Science.gov

Sample records for dissociation curve analysis

  1. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  2. Molecular diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia by combining real-time PCR with SYBR Green1 and dissociation curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingzhong; Yan, Mei; Wang, Zhangyong; Wang, Lirong; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Bai

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to set up an automatic molecular diagnostic method for deletional alpha-thalassemia without gel electrophoresis and TaqMan probe. Four real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with SYBR Green1 and ABI7000 (SYBR-PCR) followed by dissociation curve (DC) analysis were used to detect the --(SEA), - alpha(3.7), -alpha(4.2), and non-deletion-type alleles (alpha alpha or alpha(T)alpha), respectively. Positive results of the SYBR-PCRs were defined by the special shapes of the dissociation curves and the peak height at specific Tm for each predetermined PCR at a specific Tm for each PCR amplicon > or = cutoff values. Molecular diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia was determined by combining all four SYBR-PCR results. The specific Tms for the SYBR-PCR1-4, which was used to detect the --(SEA), - alpha(3.7), -alpha(4.2), and non-deletion-type alleles were 82.5 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, 82.8 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, 81.5 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, and 83.0 +/- 1 degrees Celsius, respectively. The cutoff values of the specific peaks for the positive amplificons were 40, 20, 10, and 70. The C(T) VS log copies of a recombinant plasmid DNA showed a good linear relationship between 10(5) approximately 10(0). Sensitivity of the SYBR-PCR-based method was at least 16 times higher than the multiplex PCR (mPCR)/gel electrophoresis method. Diagnostic outcomes of the 120 alpha-thalassemia cases by using the SYBR-PCR and DC analysis techniques were shown to be the same as that by using the mPCR/gel electrophoresis methods. The SYBR-PCR combined with the DC analysis technique is an alternative assay for the routine molecular diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia.

  3. Modeling heating curve for gas hydrate dissociation in porous media.

    PubMed

    Dicharry, Christophe; Gayet, Pascal; Marion, Gérard; Graciaa, Alain; Nesterov, Anatoliy N

    2005-09-15

    A method for modeling the heating curve for gas hydrate dissociation in porous media at isochoric conditions (constant cell volume) is presented. This method consists of using an equation of state of the gas, the cumulative volume distribution (CVD) of the porous medium, and a van der Waals-Platteeuw-type thermodynamic model that includes a capillary term. The proposed method was tested to predict the heating curves for methane hydrate dissociation in a mesoporous silica glass for saturated conditions (liquid volume = pore volume) and for a fractional conversion of water to hydrate of 1 (100% of the available water was converted to hydrate). The shape factor (F) of the hydrate-water interface was found equal to 1, supporting a cylindrical shape for the hydrate particles during hydrate dissociation. Using F = 1, it has been possible to predict the heating curve for different ranges of pressure and temperature. The excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental heating curves supports the validity of our approach.

  4. Dissociation curves of diatomic molecules: A DC-DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Eunji; Kim, Min-Cheol; Burke, Kieron

    2015-12-31

    We investigate dissociation of diatomic molecules using standard density functional theory (DFT) and density-corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT) compared with CCSD(T) results as reference. The results show the difference between the HOMO values of dissociated atomic species often can be used as an indicator whether DFT would predict the correct dissociation limit. DFT predicts incorrect dissociation limits and charge distribution in molecules or molecular ions when the fragments have large HOMO differences, while DC-DFT and CCSD(T) do not. The criteria for large HOMO difference is about 2 ∼ 4 eV.

  5. Identification of non-specific hybridization using an empirical equation fitted to non-equilibrium dissociation curves

    PubMed Central

    Baushke, Samuel W; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tourlousse, Dieter M; Ahmad, Farhan; Wick, Lukas M; Gulari, Erdogan; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A

    2012-01-01

    Non-equilibrium dissociation curves (NEDCs) have the potential to identify non-specific hybridizations on high throughput, diagnostic microarrays. We report a simple method for identification of non-specific signals by using a new parameter that does not rely on comparison of perfect match and mismatch dissociations. The parameter is the ratio of specific dissociation temperature (Td-w) to theoretical melting temperature (Tm) and can be obtained by automated fitting of a four-parameter, sigmoid, empirical equation to the thousands of curves generated in a typical experiment. The curves fit perfect match NEDCs from an initial experiment with an R2 of 0.998±0.006 and root mean square of 108±91 fluorescent units. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed low temperature hybridization signals (20–48 °C) to be as effective as area under the curve as primary data filters. Evaluation of three datasets that target 16S rRNA and functional genes with varying degrees of target sequence similarity showed that filtering out hybridizations with Td-w/Tm < 0.78 greatly reduced false positive results. In conclusion, Td-w/Tm successfully screened many non-specific hybridizations that could not be identified using single temperature signal intensities alone, while the empirical modeling allowed a simplified approach to the high throughput analysis of thousands of NEDCs. PMID:22537822

  6. Curve Crossing and Branching Ratios in the Dissociative Recombination of HD{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Zajfman, D.; Amitay, Z.; Lange, M.; Hechtfischer, U.; Knoll, L.; Schwalm, D.; Wester, R.; Wolf, A.; Urbain, X.

    1997-09-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the branching ratios in the dissociative recombination of HD{sup +} with low energy electrons. The results give direct insight into the dynamics of the avoided curve crossing process between the dissociative state and the Rydberg series of the neutral molecule. Excellent agreement between the experimental results and the theory, based on a Landau-Zener formulation of the crossing process, is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Potential energy curves and dissociation energy of group IIA diatomic fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, M. P.; Ishwar, N. B.; Jha, B. L.

    1982-04-01

    Reliable (RKRV) potential energy curves have been constructed for different experimentally observed electronic states of BeF, MgF, CaF, SrF and BaF molecules from the latest spectroscopic data using the method of Rao and Venkateswarlu. Using a three-parameters Lippincott potential function the precise values of ground state dissociation energies of these molecules have been obtained. Values so obtained are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results.

  8. RKRV potential energy curves and dissociation energies of NH and PH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Viswanath, R.

    1989-05-01

    The turning points of the potential energy curves for the ground states of NH and PH molecules were calculated using the approach of Rydberg-Klein-Rees modified by Vanderslice et al. (1960), together with the energy values obtained from the Lippincott potential function. These values were compared with those obtained by Jarmain (1960). The values of the dissociation energies of the NH and PH were estimated to be about 3.45 and 3.16, respectively.

  9. Acid-base titration curves for acids with very small ratios of successive dissociation constants.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B H; Meites, L

    1974-02-01

    The shapes of the potentiometric acid-base titration curves obtained in the neutralizations of polyfunctional acids or bases for which each successive dissociation constant is smaller than the following one are examined. In the region 0 < < 1 (where is the fraction of the equivalent volume of reagent that has been added) the slope of the titration curve decreases as the number j of acidic or basic sites increases. The difference between the pH-values at = 0.75 and = 0.25 has (1 j)log 9 as the lower limit of its maximum value.

  10. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  11. Configuration of the Hemoglobin Oxygen Dissociation Curve Demystified: A Basic Mathematical Proof for Medical and Biological Sciences Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of hemoglobin (Hb) has been widely studied and mathematically described for nearly a century. Numerous mathematical models have been designed to predict with ever-increasing accuracy the behavior of oxygen transport by Hb in differing conditions of pH, carbon dioxide, temperature, Hb levels, and…

  12. THE BICARBONATE RESERVE AND THE DISSOCIATION CURVE OF OXYHEMOGLOBIN IN FEBRILE CONDITIONS.

    PubMed

    White, A C

    1925-02-28

    From Fig. 1 it may be seen that the effect of elevated temperature during the pyrexial period upon 1/K and therefore on the dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin was, on the average, greater than would have been expected from experiments on normal blood in vitro, and greater than would be expected in view of the alkalosis occurring See PDF for Structure during fever. Temperature rise, and excess hydroxyl ion acting in vitro in the opposite directions, seemed to indicate a more stable state of affairs than was found. Apparently other factors have come into play, as, for example, alterations in the proportions and concentrations of the various electrolytes. In pneumonia, for instance, there is a retention of chloride during the febrile period with excessive loss of phosphates. The variations were not due to variations in the hemoglobin molecule itself since from the work of Adair, Barcroft, and Bock (18) hemoglobin must apparently be reckoned as having identical properties in normal individuals of the same species. If Barcroft's (19) hypothesis be right, namely that the C(H) within the corpuscle is higher than that of the plasma, the observed variations of 1/K may not be so surprising. In view of the fact that the hemoglobin inside the corpuscle is enclosed within a semipermeable membrane, the possibility arises of the setting up of membrane equilibria which will protect the respiratory pigment from excessive changes of reaction that may occur in the plasma, and thus the optimum conditions for the carriage of oxygen to the tissues may be maintained. Krogh and Leitch (10) in 1919 also drew attention to the protected situation of hemoglobin inside the corpuscle. In Case 6 it seems as if the alkalosis consequent on the febrile state had gained the upper hand and had extinguished the normal temperature reaction. This is rather confirmed by the fact that clinically the case showed one of the earlier signs of an alkalosis; namely, twitching of the facial muscles. Case 10

  13. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs.

  14. Configuration of the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve demystified: a basic mathematical proof for medical and biological sciences undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2007-06-01

    The oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of hemoglobin (Hb) has been widely studied and mathematically described for nearly a century. Numerous mathematical models have been designed to predict with ever-increasing accuracy the behavior of oxygen transport by Hb in differing conditions of pH, carbon dioxide, temperature, Hb levels, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentrations that enable their applications in various clinical situations. The modeling techniques employed in many existing models are notably borrowed from advanced and highly sophisticated mathematics that are likely to surpass the comprehensibility of many medical and bioscience students due to the high level of "mathematical maturity" required. It is, however, a worthy teaching point in physiology lectures to illustrate in simple mathematics the fundamental reason for the crucial sigmoidal configuration of the ODC such that the medical and bioscience undergraduates can readily appreciate it, which is the objective of this basic dissertation.

  15. Dissociation potential curves of low-lying states in transition metal hydrides. 3. Hydrides of groups 6 and 7.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shiro; Matsushita, Takeshi; Gordon, Mark S

    2006-02-23

    The dissociation curves of low-lying spin-mixed states in monohydrides of groups 6 and 7 were calculated by using an effective core potential (ECP) approach. This approach is based on the multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) method, followed by first-order configuration interaction (FOCI) calculations, in which the method employs an ECP basis set proposed by Stevens and co-workers (SBKJC) augmented by a set of polarization functions. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects are estimated within the one-electron approximation by using effective nuclear charges, since SOC splittings obtained with the full Breit-Pauli Hamitonian are underestimated when ECP basis sets are used. The ground states of group 6 hydrides have Omega = (1)/(2)(X(6)Sigma(+)(1/2)), where Omega is the z component of the total angular momentum quantum number. Although the ground states of group 7 hydrides have Omega = 0(+), their main adiabatic components are different; the ground state in MnH originates from the lowest (7)Sigma(+), while in TcH and ReH the main component of the ground state is the lowest (5)Sigma(+). The present paper reports a comprehensive set of theoretical results including the dissociation energies, equilibrium distances, electronic transition energies, harmonic frequencies, anharmonicities, and rotational constants for several low-lying spin-mixed states in these hydrides. Transition dipole moments were also computed among the spin-mixed states and large peak positions of electronic transitions are suggested theoretically for these hydrides. The periodic trends of physical properties of metal hydrides are discussed, based on the results reported in this and other recent studies.

  16. Analysis of light curve of LP Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present photometric analysis of the RRab type pulsating star LP Cam. The star was observed at Brno Observatory and Planetarium during nine nights. Measurements were calibrated to the Johnson photometric system. Four captured and thirteen previously published maxima timings allowed us to refine the pulsation period and the zero epoch. The light curve was Fourier decomposed to estimate physical parameters using empirical relations. Our results suggest that LP Cam is a common RR Lyrae star with high, almost solar metallicity.

  17. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  18. NEXT Performance Curve Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, Pratik; Cardiff, Eric; Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Performance curves of the NEXT thruster are highly important in determining the thruster's ability in performing towards mission-specific goals. New performance curves are proposed and examined here. The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is used to verify variations in mission solutions based on both available thruster curves and the new curves generated. Furthermore, variations in BOL and EOL curves are also examined. Mission design results shown here validate the use of EMTG and the new performance curves.

  19. In vitro analysis of human immunodeficiency virus particle dissociation: gag proteolytic processing influences dissociation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara; Anders, Maria; Reinstein, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus particles undergo a step of proteolytic maturation, in which the main structural polyprotein Gag is cleaved into its mature subunits matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC) and p6. Gag proteolytic processing is accompanied by a dramatic structural rearrangement within the virion, which is necessary for virus infectivity and has been proposed to proceed through a sequence of dissociation and reformation of the capsid lattice. Morphological maturation appears to be tightly regulated, with sequential cleavage events and two small spacer peptides within Gag playing important roles by regulating the disassembly of the immature capsid layer and formation of the mature capsid lattice. In order to measure the influence of individual Gag domains on lattice stability, we established Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter virions and employed rapid kinetic FRET and light scatter measurements. This approach allowed us to measure dissociation properties of HIV-1 particles assembled in eukaryotic cells containing Gag proteins in different states of proteolytic processing. While the complex dissociation behavior of the particles prevented an assignment of kinetic rate constants to individual dissociation steps, our analyses revealed characteristic differences in the dissociation properties of the MA layer dependent on the presence of additional domains. The most striking effect observed here was a pronounced stabilization of the MA-CA layer mediated by the presence of the 14 amino acid long spacer peptide SP1 at the CA C-terminus, underlining the crucial role of this peptide for the resolution of the immature particle architecture.

  20. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments

    SciTech Connect

    Fertitta, E.; Paulus, B.; Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö.

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be{sub n} of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  1. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments.

    PubMed

    Fertitta, E; Paulus, B; Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be(n) of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  2. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Lilienfield, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Dissociation is typically defined as the lack of normal integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiences into consciousness and memory. The present article critically evaluates the research literature on cognitive processes in dissociation. The authors' review indicates that dissociation is characterized by subtle deficits in neuropsychological…

  3. Mathematics analysis of polymerase chain reaction kinetic curves.

    PubMed

    Sochivko, D G; Fedorov, A A; Varlamov, D A; Kurochkin, V E; Petrov, R V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches to the mathematical analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kinetic curves. The basic principles of PCR mathematical analysis are presented. Approximation of PCR kinetic curves and PCR efficiency curves by various functions is described. Several PCR models based on chemical kinetics equations are suggested. Decision criteria for an optimal function to describe PCR efficiency are proposed.

  4. Method comparison study for weak acid dissociation cyanide analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Joseph D; Thompson, Leslie; Clark, Patrick J; Beckman, Scott W

    2003-02-01

    Method comparison studies of two different methods for the analysis of weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide revealed analytical flaws and/or matrix interference problems with both procedures. EPA "draft" method 1677 using a Perstorp 3202 CN analyzer was compared to Standard Method 4500 CN I. It was discovered that the Perstorp analyzer produced more precise and more accurate results once appropriate and necessary procedural steps from the EPA draft method were modified. Comparison of these two methods, was based on "real world" samples collected from a mine-tailing solution. The mine-tailing solution contained high concentrations of cyanide and metals. Inconsistencies in method procedures were traced to sulfide interferences and high concentrations of WAD metals. Conclusions were based upon a large sample base collected from a mine site over a 90-day period.

  5. Unrestricted prescriptions for open-shell singlet diradicals: using economical ab initio and density functional theory to calculate singlet-triplet gaps and bond dissociation curves.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H; Cook, Thomas C

    2012-05-24

    Here we present and test several computational prescriptions for calculating singlet-triplet (ST) gap energies and bond dissociation curves for open-shell singlet diradicals using economical unrestricted single reference type calculations. For ST gap energies from Slipchenko and Krylov's atom and molecule test set (C, O, Si, NH, NF, OH(+), O(2), CH(2), and NH(2)(+)) spin unrestricted Hartree-Fock and MP2 energies result in errors greater than 15 kcal/mol. However, spin-projected (SP) Hartree-Fock theory in combination with spin-component-scaled (SCS) or scaled-opposite-spin (SOS) second-order perturbation theory gives ST gap energies with a mean unsigned error (MUE) of less than 2 kcal/mol. Density functionals generally give poor results for unrestricted energies and only the ωB97X-D, the M06, and the M06-2X functionals provide reasonable accuracy after spin-projection with MUE values of 4.7, 4.3, and 3.0 kcal/mol, respectively, with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. We also present a new one parameter hybrid density functional, diradical-1 (DR-1), based on Adamo and Barone's modified PW exchange functional with the PW91 correlation functional. This DR-1 method gives a mean error (ME) of 0.0 kcal/mol and a MUE value of 1.3 kcal/mol for ST gap energies. As another test of unrestricted methods the bond dissociation curves for methane (CH(4)) and hydrofluoric acid (H-F) were calculated with the M06-2X, DR-1, and ωB97X-D density functionals. All three of these functionals give reasonable results for the methane C-H bond but result in errors greater than 50 kcal/mol for the H-F bond dissociation. Spin-projection is found to significantly degrade bond dissociation curves past ~2.2 Å. Although unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory provides a very poor description of H-F bond dissociation, unrestricted SCS-MP2 and SOS-MP2 methods give accurate results.

  6. Recession curve analysis for groundwater levels: case study in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.; Abramenko, K.; Lauva, D.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Dimanta, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Recession curve analysis is powerful and effective analysis technique in many research areas related with hydrogeology where observations have to be made, such as water filtration and absorption of moisture, irrigation and drainage, planning of hydroelectric power production and chemical leaching (elution of chemical substances) as well as in other areas. The analysis of the surface runoff hydrograph`s recession curves, which is performed to conceive the after-effects of interaction of precipitation and surface runoff, has approved in practice. The same method for analysis of hydrograph`s recession curves can be applied for the observations of the groundwater levels. There are manually prepared hydrograph for analysis of recession curves for observation wells (MG2, BG2 and AG1) in agricultural monitoring sites in Latvia. Within this study from the available monitoring data of groundwater levels were extracted data of declining periods, splitted by month. The drop-down curves were manually (by changing the date) moved together, until to find the best match, thereby obtaining monthly drop-down curves, representing each month separately. Monthly curves were combined and manually joined, for obtaining characterizing drop-down curves of the year for each well. Within the process of decreased recession curve analysis, from the initial curve was cut out upward areas, leaving only the drops of the curve, consequently, the curve is transformed more closely to the groundwater flow, trying to take out the impact of rain or drought periods from the curve. Respectively, the drop-down curve is part of the data, collected with hydrograph, where data with the discharge dominates, without considering impact of precipitation. Using the recession curve analysis theory, ready tool "A Visual Basic Spreadsheet Macro for Recession Curve Analysis" was used for selection of data and logarithmic functions matching (K. Posavec et.al., GROUND WATER 44, no. 5: 764-767, 2006), as well as

  7. Full Empirical Potential Curves and Improved Dissociation Energies for the X ^1Σ^+ and a ^1Π States of CH^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Le Roy, Robert

    2014-06-01

    CH^+ has been a species of interest since the dawn of molecular astrophysics,and it is an important intermediate in combustion processes. In the domain of `conventional' spectroscopy there have been a number of studies of low v' and v" portions of the A ^1Π-X ^1Σ^+ band system of various isotopologues, and Amano recently reported microwave measurements of the ground-state R(0) lines of 12CH^+, 13CH^+ and 12CD^+. used photodissociation spectroscopy to observe transitions to very high-J' tunneling-predissociation levels (shape resonances) involving v(A)=0-10, for many of which they also measured the photo-fragment kinetic energy release. More recently Hechtfischer et al. used photodissociation spectroscopy of `Feschbach resonance' levels at very high v'(A) and low J' to obtain the first direct measurement of the 12CH^+ dissociation energy with near-spectroscopic accuracy (± 1.1 cm-1). However, to date, all analyses of the data for this system had been performed using traditional band-constant or Dunham-expansion fits to data for the lowest vibrational levels, and there have been no attempts to combine the `conventional' low-v data with the high-J' and high-v' photodissociation data in a single treatment. The present work has addressed this problem by performing a Direct-Potential-Fit (DPF) analysis that obtains full analytic potential energy functions for the X ^1Σ^+ and A ^1Π states of CH^+ that are able to account for all of the available data (on average) within their uncertainties. A.E. Douglas and G. Herzberg, Astrophys. J. 94, 381 (1941). T. Amano, Astrophys. J. Lett. {716}, L1 (2010) H. Helm, P.C. Crosby, M.M. Graff and J.T. Mosley, Phys. Rev. A 25, 304 (1982) U. Hechtfischer and C. J. Williams, M. Lange, J. Linkemann, D. Schwalm, R. Wester, A. Wolf and D. Zajfman, J.Chem.Phys. 117, 8754 (2002). H.S.P. Müller, Astron. Astrophys. 514, L7 (2010)

  8. Analysis of Gas Dissociation Solar Thermal Power System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    that have accumulated at the facility is effected by using reversible chemical reactions bottom of the reservoir. in a dosed- cycle gaseous working fluid...L.LJ facility at intermediate temperature by using a polyatomic gas in a closed cycle circulation system. For example, S gaseous SO, dissociates at 800... cycle fluid system by passing SO- vapor through a dissociation reactor in a that transfers energy from the collection field to the high temperature solar

  9. SS433 Trek 2: light curve analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, J.; Obana, Y.; Okugami, M.

    The authors have calculated theoretical light curves of SS433 during eclipse and precession, using a model in which SS433 consists of a geometrically thick torus around a compact star and a companion star filling the Roche lobe. The favorite combination is that the mass ratio is about 2 (a compact star is a black hole) and the surface temperature of the companion is around 17000K.

  10. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  11. PSD analysis of optical QSO light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simm, Torben; Salvato, M.; Saglia, R.; Ponti, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Nandra, K.; Bender, R.

    2016-08-01

    One of the elementary properties of quasar activity is continuous variability in the UV/optical bands. The power spectral density (PSD) potentially contains information about the underlying processes connected to variability. We applied a novel method based on continuous-time autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models (Kelly et al. 2014) to derive the PSD even for irregularly sampled light curves. Using a sample of ~100 X-ray selected non-local QSOs from the XMM-COSMOS catalog and optical light curves provided by the Pan-STARRS1 MDF survey we find that the PSD resembles a broken power-law with a high-frequency slope significantly steeper than observed in X-ray studies. The PSD normalization is observed to scale inversely with bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio, whereas there is no correlation between the characteristic bend timescale and black hole mass. We find a weak tendency for QSOs with higher black hole mass to have steeper high-frequency PSD slopes. In an ongoing work we extend these studies employing a sample of ~700 variable broad-line QSOs with high-quality black hole mass estimates and well-sampled light curves from the SDSS-RM project.

  12. Relations among peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty; van der Hart, Onno; van Ochten, Jacobien M; van Son, Maarten J M; Steele, Kathy; Breeman, Linda

    2008-10-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on the empirical literature which addressed the relationship of peritraumatic dissociation to posttraumatic stress (PTS). Extensive literature searches were conducted to identify as many relevant studies as possible, and revealed 59 independent eligible studies. All studies were coded using a detailed code sheet that included effect measures, variables that indicated the methodological quality of the studies, and substantial variables that might theoretically affect the relationship between peritraumatic dissociation and PTS. A significant positive relation between peritraumatic dissociation and PTS was found. Differences in the methodological rigor between studies - time elapsed since peritraumatic dissociation, design, sample type, and study type - significantly and sufficiently explained the variability in effect sizes between studies. Theoretical variables did not explain such variability. Although results underline earlier findings, due to designs of the reviewed studies no conclusions could be drawn as to causal relations between peritraumatic dissociation and PTS.

  13. High-Resolution Melt Curve Analysis in Cancer Mutation Screen.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Patel, Keyur P

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis is a PCR-based assay that identifies sequence alterations based on subtle variations in the melting curves of mutated versus wild-type DNA sequences. HRM analysis is a high-throughput, sensitive, and efficient alternative to Sanger sequencing and is used to assess for mutations in clinically important genes involved in cancer diagnosis. The technique involves PCR amplification of a target sequence in the presence of a fluorescent double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding dye, melting of the fluorescent amplicons, and subsequent interpretation of melt curve profiles.

  14. Dissociation behavior of Methane Hydrate presumed by NMR log analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study has been conducted with the aim of comprehending dissociation behavior of MH. The production test was operated in the Daini-Atsumi knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. We corresponded the NMR log data acquired from the three wells, which drilled before the test (AT1-MC) and after the test (AT1-LWD1 and AT1-LWD2). NMR log measures T2 relaxation time, and calculates porosity and permeability. We especially focused on the T2 distribution. It is assumed that MH occupied larger pore space in the sandy sediment because the T2 distribution in the MH bearing layer has no peak in the longer time zone at the AT1-MC. However, T2 peak appeared over 33ms zone at the AT1-LWD1 and AT1-LWD2. This phenomenon is observed in the thin MH bearing layers rather than thick one. On the other hand, nothing T2 peak appeared over the 33ms zone in the thick MH bearing layer, but T2 distribution shifts to longer relaxation time in the short time interval. Hence, it is assumed that the MH was dissociated from the contact faces with the grain. In terms of the thermal conductivity, near the grain-grain contact faces are more dissociable than the MH-grain contact; however both of dissociation zones are essentially MH-grain contact faces. Nothing or few MH was observed in the muddy layer at the coring campaign near these wells. Abovementioned, NMR logging detected various changes on the T2 distribution. It seems to indicate the dissociation of MH. And these data gets into alignment with other log data and monitoring data, which are resistivity and temperature measurement. However, as this logging data acquired from each location, there is possibility that the initial condition was originally distinct. This research was conducted as a part of the MH21 research, and the authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to MH21 and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry for providing the permission to disclose this research.

  15. Light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas; Budavari, Tamas; Hendry, Martin A.; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2015-08-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Schematically, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We are applying the framework to a variety of problems in synoptic time-domain survey astronomy, including optimal detection of weak sources in multi-epoch data, and improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities from detailed demographic modeling of ensembles of Cepheid light curves.

  16. Decision curve analysis revisited: overall net benefit, relationships to ROC curve analysis, and application to case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Decision curve analysis has been introduced as a method to evaluate prediction models in terms of their clinical consequences if used for a binary classification of subjects into a group who should and into a group who should not be treated. The key concept for this type of evaluation is the "net benefit", a concept borrowed from utility theory. Methods We recall the foundations of decision curve analysis and discuss some new aspects. First, we stress the formal distinction between the net benefit for the treated and for the untreated and define the concept of the "overall net benefit". Next, we revisit the important distinction between the concept of accuracy, as typically assessed using the Youden index and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the concept of utility of a prediction model, as assessed using decision curve analysis. Finally, we provide an explicit implementation of decision curve analysis to be applied in the context of case-control studies. Results We show that the overall net benefit, which combines the net benefit for the treated and the untreated, is a natural alternative to the benefit achieved by a model, being invariant with respect to the coding of the outcome, and conveying a more comprehensive picture of the situation. Further, within the framework of decision curve analysis, we illustrate the important difference between the accuracy and the utility of a model, demonstrating how poor an accurate model may be in terms of its net benefit. Eventually, we expose that the application of decision curve analysis to case-control studies, where an accurate estimate of the true prevalence of a disease cannot be obtained from the data, is achieved with a few modifications to the original calculation procedure. Conclusions We present several interrelated extensions to decision curve analysis that will both facilitate its interpretation and broaden its potential area of application. PMID:21696604

  17. Cepheid light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hendry, Martin; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Roughly speaking, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We describe ongoing work applying the framework to improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities via FDA-based refinement and generalization of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation.

  18. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Brown, Matthew F. D.; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. Conclusions The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. PMID:25854673

  19. Analysis of agonist dissociation constants as assessed by functional antagonism in guinea pig left atria

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, P.; Malta, E.

    1986-04-01

    In electrically driven guinea pig left atria, positive inotropic responses to (-)-isoprenaline and the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist RO363 were obtained in the absence and in the presence of the functional antagonists adenosine, carbachol, gallopamil, nifedipine, and Ro 03-7894. Each of the functional antagonists reduced the maximum response to both agonists and produced nonparallel rightward shifts in the cumulative concentration effect curves. For both agonists, dissociation constants (KA) were calculated using the equation described by Furchgott (1966) for irreversible antagonism. For RO363, which is a partial agonist with high agonist activity, the equations outlined for functional interaction by Mackay (1981) were also employed to calculate KA values. The KA values obtained by each method were compared with the dissociation constants (KD) for the two agonists determined from their ability to displace the radioligand (-)-(/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol from beta 1-adrenoceptors in guinea pig left atrial membrane preparations. The estimates of KA varied substantially from KD values. The KD values were taken as more accurate estimates of the true values for the dissociation constants because a high degree of correlation exists between pKD and pD2 values for a number of other beta-adrenoceptor agonists that behave as partial agonists and between pKD and pKB values for a number of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Thus, it appears that there are serious limitations in the current theory for using functional antagonism as a means of obtaining agonist dissociation constants.

  20. Testing Main Effects and Interactions in Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Willoughby, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    A key strength of latent curve analysis (LCA) is the ability to model individual variability in rates of change as a function of 1 or more explanatory variables. The measurement of time plays a critical role because the explanatory variables multiplicatively interact with time in the prediction of the repeated measures. However, this interaction…

  1. Binding Energy and Dissociation Barrier: Experimental Determination of the Key Parameters of the Potential Energy Curve of Diethyl Ether on Si(001).

    PubMed

    Reutzel, Marcel; Lipponer, Marcus; Dürr, Michael; Höfer, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    The key parameters of the potential energy curve of organic molecules on semiconductor surfaces, binding energy of the intermediate state and dissociation barrier, were experimentally investigated for the model system of diethyl ether (Et2O) on Si(001). Et2O adsorbs via a datively bonded intermediate from which it converts via ether cleavage into a covalently attached final state. This thermally activated conversion into the final state was followed in real-time by means of optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) at different temperatures and the associated energy barrier ϵa = 0.38 ± 0.05 eV and pre-exponential factor νa = 10(4±1) s(-1) were determined. From molecular beam experiments on the initial sticking probability, the difference between the desorption energy ϵd and ϵa was extracted and thus the binding energy of the intermediate state was determined (0.62 ± 0.08 eV). The results are discussed in terms of general chemical trends as well as with respect to a wider applicability on adsorbate reactions on semiconductor surfaces.

  2. Analysis of Magnetization Curves and Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Uniaxial Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhova, M. B.; Zhdanova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the processes of magnetization of uniaxial ferromagnetic materials is performed within the Neel theory of magnetic phases. Relations are obtained for the constants of magnetic crystal anisotropy K 1, K 2, the form factor N, and the saturation magnetization I s , at which the magnetization curves exhibit jumps (FOMP). Formulas for computing the saturation fields H s and the jump fields H FOMP are derived for crystals with different types of magnetocrystalline anisotropy MCA. It is shown that the Sucksmith-Thompson method is applicable for computing the first too MCAconstants of uniaxial ferromagnets with any type of MCA. Constants K 1 and K 2 are computed with allowance for the form factor of the specimen. Model magnetization curves are plotted for uniaxial ferromagnets with different types of MCA along and perpendicularly to crystallographic axis c. The analytical results match the model curves well.

  3. Peptide and protein sequence analysis by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Syka, John E. P.; Coon, Joshua J.; Schroeder, Melanie J.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.

    2004-01-01

    Peptide sequence analysis using a combination of gas-phase ion/ion chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is demonstrated. Singly charged anthracene anions transfer an electron to multiply protonated peptides in a radio frequency quadrupole linear ion trap (QLT) and induce fragmentation of the peptide backbone along pathways that are analogous to those observed in electron capture dissociation. Modifications to the QLT that enable this ion/ion chemistry are presented, and automated acquisition of high-quality, single-scan electron transfer dissociation MS/MS spectra of phosphopeptides separated by nanoflow HPLC is described. PMID:15210983

  4. Developmental trajectories of adolescent popularity: a growth curve modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2006-12-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.

  5. Oxygen dissociation curves for whole blood, recorded with an instrument that continuously measures pO2 and sO2 independently at constant t, pCO2, and pH.

    PubMed

    Zwart, A; Kwant, G; Oeseburg, B; Zijlstra, W G

    1982-06-01

    We describe a method for recording oxygen dissociation curves for whole-blood specimens. The blood sample is placed in a thermostated measuring chamber, and pO2 and SO2 are measured continuously by polarography and by reflectometry, respectively. During the recording of an oxygen dissociation curve, the pO2 and SO2 signals are stored in a data-acquisition system, while pH, pCO2, and temperature are kept constant. Determination of precision and error discussion indicated that the coefficient of variation (CV) of the determination of the oxygen dissociation curve is mainly determined by the error in the measurement of SO2. The overall CV of pO2 values belonging to the lower, mid-, and upper parts of the SO2 range is estimated to be about 2.6, 3.1, and 2.1%, respectively. In practice the measurements are about 30% more precise than estimated. With our method, the fixed-acid-induced Bohr effect (H+ factor) can be determined over the entire SO2 range with much greater precision than hitherto.

  6. Stress analysis in curved composites due to thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, Jared Cornelius

    Many structures in aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, machines, tools, bridges, and buildings, consist of curved sections. These sections vary from straight line segments that have curvature at either one or both ends, segments with compound curvatures, segments with two mutually perpendicular curvatures or Gaussian curvatures, and segments with a simple curvature. With the advancements made in multi-purpose composites over the past 60 years, composites slowly but steadily have been appearing in these various vehicles, compound structures, and buildings. These composite sections provide added benefits over isotropic, polymeric, and ceramic materials by generally having a higher specific strength, higher specific stiffnesses, longer fatigue life, lower density, possibilities in reduction of life cycle and/or acquisition cost, and greater adaptability to intended function of structure via material composition and geometry. To be able to design and manufacture a safe composite laminate or structure, it is imperative that the stress distributions, their causes, and effects are thoroughly understood in order to successfully accomplish mission objectives and manufacture a safe and reliable composite. The objective of the thesis work is to expand upon the knowledge of simply curved composite structures by exploring and ascertaining all pertinent parameters, phenomenon, and trends in stress variations in curved laminates due to thermal loading. The simply curved composites consist of composites with one radius of curvature throughout the span of the specimen about only one axis. Analytical beam theory, classical lamination theory, and finite element analysis were used to ascertain stress variations in a flat, isotropic beam. An analytical method was developed to ascertain the stress variations in an isotropic, simply curved beam under thermal loading that is under both free-free and fixed-fixed constraint conditions. This is the first such solution to Author's best knowledge

  7. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, A.

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength photometric analysis of Ellerman Bomb (EB) observations obtained from the Dutch Open Telescope. In our data we have found 6 EBs located in the super-penumbra of the main spot in the active region NOAA 10781. We present light curves of EB observed in the Hα line centre and wing +0.7 Å, in the Ca II H line centre and wing~+2.35 Å, in the G-band and in the TRACE 1600 Å filter. We have shown that EBs were visible in the G-band and moreover, there was a good correlation between the light curves in the G-band and in the Hα line wings. We also found quasi-periodic oscillations of EBs brightness in the G-band, CaII H line and TRACE 1600 Å filter.

  8. Multivariate analysis of electron detachment dissociation and infrared multiphoton dissociation mass spectra of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides differing only in hexuronic acid stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Oh, Han Bin; Leach, Franklin E; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates by mass spectrometry has been a long-standing analytical challenge due to the inherent heterogeneity of these biomolecules, specifically polydispersity, variability in sulfation, and hexuronic acid stereochemistry. Recent advances in tandem mass spectrometry methods employing threshold and electron-based ion activation have resulted in the ability to determine the location of the labile sulfate modification as well as assign the stereochemistry of hexuronic acid residues. To facilitate the analysis of complex electron detachment dissociation (EDD) spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to differentiate the hexuronic acid stereochemistry of four synthetic GAG epimers whose EDD spectra are nearly identical upon visual inspection. For comparison, PCA is also applied to infrared multiphoton dissociation spectra (IRMPD) of the examined epimers. To assess the applicability of multivariate methods in GAG mixture analysis, PCA is utilized to identify the relative content of two epimers in a binary mixture.

  9. Dissociation of biomolecules using a ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight/curved field reflectron tandem mass spectrometer equipped with a differential-pumped collision cell.

    PubMed

    Belgacem, Omar; Bowdler, Andrew; Brookhouse, Ian; Brancia, Francesco L; Raptakis, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    A commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) instrument equipped with a curved field reflectron (CFR) was modified in order to perform collision-induced dissociation (CID) on a variety of biomolecules. The incorporation of a high-resolution ion gate together with a collision cell within the field-free region allowed tandem mass analysis (MS/MS), without the necessity to decelerate the precursor ions prior to activation. The simultaneous detection of all product ions remained possible by using the CFR. To test the MS/MS performances, ACTH (fragment 1-17), a complex high mannose carbohydrate (Man)(8)(GlcNac)(2) and a lysophosphatidylcholine lipid (18:1) were analysed on the modified instrument. Direct comparison with the low-energy product ion spectra, acquired on a MALDI quadrupole ion trap (QIT) two-stage reflectron time-of flight (ReToF) mass spectrometer, showed significant differences in the types of product ions observed. The additional ions detected were a clear indication of the high-energy fragmentation processes occurring in the collision cell.

  10. Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.).

  11. Dissociative Experiences are Associated with Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Non-clinical Sample: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BOYSAN, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been a burgeoning literature considering the significant associations between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative experiences. In this study, the relationsips between dissociative symtomotology and dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were examined in homogeneous sub-groups obtained with latent class algorithm in an undergraduate Turkish sample. Method Latent profile analysis, a recently developed classification method based on latent class analysis, was applied to the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) item-response data from 2976 undergraduates. Differences in severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression across groups were evaluated by running multinomial logistic regression analyses. Associations between latent class probabilities and psychological variables in terms of obsessive-compulsive sub-types, anxiety, and depression were assessed by computing Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients. Results The findings of the latent profile analysis supported further evidence for discontinuity model of dissociative experiences. The analysis empirically justified the distinction among three sub-groups based on the DES items. A marked proportion of the sample (42%) was assigned to the high dissociative class. In the further analyses, all sub-types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms significantly differed across latent classes. Regarding the relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptomatology, low dissociation appeared to be a buffering factor dealing with obsessive-compulsive symptoms; whereas high dissociation appeared to be significantly associated with high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Conclusion It is concluded that the concept of dissociation can be best understood in a typological approach that dissociative symptomatology not only exacerbates obsessive-compulsive symptoms but also serves as an adaptive coping mechanism.

  12. Molecular identification of antelope horn by melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuru; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Jin, Yan; Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Luqi

    2016-11-01

    Antelope horn is a valuable Chinese traditional medicine and widely used in clinic. However, with the deterioration of antelope's living environment and a lot of killing, the saiga population begins falling and in some places plummet. Since the increasing demand of this expensive and good bioactive medicine, the horn of artiodactyla animals is often used as the antelope horn. The adulterated or impostor not only cause damage to clinical medicine but also affect the antelope resources protection and sustainable development. Here, in order to establish a melting curve analysis (MCA) method to distinguish the antelope horn from other animal horns and identify the decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicine in a fast and easy way, animal horns and its decoction pieces, Chinese patent medicines were collected from the market and the DNA of all the collected samples were extracted. The melting curve of two universal fragments (COI and Cyt b) was scanned and Cyt b was selected as feasibility fragment for identifying authentic antelope horn from eight adulterant animal horns. After optimizing the condition for MCA, inspecting the precision and the replication of the method, a reference melting curve modern was established and we performed MCA on the antelope horns, fakes, and adulterants on a 1:1 mix, decoction pieces, and Chinese patent medicine. Thus, this study provides fast and easy methods so that MCA can detect the truth, fakes, and adulterations of antelope horns.

  13. Dissection of the hormetic curve: analysis of components and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the dose of an effector and the biological response frequently is not described by a linear function and, moreover, in some cases the dose-response relationship may change from positive/adverse to adverse/positive with increasing dose. This complicated relationship is called "hormesis". This paper provides a short analysis of the concept along with a description of used approaches to characterize hormetic relationships. The whole hormetic curve can be divided into three zones: I - a lag-zone where no changes are observed with increasing dose; II - a zone where beneficial/adverse effects are observed, and III - a zone where the effects are opposite to those seen in zone II. Some approaches are proposed to analyze the molecular components involved in the development of the hormetic character of dose-response relationships with the use of specific genetic lines or inhibitors of regulatory pathways. The discussion is then extended to suggest a new parameter (half-width of the hormetic curve at zone II) for quantitative characterization of the hormetic curve. The problems limiting progress in the development of the hormesis concept such as low reproducibility and predictability may be solved, at least partly, by deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormetic dose-effect relationship.

  14. Dissection of the Hormetic Curve: Analysis of Components and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the dose of an effector and the biological response frequently is not described by a linear function and, moreover, in some cases the dose-response relationship may change from positive/adverse to adverse/positive with increasing dose. This complicated relationship is called “hormesis”. This paper provides a short analysis of the concept along with a description of used approaches to characterize hormetic relationships. The whole hormetic curve can be divided into three zones: I – a lag-zone where no changes are observed with increasing dose; II – a zone where beneficial/adverse effects are observed, and III – a zone where the effects are opposite to those seen in zone II. Some approaches are proposed to analyze the molecular components involved in the development of the hormetic character of dose-response relationships with the use of specific genetic lines or inhibitors of regulatory pathways. The discussion is then extended to suggest a new parameter (half-width of the hormetic curve at zone II) for quantitative characterization of the hormetic curve. The problems limiting progress in the development of the hormesis concept such as low reproducibility and predictability may be solved, at least partly, by deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormetic dose-effect relationship. PMID:25249836

  15. Analysis of rotation curves in the framework of Rn gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio Martins, C.; Salucci, P.

    2007-11-01

    We present an analysis of a devised sample of rotation curves (RCs), with the aim of checking the consequences of a modified f(R) gravity on galactic scales. Originally motivated by the mystery of dark energy, this theory may explain the observed non-Keplerian profiles of galactic RCs in terms of a breakdown of Einstein general relativity. We show that, in general, the power-law f(R) version could fit the observations well, with reasonable values for the mass model parameters. This could encourage further investigation into Rn gravity from both observational and theoretical points of view.

  16. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules.

  17. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for recession curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea; Nakić, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    A Visual Basic program for an Excel spreadsheet was written to construct a master recession curve (MRC), using the adapted matching strip method, for recession analysis of ground water level time series. The program uses five different linear/nonlinear regression models to adjust individual recession segments to their proper positions in the MRC. The program can also be used to analyze the recession segments of other time series, such as daily stream discharge or stage. Some examples of field data from Croatia are used to illustrate the usefulness of its application.

  18. Cusum analysis for learning curve of videothoracoscopic lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Avcı, Alper; Türktan, Mediha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Video assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy has a demanding learning curve due to its technical complexity and risk of uncontrollable bleeding. We investigated the case number required for gaining technical proficiency by applying cumulative sum analysis on initial VATS lobectomy operations of a single surgeon. Methods CALGB definition was used for the definition of VATS lobectomy. The data of the initial cases evaluated and cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was applied to duration of the operations and length of hospital stay. Results Fifty-eight patients underwent VATS lobectomy. Of those 51 were malignant and 7 were benign. Fifty-five of the procedures were lobectomy, 2 were inferior bi-lobectomy and 1 was left upper lobectomy with chest wall resection. CUSUM analysis reached to proficiency at 27 cases for duration of the operations. Conclusions The length of learning curve depends on previous experience of the surgeon on open lobectomy and simpler VATS operations, potential number of VATS lobectomy cases and VATS capability of the surgeon. Depending on these factors, it is possible to obtain technical proficiency with an inferior number of procedures compared with existing literature (50-200). PMID:28352848

  19. ALE meta‐analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emotionally‐laden tactile stimulation—such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet—may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta‐analysis was performed. This meta‐analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta‐analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta‐analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta‐analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network‐level co‐activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective‐related PI and discriminative‐related SI regions co‐activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co‐activations. Taken together, these meta‐analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct

  20. ALE meta-analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch.

    PubMed

    Morrison, India

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally-laden tactile stimulation-such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet-may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis was performed. This meta-analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta-analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta-analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta-analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network-level co-activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective-related PI and discriminative-related SI regions co-activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co-activations. Taken together, these meta-analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct pathways.

  1. Thermochemistry and Kinetic Analysis of the Unimolecular Oxiranyl Radical Dissociation Reaction: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-07-04

    Oxirane structures are important in organic synthesis, and they are important initial products in the oxidation reactions of alkyl radicals. The thermochemical properties (enthalpy of formation, entropy, and heat capacity) for the reaction steps of the unimolecular oxiranyl radical dissociation reaction are determined and compared with the available literature. The overall ring opening and subsequent steps involve four types of reactions: β-scission ring opening, intramolecular hydrogen transfer, β-scission hydrogen elimination, and β-scission methyl radical elimination. The enthalpies of formation of the transition states are determined and evaluated using six popular Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation methods (B3LYP, B2PLYP, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, ωB97XD), each combined with three different basis sets. The DFT enthalpy values are compared with five composite calculation methods (G3, G4, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, W1U), and by CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ. Kinetic parameters are determined versus pressure and temperature for the unimolecular dissociation pathways of an oxiranyl radical, which include the chemical activation reactions of the ring-opened oxiranyl radical relative to the ring-opening barrier. Multifrequency quantum Rice Ramsperger Kassel (QRRK) analysis is used to determine k(E) with master equation analysis for falloff. The major overall reaction pathway at lower combustion temperatures is oxiranyl radical dissociation to a methyl radical and carbon monoxide. Oxiranyl radical dissociation to a ketene and hydrogen atom is the key reaction path above 700 K.

  2. Light Curve and Orbital Period Analysis of VX Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, M.; Nelson, R. H.; Şenavcı, H. V.; İzci, D.; Özavcı, İ.; Gümüş, D.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we performed simultaneously light curve and radial velocity, and also period analyses of the eclipsing binary system VX Lac. Four color (BVRI) light curves of the system were analysed using the W-D code. The results imply that VX Lac is a classic Algol-type binary with a mass ratio of q=0.27, of which the less massive secondary component fills its Roche lobe. The orbital period behaviour of the system was analysed by assuming the light time effect (LITE) from a third body. The O-C analysis yielded a mass transfer rate of dM/dt=1.86×10-8Mȯyr-1 and the minimal mass of the third body to be M3=0.31Mȯ. The residuals from mass transfer and the third body were also analysed because another cyclic variation is seen in O-C diagram. This periodic variation was examined under the hypotheses of stellar magnetic activity and fourth body.

  3. WASP-14 b: transit timing analysis of 19 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Maciejewski, G.; Seeliger, M.; Marka, C.; Fernández, M.; Güver, T.; Göğüş, E.; Nowak, G.; Vaňko, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Mugrauer, M.; Trepl, L.; Gelszinnis, J.

    2015-08-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light-curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis, we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed us to refine the transit ephemeris. We derived an orbital period 1.2 s longer and 10 times more precise than the one given in the discovery paper. We found no significant periodic signal in the timing-residuals and, hence, no evidence for TTV in the system.

  4. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  5. Direct profiling of environmental microbial populations by thermal dissociation analysis of native rRNAs hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El Fantroussi, Said; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Bernhard, Anne E.; Kelly, John J.; Noble, Peter A.; Smidt, H.; Yershov, G. M.; Stahl, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile directly extracted rRNA from environmental microbial populations without PCR amplification. In our initial inspection of two distinct estuarine study sites, the hybridization patterns were reproducible and varied between estuarine sediments of differing salinities. The determination of a thermal dissociation curve (i.e., melting profile) for each probe-target duplex provided information on hybridization specificity, which is essential for confirming adequate discrimination between target and nontarget sequences.

