is used to find the generator of the gauge transformation, using the formalisms of Henneaux, Teitelboim and Zanelli (HTZ) and of Castellani (C). The HTZ formalism is slightly modified in the case of the first-order EH action to accommodate the gauge transformation of the metric; this gauge transformation is unusual as it mixes the affine connection with the scalar field.

  10. Zirconium determination by cooling curve analysis during the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, B. R.; Price, J. C.; Bateman, K. J.; Marsden, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    An alternative method to sampling and chemical analyses has been developed to monitor the concentration of zirconium in real-time during the casting of uranium products from the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel. The method utilizes the solidification characteristics of the uranium products to determine zirconium levels based on standard cooling curve analyses and established binary phase diagram data. Numerous uranium products have been analyzed for their zirconium content and compared against measured zirconium data. From this data, the following equation was derived for the zirconium content of uranium products:

  11. A computer program for the analysis of dental arch form using the catenary curve.

    PubMed

    BeGole, E A

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the logic and details of a FORTRAN computer program which fits a two parameter catenary curve, using the method of least squares, to a set of data points arising from an exact size photograph of a dental model. Error is assessed by evaluating the difference between the observed and fitted y values. Finally, the length of the arc is measured. The program is useful in studies related to dental arch form as a part of orthodontic treatment. The measurement of the arc length provides as assessment of space available in the dental arch, which is an important part of treatment planning for the orthodontic patient.

  12. Light curve analysis of three W Ursae Majoris-type binaries: V0449 Peg, EP And, and EK Com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Haghi, A.; Hosseini, S. M.; Abdollahi, M.; Hasanzadeh, A.

    2017-10-01

    Photometry from online databases were used for the light curve analysis of three eclipsing binary systems, V0449 Peg, EP And, and EK Com. These W UMa-type stars have orbital periods ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 days. Hundreds of new times of minimum for these binaries were collected; from this, estimations were determined of periodic variations and decrease or increase in orbital period. The first analysis of the light curves using the Binary Maker 3.0 and a significant third light contribution were determined for V0449 Peg. The light curve was analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system and the mass transfer rate is determined for EK Com. Also mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one and cyclic variations of the orbital period through the presence of a third body was derived for EP And.

  13. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  14. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  15. The Vanderbilt EB Factory: Development of Light Curve Analysis Tools for Precision Stellar Astrophysics with Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan; Paegert, M.; De Lee, N. M.; Cargile, P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the Vanderbilt EB Factory is to develop an end-to-end computational pipeline that allows automatic processing of massive amounts of light curve data -- from period finding, to object classification, to determination of the stellar physical properties -- in order to find the most scientifically interesting eclipsing binaries (EBs) and to permit accurate modeling of these EBs for detailed tests and benchmarking of theoretical stellar evolution models. We are integrating the most successful algorithms into a single, cohesive workflow environment, and are applying this 'EB Factory' to the full public Kepler dataset to find and characterize new "benchmark grade" EBs, and will disseminate both the enhanced data products from this pipeline and the pipeline itself to the broader NASA science community, especially other Kepler mission researchers. More generally, we are developing the EB Factory as a flexible, open source, modular framework in order to permit simple modifications by other users for a wide array of other types of variable stars of interest, such as RR Lyraes. Finally, we will present our developing suite of light-curve analysis tools available to the community from the Vanderbilt Initiative in Data-intensive Astrophysics (VIDA), including the Filtergraph instant data portal service, and the web-based LCchopper and LCanimator light-curve analysis services.

  16. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  17. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  18. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation with consideration of uncertainties to update IDF curves for the city of Trondheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Thorolfsson, Sveinn T.; Alfredsen, Knut

    2013-08-01

    Regional frequency analysis based on the method of L-moments is performed from annual maximum series of extreme precipitation intensity to update Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for the city of Trondheim. The main problems addressed are (1) reduction of uncertainties of different sources for reliable estimation of quantiles: (i) testing of trend patterns and stationarity of the data series from the target site and demonstrating the dependency of results on the data used; (ii) testing regional homogeneity of extreme precipitation events for the climate regime in the study area and “pooling” of regional data for data augmentation and reduction of uncertainty due to short length of data series; and (iii) selection of distributions for extreme precipitation events of different durations to reduce the uncertainty due to choice of distributions; and (2) assessment and quantification of sampling uncertainty in terms of interval estimates (confidence bounds) of quantiles. Trend patterns and check for stationarity were demonstrated for a data from a target site based on both non-parametric Mann-Kendall and parametric regression tests. Selection of distributions was performed based on Z-statistics and L-moment ratio diagrams. Non-parametric balanced bootstrap resampling was used to quantify the sampling uncertainty. For extreme precipitation events of shorter durations (5-30 min) there are statistically significant increasing trend patterns for the data series with start years of 1992-1998 while there are no significant trend patterns for recent extremes and there are no statistically significant trend patterns for longer durations (45-180 min). The results of the analyses indicate that: (1) significance tests for trend patterns and stationarity are dependent on the data series used but the stationarity assumption is valid for the data series used from the target site. (2) the extreme precipitation events from four sites in Trondheim are homogeneous and can be

  19. Dose-response curve slope is a missing dimension in the analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Sampah, Maame Efua S; Shen, Lin; Jilek, Benjamin L; Siliciano, Robert F

    2011-05-03

    HIV-1 drug resistance is a major clinical problem. Resistance is evaluated using in vitro assays measuring the fold change in IC(50) caused by resistance mutations. Antiretroviral drugs are used at concentrations above IC(50), however, and inhibition at clinical concentrations can only be predicted from IC(50) if the shape of the dose-response curve is also known. Curve shape is influenced by cooperative interactions and is described mathematically by the slope parameter or Hill coefficient (m). Implicit in current analysis of resistance is the assumption that mutations shift dose-response curves to the right without affecting the slope. We show here that m is altered by resistance mutations. For reverse transcriptase and fusion inhibitors, single resistance mutations affect both slope and IC(50). For protease inhibitors, single mutations primarily affect slope. For integrase inhibitors, only IC(50) is affected. Thus, there are fundamental pharmacodynamic differences in resistance to different drug classes. Instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP), the log inhibition of single-round infectivity at clinical concentrations, takes into account both slope and IC(50), and thus provides a direct measure of the reduction in susceptibility produced by mutations and the residual activity of drugs against resistant viruses. The standard measure, fold change in IC(50), does not correlate well with changes in IIP when mutations alter slope. These results challenge a fundamental assumption underlying current analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance and suggest that a more complete understanding of how resistance mutations reduce antiviral activity requires consideration of a previously ignored parameter, the dose-response curve slope.

  20. Multifactorial analysis of the learning curve for totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Myriam; Reibel, Nicolas; Zarnegar, Rasa; Germain, Adeline; Quilliot, Didier; Ayav, Ahmet; Bresler, Laurent; Brunaud, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most commonly performed bariatric operation worldwide for the surgical management of obesity. Totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (TR-RYGBP) has been considered to be a better approach by some groups especially early in a surgeon's experience. However, the learning curve associated with TR-RYGBP has been poorly evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve of patients who underwent TR-RYGBP. This is a prospective study of 154 first consecutive patients undergoing TR-RYGBP to analyze the influence of surgeon experience, bedside first assistant, and patient factors on operative time and postoperative complications. To give a comprehensive view of success related to the learning process, a single hybrid variable was generated. Multivariate analysis predicted the risk factors for complications and operative time. A risk-adjusted cumulative sum analysis estimated the learning curve. The learning curve for TR-RYGBP was 84 cases. Case rank and first assistant level were independent predictors of total operative time. Overall 30-day postoperative morbidity rate was 33.1 % and decreased over time. Surgeon experience (OR 2.6; CI 95 [1.290 to 5.479]; p = 0.0081) and first assistant level (OR 2.42; CI 95 [1.197 to 4.895]; p = 0.0139) remained independent predictors of composite event (operative time and complications). This study identifed criteria that should be assessed in future studies about TR-RYGBP. Both surgeon experience and bedside first assistant level affected operative duration, but surgeon experience was the most significant factor in reducing complication rates.

  1. The Application of the Principal Curve Analysis Technique to Smooth Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Oren, W.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The smoothness of a beam line refers to the quality of the relative positioning of a number of adjacent beam guiding components. The fact that smoothness is of highest priority when positioning magnets can be seen in the local tolerances imposed by the beam optics. In the past, smoothing has been done by separating horizontal and vertical misalignments and then applying some sort of analytical or manual ''feathering'' technique. The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) did not easily lend itself to this sort of smoothing because of the highly coupled nature of its pitched and rolled beam line. This paper will discuss an attempt to develop a repeatable method which is independent of the inconsistencies of human judgment and can simultaneously smooth in two or more dimensions. Four major goals were defined for the smoothing algorithm used on the SLC alignment. The first, was to simultaneously model errors for both horizontal and vertical directions. Secondly, a smooth curve whose shape was suggested by the data and not by a predetermined model was implied by the fact that unknown systematic errors were being eliminated. Thirdly, this curve must be a reproducibly fit, independent of the inconsistent nature of human judgment. Fourth, the result of the procedure was to minimize the number and size of magnet movements to reach the final alignment criteria.