  6. Higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) product ion-triggered electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry for the analysis of N-linked glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charandeep; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Creese, Andrew J; Cooper, Helen J

    2012-09-07

    Large scale mass spectrometry analysis of N-linked glycopeptides is complicated by the inherent complexity of the glycan structures. Here, we evaluate a mass spectrometry approach for the targeted analysis of N-linked glycopeptides in complex mixtures that does not require prior knowledge of the glycan structures or pre-enrichment of the glycopeptides. Despite the complexity of N-glycans, the core of the glycan remains constant, comprising two N-acetylglucosamine and three mannose units. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry of N-glycopeptides results in the formation of the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oxonium ion and a [mannose+GlcNAc] fragment (in addition to other fragments resulting from cleavage within the glycan). In ion-trap CID, those ions are not detected due to the low m/z cutoff; however, they are detected following the beam-type CID known as higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) on the orbitrap mass spectrometer. The presence of these product ions following HCD can be used as triggers for subsequent electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry analysis of the precursor ion. The ETD mass spectrum provides peptide sequence information, which is unobtainable from HCD. A Lys-C digest of ribonuclease B and trypsin digest of immunoglobulin G were separated by ZIC-HILIC liquid chromatography and analyzed by HCD product ion-triggered ETD. The data were analyzed both manually and by search against protein databases by commonly used algorithms. The results show that the product ion-triggered approach shows promise for the field of glycoproteomics and highlight the requirement for more sophisticated data mining tools.

  7. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways ... at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative ...

  8. Light curve analysis of southern eclipsing binary EM Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, C.; Bulut, I.; Bulut, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ASAS light curve of the eclipsing binary EM Car (Sp = O8V, P = 3.4 days) has been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney method. The light curve analyses have found that EM Car is a detached eclipsing binary system with small eccentric orbit

  9. Electron capture dissociation mass spectrometric analysis of lysine-phosphorylated peptides.

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Karolina; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Ruman, Tomasz; Fraczyk, Tomasz; Rode, Wojciech; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins is an essential signalling mechanism in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Although N-phosphorylation of basic amino acid is known for its importance in biological systems, it is still poorly explored in terms of products and mechanisms. In the present study, two MS fragmentation methods, ECD (electron-capture dissociation) and CID (collision-induced dissociation), were tested as tools for analysis of N-phosphorylation of three model peptides, RKRSRAE, RKRARKE and PLSRTLSVAAKK. The peptides were phosphorylated by reaction with monopotassium phosphoramidate. The results were confirmed by 1H NMR and 31P NMR studies. The ECD method was found useful for the localization of phosphorylation sites in unstable lysine-phosphorylated peptides. Its main advantage is a significant reduction of the neutral losses related to the phosphoramidate moiety. Moreover, the results indicate that the ECD-MS may be useful for analysis of regioselectivity of the N-phosphorylation reaction. Stabilities of the obtained lysine-phosphorylated peptides under various conditions were also tested.

  10. Energy and density analysis of the H2 molecule from the united atom to dissociation: The 3Σg+ and 3Σu+ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corongiu, Giorgina; Clementi, Enrico

    2009-11-01

    The first 14 Σ3g+ and the first 15 Σ3u+ states of the H2 molecule are computed with full configuration interaction both from Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals and Heitler-London atomic orbitals within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, following recent studies for the Σ1g+ and Σ1u+ manifolds [Corongiu and Clementi, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 034301 (2009) and J. Phys. Chem. (in press)]. The basis sets utilized are extended and optimized Slater-type functions and spherical Gaussian functions. The states considered correspond to the configurations (1s1nl1) with n from 1 to 5; the internuclear separations sample the distances from 0.01 to 10 000 bohrs. For the first three Σ3g+ and Σ3u+ states and for the fourth and fifth Σ3g+ states, our computed energies at the equilibrium internuclear separation, when compared to the accurate values by Staszewska and Wolniewicz and by Kołos and Rychlewski, show deviations of about 0.006 kcal/mol, a test on the quality of our computations. Motivation for this work comes not only from obtaining potential energy curves for the high excited states of H2 but also from characterizing the electronic density evolution from the united atom to dissociation to provide a detailed analysis of the energy contributions from selected basis subsets and to quantitatively decompose the state energies into covalent and ionic components. Furthermore, we discuss the origin of the seemingly irregular patterns in potential energy curves in the two manifolds, between 4 and 6-9 bohrs—there are two systems of states: the first, from the united atom to about 4 bohrs, is represented by functions with principal quantum number higher than the one needed at dissociation; this system interacts at around 4 bohrs with the second system, which is represented by functions with principal quantum number corresponding to one of the dissociation products.

  11. Three-Dimensional Postbuckling Analysis of Curved Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. Frank; Lee, Seung-Yoon

    2002-01-01

    Presented here is a method of solving highly flexible curved beam undergoing huge static or quasi-static deformations. A geometrically exact beam theory based on the use of Jaumann stresses and strains and exact coordinate transformation is presented in terms of 17 first-order ordinary differential equations, and a multiple shooting method is used to solve the corresponding nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The geometrically exact beam theory accounts far large rotations, large displacements, initial curvatures, extensionality, and transverse shear strains. Four examples are used to demonstrate this method, including a rotating clamped-free beam under the influence of gravity and centrifugal forces, an L-frame subjected to an in-plane tip load, a circular arch subjected to a concentrated load, and a clamped-hinged helical spring subjected to an axial displacement. Results show that the combination of the multiple shooting method and the geometrically exact beam theory works very well. Moreover, the obtained numerically exact solutions can be used to verify the accuracy of nonlinear finite element codes for nonlinear analysis of complex structures.

  12. Magneto-electro-elastic buckling analysis of nonlocal curved nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent curved beam model is developed to take into account the effects of nonlocal stresses on the buckling behavior of curved magneto-electro-elastic FG nanobeams for the first time. The governing differential equations are derived based on the principle of virtual work and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The power-law function is employed to describe the spatially graded magneto-electro-elastic properties. By extending the radius of the curved nanobeam to infinity, the results of straight nonlocal FG beams can be rendered. The effects of magnetic potential, electric voltage, opening angle, nonlocal parameter, power-law index and slenderness ratio on buckling loads of curved MEE-FG nanobeams are studied.

  13. Analysis of Thermoluminescence Glow Curves Using Derivatives of Different Orders.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Mahua; Bhattacharyya, S; Sarkar, A; Mazumdar, P S; Singh, S D

    2017-01-16

    The suitability of the second derivative method for locating component peaks in complex thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves has been investigated in this work by considering both numerically simulated and experimental TL peaks. This technique is useful to acquire knowledge of the number of component peaks in a complex TL curve which in turn serves as a basic information before applying the deconvolution technique to the glow curve. To check the consistency of the results so obtained, we have also applied the first derivative technique to TL glow curves. It is well-known that kinetic order formalism fails for saturated TL peaks with heavy retrapping. Such peaks are usually broad and, to the best of our knowledge, have not yet been observed experimentally. The present derivative technique has been used to detect whether such broad peaks are truly single or not by considering a number of numerically simulated saturated glow curves with heavy retrapping where the conventional peak shape method fails. In all the cases considered here, the second derivative technique proves to be a potential candidate for estimating the number of peaks and their respective locations in a complex TL glow curve.

  14. Empirical Bayes Analysis of Families of Survival Curves: Applications to the Analysis of Degree Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry I.; Zwick, Rebecca

    1993-01-01

    An approach to empirical Bayes analysis of aggregated survival data from different groups of subjects is presented based on a contingency table representation of data using transformations to permit the use of normal priors. Analysis of families of survival curves leads to improvements over classical estimates. (SLD)

  15. Optical analysis of miniature lenses with curved imaging surfaces.

    PubMed

    Reshidko, Dmitry; Sasian, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Miniature cameras for consumer electronics and mobile phones have been, and continue to be, in fast development. The system level requirements, such as manufacturing cost, packaging, and sensor characteristics, impose unique challenges for optical designers. In this paper, we discuss the potential optical benefits of having a curved image surface rather than a flat one. We show that curved sensor technology allows for optically faster lens solutions. We discuss trade-offs of several relevant characteristics, such as packaging, chief ray angle, image quality, and tolerance sensitivity. A comparison of a benchmark flat field lens, and an evaluation design imaging on a curved surface and working at f/1.6, provides useful specific insights. For a given image quality, departing from a flat imaging surface does not allow significantly reducing the total length of a lens.

  16. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  17. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  18. Dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    Dissociative amnesia is one of the most enigmatic and controversial psychiatric disorders. In the past two decades, interest in the understanding of its pathophysiology has surged. In this report, we review new data about the epidemiology, neurobiology, and neuroimaging of dissociative amnesia and show how advances in memory research and neurobiology of dissociation inform proposed pathogenetic models of the disorder. Dissociative amnesia is characterised by functional impairment. Additionally, preliminary data suggest that affected people have an increased and possibly underestimated suicide risk. The prevalence of dissociative amnesia differs substantially across countries and populations. Symptoms and disease course also vary, indicating a possibly heterogeneous disorder. The accompanying clinical features differ across cultural groups. Most dissociative amnesias are retrograde, with memory impairments mainly involving the episodic-autobiographical memory domain. Anterograde dissociative amnesia occurring without significant retrograde memory impairments is rare. Functional neuroimaging studies of dissociative amnesia with prevailing retrograde memory impairments show changes in the network that subserves autobiographical memory. At present, no evidence-based treatments are available for dissociative amnesia and no broad framework exists for its rehabilitation. Further research is needed into its neurobiology, course, treatment options, and strategies to improve differential diagnoses.

  19. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Popularity: A Growth Curve Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2006-01-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were…

  1. Multiresolution Analysis of UTAT B-spline Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamnii, A.; Mraoui, H.; Sbibih, D.; Zidna, A.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a multiresolution curve representation based on periodic uniform tension algebraic trigonometric (UTAT) spline wavelets of class ??? and order four. Then we determine the decomposition and the reconstruction vectors corresponding to UTAT-spline spaces. Finally, we give some applications in order to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  2. Use of the Zoom in the Analysis of a Curve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montaner, F. Rubio

    1987-01-01

    How the computer can aid the teacher in discussing plane curves is shown. Use of the zoom enables the teacher to illustrate aspects of graphs that would be difficult and time-consuming to show in other ways. Many illustrative graphs are included, and four programs are listed. (MNS)

  3. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  4. Dissociation and dissociative ionization of H2+ using the time-dependent surface flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-12-01

    The time-dependent surface flux method developed for the description of electronic spectra L. Tao and A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 013021 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/1/013021; A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 085008 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/8/085008] is extended to treat dissociation and dissociative ionization processes of H2+ interacting with strong laser pulses. By dividing the simulation volume into proper spatial regions associated with the individual reaction channels and monitoring the probability flux, the joint energy spectrum for the dissociative ionization process and the energy spectrum for dissociation is obtained. The methodology is illustrated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a collinear one-dimensional model of H2+ with electronic and nuclear motions treated exactly and validated by comparison with published results for dissociative ionization. The results for dissociation are qualitatively explained by analysis based on dressed diabatic Floquet potential energy curves, and the method is used to investigate the breakdown of the two-surface model.

  5. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragmentation analysis of cysteinyl-modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Oleg V; Goshe, Michael B; Conrads, Thomas P; Rakov, V Sergey; Veenstra, Timothy D; Smith, Richard D

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue-containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of Deinococcus radiodurans, the presence of these label-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-d0 or ICAT-d8.

  6. Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Analysis of Cysteinyl-Modified Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Oleg V.; Goshe, Michael B. ); Conrads, Thomas P. ); Rakov, Vsevolod S. ); Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of D. radiodurans, the presence of these labeled-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys-residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-D0 or ICAT-D8.

  7. A Genetic Analysis of Individual Differences in Dissociative Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Eley, Thalia; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Stevenson, Jim; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dissociation--a pattern of general disruption in memory and consciousness--has been found to be an important cognitive component of children's and adults' coping with severe trauma. Dissociative experiences include amnesia, identity disturbance, age regression, difficulty with concentration, and trance states. Stable individual…

  8. Method and apparatus for enhanced sequencing of complex molecules using surface-induced dissociation in conjunction with mass spectrometric analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Futrell, Jean H [Richland, WA

    2008-04-29

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhanced sequencing of complex molecules using surface-induced dissociation (SID) in conjunction with mass spectrometric analysis. Results demonstrate formation of a wide distribution of structure-specific fragments having wide sequence coverage useful for sequencing and identifying the complex molecules.

  9. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis of natural onyx from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Tamer; Toktamış, Hüseyin; Yüksel, Mehmet; Topaksu, Mustafa; Yazici, A Necmeddin

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the thermoluminesce (TL) properties of natural onyx were determined after β-irradiation ((90)Sr/(90)Y) at room temperature. The effect of the additive dose and variable heating rate for TL glow peaks of the sample were investigated. Computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods were used to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in natural onyx from Turkey. It was also determined kinetic parameters of onyx by means of the variable heating rate (VHR) method. The sample was exposed to β-irradiation between 2.4 Gy and 2.457 kGy. The CGCD methods showed that the glow curve of sample is the superposition of at least six first order components which were ascribed as P1-P6. The dose responses of some peaks have similar patterns and they follow linearity. The effect of heating rates on the response of dosimetric glow peaks of sample was studied. The maximum TL peak intensities of glow curve are decreasing with increasing heating rate and maximum TL peak intensities at 1 °C/s drops to 20% of the initial value when the sample is read at 6 °C/s.

  10. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis and CGCD method for erbium doped CaZrO3 phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Ratnesh; Chopra, Seema

    2016-05-01

    The manuscript report the synthesis, thermoluminescence study at fixed concentration of Er3+ (1 mol%) doped CaZrO3 phosphor. The phosphors were prepared by modified solid state reaction method. The powder sample was characterized by thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve analysis. In TL glow curve the optimized concentration in 1mol% for UV irradiated sample. The kinetic parameters were calculated by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) techniaue. Trapping parameters gives the information of dosimetry loss in prepared phosphor and its usability in environmental monitoring and for personal monitoring. CGCD is the advance tool for analysis of complicated TL glow curves.

  11. Dissociation and recombination of D{sub 2} on Cu(111): Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations and improved analysis of desorption experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nattino, Francesco Genova, Alessandro; Guijt, Marieke; Kroes, Geert-Jan; Muzas, Alberto S.; Díaz, Cristina; Auerbach, Daniel J.

    2014-09-28

    Obtaining quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on and associative desorption of hydrogen from Cu(111) remains challenging. Particularly troubling is the fact that theory gives values for the high energy limit to the dissociative adsorption probability that is as much as two times larger than experiment. In the present work we approach this discrepancy in three ways. First, we carry out a new analysis of the raw experimental data for D{sub 2} associatively desorbing from Cu(111). We also perform new ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations that include effects of surface atom motion. Finally, we simulate time-of-flight (TOF) spectra from the theoretical reaction probability curves and we directly compare them to the raw experimental data. The results show that the use of more flexible functional forms for fitting the raw TOF spectra gives fits that are in slightly better agreement with the raw data and in considerably better agreement with theory, even though the theoretical reaction probabilities still achieve higher values at high energies. The mean absolute error (MAE) for the energy E{sub 0} at which the reaction probability equals half the experimental saturation value is now lower than 1 kcal/mol, the limit that defines chemical accuracy, while a MAE of 1.5 kcal/mol was previously obtained. The new AIMD results are only slightly different from the previous static surface results and in slightly better agreement with experiment.

  12. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  13. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/∼eprice.

  14. Electrochemical and theoretical analysis of the reactivity of shikonin derivatives: dissociative electron transfer in esterified compounds.

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Vidales, Georgina; Frontana, Carlos

    2014-09-07

    An electrochemical and theoretical analysis of a series of shikonin derivatives in aprotic media is presented. Results showed that the first electrochemical reduction signal is a reversible monoelectronic transfer, generating a stable semiquinone intermediate; the corresponding E(I)⁰ values were correlated with calculated values of electroaccepting power (ω(+)) and adiabatic electron affinities (A(Ad)), obtained with BH and HLYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) and considering the solvent effect, revealing the influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the substituting group at position C-2 in the experimental reduction potential. For the second reduction step, esterified compounds isobutyryl and isovalerylshikonin presented a coupled chemical reaction following dianion formation. Analysis of the variation of the dimensionless cathodic peak potential values (ξ(p)) as a function of the scan rate (v) functions and complementary experiments in benzonitrile suggested that this process follows a dissociative electron transfer, in which the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer is slow (~0.2 cm s(-1)), and the rate constant of the chemical process is at least 10(5) larger.

  15. Formulation and numerical analysis of diatomic molecular dissociation using Boltzmann kinetic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kojiro; Kuroda, Hisayasu

    2007-01-01

    The direct description of chemical reactions by the Boltzmann equation still involves some difficulties in the kinetic theory. In this paper, we describe diatomic molecular dissociation due to transitions of vibrational quantum states resulting from inelastic collisions. These can be described by the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation. To avoid direct evaluation of the strong nonlinear collision kernel of the WCU equation, we used a kinetic equation. For accurate description of the dissociation process, we describe improvements we made to the conventional inelastic collision model (the so-called Morse model). Combining this inelastic collision model with the gas mixture model by Oguchi, we formulated a model for representing diatomic molecular dissociations. We validated this model by simulating a hypersonic shock layer with diatomic molecular dissociation.

  16. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  17. Modeling and analysis of doubly curved aerobrake truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Gregory; Klang, Eric

    1992-01-01

    An aerobrake structural concept featuring a double curved tetrahedral truss support system and hexagonal heat shield panels was modeled and analyzed. Modeling equations for a sphere, cone, and paraboloid were developed for the purpose. Design equation and computer codes were also evolved and employed to determine the total mass of the aerobrake as well as any parameters that had an adverse effect on the total aerobrake mass. These data were used in a point design for a Mars mission aerobrake. A 131-ft diameter aerobrake was found to be viable using the present structural concept (i.e., the total aerobrake mass is not greater than 450,000 lb, which is the attached spacecraft mass). It is also shown that curvature, load point placement, number of load points, number of strut designs, and number of rings all have an effect on the mass of the aerobrake.

  18. Improved peptide identification for proteomic analysis based on comprehensive characterization of electron transfer dissociation spectra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui-Xiang; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Song, Chun-Qing; Chi, Hao; Yang, Bing; Xiu, Li-Yun; Tao, Li; Jing, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Chao; Wang, Le-Heng; Fu, Yan; He, Si-Min

    2010-12-03

    In recent years, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has enjoyed widespread applications from sequencing of peptides with or without post-translational modifications to top-down analysis of intact proteins. However, peptide identification rates from ETD spectra compare poorly with those from collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra, especially for doubly charged precursors. This is in part due to an insufficient understanding of the characteristics of ETD and consequently a failure of database search engines to make use of the rich information contained in the ETD spectra. In this study, we statistically characterized ETD fragmentation patterns from a collection of 461 440 spectra and subsequently implemented our findings into pFind, a database search engine developed earlier for CID data. From ETD spectra of doubly charged precursors, pFind 2.1 identified 63-122% more unique peptides than Mascot 2.2 under the same 1% false discovery rate. For higher charged peptides as well as phosphopeptides, pFind 2.1 also consistently obtained more identifications. Of the features built into pFind 2.1, the following two greatly enhanced its performance: (1) refined automatic detection and removal of high-intensity peaks belonging to the precursor, charge-reduced precursor, or related neutral loss species, whose presence often set spectral matching askew; (2) a thorough consideration of hydrogen-rearranged fragment ions such as z + H and c - H for peptide precursors of different charge states. Our study has revealed that different charge states of precursors result in different hydrogen rearrangement patterns. For a fragment ion, its propensity of gaining or losing a hydrogen depends on (1) the ion type (c or z) and (2) the size of the fragment relative to the precursor, and both dependencies are affected by (3) the charge state of the precursor. In addition, we discovered ETD characteristics that are unique for certain types of amino acids (AAs), such as a prominent

  19. Principles of electron capture and transfer dissociation mass spectrometry applied to peptide and protein structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhurov, Konstantin O; Fornelli, Luca; Wodrich, Matthew D; Laskay, Ünige A; Tsybin, Yury O

    2013-06-21

    This tutorial review describes the principles and practices of electron capture and transfer dissociation (ECD/ETD or ExD) mass spectrometry (MS) employed for peptide and protein structure analysis. ExD MS relies on interactions between gas phase peptide or protein ions carrying multiple positive charges with either free low-energy (~1 eV) electrons (ECD), or with reagent radical anions possessing an electron available for transfer (ETD). As a result of recent implementation on sensitive, high resolution, high mass accuracy, and liquid chromatography timescale-compatible mass spectrometers, ExD, more specifically, ETD MS has received particular interest in life science research. In addition to describing the fundamental aspects of ExD radical ion chemistry, this tutorial provides practical guidelines for peptide de novo sequencing with ExD MS, as well as reviews some of the current capabilities and limitations of these techniques. The merits of ExD MS are discussed primarily within the context of life science research.

  20. Monte Carlo analysis of dissociation and recombination behind strong shock waves in nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, I. D.

    1991-01-01

    Computations are presented for the relaxation zone behind strong, 1D shock waves in nitrogen. The analysis is performed with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The DSMC code is vectorized for efficient use on a supercomputer. The code simulates translational, rotational and vibrational energy exchange and dissociative and recombinative chemical reactions. A model is proposed for the treatment of three body-recombination collisions in the DSMC technique which usually simulates binary collision events. The model improves previous models because it can be employed with a large range of chemical-rate data, does not introduce into the flow field troublesome pairs of atoms which may recombine upon further collision (pseudoparticles) and is compatible with the vectorized code. The computational results are compared with existing experimental data. It is shown that the derivation of chemical-rate coefficients must account for the degree of vibrational nonequilibrium in the flow. A nonequilibrium-chemistry model is employed together with equilibrium-rate data to compute the flow in several different nitrogen shock waves.

  1. Infrared spectrum analysis of the dissociated states of simple amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sebben, Damien; Pendleton, Phillip

    2014-11-11

    In this work, we present detailed analyses of the dissociation of dilute aqueous solutions of glycine and of lysine over the range 1Analysis of the deconvoluted peak areas due to CO and COO- at pH ranges<4.5 and those due to NH2 and NH3+ for pH>8 resulted in consistent pKa values for the amino acids.

  2. Analysis of driver's characteristics on a curved road in a lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Sharma, Sapna

    2017-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of driver's behavior on the curved road via lattice hydrodynamic approach. The basic model for straight road is extended for the curved road and the characteristics of driver's behavior is incorporated in the lattice model. The extended model is investigated theoretically by the means of linear stability analysis and the effect of curved road and intensity of influence of driver's behavior on the traffic flow stability is examined. Through nonlinear stability analysis, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to validate the theoretical results which indicates that the curved road has a negative influence on the stability of the traffic flow. It is also seen that the traffic jam on a curved road can be suppressed efficiently via taking into account aggressive drivers.

  3. Energy and density analysis of the H2 molecule from the united atom to dissociation: the 3Sigma(g)+ and 3Sigma(u)+ states.

    PubMed

    Corongiu, Giorgina; Clementi, Enrico

    2009-11-14

    The first 14 (3)Sigma(g)(+) and the first 15 (3)Sigma(u)(+) states of the H(2) molecule are computed with full configuration interaction both from Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals and Heitler-London atomic orbitals within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, following recent studies for the (1)Sigma(g)(+) and (1)Sigma(u)(+) manifolds [Corongiu and Clementi, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 034301 (2009) and J. Phys. Chem. (in press)]. The basis sets utilized are extended and optimized Slater-type functions and spherical Gaussian functions. The states considered correspond to the configurations (1s(1)nl(1)) with n from 1 to 5; the internuclear separations sample the distances from 0.01 to 10,000 bohrs. For the first three (3)Sigma(g)(+) and (3)Sigma(u)(+) states and for the fourth and fifth (3)Sigma(g)(+) states, our computed energies at the equilibrium internuclear separation, when compared to the accurate values by Staszewska and Wolniewicz and by Kołos and Rychlewski, show deviations of about 0.006 kcal/mol, a test on the quality of our computations. Motivation for this work comes not only from obtaining potential energy curves for the high excited states of H(2) but also from characterizing the electronic density evolution from the united atom to dissociation to provide a detailed analysis of the energy contributions from selected basis subsets and to quantitatively decompose the state energies into covalent and ionic components. Furthermore, we discuss the origin of the seemingly irregular patterns in potential energy curves in the two manifolds, between 4 and 6-9 bohrs--there are two systems of states: the first, from the united atom to about 4 bohrs, is represented by functions with principal quantum number higher than the one needed at dissociation; this system interacts at around 4 bohrs with the second system, which is represented by functions with principal quantum number corresponding to one of the dissociation products.

  4. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  5. GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF KOI-977: SPECTROSCOPY, ASTEROSEISMOLOGY, AND PHASE-CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Masuda, Kento; Benomar, Othman; Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki

    2015-01-20

    We present a global analysis of KOI-977, one of the planet host candidates detected by Kepler. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) reports that KOI-977 is a red giant, for which few close-in planets have been discovered. Our global analysis involves spectroscopic and asteroseismic determinations of stellar parameters (e.g., mass and radius) and radial velocity (RV) measurements. Our analyses reveal that KOI-977 is indeed a red giant, possibly in the red clump, but its estimated radius (≳ 20 R {sub ☉} = 0.093 AU) is much larger than KOI-977.01's orbital distance (∼0.027 AU) estimated from its period (P {sub orb} ∼ 1.35 days) and host star's mass. RV measurements show a small variation, which also contradicts the amplitude of ellipsoidal variations seen in the light curve folded with KOI-977.01's period. Therefore, we conclude that KOI-977.01 is a false positive, meaning that the red giant, for which we measured the radius and RVs, is different from the object that produces the transit-like signal (i.e., an eclipsing binary). On the basis of this assumption, we also perform a light curve analysis including the modeling of transits/eclipses and phase-curve variations, adopting various values for the dilution factor D, which is defined as the flux ratio between the red giant and eclipsing binary. Fitting the whole folded light curve as well as individual transits in the short cadence data simultaneously, we find that the estimated mass and radius ratios of the eclipsing binary are consistent with those of a solar-type star and a late-type star (e.g., an M dwarf) for D ≳ 20.

  6. A Brief Review: The Z-curve Theory and its Application in Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2014-01-01

    In theoretical physics, there exist two basic mathematical approaches, algebraic and geometrical methods, which, in most cases, are complementary. In the area of genome sequence analysis, however, algebraic approaches have been widely used, while geometrical approaches have been less explored for a long time. The Z-curve theory is a geometrical approach to genome analysis. The Z-curve is a three-dimensional curve that represents a given DNA sequence in the sense that each can be uniquely reconstructed given the other. The Z-curve, therefore, contains all the information that the corresponding DNA sequence carries. The analysis of a DNA sequence can then be performed through studying the corresponding Z-curve. The Z-curve method has found applications in a wide range of areas in the past two decades, including the identifications of protein-coding genes, replication origins, horizontally-transferred genomic islands, promoters, translational start sides and isochores, as well as studies on phylogenetics, genome visualization and comparative genomics. Here, we review the progress of Z-curve studies from aspects of both theory and applications in genome analysis. PMID:24822026

  7. Analysis of Intact Monoclonal Antibody IgG1 by Electron Transfer Dissociation Orbitrap FTMS*

    PubMed Central

    Fornelli, Luca; Damoc, Eugen; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Aizikov, Konstantin; Denisov, Eduard; Makarov, Alexander; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The primary structural information of proteins employed as biotherapeutics is essential if one wishes to understand their structure–function relationship, as well as in the rational design of new therapeutics and for quality control. Given both the large size (around 150 kDa) and the structural complexity of intact immunoglobulin G (IgG), which includes a variable number of disulfide bridges, its extensive fragmentation and subsequent sequence determination by means of tandem mass spectrometry (MS) are challenging. Here, we applied electron transfer dissociation (ETD), implemented on a hybrid Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), to analyze a commercial recombinant IgG in a liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) top-down experiment. The lack of sensitivity typically observed during the top-down MS of large proteins was addressed by averaging time-domain transients recorded in different LC-MS/MS experiments before performing Fourier transform signal processing. The results demonstrate that an improved signal-to-noise ratio, along with the higher resolution and mass accuracy provided by Orbitrap FTMS (relative to previous applications of top-down ETD-based proteomics on IgG), is essential for comprehensive analysis. Specifically, ETD on Orbitrap FTMS produced about 33% sequence coverage of an intact IgG, signifying an almost 2-fold increase in IgG sequence coverage relative to prior ETD-based analysis of intact monoclonal antibodies of a similar subclass. These results suggest the potential application of the developed methodology to other classes of large proteins and biomolecules. PMID:22964222

  8. Evaluation of PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis for differentiation of Salmonella isolates.

    PubMed

    Saeidabadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Nili, Hassan; Dadras, Habibollah; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Connolly, Joanne; Valcanis, Mary; Raidal, Shane; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali

    2016-12-21

    Consumption of poultry products contaminated with Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases worldwide and therefore detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp. in poultry is important. In this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed from hem-D gene and a PCR followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for rapid differentiation of Salmonella isolates. Amplicons of 228 bp were generated from 16 different Salmonella reference strains and from 65 clinical field isolates mainly from poultry farms. High resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of the amplicons differentiated Salmonella isolates and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from selected isolates revealed that each melting curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The relationship between reference strains and tested specimens was also evaluated using a mathematical model without visual interpretation of HRM curves. In addition, the potential of the PCR-HRM curve analysis was evaluated for genotyping of additional Salmonella isolates from different avian species. The findings indicate that PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping of Salmonella isolates to determine the serovar/serotype.

  9. Decline Curve Analysis for Production Forecast and Optimization of Liquid-Dominated Geothermal Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, I.

    2016-09-01

    Power projects in the geothermal field has a long span of about 30 years. The power supply should be maintained at a certain value across a range of time. A geothermal field, however, has the characteristics of natural production decline with time. In a geothermal field, development of decline curve model of steam production is important for forecasting production decline in the future. This study was developed using decline curve by production data along 3 years liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir in Ulubelu field. Decline curve in geothermal field based on decline curve in petroleum industry. The decline curve was correlated by reservoir management in geothermal. The purposes of this study to get best match model decline curve and forecasting production in the future. Based on decline curve analysis by production data in Ulubelu field, the result model decline curve is exponential model. From the model, we can get the value of decline rate in the field is 9.4 %/year. Then, the formula of forecasting steam flow used exponent decline to forecast in the future. By using separated system cycle in Ulubelu field, the minimal steam flowrate towards turbine was 502018.4 ton/month. Based on formula of forecasting production and minimal steam flowrate, we can get the time make up wells to maintain steam supply for stability in generator power capacity.

  10. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 1u state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, M. E.; Baturo, V. V.; Lukashov, S. S.; Poretsky, S. A.; Pravilov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-color laser population of the I2(β1g, νβ, Jβ) rovibronic states via the B0u+, νB, JB rovibronic states and rovibronic levels of the 1u(bb) and 0g+(bb) states mixed by hyperfine interaction is used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound I2(1u(bb)) state. Dunham coefficients of the state, Yi0 (i = 0-3), Yi1 (i = 0-2), Y02 and Y12 for the {{v}{{1u}}} = 1-5, 8, 10, 15 and {{J}{{1u}}} ≈ 9-87 ranges, the dissociation energy of the state, De, and equilibrium I-I distance, Re, as well as the potential energy curve are determined. There are aperiodicities in the excitation spectrum corresponding to the β, νβ = 23, Jβ ← 1u(bb), ν1u = 4, 5, J1u progressions in the I2 + Rg = He, Ar mixture, namely, a great number of lines which do not coincide with the R or P line progressions. Their positions conflict with the ΔJ-even selection rule. Furthermore, they do not correspond to the ΔJ-odd progression.

  11. A Computational Analysis of Mental Image Generation: Evidence from Functional Dissociations in Split-Brain Patients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-20

    neuropsychological data on the apraxias and the visual agnosias imply that motor and visual memories can be separately spared or destroyed after brain...agraphia Imagery dissociations 53 and (vice versa), and visual object agnosia without apraxia (and vice versa). We next asked him to *draw the letters in

  12. A light-curve distortion-wave analysis of eight RS Canum Venaticorum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    A program of differential U,B,V photometry of 14 RS CVn systems carried out at Rosemary Hill Observatory in 1978 - 1981 is described, and an analysis of the light curves for the characteristic distortion wave for eight of the systems is presented. The V light curves of the systems are shown. Significant waves were observed in RS CVn, RZ Eri, and RW UMa. No significant waves were found in UX Com, GK Hya, AR Lac, LX Per, or TY Pyx. Unusual light curve distortions were observed in UX Com and AR Lac.

  13. Characterization of Gas Hydrates Formation and Dissociation Using Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudow, M.; Lilova, K.

    2015-12-01

    In general, the gas hydrates are formed at low temperature and high pressure which requires a special technique to mimic the natural conditions. The hydrate thermal properties: heat capacity, heat of dissociation, are crucial for evaluating the effects on climate change and for a prediction of the gas production rates from hydrate reservoirs. The effect of the porous materials on the dissociation of synthetic methane hydrates was investigated at 150 - 300 K and atmospheric pressure. Another experiment with methane hydrates, but at high pressure (20 MPa) was performed at near room temperature using a highly sensitive micro-differential scanning calorimeter with a specifically design high pressure vessel (the vessel can withstand a pressure up to 1000 bars). The thermal cycle for measuring the methane hydrate dissociation in water includes cooling down a water solution under a certain methane pressure (30 to 350 bars) to -30 C to allow water crystallization and hydrate formation, then heated up to room temperature. The endothermic peak, following the ice melting is associated to the hydrate dissociation process and gives the enthalpy of the hydrate decomposition. The kinetics of the hydrates formation could also be predicted by a rapid DSC cooling experiment followed by isothermal step and heating. Both dissociation and specific heats of synthetic methane and ethane hydrates were measured under high-pressure condition by using a heat-flow type calorimeter to understand thermodynamic properties of gas hydrates under submarine/sublacustrine environments. The large reserves of natural gas are present as clathrate hydrates in permafrost regions and beneath the oceans have generated interest in the study of their thermophysical properties such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The effect of isotopic substitution in both THF and water on the eutectic and hydrate melting temperatures in water-tetrahydrofuran systems studied by DSC will be shown as an example.

  14. Type Ia Supernova Light-Curve Inference: Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis in the Near-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2009-10-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHKs SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are σ(MJ ) = 0.17 ± 0.03, σ(MH ) = 0.11 ± 0.03, and σ(MKs ) = 0.19 ± 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms-1 is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  15. Evaluation of several MS/MS search algorithms for analysis of spectra derived from electron transfer dissociation experiments.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Kumaran; Pandey, Akhilesh; Molina, Henrik

    2009-09-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is increasingly becoming popular for high-throughput experiments especially in the identification of the labile post-translational modifications. Most search algorithms that are currently in use for querying MS/MS data against protein databases have been optimized on the basis of matching fragment ions derived from collision induced dissociation of peptides, which are dominated by b and y ions. However, electron transfer dissociation of peptides generates completely different types of fragments: c and z ions. The goal of our study was to test the ability of different search algorithms to handle data from this fragmentation method. We compared four MS/MS search algorithms (OMSSA, Mascot, Spectrum Mill, and X!Tandem) using approximately 170,000 spectra generated from a standard protein mix, as well as from complex proteomic samples which included a large number of phosphopeptides. Our analysis revealed (1) greater differences between algorithms than has been previously reported for CID data, (2) a significant charge state bias resulting in >60-fold difference in the numbers of matched doubly charged peptides, and (3) identification of 70% more peptides by the best performing algorithm than the algorithm identifying the least number of peptides. Our results indicate that the search engines for analyzing ETD derived MS/MS spectra are still in their early days and that multiple search engines could be used to reduce individual biases of algorithms.

  16. Sex determination in beef by melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Nicolai Z; Madsen, Knud G

    2007-11-01

    Sex determination of beef is important to meet the rules of the Commission Regulation (EC) 765/2002 that qualify for export refunds. A SYBR Green sex identification assay based on melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus (AMELX and AMELY) was developed. The PCR amplicons of 130/130 and 130/67 base pairs produced from female and male beef, respectively, are easily distinguished by both melting curve analysis and gel electrophoresis. Results from the melting curve analysis of amplicons are ready in less than three minutes, and requires no additional work in addition to the PCR setup. Applicability of the sex determination assay was studied by analysis of 12 unknown beef samples and the results were compared to an accredited method based on gel electrophoresis. In addition, six different cattle breeds were examined. All test results were correct in respect to sex.

  17. Rapid genotyping of beak and feather disease virus using high-resolution DNA melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2014-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a significant pathogen both for wild and captive psittacine birds globally. Genotypic differentiation of BFDV isolates is crucial to establish effective control strategies for the conservation of endangered species and epidemiological investigations of disease outbreaks. The technique developed in this study is a simple, rapid and inexpensive genotyping method for BFDV using PCR and subsequent high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis. This was achieved using PCR amplification of the conserved Rep gene in the presence of a fluorescent DNA intercalating dye (SYTO9). HRM curve analysis of the resultant amplicon could readily differentiate between reference strain (92-SR14) and 18 other BFDV isolates used in this study. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the amplicon from each isolate revealed that each melt curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The potential of the PCR-HRM curve analysis to differentiate inter-host genetic variation among critically endangered orange-bellied parrots, lorikeets and cockatoos was also evaluated. Phylogenetic tree topology based on partial Rep gene sequences used in this study showed that BFDV Rep gene sequence patterns were correlated with the results of HRM curve analysis. The results presented in this study indicate that this technique could be used in both clinical research and differentiation of BFDV isolates in a fraction of time without further nucleotide sequencing and provides a novel approach for the genetic screening of BFDV in clinical virology laboratories.

  18. Development of synthetic flood damage curve by explicit costs analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Mario; Molinari, Daniela; Dottori, Francesco; Scorzini, Annarita

    2015-04-01

    characteristics. Such functions were developed using a what-if analysis using data collected after the 2012 flood in the Umbria Region in Central Italy, as well as authors' experience, as reference to understand damage mechanisms. Observed damage data were also used to calibrate the functions.

  19. Peristaltic Flow of Rabinowitsch Fluid in a Curved Channel: Mathematical Analysis Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nasir; Sajid, Muhammad; Javid, Khurram; Ahmed, Raheel

    2017-03-01

    Recently, Maraj and Nadeem (E. N. Maraj, S. Nadeem, Z. Naturforsch. A 70, 513 (2015)) discussed the application of Rabinowitsch fluid model for the mathematical analysis of peristaltic flow in a curved channel. The mathematical analysis presented by these authors is scrutinised in detail and certain subtle details are pointed out which affect the final results.

  20. A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

  1. Numerical analysis of curved frequency selective surface by finite-difference time-domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yi; Wang, Jian-bo; Chen, Gui-bo; Sun, Guan-cheng; Lu, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Frequency selective surface is a monolayer or multilayer 2D periodic structure which is composed of multiple resonance units scattering by a two-dimensional periodic array on dielectric layer. FSS can't absorb radio frequency energy, but can filter the frequency which is therefore applied in microwave technique or stealth technology. The relative research on curved FSS is relatively scarce since the curved FSS structure can be obtained only when FSS is attached on the materials surfaces of curved structures in engineering application. However, curved FSS is widely applied in practical engineering; therefore, the research on curved FSS structure has important significance. In this paper, a curved FSS structure model of Y-pore unit is established and numerical simulated by means of FDTD. The influence of curvature on FSS transmission characteristics is studied according to the analysis on the changing of radar cross section (RCS). The results show: the center frequency point of the plane band pass FSS structure drifts after the curve surface deformation of the structure; the center frequency point of the curved band pass FSS structure drifts with the changing of the curvature radius, i. e. with the decreasing of curvature radius, the frequency point drifts towards high points and the transmittance decreases. The design of FSS radome demands of accurate and stable center resonance frequency; therefore, the actual situation of curved surface should be considered in practical engineering application when band pass FSS is made into frequency selection filtering radome. The curvature radius should be long enough to avoid center frequency drifting and transmittance deceasing.

  2. The random walk function in the analysis of time-activity curves from dynamic radionuclide studies.

    PubMed

    Hart, G C; Bunday, B; Kiri, V

    1987-04-01

    The random walk function is a mathematical function derived from studies of the mass transport and flow of diffusible materials through tubes. Approximations to the function were first used some time ago in the field of cardiac tracer dilution curves, but in the absence of rapid and reproducible curve fitting the method never became commonplace. The current study uses the latest curve-fitting techniques and shows how the method may be used with precision in the analysis of time-activity curves from dynamic oesophageal and blood flow studies. The physiological basis of the method is given and parameters obtained which relate to both the rate of flow and the local dispersion of the bolus.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Study of Hsp90 and ADP: Hydrogen Bond Analysis for ADP Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kazutomo; Saito, Hiroaki; Nagao, Hidemi

    The contacts between the N-terminal domain of heat shock protein 90 (N-Hsp90) and ADP involve both direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonds in X-ray crystallographic structure. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of N-Hsp90 and ADP to investigate the changes of the hydrogen bond lengths during ADP dissociation. We show the difference between the hydrogen bonds in the crystal structure and MD simulations. Moreover, the N6 group of ADP does not contact with the Cγ group of Asp93, and the hydrogen bonds between Asn51 side chain and ADP are stable in the early step of ADP dissociation.

  4. Comparison of sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally activated dissociation and multipole storage-assisted dissociation for top-down protein analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Karin M; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometric data acquired for small (8--18 kDa) intact proteins by sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally activated dissociation (SORI-CAD) and multipole storage-assisted dissociation (MSAD) were compared, and the results indicate that the two activation methods do not always provide the same fragmentation patterns. In MSAD experiments, the charge state distribution made available by the ionization conditions may dictate the range of fragment ions that can be generated. In addition, conditions of high space charge within the hexapole impair transmission and/or trapping of high m/z species, which can result in loss of important precursor and product ions. Finally, the non-resonant nature of activation in MSAD can provide access to secondary dissociation processes that are not available by SORI. Because of these considerations, MSAD is less reliable than SORI for generating sequence tag data. However, it appears that MSAD samples 'preferred' cleavage processes (i.e. those occurring at D and P residues) just as well as SORI, which implies that MSAD data may be somewhat more compatible with search algorithms that utilize unprocessed fragment ion masses.

  5. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  6. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanowicz, Paweł Gabryś, Halina; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-06-15

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  7. Retrospective North American CFL Experience Curve Analysis and Correlation to Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sarah J.; Wei, Max; Sohn, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective experience curves are a useful tool for understanding historic technology development, and can contribute to investment program analysis and future cost estimation efforts. This work documents our development of an analysis approach for deriving retrospective experience curves with a variable learning rate, and its application to develop an experience curve for compact fluorescent lamps for the global and North American markets over the years 1990-2007. Uncertainties and assumptions involved in interpreting data for our experience curve development are discussed, including the processing and transformation of empirical data, the selection of system boundaries, and the identification of historical changes in the learning rate over the course of 15 years. In the results that follow, we find that that the learning rate has changed at least once from 1990-2007. We also explore if, and to what degree, public deployment programs may have contributed to an increased technology learning rate in North America. We observe correlations between the changes in the learning rate and the initiation of new policies, abrupt technological advances, including improvements to ballast technology, and economic and political events such as trade tariffs and electricity prices. Finally, we discuss how the findings of this work (1) support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective analysis and (2) may imply that investments in technological research and development have contributed to a change in market adoption and penetration.

  8. Dissociation energies of PH and PH+.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, T. V. R.

    1995-12-01

    Dissociation energies for the ground electronic states of diatomic PH and PH+ are determined by fitting empirical potential functions to the respective RKRV curves using correlation coefficients. The estimated ground state dissociation energies of PH and PH+ are 3.10 and 3.20 eV respectively by the curve fitting procedure using the Lippincott potential function. The computed values are in good agreement with experimental values.

  9. Testing and analysis of flat and curved panels with multiple cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broek, David; Jeong, David Y.; Thomson, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation of multiple cracking in various types of test specimens is described in this paper. The testing phase is comprised of a flat unstiffened panel series and curved stiffened and unstiffened panel series. The test specimens contained various configurations for initial damage. Static loading was applied to these specimens until ultimate failure, while loads and crack propagation were recorded. This data provides the basis for developing and validating methodologies for predicting linkup of multiple cracks, progression to failure, and overall residual strength. The results from twelve flat coupon and ten full scale curved panel tests are presented. In addition, an engineering analysis procedure was developed to predict multiple crack linkup. Reasonable agreement was found between predictions and actual test results for linkup and residual strength for both flat and curved panels. The results indicate that an engineering analysis approach has the potential to quantitatively assess the effect of multiple cracks in the arrest capability of an aircraft fuselage structure.

  10. Identification of Chlamydial species in crocodiles and chickens by PCR-HRM curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, T; Bibby, S; O'Rourke, D; Belfiore, T; Agnew-Crumpton, R; Noormohammadi, A H

    2010-10-26

    Recently, a PCR protocol (16SG), targeting 16S rRNA gene coupled with high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed in our laboratory and shown to reliably detect and identify the seven different Chlamydiaceae spp. In this study, the potential of this method was assessed for detection and differentiation of Chlamydiosis in clinical specimens. Of the total number of 733 specimens from a range of animal species, 219 (30%) were found positive by 16SG PCR. When a sufficient amount of DNA was available (64 submissions), amplicons generated by the 16SG PCR were subjected to HRM curve analysis and results were compared to that of nucleotide sequencing. In all instances, the infecting Chlamydiaceae spp. was genotyped according to the identity of its nucleotide sequence to a reference species. Analysis of the HRM curves and nucleotide sequences from 16SG PCR amplicons also revealed the occurrence of a Chlamydophila-like, a Parachlamydia-like and a variant of Chlamydophila psittaci in chickens. These results reveal the potential of 16SG PCR-HRM curve analysis for rapid and simultaneous detection and identification of Chlamydiaceae spp. in animals and demonstrate the capacity of this system for rapid identification of new Chlamydiaceae spp. in animals during routine diagnostic testings.

  11. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on Explicit Rule Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwu, Fenfang; Pan, Wei; Sun, Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Finding the match between individuals and educational treatments is the aim of both educators and the aptitude-treatment interaction research paradigm. Using the latent growth curve analysis, the present study investigates the interaction between the type of explicit instructional approaches (deductive vs. explicit-inductive) and the level of…

  12. Taxometrics, Polytomous Constructs, and the Comparison Curve Fit Index: A Monte Carlo Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; McGrath, Robert E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2010-01-01

    The taxometric method effectively distinguishes between dimensional (1-class) and taxonic (2-class) latent structure, but there is virtually no information on how it responds to polytomous (3-class) latent structure. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that the mean comparison curve fit index (CCFI; Ruscio, Haslam, & Ruscio, 2006) obtained with 3…

  13. Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the…

  14. Scapholunate Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise; McSwigan, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Wrist injuries are a common complaint in the emergency setting. Any disruption of the anatomy of the carpal bones can impair hand function, leading to pain, weakness, and complications. One of the most common forms of carpal bone instability is scapholunate dissociation. This injury can lead to significant morbidity including avascular necrosis, impaired healing, limited function, and arthritis. These diagnostic findings may be subtle, thus identifying high-risk mechanisms of injury, and clinical manifestations will assist the emergency practitioner with early diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk injury.