  2. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of the A-X spectrum of I2: An application of near-dissociation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appadoo, D. R. T.; Le Roy, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Gerstenkorn, S.; Luc, P.; Vergès, J.; Sinzelle, J.; Chevillard, J.; D'Aignaux, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution absorption spectra of the A 3Π1u-X 1Σ+g system of I2, consisting of some 9552 lines of some 79 bands spanning the vibrational range v'=0-35 and v″=3-17, have been recorded and analyzed. A fit to them which uses the previously determined accurate molecular constants for the X 1Σ+g state yields an accurate new set of molecular constants for the A state, including the Λ doubling constants. The A-state vibrational and inertial rotational constants, as well as mechanically consistent centrifugal distortion constants, are represented by near-dissociation expansions, yielding an accurate representation of the experimental data which also provides a reliable global representation of all observed and unobserved vibration-rotation levels of this state.

  4. Collision-induced dissociation products of the protonated dipeptide carnosine: structural elucidation, fragmentation pathways and potential energy surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Eslam M; Ritacco, Ida; Sicilia, Emilia; Russo, Nino; Shoeib, Tamer

    2015-05-21

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on protonated carnosine, [carnosine + H](+), with several collision energies were shown to yield eleven different fragment ions with the generation of product ions [carnosine-H2O + H](+) and [carnosine-NH3 + H](+) being the lowest energy processes. Energy-resolved CID showed that at slightly higher collision energies the ions [histidine + H](+) and [histidine-H2O-CO + H](+) are formed. At even higher energies four other product ions were observed, however, attained relatively lower abundances. Quantum chemistry calculations, carried out at different levels of theory, were employed to probe fragmentation mechanisms that account for all the experimental data. All the adopted computational protocols give similar energetic trends, and the range of the calculated free energy barrier values for the generation of all the observed product ions is in agreement with the fragmentation mechanisms offered here.

  5. Dissociation of dicarboxylate and disulfonate dianions.

    PubMed

    Ard, Shaun; Mirsaleh-Kohan, Nasrin; Steill, Jeffrey D; Oomens, Jos; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Compton, R N

    2010-03-07

    metastable toward the dissociation pathway. However, calculations show these ions to be energetically stable toward dissociation as well as electron detachment. More importantly, in the case of the 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate dianion, experiments performed at the FELIX Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance facility and the ELISA electrostatic storage ring, where ions are collisionally cooled prior to analysis, showed this ion to be stable (tau>1.5 s). We conclude that the carboxylate (CO(2)(-)) containing dianions formed in the present CID experiment are electronically stable but vibrationally metastable due to internal energy imparted in the harsh electrospray conditions. The delocalized nature of the excess electrons associated with the carboxylate containing dianions may lead to circumvention of the RCB by dissociating via neutral fragmentation followed by (or accompanied by) electron detachment.

  6. The influence of the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder on treatment efficacy in female veterans and active duty service members.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Lunney, Carole A; Schnurr, Paula P