  15. IMAGE-PLANE ANALYSIS OF n-POINT-MASS LENS CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Danek, Kamil; Heyrovský, David E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz

    2015-06-10

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point-mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. Utilizing this property further, we introduce the cusp curve to identify cusp-image positions on all contours simultaneously. In order to track cusp-number changes in caustic metamorphoses, we define the morph curve, which pinpoints the positions of metamorphosis-point images along the cusp curve. We demonstrate the usage of both curves on simple two- and three-point-mass lens examples. For the three simplest caustic metamorphoses we illustrate the local structure of the image and source planes.

  16. Asymptotic analysis of a cohesive crack. 2: Influence of the softening curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planas, J.; Elices, M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical method well suited to solve the integral equation governing the asymptotic behavior of a cohesive crack, and uses it to analyze the influence of the softening curve on the cracking response of large specimens. The analysis is performed with two main objectives in mind: (1) providing criteria to determine when a simplified linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach can be applied, and (2) providing possible procedures of extracting information on the softening behavior from experimental data. The main conclusion is that the effective crack extension prior to peak is nearly determined by the length of the softening curve (the critical crack opening) and so is the deviation from LEFM. Furthermore, a simplified R-curve approach is proposed as an approximate alternative to solving the governing integral equation.

  17. Learning Curve Analysis of Different Stages of Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Feng-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the learning curves of the different stages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. Design. Retrospective analysis. Design Classification. Canadian Task Force classification II-2. Setting. Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Patient Intervention. Women receiving robotic-assisted total and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomies for benign conditions from May 1, 2013, to August 31, 2015. Measurements and Main Results. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), and uterine weight were 46.44 ± 5.31 years, 23.97 ± 4.75 kg/m2, and 435.48 ± 250.62 g, respectively. The most rapid learning curve was obtained for the main surgery console stage; eight experiences were required to achieve duration stability, and the time spent in this stage did not violate the control rules. The docking stage required 14 experiences to achieve duration stability, and the suture stage was the most difficult to master, requiring 26 experiences. BMI did not considerably affect the duration of the three stages. The uterine weight and the presence of adhesion did not substantially affect the main surgery console time. Conclusion. Different stages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy have different learning curves. The main surgery console stage has the most rapid learning curve, whereas the suture stage has the slowest learning curve. PMID:28373977

  18. The analysis of dose-response curve from bioassays with quantal response: Deterministic or statistical approaches?

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, G; Sfara, V

    2016-04-25

    Dose-response relations can be obtained from systems at any structural level of biological matter, from the molecular to the organismic level. There are two types of approaches for analyzing dose-response curves: a deterministic approach, based on the law of mass action, and a statistical approach, based on the assumed probabilities distribution of phenotypic characters. Models based on the law of mass action have been proposed to analyze dose-response relations across the entire range of biological systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the principles that determine the dose-response relations. Dose-response curves of simple systems are the result of chemical interactions between reacting molecules, and therefore are supported by the law of mass action. In consequence, the shape of these curves is perfectly sustained by physicochemical features. However, dose-response curves of bioassays with quantal response are not explained by the simple collision of molecules but by phenotypic variations among individuals and can be interpreted as individual tolerances. The expression of tolerance is the result of many genetic and environmental factors and thus can be considered a random variable. In consequence, the shape of its associated dose-response curve has no physicochemical bearings; instead, they are originated from random biological variations. Due to the randomness of tolerance there is no reason to use deterministic equations for its analysis; on the contrary, statistical models are the appropriate tools for analyzing these dose-response relations.

  19. A computational model-based validation of Guyton's analysis of cardiac output and venous return curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Guyton developed a popular approach for understanding the factors responsible for cardiac output (CO) regulation in which 1) the heart-lung unit and systemic circulation are independently characterized via CO and venous return (VR) curves, and 2) average CO and right atrial pressure (RAP) of the intact circulation are predicted by graphically intersecting the curves. However, this approach is virtually impossible to verify experimentally. We theoretically evaluated the approach with respect to a nonlinear, computational model of the pulsatile heart and circulation. We developed two sets of open circulation models to generate CO and VR curves, differing by the manner in which average RAP was varied. One set applied constant RAPs, while the other set applied pulsatile RAPs. Accurate prediction of intact, average CO and RAP was achieved only by intersecting the CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs because of the pulsatility and nonlinearity (e.g., systemic venous collapse) of the intact model. The CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs were also practically independent. This theoretical study therefore supports the validity of Guyton's graphical analysis.

  20. Theoretical study of the unimolecular dissociation HO2 --> H+O2. I. Calculation of the bound states of HO2 up to the dissociation threshold and their statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbyn, Abigail J.; Stumpf, Michael; Keller, Hans-Martin; Schinke, Reinhard

    1995-12-01

    This is the first of a series of papers in which we investigate the unimolecular dissociation of hydroperoxyl. Using the DMBE IV potential energy surface [Pastrana et al., J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8073 (1990)], in the present study 726 bound states of HO2(X˜) up to the H+O2 dissociation threshold are calculated in an attempt to access the extent of the coupling between the modes of the system. The first approach involves an analysis of the nodal structure of the wave functions. While the wave functions for the lowest states are regular and assignable, the degree of mixing and complexity rapidly increases with energy. The wave functions close to the dissociation threshold are mostly irregular without any clear cut nodal structure and fill the entire coordinate space available. Nevertheless, a small number of regular states, that are associated with large excitation in the O2 stretching coordinate and no or only little excitation in the other modes, are found even at high energies. The second approach used to study the degree of intramolecular coupling is an analysis of the energy spectrum. The nearest neighbor level spacing distribution, which probes the short-range correlation, as well as the Σ2 and Δ3 statistics, which are sensitive to the long-range correlations in the spectrum, are investigated and compared to the distributions predicted for regular and irregular spectra. Both of these approaches indicate that the system is almost totally irregular with a Brody parameter of about 92%. In addition, the sum of states at a particular energy, which is extremely important in all statistical models for unimolecular dissociation, is approximately calculated from the volume of classical phase space and found to be in excellent agreement with the exact quantum mechanical result.

  1. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness.

  2. Determination of the dissociation kinetics of a transient intermediate.

    PubMed

    Asam, M R; Glish, G L

    1999-02-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry provides information on the dissociation pathways of gas-phase ions by providing a link between product ions and parent ions. However, there exists a distinct possibility that a parent ion does not dissociate directly to the observed product ion, but that the reaction proceeds through unobserved reaction intermediates. This work describes the discovery and kinetic analysis of an unobserved reaction intermediate with a quadrupole ion trap. [a4 - NH3] ions formed from [YG beta FL + H] ions dissociate to [(F*YG - NH3) - CO] ions. It is expected, however, from previous results, that [F*YG - NH3] ions should form prior to [(F*YG - NH3) - CO] ions. Double-resonance experiments are used to demonstrate the existence of intermediate [F*YG - NH3] ions. Various kinetic analyses are then performed using traditional collision-induced dissociation kinetics and double-resonance experiments. The phenomenological rates of formation and decay of peptide rearrangement ion dissociation products are determined by curve fitting decay and formation data generated with the kinetics experiments. The data generated predict an observable level of the intermediate in a time frame accessible but previously not monitored. By examining early product-ion formation, the intermediate ions, [F*YG - NH3]+, are observed.

  3. Differentiating between monozygotic twins through DNA methylation-specific high-resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Leander; Evans, Neil; Bexon, Kimberley J; van der Meer, Dieudonne J; Williams, Graham A

    2015-05-01

    Although short tandem repeat profiling is extremely powerful in identifying individuals from crime scene stains, it is unable to differentiate between monozygotic (MZ) twins. Efforts to address this include mutation analysis through whole genome sequencing and through DNA methylation studies. Methylation of DNA is affected by environmental factors; thus, as MZ twins age, their DNA methylation patterns change. This can be characterized by bisulfite treatment followed by pyrosequencing. However, this can be time-consuming and expensive; thus, it is unlikely to be widely used by investigators. If the sequences are different, then in theory the melting temperature should be different. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether high-resolution melt curve analysis can be used to differentiate between MZ twins. Five sets of MZ twins provided buccal swabs that underwent extraction, quantification, bisulfite treatment, polymerase chain reaction amplification and high-resolution melting curve analysis targeting two markers, Alu-E2F3 and Alu-SP. Significant differences were observed between all MZ twins targeting Alu-E2F3 and in four of five MZ twins targeting Alu-SP (P<0.05). Thus, it has been demonstrated that bisulfite treatment followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis could be used to differentiate between MZ twins.

  4. Light curve analysis of beta Lyrae type binary star EM TrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of photometric observations of the eclipsing binary system EM TrA (TYC 9258-211-1=CD-67 1660) is presented in this study. The V light curve of the system from All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) was solved using the Wilson-Devinney code. The final solution describes EM TrA as a detached system. The absolute parameters of the components of the system were estimated.

  5. Synergistic Effects of Phase Folding and Wavelet Denoising with Applications in Light Curve Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    FOLDING AND WAVELET DENOISING WITH APPLICATIONS IN LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS I. Introduction Moore’s law, and other exponential growth patterns in technology...that the universe underwent a period of exponential growth shortly after the big bang. The exponential growth of the universe can be accounted for in the...The second section discusses the exponential growth of the solution space which accompanies the linear growth of components. Inherent Error. In

  6. Efficient curve-skeleton computation for the analysis of biomedical 3d images - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Brun, Francesco; Dreossi, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Advances in three dimensional (3D) biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT), make it easy to reconstruct high quality 3D models of portions of human body and other biological specimens. A major challenge lies in the quantitative analysis of the resulting models thus allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the object under investigation. An interesting approach is based on curve-skeleton (or medial axis) extraction, which gives basic information concerning the topology and the geometry. Curve-skeletons have been applied in the analysis of vascular networks and the diagnosis of tracheal stenoses as well as a 3D flight path in virtual endoscopy. However curve-skeleton computation is a crucial task. An effective skeletonization algorithm was introduced by N. Cornea in [1] but it lacks in computational performances. Thanks to the advances in imaging techniques the resolution of 3D images is increasing more and more, therefore there is the need for efficient algorithms in order to analyze significant Volumes of Interest (VOIs). In the present paper an improved skeletonization algorithm based on the idea proposed in [1] is presented. A computational comparison between the original and the proposed method is also reported. The obtained results show that the proposed method allows a significant computational improvement making more appealing the adoption of the skeleton representation in biomedical image analysis applications.

  7. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  8. Hierarchical band-target entropy minimization curve resolution and Pearson VII curve-fitting analysis of cellular protein infrared imaging spectra.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiyin; Chen, Kejia; Liang, Dayang; Chew, Wee

    2009-04-01

    A soft-modeling multivariate numerical approach that combines self-modeling curve resolution (SMCR) and mixed Lorentzian-Gaussian curve fitting was successfully implemented for the first time to elucidate spatially and spectroscopically resolved spectral information from infrared imaging data of oral mucosa cells. A novel variant form of the robust band-target entropy minimization (BTEM) SMCR technique, coined as hierarchical BTEM (hBTEM), was introduced to first cluster similar cellular infrared spectra using the unsupervised hierarchical leader-follower cluster analysis (LFCA) and subsequently apply BTEM to clustered subsets of data to reconstruct three protein secondary structure (PSS) pure component spectra-alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and ambiguous structures-that associate with spatially differentiated regions of the cell infrared image. The Pearson VII curve-fitting procedure, which approximates a mixed Lorentzian-Gaussian model for spectral band shape, was used to optimally curve fit the resolved amide I and II bands of various hBTEM reconstructed PSS pure component spectra. The optimized Pearson VII band-shape parameters and peak center positions serve as means to characterize amide bands of PSS spectra found in various cell locations and for approximating their actual amide I/II intensity ratios. The new hBTEM methodology can also be potentially applied to vibrational spectroscopic datasets with dynamic or spatial variations arising from chemical reactions, physical perturbations, pathological states, and the like.

  9. An analysis of the massless planet approximation in transit light curve models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Many extrasolar planet transit light curve models use the approximation of a massless planet. They approximate the planet as orbiting elliptically with the host star at the orbit’s focus instead of depicting the planet and star as both orbiting around a common center of mass. This approximation should generally be very good because the transit is a small fraction of the full-phase curve and the planet to stellar mass ratio is typically very small. However, to fully examine the legitimacy of this approximation, it is useful to perform a robust, all-parameter space-encompassing statistical comparison between the massless planet model and the more accurate model.Towards this goal, we establish two questions: (1) In what parameter domain is the approximation invalid? (2) If characterizing an exoplanetary system in this domain, what is the error of the parameter estimates when using the simplified model? We first address question (1). Given each parameter vector in a finite space, we can generate the simplified and more complete model curves. Associated with these model curves is a measure of the deviation between them, such as the root mean square (RMS). We use Gibbs sampling to generate a sample that is distributed according to the RMS surface. The high-density regions in the sample correspond to a large deviation between the models. To determine the domains of these high-density areas, we first employ the Ordering Points to Identify the Clustering Structure (OPTICS) algorithm. We then characterize the subclusters by performing the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) on the transformed Principal Component spaces of each cluster. This process yields descriptors of the parameter domains with large discrepancies between the models.To consider question (2), we start by generating synthetic transit curve observations in the domains specified by the above analysis. We then derive the best-fit parameters of these synthetic light curves according to each model and examine

  10. Analysis of Characteristics of Light Curve Profiles of the Flares Erupted from Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duo, Yun; Hua-ning, Wang; Han, He

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares belong to a kind of eruptive phenomena caused by the sudden release of magnetic energy nearby sunspots. It is found that similar flares occurred as well in many Sun-like stars (called as Sun-like star flares). From the data acquired by the Kepler space telescope the SC (Short Cadence) data are mainly selected to make analysis, in order to find the characteristic parameters of light curve profiles of the flares erupted from Sun-like stars for a statistical study, and to summarize the activity features of these stellar flares. The analyzed results show that the light curve profiles and characteristic timescales of the flares of Sun-like stars are quite similar to those of solar flares, which may indicate the same physical mechanism for these two kinds of flares.

  11. Consequence analysis to determine the damage to humans from vapour cloud explosions using characteristic curves.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Fernando Díaz; Ferradás, Enrique González; Sánchez, Teresa de Jesús Jiménez; Aznar, Agustín Miñana; Gimeno, José Ruiz; Alonso, Jesús Martínez

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide a methodology to facilitate consequence analysis for vapour cloud explosions (VCE). Firstly, the main PROBIT equations to evaluate direct damage on humans from those accidents (eardrum rupture, death due to skull fracture, death due to whole body impact and lung damage) are discussed and the most suitable ones are selected. Secondly, a new methodology is developed to relate characteristic overpressure-impulse-distance curves for VCE, obtained in a previous paper (F. Diaz Alonso et al., Characteristic overpressure-impulse-distance curves for vapour cloud explosions using the TNO Multi-Energy model, J. Hazard. Mater. A137 (2006) 734-741) with the selected PROBIT equations. This methodology allows the determination of damage as a function of distance to the accident's origin in only one step, using explosion energy and VCE Multi-Energy charge strength as input parameters.

  12. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  13. An elastic-plastic finite-element analysis of the J-resistance curve using a CTOD criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Booth, B. C.; Shivakumar, K. N.

    1988-01-01

    The fracture process in compact and bend specimens was simulated using a two-dimensional finite-element analysis of the J-resistance (J-R) curve and a CTOD criterion. The J-R curves were calculated from the numerical results for each specimen type using several different methods. In general, the J-R curves obtained for the bend specimens were found to be higher than those for the compact specimens, especially beyond maximum load. However, below the maximum load, the modified deformation theory of plasticity and the contour-integral J(r) method resulted in very similar J-R curves for both specimen types.

  14. Design curves for non-linear analysis of simply-supported, uniformly-loaded rectangular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D.

    1979-01-01

    Design curves for the non-linear analysis of simply-supported rectangular plates subjected to uniform normal pressure loads have been developed. These curves yield the center deflection, center stress and corner stress in non-dimensionalized form plotted against a dimensionless parameter describing the load intensity. The results presented are based on extensive non-linear finite element analysis employing the ARGUS structural analysis program. Plates with length to width ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 are included. The load range considered extends to 1000 times the load at which the behavior of the plate becomes significantly non-linear. Over the load range considered, the analysis shows that the ratio of center deflection to plate thickness for a square plate is less than 16 to 1, whereas linear theory would predict a center deflection 400 times the plate thickness. Likewise, the stress is markedly lower than would be predicted by linear theory. The present results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the classical linear theory up to a central deflection to plate thickness ratio of about one-half. In the non-linear regime the present results for deflection and stress are in very good agreement with the analytical and experimental work of other investigators.

  15. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  16. STR melting curve analysis as a genetic screening tool for crime scene samples.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang; McKinney, Jason; Johnson, Donald J; Roberts, Katherine A; Hardy, Winters R

    2012-07-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, high-resolution melt curve (HRMC) analysis was investigated as a postquantification screening tool to discriminate human CSF1PO and THO1 genotypes amplified with mini-STR primers in the presence of SYBR Green or LCGreen Plus dyes. A total of 12 CSF1PO and 11 HUMTHO1 genotypes were analyzed on the LightScanner HR96 and LS-32 systems and were correctly differentiated based upon their respective melt profiles. Short STR amplicon melt curves were affected by repeat number, and single-source and mixed DNA samples were additionally differentiated by the formation of heteroduplexes. Melting curves were shown to be unique and reproducible from DNA quantities ranging from 20 to 0.4 ng and distinguished identical from nonidentical genotypes from DNA derived from different biological fluids and compromised samples. Thus, a method is described which can assess both the quantity and the possible probative value of samples without full genotyping.

  17. Direct determination of enzyme kinetic parameters from single reactions using a new progress curve analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Bäuerle, Felix; Zotter, Agnes; Schreiber, Gideon

    2016-10-15

    With computer-based data-fitting methods becoming a standard tool in biochemistry, progress curve analysis of enzyme kinetics is a feasible, yet seldom used tool. Here we present a versatile Matlab-based tool (PCAT) to analyze catalysis progress curves with three complementary model approaches. The first two models are based on the known closed-form solution for this problem: the first describes the required Lambert W function with an analytical approximation and the second provides a numerical solution of the Lambert W function. The third model is a direct simulation of the enzyme kinetics. Depending on the chosen model, the tools excel in speed, accuracy or initial value requirements. Using simulated and experimental data, we show the strengths and pitfalls of the different fitting models. Direct simulation proves to have the highest level of accuracy, but it also requires reasonable initial values to converge. Finally, we propose a standard procedure to obtain optimized enzyme kinetic parameters from single progress curves.

  18. Pg 1115+080: New Analysis of the Light Curves Confirms Old Time Delay Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, B.; Koptelova, E.; Oknyanskij, V.; Shimanovskaya, E.

    We analyze all publicly available long-term optical observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar PG1115+080 with the aim of measuring time delays between its four components. In particular, we present analysis of the Maidanak light curves of the PG1115+080 components obtained between 2001 and 2006 (Tsvetkova et al. 2010). We find that the light curves of the 2006 observational season show almost linear trend with some fast variations seen only in the A1 and C components. This can be as due to microlensing or observational errors. These fast variations can decrease statistical significance of the time delay estimates or even produce misleading results. Application of the MCCF technique (Oknyanskij 1993) to photometric data collected in the 2004-2005 seasons gives time delay values tBC = 22±3, tAC = 12±3, and tBA = 10±3 days, which are in agreement with previous results of Schechter et al. (1997) and Barkana (1997) reported for the 1995-1996 light curves analyzed using two different statistical methods. The ratio tAC/tBA between our intermediate delays is about 1.2 that is close to the value reported by Barkana ( ∼1.13) and predicted by lens models (∼1.4) unlike the Schechter's and Vakulik's (2009) values (∼ 0.7 and ∼2.7).

  19. Bayesian analysis of stage-fall-discharge rating curves and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansanarez, V.; Le Coz, J.; Renard, B.; Lang, M.; Pierrefeu, G.; Vauchel, P.

    2016-09-01

    Stage-fall-discharge (SFD) rating curves are traditionally used to compute streamflow records at sites where the energy slope of the flow is variable due to variable backwater effects. We introduce a model with hydraulically interpretable parameters for estimating SFD rating curves and their uncertainties. Conventional power functions for channel and section controls are used. The transition to a backwater-affected channel control is computed based on a continuity condition, solved either analytically or numerically. The practical use of the method is demonstrated with two real twin-gauge stations, the Rhône River at Valence, France, and the Guthusbekken stream at station 0003ṡ0033, Norway. Those stations are typical of a channel control and a section control, respectively, when backwater-unaffected conditions apply. The performance of the method is investigated through sensitivity analysis to prior information on controls and to observations (i.e., available gaugings) for the station of Valence. These analyses suggest that precisely identifying SFD rating curves requires adapted gauging strategy and/or informative priors. The Madeira River, one of the largest tributaries of the Amazon, provides a challenging case typical of large, flat, tropical river networks where bed roughness can also be variable in addition to slope. In this case, the difference in staff gauge reference levels must be estimated as another uncertain parameter of the SFD model. The proposed Bayesian method is a valuable alternative solution to the graphical and empirical techniques still proposed in hydrometry guidance and standards.

  20. Analysis of microstrip antennas on a curved surface using the conformal grids FD-TD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukai, Ichiro; Onishi, Teruo; Kashiwa, Tatsuya

    1994-03-01

    The need for small, potable antennas for mobile communications has recently spurred the study of microstrip antennas (MSA). MSA are quite flexible and have been used as conformal antennas on arbitrary curved surfaces. The characteristics of conformal MSA can be expected to differ from those of planar models. Dependable numerical analyses will obviate many of the costs and other inconveniences associated with experiments, but as antennas may be mounted on the surfaces of arbitrary topological complexity, analysis methods must have as general applicability as possible. The curvilinear finite difference time-domain (FD-TD) method has shown excellent versatility. In this paper, the curvilinear FD-TD method is applied to analyze microstrip antennas mounted on curved surfaces. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental values. The results confirm the predictions within acceptable limits and appear to confirm the validity of the method. As a result, it was confirmed that the input impedance and directivity of MSA on curved surfaces are different from the flat MSA.

  1. On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

    2008-01-01

    The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

  2. Evaluation of the formation of a junctional DNA nanostructure through annealing curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-02-20

    During the self-assembly of different numbers of oligonucleotides comprising junctional DNA nanostructures, a change in environmental variables (e.g., temperature or salt concentration) has a substantial influence on the final products. Further, distinctive annealing temperatures of oligonucleotides are observed depending on the state of hybridization. Here, we present an evaluation of the annealing characteristics of oligonucleotides for the formation of a simple junctional DNA nanostructure using an annealing curve analysis. This method may be useful for analyzing the formation of complex junctional DNA nanostructures.

  3. Asymptotic analysis of a newtonian fluid in a curved pipe with moving walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiñeira, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, José M.

    2016-06-01

    This communication is devoted to the presentation of our recent results regarding the asymptotic analysis of a viscous flow in a tube with elastic walls. This study can be applied, for example, to the blood flow in an artery. With this aim, we consider the dynamic problem of the incompressible flow of a viscous fluid through a curved pipe with a smooth central curve. Our analysis leads to the obtention of an one dimensional model via singular perturbation of the Navier-Stokes system as ɛ, a non dimensional parameter related to the radius of cross-section of the tube, tends to zero. We allow the radius depend on tangential direction and time, so a coupling with an elastic or viscoelastic law on the wall of the pipe is possible. To perform the asymptotic analysis, we do a change of variable to a reference domain where we assume the existence of asymptotic expansions on ɛ for both velocity and pressure which, upon substitution on Navier-Stokes equations, leads to the characterization of various terms of the expansion. This allows us to obtain an approximation of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  4. Improved factor analysis of dynamic PET images to estimate arterial input function and tissue curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchko, Rostyslav; Mitra, Debasis; Pan, Hui; Jagust, William; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2015-03-01

    Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is a methodology of extracting time-activity curves (TACs) for corresponding different tissue types from noisy dynamic images. The challenges of FADS include long computation time and sensitivity to the initial guess, resulting in convergence to local minima far from the true solution. We propose a method of accelerating and stabilizing FADS application to sequences of dynamic PET images by adding preliminary cluster analysis of the time activity curves for individual voxels. We treat the temporal variation of individual voxel concentrations as a set of time-series and use a partial clustering analysis to identify the types of voxel TACs that are most functionally distinct from each other. These TACs provide a good initial guess for the temporal factors for subsequent FADS processing. Applying this approach to a set of single slices of dynamic 11C-PIB images of the brain allows identification of the arterial input function and two different tissue TACs that are likely to correspond to the specific and non-specific tracer binding-tissue types. These results enable us to perform direct classification of tissues based on their pharmacokinetic properties in dynamic PET without relying on a compartment-based kinetic model, without identification of the reference region, or without using any external methods of estimating the arterial input function, as needed in some techniques.

  5. School-based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: a growth-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Hagewen, Kellie J

    2011-05-01

    Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent's participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of domains, and some research indicates that these relationships may be dependent on the type of activities in which adolescents participate. Building on previous research, a growth-curve analysis was utilized to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5,399; 47.8% male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The results indicated that age had a linear relationship with self-esteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of self-esteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The findings were consistent across race and sex. The results support the utility of examining the longitudinal impact of portfolio type on well-being outcomes.

  6. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  7. Antigen-antibody biorecognition events as discriminated by noise analysis of force spectroscopy curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-08-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy is able to extract kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of biomolecular complexes provided that the registered unbinding force curves could be reliably attributed to the rupture of the specific complex interactions. To this aim, a commonly used strategy is based on the analysis of the stretching features of polymeric linkers which are suitably introduced in the biomolecule-substrate immobilization procedure. Alternatively, we present a method to select force curves corresponding to specific biorecognition events, which relies on a careful analysis of the force fluctuations of the biomolecule-functionalized cantilever tip during its approach to the partner molecules immobilized on a substrate. In the low frequency region, a characteristic 1/f α noise with α equal to one (flickering noise) is found to replace white noise in the cantilever fluctuation power spectrum when, and only when, a specific biorecognition process between the partners occurs. The method, which has been validated on a well-characterized antigen-antibody complex, represents a fast, yet reliable alternative to the use of linkers which may involve additional surface chemistry and reproducibility concerns.

  8. An explicit solution for progress curve analysis in systems characterized by endogenous substrate production.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2012-05-01

    The Lambert W function was used to explicitly relate substrate concentration S, to time t, and the kinetic parameters V (m), K (m), and R in the modified Michaelis-Menten equation that accounts for endogenous substrate production. The applicability of this explicit formulation for kinetic parameter estimation by progress curve analysis was demonstrated using a combination of synthetic and experimental substrate depletion data. Synthetic substrate depletion data were generated using S (0) values of 1, 2, and 3 μM and V (m), K (m), and R values of 1.0 μM h(-1), 1.0 μM, and 0.1 μM h(-1), respectively, and contained 5% normally distributed error. Experimental data were obtained from two previously published studies on hydrogen depletion in four experimental systems. In all instances, experimental data were well described by the explicit solution presented in this study. Differential equation solution and iterative S estimation are eliminated with the explicit solution approach, thereby simplifying progress curve analysis in systems characterized by endogenous substrate production.

  9. Antigen-antibody biorecognition events as discriminated by noise analysis of force spectroscopy curves.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-08-22

    Atomic force spectroscopy is able to extract kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of biomolecular complexes provided that the registered unbinding force curves could be reliably attributed to the rupture of the specific complex interactions. To this aim, a commonly used strategy is based on the analysis of the stretching features of polymeric linkers which are suitably introduced in the biomolecule-substrate immobilization procedure. Alternatively, we present a method to select force curves corresponding to specific biorecognition events, which relies on a careful analysis of the force fluctuations of the biomolecule-functionalized cantilever tip during its approach to the partner molecules immobilized on a substrate. In the low frequency region, a characteristic 1/f (α) noise with α equal to one (flickering noise) is found to replace white noise in the cantilever fluctuation power spectrum when, and only when, a specific biorecognition process between the partners occurs. The method, which has been validated on a well-characterized antigen-antibody complex, represents a fast, yet reliable alternative to the use of linkers which may involve additional surface chemistry and reproducibility concerns.

  10. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Quasar Light Curves from Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Betsy; Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    2017-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of variable quasars in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS). PS1 MDS obtained multi-epoch images of 10 fields, each 8 square degrees in size, over 4 years, starting in May 2010. The MDS fields were observed in 5 filters (gp1, rp1, ip1, zp1, and yp1) during their season of visibility, with a typical cadence per filter of 3 days. We extracted the light curves of 670 color-selected quasars in the PS1 MDS using Point Spread Function photometry from the Image Processing Pipeline data products. From the quasar sample, we selected 104 quasars whose variability was at least 2 standard deviations higher than the non-variable reference star sample. We performed a statistical analysis of the light curves of the selected quasars in the g,r,i and z bands using a maximum likelihood method to find the best-fit Damped Random Walk parameters (sigma and tau - also incorporating the Zoghbi et al. 2013 method for uneven sampling). The resulting distributions for sigma and tau were similar to those found in previous studies of quasars.

  12. A Scientific Analysis of Galaxy Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taff, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    I last reported on my preliminary analysis of 350 + spiral, lenticular, irregular, polar ring, ring, and dwarf elliptical galaxies' tangential speed of revolution curves [TSRCs; and not rotation (sic) curves]. I now know that the consensus opinion in the literature--for which I can find no geometrical, numerical, statistical, nor scientific testing in 2,500 + publications--that the TSRC, vB(r), in the central bulges of these galaxies, is a linear function of the radial distance from the minor axis of symmetry r--is false. For the majority (>98%) vB(r) is rarely well represented by vB(r) = ωB r (for which the unique material model is an homogeneous, oblate, spheroid). Discovered via a scientific analysis of the gravitational potential energy computed directly from the observational data, vB(r) is almost exactly given by vB2(r) = (ωB r)2(1 + η r2) with | η | < 10-2 and frequently orders of magnitude less. The corresponding mass model is the simplest generalization: a two component homoeoid. The set of possible periodic orbits, based on circular trigonometric functions, becomes a set of periodic orbits based on the Jacobian elliptic functions. Once again it is possible to prove that the mass-to-light ratio can neither be a constant nor follow the de Vaucouleurs R1/4 rule.

  13. Z curve theory-based analysis of the dynamic nature of nucleosome positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueting; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hongbo; Su, Jianzhong; Lv, Jie; Cui, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Nucleosome is the elementary structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin. Instability of nucleosome positioning plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling in differentiation and disease. In this study, we investigated nucleosome dynamics in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using a geometric model based on Z curve theory. We identified 52,941 stable nucleosomes and 7607 dynamic nucleosomes, compiling them into a genome-wide nucleosome dynamic positioning map and constructing a user-friendly visualization platform (http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/nucleosome). Our approach achieved a sensitivity of 90.31% and a specificity of 87.76% for S. cerevisiae. Analysis revealed transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) were enriched in linkers. And among the sparse nucleosomes around TFBSs, dynamic nucleosomes were slightly preferred. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that stable and dynamic nucleosomes were enriched on genes involved in different biological processes and functions. This study provides an approach for comprehending chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of genes.

  14. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids.

  15. Using state-trace analysis to dissociate the functions of the human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Fell, Juergen; Dunn, John C; Axmacher, Nikolai; Henson, Richard N

    2013-02-19

    A recurring issue in neuroscience concerns evidence as to whether two or more brain regions implement qualitatively different functions. Here we introduce the application of state-trace analysis to measures of neural activity, illustrating how this analysis can furnish compelling evidence for qualitatively different functions, even when the precise "neurometric" mapping between function and brain measure is unknown. In doing so, we address a long-standing debate about the brain systems supporting human memory: whether the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex, two key components of the medial temporal lobe memory system, provide qualitatively different contributions to recognition memory. An alternative account has been that both regions support a single shared function, such as memory strength, with the apparent dissociations obtained by previous neuroimaging studies merely reflecting different, nonlinear neurometric mappings across regions. To adjudicate between these scenarios, we analyze intracranial electroencephalographic data obtained directly from human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex during a recognition paradigm and apply state-trace analysis to responses evoked by the retrieval cue as a function of different types of memory judgment. Assuming only that the neurometric mapping in each region is monotonic, any unidimensional theory (such as the memory-strength account) will produce a monotonic state trace. Critically, results showed a nonmonotonic state trace; that is, activity levels in the two regions did not show the same relative ordering across memory conditions. This nonmonotonic state trace demonstrates that there are at least two different functions implemented across the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, allowing formal rejection of a single-process account of medial temporal lobe contributions to recognition memory.

  16. The multidimensional inventory of dissociation (MID): A comprehensive measure of pathological dissociation.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). The MID is a 218-item, self-administered, multiscale instrument that comprehensively assesses the phenomenological domain of pathological dissociation and diagnoses the dissociative disorders. The MID measures 14 major facets of pathological dissociation; it has 23 dissociation diagnostic scales that simultaneously operationalize (1) the subjective/ phenomenological domain of pathological dissociation and (2) the hypothesized dissociative symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (Dell, 2001a). The MID was designed for clinical research and for diagnostic assessment of patients who present with a mixture of dissociative, posttraumatic, and borderline symptoms. The MID demonstrated internal reliability, temporal stability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity. The MID also exhibited incremental validity over the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) by predicting an additional 18% of the variance in weighted abuse scores on the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire (TEQ). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) did not support a one-factor model of the MID's clinical scales (i.e., the 14 facets and the 23 diagnostic symptoms). In contrast, however, CFA of the MID's factor scales (Dell & Lawson, 2005) has strongly supported a one-factor model. It was concluded that both the MID's 168 dissociation items and the construct of pathological dissociation have a second-order, unifactorial structure.

  17. Determination of secondary flow morphologies by wavelet analysis in a curved artery model with physiological inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Hussain, Shadman; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Secondary flow vortical patterns in arterial curvatures have the potential to affect several cardiovascular phenomena, e.g., progression of atherosclerosis by altering wall shear stresses, carotid atheromatous disease, thoracic aortic aneurysms and Marfan's syndrome. Temporal characteristics of secondary flow structures vis-à-vis physiological (pulsatile) inflow waveform were explored by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of phase-locked, two-component, two-dimensional particle image velocimeter data. Measurements were made in a 180° curved artery test section upstream of the curvature and at the 90° cross-sectional plane. Streamwise, upstream flow rate measurements were analyzed using a one-dimensional antisymmetric wavelet. Cross-stream measurements at the 90° location of the curved artery revealed interesting multi-scale, multi-strength coherent secondary flow structures. An automated process for coherent structure detection and vortical feature quantification was applied to large ensembles of PIV data. Metrics such as the number of secondary flow structures, their sizes and strengths were generated at every discrete time instance of the physiological inflow waveform. An autonomous data post-processing method incorporating two-dimensional CWT for coherent structure detection was implemented. Loss of coherence in secondary flow structures during the systolic deceleration phase is observed in accordance with previous research. The algorithmic approach presented herein further elucidated the sensitivity and dependence of morphological changes in secondary flow structures on quasiperiodicity and magnitude of temporal gradients in physiological inflow conditions.

  18. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB X-ray afterglows light curves analysis (Racusin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Kocevski, D.

    2016-09-01

    All GRBs discovered with Swift-BAT, with X-ray afterglows detected by Swift-XRT and measured redshifts, between 2004 December and 2014 March are included in the analysis. We include only those X-ray afterglows with at least three light-curve bins (>~60 counts) and T90 measurements are available in the BAT catalogs (Sakamoto+ 2008, J/ApJS/175/179; 2011, J/ApJS/195/2 and Lien+ 2016, arXiv:1606.01956). The final sample includes 237 long-duration GRBs (9 short), 47 of which also appear in the Oates et al. (2012MNRAS.426L..86O; 2015MNRAS.453.4121O) sample for the UVOT correlation (sample only extends through 2010). The redshift measurements come from a convolution of databases and the literature and are listed in Table 1. All light curves were retrieved from the University of Leicester Swift XRT Team GRB repository (Evans et al. 2007A&A...469..379E; 2009, J/MNRAS/397/1177). See section 2.2 for further explanations. (2 data files).

  20. Finite element analysis of the effect of loading curve shape on brain injury predictors.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Hoshizaki, Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2012-02-23

    Prediction of traumatic and mild traumatic brain injury is an important factor in managing their prevention. Currently, the prediction of these injuries is limited to peak linear and angular acceleration loading curves derived from laboratory reconstructions. However it remains unclear as to what aspect of these loading curves contributes to brain tissue damage. This research uses the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model (UCDBTM) to analyse three distinct loading curve shapes meant to represent different helmet loading scenarios. The loading curves were applied independently in each axis of linear and angular acceleration and their effect on currently used predictors of TBI and mTBI was examined. Loading curve shape A had a late time to peak, B an early time to peak and C had a consistent plateau. The areas under the curve for all three loading curve shapes were identical. The results indicate that loading curve A produced consistently higher maximum principal strains and Von Mises stress than the other two loading curve types. Loading curve C consistently produced the lowest values of maximum principal strain and Von Mises stress, with loading curve B being lowest in only 2 cases. The areas of peak Von Mises stress and Principal strain also varied depending on loading curve shape and acceleration input.

  1. Dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Yu; Lu, Tsai-Lien; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chang, Yung-Yung; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2010-07-01

    The dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH was determined by analyzing the observed near dissociation rovibrational levels. These levels were reached by stimulated emission pumping and fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. A total of 114 rovibrational levels in the ranges 9≤v″≤21 and 1≤J″≤14 were assigned to the X Σ1+ state of NaH. The highest vibrational level observed was only about 40 cm-1 from the dissociation limit in the ground state. One quasibound state, above the dissociation limit and confined by the centrifugal barrier, was observed. Determining the vibrational quantum number at dissociation vD from the highest four vibrational levels yielded the dissociation energy De=15 815±5 cm-1. Based on new observations and available data, a set of Dunham coefficients and the rotationless Rydberg-Klein-Rees curve were constructed. The effective potential curve and the quasibound states were discussed.

  2. Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: a detailed look.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, Marilyn I; Dell, Paul F; Links, Paul S; Thabane, Lehana; Fougere, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess in detail the whole spectrum of normal and pathological dissociative experiences and dissociative disorder (DD) diagnoses in borderline personality disorder (BPD) as diagnosed with the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Dissociation was measured comprehensively in 21 BPD outpatients using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID), the Dissociative Experiences Scale pathological taxon analysis, and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. The frequencies of DDs in this BPD sample were as follows: 24% no DD, 29% mild DD (dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder), 24% DD Not Otherwise Specified (DDNOS), and 24% dissociative identity disorder. With regard to the dissociative experiences endorsed, almost all patients reported identity confusion, unexplained mood changes, and depersonalization. Even those BPD patients with mild DD reported derealization, depersonalization, and dissociative amnesia. BPD patients with DDNOS reported frequent depersonalization, frequent amnesia, and notable experiences of identity alteration. BPD patients with dissociative identity disorder endorsed severe dissociative symptoms in all categories. Analysis of the MID pathological dissociation items revealed that 32% of the items were endorsed at a clinically significant level of frequency by more than 50% of our BPD patients. In conclusion, the frequencies of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) DDs in these patients with BPD were surprisingly high. Likewise, the "average" BPD patient endorsed a wide variety of recurrent pathological dissociative symptoms.

  3. Dissociation between recognition and detection advantage for facial expressions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Calvo, Manuel G

    2015-04-01

    Happy facial expressions are recognized faster and more accurately than other expressions in categorization tasks, whereas detection in visual search tasks is widely believed to be faster for angry than happy faces. We used meta-analytic techniques for resolving this categorization versus detection advantage discrepancy for positive versus negative facial expressions. Effect sizes were computed on the basis of the r statistic for a total of 34 recognition studies with 3,561 participants and 37 visual search studies with 2,455 participants, yielding a total of 41 effect sizes for recognition accuracy, 25 for recognition speed, and 125 for visual search speed. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate effect sizes at population level. For recognition tasks, an advantage in recognition accuracy and speed for happy expressions was found for all stimulus types. In contrast, for visual search tasks, moderator analysis revealed that a happy face detection advantage was restricted to photographic faces, whereas a clear angry face advantage was found for schematic and "smiley" faces. Robust detection advantage for nonhappy faces was observed even when stimulus emotionality was distorted by inversion or rearrangement of the facial features, suggesting that visual features primarily drive the search. We conclude that the recognition advantage for happy faces is a genuine phenomenon related to processing of facial expression category and affective valence. In contrast, detection advantages toward either happy (photographic stimuli) or nonhappy (schematic) faces is contingent on visual stimulus features rather than facial expression, and may not involve categorical or affective processing.

  4. Collision-induced thermochemistry of reactions of dissociation of glycyl-homopeptides-An experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The research draws on experimental and theoretical data about energetics and kinetics of mass spectrometric (MS) reactions of glycyl homopenta- (G5) and glycyl homohexapeptides (G6). It shows the great applicability of the methods of quantum chemistry to predict MS profile of peptides using energetics of collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment species. Mass spectrometry is among irreplaceable methods, providing unambiguous qualitative, quantitative and structural information about analytes, applicable to many scientific areas like environmental chemistry; food chemistry; medicinal chemistry; and more. Our study could be considered of substantial interdisciplinary significance, where MS proteomics is widely used. The experimental design involves electrospray ionization (ESI) and CID MS/MS. Theoretical design is based on ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Experimental MS and theoretical free Gibbs energies as well as rate constants of fragment reactions are compared. The thermodynamic encompasses gas-phase and polar continuum analysis, including polar protic and aprotic solvents within temperature T = 10-500 K; dielectric constant ε = 0-78, pH, and ionic strengths μ = 0.001-1.0 mol dm(-1) . There are computed and discussed 39 protonated forms of peptides at amide N- and -(NHC)=O centers; corresponding fragment ions studying their thermodynamic stability depending on experimental conditions. A correlation analysis between molecular conformations of parent ions and fragment species; their proton accepting ability and internal energy distribution is carried out. Data about ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) are discussed, as well.

  5. Combined Use of Post-Ion Mobility/Collision-Induced Dissociation and Chemometrics for b Fragment Ion Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekavat, Behrooz; Miladi, Mahsan; Becker, Christopher; Munisamy, Sharon M.; Solouki, Touradj

    2013-09-01

    Although structural isomers may yield indistinguishable ion mobility (IM) arrival times and similar fragment ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS), it is demonstrated that post-IM/collision-induced dissociation MS (post-IM/CID MS) combined with chemometrics can enable independent study of the IM-overlapped isomers. The new approach allowed us to investigate the propensity of selected b type fragment ions from AlaAlaAlaHisAlaAlaAla-NH2 (AAA(His)AAA) heptapeptide to form different isomers. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the unresolved post-IM/CID profiles indicated the presence of two different isomer types for b4 +, b5 +, and b6 + and a single isomer type for b7 + fragments of AAA(His)AAA. We employed a simple-to-use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis (SIMPLISMA) to calculate the total IM profiles and CID mass spectra of b fragment isomers. The deconvoluted CID mass spectra showed discernible fragmentation patterns for the two isomers of b4 +, b5 +, and b6 + fragments. Under our experimental conditions, calculated percentages of the "cyclic" isomers (at the 95 % confidence level for n = 3) for b4 +, b5 +, and b6 + were 61 (± 5) %, 36 (± 5) %, and 48 (± 2) %, respectively. Results from the SIMPLISMA deconvolution of b5 + species resembled the CID MS patterns of fully resolved IM profiles for the two b5 + isomers. The "cyclic" isomers for each of the two-component b fragment ions were less susceptible to ion fragmentation than their "linear" counterparts.

  6. Magnetostatic interaction in soft magnetic bilayer ribbons unambiguously identified by first-order reversal curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, M.; Martínez-García, J. C.; Škorvánek, I.; Marcin, J.; Švec, P.; Gorria, P.

    2015-09-01

    Monolithic amorphous Fe73.5Nb3Si13.5B9Cu1/Fe74.5Nb3Si13.5B9 bilayer ribbons were obtained by double-nozzle melt-spinning and subsequently annealed to produce a composite with a tailored nano/micro-crystalline structure. The overall magnetic behavior is characterized by butterfly-shaped high field hysteresis loops and positively biased low field ones. The main questions we wish to address here are whether the global magnetic behavior of the bilayer can be separated into the individual contributions of each layer and the magneto-coupling between them can be well understood. For that purpose, we performed first-order reversal curve analysis, which enabled us to distinctly identify two phases, of ultra-soft and semi-soft magnetic natures, whose mutual predominant interaction is the magnetostatic coupling.

  7. Methylation-Sensitive Melt Curve Analysis of the Reprimo Gene Methylation in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Junzhong; Luo, Qianping; Ke, Huican; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Reprimo (RPRM) is a p53-induced tumor suppressor gene. Its aberrant DNA methylation is correlated with carcinogenesis and may be used as a surrogate marker for the early detection of gastric cancer. However, the detail information regarding its DNA methylation has not been revealed. Here, we investigated the RPRM gene methylation in gastric cancer tumor and plasma samples by methylation-sensitive melt curve analysis (MS-MCA) and bisulfite sequencing in depth. We developed a semi-quantitative method based on MS-MCA for detecting DNA methylation and unraveled the RPRM gene methylation pattern in gastric cancer. This study provides a solid foundation for the future application of detecting RPRM gene methylation in human plasma or serum samples to help diagnose gastric cancer or for prognosis evaluation. PMID:27992600

  8. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  9. Recurrence plot analysis of nonstationary data: The understanding of curved patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, A.; Kantz, H.; Tiezzi, E.

    2005-08-01

    Recurrence plots of the calls of the Nomascus concolor (Western black crested gibbon) and Hylobates lar (White-handed gibbon) show characteristic circular, curved, and hyperbolic patterns superimposed to the main temporal scale of the signal. It is shown that these patterns are related to particular nonstationarities in the signal. Some of them can be reproduced by artificial signals like frequency modulated sinusoids and sinusoids with time divergent frequency. These modulations are too faint to be resolved by conventional time-frequency analysis with similar precision. Therefore, recurrence plots act as a magnifying glass for the detection of multiple temporal scales in slightly modulated signals. The detected phenomena in these acoustic signals can be explained in the biomechanical context by taking in account the role of the muscles controlling the vocal folds.

  10. Multivariate Curve Resolution Applied to Hyperspectral Imaging Analysis of Chocolate Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; de Juan, Anna; Tauler, Romà

    2015-08-01

    This paper shows the application of Raman and infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to the analysis of the constituents of commercial chocolate samples. The combination of different spectral data pretreatment methods allowed decreasing the high fluorescent Raman signal contribution of whey in the investigated chocolate samples. Using equality constraints during MCR analysis, estimations of the pure spectra of the chocolate sample constituents were improved, as well as their relative contributions and their spatial distribution on the analyzed samples. In addition, unknown constituents could be also resolved. White chocolate constituents resolved from Raman hyperspectral image indicate that, at macro scale, sucrose, lactose, fat, and whey constituents were intermixed in particles. Infrared hyperspectral imaging did not suffer from fluorescence and could be applied for white and milk chocolate. As a conclusion of this study, micro-hyperspectral imaging coupled to the MCR method is confirmed to be an appropriate tool for the direct analysis of the constituents of chocolate samples, and by extension, it is proposed for the analysis of other mixture constituents in commercial food samples.