    2016-01-01

    A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was recently added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and is thought to be associated with poor PTSD treatment response. We used latent growth curve modeling to examine data from a randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure and present-centered therapy for PTSD in a sample of 284 female veterans and active duty service members with PTSD to test the association between the dissociative subtype and treatment response. Individuals with the dissociative subtype (defined using latent profile analysis) had a flatter slope (p = .008) compared with those with high PTSD symptoms and no dissociation, such that the former group showed, on average, a 9.75 (95% confidence interval [-16.94, -2.57]) lesser decrease in PTSD severity scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995) over the course of the trial. However, this effect was small in magnitude. Dissociative symptoms decreased markedly among those with the subtype, though neither treatment explicitly addressed such symptoms. There were no differences as a function of treatment type. Results raise doubt about the common clinical perception that exposure therapy is not effective or appropriate for individuals who have PTSD and dissociation, and provide empirical support for the use of exposure treatment for individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. From principal curves to granular principal curves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyun; Pedrycz, Witold; Miao, Duoqian; Wei, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Principal curves arising as an essential construct in dimensionality reduction and data analysis have recently attracted much attention from theoretical as well as practical perspective. In many real-world situations, however, the efficiency of existing principal curves algorithms is often arguable, in particular when dealing with massive data owing to the associated high computational complexity. A certain drawback of these constructs stems from the fact that in several applications principal curves cannot fully capture some essential problem-oriented facets of the data dealing with width, aspect ratio, width change, etc. Information granulation is a powerful tool supporting processing and interpreting massive data. In this paper, invoking the underlying ideas of information granulation, we propose a granular principal curves approach, regarded as an extension of principal curves algorithms, to improve efficiency and achieve a sound accuracy-efficiency tradeoff. First, large amounts of numerical data are granulated into C intervals-information granules developed with the use of fuzzy C-means clustering and the two criteria of information granulation, which significantly reduce the amount of data to be processed at the later phase of the overall design. Granular principal curves are then constructed by determining the upper and the lower bounds of the interval data. Finally, we develop an objective function using the criteria of information confidence and specificity to evaluate the granular output formed by the principal curves. We also optimize the granular principal curves by adjusting the level of information granularity (the number of clusters), which is realized with the aid of the particle swarm optimization. A number of numeric studies completed for synthetic and real-world datasets provide a useful quantifiable insight into the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Frequency analysis of curved nano-sandwich structure based on a nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Hosseini, S. A. H.; Hayati, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the vibration of curved nano-sandwich (CNS) with considering the influence of core shear based on the Eringen nonlocal theory. The equation of motion is derived and exact solution for the natural frequencies of CNS is presented. The proposed nonlocal model includes a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect in CNS beam. The effects of important parameters, such as the thickness to length ratio, nonlocal parameter and mode number on the frequencies of CNS are investigated. The result of our research shows that as the opening angle increases, the amount of natural frequencies decrease. We have additionally validate, our results against previous research works which showed good agreement.

  9. Analysis of remote detection travel time curves measured from microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V

    2011-06-01

    Remote detection technique can increase sensitivity of an NMR experiment by several orders of magnitude in microfluidic applications. Travel time experiment is a basic remote detection NMR experiment, which reveals the travel time distribution of the molecules flowing from the encoding coil region to the detector. In this article, we focus on analyzing how flow type (Poiseuille or plug flow), diffusion, dispersion and geometry of the flow channels are manifested in the travel time curves measured from microfluidic channels. We demonstrate that remote detection travel time experiment could be used even as an alternative NMR method for measuring self-diffusion coefficient of a fluid without magnetic field gradients. In addition, we introduce a modified travel time pulse sequence, which removes the signal of unencoded fluid spins as well as the background signal arising from the material inside or close to the detector. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves.

    PubMed

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-05-05

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions.

  11. Type curve analysis of inertial effects in the response of a well to a slug test.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kipp, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The water level response to a slug or bailer test in a well completed in a confined aquifer, has been evaluated taking into account well-bore storage and inertial effects of the water column in the well. The response range, from overdamped with negligible inertial effects to damped oscillations, was covered employing numerical inversions of the Laplace-transform solution. By scaling the time with respect to the undamped natural period of the well-aquifer system and by using the damping parameter for a second-order damped, inertial-elastic system, a set of type curves was constructed that enables water level response data from a slug or bailer test to be analyzed under conditions where the inertial parameter is large.-from Author

  12. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-04-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP.

  13. Feasibility analysis on integration of luminous environment measuring and design based on exposure curve calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yuan; Shen, Tianxing

    2013-03-01

    Besides illumination calculating during architecture and luminous environment design, to provide more varieties of photometric data, the paper presents combining relation between luminous environment design and SM light environment measuring system, which contains a set of experiment devices including light information collecting and processing modules, and can offer us various types of photometric data. During the research process, we introduced a simulation method for calibration, which mainly includes rebuilding experiment scenes in 3ds Max Design, calibrating this computer aid design software in simulated environment under conditions of various typical light sources, and fitting the exposure curves of rendered images. As analytical research went on, the operation sequence and points for attention during the simulated calibration were concluded, connections between Mental Ray renderer and SM light environment measuring system were established as well. From the paper, valuable reference conception for coordination between luminous environment design and SM light environment measuring system was pointed out.

  14. Modal analysis using a Fourier analyzer, curve-fitting, and modal tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed modal test program differs from single-input methods in that preliminary data may be acquired using multiple inputs, and modal tuning procedures may be employed to define closely spaced frquency modes more accurately or to make use of frequency response functions (FRF's) which are based on several input locations. In some respects the proposed modal test proram resembles earlier sine-sweep and