  11. Light curve analysis of GSC 2750-0054 and GSC 03208-02644

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhateeb, M. M.; Nouh, M. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first photometric analysis for the newly discovered eclipsing binary systems of Algole-type GSC 2750-0054 and GSC 03208-02644. Our analysis was carried out by means of the most recent version of Wilson Devinney (WD) code, which applies the model atmosphere by (Kurucz, R., 1993. In: Milon, E. (Ed.), Light Curve Modeling of Eclipsing Binary Stars. Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 93) with a prescription in passband for the radiative treatment. The accepted light curve solutions reveal absolute physical parameters and the spectral classifications for the components are adopted. We derived the spectral types of the system GSC 2750-0054 as K3 and K7. The physical parameters of the system are M1 = 0.72 ± 0.03 M⊙, M2 = 0.47 ± 0.02 M⊙, R1 = 0.81 ± 0.03 R⊙, R2 = 0.62 ± 0.03 R⊙, L1 = 0.27 ± 0.01 L⊙ and L2 = 0.1 ± 0.004 L⊙. For the system, GSC 03208 02644 the spectral types of the components are A5 and A8. The physical parameters are M1 = 1.86 ± 0.076 M⊙, M2 = 1.21 ± 0.049 M⊙, R1 = 1.84 ± 0.075 R⊙, R2 = 1.75 ± 0.072 R⊙, L1 = 13.58 ± 0.55 L⊙ and L2 = 9.94 ± 0.41 L⊙. Comparison with the evolutionary models as well as the empirical databases is presented.

  12. Functional genomic screen and network analysis reveal novel modifiers of tauopathy dissociated from tau phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Jackson, George R.

    2011-01-01

    A functional genetic screen using loss-of-function and gain-of-function alleles was performed to identify modifiers of tau-induced neurotoxicity using the 2N/4R (full-length) isoform of wild-type human tau expressed in the fly retina. We previously reported eye pigment mutations, which create dysfunctional lysosomes, as potent modifiers; here, we report 37 additional genes identified from ∼1900 genes screened, including the kinases shaggy/GSK-3beta, par-1/MARK, CamKI and Mekk1. Tau acts synergistically with Mekk1 and p38 to down-regulate extracellular regulated kinase activity, with a corresponding decrease in AT8 immunoreactivity (pS202/T205), suggesting that tau can participate in signaling pathways to regulate its own kinases. Modifiers showed poor correlation with tau phosphorylation (using the AT8, 12E8 and AT270 epitopes); moreover, tested suppressors of wild-type tau were equally effective in suppressing toxicity of a phosphorylation-resistant S11A tau construct, demonstrating that changes in tau phosphorylation state are not required to suppress or enhance its toxicity. Genes related to autophagy, the cell cycle, RNA-associated proteins and chromatin-binding proteins constitute a large percentage of identified modifiers. Other functional categories identified include mitochondrial proteins, lipid trafficking, Golgi proteins, kinesins and dynein and the Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein (Hop). Network analysis uncovered several other genes highly associated with the functional modifiers, including genes related to the PI3K, Notch, BMP/TGF-β and Hedgehog pathways, and nuclear trafficking. Activity of GSK-3β is strongly upregulated due to TDP-43 expression, and reduced GSK-3β dosage is also a common suppressor of Aβ42 and TDP-43 toxicity. These findings suggest therapeutic targets other than mitigation of tau phosphorylation. PMID:21949350

  13. Sendai virus-erythrocyte membrane interaction: quantitative and kinetic analysis of viral binding, dissociation, and fusion.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, D; Klappe, K

    1986-04-01

    A kinetic and quantitative analysis of the binding and fusion of Sendai virus with erythrocyte membranes was performed by using a membrane fusion assay based on the relief of fluorescence self-quenching. At 37 degrees C, the process of virus association displayed a half time of 2.5 min; at 4 degrees C, the half time was 3.0 min. The fraction of the viral dose which became cell associated was independent of the incubation temperature and increased with increasing target membrane concentration. On the average, one erythrocyte ghost can accommodate ca. 1,200 Sendai virus particles. The stability of viral attachment was sensitive to a shift in temperature: a fraction of the virions (ca. 30%), attached at 4 degrees C, rapidly (half time, ca. 2.5 min) eluted from the cell surface at 37 degrees C, irrespective of the presence of free virus in the medium. The elution can be attributed to a spontaneous, temperature-induced release, rather than to viral neuraminidase activity. Competition experiments with nonlabeled virus revealed that viruses destined to fuse do not exchange with free particles in the medium but rather bind in a rapid and irreversible manner. The fusion rate of Sendai virus was affected by the density of the virus particles on the cell surface and became restrained when more than 170 virus particles were attached per ghost. In principle, all virus particles added displayed fusion activity. However, at high virus-to-ghost ratios, only a fraction actually fused, indicating that a limited number of fusion sites exist on the erythrocyte membrane. We estimate that ca. 180 virus particles maximally can fuse with one erythrocyte ghost.

  14. Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Curves with a Novel Sigmoid-Asymmetric Fitting Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jang, Daeho; Chae, Geunhyoung; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study introduces a novel curve-fitting algorithm for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curves using a self-constructed, wedge-shaped beam type angular interrogation SPR spectroscopy technique. Previous fitting approaches such as asymmetric and polynomial equations are still unsatisfactory for analyzing full SPR curves and their use is limited to determining the resonance angle. In the present study, we developed a sigmoid-asymmetric equation that provides excellent curve-fitting for the whole SPR curve over a range of incident angles, including regions of the critical angle and resonance angle. Regardless of the bulk fluid type (i.e., water and air), the present sigmoid-asymmetric fitting exhibited nearly perfect matching with a full SPR curve, whereas the asymmetric and polynomial curve fitting methods did not. Because the present curve-fitting sigmoid-asymmetric equation can determine the critical angle as well as the resonance angle, the undesired effect caused by the bulk fluid refractive index was excluded by subtracting the critical angle from the resonance angle in real time. In conclusion, the proposed sigmoid-asymmetric curve-fitting algorithm for SPR curves is widely applicable to various SPR measurements, while excluding the effect of bulk fluids on the sensing layer.

  15. Kepler light-curve analysis of the blazar W2R 1926+42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Bachev, Rumen; Strigachev, Anton

    2016-02-01

    We study the long term Kepler light curve of the blazar W2R 1926+42 (˜1.6 yr) which indicates a variety of variability properties during different intervals of observation. The normalized excess variance, Fvar ranges from 1.8 per cent in the quiescent phase and 43.3 per cent in the outburst phase. We find no significant deviation from linearity in the Fvar-flux relation. Time series analysis is conducted using the Fourier power spectrum and the wavelet analysis methods to study the power spectral density (PSD) shape, infer characteristic time-scales and statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). A bending power law with an associated time-scale of T_B = 6.2^{+6.4}_{-3.1} hours is inferred in the PSD analysis. We obtain a black hole mass of M• = (1.5-5.9) × 107 M⊙ for the first time using Fvar and the bend time-scale for this source. From a mean outburst lifetime of days, we infer a distance from the jet base r ≤ 1.75 pc indicating that the outburst originates due to a shock. A possible QPO peaked at 9.1 d and lasting 3.4 cycles is inferred from the wavelet analysis. Assuming that the QPO is a true feature, r = (152-378)GM•/c2 and supported by the other timing analysis products such as a weighted mean PSD slope of -1.5 ± 0.2 from the PSD analysis, we argue that the observed variability and the weak and short duration QPO could be due to jet based processes including orbital features in a relativistic helical jet and others such as shocks and turbulence.

  16. Oxygen association-dissociation and stability analysis on mouse hemoglobins with mutant alpha- and beta-globins.

    PubMed

    D'Surney, S J; Popp, R A

    1992-10-01

    Oxygen association-dissociation and hemoglobin stability analysis were performed on mouse hemoglobins with amino acid substitutions in an alpha-globin (alpha 89, His to Leu) and a beta-globin (beta 59, Lys to Ile). The variant alpha-globin, designated chain 5m in the Hbag2 haplotype, had an high oxygen affinity and was stable. The variant beta-globin, (beta s2) of the Hbbs2 haplotype, also had an elevated oxygen affinity and in addition was moderately unstable in 19% isopropanol. Hemoglobins from the expected nine (Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs x Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs2/Hbbs2) F2 genotypes can be grouped into five classes of P50 values characterized by strict additivity and dependency on mutant globin gene dosage; physiologically, both globin variants gave indistinguishable effects on oxygen affinity. The hemoglobin of normal mice (Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs/Hbbs) had a P50 = 40 mm Hg and the hemoglobin of Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 F2 mice had a P50 = 25 mm Hg (human P50 = 26 mm Hg). Peripheral blood from Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs, Hbaa/Hbaa;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 and Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice exhibited normal hematological values except for a slightly higher hematocrit for Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs/Hbbs and Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice, slightly elevated red cell counts for mice of the three mutant genotypes, and significantly lower values for the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin for Hbag2/Hbag2;Hbbs2/Hbbs2 mice.

  17. Detection and Characterization of Low Abundance Glycopeptides Via Higher-Energy C-Trap Dissociation and Orbitrap Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Raftery, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale mass spectrometric analyses of glycopeptides are constrained by the considerable complexity inherent to glycoproteomics, and techniques are still being actively developed to address the associated analytical difficulties. Here we apply Orbitrap mass analysis and higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) to facilitate detailed insights into the compositions and heterogeneity of complex mixtures of low abundance glycopeptides. By generating diagnostic oxonium product ions at mass measurement errors of <5 ppm, highly selective glycopeptide precursor ion detections are made at sub-fmol limits of detection: analyses of proteolytic digests of a hen egg glycoprotein mixture detect 88 previously uncharacterized glycopeptides from 666 precursor ions selected for MS/MS, with only one false positive due to co-fragmentation of a non-glycosylated peptide with a glycopeptide. We also demonstrate that by (1) identifying multiple series of glycoforms using high mass accuracy single stage MS spectra, and (2) performing product ion scans at optimized HCD collision energies, the identification of peptide + N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) ions (Y1 ions) can be readily achieved at <5 ppm mass measurement errors. These data allow base peptide sequences and glycan compositional information to be attained with high confidence, even for glycopeptides that produce weak precursor ion signals and/or low quality MS/MS spectra. The glycopeptides characterized from low fmol abundances using these methods allow two previously unreported glycosylation sites on the Gallus gallus protein ovoglycoprotein (amino acids 82 and 90) to be confirmed; considerable glycan heterogeneities at amino acid 90 of ovoglycoprotein, and amino acids 34 and 77 of Gallus gallus ovomucoid are also revealed.

  18. Predicting the probability of successful efficacy of a dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor from dose-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Conrado, Daniela J; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Shoji, Satoshi; Kolluri, Sheela; Hey-Hadavi, Judith; McCabe, Dorothy; Rojo, Ricardo; Tammara, Brinda K

    2016-06-01

    PF-04171327 is a dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (DAGR) being developed to retain anti-inflammatory efficacy while reducing unwanted effects. Our aim was to conduct a longitudinal dose-response analysis to identify the DAGR doses with efficacy similar to or greater than prednisone 10 mg once daily (QD). The data included were from a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in 323 subjects with active rheumatoid arthritis on a background of methotrexate. Subjects received DAGR 1, 5, 10 or 15 mg, prednisone 5 or 10 mg, or placebo QD for 8 weeks. The Disease Activity Score 28-4 calculated using C-Reactive Protein (DAS28-4 CRP) was the efficacy endpoint utilized in this dose-response model. For DAGR, the maximum effect (Emax) on DAS28-4 CRP was estimated to be -1.2 points (95 % CI -1.7, -0.84), and the evaluated dose range provided 31-87 % of the Emax; for prednisone 5 and 10 mg, the estimated effects were -0.27 (95 % CI -0.55, 0.006) and -0.94 point (95 % CI -1.3, -0.59), respectively. Stochastic simulations indicated that the DAGR 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg have probabilities of 0.9, 29, 54 and 62 %, respectively, to achieve efficacy greater than prednisone 10 mg at week 8. DAGR 9 mg estimated probability was 50 % suggesting that DAGR ≥9 mg QD has an effect on DAS28-4 CRP comparable to or greater than prednisone 10 mg QD. This work informs dose selection for late-stage confirmatory trials.

  19. Evaluation of drug-polymer solubility curves through formal statistical analysis: comparison of preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Per; Löbmann, Korbinian; Holm, René; Langguth, Peter; Rades, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the preparation technique (ball milling, spray drying, and film casting) of a supersaturated amorphous dispersion on the quality of solubility determinations of indomethacin in polyvinylpyrrolidone was investigated by means of statistical analysis. After annealing of the amorphous dispersions above the crystallization temperature for 2 h, the solubility curve was derived from the glass transition temperature of the demixed material using the Gordon-Taylor relationship and fitting with the Flory-Huggins model. The study showed that the predicted solubility from the ball-milled mixtures was not consistent with those from spray drying and film casting, indicating fundamental differences between the preparation techniques. Through formal statistical analysis, the best combination of fit to the Flory-Huggins model and reproducibility of the measurements was analyzed. Ball milling provided the best reproducibility of the three preparation techniques; however, an analysis of residuals revealed a systematic error. In contrast, film casting demonstrated a good fit to the model but poor reproducibility of the measurements. Therefore, this study recommends that techniques such as spray drying or potentially film casting (if experimental reproducibility can be improved) should be used to prepare the amorphous dispersions when performing solubility measurements of this kind.

  20. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  1. Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus strains using real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed A; O'Rourke, Denise; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains is crucial for effective vaccination programs and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a combination of real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of IBDV strains/isolates. The hypervariable region of VP2 gene was amplified from several IBDV strains and subjected to HRM curve analysis. The method could readily differentiate between classical vaccines/isolates and variants. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from each strain revealed that each melt curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The real-time RT-PCR HRM curve analysis was also able to differentiate IBDV strains/isolates directly in bursal tissues from field submissions and from vaccinated commercial flocks. The differences between melting peaks generated from IBDV strains were significantly different (P<0.0001) demonstrating the high discriminatory power of this technique. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time RT-PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping IBDV isolates/strains and can contribute to effective control of IBDV outbreaks.

  2. High-throughput sex identification by melting curve analysis in blue-breasted quail and chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C; Liu, Y-S; Cheng, C-C; Wang, C-L; Liao, M-H; Tseng, C-N; Chang, H-W

    2012-06-01

    The objective was to develop a high-throughput method of identifying sex in both Coturnix chinensis and Gallus gallus, which would be useful for biomedical research and hatcheries. Because chromo-helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-based Griffiths P2/P8 primers do not produce polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products with distinguishable sex-specific curves in melting curve analysis (MCA), these primers are unsuitable for high throughput application in either species. Conserved regions were identified by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses of cloned CHD-Z and CHD-W genes of C. chinensis. Based on sequence alignment, a female-specific CHD-W primer (W-cot-F1) and a female/male (or CHD-W/CHD-Z)-common primer (ZW-cot-F1) were redesigned for use in combination with the Griffiths P2 primer for MCA-based PCR reaction. In C. chinensis and G. gallus, W-cot-F1/P2 and ZW-cot-F1/P2 had amplicon lengths of 315/318 and 114 base pairs and melting temperatures (Tm) of approximately 79.5 °C to 80 °C and approximately 78.5 °C to 79°C, respectively. Thus, MCA distinguished sex based on two distinct Tm peaks in females versus only one Tm peak in males. The MCA-based real-time PCR combined with the proposed primer redesign provided a high-throughput method of identifying sex in C. chinensis and G. gallus.

  3. Fully non-parametric receiver operating characteristic curve estimation for random-effects meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Meta-analyses, broadly defined as the quantitative review and synthesis of the results of related but independent comparable studies, allow to know the state of the art of one considered topic. Since the amount of available bibliography has enhanced in almost all fields and, specifically, in biomedical research, its popularity has drastically increased during the last decades. In particular, different methodologies have been developed in order to perform meta-analytic studies of diagnostic tests for both fixed- and random-effects models. From a parametric point of view, these techniques often compute a bivariate estimation for the sensitivity and the specificity by using only one threshold per included study. Frequently, an overall receiver operating characteristic curve based on a bivariate normal distribution is also provided. In this work, the author deals with the problem of estimating an overall receiver operating characteristic curve from a fully non-parametric approach when the data come from a meta-analysis study i.e. only certain information about the diagnostic capacity is available. Both fixed- and random-effects models are considered. In addition, the proposed methodology lets to use the information of all cut-off points available (not only one of them) in the selected original studies. The performance of the method is explored through Monte Carlo simulations. The observed results suggest that the proposed estimator is better than the reference one when the reported information is related to a threshold based on the Youden index and when information for two or more points are provided. Real data illustrations are included.

  4. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-03

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well.

  5. Impact Analysis of Embedded Delamination Location in Hybrid Curved Laminated Composite Stiffened Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naini, Jeevan Kumar; P, Ramesh Babu

    2016-08-01

    Modern, aero structures are predominantly of curved construction characterized by a skin and stiffeners. The latest generation of large passenger aircraft also uses mostly composite material in their primary structure and there is trend towards the utilization of bonding of subcomponents. The presence of delamination is a major problem in composite laminated panels and so, it is of great concern to both the academic and aeronautical industrial worlds Indeed delamination can strongly affect the material strength and, sometimes, can cause their breaking up in service. A Pre-damaged configuration is loaded to study the delamination location and mode for delamination initiation and propagation. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of the location of the delamination propagation when delamination is embedded inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface, with the cases i) delamination located at front and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface ii) delamination located in middle and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface iii) delamination located at the end and inbetween plies of the skin- stiffener interface. Further the influence of the location of the delamination on load carrying capacity of the panel is investigated. The effect of location of debonds on crack growth and collapse behavior is analyzed using analysis tool. An analysis tool is applied that includes an approach for predicting interlaminar damage initiation and interlaminar damage growth as well as in-plane damage mechanisms to predict the design of defect free panel.

  6. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  7. An interactive computer program for randomization analysis of response curves with facilities for multiple comparisons.

    PubMed

    Tan, E S; Roos, J M; Volovics, A; Van Baak, M A; Does, R J

    1992-04-01

    An interactive Fortran program, MUCRA, is presented. The program can perform randomization analysis of a completely randomized or randomized-blocks design extended to growth and response curves. A single-step Scheffé-type procedure as well as the Peritz's closed step-down procedure have been implemented which control the familywise type I error-rate. In general, MUCRA is suitable as a computer tool for a distribution-free analysis of variance with repeated measures. The use of MUCRA is demonstrated by analyzing the effects oxprenolol and atenolol have on exercise heart rate. Oxprenolol is a non-selective beta-blocker with moderate intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), given by the Oros delivery system. Atenolol is a beta 1-selective blocker without ISA. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover design was used to compare the effects of the beta 1-blockers on heart rate during a progressive maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Application of the Scheffé-type procedure showed that the two drugs significantly (alpha = .05) reduce the heart rate during the exercise test at the three prechosen times (2, 5, and 24 hr) after intake. The reduction from atenolol is more pronounced than from oxprenolol Oros at 2 and 5 hr.

  8. Dissociative symptomatology in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Civilotti, Cristina; Castelli, Lorys; Binaschi, Luca; Cussino, Martina; Tesio, Valentina; Di Fini, Giulia; Veglia, Fabio; Torta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the presence of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology in a sample of cancer patients; (2) examine the correlation of cancer-related dissociation and sociodemographic and medical variables, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology; (3) investigate the predictors of cancer-related dissociation. Methods: Ninety-two mixed cancer patients (mean age: 58.94, ds = 10.13) recruited from two hospitals in northern Italy were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the Karnofsky Scale to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression, the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) to quantify the traumatic dissociative symptomatology. Results: 31.5% of participants report a PDEQ score above the cutoff. The results indicated that dissociative symptomatology was positively correlated with HADS scores (HADS-Anxiety: r = 0.476, p < 0.001; HADS-Depression: r = 0.364, p < 0.001) and with IES-R scores (IES-R-Intrusion: r = 0.698, p < 0.001; IES-R-Avoidance: r = 0.619, p < 0.001; IES-R- Hypervigilance: r = 0.681, p < 0.001). A stepwise regression analysis was performed in order to find the predictors of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology. The results converged on a three predictor model revealing that IES-R-Intrusion, IES-R-Avoidance, and IES-R-Hyperarousal accounted for 53.9% of the explained variance. Conclusion: These findings allow us to hypothesize a specific psychological reaction which may be ascribed to the traumatic

  9. Guilt by dissociation: guilt primes augment the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation.

    PubMed

    Rugens, Alex; Terhune, Devin Blair

    2013-03-30

    We examined the influence of guilt on the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation during mirror-gazing in a non-clinical sample. Dissociative tendencies correlated with state dissociation following guilt primes, but not after negative or neutral primes. This suggests that guilt augments the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation.

  10. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response curves with semiochemicals are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology regarding neurophysiology and behavioral bioassays. Most such curves are shown in figures where the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosages versus responses on the y-axis represented by point...

  11. Nonlinearities and adaptation of color vision from sequential principal curves analysis.

    PubMed

    Laparra, Valero; Jiménez, Sandra; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Malo, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms of human color vision are characterized by two phenomenological aspects: the system is nonlinear and adaptive to changing environments. Conventional attempts to derive these features from statistics use separate arguments for each aspect. The few statistical explanations that do consider both phenomena simultaneously follow parametric formulations based on empirical models. Therefore, it may be argued that the behavior does not come directly from the color statistics but from the convenient functional form adopted. In addition, many times the whole statistical analysis is based on simplified databases that disregard relevant physical effects in the input signal, as, for instance, by assuming flat Lambertian surfaces. In this work, we address the simultaneous statistical explanation of the nonlinear behavior of achromatic and chromatic mechanisms in a fixed adaptation state and the change of such behavior (i.e., adaptation) under the change of observation conditions. Both phenomena emerge directly from the samples through a single data-driven method: the sequential principal curves analysis (SPCA) with local metric. SPCA is a new manifold learning technique to derive a set of sensors adapted to the manifold using different optimality criteria. Here sequential refers to the fact that sensors (curvilinear dimensions) are designed one after the other, and not to the particular (eventually iterative) method to draw a single principal curve. Moreover, in order to reproduce the empirical adaptation reported under D65 and A illuminations, a new database of colorimetrically calibrated images of natural objects under these illuminants was gathered, thus overcoming the limitations of available databases. The results obtained by applying SPCA show that the psychophysical behavior on color discrimination thresholds, discount of the illuminant, and corresponding pairs in asymmetric color matching emerge directly from realistic data regularities, assuming no a priori

  12. An analysis of watershed hydrological double mass curve based on elasticity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Ning, Tingting; Lin, Wen; Cheng, Liping; Han, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    The method of double mass curve (DMC) is often used in the analysis of the consistency of hydro-meteorological factors and their inter-annual variations. The trend and slope of DMC are the focus of general concern. By taking the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff in a watershed as an example, this paper analyzed the characteristics of DMC variations by means of the elasticity index obtained by the curve slope divided by the ratio of accumulated runoff to accumulated precipitation at corresponding location. Using a year as a time step, the index was further simplified to be the ratio of annual runoff coefficient to the runoff coefficient averaged over the period from starting year to computing year. An elasticity index greater than, less than, or equal to one indicated rising, decline, or stability of average annual runoff coefficient, respectively. Variation trend of elasticity index was analyzed to extract the information on the years with significant change and then, dominant factors and their impacts could be enquired further. The Jinghe River is located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, being the largest tributary of the Weihe River. The elasticity index was used to analyze the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff on the scale of water year for the Jinghe River watershed from 1961 to 2012 and the two years of 1971 and 1997 were first chosen as the years showing abrupt changes. The elasticity indices in three periods separated by the two years in the past 50 years averaged 1.08, 0.89 and 0.64 and annual runoff coefficients, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.05, respectively. The human activities disturbing underlying surface were found to be the important factor responsible for the remarkable decline of runoff coefficient. The large-scale comprehensive control of soil erosion and the adjustment of landuse structure had made some achievements in the recent twenty years. However, their disturbing effects on underlying surface interacted with the impacts of climate change

  13. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. II. EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION IN THE PHASE CURVES OF THREE KEPLER HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-02-10

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  14. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves. II. Evidence for Superrotation in the Phase Curves of Three Kepler Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  15. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-yi, Wang; Xiang-long, Lu; Qiu-wen, Zhao; Dian-qiao, Dong; Bao-qiang, Lao; Yang, Lu; Yan-heng, Wei; Xiao-cong, Wu; Tao, An

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  16. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  17. Selecting a linear mixed model for longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern model, and growth curve approaches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-03-01

    With increasing popularity, growth curve modeling is more and more often considered as the 1st choice for analyzing longitudinal data. Although the growth curve approach is often a good choice, other modeling strategies may more directly answer questions of interest. It is common to see researchers fit growth curve models without considering alterative modeling strategies. In this article we compare 3 approaches for analyzing longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern models, and growth curve models. As all are members of the general linear mixed model family, they represent somewhat different assumptions about the way individuals change. These assumptions result in different patterns of covariation among the residuals around the fixed effects. In this article, we first indicate the kinds of data that are appropriately modeled by each and use real data examples to demonstrate possible problems associated with the blanket selection of the growth curve model. We then present a simulation that indicates the utility of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion in the selection of a proper residual covariance structure. The results cast doubt on the popular practice of automatically using growth curve modeling for longitudinal data without comparing the fit of different models. Finally, we provide some practical advice for assessing mean changes in the presence of correlated data.

  18. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves. III. Spectroscopic confirmation of seventy new beaming binaries discovered in CoRoT light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The BEER algorithm searches stellar light curves for the BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection photometric modulations that are caused by a short-period companion. These three effects are typically of very low amplitude and can mainly be detected in light curves from space-based photometers. Unlike eclipsing binaries, these effects are not limited to edge-on inclinations. Aims: Applying the algorithm to wide-field photometric surveys such as CoRoT and Kepler offers an opportunity to better understand the statistical properties of short-period binaries. It also widens the window for detecting intrinsically rare systems, such as short-period brown-dwarf and massive-planetary companions to main-sequence stars. Methods: Applying the search to the first five long-run center CoRoT fields, we identified 481 non-eclipsing candidates with periodic flux amplitudes of 0.5-87 mmag. Optimizing the Anglo-Australian-Telescope pointing coordinates and the AAOmega fiber-allocations with dedicated softwares, we acquired six spectra for 231 candidates and seven spectra for another 50 candidates in a seven-night campaign. Analysis of the red-arm AAOmega spectra, which covered the range of 8342-8842 Å, yielded a radial-velocity precision of ~1 km s-1. Spectra containing lines of more than one star were analyzed with the two-dimensional correlation algorithm TODCOR. Results: The measured radial velocities confirmed the binarity of seventy of the BEER candidates - 45 single-line binaries, 18 double-line binaries, and 7 diluted binaries. We show that red giants introduce a major source of false candidates and demonstrate a way to improve BEER's performance in extracting higher fidelity samples from future searches of CoRoT light curves. The periods of the confirmed binaries span a range of 0.3-10 days and show a rise in the number of binaries per ΔlogP toward longer periods. The estimated mass ratios of the double-line binaries and the mass ratios assigned to the single

  19. First-order-reversal-curve analysis of Pr-Fe-B-based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, D. R.; Peixoto, T. R. F.; Reboh, S.; Fichtner, P. F. P.; de Franco, V. C.; Villas-Boas, V.; Missell, F. P.

    2010-04-01

    Ribbons of nominal composition (Pr9.5Fe84.5B6)0.96Cr0.01(TiC)0.03 were produced by arc-melting and melt-spinning the alloys on a Cu wheel. X-ray diffraction reveals two main phases, one based upon α-Fe and the other upon Pr2Fe14B. The ribbons show exchange spring behavior with Hc=12.5 kOe and (BH)max=13.6 MGOe when these two phases are well coupled. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the coupled behavior is observed when the microstructure consists predominantly of α-Fe grains (diameter ˜100 nm.) surrounded by hard material containing Pr2Fe14B. A first-order-reversal-curve (FORC) analysis was performed for both a well-coupled sample and a partially-coupled sample. The FORC diagrams show two strong peaks for both the partially-coupled sample and for the well-coupled material. In both cases, the localization of the FORC probability suggests demagnetizing interactions between particles. Switching field distributions were calculated and are consistent with the sample microstructure.

  20. Comparison of five digital scintigraphic display modes. An ROC curve analysis of detection performance.

    PubMed

    Goin, J E; Preston, D F; Gallagher, J H; Wegst, A V

    1983-01-01

    In the last decade diagnostic imaging departments, even those of moderate size, have experienced unprecedented growth. Much of this expansion can be attributed directly to technological developments, including systems for the acquisition of diagnostic images in digital format. In modern imaging departments, digital-based systems are quite common and are found across the specialities of nuclear medicine, ultrasound, transmission and emission computed tomography, and angiography. Nuclear magnetic resonance is the newest digital-based modality, and it appears destined to achieve its place in the diagnostic arsenal. These systems all have one trait in common, which is the topic of this paper. They offer the potential of increasing diagnostic accuracy by varying the methods used to process and display the acquired imaged data. We present the results of a nuclear medicine study designed to compare observer performance among five digital scintigraphic display modes. The observer's task was to detect artificially created lesions in brain scintigrams. Each mode is defined by a combination of an image processing function and a method of display. Using 40 trained observers, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. The results support the use of color displays in nuclear medicine.

  1. Quantitative analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on generalized curves of growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón, C.; Aguilera, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    A method for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed. The method (Cσ-LIBS) is based on Cσ graphs, generalized curves of growth which allow including several lines of various elements at different concentrations. A so-called homogeneous double (HD) model of the laser-induced plasma is used, defined by an integration over a single-region of the radiative transfer equation, combined with a separated treatment for neutral atoms (z = 0) and singly-charged ions (z = 1) in Cσ graphs and characteristic parameters. The procedure includes a criterion, based on a model limit, for eliminating data which, due to a high line intensity or concentration, are not well described by the HD model. An initial procedure provides a set of parameters (βA)z, (ηNl)z, Tz and Nez (z = 0, 1) which characterize the plasma and the LIBS system. After characterization, two different analytical procedures, resulting in relative and absolute concentrations, may be applied. To test the method, fused glass samples prepared from certified slags and pure compounds are analyzed. We determine concentrations of Ca, Mn, Mg, V, Ti, Si and Al relative to Fe in three samples prepared from slags, and absolute concentrations of Fe, Ca and Mn in three samples prepared from Fe2O3, CaCO3 and Mn2O3. The accuracy obtained is 3.2% on the average for relative concentrations and 9.2% for absolute concentrations.

  2. An explicit expression for determining cometabolism kinetics using progress curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2012-05-31

    We present an explicit expression for describing the kinetics of cometabolic biotransformation of environmental pollutants. This expression is based on the Lambert W function and explicitly relates the substrate concentration, S, to time, t, the two experimentally measured variables. This explicit relationship simplifies kinetic parameter estimation as differential equation solution and iterative estimation of the substrate concentration are eliminated. The applicability of this new expression for nonlinear kinetic parameter estimation was first demonstrated using noise containing synthetic data where final estimates of the kinetic parameters were very close to their actual values. Subsequently 1.1.1-trichloroethane degradation data at initial concentrations of 750 and 375 μM were described using the explicit expression resulting in r and K(s) estimates of 0.26 μM/mg d and 28.08 μM and 0.30 μM/mg d and 28.70 μM, respectively, very similar to 0.276 μM/mg d and 31.2 μM, respectively, that were reported in the original study. The new explicit expression presented in this study simplifies estimation of cometabolic kinetic parameters and can be easily used across all computational platforms thereby providing an attractive alternative for progress curve analysis.

  3. The application of latent curve analysis to testing developmental theories in intervention research.

    PubMed

    Curran, P J; Muthén, B O

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a prevention or intervention program has traditionally been assessed using time-specific comparisons of mean levels between the treatment and the control groups. However, many times the behavior targeted by the intervention is naturally developing over time, and the goal of the treatment is to alter this natural or normative developmental trajectory. Examining time-specific mean levels can be both limiting and potentially misleading when the behavior of interest is developing systematically over time. It is argued here that there are both theoretical and statistical advantages associated with recasting intervention treatment effects in terms of normative and altered developmental trajectories. The recently developed technique of latent curve (LC) analysis is reviewed and extended to a true experimental design setting in which subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment intervention or a control condition. LC models are applied to both artificially generated and real intervention data sets to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program. Not only do the LC models provide a more comprehensive understanding of the treatment and control group developmental processes compared to more traditional fixed-effects models, but LC models have greater statistical power to detect a given treatment effect. Finally, the LC models are modified to allow for the computation of specific power estimates under a variety of conditions and assumptions that can provide much needed information for the planning and design of more powerful but cost-efficient intervention programs for the future.

  4. Rapid and Reliable Detection of Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss Mutations by Multicolor Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xudong; Hong, Yongjun; Cai, Peihong; Tang, Ning; Chen, Ying; Yan, Tizhen; Liu, Yinghua; Huang, Qiuying; Li, Qingge

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common birth defect worldwide. The GJB2, SLC26A4, MT-RNR1 and MT-TS1 genes have been reported as major pathogenic genes in nonsyndromic hearing loss. Early genetic screening is recommended to minimize the incidence of hearing loss. We hereby described a multicolor melting curve analysis (MMCA)-based assay for simultaneous detection of 12 prevalent nonsyndromic hearing loss-related mutations. The three-reaction assay could process 30 samples within 2.5 h in a single run on a 96-well thermocycler. Allelic types of each mutation could be reproducibly obtained from 10 pg ~100 ng genomic DNA per reaction. For the mitochondrial mutations, 10% ~ 20% heteroplasmic mutations could be detected. A comparison study using 501 clinical samples showed that the MMCA assay had 100% concordance with both SNaPshot minisequencing and Sanger sequencing. We concluded that the MMCA assay is a rapid, convenient and cost-effective method for detecting the common mutations, and can be expectedly a reliable tool in preliminary screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss in the Chinese Han population. PMID:28225033

  5. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  6. Probing dissociative molecular dications by mapping vibrational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Puettner, R.; Sekushin, V.; Kaindl, G.; Arion, T.; Lischke, T.; Mucke, M.; Hergenhahn, U.; Foerstel, M.; Bradshaw, A. M.

    2011-04-15

    We present high-resolution photoelectron-Auger-electron coincidence spectra of methane (CH{sub 4}). Since the vibrational structure in the photoelectron spectrum is resolved, the Auger spectra corresponding to different vibrational levels can be separated. The seven final states of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} are either dissociative or metastable, but in any case are populated in a repulsive part of their potential-energy curve via the Auger decay. The Auger line shapes can therefore be obtained by mapping the vibrational wave functions of the core-hole state into energy space. We have implemented this connection in the data analysis. By simultaneously fitting the different Auger spectra, detailed information on the energies of the dicationic states and their repulsive potential-energy curves is derived.

  7. Ecological inference on bacterial succession using curve-based community fingerprint data analysis, demonstrated with rhizoremediation experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Anu; Lappi, Kaisa; Wallenius, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2011-12-01

    Nucleic acid-based community fingerprinting methods are valuable tools in microbial ecology, as they offer rapid and robust means to compare large series of replicates and references. To avoid the time-consuming and potentially subjective procedures of peak-based examination, we assessed the possibility to apply direct curve-based data analysis on community fingerprints produced with bacterial length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The dataset comprised 180 profiles from a 21-week rhizoremediation greenhouse experiment with three treatments and 10 sampling times. Curve-based analysis quantified the progressive effect of the plant (Galega orientalis) and the reversible effect of the contaminant (fuel oil) on bacterial succession. The major observed community shifts were assigned to changes in plant biomass and contamination level by canonical correlation analysis. A novel method to extract relative abundance data from the fingerprint curves for Shannon diversity index revealed contamination to reversibly decrease community complexity. By cloning and sequencing the fragment lengths, recognized to change in time in the averaged LH-PCR profiles, we identified Aquabacterium (Betaproteobacteria) as the putative r-strategic fuel oil degrader, and K-strategic Alphaproteobacteria growing in abundance later in succession. Curve-based community fingerprint analysis can be used for rapid data prescreening or as a robust alternative for the more heavily parameterized peak-based analysis.

  8. Performance curves of medical researchers during their career: analysis of scientific production from a retrospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Duclos, Antoine; Herquelot, Eléonore; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Malbezin, Muriel; Claris, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To establish the pattern of change in individual scientific production over the career of medical researchers. Design Retrospective cohort based on prospectively collected data in a hospital information system. Setting Multicentre university hospital in France. Participants Two distinct populations of 1835 researchers (full professors vs non-academic physicians) having produced 44 723 publications between 1995 and 2014. Main outcome measures Annual number of publications referenced in Medline/PubMed with a sensitivity analysis based on publications as first/last author and in high impact journals. The individual volume of publications was modelled by age using generalised estimating equations adjusted for birth cohort, biomedical discipline and academic position of researchers. Results Averaged over the whole career, the annual number of publications was 5.28 (95% CI 4.90 to 5.69) among professors compared to 0.82 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.89) among non-academic physicians (p<0.0001). The performance curve of professors evolved in three successive phases, including an initiation phase with a sharp increase in scientific production between 25 and 35 years (adjusted incidence rate ratio 102.20, 95% CI 60.99 to 171.30), a maturation phase with a slower increase from 35 to 50 years (2.10, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.51) until a stabilisation phase with constant production followed by a potential decline at the end of career (0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.06). The non-academic physicians experienced a slower pace of learning curve at the beginning of their careers (42.38, 95% CI 25.37 to 70.81) followed by a smaller increase in the annual number of publications (1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.51). Conclusions Compared to full professors, non-academic physicians had a poor capacity to publish, indicating a low productivity when medical doctors have limited time or little interest in undertaking research. This finding highlights the potential for rethinking the missions of medical doctors

  9. Binding and dissociation kinetics using fractals: an analysis of electrostatic effects and randomly coupled and oriented coupled receptors on biosensor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Butala, Harshala D; Sadana, Ajit

    2004-03-15

    A fractal analysis is used to analyze the influence of: (a) electrostatic interactions on binding and dissociation rate coefficients for antibodies HH8, HH10, and HH26 in solution to hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]; and (b) the binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Methods 20 (2000) 310]. Single- and dual-fractal models were employed to fit the data. Values of the binding and the dissociation rate coefficient(s) and the fractal dimensions were obtained from a regression analysis provided by Corel Quattro Pro 8.0 (Corel Corporation Limited, Ottawa, Canada. 1997). The binding rate coefficients are quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity on the sensor chip surface. It is of interest to compare the results obtained by the fractal analysis with that of the original analysis [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]. For example, as one goes from the binding of 21 nM HH10/HEL to the binding of 640 nM HH10/HEL(K97A), Sinha et al. [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 29461 indicate that the enhancement of diffusional encounter rates may be due to 'electrostatic steering' (a long-range interaction). Our analysis indicates that there is an increase in the value of the fractal dimension, Df1 by a factor of 1.12 from a value of 2.133-2.385. This increase in the degree of heterogeneity on the surface leads to an increase in the binding rate coefficient, k1 by a factor of 1.59 from 12.92 to 20.57. The fractal analysis of binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip [Methods 20 (2000) 310] surface are consistent with the degree of heterogeneity present on the sensor chip surface for the random and the oriented case. As expected, the random case will exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity than the oriented case

  10. Re-Analysis of the Solar Phase Curves of the Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah; Verbiscer, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Re-analysis of the solar phase curves of the icy Galilean satellites demonstrates that the quantitative results are dependent on the single particle scattering function incorporated into the photometric model; however, the qualitative properties are independent. The results presented here show that the general physical characteristics predicted by a Hapke model (B. Hapke, 1986, Icarus 67, 264-280) incorporating a two parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function are similar to the predictions given by the same model incorporating a three parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function as long as the data set being modeled has adequate coverage in phase angle. Conflicting results occur when the large phase angle coverage is inadequate. Analysis of the role of isotropic versus anisotropic multiple scattering shows that for surfaces as bright as Europa the two models predict very similar results over phase angles covered by the data. Differences arise only at those phase angles for which there are no data. The single particle scattering behavior between the leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa and Ganymede is commensurate with magnetospheric alterations of their surfaces. Ion bombardment will produce more forward scattering single scattering functions due to annealing of potential scattering centers within regolith particles (N. J. Sack et al., 1992, Icarus 100, 534-540). Both leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa are consistent with a high porosity model and commensurate with a frost surface. There are no strong differences in predicted porosity between the two hemispheres of Callisto, both are consistent with model porosities midway between that deduced for Europa and the Moon. Surface roughness model estimates predict that surface roughness increases with satellite distance from Jupiter, with lunar surface roughness values falling midway between those measured for Ganymede and Callisto. There is no obvious variation in predicted surface

  11. Development of synthetic velocity - depth damage curves using a Weighted Monte Carlo method and Logistic Regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.

    2014-05-01

    Damage curves are the most significant component of the flood loss estimation models. Their development is quite complex. Two types of damage curves exist, historical and synthetic curves. Historical curves are developed from historical loss data from actual flood events. However, due to the scarcity of historical data, synthetic damage curves can be alternatively developed. Synthetic curves rely on the analysis of expected damage under certain hypothetical flooding conditions. A synthetic approach was developed and presented in this work for the development of damage curves, which are subsequently used as the basic input to a flood loss estimation model. A questionnaire-based survey took place among practicing and research agronomists, in order to generate rural loss data based on the responders' loss estimates, for several flood condition scenarios. In addition, a similar questionnaire-based survey took place among building experts, i.e. civil engineers and architects, in order to generate loss data for the urban sector. By answering the questionnaire, the experts were in essence expressing their opinion on how damage to various crop types or building types is related to a range of values of flood inundation parameters, such as floodwater depth and velocity. However, the loss data compiled from the completed questionnaires were not sufficient for the construction of workable damage curves; to overcome this problem, a Weighted Monte Carlo method was implemented, in order to generate extra synthetic datasets with statistical properties identical to those of the questionnaire-based data. The data generated by the Weighted Monte Carlo method were processed via Logistic Regression techniques in order to develop accurate logistic damage curves for the rural and the urban sectors. A Python-based code was developed, which combines the Weighted Monte Carlo method and the Logistic Regression analysis into a single code (WMCLR Python code). Each WMCLR code execution

  12. The analysis of the withdrawal force curve of the wetting curve using 63Sn-37Pb and 96.5Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Yong; Kang, Choon Sik; Jung, Jae Pil

    1999-11-01

    To analyze the withdrawal force curve in the wetting balance curve, wetting balance tests using the 63Sn-37Pb and 96.5Sn-3.6Ag eutectic solders were conducted by varying the immersion speed, sample perimeter, and solder temperature. The mechanism of the withdrawal force curve was reviewed and a new method for calculating the surface tension of solders using the withdrawal force curve was introduced. The results showed that the maximum point of the withdrawal force curve is generated when the sliding solder meets the bottom corners of a sample and the contact angle is reduced to zero. The maximum withdrawal force subtracted by end force can be expressed using force balance equation as F=pγ. Therefore, the surface tension of the solder can be calculated by dividing the maximum withdrawal force by the sample parameter.

  13. Video meteor light curve analysis of Orionids and Geminids and developing a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of shower meteors from the single station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grašić, L.; Milanović, N.; Pavlović, D.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for obtaining the absolute light curves of the shower meteors from single station video data. We found that even though the height of a meteor atmospheric trajectory obtained by using this method may have a large error, the absolute light curve shape is preserved. We used our method to calculate the F parameters of the Orionid and Geminid light curves. The light curves were obtained from the single station video data by the instrument with a limiting sensitivity of 3.5m. We found that for our sample of the light curves the zenith distance of meteor radiant does not affect the F parameter for either of the two showers. The value of F parameter of the Orionids obtained in this paper matches the values obtained by other authors, whilst for the Geminids it is significantly different.

  14. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  15. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  16. [A mathematical analysis of strain-gauge curves in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Vega Gómez, M E; Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Alvarez Sánchez, J A; Charles-Edouard Otrante, D; Fernández Boloña, A; Gutierrez Jiménez, O

    1991-01-01

    The plethysmographic strain gauge venous outflow curves were studied by means of an exponential function. The parameters analyzed made possible the establishment of differences between patients with and without DVT.

  17. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  18. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software.

  19. Self-Esteem Trajectories among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Patterns and Predictors of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Melissa L.; Way, Niobe

    2005-01-01

    The current study presents a growth curve analysis of self-esteem among Black, Latino, and Asian American high school students. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to examine patterns and predictors of change in self-esteem over time. Results revealed an average increase in self-esteem with age. Although boys and girls experienced…

  20. Dissociation techniques in mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew W; Cooper, Helen J

    2011-09-07

    The field of proteomics, the large-scale analysis of proteins, has undergone a huge expansion over the past decade. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics relies on the dissociation of peptide and/or protein ions to provide information on primary sequence and sites of post-translational modifications. Fragmentation techniques include collision-induced dissociation, electron capture dissociation and electron transfer dissociation. Here, we describe each of these techniques and their use in proteomics. The principles, advantages, limitations, and applications are discussed.

  1. A Bayesian analysis of the effect of selection for growth rate on growth curves in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Agustín; Piles, Miriam; Varona, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Gompertz growth curves were fitted to the data of 137 rabbits from control (C) and selected (S) lines. The animals came from a synthetic rabbit line selected for an increased growth rate. The embryos from generations 3 and 4 were frozen and thawed to be contemporary of rabbits born in generation 10. Group C was the offspring of generations 3 and 4, and group S was the contemporary offspring of generation 10. The animals were weighed individually twice a week during the first four weeks of life, and once a week thereafter, until 20 weeks of age. Subsequently, the males were weighed weekly until 40 weeks of age. The random samples of the posterior distributions of the growth curve parameters were drawn by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. As a consequence of selection, the selected animals were heavier than the C animals throughout the entire growth curve. Adult body weight, estimated as a parameter of the Gompertz curve, was 7% higher in the selected line. The other parameters of the Gompertz curve were scarcely affected by selection. When selected and control growth curves are represented in a metabolic scale, all differences disappear. PMID:12605849

  2. Dissociative photoionization of ethyl acrylate: Theoretical and experimental insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanlin; Chen, Jun; Ding, Mengmeng; Wei, Bin; Cao, Maoqi; Shan, Xiaobin; Zhao, Yujie; Huang, Chaoqun; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Fuyi

    2015-08-01

    The photoionization and dissociation of ethyl acrylate have been investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source in the range of 9.0-20.0 eV. The photoionization mass spectrum (PIMS) for ethyl acrylate and photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for its major fragment ions: C5H7O2+, C4H5O2+, C3H5O2+, C3H4O+, C3H3O+, C2H5O+, C2H3O+, C2H5+ and C2H4+ have been obtained. The formation channels of main fragments are predicted by Gaussian 09 program at G3B3 level and examined via their dissociation energies from experimental results. Based on our analysis, nine main dissociative photoionization channels are proposed: C5H7O2+ + H, C4H5O2+ + CH3, C3H5O2+ + C2H3, C3H4O+ + C2H4O, C3H3O+ + C2H5O, C2H5O+ + C3H3O, C2H3O+ + C3H5O, C2H5+ + C3H3O2, C2H4+ + C3H4O2, respectively. The results of this work lead to a better understanding of photochemistry in the environment.

  3. High-Throughput Genome Editing and Phenotyping Facilitated by High Resolution Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Holly R.; Percival, Stefanie M.; Yoder, Bradley K.; Parant, John M.

    2014-01-01

    With the goal to generate and characterize the phenotypes of null alleles in all genes within an organism and the recent advances in custom nucleases, genome editing limitations have moved from mutation generation to mutation detection. We previously demonstrated that High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid and efficient means of genotyping known zebrafish mutants. Here we establish optimized conditions for HRM based detection of novel mutant alleles. Using these conditions, we demonstrate that HRM is highly efficient at mutation detection across multiple genome editing platforms (ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPRs); we observed nuclease generated HRM positive targeting in 1 of 6 (16%) open pool derived ZFNs, 14 of 23 (60%) TALENs, and 58 of 77 (75%) CRISPR nucleases. Successful targeting, based on HRM of G0 embryos correlates well with successful germline transmission (46 of 47 nucleases); yet, surprisingly mutations in the somatic tail DNA weakly correlate with mutations in the germline F1 progeny DNA. This suggests that analysis of G0 tail DNA is a good indicator of the efficiency of the nuclease, but not necessarily a good indicator of germline alleles that will be present in the F1s. However, we demonstrate that small amplicon HRM curve profiles of F1 progeny DNA can be used to differentiate between specific mutant alleles, facilitating rare allele identification and isolation; and that HRM is a powerful technique for screening possible off-target mutations that may be generated by the nucleases. Our data suggest that micro-homology based alternative NHEJ repair is primarily utilized in the generation of CRISPR mutant alleles and allows us to predict likelihood of generating a null allele. Lastly, we demonstrate that HRM can be used to quickly distinguish genotype-phenotype correlations within F1 embryos derived from G0 intercrosses. Together these data indicate that custom nucleases, in conjunction with the ease and speed of HRM, will facilitate future high

  4. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Lu, X. L.; Zhao, Q. W.; Dong, D. Q.; Lao, B. Q.; Lu, Y.; Wei, Y. H.; Wu, X. C.; An, T.

    2016-03-01

    SS 433 is the only X-ray binary to date that was detected to have a pair of well-collimated jets, and its orbital period, super orbital period, and nutation period were all detected at the same time. The study on the periodic X-ray variabilities is helpful for understanding its dynamic process of the central engine and the correlation with other bands. In the present paper, two time series analysis techniques, Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periodicities from the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope)(15--50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/All-Sky Monitor)(1.5--3, 3--5 and 5--12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed. For the 15--50 keV energy band, five significant periodic signals are detected, which are P_1(˜6.29 d), P_2 (˜6.54 d), P_3 (˜13.08 d), P_4 (˜81.50 d), and P_5 (˜162.30 d). For the 3--5 and 5--12 keV energy bands, periodic signals P_3 (˜13 d) and P_5 (˜162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5--3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P_5 has the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3--5, 5--12, and 15--50 keV, and it is consistent with that obtained by previous study in optical band. Further, due to the existence of relativistic radio jets, the X-ray and optical band variability of P_5 (˜162 d) is probably related to the precession of the relativistic jets. High coherence between X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical emissions are of the same physical origin. P_3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (˜13.07 d) first obtained by previous study, and P_2 and P_4 are the high frequency harmonic components of P_3 and P_5, respectively. P_1 is detected from the power spectrum of 15--50 keV energy band only, and it is consistent with the systematic nutation period. As the power of energy band decreases (from hard X-ray to

  5. Evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods for reliable biomarker discovery: bias, resolution, precision, and implications.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Pfaffl, Michael W; Zhao, Sheng; Spiess, Andrej N; Boggy, Gregory; Blom, Jochen; Rutledge, Robert G; Sisti, Davide; Lievens, Antoon; De Preter, Katleen; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts such as mRNA or microRNA are frequently used as biomarkers to determine disease state or response to therapy. Reverse transcription (RT) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice to quantify small amounts of such RNA molecules. In parallel with the democratization of RT-qPCR and its increasing use in biomedical research or biomarker discovery, we witnessed a growth in the number of gene expression data analysis methods. Most of these methods are based on the principle that the position of the amplification curve with respect to the cycle-axis is a measure for the initial target quantity: the later the curve, the lower the target quantity. However, most methods differ in the mathematical algorithms used to determine this position, as well as in the way the efficiency of the PCR reaction (the fold increase of product per cycle) is determined and applied in the calculations. Moreover, there is dispute about whether the PCR efficiency is constant or continuously decreasing. Together this has lead to the development of different methods to analyze amplification curves. In published comparisons of these methods, available algorithms were typically applied in a restricted or outdated way, which does not do them justice. Therefore, we aimed at development of a framework for robust and unbiased assessment of curve analysis performance whereby various publicly available curve analysis methods were thoroughly compared using a previously published large clinical data set (Vermeulen et al., 2009) [11]. The original developers of these methods applied their algorithms and are co-author on this study. We assessed the curve analysis methods' impact on transcriptional biomarker identification in terms of expression level, statistical significance, and patient-classification accuracy. The concentration series per gene, together with data sets from unpublished technical performance experiments, were analyzed in order to assess the

  6. High-throughput quantitative analysis with cell growth kinetic curves for low copy number mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, James Z; Gabos, Stephan; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Huang, Min; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The mutation rate in cells induced by environmental genotoxic hazards is very low and difficult to detect using traditional cell counting assays. The established genetic toxicity tests currently recognized by regulatory authorities, such as conventional Ames and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) assays, are not well suited for higher-throughput screening as they require large amounts of test compounds and are very time consuming. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay for quantitative analysis of low numbers of cell copies with HPRT mutation induced by an environmental mutagen. The HPRT gene mutant cells induced by the mutagen were selected by 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and the cell's kinetic growth curve monitored by a real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system. When a threshold is set at a certain cell index (CI) level, samples with different initial mutant cell copies take different amounts of time in order for their growth (or CI accumulation) to cross this threshold. The more cells that are initially seeded in the test well, the faster the cell accumulation and therefore the shorter the time required to cross this threshold. Therefore, the culture time period required to cross the threshold of each sample corresponds to the original number of cells in the sample. A mutant cell growth time threshold (MT) value of each sample can be calculated to predict the number of original mutant cells. For mutagenesis determination, the RT-CES assay displayed an equal sensitivity (p > 0.05) and coefficients of variation values with good correlation to conventional HPRT mutagenic assays. Most importantly, the RT-CES mutation assay has a higher throughput than conventional cellular assays.

  7. First order reversal curves (FORC) analysis of individual magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlit, Merlin; Eibisch, Paul; Akbari, Maryam; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Alongside the development of artificially created magnetic nanostructures, micro-Hall magnetometry has proven to be a versatile tool to obtain high-resolution hysteresis loop data and access dynamical properties. Here we explore the application of First Order Reversal Curves (FORC)—a technique well-established in the field of paleomagnetism for studying grain-size and interaction effects in magnetic rocks—to individual and dipolar-coupled arrays of magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall sensors. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on a macroscopic piece of a floppy disk as a reference sample well known in the literature demonstrates that the FORC diagrams obtained by magnetic stray field measurements using home-built magnetometers are in good agreement with magnetization data obtained by a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer. We discuss in detail the FORC diagrams and their interpretation of three different representative magnetic systems, prepared by the direct-write Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) technique: (1) an isolated Co-nanoisland showing a simple square-shaped hysteresis loop, (2) a more complex CoFe-alloy nanoisland exhibiting a wasp-waist-type hysteresis, and (3) a cluster of interacting Co-nanoislands. Our findings reveal that the combination of FORC and micro-Hall magnetometry is a promising tool to investigate complex magnetization reversal processes within individual or small ensembles of nanomagnets grown by FEBID or other fabrication methods. The method provides sub-μm spatial resolution and bridges the gap of FORC analysis, commonly used for studying macroscopic samples and rather large arrays, to studies of small ensembles of interacting nanoparticles with the high moment sensitivity inherent to micro-Hall magnetometry.

  8. First order reversal curves (FORC) analysis of individual magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Merlin; Eibisch, Paul; Akbari, Maryam; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Alongside the development of artificially created magnetic nanostructures, micro-Hall magnetometry has proven to be a versatile tool to obtain high-resolution hysteresis loop data and access dynamical properties. Here we explore the application of First Order Reversal Curves (FORC)-a technique well-established in the field of paleomagnetism for studying grain-size and interaction effects in magnetic rocks-to individual and dipolar-coupled arrays of magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall sensors. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on a macroscopic piece of a floppy disk as a reference sample well known in the literature demonstrates that the FORC diagrams obtained by magnetic stray field measurements using home-built magnetometers are in good agreement with magnetization data obtained by a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer. We discuss in detail the FORC diagrams and their interpretation of three different representative magnetic systems, prepared by the direct-write Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) technique: (1) an isolated Co-nanoisland showing a simple square-shaped hysteresis loop, (2) a more complex CoFe-alloy nanoisland exhibiting a wasp-waist-type hysteresis, and (3) a cluster of interacting Co-nanoislands. Our findings reveal that the combination of FORC and micro-Hall magnetometry is a promising tool to investigate complex magnetization reversal processes within individual or small ensembles of nanomagnets grown by FEBID or other fabrication methods. The method provides sub-μm spatial resolution and bridges the gap of FORC analysis, commonly used for studying macroscopic samples and rather large arrays, to studies of small ensembles of interacting nanoparticles with the high moment sensitivity inherent to micro-Hall magnetometry.

  9. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard J.; Li, Yuting; Muraszko, Joy R.; Channell, James E. T.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We describe a quantitative magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. For PCA, we resample FORC distributions on grids that capture diagnostic signatures of single-domain (SD), pseudosingle-domain (PSD), and multidomain (MD) magnetite, as well as of minerals such as hematite. Individual FORC diagrams are recast as linear combinations of end-member (EM) FORC diagrams, located at user-defined positions in PCA space. The EM selection is guided by constraints derived from physical modeling and imposed by data scatter. We investigate temporal variations of two EMs in bulk North Atlantic sediment cores collected from the Rockall Trough and the Iberian Continental Margin. Sediments from each site contain a mixture of magnetosomes and granulometrically distinct detrital magnetite. We also quantify the spatial variation of three EM components (a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite) in surficial sediments along the flow path of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). These samples were separated into granulometric fractions, which helped constrain EM definition. PCA-based unmixing reveals systematic variations in EM relative abundance as a function of distance along NADW flow. Finally, we apply PCA to the combined data set of Rockall Trough and NADW sediments, which can be recast as a four-EM mixture, providing enhanced discrimination between components. Our method forms the foundation of a general solution to the problem of unmixing multicomponent magnetic mixtures, a fundamental task of rock magnetic studies.

  10. More basic approach to the analysis of multiple specimen R-curves for determination of J/sub c/

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    Multiple specimen J-R curves were developed for groups of 1T compact specimens with different a/W values and depth of side grooving. The purpose of this investigation was to determine J/sub c/ (J at onset of crack extension) for each group. Judicious selection of points on the load versus load-line deflection record at which to unload and heat tint specimens permitted direct observation of approximate onset of crack extension. It was found that the present recommended procedure for determining J/sub c/ from multiple specimen R-curves, which is being considered for standardization, consistently yielded nonconservative J/sub c/ values. A more basic approach to analyzing multiple specimen R-curves is presented, applied, and discussed. This analysis determined J/sub c/ values that closely corresponded to actual observed onset of crack extension.

  11. Analysis of late-time light curves of Type IIb, Ib and Ic supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Johnson, V.; Clocchiatti, A.

    2015-06-01

    The shape of the light-curve peak of radioactive-powered core-collapse `stripped-envelope' supernovae constrains the ejecta mass, nickel mass and kinetic energy by the brightness and diffusion time for a given opacity and observed expansion velocity. Late-time light curves give constraints on the ejecta mass and energy, given the gamma-ray opacity. Previous work has shown that the principal light-curve peaks for SN IIb with small amounts of hydrogen and for hydrogen/helium-deficient SN Ib/c are often rather similar near maximum light, suggesting similar ejecta masses and kinetic energies, but that late-time light curves show a wide dispersion, suggesting a dispersion in ejecta masses and kinetic energies. It was also shown that SN IIb and SN Ib/c can have very similar late-time light curves, but different ejecta velocities demanding significantly different ejecta masses and kinetic energies. We revisit these topics by collecting and analysing well-sampled single-band and quasi-bolometric light curves from the literature. We find that the late-time light curves of stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae are heterogeneous. We also show that the observed properties, the photospheric velocity at peak, the rise time and the late decay time, can be used to determine the mean opacity appropriate to the peak. The opacity determined in this way is considerably smaller than common estimates. We discuss how the small effective opacity may result from recombination and asymmetries in the ejecta.

  12. Combined statistical analysis of vasodilation and flow curves in brachial ultrasonography: technique and its connection to cardiovascular risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisrobert, Loic; Laclaustra, Martin; Bossa, Matias; Frangi, Andres G.; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2005-04-01

    Clinical studies report that impaired endothelial function is associated with Cardio-Vascular Diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. One commonly used mean for assessing endothelial function is Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD). Classically, FMD is quantified using local indexes e.g. maximum peak dilation. Although such parameters have been successfully linked to CVD risk factors and other clinical variables, this description does not consider all the information contained in the complete vasodilation curve. Moreover, the relation between flow impulse and the vessel vasodilation response to this stimulus, although not clearly known, seems to be important and is not taken into account in the majority of studies. In this paper we propose a novel global parameterization for the vasodilation and the flow curves of a FMD test. This parameterization uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to describe independently and jointly the variability of flow and FMD curves. These curves are obtained using computerized techniques (based on edge detection and image registration, respectively) to analyze the ultrasound image sequences. The global description obtained through PCA yields a detailed characterization of the morphology of such curves allowing the extraction of intuitive quantitative information of the vasodilation process and its interplay with flow changes. This parameterization is consistent with traditional measurements and, in a database of 177 subjects, seems to correlate more strongly (and with more clinical parameters) than classical measures to CVD risk factors and clinical parameters such as LDL- and HDL-Cholesterol.

  13. Narrative, dialogue, and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Gedo, Paul M

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores dissociative phenomena as disruptions of dialogue between persons, and disruptions of internal narratives. A dissociating patient temporarily loses ability to convey his or her inner experience to the therapist. The disconnection between dialogue and internal experience can mislead both participants, or distract them from underlying connotations. Dissociation also disrupts the patient's sense of internal coherence and internal conversation. Dissociation represents a regression to an early, preverbal mode of (internal and external) communication. The challenge for the dyad is to restore dialogue and then to discern the multiply determined meanings of the dissociative communication. This therapeutic work allows the patient to achieve a more coherent sense of self and of his or her life course.

  14. Top-down analysis of immunoglobulin G isotypes 1 and 2 with electron transfer dissociation on a high-field orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fornelli, Luca; Ayoub, Daniel; Aizikov, Konstantin; Liu, Xiaowen; Damoc, Eugen; Pevzner, Pavel A; Makarov, Alexander; Beck, Alain; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-02-24

    The increasing importance of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) as biotherapeutics calls for improved structural characterization methods designed for these large (~150kDa) macromolecules. Analysis workflows have to be rapid, robust, and require minimal sample preparation. In a previous work we showed the potential of Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) combined with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) for the top-down investigation of an intact IgG1, resulting in ~30% sequence coverage. Here, we describe a top-down analysis of two IgGs1 (adalimumab and trastuzumab) and one IgG2 (panitumumab) performed with ETD on a mass spectrometer equipped with a high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. For the IgGs1, sequence coverage comparable to the previous results was achieved in a two-fold reduced number of summed transients, which corresponds, taken together with the significantly increased spectra acquisition rate, to ~six-fold improvement in analysis time. Furthermore, we studied the influence of ion-ion interaction times on ETD product ions for IgGs1, and the differences in fragmentation behavior between IgGs1 and IgG2, which present structural differences. Overall, these results reinforce the hypothesis that gas phase dissociation using both energy threshold-based and radical-driven ion activations is directed to specific regions of the polypeptide chains mostly by the location of disulfide bonds.

  15. Does the Budyko curve reflect a maximum power state of hydrological systems? A backward analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Zehe, Erwin; Archambeau, Pierre; Dewals, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we applied the thermodynamic principle of maximum power as the organizing principle. In a top-down approach we derived mathematical formulations of the relation between relative wetness and gradients driving runoff and evaporation for a simple one-box model. We did this in an inverse manner such that when the conductances are optimized with the maximum power principle, the steady state behaviour of the model leads exactly to a point on the asymptotes of the Budyko curve. Subsequently, we added dynamics in forcing and actual evaporations, causing the Budyko curve to deviate from the asymptotes. Despite the simplicity of the model, catchment observations compare reasonably well with the Budyko curves subject to observed dynamics in rainfall and actual evaporation. Thus by constraining the - with the maximum power principle optimized - model with the asymptotes of the Budyko curve we were able to derive more realistic values of the aridity and evaporation index without any parameter calibration. Future work should focus on better representing the boundary conditions of real catchments and eventually adding more complexity to the model.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Biologically Relevant Response Curves in Gene Expression Experiments: Heteromorphy, Heterochrony, and Heterometry.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G

    2014-02-14

    To gain biological insights, investigators sometimes compare sequences of gene expression measurements under two scenarios (such as two drugs or species). For this situation, we developed an algorithm to fit, identify, and compare biologically relevant response curves in terms of heteromorphy (different curves), heterochrony (different transition times), and heterometry (different magnitudes). The curves are flat, linear, sigmoid, hockey-stick (sigmoid missing a steady state), transient (sigmoid missing two steady states), impulse (with peak or trough), step (with intermediate-level plateau), impulse+ (impulse with an extra parameter), step+ (step with an extra parameter), further characterized by upward or downward trend. To reduce overfitting, we fit the curves to every other response, evaluated the fit in the remaining responses, and identified the most parsimonious curves that yielded a good fit. We measured goodness of fit using a statistic comparable over different genes, namely the square root of the mean squared prediction error as a percentage of the range of responses, which we call the relative prediction error (RPE). We illustrated the algorithm using data on gene expression at 14 times in the embryonic development in two species of frogs. Software written in Mathematica is freely available.

  17. Statistical signal processing methods for intraoral pressure curve analysis in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Klaus; Engelke, Wilfried; Knösel, Michael

    2012-08-01

    A thorough understanding of the intraoral pressure conditions of patients with different forms of malocclusion may help to characterize their aetiology in more detail and improve orthodontic treatment approaches by adding strategies to achieve a normalization of intraoral pressure levels. These pressure curve analyses should not only provide information on intraoral activity or during rest but also detail characterization of swallowing features and pressure plateau stages. For this purpose, algorithms for extracting swallowing peaks and plateau stages were developed and evaluated. Established curve characteristics such as the average or maximum pressure as well as the number of swallowing peaks or resting phases were compared between each other. Their usefulness and correlation (Kendall's τ) were evaluated in a data example of different occlusal groups (Angle Class I: n = 30; Angle Class II division 1: n = 12; and Angle Class II division 2: n = 13). Curve characteristics were compared among these groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Some of the derived curve characteristics were found to be uncorrelated, thus providing different information concerning the intraoral pressure condition of subjects. Based on these findings, it is recommended to employ the curve characteristics described in this study to obtain a holistic image of factors that may affect the formation of the dentition.

  18. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p < .05). All of the childhood trauma subscales used were correlated with the severity of symptoms of dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  19. Kinetics of CH4 and CO2 hydrate dissociation and gas bubble evolution via MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Uddin, M; Coombe, D

    2014-03-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of gas hydrate dissociation comparing the behavior of CH4 and CO2 hydrates are presented. These simulations were based on a structurally correct theoretical gas hydrate crystal, coexisting with water. The MD system was first initialized and stabilized via a thorough energy minimization, constant volume-temperature ensemble and constant volume-energy ensemble simulations before proceeding to constant pressure-temperature simulations for targeted dissociation pressure and temperature responses. Gas bubble evolution mechanisms are demonstrated as well as key investigative properties such as system volume, density, energy, mean square displacements of the guest molecules, radial distribution functions, H2O order parameter, and statistics of hydrogen bonds. These simulations have established the essential similarities between CH4 and CO2 hydrate dissociation. The limiting behaviors at lower temperature (no dissociation) and higher temperature (complete melting and formation of a gas bubble) have been illustrated for both hydrates. Due to the shift in the known hydrate stability curves between guest molecules caused by the choice of water model as noted by other authors, the intermediate behavior (e.g., 260 K) showed distinct differences however. Also, because of the more hydrogen-bonding capability of CO2 in water, as reflected in its molecular parameters, higher solubility of dissociated CO2 in water was observed with a consequence of a smaller size of gas bubble formation. Additionally, a novel method for analyzing hydrate dissociation based on H-bond breakage has been proposed and used to quantify the dissociation behaviors of both CH4 and CO2 hydrates. Activation energies Ea values from our MD studies were obtained and evaluated against several other published laboratory and MD values. Intrinsic rate constants were estimated and upscaled. A kinetic reaction model consistent with macroscale fitted kinetic models has been proposed to

  20. Nonlinear stability analysis of double-curved shallow fgm panels on elastic foundations in thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Nguyen Dinh; Quan, Tran Quoc

    2012-09-01

    An analytical investigation into the nonlinear response of thick functionally graded double-curved shallow panels resting on elastic foundations and subjected to thermal and thermomechanical loads is presented. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are both graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. All formulations are based on the classical shell theory with account of geometrical nonlinearity and initial geometrical imperfection in the cases of Pasternak-type elastic foundations. By applying the Galerkin method, explicit relations for the thermal load-deflection curves of simply supported curved panels are found. The effects of material and geometrical properties and foundation stiffness on the buckling and postbuckling load-carrying capacity of the panels in thermal environments are analyzed and discussed.

  1. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling for tuning-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Beau; Stevenson, Ian H; Sur, Mriganka; Körding, Konrad P

    2010-01-01

    A central theme of systems neuroscience is to characterize the tuning of neural responses to sensory stimuli or the production of movement. Statistically, we often want to estimate the parameters of the tuning curve, such as preferred direction, as well as the associated degree of uncertainty, characterized by error bars. Here we present a new sampling-based, Bayesian method that allows the estimation of tuning-curve parameters, the estimation of error bars, and hypothesis testing. This method also provides a useful way of visualizing which tuning curves are compatible with the recorded data. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using recordings of orientation and direction tuning in primary visual cortex, direction of motion tuning in primary motor cortex, and simulated data.

  2. A linear analysis of the transition curve for the baroclinic annulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L.; Gall, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A primitive equation linear model is shown to be capable of quantitatively predicting the neutral curve for a baroclinic annulus. Flows unstable to small nonaxisymmetric perturbations are assumed to lie on the nonaxisymmetric side of a transition curve, while the stable flows are on the axisymmetric side. The stability in the presence of perturbations is tested with linearized hydrostatic primitive equations. Attention is given to the fastest growing eigenmodes, demonstrating that the linear and nonlinear wave have similar structures at a particular point in the nonaxisymmetric regime. All the waves are similar to the Eddy wave except at the extreme to the transition curve, where the waves maintain little structure with height. The eddy kinetic energy is baroclinic with a potential energy suppresed by the large static stability of the basic state. Eddy dissipation is noted to be significant near all boundaries.

  3. Harmonisation of coupled calibration curves to reduce correlated effects in the analysis of natural gas by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vargha, Gergely; Milton, Martin; Cox, Maurice; Kamvissis, Sarantis

    2005-01-14

    Quantitative analysis of natural gas depends on the calibration of a gas chromatograph with certified gas mixtures and the determination of a response relationship for each species by regression analysis. The uncertainty in this calibration is dominated by variations in the amount of the sample used for each analysis that are strongly correlated for all species measured in the same run. The "harmonisation" method described here minimises the influence of these correlations on the calculated calibration curves and leads to a reduction in the root-mean-square residual deviations from the fitted curve of a factor between 2 and 5. Consequently, it removes the requirement for each run in the calibration procedure to be carried out under the same external conditions, and opens the possibility that new data, measured under different environmental or instrumental conditions, can be appended to an existing calibration database.

  4. Observation and analysis of the hyperfine structure of near-dissociation levels of the NaCs c +3Σ state below the dissociation limit 3 S1 /2+6 P3 /2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenliang; Wu, Jizhou; Ma, Jie; Li, Peng; Sovkov, Vladimir B.; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-09-01

    We report photoassociation (PA) of ultracold Na and Cs atoms in a dual-species magneto-optical trap. Trap loss spectroscopy of the ultracold polar NaCs molecules formed by PA, which carries information about relative PA transition strengths, has been experimentally obtained by using highly sensitive modulation spectroscopy technique. The fine and hyperfine effects at near-dissociation levels of NaCs molecular c +3Σ state are observed and modeled. The interaction Hamiltonian is described in terms of the Hund's case (a ) coupling scheme. The molecular hyperfine structure of near-dissociation levels is simulated within a simplified model of four interacting vibrational levels belonging to different initially unperturbed electronic states. The results of the simulation infer that the interaction parameters of the observed near-dissociation levels are close to the asymptotic parameters of the pair of atoms. The coupling of the electronic states is essential for forming the hyperfine structure.

  5. The mathematical analysis for peristaltic flow of nano fluid in a curved channel with compliant walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Maraj, E. N.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the peristaltic flow of nano fluid in a curved channel with compliant walls. The governing equations of nano fluid model for curved channel are derived including the effects of curvature. The highly nonlinear partial differential equations are simplified using the long wave length and low Reynolds number assumptions. The reduced nonlinear partial differential equation is solved analytically with the help of homotopy perturbation method. The physical features of pertinent parameters have been discussed by plotting the graphs of pressure rise, velocity, temperature, nano particle volume fraction and stream functions.

  6. New Spectroscopic Analysis and Light Curve Model of the Eclipsing Binary V356 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M.; Mennickent, R.; Djurasević, G.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new orbital solution for the V356 Sgr binary system based on new and accurate radial velocities. It consists of a B3 V star accreting matter from a Roche-Lobe filling A2 II star. The spectra were disentangled using KOREL. The UBV light curves by Popper (1957) and Wilson & Woodward (1995) as well as the ASAS V-band light curve were modeled with a multicomponent synthesis code including an accretion disk. The system parameters, such as the effective temperature and surface gravity for both stars as well as the disk temperature and radius, were determined.

  7. Enrichment and Analysis of Nonenzymatically Glycated Peptides: Boronate Affinity Chromatography Coupled with Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Brock, Jonathan W.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ames, Jennifer M.; Baynes, John; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2007-06-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. However, no effective high-throughput methods exist for identifying proteins containing this low abundance post-translational modification in bottom-up proteomic studies. In this report, phenylboronate affinity chromatography was used in a two-step enrichment scheme to selectively isolate first glycated proteins and then glycated, tryptic peptides from human serum glycated in vitro. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by alternating electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. It was observed that ETD fragmentation mode resulted in a significantly higher number of glycated peptide identifications (87.6% of all identified peptides) versus CID mode (17.0% of all identified peptides), when utilizing dual glycation enrichment on both the protein and peptide level. This study illustrates that phenylboronate affinity chromatography coupled with LC-MS/MS with ETD as the fragmentation mode is an efficient approach for analyses of glycated proteins and can have broad applications in studies of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Evaluation of the influences of various force magnitudes and configurations on scoliotic curve correction using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi, Ali; McGarry, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    Scoliosis is a lateral curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine, and the curvature can be moderate to severe. Different treatment can be used based on severity and age of subjects, but most common treatment for this disease is using orthosis. To design orthosis types of force arrangement can be varied, from transverse loads to vertical loads or combination of them. But it is not well introduced how orthoses control scoliotic curve and how to achieve the maximum correction based on force configurations and magnitude. Therefore, it was aimed to determine the effect of various loads configurations and magnitudes on curve correction of a degenerative scoliotic subject. A scoliotic subject participated in this study. The CT-Scan of the subject was used to produce 3D model of spine. The 3D model of spine was produced by Mimics software and the finite element analysis and deformation of scoliotic curve of the spine under seven different forces and in three different conditions was determined by ABAQUS software. The Cobb angle in scoliosis curve decreased significantly by applying forces. In each condition depends on different forces, different corrections have been achieved. It can be concluded that the configurations of the force application mentioned in this study is effective to decrease the scoliosis curve. Although it is a case study, it can be used for a vast number of subjects to predict the correction of scoliosis curve before orthotic treatment. Moreover, it is recommended that this method and the outputs can be compared with clinical findings.

  9. Development of Oral Reading Fluency in Children with Speech or Language Impairments: A Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for 1,991 students with speech impairments (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade. The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental and persistent effect on early reading…

  10. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  11. Analysis of the Curved Junction Edge between a Flat Plate and a Prolate Spheroid.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    report. Our approach to this problem is first to find the intersection point between a line (i.e., one edge of the plate) and the prolate spheroid. Then...one can follow the same idea to find the curved junction edge between a flat plate and the prolate spheroid. (Author)

  12. Analysis of equi-intensity curves and NU distribution of EAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, G.

    1985-08-01

    The distribution of the number of muons in extensive air showers (EAS) and the equi-intensity curves of EAS are analyzed on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation of various cosmic ray composition and the interaction models. Problems in the two best combined models are discussed.

  13. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    PubMed

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits.

  14. A LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE: FREE-FREE EMISSION VERSUS PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2015-01-10

    We analyzed light curves of seven relatively slower novae, PW Vul, V705 Cas, GQ Mus, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, based on an optically thick wind theory of nova outbursts. For fast novae, free-free emission dominates the spectrum in optical bands rather than photospheric emission, and nova optical light curves follow the universal decline law. Faster novae blow stronger winds with larger mass-loss rates. Because the brightness of free-free emission depends directly on the wind mass-loss rate, faster novae show brighter optical maxima. In slower novae, however, we must take into account photospheric emission because of their lower wind mass-loss rates. We calculated three model light curves of free-free emission, photospheric emission, and their sum for various white dwarf (WD) masses with various chemical compositions of their envelopes and fitted reasonably with observational data of optical, near-IR (NIR), and UV bands. From light curve fittings of the seven novae, we estimated their absolute magnitudes, distances, and WD masses. In PW Vul and V705 Cas, free-free emission still dominates the spectrum in the optical and NIR bands. In the very slow novae, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, photospheric emission dominates the spectrum rather than free-free emission, which makes a deviation from the universal decline law. We have confirmed that the absolute brightnesses of our model light curves are consistent with the distance moduli of four classical novae with known distances (GK Per, V603 Aql, RR Pic, and DQ Her). We also discussed the reason why the very slow novae are about ∼1 mag brighter than the proposed maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation.

  15. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  16. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  17. Evaluation of dose-response curve analysis in delineating shared or different molecular sites of action for osteolathyrogens.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Douglas A; Scott, Brenda D; Ellenberger, M Jason; Pöch, Gerald; Rinaldi, Andrea C

    2004-03-01

    Single-chemical and mixture concentration-response curves generated using a frog embryo model were examined for value in assessing whether chemicals exert toxic effects at the same or at different molecular sites of action. Toxicity tests were conducted on a series of osteolathyrogens, i.e. chemicals that inhibit cross-linking of developing connective tissue fibers. Induction of osteolathyrism, which manifests as lesions in the notochord of exposed tadpoles, has several possible molecular sites of action, including agent-cofactor reactivity during the enzyme-mediated cross-linking process. UV-VIS spectrophotometry of osteolathyrogen-cofactor reactivity (i.e. in vitro analysis) was coupled with the 96-h frog embryo mixture toxicity assay (i.e. in vivo toxicity) to compare molecular sites of action for several osteolathyrogens with the combined osteolathyritic effects of the agents. Single-chemical concentration-response curves were used to calculate theoretical curves for the dose-addition model of combined effect. Slope and EC(50) values for both theoretical and experimental mixture curves were then generated to statistically examine the hypothesis that agents with shared sites of action have dose-response curve (DRC) slopes that are similar when given alone and in combination, and slope and EC(50) values that, when administered together, are consistent with those calculated for dose-addition. For combinations of cofactor-binding agents (semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide, aminoacetonitrile), slope values were generally similar with additivity quotients near 1.0 (1.0=dose-additive) and combined osteolathyritic effects that were consistent with dose-addition. None of these were true for combinations that included agents that did not show rapid cofactor binding (β-aminopropionitrile, methyleneaminoacetonitrile). The results suggest that DRC analysis could be a useful tool for delineating common or different molecular sites of toxic action and that the approaches used

  18. Generalized semi-analytical finite difference method for dispersion curves calculation and numerical dispersion analysis for Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Packo, Pawel; Uhl, Tadeusz; Staszewski, Wieslaw J

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents an efficient and accurate method for dispersion curve calculation and analysis of numerical models for guided waves. The method can be used for any arbitrarily selected anisotropic material. The proposed approach utilizes the wave equation and through-thickness-only discretization of anisotropic, layered plates to obtain the Lamb wave characteristics. Thus, layered structures, such as composites, can be analyzed in a straightforward manner. A general framework for the proposed analysis is given, along with application examples. Although these examples are based on the local interaction simulation approach for elastic waves propagation, the proposed methodology can be easily adopted for other methods (e.g., finite elements). The method can be also used to study the influence of discretization parameters on dispersion curves estimates.

  19. Open-Mode Debonding Analysis of Curved Sandwich Panels Subjected to Heating and Cryogenic Cooling on Opposite Faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing use of curved sandwich panels as aerospace structure components makes it vital to fully understand their thermostructural behavior and identify key factors affecting the open-mode debonding failure. Open-mode debonding analysis is performed on a family of curved honeycomb-core sandwich panels with different radii of curvature. The curved sandwich panels are either simply supported or clamped, and are subjected to uniform heating on the convex side and uniform cryogenic cooling on the concave side. The finite-element method was used to study the effects of panel curvature and boundary condition on the open-mode stress (radial tensile stress) and displacement fields in the curved sandwich panels. The critical stress point, where potential debonding failure could initiate, was found to be at the midspan (or outer span) of the inner bonding interface between the sandwich core and face sheet on the concave side, depending on the boundary condition and panel curvature. Open-mode stress increases with increasing panel curvature, reaching a maximum value at certain high curvature, and then decreases slightly as the panel curvature continues to increase and approach that of quarter circle. Changing the boundary condition from simply supported to clamped reduces the magnitudes of open-mode stresses and the associated sandwich core depth stretching.

  20. Dissociation of dicarboxylate and disulfonate dianions.

    PubMed

    Ard, Shaun; Mirsaleh-Kohan, Nasrin; Steill, Jeffrey D; Oomens, Jos; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Compton, R N

    2010-03-07

    metastable toward the dissociation pathway. However, calculations show these ions to be energetically stable toward dissociation as well as electron detachment. More importantly, in the case of the 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate dianion, experiments performed at the FELIX Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance facility and the ELISA electrostatic storage ring, where ions are collisionally cooled prior to analysis, showed this ion to be stable (tau>1.5 s). We conclude that the carboxylate (CO(2)(-)) containing dianions formed in the present CID experiment are electronically stable but vibrationally metastable due to internal energy imparted in the harsh electrospray conditions. The delocalized nature of the excess electrons associated with the carboxylate containing dianions may lead to circumvention of the RCB by dissociating via neutral fragmentation followed by (or accompanied by) electron detachment.

  1. NEW REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NON LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF DOUBLY CURVED SHALLOW SHELL UNDER A THERMAL GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, S.

    2004-10-06

    The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented.

  2. Collision-induced dissociation products of the protonated dipeptide carnosine: structural elucidation, fragmentation pathways and potential energy surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Eslam M; Ritacco, Ida; Sicilia, Emilia; Russo, Nino; Shoeib, Tamer

    2015-05-21

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on protonated carnosine, [carnosine + H](+), with several collision energies were shown to yield eleven different fragment ions with the generation of product ions [carnosine-H2O + H](+) and [carnosine-NH3 + H](+) being the lowest energy processes. Energy-resolved CID showed that at slightly higher collision energies the ions [histidine + H](+) and [histidine-H2O-CO + H](+) are formed. At even higher energies four other product ions were observed, however, attained relatively lower abundances. Quantum chemistry calculations, carried out at different levels of theory, were employed to probe fragmentation mechanisms that account for all the experimental data. All the adopted computational protocols give similar energetic trends, and the range of the calculated free energy barrier values for the generation of all the observed product ions is in agreement with the fragmentation mechanisms offered here.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of the A-X spectrum of I2: An application of near-dissociation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appadoo, D. R. T.; Le Roy, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Gerstenkorn, S.; Luc, P.; Vergès, J.; Sinzelle, J.; Chevillard, J.; D'Aignaux, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution absorption spectra of the A 3Π1u-X 1Σ+g system of I2, consisting of some 9552 lines of some 79 bands spanning the vibrational range v'=0-35 and v″=3-17, have been recorded and analyzed. A fit to them which uses the previously determined accurate molecular constants for the X 1Σ+g state yields an accurate new set of molecular constants for the A state, including the Λ doubling constants. The A-state vibrational and inertial rotational constants, as well as mechanically consistent centrifugal distortion constants, are represented by near-dissociation expansions, yielding an accurate representation of the experimental data which also provides a reliable global representation of all observed and unobserved vibration-rotation levels of this state.

  4. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes.

  5. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananaev, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power) model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  6. Eigen analysis of tree-ring records: Part 1, a limited representativeness of regional curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bao; Sonechkin, Dmitry M.; Datsenko, Nina M.; Ivashchenko, Nadezda N.; Liu, Jingjing; Qin, Chun

    2011-12-01

    Based on a set of very long-living (2,000 years) Qilian junipers ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) from the north-eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau (the region of Dulan), we carefully consider the regional curve standardization (RCS) technique. For this goal, we correlate deviations of individual tree-ring width records from their regional mean age-dependent curve (RC). It turns out that these correlations keep their positivity for almost all shifts between ages compared (up to 500 years and even more) evidencing each Dulan juniper to be a unique "thermometer". Just the unification of these "thermometers" in the form RC creates a spurious positive trend in the Dulan chronology. We modify the RCS technique to closer attach RC to these "thermometers" in order to construct a new chronology in which the trend is absent.

  7. Fracture toughness master-curve analysis of the tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Pablo; Spätig, P.; Bonadé, R.; Odette, G. R.; Gragg, D.

    2009-04-01

    We report fracture toughness data for the reduced activation tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97 in the lower to middle transition region. The fracture toughness was measured from tests carried out on 0.35 T and 0.87 T pre-cracked compact tension specimens. The data were first analyzed using the ASTM E1921 standard. The toughness-temperature behavior and scatter were shown to deviate from the ASTM E1921 standard predictions near the lower shelf. Using the method of maximum likelihood, the athermal component of the master-curve was calculated to better fit the data from the lower to the middle transition region. We showed that these master-curve adjustments are necessary to make the To values obtained near the lower shelf with 0.35 TC( T) specimens consistent with those obtained in the middle transition region with 0.87 TC( T) specimens.

  8. Effects of experimental design on calibration curve precision in routine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Neto, Benício de Barros; Saldanha, Teresa Cristina B.

    1998-01-01

    A computational program which compares the effciencies of different experimental designs with those of maximum precision (D-optimized designs) is described. The program produces confidence interval plots for a calibration curve and provides information about the number of standard solutions, concentration levels and suitable concentration ranges to achieve an optimum calibration. Some examples of the application of this novel computational program are given, using both simulated and real data. PMID:18924816

  9. Analysis of spatial variability of extreme rainfall at radar subpixel scale using IDF curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Marra, Francesco; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall is quantified in engineering practice using Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves (IDFs) that are traditionally derived from rain-gauges and, more recently, also from weather radars. These instruments measure rainfall at different spatial scales: rain-gauge samples rainfall at the point scale while weather radar averages precipitation over a relatively large area, generally around 1 km2. As such, a radar derived IDF curve is representative of the mean areal rainfall over a given radar pixel and neglects the within-pixel rainfall variability. In this study, we quantify subpixel variability of extreme rainfall by using a novel space-time rainfall generator (STREAP model) that downscales in space the rainfall within a given radar pixel. The study was conducted using a long radar data record (23 years) and a very dense rain-gauge network in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Radar-IDF curves, together with an ensemble of point-based IDF curves representing the radar subpixel extreme rainfall variability, were developed fitting GEV distributions to annual rainfall maxima. It was found that the mean areal extreme rainfall derived from the radar underestimate most of the extreme values computed for point locations within the radar pixel. The subpixel variability of extreme rainfall was found to increase with longer return periods and shorter durations. For the longer return periods, a considerable enhancement of extreme rainfall variability was found when stochastic (natural) climate variability was taken into account. Bounding the range of the subpixel extreme rainfall derived from radar-IDF can be of major importance for applications that require very local estimates of rainfall extremes.

  10. Analysis of diffusion in curved surfaces and its application to tubular membranes

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Colin James Stockdale; Raghunathan, Krishnan; DiBenedetto, Emmanuele; Kenworthy, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of particles in curved surfaces is inherently complex compared with diffusion in a flat membrane, owing to the nonplanarity of the surface. The consequence of such nonplanar geometry on diffusion is poorly understood but is highly relevant in the case of cell membranes, which often adopt complex geometries. To address this question, we developed a new finite element approach to model diffusion on curved membrane surfaces based on solutions to Fick’s law of diffusion and used this to study the effects of geometry on the entry of surface-bound particles into tubules by diffusion. We show that variations in tubule radius and length can distinctly alter diffusion gradients in tubules over biologically relevant timescales. In addition, we show that tubular structures tend to retain concentration gradients for a longer time compared with a comparable flat surface. These findings indicate that sorting of particles along the surfaces of tubules can arise simply as a geometric consequence of the curvature without any specific contribution from the membrane environment. Our studies provide a framework for modeling diffusion in curved surfaces and suggest that biological regulation can emerge purely from membrane geometry. PMID:27733625

  11. CONFIRMATION OF HOT JUPITER KEPLER-41b VIA PHASE CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Morris, Robert L.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Ciardi, David R.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2013-04-20

    We present high precision photometry of Kepler-41, a giant planet in a 1.86 day orbit around a G6V star that was recently confirmed through radial velocity measurements. We have developed a new method to confirm giant planets solely from the photometric light curve, and we apply this method herein to Kepler-41 to establish the validity of this technique. We generate a full phase photometric model by including the primary and secondary transits, ellipsoidal variations, Doppler beaming, and reflected/emitted light from the planet. Third light contamination scenarios that can mimic a planetary transit signal are simulated by injecting a full range of dilution values into the model, and we re-fit each diluted light curve model to the light curve. The resulting constraints on the maximum occultation depth and stellar density combined with stellar evolution models rules out stellar blends and provides a measurement of the planet's mass, size, and temperature. We expect about two dozen Kepler giant planets can be confirmed via this method.

  12. A light curve and its analysis of Type Ia SN 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Lee, Dae-Young; Mihn, Byeong-Hee

    2015-08-01

    SN 1604, known as Kepler’s supernova, was first detected by European observers, but a full light curve including its peak brightness and initial decline part can only be completed by extra data from Korean royal astronomers of four centuries ago. Nowadays, it is considered one of the Type Ia galactic supernovae, which show the empirical correlation between decline rate and peak luminosity - so called Phillips relation or width-luminosity (W-L) relation. Here, we reconstruct a new light curve based on both the Korean and European records of SN 1604. Using this light curve and W-L relation, we present an observed rise time and decline rates after peak, and derive its absolute peak magnitude and distance. In this study, observed rise time (≈ 19±1 days) shows a good agreement with typical mean time of Type Ia SNe, while the initial decline rates such as Δm15(V) and Δm20(V) represent steeper and faster values than the extra-galactic SNe Ia. Moreover, its absolute peak magnitude and distance derived from the W-L relation show much fainter and nearer values, respectively than the estimated results by different methods

  13. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  14. Breakthrough curve analysis of pressure swing adsorption for hydrogen isotope separation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoh, K.; Tanaka, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Asakura, Y.; Uda, T.; Sugiyama, T.

    2008-07-15

    For the purpose of developing an effective system for hydrogen isotope separation, we have been studying the adsorption-desorption dynamic behavior of hydrogen and deuterium in a packed-bed column with synthetic zeolites, aimed at applying the pressure swing adsorption process. The adsorption behavior of molecules in the packed-bed is reflected in the breakthrough curves. To understand the characteristic behaviors of hydrogen isotopes in the packed-bed, we carried out breakthrough experiments in a conventional adsorption process and in a practical process following sequential processes alternating between adsorption and desorption. From the former experiments, the results were obtained that the overall mass transfer was influenced by longitudinal dispersion relating to the superficial velocity and that the process governing the mass transfer within adsorbents was diffusion in the macro-pores of pellets. In the latter experiments, unique profile breakthrough curves were observed. These curves can be described with the numerical simulation assuming the initial distributions in a packed-bed. (authors)

  15. Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation.

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H.; Physics

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on {sup 7}Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed.

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D. E-mail: massa@derckmassa.net

    2009-07-10

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, {beta}, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as {beta} decreases, R(V) {identical_to} A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the {beta} increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to {+-}0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  17. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard; Li, Yuting; Piotrowski, Alexander; Channell, James; Muraszko, Joy; Hodell, David

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of entire first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. FORC diagrams are an advanced hysteresis technique that allows the quantitative characterisation of magnetic grain size, domain state, coercivity and spatial distribution of ensembles of particles within a sample. PCA has been previously applied on extracted central ridges from FORC diagrams of sediment samples containing single domain (SD) magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria (Heslop et al., 2014). We extend this methodology to the entire FORC space, which incorporates additional SD signatures, pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multi domain (MD) magnetite signatures, as well as fingerprints of other minerals, such as hematite (HEM). We apply the PCA by resampling the FORC distribution on a regular grid designed to encompass all significant features. Typically 80-90% of the variability within the FORC dataset is described by one or two principal components. Individual FORCs are recast as linear combinations of physically distinct end-member FORCs defined using the principal components and constraints derived from physical modelling. In a first case study we quantify the spatial variation of end-member components in surficial sediments along the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) from Iceland to Newfoundland. The samples have been physically separated into granulometric fractions, which added a further constraint in determining three end members used to model the magnetic ensemble, namely a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite (SD+HEM). Sediments from core tops proximal to Iceland are dominated by the SD+HEM component, whereas those closer to Greenland and Canada are increasingly dominated by MD grains. Iceland sediments follow a PSD to SD+HEM trend with increasing grain-size fraction, whereas the Greenland and North

  18. Dissociative disorders in medical settings.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Edward

    2013-10-01

    Despite the challenges of conducting research on dissociation and the dissociative disorders, our understanding has grown greatly over the past three decades, including our knowledge of the often overlooked sensorimotor manifestations of dissociation, more commonly referred to as somatoform dissociation. This article will first review the definitions and presentations of dissociation in general along with recent research on the concept of somatoform dissociation. Then, each of the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder will be discussed in further detail as well as how they might present in a medical setting. Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment will also be provided.

  19. Multi-scale Analysis of Methane Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation via Point Source Thermal Stimulation and Carbon Dioxide Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett Christopher

    The formation and dissociation of methane gas hydrate was investigated over a range of laboratory scale systems with sample volumes of 1.3 cm 3, 0.059 m3 and 0.141 m3. Three unique hydrate apparatuses were used to study a point source thermal dissociation method in which gas production profiles and cumulative efficiencies were found to be dependent on the initial hydrate saturation and the degree of thermal stimulation. Hydrate growth was observed to develop in a non-homogeneous manner with hydrate distribution displaying strong apparatus specific behavior. Heterogeneous hydrate distribution contributed to the production efficiencies of point source thermal stimulation and is an essential parameter when evaluating a gas hydrate reservoir. Thermal stimulation was applied to sediments with initial pore space hydrate saturations ranging from 10% to 80% producing maximum cumulative thermal production efficiencies ranging from 57% to 90%. Production performance was improved with higher initial hydrate saturation; increasing the initial hydrate saturation from 20% to 35% on the small scale system raised peak cumulative efficiencies from 57-63% to 70-74%. Increasing hydrate saturation from 10% to 30% in the medium scale system increased peak cumulative efficiencies from 83% to 90%. During thermal stimulation experiments in both the medium and large scale reactors a flow recirculation pattern developed within the pore space following an initially conduction dominated heat transfer regime. The outward propagation of the heat front from the heating element resulted in increased permeability and the release of mobile water and gas phases as the hydrate underwent dissociation. This change in flow parameters facilitated convection cells within the reactor causing increased heat transfer away from the heating element while displaying a strong upward bias. The flow development detected within the medium scale system was confirmed via history matching of numerical simulation with

  20. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  1. The Vanderbilt EB Factory: Development of Light Curve Analysis Tools for Precision Stellar Astrophysics with Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan; Paegert, M.; De Lee, N. M.; Cargile, P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the Vanderbilt EB Factory is to develop an end-to-end computational pipeline that allows automatic processing of massive amounts of light curve data -- from period finding, to object classification, to determination of the stellar physical properties -- in order to find the most scientifically interesting eclipsing binaries (EBs) and to permit accurate modeling of these EBs for detailed tests and benchmarking of theoretical stellar evolution models. We are integrating the most successful algorithms into a single, cohesive workflow environment, and are applying this 'EB Factory' to the full public Kepler dataset to find and characterize new "benchmark grade" EBs, and will disseminate both the enhanced data products from this pipeline and the pipeline itself to the broader NASA science community, especially other Kepler mission researchers. More generally, we are developing the EB Factory as a flexible, open source, modular framework in order to permit simple modifications by other users for a wide array of other types of variable stars of interest, such as RR Lyraes. Finally, we will present our developing suite of light-curve analysis tools available to the community from the Vanderbilt Initiative in Data-intensive Astrophysics (VIDA), including the Filtergraph instant data portal service, and the web-based LCchopper and LCanimator light-curve analysis services.

  2. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In “Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions,” published in Psychological Bulletin, Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so the authors outline a series of links between various constructs, such as fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, absorption, suggestibility, altered information-processing, dissociation, and amnesia, claiming that these linkages lead to the false conclusion that trauma causes dissociation. A review of the literature, however, shows that these are not necessarily related constructs. Careful examination of their arguments reveals no basis for the conclusion that there is no association between trauma and dissociation. The current comment offers a critical review and rebuttal of the argument of Giesbrecht et al. that there is no relationship between trauma and dissociation. PMID:20063920

  3. On the Limitations of Breakthrough Curve Analysis in Fixed-Bed Adsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Ebner, Armin D.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Coker, Robert F.; Ritter, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This work examined in detail the a priori prediction of the axial dispersion coefficient from available correlations versus obtaining it and also mass transfer information from experimental breakthrough data and the consequences that may arise when doing so based on using a 1-D axially dispersed plug flow model and its associated Danckwerts outlet boundary condition. These consequences mainly included determining the potential for erroneous extraction of the axial dispersion coefficient and/or the LDF mass transfer coefficient from experimental data, especially when non-plug flow conditions prevailed in the bed. Two adsorbent/adsorbate cases were considered, i.e., carbon dioxide and water vapor in zeolite 5A, because they both experimentally exhibited significant non-plug flow behavior, and the water-zeolite 5A system exhibited unusual concentration front sharpening that destroyed the expected constant pattern behavior (CPB) when modeled with the 1-D axially dispersed plug flow model. Overall, this work showed that it was possible to extract accurate mass transfer and dispersion information from experimental breakthrough curves using a 1-D axial dispersed plug flow model when they were measured both inside and outside the bed. To ensure the extracted information was accurate, the inside the bed breakthrough curves and their derivatives from the model were plotted to confirm whether or not the adsorbate/adsorbent system was exhibiting CPB or any concentration front sharpening near the bed exit. Even when concentration front sharpening was occurring with the water-zeolite 5A system, it was still possible to use the experimental inside and outside the bed breakthrough curves to extract fundamental mass transfer and dispersion information from the 1-D axial dispersed plug flow model based on the systematic methodology developed in this work.

  4. An analysis of the light curve of the post common envelope binary MT Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, A.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Diaz, M. P.

    2001-10-01

    Photometric observations of MT Ser, the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 41 are presented. The periodic modulations detected by Grauer & Bond (\\cite{Gra83}) are confirmed, thus firmly establishing the binary nature of MT Ser. The significantly enlarged time base permits us to derive more accurate ephemeris. The orbital period is either P1 = 0.113226533 days or twice that value, P2 = 0.226453066 days. We analyze the light curve (after a careful subtraction of the nebular contribution) with the Wilson-Devinney light curve synthesis routine. Since it is not a priori clear which is the true orbital period of MT Ser, two radically different models, one based on P1 the other on P2 are considered: (1) A low temperature component orbiting around a hot sub-dwarf. The variability is then due to a reflection effect together with ellipsoidal variations of one or both components. (2) Two hot sub-dwarfs of similar temperature and luminosity, partially eclipsing each other and exhibiting ellipsoidal variations. In both models, the primary as well as the secondary component are required to almost fill their respective Roche lobes. A contact configuration is possible. Pros and cons can be found for either of the two models. A final decision between them has to await the observations of a radial velocity curve. The orbital period is currently decreasing at a rate of dot {P}/P = -1.15 x 10-9 d-1. Interpreting this as due to mass loss via a stellar winds permits us to estimate mass loss rates depending on the different model assumptions. Based on observations obtained at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, LNA/MCT, Itajubá, Brazil.

  5. Dissociative experiences in epilepsy: effects of epilepsy-related factors on pathological dissociation.

    PubMed

    Hara, Koichiro; Adachi, Naoto; Akanuma, Nozomi; Ito, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Matsubara, Ryoji; Adachi, Takuya; Ishii, Ryouhei; Kanemoto, Kousuke; Matsuura, Masato; Hara, Eriko; Kato, Masaaki; Onuma, Teiichi

    2015-03-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) in patients with epilepsy can be categorized as dissociative disorders. The prevalence of PNESs in patients with epilepsy appears to be much higher than that of dissociative experiences in nonclinical subjects. In order to clarify as to whether epilepsy-related factors were associated with pathological dissociation, we conducted a controlled study with 225 patients with epilepsy and 334 nonclinically matched individuals. All participants completed the Japanese version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). There was no significant difference in the DES score (DES-S) between the group with epilepsy and the control group. The group with epilepsy showed a significantly higher DES taxon (DES-T; a subset of DES-S and an index of pathological dissociation) than the control group. Thirty-one out of the 225 patients with epilepsy (13.8%) had PNESs. Because of its strong association with the DES-S and DES-T, PNESs can be regarded as a symptom of dissociation. With multiple regression analysis, the patients with a shorter duration of epilepsy, higher seizure frequency, or shorter period in education tend to suffer from pathological dissociation. These findings demonstrate that patients with epilepsy are more prone to experiencing pathological dissociation when having certain clinical factors.

  6. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation with consideration of uncertainties to update IDF curves for the city of Trondheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Thorolfsson, Sveinn T.; Alfredsen, Knut

    2013-08-01

    Regional frequency analysis based on the method of L-moments is performed from annual maximum series of extreme precipitation intensity to update Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for the city of Trondheim. The main problems addressed are (1) reduction of uncertainties of different sources for reliable estimation of quantiles: (i) testing of trend patterns and stationarity of the data series from the target site and demonstrating the dependency of results on the data used; (ii) testing regional homogeneity of extreme precipitation events for the climate regime in the study area and “pooling” of regional data for data augmentation and reduction of uncertainty due to short length of data series; and (iii) selection of distributions for extreme precipitation events of different durations to reduce the uncertainty due to choice of distributions; and (2) assessment and quantification of sampling uncertainty in terms of interval estimates (confidence bounds) of quantiles. Trend patterns and check for stationarity were demonstrated for a data from a target site based on both non-parametric Mann-Kendall and parametric regression tests. Selection of distributions was performed based on Z-statistics and L-moment ratio diagrams. Non-parametric balanced bootstrap resampling was used to quantify the sampling uncertainty. For extreme precipitation events of shorter durations (5-30 min) there are statistically significant increasing trend patterns for the data series with start years of 1992-1998 while there are no significant trend patterns for recent extremes and there are no statistically significant trend patterns for longer durations (45-180 min). The results of the analyses indicate that: (1) significance tests for trend patterns and stationarity are dependent on the data series used but the stationarity assumption is valid for the data series used from the target site. (2) the extreme precipitation events from four sites in Trondheim are homogeneous and can be

  7. Buckling Analysis of Anisotropic Curved Panels and Shells with Variable Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    A buckling formulation for anisotropic curved panels with variable curvature is presented in this paper. The variable curvature panel is assumed to consists of two or more panels of constant but different curvatures. Bezier functions are used as Ritz functions Displacement (C(sup 0)), and slope (C(sup 1)) continuities between segments are imposed by manipulation of the Bezier control points. A first-order shear-deformation theory is used in the buckling formulation. Results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those from finite element simulations and are found to be in good agreement.

  8. Dose-response curve slope is a missing dimension in the analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Sampah, Maame Efua S; Shen, Lin; Jilek, Benjamin L; Siliciano, Robert F

    2011-05-03

    HIV-1 drug resistance is a major clinical problem. Resistance is evaluated using in vitro assays measuring the fold change in IC(50) caused by resistance mutations. Antiretroviral drugs are used at concentrations above IC(50), however, and inhibition at clinical concentrations can only be predicted from IC(50) if the shape of the dose-response curve is also known. Curve shape is influenced by cooperative interactions and is described mathematically by the slope parameter or Hill coefficient (m). Implicit in current analysis of resistance is the assumption that mutations shift dose-response curves to the right without affecting the slope. We show here that m is altered by resistance mutations. For reverse transcriptase and fusion inhibitors, single resistance mutations affect both slope and IC(50). For protease inhibitors, single mutations primarily affect slope. For integrase inhibitors, only IC(50) is affected. Thus, there are fundamental pharmacodynamic differences in resistance to different drug classes. Instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP), the log inhibition of single-round infectivity at clinical concentrations, takes into account both slope and IC(50), and thus provides a direct measure of the reduction in susceptibility produced by mutations and the residual activity of drugs against resistant viruses. The standard measure, fold change in IC(50), does not correlate well with changes in IIP when mutations alter slope. These results challenge a fundamental assumption underlying current analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance and suggest that a more complete understanding of how resistance mutations reduce antiviral activity requires consideration of a previously ignored parameter, the dose-response curve slope.

  9. An experimental validation of the dissociation hypothesis for sonoluminescence and an extension to the analysis of multiple frequency drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterling, Jeffrey Alan

    Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) stability is examined for water partially saturated with pure noble gas and noble gas-nitrogen mixtures in order to examine the dissociation hypothesis (DH) of D. Lohse and S. Hilgenfeldt [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6986 (1997)]. A stroboscopic imaging system was employed to measure ambient radius (Ro) and the maximum bubble radius (Rmax). Drive pressure (Pa) was calculated by fitting the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to Ro and Rmax. Relative light intensity was recorded with a photomultiplier tube. Excellent agreement was found between experimental Ro - Pa phase diagrams and predictions from DH over a wide range of parameters. DH posits that diatomic gas content determines a stable dissociation equilibrium and stable non-SL behavior, and noble gas content determines a stable diffusive equilibrium and stable SL behavior. Ro - Pa values for unstable SL and SL extinction appear to agree with a calculation of the n = 4 shape threshold. The collected data permits a thorough mapping of SBSL at a single frequency (33.4 kHz). The predictions of DH were also examined in terms of expansion ratio (ER, Rmax/Ro) vs. Pa, providing a means to quantify the energy concentration at collapse and trends in light emission. Helium, neon, and argon all showed similar emission intensities for the same initial conditions. Krypton was noticeably brighter, and xenon was by far the brightest. Emission intensity was found to increase as ER decreases. The brightest bubbles had the lowest ERs and thus the lowest energy concentration during collapse. Finally, DH is extended to analyze the recent experiments of J. Holzfuss, M. Rüggeberg, and R. Mettin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1961 (1998)] in which a second harmonic drive signal was used to alter the intensity of SBSL. The second harmonic introduces another pressure and a phase term to the total acoustic drive pressure, adding two more variables under experimental control. Excellent quantitative agreement was seen between

  10. The Application of the Principal Curve Analysis Technique to Smooth Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Oren, W.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The smoothness of a beam line refers to the quality of the relative positioning of a number of adjacent beam guiding components. The fact that smoothness is of highest priority when positioning magnets can be seen in the local tolerances imposed by the beam optics. In the past, smoothing has been done by separating horizontal and vertical misalignments and then applying some sort of analytical or manual ''feathering'' technique. The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) did not easily lend itself to this sort of smoothing because of the highly coupled nature of its pitched and rolled beam line. This paper will discuss an attempt to develop a repeatable method which is independent of the inconsistencies of human judgment and can simultaneously smooth in two or more dimensions. Four major goals were defined for the smoothing algorithm used on the SLC alignment. The first, was to simultaneously model errors for both horizontal and vertical directions. Secondly, a smooth curve whose shape was suggested by the data and not by a predetermined model was implied by the fact that unknown systematic errors were being eliminated. Thirdly, this curve must be a reproducibly fit, independent of the inconsistent nature of human judgment. Fourth, the result of the procedure was to minimize the number and size of magnet movements to reach the final alignment criteria.

  11. Detachment, compartmentalization, and schizophrenia: linking dissociation and psychosis by subtype.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Matthias; Braungardt, Tanja; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schneider, Wolfgang; Klauer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To explain the phenomenological overlap between dissociation and schizophrenia, a dissociative subtype of schizophrenia has been proposed as a possibility. Dissociation is often believed to be organized on a continuum, although 2 qualitatively different phenomena can be distinguished in theory, research, and clinical practice: (a) states of separation from self or environment (detachment dissociation) and (b) inaccessibility of normally accessible mental contents (compartmentalization dissociation). This study used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry module for the interview assessment of dissociation to investigate the relationships between PANSS subscales, detachment dissociation, and compartmentalization dissociation in a sample of 72 patients with schizophrenia. A confirmatory factor analysis sustained the bipartite model, yielding factors that grouped dissociative items around amnesia and depersonalization/derealization. The latter factor also contained identity disturbances and was therefore not entirely consistent with the theoretical formulations of detachment dissociation. It is important to note that the structure of those factors may be influenced by the symptoms of schizophrenia to which they were specifically linked: The factor containing depersonalization/derealization was connected to the positive symptoms subscale of the PANSS, whereas the factor containing amnesia was associated with the negative subscale. Hence, a dichotomy of dissociation is confirmed inasmuch as its subtypes are as distinguishable as PANSS subscales. This has implications on theoretical and clinical levels.

  12. Analysis of arginine and lysine methylation utilizing peptide separations at neutral pH and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Hung, Ming-Lung; Wilson, Stuart A; Dickman, Mark J

    2010-01-01

    Arginine and lysine methylation are widespread protein post-translational modifications. Peptides containing these modifications are difficult to retain using traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography because they are intrinsically basic/hydrophilic and often fragment poorly during collision induced fragmentation (CID). Therefore, they are difficult to analyze using standard proteomic workflows. To overcome these caveats, we performed peptide separations at neutral pH, resulting in increased retention of the hydrophilic/basic methylated peptides before identification using MS/MS. Alternatively trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was used for increased trapping of methylated peptides. Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry was then used to identify and characterize methylated residues. In contrast to previous reports utilizing ETD for arginine methylation, we observed significant amount of side-chain fragmentation. Using heavy methyl stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture it was shown that, similar to CID, a loss of monomethylamine or dimethylamine from the arginine methylated side-chain during ETD can be used as a diagnostic to determine the type of arginine methylation. CID of lysine methylated peptides does not lead to significant neutral losses, but ETD is still beneficial because of the high charge states of such peptides. The developed LC MS/MS methods were successfully applied to tryptic digests of a number of methylated proteins, including splicing factor proline-glutamine-rich protein (SFPQ), RNA and export factor-binding protein 2 (REF2-I) and Sul7D, demonstrating significant advantages over traditional LC MS/MS approaches.

  13. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation-deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid-base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m2/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. tbnd Si-OH, tbnd Fe-OH, and tbnd Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K1, log K2) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation-deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  14. Dissociation of diatomic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    The Landau-Zener theory of reactive cross sections has been applied to diatomic molecules dissociating from a ladder of rotational and vibrational states. Although the preexponential factor of the Arrhenius rate expression is shown to be a complex function of the dimensionless activation energy, the average over all states in the ladder is well represented by a single factor that varies about as T exp (-n), where the coefficient n is the order of unity. This relation agrees very well with experimental data for dissociation of O2 and N2, for example. The results validate previous empirical assignment of a single preexponential factor in the Arrhenius expression and justify the extrapolation of the expression well beyond the range of data. The theory is then used to calculate the effect of vibrational nonequilibrium on dissociation rate. For Morse oscillators the results are about the same as for harmonic oscillators, and the dissociation from a ladder of equilibrium rotational and nonequilibrium vibrational states is close to an analytic approximation provided by Hammerling, Kivel, and Teare for harmonic oscillators all dissociating from the ground rotational state.

  15. Collisionless dissociation of SF6 using two resonant frequency CO2 laser fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, M. C.; Gustafson, T. K.

    1977-01-01

    The collisionless dissociation of SF6 has been studied using simultaneous irradiation by two frequencies from a CO2 laser which are both nearly resonant with the SF6nu3 absorption band. It was found that the dissociation was enhanced, and occurred over a wider frequency range, than for single frequency dissociation. No threshold effect was observed for a weak resonant and a much higher energy field pumping slightly off-resonance. For such two frequency irradiation, the peak in the dissociation curve was found to be shifted to lower frequencies with respect to that for single frequency dissociation.

  16. Classification of breast mass lesions using model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve derived from fuzzy c-means clustering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Yan-Hao; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chang, Pei-Kang; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the representative characteristic kinetic curve of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extracted by fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering for the discrimination of benign and malignant breast tumors using a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. About the research data set, DCE-MRIs of 132 solid breast masses with definite histopathologic diagnosis (63 benign and 69 malignant) were used in this study. At first, the tumor region was automatically segmented using the region growing method based on the integrated color map formed by the combination of kinetic and area under curve color map. Then, the FCM clustering was used to identify the time-signal curve with the larger initial enhancement inside the segmented region as the representative kinetic curve, and then the parameters of the Tofts pharmacokinetic model for the representative kinetic curve were compared with conventional curve analysis (maximal enhancement, time to peak, uptake rate and washout rate) for each mass. The results were analyzed with a receiver operating characteristic curve and Student's t test to evaluate the classification performance. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combined model-based parameters of the extracted kinetic curve from FCM clustering were 86.36% (114/132), 85.51% (59/69), 87.30% (55/63), 88.06% (59/67) and 84.62% (55/65), better than those from a conventional curve analysis. The A(Z) value was 0.9154 for Tofts model-based parametric features, better than that for conventional curve analysis (0.8673), for discriminating malignant and benign lesions. In conclusion, model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve of breast mass derived from FCM clustering provides effective lesion classification. This approach has potential in the development of a CAD system for DCE breast MRI.

  17. Mixed convection analysis in lid-driven cavity with sinusoidally curved bottom wall using CNT-water nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohieminul Islam; Rabbi, Khan Md.; Khan, Saadbin; Mamun, M. A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven enclosure with a curved bottom wall has been investigated using CNT (Carbon Nanotube)-water nanofluid in this paper. The curvature of the bottom wall follows the sine function. Studies have been made with different amplitudes (λ = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15) of the sine function hence wall curvature. The curved wall at the bottom is heated and the top wall is kept at a relatively low temperature. Left vertical and right vertical surface are assumed to be adiabatic. Top wall has been moving at a constant lid velocity U0 at right direction. Galerkin method of FEA (Finite Element Analysis) has been used to solve the governing equations. Different parameters like Richardson number (Ri = 0.1 ˜ 10) at a fixed Reynolds number (Re = 100), solid volume fraction of CNT particle (φ = 0 ˜ 0.09) are used to observe better heat transfer rate. Streamlines, isothermal lines and average Nusselt number plots are included to discuss the result of the investigation. A 2D plot between average Nusselt number and solid volume fraction of CNT-water nanofluid is also given to analyse heat transfer rate. It is observed that higher value of Richardson number shows better heat transfer rate. Finally, the paper concludes that better heat transfer is achieved at higher amplitude (λ = 0.15) of curved surface at higher solid volume fraction (φ = 0.09).

  18. Progress curve analysis for enzyme and microbial kinetic reactions using explicit solutions based on the Lambert W function.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T; Harris, Steve K; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2004-12-01

    We present a simple method for estimating kinetic parameters from progress curve analysis of biologically catalyzed reactions that reduce to forms analogous to the Michaelis-Menten equation. Specifically, the Lambert W function is used to obtain explicit, closed-form solutions to differential rate expressions that describe the dynamics of substrate depletion. The explicit nature of the new solutions greatly simplifies nonlinear estimation of the kinetic parameters since numerical techniques such as the Runge-Kutta and Newton-Raphson methods used to solve the differential and integral forms of the kinetic equations, respectively, are replaced with a simple algebraic expression. The applicability of this approach for estimating Vmax and Km in the Michaelis-Menten equation was verified using a combination of simulated and experimental progress curve data. For simulated data, final estimates of Vmax and Km were close to the actual values of 1 microM/h and 1 microM, respectively, while the standard errors for these parameter estimates were proportional to the error level in the simulated data sets. The method was also applied to hydrogen depletion experiments by mixed cultures of bacteria in activated sludge resulting in Vmax and Km estimates of 6.531 microM/h and 2.136 microM, respectively. The algebraic nature of this solution, coupled with its relatively high accuracy, makes it an attractive candidate for kinetic parameter estimation from progress curve data.

  19. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves.

    PubMed

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-05-05

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions.

  20. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-04-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP.

  1. Frequency analysis of curved nano-sandwich structure based on a nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Hosseini, S. A. H.; Hayati, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the vibration of curved nano-sandwich (CNS) with considering the influence of core shear based on the Eringen nonlocal theory. The equation of motion is derived and exact solution for the natural frequencies of CNS is presented. The proposed nonlocal model includes a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect in CNS beam. The effects of important parameters, such as the thickness to length ratio, nonlocal parameter and mode number on the frequencies of CNS are investigated. The result of our research shows that as the opening angle increases, the amount of natural frequencies decrease. We have additionally validate, our results against previous research works which showed good agreement.

  2. Type curve analysis of inertial effects in the response of a well to a slug test.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kipp, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The water level response to a slug or bailer test in a well completed in a confined aquifer, has been evaluated taking into account well-bore storage and inertial effects of the water column in the well. The response range, from overdamped with negligible inertial effects to damped oscillations, was covered employing numerical inversions of the Laplace-transform solution. By scaling the time with respect to the undamped natural period of the well-aquifer system and by using the damping parameter for a second-order damped, inertial-elastic system, a set of type curves was constructed that enables water level response data from a slug or bailer test to be analyzed under conditions where the inertial parameter is large.-from Author

  3. Modal analysis using a Fourier analyzer, curve-fitting, and modal tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed modal test program differs from single-input methods in that preliminary data may be acquired using multiple inputs, and modal tuning procedures may be employed to define closely spaced frquency modes more accurately or to make use of frequency response functions (FRF's) which are based on several input locations. In some respects the proposed modal test proram resembles earlier sine-sweep and sine-dwell testing in that broadband FRF's are acquired using several input locations, and tuning is employed to refine the modal parameter estimates. The major tasks performed in the proposed modal test program are outlined. Data acquisition and FFT processing, curve fitting, and modal tuning phases are described and examples are given to illustrate and evaluate them.

  4. A Linear Programing Economic Analysis of Lake Quality Improvements Using Phosphorus Buffer Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogg, Clayton W.; Pionke, Harry B.; Heimlich, Ralph E.

    1983-02-01

    A linear programing model is used to evaluate the economic feasibility of reducing phosphorus loads from cropland to levels that are expected to alter adequately the trophic conditions of a water supply reservoir. The model employs phosphorus buffer curves for distributing phosphorus losses between runoff and eroded soil. Phosphorus pollution reductions are estimated for conservation activities according to the amount of erosion control and phosphorus fertility status. The planning model is intended to provide the best available estimates of pollution control attainable with given budget outlays, as well as to allocate pollution control funds efficiently among watersheds. It also contains sufficient detail to suggest practices for each local soil that are consistent with water quality plans.

  5. Transit Timing Variation analysis with Kepler light curves of KOI 227 and Kepler 93b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulz, Shannon; Reed, Mike

    2017-01-01

    By searching for transit signals in approximately 150,000 stars, NASA’s Kepler Space telescope found thousands of exoplanets over its primary mission from 2009 to 2013 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014, ApJS, 211, 6). Yet, a detailed follow-up examination of Kepler light curves may contribute more evidence on system dynamics and planetary atmospheres of these objects. Kepler’s continuous observing of these systems over the mission duration produced light curves of sufficient duration to allow for the search for transit timing variations. Transit timing variations over the course of many orbits may indicate a precessing orbit or the existence of a non-transiting third body such as another exoplanet. Flux contributions of the planet just prior to secondary eclipse may provide a measurement of bond albedo from the day-side of the transiting planet. Any asymmetries of the transit shape may indicate thermal asymmetries which can measure upper atmosphere motion of the planet. These two factors can constrain atmospheric models of close orbiting exoplanets. We first establish our procedure with the well-documented TTV system, KOI 227 (Nesvorny et al. 2014, ApJ, 790, 31). Using the test case of KOI 227, we analyze Kepler-93b for TTVs and day-side flux contributions. Kepler-93b is likely a rocky planet with R = 1.50 ± 0.03 Earth Radii and M = 2.59 ± 2.0 Earth Masses (Marcy et al. 2014, ApJS, 210, 20). This research is funded by a NASA EPSCoR grant.

  6. The use of kernel density estimators in breakthrough curve reconstruction and advantages in risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirila, E. R.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2014-12-01

    Particle tracking (PT) techniques, often considered favorable over Eulerian techniques due to artificial smoothening in breakthrough curves (BTCs), are evaluated in a risk-driven framework. Recent work has shown that given a relatively few number of particles (np), PT methods can yield well-constructed BTCs with kernel density estimators (KDEs). This work compares KDE and non-KDE BTCs simulated as a function of np (102-108) and averaged as a function of the exposure duration, ED. Results show that regardless of BTC shape complexity, un-averaged PT BTCs show a large bias over several orders of magnitude in concentration (C) when compared to the KDE results, remarkably even when np is as low as 102. With the KDE, several orders of magnitude less np are required to obtain the same global error in BTC shape as the PT technique. PT and KDE BTCs are averaged as a function of the ED with standard and new methods incorporating the optimal h (ANA). The lowest error curve is obtained through the ANA method, especially for smaller EDs. Percent error of peak of averaged-BTCs, important in a risk framework, is approximately zero for all scenarios and all methods for np ≥105, but vary between the ANA and PT methods, when np is lower. For fewer np, the ANA solution provides a lower error fit except when C oscillations are present during a short time frame. We show that obtaining a representative average exposure concentration is reliant on an accurate representation of the BTC, especially when data is scarce.

  7. High resolution melt curve analysis based on methylation status for human semen identification.

    PubMed

    Fachet, Caitlyn; Quarino, Lawrence; Karnas, K Joy

    2017-03-01

    A high resolution melt curve assay to differentiate semen from blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid based on methylation status at the Dapper Isoform 1 (DACT1) gene was developed. Stains made from blood, saliva, urine, semen, and vaginal fluid were obtained from volunteers and DNA was isolated using either organic extraction (saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid) or Chelex(®) 100 extraction (blood and semen). Extracts were then subjected to bisulfite modification in order to convert unmethylated cytosines to uracil, consequently creating sequences whose amplicons have melt curves that vary depending on their initial methylation status. When primers designed to amplify the promoter region of the DACT1 gene were used, DNA from semen samples was distinguishable from other fluids by a having a statistically significant lower melting temperature. The assay was found to be sperm-significant since semen from a vasectomized man produced a melting temperature similar to the non-semen body fluids. Blood and semen stains stored up to 5 months and tested at various intervals showed little variation in melt temperature indicating the methylation status was stable during the course of the study. The assay is a more viable method for forensic science practice than most molecular-based methods for body fluid stain identification since it is time efficient and utilizes instrumentation common to forensic biology laboratories. In addition, the assay is advantageous over traditional presumptive chemical methods for body fluid identification since results are confirmatory and the assay offers the possibility of multiplexing which may test for multiple body fluids simultaneously.

  8. Psychophysiology of dissociated consciousness.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Recent study of consciousness provides an evidence that there is a limit of consciousness, which presents a barrier between conscious and unconscious processes. This barrier likely is specifically manifested as a disturbance of neural mechanisms of consciousness that through distributed brain processing, attentional mechanisms and memory processes enable to constitute integrative conscious experience. According to recent findings a level of conscious integration may change during certain conditions related to experimental cognitive manipulations, hypnosis, or stressful experiences that can lead to dissociation of consciousness. In psychopathological research the term dissociation was proposed by Pierre Janet for explanation of processes related to splitting of consciousness due to traumatic events or during hypnosis. According to several recent findings dissociation of consciousness likely is related to deficits in global distribution of information and may lead to heightened levels of "neural complexity" that reflects brain integration or differentiation based on numbers of independent neural processes in the brain that may be specifically related to various mental disorders.

  9. Dissociative depression among women with fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ozge; Sar, Vedat; Taycan, Okan; Aksoy-Poyraz, Cana; Erol, Turgut C; Tecer, Ozlem; Emul, Murat H; Ozmen, Mine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to inquire about the possible relations of childhood trauma, anger, and dissociation to depression among women with fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis. Fifty female patients diagnosed as having fibromyalgia (n = 30) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 20) participated in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ), Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule were administered to all participants. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had higher scores for somatoform and psychoform dissociation than the nondepressive patients. However, childhood trauma scores did not differ between the 2 groups. In regression analysis, current severity of depression (BDI) was predicted by psychoform dissociation (DIS-Q) and lower education, and lifetime diagnosis of major depression was predicted by somatoform dissociation (SDQ). Whereas childhood emotional neglect predicted somatoform dissociation, psychoform dissociation was predicted by childhood sexual abuse. Mental processing of anger seems to be 1 of the dimensions of psychodynamics in trauma-related depressive conditions. In the context of the perceived threat of loss of control due to expressed anger and mental disintegration, somatoform dissociation seems to contribute to overmodulation of emotions in dissociative depression. Among patients suffering from physical illness with possible psychosomatic dimensions, assessment of somatoform dissociation in addition to psychoform dissociation may be helpful to understand diverse psychopathological trajectories emerging in the aftermath of childhood adversities. The recently proposed category of "dissociative depression" (Sar, 2011) seems to be a promising concept for future research on psychosomatic aspects of traumatic stress.

  10. Toward a suitable structural analysis of gene delivery carrier based on polycationic carbohydrates by electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Cédric; Benito, Juan M; Bonnet, Véronique; Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; García Fernández, José M

    2016-12-15

    Polycationic carbohydrates represent an attractive class of biomolecules for several applications and particularly as non viral gene delivery vectors. In this case, the establishment of structure-biological activity relationship requires sensitive and accurate characterization tools to both control and achieve fine structural deciphering. Electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) appears as a suitable approach to address these questions. In the study herein, we have investigated the usefulness of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to get structural data about five polycationic carbohydrates demonstrated as promising gene delivery agents. A particular attention was paid to determine the influence of charge states as well as both fluoranthene reaction time and supplementary activation (SA) on production of charge reduced species, fragmentation yield, varying from 2 to 62%, as well as to obtain the most higher both diversity and intensity of fragments, according to charge states and targeted compounds. ETD fragmentation appeared to be mainly directed toward pending group rather than carbohydrate cyclic scaffold leading to a partial sequencing for building blocks when amino groups are close to carbohydrate core, but allowing to complete structural deciphering of some of them, such as those including dithioureidocysteaminyl group which was not possible with CID only. Such findings clearly highlight the potential to help the rational choice of the suitable analytical conditions, according to the nature of the gene delivery molecules exhibiting polycationic features. Moreover, our ETD-MS/MS approach open the way to a fine sequencing/identification of grafted groups carried on various sets of oligo-/polysaccharides in various fields such as glycobiology or nanomaterials, even with unknown or questionable extraction, synthesis or modification steps.

  11. Dissociative Ionization of Benzene by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred; Dateo, Christopher; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the dissociative ionization (DI) of benzene from the low-lying ionization channels. Our approach makes use of the fact that electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion and DI is treated as a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in an ion with the same nuclear geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step the nuclei relax from the initial geometry and undergo unimolecular dissociation. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. For the unimolecular dissociation step, we study the steepest descent reaction path to the minimum of the ion potential energy surface. The path is used to analyze the probability of unimolecular dissociation and to determine the product distributions. Our analysis of the dissociation products and the thresholds of the productions are compared with the result dissociative photoionization measurements of Feng et al. The partial oscillator strengths from Feng et al. are then used in the iBED cross section calculations.

  12. Diatomic interhalogens - Systematics and implications of spectroscopic interatomic potentials and curve crossings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, M. S.; Bernstein, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Spectroscopically derived potential curves for the low-lying excited states of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic interhalogens are systematized by the spin-orbit state of their dissociation products. The implications of spectroscopic interatomic potentials and curve crossings are discussed.

  13. Bradford Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of informetric distributions shows that generalized Leimkuhler functions give proper fits to a large variety of Bradford curves, including those exhibiting a Groos droop or a rising tail. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used to test goodness of fit, and least-square fits are compared with Egghe's method. (Contains 53 references.) (LRW)

  14. Comprehensive comparison of collision induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation.

    PubMed

    Molina, Henrik; Matthiesen, Rune; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2008-07-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a recently introduced mass spectrometric technique which has proven to be an excellent tool for the elucidation of labile post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation of serine and threonine residues. However, unlike collision induced dissociation (CID), which has been studied for decades, the intricacies of ETD-based fragmentation have not yet been firmly established or systematically addressed. In this analysis, we have systematically compared the CID and ETD fragmentation patterns for the large majority of the peptides that do not contain such labile modifications. Using a standard 48 protein mix, we were able to measure false-positive rates for the experiments and also assess a large number of peptides for a detailed comparison of CID and ETD fragmentation pattern. Analysis of approximately 19,000 peptides derived from both standard proteins and complex protein samples revealed that (i) CID identified 50% more peptides than ETD; (ii) ETD resulted in approximately 20% increase in amino acid sequence coverage over CID; and (iii) combining CID and ETD fragmentation increased the sequence coverage for an average tryptic peptide to 92%. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that nearly 60% of all ETD-identified peptides carried two positive charges, which is in sharp contrast to what has been generally accepted. We also present a novel strategy for automatic validation of peptide assignments based on identification of a peptide by consecutive CID and ETD fragmentation in an alternating mode.

  15. The dose-response curve of the gravitropic reaction: a re-analysis.

    PubMed

    Perbal, Gérald; Jeune, Bernard; Lefranc, Agnès; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie; Driss-Ecole, Dominique

    2002-03-01

    The dose-response curve of the gravitropic reaction is often used to evaluate the gravisensing of plant organs. It has been proposed (Larsen 1957) that the response (curvature) varies linearly as a function of the logarithm of the dose of gravistimulus. As this model fitted correctly most of the data obtained in the literature, the presentation time (tp, minimal duration of stimulation in the gravitational field to induce a response) or the presentation dose (dp, minimal quantity in g.s of stimulation to induce a response) were estimated by extrapolating down to zero curvature the straight line representing the response as a function of the logarithm of the stimulus. This method was preferred to a direct measurement of dp or tp with minute stimulations, since very slight gravitropic response cannot be distinguished from the background oscillations of the extremity of the organs. In the present review, it is shown that generally the logarithmic model (L) does not fit the experimental data published in the literature as well as the hyperbolic model (H). The H model in its simplest form is related to a response in which a ligand-receptor system is the limiting phase in the cascade of events leading to the response (Weyers et al. 1987). However, it is demonstrated that the differential growth, responsible for the curvature (and the angle of curvature), would vary as a hyperbolic function of the dose of stimulation, even if several steps involving ligand-receptor systems are responsible for the gravitropic curvature. In the H model, there is theoretically no presentation time (or presentation dose) since the curve passes through the origin. The value of the derivative of the H function equals a/b and represents the slope of the cune at the origin. It could be therefore used to estimate gravisensitivity. This provides a measurement of graviresponsiveness for threshold doses of stimulation. These results imply that the presentation time (or presentation dose) derived from

  16. DSA Analysis of IRM Curves for Hydrocarbon Microseepage Characterization in Oil Fields From Eastern and Western Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Gonzalez, C.; Gomez, L.

    2009-05-01

    During the last few years we have performed surface reservoir characterization at some Venezuelan oil fields using rock magnetic properties. We have tried to identify, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. Recent data obtained from eastern Venezuela (San Juan field) emphasizes the differences between rock magnetic data from eastern and western oil fields. These results support the hypothesis of different authigenic processes. To better characterize hydrocarbon microseepage in both cases, we apply a new method to analyze IRM curves in order to find out the main magnetic phases responsible for the observed magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies. This alternative method is based on a Direct Signal Analysis (DSA) of the IRM in order to identify the number and type of magnetic components. According to this method, the IRM curve is decomposed as the sum of N elementary curves (modeled using the expression proposed by Robertson and France, 1994) whose mean coercivities vary in the interval of the measured magnetic field. The result is an adjusted spectral histogram from which the number of main contributions, their widths and mean coercivities, associated with the number and type of magnetic minerals, can be obtained. This analysis indicates that in western fields the main magnetic mineralogy is magnetite. Conversely in eastern fields, the MS anomalies are mainly caused by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). These results support the hypothesis of two different processes. In western fields a net electron transfer from the organic matter, degraded by hydrocarbon gas leakage, should occur precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). On the other hand, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides in eastern fields.

  17. A TRANSIT TIMING ANALYSIS OF NINE RISE LIGHT CURVES OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEM TrES-3

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, N. P.; Pollacco, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Barros, S.; Joshi, Y. C.; Todd, I.; Keenan, F. P.; Skillen, I.; Benn, C.; Christian, D.; Hrudkova, M.; Steele, I. A.

    2009-08-01

    We present nine newly observed transits of TrES-3, taken as part of a transit timing program using the RISE instrument on the Liverpool Telescope. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the planet-star radius ratio and inclination of the system, which were found to be R{sub p} /R {sub *} = 0.1664{sup +0.0011} {sub -0.0018} and i = 81.73{sup +0.13} {sub -0.04}, respectively, consistent with previous results. The central transit times and uncertainties were also calculated, using a residual-permutation algorithm as an independent check on the errors. A re-analysis of eight previously published TrES-3 light curves was conducted to determine the transit times and uncertainties using consistent techniques. Whilst the transit times were not found to be in agreement with a linear ephemeris, giving {chi}{sup 2} = 35.07 for 15 degrees of freedom, we interpret this to be the result of systematics in the light curves rather than a real transit timing variation. This is because the light curves that show the largest deviation from a constant period either have relatively little out-of-transit coverage or have clear systematics. A new ephemeris was calculated using the transit times and was found to be T{sub c} (0) = 2454632.62610 {+-} 0.00006 HJD and P = 1.3061864 {+-} 0.0000005 days. The transit times were then used to place upper mass limits as a function of the period ratio of a potential perturbing planet, showing that our data are sufficiently sensitive to have probed sub-Earth mass planets in both interior and exterior 2:1 resonances, assuming that the additional planet is in an initially circular orbit.

  18. Numerical analysis of thermal creep flow in curved channels for designing a prototype of Knudsen micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontidis, V.; Brandner, J. J.; Baldas, L.; Colin, S.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility to generate a gas flow inside a channel just by imposing a tangential temperature gradient along the walls without the existence of an initial pressure difference is well known. The gas must be under rarefied conditions, meaning that the system must operate between the slip and the free molecular flow regimes, either at low pressure or/and at micro/nano-scale dimensions. This phenomenon is at the basis of the operation principle of Knudsen pumps, which are actually compressors without any moving parts. Nowadays, gas flows in the slip flow regime through microchannels can be modeled using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics softwares, because in this regime the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions are still valid. A simulation procedure has been developed for the modeling of thermal creep flow using ANSYS Fluent®. The implementation of the boundary conditions is achieved by developing User Defined Functions (UDFs) by means of C++ routines. The complete first order velocity slip boundary condition, including the thermal creep effects due to the axial temperature gradient and the effect of the wall curvature, and the temperature jump boundary condition are applied. The developed simulation tool is used for the preliminary design of Knudsen micropumps consisting of a sequence of curved and straight channels.

  19. Standardization, Evaluation, and Area-Under-Curve Analysis of Human and Murine Treg Suppressive Function.

    PubMed

    Akimova, Tatiana; Levine, Matthew H; Beier, Ulf H; Hancock, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    FOXP3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells have important roles in immune homeostasis, and alterations in their number and function can predispose to diseases ranging from autoimmunity to allograft rejection and tumor growth. Reliable identification of human Tregs remains a persistent problem due to a lack of specific markers. The most definitive Treg characterization currently involves combined assessment of phenotypic, epigenetic and functional parameters, with the latter typically involving in vitro Treg suppression assays. Unfortunately, suppression assays are frequently performed using differing methods and readouts, limiting comparisons between studies. We provide a perspective on our experience with human and murine Treg suppression assay conditions, including Treg data obtained in clinical transplant studies, Tregs isolated from healthy donors and treated with epigenetically active compounds, and Tregs from standard murine strains (C57BL/6 and BALB/c). We provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of typical problems, shortcomings and troubleshooting; describe new modifications and approaches; and present a new method for calculation of suppressive assay data using a modified area-under-curve (AUC) method. This method allows us to directly compare Treg suppressive function between multiple patients (such as in clinical transplant studies), to reliably track changes in Treg function from the same person over time, or compare effects of Treg-modulating compounds tested with different healthy donors Tregs in separate or combined experimental settings.

  20. Multivariate curve resolution for the analysis of remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images.

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, David Michael; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2004-07-01

    While hyperspectral imaging systems are increasingly used in remote sensing and offer enhanced scene characterization relative to univariate and multispectral technologies, it has proven difficult in practice to extract all of the useful information from these systems due to overwhelming data volume, confounding atmospheric effects, and the limited a priori knowledge regarding the scene. The need exists for the ability to perform rapid and comprehensive data exploitation of remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery. To address this need, this paper describes the application of a fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm to remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images. Employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, it is demonstrated that MCR can successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. We take a semi-synthetic approach to obtaining image data containing gas plumes by adding emission gas signals onto real hyperspectral images. MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of an ammonia gas plume component added near the minimum detectable quantity.

  1. Impact of truncated area under the curve on failed bioequivalence studies: a computer simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar

    2004-01-01

    The common measures used in a bioequivalence study are area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentration. Estimation of AUC requires frequent blood samples. For long half-life drugs, sampling for long periods of time may become cumbersome. To resolve this issue some investigators have suggested the use of truncated AUC in bioequivalence studies for long half-life drugs. The suggested length of time for the truncated AUC is 72 hours. Many studies have been conducted to show that truncated AUC till 72 hours is a suitable approach. However, the suitability of truncated AUC for failed bioequivalence study has not been demonstrated. This report of simulated plasma concentration versus time data evaluates the suitability of truncated AUC for failed bioequivalence study of two hypothetical drugs. The results of the study indicate that the truncated approach for the estimation of the AUC for long half-life drugs in bioequivalence studies may be useful but it also increases the probability of accepting drugs as being bioequivalent when they are not.

  2. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-25

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a "smile contour" delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  3. Vertically stratified two-phase flow in a curved channel: Insights from a domain perturbation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2014-07-15

    In this work, we investigate the fully developed flow field of two vertically stratified fluids (one phase flowing above the other) in a curved channel of rectangular cross section. The domain perturbation technique is applied to obtain an analytical solution in the asymptotic limit of low Reynolds numbers and small curvature ratios (the ratio of the width of the channel to its radius of curvature). The accuracy of this solution is verified by comparison with numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations. The flow is characterized by helical vortices within each fluid, which are driven by centrifugal forces. The number of vortices and their direction of circulation varies with the parameters of the system (the volume fraction, viscosity ratio, and Reynolds numbers). We identify nine distinct flow patterns and organize the parameter space into corresponding flow regimes. We show that the fully developed interface between the fluids is not horizontal, in general, but is deformed by normal stresses associated with the circulatory flow. The results are especially significant for flows in microchannels, where the Reynolds numbers are small. The mathematical results in this paper include an analytical solution to two coupled biharmonic partial differential equations; these equations arise in two-phase, two-dimensional Stokes flows.

  4. Post-Buckling Analysis of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Containing Interfacial Disbonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance plan for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift launch vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method incorporating geometric nonlinearity. In a predetermined circular region, facesheet and core nodes were detached to simulate a disbond, between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core, induced via low-speed impact. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements and obtain realistic stresses in the core. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. Significant changes in the slope of the edge load-deflection response were used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load. Finally, several studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the numerical predictions to refinement in the finite element mesh.

  5. Modeling and nonlinear hunting stability analysis of high-speed railway vehicle moving on curved tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Sen-Yung; Chen, Hsing-Hao

    2009-07-01

    A heuristic nonlinear creep model is used to derive the nonlinear coupled differential equations of motion of a high-speed railway vehicle traveling on a curved track. The vehicle dynamics are modeled using a 21 degree-of-freedom (21-DOF) system which takes account of the lateral displacement and yaw angle of each wheelset, the lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll angle and yaw angle of the truck frames, and the lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll angle, pitch angle and yaw angle of the car body. To analyze the respective effects of the major system parameters on the vehicle dynamics, the 21-DOF system is reduced to 20-DOF, 14-DOF and 6-DOF models, respectively, by excluding designated subsets of the system parameters. The validity of the analytical models and the numerical solution procedure is confirmed by comparing the result obtained using the 6-DOF model for the critical velocity of a railway vehicle traveling on a tangent track with the solution presented in the literature. In general, the results obtained in this study show that the critical hunting speed derived using the 6-DOF or 14-DOF model is generally higher than that evaluated using the 20-DOF model. In addition, the critical hunting speed evaluated via the heuristic nonlinear creep model is lower than that derived using a linear creep model.

  6. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a “smile contour” delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  7. Determination of whole blood and plasma viscosity by means of flow curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruef, Peter; Gehm, Jutta; Gehm, Lothar; Felbinger, Claudia; Pöschl, Johannes; Kuss, Navina

    2014-01-01

    The LS300 viscometer permits automated measurements of viscosity at several shear rates of non-Newtonian fluids. We determined whole blood and plasma viscosity, aggregation, red blood cell deformability, and hematocrit of 66 healthy adults. The effects of the anticoagulants EDTA, heparin and citrate, and of centrifugation on blood viscosity (n=12) and red blood cell geometry (n=5) were investigated. With regard to the whole blood viscosity of adults, the best agreement was obtained by Casson's calculation compared to the methods of Ostwald, Bingham and Newton. The approximated flow curve of plasma showed only marginal differences between the method of Newton and Ostwald, whereas the latter gave the best quality of approximation. Centrifugation and the anticoagulants had a significant impact on whole blood viscosity and yield shear stress, whereas erythrocyte geometry remained unaffected. By linear regression of hematocrit with viscosity and yield shear stress, its impact on blood viscosity could be calculated in a hematocrit range of 0.32-0.50. Determination of whole blood viscosity should be performed in a standardized manner at several shear rates and without centrifugation of the blood samples.

  8. Analyzing Exercise Behaviors during the College Years: Results from Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze changes in the predictors of physical activity behavior among college students. The Theory of Planned Behavior served as its theoretical framework. Methods: Among an initial sample of 417 college students, 195 participants completed a validated questionnaire measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions and self-reported physical activity, at the beginning and end of each of 3 college semesters. Latent growth curve modeling analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between the trajectories of changes in PA, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control. Results: Good fit indices supported the validity of the proposed longitudinal model (CFI > .97, RMSEA < .05). Changes in perceived control (γ = 0.57) were significantly linked with changes in intentions (p < .05). Perceived control (γ = 0.28) and intention growth (γ = 0.36) predicted behavior changes (p < .05). No gender differences were observed on attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control (p > .10). However, girls tend to have higher growth parameters on intentions and physical activity (p < .05). In summary, intentions and physical activity has significantly increased over 3 college semesters (growth parameters significant at p < .05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that attitudes and perceived control are key determinants regarding the intentions of being active. On a longer term perspective, future physical activity interventions should focus on the enhancement of students’ perceived control. Such educational context should help in promoting the adoption of an active lifestyle during college. PMID:27124179

  9. Stability and dynamic analysis of a slender column with curved longitudinal stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a stability design study are presented for a slender column with curved longitudinal stiffeners for large space structure applications. Linear stability analyses are performed using a link-plate representation of the stiffeners to determine stiffener local buckling stresses. Results from a set of parametric analyses are used to determine an approximate explicit expression for stiffener local buckling in terms of its geometric parameters. This expression along with other equations governing column stability and mass are assembled into a determinate system describing minimum mass stiffened column design. An iterative solution is determined to solve this system and a computer program incorporating this routine is presented. Example design problems are presented which verify the solution accuracy and illustrate the implementation of the solution routine. Also, observations are made which lead to a greatly simplified first iteration design equation relating the percent increase in column mass to the percent increase in column buckling load. From this, generalizations are drawn as to the mass savings offered by the stiffened column concept. Finally, the percent increase in fundamental column vibration frequency due to the addition of deployable stiffeners is studied.

  10. Multivariable and Multigroup Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve Analyses for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    presents the original experimental data collected by Fisher and includes the lengths and widths of the sepals and petals of the three iris flower ...more than two experimental groups in a systematic fashion. The classic Fisher iris flower data set is treated as one variable and two cases at a time...enhanced computer efficiency and information-rich analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Multivariate analysis Sepal Univariate analysis Petal Frequency

  11. The dissociative recombination of ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubé, S.; Lehfaoui, L.; Rowe, B. R.; Mitchell, J. B. A.

    1998-09-01

    The dissociative recombination rate coefficient for 0953-4075/31/18/016/img2 has been measured at 300 K using a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe-mass spectrometer apparatus. A value of 0953-4075/31/18/016/img3 has been found.

  12. Introduction to dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    1989-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions with electrons has important consequences in many areas of physical science. Ab-initio calculations coupled with resonant scattering theory and multichannel quantum defect studies have produced detailed results illuminating the role of ion vibrational excitation, the quantum yields of the DR products, and the role of Rydberg states. The theoretical and experimental results are discussed.

  13. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  14. Functional (dissociative) retrograde amnesia.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, H J; Staniloiu, A

    2017-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia is described as condition which can occur after direct brain damage, but which occurs more frequently as a result of a psychiatric illness. In order to understand the amnesic condition, content-based divisions of memory are defined. The measurement of retrograde memory is discussed and the dichotomy between "organic" and "psychogenic" retrograde amnesia is questioned. Briefly, brain damage-related etiologies of retrograde amnesia are mentioned. The major portion of the review is devoted to dissociative amnesia (also named psychogenic or functional amnesia) and to the discussion of an overlap between psychogenic and "brain organic" forms of amnesia. The "inability of access hypothesis" is proposed to account for most of both the organic and psychogenic (dissociative) patients with primarily retrograde amnesia. Questions such as why recovery from retrograde amnesia can occur in retrograde (dissociative) amnesia, and why long-term new learning of episodic-autobiographic episodes is possible, are addressed. It is concluded that research on retrograde amnesia research is still in its infancy, as the neural correlates of memory storage are still unknown. It is argued that the recollection of episodic-autobiographic episodes most likely involves frontotemporal regions of the right hemisphere, a region which appears to be hypometabolic in patients with dissociative amnesia.

  15. Dissociative Reactions to Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Mark

    In contrast to Freud's later and revised view of the etiology of hysterical, or dissociative, symptoms, it is now known that real, and not fantasized, sexual experiences in childhood are experienced in disociative symptomatology. It is useful to understand that incest involves both traumatic events, that is, incidents of sexual violation per se,…

  16. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  17. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  18. Postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1 and 2 curves: how common is it? and analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Trobisch, Per D; Samdani, Amer F; Pahys, Joshua M; Cahill, Patrick J

    2011-07-01

    The goal of surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is to achieve a solid fusion in a balanced spine. While many previous studies analyzed coronal balance, there is a paucity of studies that comment on postoperative trunk shift, which has shown to have impact on clinical outcome. The purpose of this retrospective, multicenter data analysis was to analyze the incidence of postoperative trunk shift in patients with surgical treatment for AIS. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter data analysis of 1,555 patients with AIS. Patients with a Lenke type 1 or 2 curve pattern and a minimum follow-up of 24 months after surgery were included. A >2 cm deviation of the trunk in relation to the pelvis was considered positive trunk shift. A subanalysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for trunk shift. 273 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. While the preoperative prevalence of trunk shift was surgically reduced from 29.3 to 13.6%, 24 patients (8.8%) with postoperative trunk shift had not had preoperative trunk shift, and the trunk shift was considered iatrogenic. Undercorrection of the lumbar curve was identified as potential risk factor, whereas thoracic correction, coronal balance, angulation and translation of the lowest instrumented vertebra did not seem to influence postoperative trunk shift. Iatrogenic postoperative trunk shift has an incidence of 8.8% in the surgical treatment of AIS.

  19. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Anderson, Melvin S.

    1998-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations that include transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Using several simplifying assumptions, linearized, stability equations are derived that describe the response of the plate just after bifurcation buckling occurs. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(c), from the centroid surface which is convenient for modeling stiffened-plate assemblies. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design program code is described. Either classical plate theory (CPT) or first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) may be selected in VICONOPT. Comparisons of numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Results from the new curved-plate analysis compare well with closed-form solution results and with results from known example problems in the literature. Finally, a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression is presented.

  20. Curved Beam Computed Tomography based Structural Rigidity Analysis of Bones with Simulated Lytic Defect: A Comparative Study with Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oftadeh, R.; Karimi, Z.; Villa-Camacho, J.; Tanck, E.; Verdonschot, N.; Goebel, R.; Snyder, B. D.; Hashemi, H. N.; Vaziri, A.; Nazarian, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices. PMID:27585495

  1. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    A model for the Helmholtz free energy of fluid hydrogen at high density and high temperature is developed. This model aims at describing both pressure and temperature dissociation and ionization and bears directly on equations of state of partially ionized plasmas, as encountered in astrophysical situations and high-pressure experiments. This paper focuses on a mixture of hydrogen atoms and molecules and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of pressure dissociation at finite temperatures. In the present model, the strong interactions are described with realistic potentials and are computed with a modified Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluid perturbation theory that reproduces Monte Carlo simulations to better than 3 percent. Theoretical Hugoniot curves derived from the model are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  2. The first multi-color light curve analysis of FI Lyn and new V and Rc light curve analysis for GN Boo, two W-subtype W Ursae Majoris systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, C.; Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the first analysis of the B, V and Ic CCD light curves of the W UMa type eclipsing binary star FI Lyn obtained in the year 2009 (8 nights) and in the year 2010 (2 nights), and new CCD V and Rc light curves of the known contact eclipsing binary GN Boo obtained in 4 nights in May 2012. Our data permits us the determination of ten and six new times of minimum light respectively for FI Lyn and GN Boo and refine both the orbital periods of the systems to P = 0.3732612 days and P = 0.3016022 days. The periods of both the systems are variable. FI Lyn shows an increasing period at the rate of dP / dt 1.05 × 10-6 days yr-1 while GN Boo shows cyclic oscillations. The observed light curves are analyzed simultaneously with the Wilson-Devinney program analysis; the geometrical and photometric elements are derived. Our solutions show that FI Lyn and GN Boo belong to the W-subtype W Ursae Majoris contact binary class, consisting of a hotter, less massive primary star eclipsed at primary minimum with a primary spectral type of G1 and G8 and a companion of spectral type G3 and G4 respectively. We found, for FI Lyn a mass ratio of q = 2.58 , the degree of contact of f = 38.9 % , an orbital inclination of i = 71 ° .5 and a small temperature difference between the components of about Δ T = 150 K indicating a good thermal contact, while for GN Boo we found a mass ratio of q = 3.33 , the degree of contact of f = 24.3 % , an orbital inclination of i = 83 ° .6 and a difference between the components temperature of about Δ T = 620 K. The elements obtained from the W-D analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the systems in order to study their evolutionary status.

  3. Recent trends in application of multivariate curve resolution approaches for improving gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Parastar, Hadi

    2011-08-15

    Essential oils (EOs) are valuable natural products that are popular nowadays in the world due to their effects on the health conditions of human beings and their role in preventing and curing diseases. In addition, EOs have a broad range of applications in foods, perfumes, cosmetics and human nutrition. Among different techniques for analysis of EOs, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the most important one in recent years. However, there are some fundamental problems in GC-MS analysis including baseline drift, spectral background, noise, low S/N (signal to noise) ratio, changes in the peak shapes and co-elution. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) approaches cope with ongoing challenges and are able to handle these problems. This review focuses on the application of MCR techniques for improving GC-MS analysis of EOs published between January 2000 and December 2010. In the first part, the importance of EOs in human life and their relevance in analytical chemistry is discussed. In the second part, an insight into some basics needed to understand prospects and limitations of the MCR techniques are given. In the third part, the significance of the combination of the MCR approaches with GC-MS analysis of EOs is highlighted. Furthermore, the commonly used algorithms for preprocessing, chemical rank determination, local rank analysis and multivariate resolution in the field of EOs analysis are reviewed.

  4. High resolution melting curve analysis as a new tool for rapid identification of canine parvovirus type 2 strains.

    PubMed

    Bingga, Gali; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yujun; Lin, Lifeng; Ding, Shuangyang; Guo, Pengju

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution melting (HRM) curve method was developed to identify canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) strains by nested PCR. Two sets of primers, CPV-426F/426R and CPV-87R/87F, were designed that amplified a 52 bp and 53 bp product from the viral VP2 capsid gene. The region amplified by CPV-426F/426R included the A4062G and T4064A mutations in CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. The region amplified by CPV-87F/87R included the A3045T mutation in the vaccine strains of CPV-2 and CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Faecal samples were obtained from 30 dogs that were CPV antigen-positive. The DNA was isolated from the faecal samples and PCR-amplified using the two sets of primers, and genotyped by HRM curve analysis. The PCR-HRM assay was able to distinguish single nucleotide polymorphisms between CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c using CPV-426F/426R. CPV-2a was distinguished from CPV-2b and CPV-2c by differences in the melting temperature. CPV-2b and CPV-2c could be distinguished based on the shape of the melting curve after generating heteroduplexes using a CPV-2b reference sample. The vaccine strains of CPV-2 were identified using CPV-87F/87R. Conventional methods for genotyping CPV strains are labor intensive, expensive or time consuming; the present PCR-based HRM assay might be an attractive alternative.

  5. Multiscale Analysis of Soil Porosity from Hg Injection Curves in Soils from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2012-04-01

    The soil pore space is a continuum extremely variable in size, including structures smaller than nanometres and as large as macropores or cracks with millimetres or even centimetres size. Pore size distributions (PSDs) affects important soil functions, such as transmission and storage of water, and root growth. Direct and indirect measurements of PSDs are currently used to characterize soil structure. Mercury injection porosimetry is useful for assessing equivalent pore size diameters in the range from about 0,5 nm to 100 μm. Here, the multifractal formalism was employed to describe Hg injection curves measured in duplicate samples collected on 54 horizons from 19 profiles in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten of the studied profiles were classified as Ferralsols (Latosols, Oxisols). Besides these, other wide different soil groups were sampled, including Nitisol, Acrisol, Alisol, Luvisol, Planosol, Cambisol, Andosol and Leptosol. Clay content varied from 4 to 86% and pore volume in the range from 100 to 0.005 μm was between 5.52 a 53.76 cm3100g-1. All the horizons taken on Ferralsols and Nitisols as well as in Bt argic horizons from Acrisol Alisol, Luvisol and Planosol clearly showed a bimodal pore size distribution. Pore volume in the range from 100 to 0.005 μm and microporosity (0,2-0.005 μm) showed a significant relationship with clay content an Al2O3. All the Hg injection data sets studied soil showed remarkably good scaling trends and could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. The capacity dimensions, D0, was not significantly different from the Euclidean dimension. The entropy dimension, D1, varied from 0.590 to 0.946 , whereas the Hölder exponent of order zero, α0was between 1.027 and 1.451, and these two parameters showed a lineal negatives relationship, as expected. The highest D1 values, ranging from 0.913 to 0.980, were obtained for the Leptosol, whereas the lowest D1 values, ranging from 0.641 to 0.766 corresponded to the Nitisol. This

  6. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    PubMed

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  7. A perspective on MALDI alternatives-total solvent-free analysis and electron transfer dissociation of highly charged ions by laserspray ionization.

    PubMed

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Progress in research is hindered by analytical limitations, especially in biological areas in which sensitivity and dynamic range are critical to success. Inherent difficulties of characterization associated with complexity arising from heterogeneity of various materials including topologies (isomeric composition) and insolubility also limit progress. For this reason, we are developing methods for total solvent-free analysis by mass spectrometry consisting of solvent-free ionization followed by solvent-free gas-phase separation. We also recently constructed a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) source that provides a simple, practical and sensitive way of producing highly charged ions by laserspray ionization (LSI) or singly charged ions commonly observed with MALDI by choice of matrix or matrix preparation. This is the first ionization source with such freedom-an extremely powerful analytical 'switch'. Multiply charged LSI ions allow molecules exceeding the mass-to-charge range of the instrument to be observed and permit for the first time electron transfer dissociation fragment ion analysis.

  8. On the dissociation energy of the BN molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Reddy, A. S. R.; Rao, T. V. R.

    1985-09-01

    For the electronic ground state, X 3II, of the BN molecule, the true potential energy curve is constructed by the method of Rydberg-Klein-Rees as modified by Vanderslice et al. By curve fitting of the modified form of Lippincott's three-parameter empirical potential function, the dissociation energy is estimated to be 3.36±0.16 eV.

  9. A Statistical Comparison of the Blossom Blight Forecasts of MARYBLYT and Cougarblight with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dewdney, M M; Biggs, A R; Turechek, W W

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and 243 data sets. The rain threshold of Cougarblight was analyzed as a separate model termed Cougarblight and rain. Data were used as a whole and then grouped into geographic regions and cultivar susceptibilities. Frequency distributions of cases and controls, orchards or regions (depending on the data set), with and without observed disease, respectively, in all data sets overlapped. MARYBLYT, Cougarblight, and Cougarblight and rain all predicted blossom blight infection better than chance (P = 0.05). It was found that the blossom blight forecasters performed equivalently in the geographic regions of the east and west coasts of North America and moderately susceptible cultivars based on the 95% confidence intervals and pairwise contrasts of the area under the ROC curve. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between the forecasts of Cougarblight and MARYBLYT were found with pairwise contrasts in the England and very susceptible cultivar data sets. Youden's index was used to determine the optimal cutpoint of both forecasters. The greatest sensitivity and specificity for MARYBLYT coincided with the use of the highest risk threshold for predictions of infection; with Cougarblight, there was no clear single risk threshold across all data sets.

  10. In-Situ Investigation of Hot Tearing in Aluminum Alloy AA1050 via Acoustic Emission and Cooling Curve Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekguleryuz, M. O.; Li, X.; Aliravci, C. A.

    2009-06-01

    Hot tearing in the AA1050 alloy was investigated in real time and in situ using acoustic emission (AE) and cooling curve analysis techniques and a ring mold. Activities involving AE have been detected in three zones of the solidification curve. The characteristic signals for hot tearing were an AE energy of over 600 e.u. and an average frequency of 125 ± 15 kHz in zone II. For hot cracking, the AE energy was over 650 e.u. and the average frequency was 128 ± 17 kHz in zone III. The hot-tear start temperature ranged from 636 °C to 653 °C; the nonequilibrium solidus T' S , from 556 °C to 614 °C; the fraction solid at hot-tear onset from 0.71 to 0.99; and the Clyne-Davis hot-tear susceptibility coefficient (HSC) from 0.25 to 0.81. The HSC correlated inversely with a total energy of solidification cracking ( E total) {text{HSC}} \\cong 167left( {E_{text{total}} } right)^{ - 0.8}. A hot-tear susceptibility factor (HSF) = (pct Fe)·(cooling rate (CR))2 was related to the HSC and T' S as HSC = 0.002 HSF + 0.3 and T' S = -0.3 HSF + 617.

  11. Prediction of preterm and low birth weight delivery by maternal periodontal parameters: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Habashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef S; Jabali, Olfat Al; Alchalabi, Haifa'a

    2013-02-01

    In this study we used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to comparatively evaluate maternal periodontal parameters to predict preterm (PB) delivery and low birth weight (LBW) delivery among Jordanian women. A total of 277 pregnant women (20 weeks of gestation or less) had periodontal examination at baseline and followed up until delivery. Gestational age and birth weight were retrieved from their medical records. ROC curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power of the studied periodontal parameters to predict PB, LBW, and PB or LBW. For the three outcome variables, the area under curve (AUC) ranged from 0.84 to 0.87 for average clinical attachment level (CAL), 0.78-0.86 for percent of sites with CAL ≥ 5 mm, 0.63-0.74 for percent of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm, and 0.71-0.82 for number of missing teeth indicating that they had high discriminating power to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes. All other parameters had AUC less than 0.60 and thus had low discriminating power. Average CAL performed the best in predicting the studied adverse pregnancy outcomes because it has the highest AUC. The severity and extent of periodontal disease as measured by CAL can be used to predict the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Functional torque ratios and torque curve analysis of shoulder rotations in overhead athletes with and without impingement symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zanca, Gisele G; Oliveira, Ana B; Saccol, Michele F; Ejnisman, Benno; Mattiello-Rosa, Stela M

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the peak torque, functional torque ratios, and torque curve profile of the shoulder rotators in overhead athletes with impingement symptoms so as to examine possible alterations in response to sports training and shoulder pain. Twenty-one overhead athletes with impingement symptoms were compared with 25 overhead athletes and 21 non-athletes, none of whom were symptomatic for impingement. The participants performed five maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric contractions of medial and lateral shoulder rotations at 1.57 rad · s(-1) and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Isokinetic peak torque was used to calculate the eccentric lateral rotation-to-concentric medial rotation and the eccentric medial rotation-to-concentric lateral rotation ratios. An analysis of the torque curve profiles was also carried out. The eccentric lateral rotation-to-concentric medial rotation torque ratio of asymptomatic athletes was lower than that of non-athletes at both test velocities. The concentric medial rotation isokinetic peak torque of the asymptomatic athletes, at 3.14 rad · s(-1), was greater than that of the non-athletes, and the peak appeared to occur earlier in the movement for athletes than non-athletes. These findings suggest that there may be adaptations to shoulder function in response to throwing practice. The eccentric medial rotation-to-concentric lateral rotation torque ratio was altered neither by the practice of university-level overhead sports nor impingement symptoms.

  13. Robust strategies for automated AFM force curve analysis--I. Non-adhesive indentation of soft, inhomogeneous materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, David C; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Horkay, Ferenc

    2007-06-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has found wide applicability as a nanoindentation tool to measure local elastic properties of soft materials. An automated approach to the processing of AFM indentation data, namely, the extraction of Young's modulus, is essential to realizing the high-throughput potential of the instrument as an elasticity probe for typical soft materials that exhibit inhomogeneity at microscopic scales. This paper focuses on Hertzian analysis techniques, which are applicable to linear elastic indentation. We compiled a series of synergistic strategies into an algorithm that overcomes many of the complications that have previously impeded efforts to automate the fitting of contact mechanics models to indentation data. AFM raster data sets containing up to 1024 individual force-displacement curves and macroscopic compression data were obtained from testing polyvinyl alcohol gels of known composition. Local elastic properties of tissue-engineered cartilage were also measured by the AFM. All AFM data sets were processed using customized software based on the algorithm, and the extracted values of Young's modulus were compared to those obtained by macroscopic testing. Accuracy of the technique was verified by the good agreement between values of Young's modulus obtained by AFM and by direct compression of the synthetic gels. Validation of robustness was achieved by successfully fitting the vastly different types of force curves generated from the indentation of tissue-engineered cartilage. For AFM indentation data that are amenable to Hertzian analysis, the method presented here minimizes subjectivity in preprocessing and allows for improved consistency and minimized user intervention. Automated, large-scale analysis of indentation data holds tremendous potential in bioengineering applications, such as high-resolution elasticity mapping of natural and artificial tissues.

  14. Dissociation potential for breaking a CH bond in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Franklin B.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    1985-02-01

    The potential energy along the dissociation coordinate for CH 4 → CH 3 + H is calculated by the multi-reference configuration interaction method, including all single and double excitations, with a triple-split-plus-diffuse-and-extended-polarization basis set. The three-parameter Lippincott and Varshni potential curves provide better approximations to the dissociation potential than does the Morse model.

  15. Acoustic systems containing curved duct sections. [numerical analysis of wave propagation in acoustic ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of waves in bends in acoustical ducting of rectangular cross section was extended to the study of motion near discontinuities. This included determination of the characteristics of the tangential and radial components of the nonpropagating modes. It is established that attenuation of the nonpropagating modes strongly depends on frequency and that, in general, the sharper the bend, the less attenuation may be expected. Evaluation of a bend's impedance and of impedance-generated reflections is also presented in detail.

  16. The Reaction of Dissociative Recombination in a Strong Light Field

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, M. G.; Golubkov, G. V.; Adamson, S. O.; Ryabinkin, I. G.; Apukhtina, N. V.; Dementiev, A. I.

    2008-10-22

    The DR theory of slow electrons with molecular ions in strong monochromatic light field is developed. The potential energy curves of the oxygen molecule O{sub 2}** dissociative states are calculated. Classification of all possible transitions and reaction mechanisms are presented.

  17. Dissociation: cognitive capacity or dysfunction?

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Elzinga, Bernet M; Phaf, R Hans

    2006-01-01

    Dissociative experiences are mostly studied as a risk factor for dissociative pathology. Nonpathological dissociation is quite common in the general population, however, and may reflect a constitutionally determined cognitive style rather than a pathological trait acquired through the experience of adverse life events. In a theoretical model, we propose that nonpathological dissociation is characterized by high levels of elaboration learning and reconstructive retrieval, for which enhanced levels of attentional and working memory abilities are a prerequisite. These characteristics, in general, seem to be representative for a higher ability to (re-)construct conscious experiences. We review some of our behavioral as well as neural (i.e., fMRI, ERPs) studies, suggesting that high dissociative individuals are characterized by heightened levels of attention, working memory and episodic memory. In nonpathological conditions a person may benefit from these dissociative abilities, although after adverse (e.g., traumatic) events the disposition may develop into dissociative pathology.

  18. [A mathematical analysis of the flow-velocity curves in the femoral arteries].

    PubMed

    Ley Pozo, J; Vega Gómez, M E; Aldama Figueroa, A; Ochoa Bizet, M

    1993-01-01

    In order to improve the early diagnosis of the aortoiliac injuries, 98 arteries from several supposedly health patients (different ages) and 41 femoral arteries from patients with occlusion at this level (demonstrated by arteriography) were studied. The analysis from the Fourier's series showed highly significant differences between both groups, and so did the comparison of some indexes automatically measured by the Vasoscan VL equip. By multivariant statistics methods was selected the main group of parameters that allows the differentiation between the ill patients and the healthy ones. This procedure can be useful for the physiopathological study and it may be used as a non-invasive method of diagnosis.

  19. Mathematical Analysis for Peristaltic Flow of Two Phase Nanofluid in a Curved Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Iqra, Shahzadi

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the theoretical analysis for peristaltic motion of water base nanofluid containing distinct types of the nanoparticles like Cu, TiO2, and Al2O3. Equations of nano fluid are modelled and simplified by constructing the suppositions of low Reynolds number as well as long wave length. The reduced equations are solved exactly. Solutions are represented through graphs. Outcomes for the velocity, temperature, pressure rise and stream lines are analyzed graphically. The work presented here is based on the fictitious values, however some other values can be tested experimentally.

  20. Computational analysis of fluorescence induction curves in intact spinach leaves treated at different pH.

    PubMed

    Tongra, Teena; Mehta, Pooja; Mathur, Sonal; Agrawal, Divya; Bharti, Sudhakar; Los, Dmitry A; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Jajoo, Anjana

    2011-02-01

    Effects of change in pH have been investigated on spinach leaf discs by measuring fluorescence induction kinetics using plant efficiency analyzer (PEA). On the basis of computational analysis of the results, we have reported that acidic pH causes a significant inhibition of the donor and the acceptor side of PS II. Energy flux models have been presented using the software Biolyzer HP 3. Effects of pH were investigated on the antenna size heterogeneity of PS II and a relative change in the proportions of α, β, and γ centers was observed.

  1. Parents and adolescents growing up in the digital age: latent growth curve analysis of proactive media monitoring.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Fraser, Ashley M; Dyer, W Justin; Yorgason, Jeremy B

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = .63, 50% female) taken from Time 2 of the Flourishing Families Project, 96% of whom had complete data for Time 4 (N = 266). Active monitoring was the most common approach at the first and second time points, while active monitoring and deference were equally common by the final time point. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that restrictive and active monitoring decreased over time, while deference increased. In addition, both adolescent and parent characteristics were predictive of initial levels of all three types of monitoring, and of change in restrictive monitoring. Discussion focuses on developmental implications of these findings.

  2. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

  3. Automatic and objective oral cancer diagnosis by Raman spectroscopic detection of keratin with multivariate curve resolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hsiung; Shimada, Rintaro; Yabumoto, Sohshi; Okajima, Hajime; Ando, Masahiro; Chang, Chiou-Tzu; Lee, Li-Tzu; Wong, Yong-Kie; Chiou, Arthur; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an automatic and objective method for detecting human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues with Raman microspectroscopy. We measure 196 independent Raman spectra from 196 different points of one oral tissue sample and globally analyze these spectra using a Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) analysis. Discrimination of OSCC tissues is automatically and objectively made by spectral matching comparison of the MCR decomposed Raman spectra and the standard Raman spectrum of keratin, a well-established molecular marker of OSCC. We use a total of 24 tissue samples, 10 OSCC and 10 normal tissues from the same 10 patients, 3 OSCC and 1 normal tissues from different patients. Following the newly developed protocol presented here, we have been able to detect OSCC tissues with 77 to 92% sensitivity (depending on how to define positivity) and 100% specificity. The present approach lends itself to a reliable clinical diagnosis of OSCC substantiated by the “molecular fingerprint” of keratin.

  4. DNA-based identification of Peucedanum ostruthium specimens and detection of common adulterants by high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Masterwort (Peucedanum ostruthium, syn. Imperatoria ostruthium, Apiaceae) is an old economic plant in Alpine countries cultivated as ornamental plant and used for spirits and in folk medicine. P. ostruthium is a species that has often been confused with related Apiaceae species or morphologically similar roots or tubers resulting in products of minor quality. Masterwort can be distinguished from other Apiaceae species by nrDNA (ITS1 and ITS2). The analysed chloroplast markers (trnK 5' intron, trnT-trnL, and psbA-trnH), however, showed no species-specific mutations. With the application of two primer pairs amplifying parts of ITS and developed for high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) the target species was distinguishable from the other Peucedanum and Apiaceae species of our reference set. A multiplex PCR/HRM was developed to detect adulterations with Gentiana spp., Aconitum napellus and Veratrum album.

  5. Detection and Differentiation of In Vitro-Spiked Bacteria by Real-Time PCR and Melting-Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klaschik, S.; Lehmann, L. E.; Raadts, A.; Book, M.; Gebel, J.; Hoeft, A.; Stuber, F.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a consensus real-time PCR protocol for the detection of bacterial DNA from laboratory-prepared specimens such as water, urine, and plasma. This prototype detection system enables an exact Gram stain classification and, in particular, screening for specific species of 17 intensive care unit-relevant bacteria by means of fluorescence hybridization probes and melting-curve analysis in a one-run experiment. One strain of every species was tested at a final density of 106 CFU/ml. All bacteria examined except Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis could be differentiated successfully; S. aureus and S. epidermidis could only be classified as “Staphylococcus species.” The hands-on time for preparation of the DNA, performance of the PCR, and evaluation of the PCR results was less than 4 h. Nevertheless, this prototype detection system requires more clinical validation. PMID:14766809

  6. Molecular component distribution imaging of living cells by multivariate curve resolution analysis of space-resolved Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.

    2014-01-01

    Label-free Raman microspectroscopy combined with a multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis can be a powerful tool for studying a wide range of biomedical molecular systems. The MCR with the alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) technique, which retrieves the pure component spectra from complicatedly overlapped spectra, has been successfully applied to in vivo and molecular-level analysis of living cells. The principles of the MCR-ALS analysis are reviewed with a model system of titanium oxide crystal polymorphs, followed by two examples of in vivo Raman imaging studies of living yeast cells, fission yeast, and budding yeast. Due to the non-negative matrix factorization algorithm used in the MCR-ALS analysis, the spectral information derived from this technique is just ready for physical and/or chemical interpretations. The corresponding concentration profiles provide the molecular component distribution images (MCDIs) that are vitally important for elucidating life at the molecular level, as stated by Schroedinger in his famous book, "What is life?" Without any a priori knowledge about spectral profiles, time- and space-resolved Raman measurements of a dividing fission yeast cell with the MCR-ALS elucidate the dynamic changes of major cellular components (lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides) during the cell cycle. The MCR-ALS technique also resolves broadly overlapped OH stretch Raman bands of water, clearly indicating the existence of organelle-specific water structures in a living budding yeast cell.

  7. Molecular component distribution imaging of living cells by multivariate curve resolution analysis of space-resolved Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o

    2014-01-01

    Label-free Raman microspectroscopy combined with a multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis can be a powerful tool for studying a wide range of biomedical molecular systems. The MCR with the alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) technique, which retrieves the pure component spectra from complicatedly overlapped spectra, has been successfully applied to in vivo and molecular-level analysis of living cells. The principles of the MCR-ALS analysis are reviewed with a model system of titanium oxide crystal polymorphs, followed by two examples of in vivo Raman imaging studies of living yeast cells, fission yeast, and budding yeast. Due to the non-negative matrix factorization algorithm used in the MCR-ALS analysis, the spectral information derived from this technique is just ready for physical and/or chemical interpretations. The corresponding concentration profiles provide the molecular component distribution images (MCDIs) that are vitally important for elucidating life at the molecular level, as stated by Schroedinger in his famous book, "What is life?" Without any a priori knowledge about spectral profiles, time- and space-resolved Raman measurements of a dividing fission yeast cell with the MCR-ALS elucidate the dynamic changes of major cellular components (lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides) during the cell cycle. The MCR-ALS technique also resolves broadly overlapped OH stretch Raman bands of water, clearly indicating the existence of organelle-specific water structures in a living budding yeast cell.

  8. Curve-based multivariate distance matrix regression analysis: application to genetic association analyses involving repeated measures

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Rany M.; O'Connor, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Most, if not all, human phenotypes exhibit a temporal, dosage-dependent, or age effect. Despite this fact, it is rare that data are collected over time or in sequence in relevant studies of the determinants of these phenotypes. The costs and organizational sophistication necessary to collect repeated measurements or longitudinal data for a given phenotype are clearly impediments to this, but greater efforts in this area are needed if insights into human phenotypic expression are to be obtained. Appropriate data analysis methods for genetic association studies involving repeated or longitudinal measures are also needed. We consider the use of longitudinal profiles obtained from fitted functions on repeated data collections from a set of individuals whose similarities are contrasted between sets of individuals with different genotypes to test hypotheses about genetic influences on time-dependent phenotype expression. The proposed approach can accommodate uncertainty of the fitted functions, as well as weighting factors across the time points, and is easily extended to a wide variety of complex analysis settings. We showcase the proposed approach with data from a clinical study investigating human blood vessel response to tyramine. We also compare the proposed approach with standard analytic procedures and investigate its robustness and power via simulation studies. The proposed approach is found to be quite flexible and performs either as well or better than traditional statistical methods. PMID:20423962

  9. Spectral clustering applied for dynamic contrast-enhanced MR analysis of time-intensity curves.

    PubMed

    Tartare, Guillaume; Hamad, Denis; Azahaf, Mustapha; Puech, Philippe; Betrouni, Nacim

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents an emerging method for the prediction of biomarker responses in cancer. However, DCE images remain difficult to analyze and interpret. Although pharmacokinetic approaches, which involve multi-step processes, can provide a general framework for the interpretation of these data, they are still too complex for robust and accurate implementation. Therefore, statistical data analysis techniques were recently suggested as another valid interpretation strategy for DCE-MRI. In this context, we propose a spectral clustering approach for the analysis of DCE-MRI time-intensity signals. This graph theory-based method allows for the grouping of signals after spatial transformation. Subsequently, these data clusters can be labeled following comparison to arterial signals. Here, we have performed experiments with simulated (i.e., generated via pharmacokinetic modeling) and clinical (i.e., obtained from patients scanned during prostate cancer diagnosis) data sets in order to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of this kind of unsupervised and non-parametric approach.

  10. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II as Predictor of Mortality in Intensive Care Units: A Decision Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allyn, Jérôme; Ferdynus, Cyril; Bohrer, Michel; Dalban, Cécile; Valance, Dorothée; Allou, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background End-of-life decision-making in Intensive care Units (ICUs) is difficult. The main problems encountered are the lack of a reliable prediction score for death and the fact that the opinion of patients is rarely taken into consideration. The Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) is a recent method developed to evaluate the prediction models and which takes into account the wishes of patients (or surrogates) to expose themselves to the risk of obtaining a false result. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical usefulness, with DCA, of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) to predict ICU mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study from January 2011 to September 2015, in a medical-surgical 23-bed ICU at University Hospital. Performances of the SAPS II, a modified SAPS II (without AGE), and age to predict ICU mortality, were measured by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and DCA. Results Among the 4.370 patients admitted, 23.3% died in the ICU. Mean (standard deviation) age was 56.8 (16.7) years, and median (first-third quartile) SAPS II was 48 (34–65). Areas under ROC curves were 0.828 (0.813–0.843) for SAPS II, 0.814 (0.798–0.829) for modified SAPS II and of 0.627 (0.608–0.646) for age. DCA showed a net benefit whatever the probability threshold, especially under 0.5. Conclusion DCA shows the benefits of the SAPS II to predict ICU mortality, especially when the probability threshold is low. Complementary studies are needed to define the exact role that the SAPS II can play in end-of-life decision-making in ICUs. PMID:27741304

  11. Lineage-specific detection of influenza B virus using real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Chansaenroj, Jira; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Influenza B viruses comprise two lineages, Victoria (B/Vic) and Yamagata (B/Yam), which co-circulate globally. The surveillance data on influenza B virus lineages in many countries often underestimate the true prevalence due to the lack of a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method for virus detection. We have developed a real-time PCR with melting curve analysis for lineage-specific differential detection of influenza B virus. By amplifying a region of the hemagglutinin gene using real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye, B/Vic and B/Yam could be differentiated based on their melting temperature peaks. This method was efficient (B/Vic = 93.2 %; B/Yam 97.7 %), sensitive (B/Vic, 94.6 %; B/Yam, 96.3 %), and specific (B/Vic, 97.7 %; B/Yam, 97.1 %). The lower detection limit was 10(2) copies per microliter. The assay was evaluated using 756 respiratory specimens that were positive for influenza B virus, obtained between 2010 and 2015. The incidence of influenza B virus was approximately 18.9 % of all influenza cases, and the percentage was highest among children aged 6-17 years (7.57 %). The overall percentage of mismatched influenza B vaccine was 21.1 %. Our findings suggest that real-time PCR with melting curve analysis can provide a rapid, simple, and sensitive lineage-specific influenza B virus screening method to facilitate influenza surveillance.

  12. Fragmentation behavior of a thiourea-based reagent for protein structure analysis by collision-induced dissociative chemical cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mathias Q; Dreiocker, Frank; Ihling, Christian H; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2010-08-01

    The fragmentation behavior of a novel thiourea-based cross-linker molecule specifically designed for collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS experiments is described. The development of this cross-linker is part of our ongoing efforts to synthesize novel reagents, which create either characteristic fragment ions or indicative constant neutral losses (CNLs) during tandem mass spectrometry allowing a selective and sensitive analysis of cross-linked products. The new derivatizing reagent for chemical cross-linking solely contains a thiourea moiety that is flanked by two amine-reactive N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) ester moieties for reaction with lysines or free N-termini in proteins. The new reagent offers simple synthetic access and easy structural variation of either length or functionalities at both ends. The thiourea moiety exhibits specifically tailored CID fragmentation capabilities--a characteristic CNL of 85 u--ensuring a reliable detection of derivatized peptides by both electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem mass spectrometry and as such possesses a versatile applicability for chemical cross-linking studies. A detailed examination of the CID behavior of the presented thiourea-based reagent reveals that slight structural variations of the reagent will be necessary to ensure its comprehensive and efficient application for chemical cross-linking of proteins.

  13. A/C(i) curve analysis across a range of woody plant species: influence of regression analysis parameters and mesophyll conductance.

    PubMed

    Manter, Daniel K; Kerrigan, Julia

    2004-12-01

    The analysis and interpretation of A/C(i) curves (net CO(2) assimilation rate, A, versus calculated substomatal CO(2) concentration, C(i)) is dependent upon a number of underlying assumptions. The influence of the C(i) value at which the A/C(i) curve switches between the Rubisco- and electron transport-limited portions of the curve was examined on A/C(i) curve parameter estimates, as well as the effect of mesophyll CO(2) conductance (g(m)) values on estimates of the maximum rate of Rubisco-mediated carboxylation (V(cmax)). Based on an analysis using 19 woody species from the Pacific Northwest, significant variation occurred in the C(i) value where the Rubisco- and electron transport-limited portions of the curve intersect (C(i_t)), ranging from 20 Pa to 152 Pa and averaging c. 71 Pa and 37 Pa for conifer and broadleaf species, respectively. Significant effects on estimated A/C(i) parameters (e.g. V(cmax)) may arise when preliminary estimates of C(i_t), necessary for the multiple regression analyses, are set either too high or too low. However, when the appropriate threshold is used, a significant relationship between A/C(i) and chlorophyll fluorescence estimates of carboxylation is achieved. The use of the V(cmax) parameter to describe accurately the Rubisco activity from the A/C(i) curve analysis is also dependent upon the assumption that C(i) is approximately equal to chloroplast CO(2) concentrations (C(c)). If leaf mesophyll conductance is low, C(c) will be much lower than C(i) and will result in an underestimation of V(cmax) from A/C(i) curves. A large range of mesophyll conductance (g(m)) values was observed across the 19 species (0.005+/-0.002 to 0.189+/-0.011 mol m(-2) s(-1) for Tsuga heterophylla and Quercus garryana, respectively) and, on average, g(m) was 1.9 times lower for the conifer species (0.058+/-0.017 mol m(-2) s(-1) for conifers versus 0.112+/-0.020 mol m(-2) s(-1) for broadleaves). When this mesophyll limitation was accounted for in V

  14. Blast response of curved carbon/epoxy composite panels: Experimental study and finite-element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Shukla, A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were conducted to understand the effect of plate curvature on blast response of carbon/epoxy composite panels. A shock-tube system was utilized to impart controlled shock loading to quasi-isotropic composite panels with differing range of radii of curvatures. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique coupled with high-speed photography was used to obtain out-of-plane deflection and velocity, as well as in-plane strain on the back face of the panels. Macroscopic post-mortem analysis was performed to compare yielding and deformation in these panels. A dynamic computational simulation that integrates fluid-structure interaction was conducted to evaluate the panel response in general purpose finite-element software ABAQUS/Explicit. The obtained numerical results were compared to the experimental data and showed a good correlation.

  15. A Global Approach to Accurate and Automatic Quantitative Analysis of NMR Spectra by Complex Least-Squares Curve Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. L.

    The performance of quantitative analysis of 1D NMR spectra depends greatly on the choice of the NMR signal model. Complex least-squares analysis is well suited for optimizing the quantitative determination of spectra containing a limited number of signals (<30) obtained under satisfactory conditions of signal-to-noise ratio (>20). From a general point of view it is concluded, on the basis of mathematical considerations and numerical simulations, that, in the absence of truncation of the free-induction decay, complex least-squares curve fitting either in the time or in the frequency domain and linear-prediction methods are in fact nearly equivalent and give identical results. However, in the situation considered, complex least-squares analysis in the frequency domain is more flexible since it enables the quality of convergence to be appraised at every resonance position. An efficient data-processing strategy has been developed which makes use of an approximate conjugate-gradient algorithm. All spectral parameters (frequency, damping factors, amplitudes, phases, initial delay associated with intensity, and phase parameters of a baseline correction) are simultaneously managed in an integrated approach which is fully automatable. The behavior of the error as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio is theoretically estimated, and the influence of apodization is discussed. The least-squares curve fitting is theoretically proved to be the most accurate approach for quantitative analysis of 1D NMR data acquired with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. The method enables complex spectral residuals to be sorted out. These residuals, which can be cumulated thanks to the possibility of correcting for frequency shifts and phase errors, extract systematic components, such as isotopic satellite lines, and characterize the shape and the intensity of the spectral distortion with respect to the Lorentzian model. This distortion is shown to be nearly independent of the chemical species

  16. General Reynolds analogy on curved surfaces in hypersonic rarefied gas flows with non-equilibrium chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xingxing, Chen; Zhihui, Wang; Yongliang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Hypersonic chemical non-equilibrium gas flows around blunt nosed bodies are studied in the present paper to investigate the Reynolds analogy relation on curved surfaces. With a momentum and energy transfer model being applied through boundary layers, influences of molecular dissociations and recombinations on skin frictions and heat fluxes are separately modeled. Expressions on the ratio of Cf / Ch (skin friction coefficient to heat flux) are presented along the surface of circular cylinders under the ideal dissociation gas model. The analysis indicates that molecular dissociations increase the linear distribution of Cf / Ch, but the nonlinear Reynolds analogy relation could ultimately be obtained in flows with larger Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, where the decrease of wall heat flux by molecular recombinations signifies. The present modeling and analyses are also verified by the DSMC calculations on nitrogen gas flows.

  17. Method for analysis of showerhead film cooling experiments on highly curved surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.; Schneider, E.; Ott, P.; von Wolfersdorf, J.; Weigand, B.

    2007-02-15

    The transient liquid crystal technique has been extensively used for measuring the heat transfer characteristics in gas turbine applications. Thereby, the time evolution of the surface temperature is usually evaluated using the model of a semi-infinite flat plate. For experiments on cylinders, Wagner et al. [G. Wagner, M. Kotulla, P. Ott, B. Weigand, J. von Wolfersdorf, The transient liquid crystal technique: influence of surface curvature and finite wall thickness, ASME Paper GT2004-53553, 2004] showed, that curvature and finite thickness effects can have an influence on the obtained heat transfer coefficients. The aim of this study is to develop a time effective data reduction method that accounts for curvature and that is applicable to film cooling experiments with time varying adiabatic wall temperatures. To verify this method, transient liquid crystal experiments have been carried out on a blunt body model with showerhead film cooling. The experimental data was evaluated with the traditional semi-infinite flat plate approach and with the curvature correction using regression analysis. (author)

  18. Mixed models and reduced/selective integration displacement models for nonlinear analysis of curved beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Simple mixed models are developed for use in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of deep arches. A total Lagrangian description of the arch deformation is used, the analytical formulation being based on a form of the nonlinear deep arch theory with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The fundamental unknowns comprise the six internal forces and generalized displacements of the arch, and the element characteristic arrays are obtained by using Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The polynomial interpolation functions employed in approximating the forces are one degree lower than those used in approximating the displacements, and the forces are discontinuous at the interelement boundaries. Attention is given to the equivalence between the mixed models developed herein and displacement models based on reduced integration of both the transverse shear and extensional energy terms. The advantages of mixed models over equivalent displacement models are summarized. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy and effectiveness of the mixed models developed and to permit a comparison of their performance with that of other mixed models reported in the literature.

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor instability under curved substrates: An optimal transient growth analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, Gioele; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, François

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the stability of thin viscous films coated on the inside of a horizontal cylindrical substrate. In such a case, gravity acts both as a stabilizing force through the progressive drainage of the film and as a destabilizing force prone to form droplets via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The drainage solution, derived from lubrication equations, is found asymptotically stable with respect to infinitesimally small perturbations, although in reality, droplets often form. To resolve this paradox, we perform an optimal transient growth analysis for the first-order perturbations of the liquid's interface, generalizing the results of Trinh et al. [Phys. Fluids 26, 051704 (2014), 10.1063/1.4876476]. We find that the system displays a linear transient growth potential that gives rise to two different scenarios depending on the value of the Bond number (prescribing the relative importance of gravity and surface tension forces). At low Bond numbers, the optimal perturbation of the interface does not generate droplets. In contrast, for higher Bond numbers, perturbations on the upper hemicircle yield gains large enough to potentially form droplets. The gain increases exponentially with the Bond number. In particular, depending on the amplitude of the initial perturbation, we find a critical Bond number above which the short-time linear growth is sufficient to trigger the nonlinear effects required to form dripping droplets. We conclude that the transition to droplets detaching from the substrate is noise and perturbation dependent.

  20. Assessing contamination of microalgal astaxanthin producer Haematococcus cultures with high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Dawidziuk, Adam; Popiel, Delfina; Luboinska, Magda; Grzebyk, Michal; Wisniewski, Maciej; Koczyk, Grzegorz

    2016-11-26

    Due to its superior antioxidant capabilities and higher activity than other carotenoids, astaxanthin is used widely in the nutraceutical and medicine industries. The most prolific natural producer of astaxanthin is the unicellular green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. The correct identification of any contaminants in H. pluvialis cultures is both essential and nontrivial for several reasons. Firstly, while it is possible to distinguish the main microalgal contaminant Coelastrella sp. (in H. pluvialis cultures), in practice, it is frequently a daunting and error-prone task for personnel without extensive experience in the microscopic identification of algal species. Secondly, the undetected contaminants may decrease or stop production of astaxanthin. Lastly, the presence of other contaminants such as fungi can eventually infect and destroy the whole algae collection. In this study, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect microalgal and fungal contamination. The developed diagnostic procedure allowed to distinguish pure H. pluvialis samples from cultures contaminated with low amounts (1.25 ng/ml) of microalgal DNA and fungal DNA (2.5 ng/ml). Such discrimination is not possible with the use of microscopy observations and allows fast and efficient collection testing.

  1. Analysis of Epsilon Aurigae light curve from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clover, John; Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Kloppenborg, B.; Stencel, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) was launched aboard the Coriolis spacecraft in 2003. It is equipped with 3 CCD cameras to measure the brightness of Thomson-scattered electrons in the heliosphere. Each CCD images a strip of the sky that is 3°x60°. The three cameras are mounted on the satellite with their fields of view aligned end-to-end so that SMEI sweeps nearly the entire sky each 102 minute orbit. SMEI has now accumulated stellar time series for about 5700 bright stars, including epsilon Aurigae, for each orbit where data is available. SMEI data provide nearly year-round coverage of epsilon Aurigae. The baffled SMEI optics provide more accurate photometric data than ground-based observations, particularly at mid-eclipse when epsilon Aurigae is close to the Sun. We present an analysis of the brightness variations of the epsilon Aurigae system, before and during the eclipse. The University of Denver participants are grateful for support under NSFgrant 10-16678 and the bequest of William Hershel Womble in support of astronomy at the University of Denver.

  2. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are derived. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both classical plate theory (CPT) and first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) are presented. The effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads are included in the in-plane stability equations. Numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are presented. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPT are made. The computational effort required by the new analysis is compared to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  3. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  4. Points on the curve: An analysis of methods for assessing the shape of vertebrate claws.

    PubMed

    Tinius, Alexander; Patrick Russell, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The form of amniote claws has been extensively investigated, often with inferences about ecological association being drawn from studies of their geometry. Various methods have been used to quantify differences in the geometry of claws, but rarely have the underlying assumptions of such methods been addressed. Here, we use one set of bird claws and apply six methods (five that have been previously used, and a new one) that are tasked with comparing their shape. In doing so, we compare the (1) ability of these methods to represent the shape of the claw; (2) validity of the assumptions made about underlying claw geometry; (3) their ability to be applied unambiguously; and (4) their ability to differentiate between predetermined functional clusters. We find that of the six methods considered only the geometric morphometric approach reveals differences in the shapes of bird claws. Our comparison shows that geometry-based methods can provide a general estimate of the degree of curvature of claw arcs, but are unable to differentiate between shapes. Of all of the geometry-based approaches, we conclude that the adjusted version of the Zani (2000) method is the most useful because it can be applied without ambiguity, and provides a reliable estimate of claw curvature. The three landmarks that define that method (tip and base of the claw arc, plus the intersection between said claw arc and a line drawn perpendicular from the midpoint of tip and claw base) do not all bear biological significance, but relatively clearly circumscribe the length-to-height ratio of the claw, which relates to its curvature. Overall, our comparisons reveal that the shape of avian claws does not differ significantly between climbing and perching birds, and that the utilization of preordained functional clusters in comparative data analysis can hinder the discovery of meaningful differences in claw shape. J. Morphol. 278:150-169, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.

  5. From Curves to Trees: A Tree-like Shapes Distance Using the Elastic Shape Analysis Framework.

    PubMed

    Mottini, A; Descombes, X; Besse, F

    2015-04-01

    Trees are a special type of graph that can be found in various disciplines. In the field of biomedical imaging, trees have been widely studied as they can be used to describe structures such as neurons, blood vessels and lung airways. It has been shown that the morphological characteristics of these structures can provide information on their function aiding the characterization of pathological states. Therefore, it is important to develop methods that analyze their shape and quantify differences between their structures. In this paper, we present a method for the comparison of tree-like shapes that takes into account both topological and geometrical information. This method, which is based on the Elastic Shape Analysis Framework, also computes the mean shape of a population of trees. As a first application, we have considered the comparison of axon morphology. The performance of our method has been evaluated on two sets of images. For the first set of images, we considered four different populations of neurons from different animals and brain sections from the NeuroMorpho.org open database. The second set was composed of a database of 3D confocal microscopy images of three populations of axonal trees (normal and two types of mutations) of the same type of neurons. We have calculated the inter and intra class distances between the populations and embedded the distance in a classification scheme. We have compared the performance of our method against three other state of the art algorithms, and results showed that the proposed method better distinguishes between the populations. Furthermore, we present the mean shape of each population. These shapes present a more complete picture of the morphological characteristics of each population, compared to the average value of certain predefined features.

  6. Asteroid phase curve analysis with the H, G 1, G 2 photometric phase function: application to the PTF survey observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, Antti; Cellino, Alberto; Lu, Xiaoping; Shevchenko, Vasilij G.; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of an asteroid's absolute magnitude H from its photometry is extremely important. The absolute magnitude relates the brightness of the asteroid to its size, if the geometric albedo is known. The shape of the phase curve can serve as a proxy for the taxonomic type of the asteroid in cases with no spectral information available [1,2].In 2012, the IAU adopted the H,G1,G2 function to replace the H,G function for phase curve analysis [3]. This new function improves the backscattering behavior of the curve with high- and low-albedo asteroids. The phase function (PF) can be applied to asteroids with multiple high-quality observations. If the number of observations is small, or their accuracy is low, problems may arise. The most apparent problem is that the parameter G or the parameters G1, G2 might be poorly estimated. The solution has been to fix to value of G or values of G1, G2 and estimate only the H. In our recent work [4], we offer a solution that can improve the current situation with the photometric fits with a small number of low-accuracy observations. We present a constrained nonlinear least-squares method for fitting the H,G1,G2 function that can improve the possible bias with low-accuracy data. Then, we revisit the two-parameter PF with new data and offer a new version, the H,G12* PF. Finally, we assess the problem with fixed G or G1, G2 parameters by introducing one-parameter models that relate to five taxonomic asteroid groups. We tie all the models together with three or two parameters, or a single parameter, with a statistical model selection procedure to select the best version for a particular data set.We have developed practical tools for the abovementioned algorithms. We apply the tools to a dataset of 8,900 asteroids with almost 500,000 photometric observations from the Palomar Transient Factory survey [5]. We report the effect of the revised H estimates on the geometric albedos in cases where WISE-mission size estimates are available.[1] D

  7. Development of the Hebrew-Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (H-MID): a valid and reliable measure of pathological dissociation.

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Dell, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID; Dell, 2004b) has 168 dissociation items and 50 validity items. The MID assesses 14 major facets of dissociation, 23 symptoms of dissociation, and has 5 validity scales. The MID operationalizes (a) the subjective/ phenomenological domain of dissociation, and (b) 23 hypothesized symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID). This article describes the development of a Hebrew version of the MID (H-MID). In a sample of clinical and nonclinical research participants, the H-MID had strong internal consistency, temporal stability, and strong structural, convergent, discriminant, and construct validity. In addition, mean H-MID scores demonstrated incremental validity over the Hebrew Dissociative Experiences Scale (H-DES) by predicting an additional 17% of the variance in weighted trauma scores on the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire (TEQ). Factor analysis of the H-MID extracted a single factor: dissociation. Both the MID and the subjective/phenomenological concept of pathological dissociation appear to have applicability not only in North America, but also in a heterogeneous Middle Eastern culture.

  8. Role of mindfulness in dissociative disorders among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Tanya; Sinha, Vinod K.; Sayeed, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Context: Dissociation is understood as maladaptive coping and is common in children and adolescents. Treatment outcome studies show improvement in comorbid conditions suggesting the need to implement programs that target dissociative pathology. Aim: To study the effect of practicing mindfulness among adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders. Settings and Design: It was a hospital-based repeated measures design. Materials and Methods: 7 adolescents participated in a mindfulness-based therapeutic program for 6 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Scores were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Friedman test was used to assess significance of the difference in scores at various assessment phases. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for post hoc analysis. Results: Participants were mostly female adolescents from rural, Eastern India. There was a significant reduction in dissociative experiences and significant improvement in mindfulness. Conclusions: Incorporating mindfulness in clinical practice may prove effective in reducing dissociation and promoting adaptive functioning. PMID:28066012

  9. EEG complexity and attentional processes related to dissociative states.

    PubMed

    Bob, Peter; Golla, Megan; Epstein, Phillip; Konopka, Lukasz

    2011-07-01

    Reported findings indicate that attentional narrowing is related to decreased complexity and increased inhibition of neural assemblies. These findings suggest that analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity could present a useful method for research of attentional changes related to dissociation. To examine this model we used a case study to test the two hypotheses: (1) that successful anticonvulsant medication would result in dissociative symptom alleviation, improvement of inhibitory neural functions, and decreased EEG complexity, and (2) that cognitive conflict, related to aversive events in the patient's past experience, during reliving of a dissociative state would lead to greater allocation of attention and decreased EEG complexity. Three EEG studies recorded in the eyes closed non-drowsy state were performed: (1) at baseline, (2) post-induction of dissociative state, and (3) post-anticonvulsant medication following induction of dissociative state. A dissociative state was achieved following an interview regarding the patient's aversive past experiences through use of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ). The patient's level of dissociation was measured using the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). The PDEQ interview and DES-II assessment were also used one hour following the oral consumption of an anticonvulsant medication (clonazepam 2mg). Analysis of the data revealed that complexity values (PD2) are significantly lower following the oral consumption of clonazepam (2mg) in the majority of EEG channels. Additionally, complexity during the reliving of a dissociative state was statistically significantly lower than both the baseline and post-medication conditions in all but two EEG channels. Results of the case study suggest that changes in attentional processes linked to dissociation are related to: (1) decreased complexity when attention is extremely focused because of attentional narrowing to the disturbing past

  10. The 2003 November 14 occultation by Titan of TYC 1343-1865-1. II. Analysis of light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalucha, A.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Elliot, J. L.; Thomas-Osip, J.; Hammel, H. B.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Taylor, F. W.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2007-12-01

    We observed a stellar occultation by Titan on 2003 November 14 from La Palma Observatory using ULTRACAM with three Sloan filters: u, g, and i (358, 487, and 758 nm, respectively). The occultation probed latitudes 2° S and 1° N during immersion and emersion, respectively. A prominent central flash was present in only the i filter, indicating wavelength-dependent atmospheric extinction. We inverted the light curves to obtain six lower-limit temperature profiles between 335 and 485 km (0.04 and 0.003 mb) altitude. The i profiles agreed with the temperature measured by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument [Fulchignoni, M., and 43 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791] above 415 km (0.01 mb). The profiles obtained from different wavelength filters systematically diverge as altitude decreases, which implies significant extinction in the light curves. Applying an extinction model [Elliot, J.L., Young, L.A., 1992. Astron. J. 103, 991-1015] gave the altitudes of line of sight optical depth equal to unity: 396±7 and 401±20 km ( u immersion and emersion); 354±7 and 387±7 km ( g immersion and emersion); and 336±5 and 318±4 km ( i immersion and emersion). Further analysis showed that the optical depth follows a power law in wavelength with index 1.3±0.2. We present a new method for determining temperature from scintillation spikes in the occulting body's atmosphere. Temperatures derived with this method are equal to or warmer than those measured by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument. Using the highly structured, three-peaked central flash, we confirmed the shape of Titan's middle atmosphere using a model originally derived for a previous Titan occultation [Hubbard, W.B., and 45 colleagues, 1993. Astron. Astrophys. 269, 541-563].

  11. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Max; Smith, Sarah J.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  12. Direct detection of Rifampicin and Isoniazid resistance in sputum samples from tuberculosis patients by High Resolution Melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Anthwal, Divya; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Bhalla, Manpreet; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami; Haldar, Sagarika

    2017-03-22

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat for TB control worldwide. Globally, only 40% of the 340,000 notified TB patients estimated to have multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) were detected in 2015. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility of High Resolution Melt curve analysis (HRM) for the rapid and direct detection of MDR-TB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in sputum samples. A reference plasmid library was first generated of the most frequently observed mutations in the resistance determining regions of rpoB, katG and inhA promoter and used as positive controls in HRM. The assay was first validated in 25 MDR-M. tb clinical isolates. The assay was evaluated on DNA isolated from 99 M. tb culture-positive sputum samples that included 84 smear-negative sputum, using DNA sequencing as gold standard. Mutants were discriminated from wild-type by comparing melting-curve patterns with those of control plasmids using HRM software. Rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) mono-resistance were detected in 11 and 21 specimens, respectively by HRM. Six samples were classified as MDR-TB by sequencing, one of which was missed by HRM. HRM-RIF, INH-katG and INH-inhA assay had 89% (52;100), 85% (62;97) and 100% (74;100) sensitivity, respectively in smear-negative samples; while all assays had 100% sensitivity in smear-positive samples. All assays had 100% specificity. Concordance of 97%-100% (κ value;0.9-1) was noted between sequencing and HRM. Hetero-resistance was observed in 5 of 99 samples by sequencing. In conclusion, the HRM assay was a cost-effective (INR400/US$6), rapid and closed-tube method for direct detection of MDR-TB in sputum, especially for direct smear negative cases.

  13. Dissociation of motor maturation.

    PubMed

    DiMario, Francis J

    2003-06-01

    We prospectively acquired clinical data regarding the presentation, evaluation, and developmental progress of all patients identified with dissociated motor maturation to define their clinical outcomes. Children (N = 8) referred for evaluation of suspected cerebral palsy because of delayed sitting or walking and identified to have dissociated motor maturation were followed with serial clinical examination. All displayed the characteristic "sitting on air" posture while held in vertical suspension and had otherwise normal developmental assessments. This posture is composed of the hips held in flexion and abduction with the knees extended and feet plantar or dorsiflexed. Three children were initially evaluated at 10 months of age owing to absence of sitting and five other children were evaluated at a mean of 14 months (range 12-19 months) owing to inability to stand. Follow-up evaluations were conducted over a mean of 10.5 months (range 5-34 months). Five children were born prematurely at 34 to 36 weeks gestation. Denver Developmental Screening Test and general and neurologic examinations were normal except to note hypotonia in six children and the "sitting on air" posture in all of the children. Four children have older siblings or parents who "walked late" (after 15 months). On average, the children attained sitting by 8 months (range 7-10 months). One child did not crawl prior to independent walking, two children scooted rather than crawled, and five children crawled at an average of 13.5 months (range 10-16 months). All children cruised by a mean of 18 months (range 16-21.5 months) and attained independent walking by 20.1 months (range 18-25 months). Neuroimaging and serum creatine kinase enzyme testing were normal in two children who were tested. These eight children conform to the syndrome of dissociated motor maturation. The "sitting on air" posture serves as a diagnostic sign and anticipated excellent prognosis, but follow-up is required to ensure a normal

  14. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  15. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  16. High throughput analysis reveals dissociable gene expression profiles in two independent neural systems involved in the regulation of social behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Production of contextually appropriate social behaviors involves integrated activity across many brain regions. Many songbird species produce complex vocalizations called ‘songs’ that serve to attract potential mates, defend territories, and/or maintain flock cohesion. There are a series of discrete interconnect brain regions that are essential for the successful production of song. The probability and intensity of singing behavior is influenced by the reproductive state. The objectives of this study were to examine the broad changes in gene expression in brain regions that control song production with a brain region that governs the reproductive state. Results We show using microarray cDNA analysis that two discrete brain systems that are both involved in governing singing behavior show markedly different gene expression profiles. We found that cortical and basal ganglia-like brain regions that control the socio-motor production of song in birds exhibit a categorical switch in gene expression that was dependent on their reproductive state. This pattern is in stark contrast to the pattern of expression observed in a hypothalamic brain region that governs the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Subsequent gene ontology analysis revealed marked variation in the functional categories of active genes dependent on reproductive state and anatomical localization. HVC, one cortical-like structure, displayed significant gene expression changes associated with microtubule and neurofilament cytoskeleton organization, MAP kinase activity, and steroid hormone receptor complex activity. The transitions observed in the preoptic area, a nucleus that governs the motivation to engage in singing, exhibited variation in functional categories that included thyroid hormone receptor activity, epigenetic and angiogenetic processes. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal patterns of gene expression across several brain regions

  17. Analysis of protein film voltammograms as Michaelis-Menten saturation curves yield the electron cooperativity number for deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Heering, Hendrik A

    2012-10-01

    Deconvolution of protein film voltammetric data by fitting multiple components (sigmoids, derivative peaks) often is ambiguous when features are partially overlapping, due to exchangeability between the width and the number of components. Here, a new method is presented to obtain the width of the components. This is based on the equivalence between the sigmoidal catalytic response as function of electrode potential, and the classical saturation curve obtained for the enzyme activity as function of the soluble substrate concentration, which is also sigmoidal when plotted versus log[S]. Thus, analysis of the catalytic voltammogram with Lineweaver-Burk, Eadie-Hofstee, and Hanes-Woolf plots is feasible. This provides a very sensitive measure of the cooperativity number (Hill coefficient), which for electrons equals the apparent (fractional) number of electrons that determine the width, and thereby the number of components (kinetic phases). This analysis is applied to the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction by Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome aa(3) (cytochrome c oxidase). Four partially overlapping kinetic phases are observed that (stepwise) increase the catalytic efficiency with increasingly reductive potential. Translated to cell biology, the activity of the terminal oxidase stepwise adapts to metabolic demand for oxidative phosphorylation.

  18. Application of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy to chemometrics: self-modeling curve resolution analysis of spectral data sets.

    PubMed

    Jung Mee, Young; Kim Bin, Seung; Noda, Isao

    2003-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy in conjunction with alternating least squares (ALS) based self-modeling curve resolution (SMCR) analysis of spectral data sets. This iterative regression technique utilizes the non-negativity constraints for spectral intensity and concentration. ALS-based SMCR analysis assisted with 2D correlation was applied to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of a polystyrene/methyl ethyl ketone/deuterated toluene (PS/MEK/d-toluene) solution mixture during the solvent evaporation process to obtain the pure component spectra and then the time-dependent concentration profiles of these three components during the evaporation process. We focus the use of asynchronous 2D correlation peaks for the identification of pure variables needed for the initial estimates of the ALS process. Choosing the most distinct bands via the positions of asynchronous 2D peaks is a viable starting point for ALS iteration. Once the pure variables are selected, ALS regression can be used to obtain the concentration profiles and pure component spectra. The obtained pure component spectra of MEK, d-toluene, and PS matched well with known spectra. The concentration profiles for components looked reasonable.

  19. Baseline Dissociation and Prospective Success in Special Forces Assessment and Selection

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Charles A.; Southwick, Steven M.; Hazliett, Gary; Dial-Ward, Mike

    2008-01-01

    state symptoms of dissociation in response to a specified stressor.14 Subjects were instructed to complete the CADSS using the week previous to enrollment in the course as their reference point. Subjects were instructed to inform the research team (orally and in writing) if during the previous week they had experienced any traumatic or highly stressful events. We did not include the clinician-observer component of the CADSS given the low intercorrelation coefficients for this component. After completing the CADSS, participants commenced participation in SFAS. Data analysis In order to test the hypothesis that symptoms of dissociation would be significantly related to success or failure in SFAS, the following variables were created: total CADSS scores (the sum of individual CADSS items); classification scores indicating whether or not subjects reported symptoms of dissociation at baseline (1=yes; 0=no); and two additional classification scores designed to classify subjects in a binary fashion based on whether or not their CADSS total score was greater than, at, or below a specified value (less than 5; equal to, or greater than, 5; less than 11; equal to or greater than 11). These classification cut-off points were selected based on the distribution of responses from subjects in this study and on the mean pre-stress CADSS dissociation scores noted in our previous studies.15 Chi-squared analyses were performed to test whether subjects endorsing baseline symptoms of dissociation (any, greater than 5 points, greater than 11 points) were more likely to fail SFAS compared to peers who did not report such symptoms. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves ROC curves were created by using the CADSS baseline total score (the test variable) in order to predict outcome in the SFAS program (the state variable, where 1= failed SFAS). ROC graphs were created for the group as a whole and for the sub-group of subjects whose CADSS score was 1 or greater. For both ROC graphs, the

  20. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  1. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted.

  2. Xenon hydrate dissociation measurements with model protein systems.

    PubMed

    Booker, Ryan D; Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Singh, Satish K

    2011-09-01

    Effective long-term storage remains a significant challenge to the use and development of protein pharmaceuticals. We have investigated the interactions between clathrate hydrates and model protein solutions to determine the effects on hydrate formation. Here, the dissociation curve and equilibrium conditions for xenon clathrate hydrate with model lysozyme and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) protein solutions have been studied using calorimetry measurements at pressures ranging from 3 to 20 bar. Sucrose in solution was shown to exhibit small inhibition effects on xenon hydrate formation, shifting the dissociation curve and decreasing the conversion of water to hydrate by 15-26%. The addition of l-histidine buffer and lysozyme at low concentrations did not substantially inhibit hydrate formation. However, small shifts in the dissociation curve were demonstrated for solutions containing LDH. The presence of lysozyme and LDH in solution did not significantly alter the conversion of water to hydrate, indicating that these and similar proteins do not substantially affect the extent of xenon gas hydrate formation. Preliminary experiments were performed for LDH solutions to assess the impact of xenon hydrate formation and dissociation on enzymatic activity, with samples stored in hydrate systems showing small decreases in activity.

  3. Dissociation Behavior of a TEMPO-Active Ester Cross-Linker for Peptide Structure Analysis by Free Radical Initiated Peptide Sequencing (FRIPS) in Negative ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Christoph; Ihling, Christian H.; Götze, Michael; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized a homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linking reagent, containing a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy) and a benzyl group (Bz), termed TEMPO-Bz-linker, to derive three-dimensional structural information of proteins. The aim for designing this novel cross-linker was to facilitate the mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked products by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS). In an initial study, we had investigated the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-derivatized peptides upon collision activation in (+)-electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS) experiments. In addition to the homolytic NO-C bond cleavage FRIPS pathway delivering the desired odd-electron product ions, an alternative heterolytic NO-C bond cleavage, resulting in even-electron product ions mechanism was found to be relevant. The latter fragmentation route clearly depends on the protonation of the TEMPO-Bz-moiety itself, which motivated us to conduct (-)-ESI-MS, CID-MS/MS, and MS3 experiments of TEMPO-Bz-cross-linked peptides to further clarify the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-peptide molecular ions. We show that the TEMPO-Bz-linker is highly beneficial for conducting FRIPS in negative ionization mode as the desired homolytic cleavage of the NO-C bond is the major fragmentation pathway. Based on characteristic fragments, the isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine could be discriminated. Interestingly, we observed pronounced amino acid side chain losses in cross-linked peptides if the cross-linked peptides contain a high number of acidic amino acids.

  4. Analysis of the Activation and Heterolytic Dissociation of H2 by Frustrated Lewis Pairs: NH3/BX3 (X = H, F, and Cl)

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Schenter, Gregory K.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Autrey, Thomas

    2012-07-05

    We present results of our computational study aimed at understanding the mechanism of H2 activation and heterolytic dissociation by 'frustrated' Lewis pairs (FLPs). We studied the pairs of ammonia (NH3) with BH3, BF3, and most extensively, BCl3. While these pairs are capable of forming a strong dative bond, electronic structure theories make it possible to explore the potential surface in regions away from the dative complex relevant to H2 activation by frustrated Lewis pairs. We analyzed in great detail the changes that occur along the minimum energy path between the FLP and the product ion pair complex. For X = Cl, the mechanism involves a precursor complex, H3N-H2-BCl3, with a B-H-H angle of {approx}80{sup o} and nearly linear N-H-H angle. At the transition state (TS), the H2 bond is weakened but not broken, and the BCl3 moiety has undergone significant pyramidal distortion. As such, the FLP is prepared to accept the incipient proton and hydride ion on the product-side. The interaction energy of the H2 with the acid/base pair and the different contributions for the precursor and TS complex from an energy decomposition analysis expose the dominant factors affecting the reactivity. We find that structural reorganization of precursor complex plays a significant role in the 'activation' and that charge-transfer interactions are the dominant stabilizing force in the activated complex. The electric field clearly has a role in polarizing H2, but its contribution to the overall interaction energy seems to be smaller. Our detailed study of the nature of the bonding and the different types of interaction between the prototypical Lewis pair and H2 provides insight into the important components that should be taken into account when designing related systems to activate hydrogen.

  5. Dissociation Behavior of a TEMPO-Active Ester Cross-Linker for Peptide Structure Analysis by Free Radical Initiated Peptide Sequencing (FRIPS) in Negative ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Hage, Christoph; Ihling, Christian H; Götze, Michael; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized a homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linking reagent, containing a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy) and a benzyl group (Bz), termed TEMPO-Bz-linker, to derive three-dimensional structural information of proteins. The aim for designing this novel cross-linker was to facilitate the mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked products by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS). In an initial study, we had investigated the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-derivatized peptides upon collision activation in (+)-electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS) experiments. In addition to the homolytic NO-C bond cleavage FRIPS pathway delivering the desired odd-electron product ions, an alternative heterolytic NO-C bond cleavage, resulting in even-electron product ions mechanism was found to be relevant. The latter fragmentation route clearly depends on the protonation of the TEMPO-Bz-moiety itself, which motivated us to conduct (-)-ESI-MS, CID-MS/MS, and MS(3) experiments of TEMPO-Bz-cross-linked peptides to further clarify the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-peptide molecular ions. We show that the TEMPO-Bz-linker is highly beneficial for conducting FRIPS in negative ionization mode as the desired homolytic cleavage of the NO-C bond is the major fragmentation pathway. Based on characteristic fragments, the isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine could be discriminated. Interestingly, we observed pronounced amino acid side chain losses in cross-linked peptides if the cross-linked peptides contain a high number of acidic amino acids. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  7. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David Michael

    1997-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. The formulation uses the principle of virtual work. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are then derived after the application of several simplifying assumptions. These equations are then modified to allow the reference surface of the plate to be located at a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described as well. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both Classical Plate Theory (CPT) and first-order Shear-Deformation Plate Theory (SDPT) are presented. The necessary steps to include the effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads in the in-plane stability equations are also outlined. Numerical results are presented using the newly implemented capability. Comparisons of results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPF are also made. Results comparing the computational effort required by the new analysis to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program are presented. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  8. Peritraumatic dissociation after loss: latent structure and associations with psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Keijsers, Loes; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the factor-structure of retrospectively assessed peritraumatic dissociation in the moments surrounding the death of a loved one and concurrent and prospective associations of such peritraumatic dissociation with loss-related emotional distress. Data were available from 168 people, bereaved in the preceding year. They completed the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire with their loss as the index event, together with measures of prolonged grief disorder, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder; 117 completed symptom measures again 1 year later. Confirmatory factor analysis comparing the fit of four competing models showed that the eight-item one-factor model found in the first study using the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire provided the best fit to the data. Peritraumatic dissociation predicted concurrent and prospective symptom levels even when controlling for neuroticism and demographic and loss-related variables.

  9. Is high hypnotizability a necessary diathesis for pathological dissociation?

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2017-01-01

    During the 19th century, high hypnotizability was considered to be a form of psychopathology that was inseparable from hysteria. Today, hypnotizability is considered to be a normal trait that has no meaningful relationship with psychopathology. Psychiatric patients generally manifest medium to low hypnotizability. Nevertheless, several psychiatric diagnoses are marked by an unexpectedly large proportion of patients with high hypnotizability. This is especially true of the diagnostic categories that were subsumed by the 19th-century concept of hysteria: dissociative identity disorder, somatization disorder, and complex conversion disorders. These hysteria-related modern diagnoses are also highly dissociative. A review and analysis of the literature regarding the relationship between hypnotizability and dissociation indicates that high hypnotizability is almost certainly a necessary diathesis for the development of a severe dissociative disorder. Such a diathesis has significant implications for (a) the psychiatric nosologies of the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization, (b) the hypnosis field, and (c) the etiology and construct validity of dissociative identity disorder and other severe dissociative disorders. Specifically, the dissociative disorders (excepting depersonalization disorder, which is not classified as a dissociative disorder by the World Health Organization) are manifestations of hypnotic pathology.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the electrostatic force distance curve using Sobol’s method and design of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhossen, I.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Baudoin, F.; Bugarin, F.; Segonds, S.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the electrostatic force distance curve (EFDC) is a relevant way of probing injected charge in 3D. However, the EFDC needs a thorough investigation to be accurately analyzed and to provide information about charge localization. Interpreting the EFDC in terms of charge distribution is not straightforward from an experimental point of view. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of the EFDC is studied using buried electrodes as a first approximation. In particular, the influence of input factors such as the electrode width, depth and applied potential are investigated. To reach this goal, the EFDC is fitted to a law described by four parameters, called logistic law, and the influence of the electrode parameters on the law parameters has been investigated. Then, two methods are applied—Sobol’s method and the factorial design of experiment—to quantify the effect of each factor on each parameter of the logistic law. Complementary results are obtained from both methods, demonstrating that the EFDC is not the result of the superposition of the contribution of each electrode parameter, but that it exhibits a strong contribution from electrode parameter interaction. Furthermore, thanks to these results, a matricial model has been developed to predict EFDCs for any combination of electrode characteristics. A good correlation is observed with the experiments, and this is promising for charge investigation using an EFDC.

  11. Global fit analysis of glucose binding curves reveals a minimal model for kinetic cooperativity in human glucokinase.

    PubMed

    Larion, Mioara; Miller, Brian G

    2010-10-19

    Human pancreatic glucokinase is a monomeric enzyme that displays kinetic cooperativity, a feature that facilitates enzyme-mediated regulation of blood glucose levels in the body. Two theoretical models have been proposed to describe the non-Michaelis-Menten behavior of human glucokinase. The mnemonic mechanism postulates the existence of one thermodynamically favored enzyme conformation in the absence of glucose, whereas the ligand-induced slow transition model (LIST) requires a preexisting equilibrium between two enzyme species that interconvert with a rate constant slower than turnover. To investigate whether either of these mechanisms is sufficient to describe glucokinase cooperativity, a transient-state kinetic analysis of glucose binding to the enzyme was undertaken. A complex, time-dependent change in enzyme intrinsic fluorescence was observed upon exposure to glucose, which is best described by an analytical solution comprised of the sum of four exponential terms. Transient-state glucose binding experiments conducted in the presence of increasing glycerol concentrations demonstrate that three of the observed rate constants decrease with increasing viscosity. Global fit analyses of experimental glucose binding curves are consistent with a kinetic model that is an extension of the LIST mechanism with a total of four glucose-bound binary complexes. The kinetic model presented herein suggests that glucokinase samples multiple conformations in the absence of ligand and that this conformational heterogeneity persists even after the enzyme associates with glucose.

  12. Rapid and simultaneous detection of common aneuploidies by quadruplex real-time polymerase chain reaction combined with melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jiwu; Sun, Manna; Zhao, Ying; Ji, Zhisong; Liu, Fenghua; Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Wanfang; Lin, Yangyang; Liu, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Background During the prenatal period, the number variation of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y accounts for more than 80% of the clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities diagnosed. Rapid tests for prenatal diagnosis of these abnormalities can improve pregnancy management and alleviate parental anxiety. Here, we present a molecular alternative method for detecting common aneuploidies. Methods This method is based on co-amplification of segmental duplications located on two different chromosomes using a single pair of primers. Segmental duplications have a high degree of sequence identity, but have single-nucleotide differences in some regions. These sequence differences can be quantified using melting curve analysis of dual-labeled probes to estimate the relative dosages of different chromosomes. We designed two quadruplex real-time PCR assays to detect aneuploidies of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. Results We examined 75 aneuploid DNA samples and 56 unaffected DNA control samples using these two assays and correctly identified all samples. Four cases of unbalanced translocation were also accurately detected. The observed averaged ratio for each chromosomal disorder was similar to the theoretically expected value. Conclusions Our real-time assay is a robust, rapid, and easy to conduct technique for prenatal diagnosis of common aneuploidies, representing a competitive alternative for use in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:28241016

  13. Measuring the elastic properties of living cells through the analysis of current-displacement curves in scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Mario; Pellegrini, Monica; Orsini, Paolo; Tognoni, Elisabetta; Ascoli, Cesare; Baschieri, Paolo; Dinelli, Franco

    2012-09-01

    Knowledge of mechanical properties of living cells is essential to understand their physiological and pathological conditions. To measure local cellular elasticity, scanning probe techniques have been increasingly employed. In particular, non-contact scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) has been used for this purpose; thanks to the application of a hydrostatic pressure via the SICM pipette. However, the measurement of sample deformations induced by weak pressures at a short distance has not yet been carried out. A direct quantification of the applied pressure has not been also achieved up to now. These two issues are highly relevant, especially when one addresses the investigation of thin cell regions. In this paper, we present an approach to solve these problems based on the use of a setup integrating SICM, atomic force microscopy, and optical microscopy. In particular, we describe how we can directly image the pipette aperture in situ. Additionally, we can measure the force induced by a constant hydrostatic pressure applied via the pipette over the entire probe-sample distance range from a remote point to contact. Then, we demonstrate that the sample deformation induced by an external pressure applied to the pipette can be indirectly and reliably evaluated from the analysis of the current-displacement curves. This method allows us to measure the linear relationship between indentation and applied pressure on uniformly deformable elastomers of known Young's modulus. Finally, we apply the method to murine fibroblasts and we show that it is sensitive to local and temporally induced variations of the cell surface elasticity.

  14. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  15. A meta-analysis of education effects on chronic disease: the causal dynamics of the Population Education Transition Curve.

    PubMed

    Smith, William C; Anderson, Emily; Salinas, Daniel; Horvatek, Renata; Baker, David P

    2015-02-01

    As the Epidemiological Transition progresses worldwide, chronic diseases account for the majority of deaths in developed countries and a rising proportion in developing countries indicating a new global pattern of mortality and health challenges into the future. Attainment of formal education is widely reported to have a negative gradient with risk factors and onset of chronic disease, yet there has not been a formal assessment of this research. A random-effects meta-analysis finds that across 414 published effects more education significantly reduces the likelihood of chronic disease, except for neoplastic diseases with substantial genetic causes. Some studies, however, report null effects and other research on infectious disease report positive education gradients. Instead of assuming these contradictory results are spurious, it is suggested that they are part of a predictable systemic interaction between multiple mediating effects of education and the Epidemiological Transition stage of the population; and thus represent one case of the Population Education Transition Curve modeling changes in the association between education and health as dependent on population context.

  16. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Haas, Michael; Huber, Daniel; Thompson, Susan E.; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Issacson, Howard; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Ford, Eric; Steffen, Jason H.; Gautier, T. N. III; and others

    2014-03-20

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 2500 exoplanet candidates in the first two years of spacecraft data, with approximately 40% of those in candidate multi-planet systems. The high rate of multiplicity combined with the low rate of identified false positives indicates that the multiplanet systems contain very few false positive signals due to other systems not gravitationally bound to the target star. False positives in the multi-planet systems are identified and removed, leaving behind a residual population of candidate multi-planet transiting systems expected to have a false positive rate less than 1%. We present a sample of 340 planetary systems that contain 851 planets that are validated to substantially better than the 99% confidence level; the vast majority of these have not been previously verified as planets. We expect ∼two unidentified false positives making our sample of planet very reliable. We present fundamental planetary properties of our sample based on a comprehensive analysis of Kepler light curves, ground-based spectroscopy, and high-resolution imaging. Since we do not require spectroscopy or high-resolution imaging for validation, some of our derived parameters for a planetary system may be systematically incorrect due to dilution from light due to additional stars in the photometric aperture. Nonetheless, our result nearly doubles the number verified exoplanets.

  17. Integrity of Literature on Expressed Emotion and Relapse in Patients with Schizophrenia Verified by a p-Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Marc J; Hall, Daniel L; Carbonella, Julia Y; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Hooley, Jill M

    2016-02-15

    There is growing concern that much published research may have questionable validity due to phenomena such as publication bias and p-hacking. Within the psychiatric literature, the construct of expressed emotion (EE) is widely assumed to be a reliable predictor of relapse across a range of mental illnesses. EE is an index of the family climate, measuring how critical, hostile, and overinvolved a family member is toward a mentally ill patient. No study to date has examined the evidential value of this body of research as a whole. That is to say, although many studies have shown a link between EE and symptom relapse, the integrity of the literature from which this claim is derived has not been tested. In an effort to confirm the integrity of the literature of EE predicting psychiatric relapse in patients with schizophrenia, we conducted a p-curve analysis on all known studies examining EE (using the Camberwell Family Interview) to predict psychiatric relapse over a 9- to 12-month follow-up period. Results suggest that the body of literature on EE is unbiased and has integrity, as there was a significant right skew of p-values, a nonsignificant left skew of p-values, and a nonsignificant test of flatness. We conclude that EE is a robust and valuable predictor of symptom relapse in schizophrenia.

  18. Langevin Equation on Fractal Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satin, Seema; Gangal, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze random motion of a particle on a fractal curve, using Langevin approach. This involves defining a new velocity in terms of mass of the fractal curve, as defined in recent work. The geometry of the fractal curve, plays an important role in this analysis. A Langevin equation with a particular model of noise is proposed and solved using techniques of the Fα-Calculus.

  19. The effect of elevated methane pressure on methane hydrate dissociation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Circone, S.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Methane hydrate, equilibrated at P, T conditions within the hydrate stability field, was rapidly depressurized to 1.0 or 2.0 MPa and maintained at isobaric conditions outside its stability field, while the extent and rate of hydrate dissociation was measured at fixed, externally maintained temperatures between 250 and 288 K. The dissociation rate decreases with increasing pressure at a given temperature. Dissociation rates at 1.0 MPa parallel the complex, reproducible T-dependence previously observed between 250 and 272 K at 0.1 MPa. The lowest rates were observed near 268 K, such that >50% of the sample can persist for more than two weeks at 0.1 MPa to more than a month at 1 and 2 MPa. Varying the pressure stepwise in a single experiment increased or decreased the dissociation rate in proportion to the rates observed in the isobaric experiments, similar to the rate reversibility previously observed with stepwise changes in temperature at 0.1 MPa. At fixed P, T conditions, the rate of methane hydrate dissociation decreases monotonically with time, never achieving a steady rate. The relationship between time (t) and the extent of hydrate dissociation is empirically described by: Evolved gas (%) = A??tB where the pre-exponential term A ranges from 0 to 16% s-B and the exponent B is generally <1. Based on fits of the dissociation results to Equation 1 for the full range of temperatures (204 to 289 K) and pressures (0.1 to 2.0 MPa) investigated, the derived parameters can be used to predict the methane evolution curves for pure, porous methane hydrate to within ??5%. The effects of sample porosity and the presence of quartz sand and seawater on methane hydrate dissociation are also described using Equation 1.

  20. Re-analysis of previous laboratory phase curves: 2. Connections between opposition effect morphology and spectral features of stony meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déau, Estelle; Spilker, Linda J.; Flandes, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    We investigate connections between the opposition phase curves and the spectra from ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths of stony meteorites. We use two datasets: the reflectance dataset of Capaccioni et al. ([1990] Icarus, 83, 325), which consists of optical phase curves (from 2° to 45°) of 17 stony meteorites (three carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, and three achondrites), and the spectral dataset from the RELAB database consisting of near-ultraviolet to near-infrared spectra of the same meteorites. We re-analyzed the first dataset and fit it with two morphological models to derive the amplitude A, the angular width HWHM of the surge and the slope S of the linear part. Our re-analysis confirms that stony meteorites have a non-monotonic behavior of the surge amplitude with albedo, which is also observed in planetary surfaces (Déau et al. [2013] Icarus, 226, 1465), laboratory samples (Nelson et al. [2004] Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf., 35, p. 1089) and asteroids (Belskaya and Shevchenko [2000] Icarus, 147, 94). We find a very strong correlation between the opposition effect morphological parameters and the slope of the spectra between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm. In particular, we found that meteorites with a positive amplitude-albedo correlation have a positive spectral slope between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm, while meteorites with a negative amplitude-albedo correlation have a negative spectral slope between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm. We have ruled out the role of the meteorite samples' macro-properties (grain size, porosity and macroscopic roughness) in the correlations found because these properties were constant during the preparation of the samples. If this hypothesis is correct, this implies that other properties like the composition or the micro-properties (grain inclusions, grain shape or microscopic roughness) could have a preponderant role in the non-monotonic behavior of the surge morphology with albedo at small and moderate phase angles. Further

  1. Analysis of the terrestrial ion foreshock: 2D Full-Particle simulation of a curved supercritical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembege, B.; Savoini, P.; Stienlet, J.

    2013-05-01

    Two distinct ion populations backstreaming into the solar wind have been clearly evidenced by various space missions within the quasi-perpendicular region of the ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's Bow shock (i.e. for 45° ≤ Theta_Bn ≤ 90°, where Theta_Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned ion beams (« FAB ») characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions («GPB »), characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. The origin of these backstreaming ions has not been clearly identified and is presently analyzed with the help of 2D PIC simulation of a curved shock, where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described within a self consistent approach. Present simulations evidence that these two populations can be effectively created directly by the shock front without invoking microinstabilities. The analysis of both individual and statistical ion trajectories evidences that: (i) two new parameters, namely the interaction time DT_inter and distance of penetration L_depth into the shock wave, play a key role and allow to discriminate these two populations. "GPB" population is characterized by a very short interaction time (DT_inter = 1 to 2 Tci) in comparison to the "FAB" population (DT_inter = 2 Tci to 10 Tci) which moves back and forth between the upstream edge of the shock front and the overshoot, where tci is the upstream ion gyroperiod. (ii) the importance of the injection angle (i.e. the angle between the normal of the shock front and the gyration velocity when ions reach the shock) to understand how the reflection process takes place. (iii) "FAB" population drifts along the curved shock front scanning a large Theta_Bn range from 90°. (iv) "GPB" population is embedded within the "FAB" population near the shock front which explains the difficulty to identify such a population in the experimental

  2. Analysis of α-particle-induced chromosomal aberrations by chemically-induced PCC. Elaboration of dose-effect curves.

    PubMed

    Puig, Roser; Pujol, Mònica; Barrios, Leonardo; Caballín, María Rosa; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc

    2016-09-01

    In a similar way to high-dose exposures to low-LET radiations, cells show difficulties reaching mitosis after high-LET radiation exposure. For this reason, techniques have been proposed that are able to analyze chromosome aberrations in interphase by prematurely condensing the chromosomes (PCC-techniques). Few dose-effect curves for high-LET radiation types have been reported, and none for α-particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by chemically-induced PCC, the chromosome aberrations induced by several doses of α-particles. Monolayers of peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to an α-source of Americium-241 with a mean energy entering the cells of 2.7 MeV. Lymphocytes were exposed to 10 doses, from 0-2.5 Gy, and then cultured for 48 h. Colcemid and Calyculin-A were added at 24 and 1 h before harvesting, respectively. During microscope analysis, chromosome rings and extra chromosome pieces were scored in G2/M-PCC and M cells, while dicentric chromosomes were only scored in M cells. As the dose increased, fewer cells were able to reach mitosis and the proportion of G2/M-PCC cells increased. Chromosome rings were hardly observed in M cells when compared to G2/M-PCC cells. Extra fragments were more frequent than rings in both G2/M-PCC and M cells, but with lower frequencies than in G2/M-PCC cells. The distribution of dicentrics and extra fragments showed a clear overdispersion; this was not so evident for rings. The dose-effect curves obtained fitted very well to a linear model. Damaged cells after α-particle irradiation show more difficulties in reaching mitosis than cells exposed to γ-rays. After α-particle irradiation the frequency of all the chromosome aberrations considered increased linearly with the dose, and α-particles clearly produced more dicentrics and extra chromosome pieces with respect to γ-rays. After α-particle exposure, the existence of extra chromosome fragments in PCC cells seems to be a good candidate for use as a biomarker

  3. Dissociative States and Neural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bob, Petr; Svetlak, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that neural mechanisms of consciousness are related to integration of distributed neural assemblies. This neural integration is particularly vulnerable to past stressful experiences that can lead to disintegration and dissociation of consciousness. These findings suggest that dissociation could be described as a level of…

  4. First-principles analysis of C2H2 molecule diffusion and its dissociation process on the ferromagnetic bcc-Fe110 surface.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Minoru; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Kaneta, Chioko

    2010-09-29

    Using the projector-augmented plane wave method, we study diffusion and dissociation processes of C(2)H(2) molecules on the ferromagnetic bcc-Fe(110) surface and investigate the formation process of graphene created by C(2)H(2) molecules. The most stable site for C(2)H(2) on the Fe surface is a hollow site and its adsorption energy is - 3.5 eV. In order to study the diffusion process of the C(2)H(2) molecule, the barrier height energies for the C atom, C(2)-dimer and CH as well as the C(2)H(2) molecule are estimated using the nudged elastic band method. The barrier height energy for C(2)H(2) is 0.71 eV and this indicates that the C(2)H(2) diffuses easily on this FM bcc-Fe(110) surface. We further investigate the two step dissociation process of C(2)H(2) on Fe. The first step is the dissociation of C(2)H(2) into C(2)H and H, and the second step is that of C(2)H into C(2) and H. Their dissociation energies are 0.9 and 1.2 eV, respectively. These energies are relatively small compared to the dissociation energy 7.5 eV of C(2)H(2) into C(2)H and H in the vacuum. Thus, the Fe surface shows catalytic effects. We further investigate the initial formation process of graphene by increasing the coverage of C(2)H(2). The formation process of the benzene molecule on the FM bcc(110) surface is also discussed. We find that there exists a critical coverage of C(2)H(2) which characterizes the beginning of the formation of the graphene.

  5. Dissociation and the experience of channeling: narratives of Israeli women who practice channeling.

    PubMed

    Stolovy, Tali; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    "Channeling" is a phenomenon in which people describe themselves as receiving messages from another personality or dimension of reality. Channeling is often regarded as dissociation, which is a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception. This study explored the interface between channeling and dissociation through a phenomenological analysis. Qualitative data were obtained through interviews with 20 Israeli women who practice channeling. The analysis revealed 3 themes: dissociation, absorption, and control. The channelers' descriptions correspond with what is coined as "dissociative states" and enable an emic view of the etic definition of dissociation.

  6. Analysis of the activation and heterolytic dissociation of H2 by frustrated Lewis pairs: NH3/BX3 (X = H, F, and Cl).

    PubMed

    Camaioni, Donald M; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Schenter, Gregory K; Kathmann, Shawn M; Autrey, Tom

    2012-07-05

    We performed a computational study of H(2) activation and heterolytic dissociation promoted by prototype Lewis acid/base pairs NH(3)/BX(3) (X = H, F, and Cl) to understand the mechanism in frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs). Although the NH(3)/BX(3) pairs form strong dative bonds, electronic structure theories make it possible to explore the potential energy surface away from the dative complex, in regions relevant to H(2) activation in FLPs. A weakly bound precursor complex, H(3)N·H(2)·BX(3), was found in which the H(2) molecule interacts side-on with B and end-on with N. The BX(3) group is pyramidal in the case of X = H, similar to the geometry of BH(5), but planar in the complexes with X = F and Cl. The latter complexes convert to ion pairs, [NH(4)(+)][BHX(3)(-)] with enthalpy changes of 7.3 and -9.4 kcal/mol, respectively. The minimum energy paths between the FLP and the product ion pair of the chloro and fluoro complexes were calculated and analyzed in great detail. At the transition state (TS), the H(2) bond is weakened and the BX(3) moiety has undergone significant pyramidal distortion. As such, the FLP is prepared to accept the incipient proton and hydride ion on the product-side. The interaction energy of the H(2) with the acid/base pair and the different contributions for the precursor and TS complex from an energy decomposition analysis expose the dominant factors affecting the reactivity. We find that structural reorganization of the precursor complex plays a significant role in the activation and that charge-transfer interactions are the dominant stabilizing force in the activated complex. The electric field clearly has a role in polarizing H(2), but its contribution to the overall interaction energy is small compared to that from the overlap of the p(N), σ(H-H), σ*(H-H), and p(B) orbitals at the TS. Our detailed analysis of the interaction of H(2) with the FLP provides insight into the important components that should be taken into account when

  7. Dissociation limit and dissociation dynamic of CF4(+): application of threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Wu, Manman; Gao, Zhi; Liu, Shilin; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi

    2013-03-07

    Dissociation of internal energy selected CF4(+) ions in an excitation energy range of 15.40-19.60 eV has been investigated using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. Only CF3(+) fragment ions are observed in coincident mass spectra, indicating all the X(2)T1, A(2)T2, and B(2)E ionic states of CF4(+) are fully dissociative. Both kinetic energy released distribution (KERD) and angular distribution in dissociation of CF4(+) ions have been derived from three-dimensional TPEPICO time-sliced images. A parallel distribution of CF3(+) fragments along the polarization vector of photon is observed for dissociation of CF4(+) ions in all the low-lying electronic states. With the aid of F-loss potential energy curves, dissociation mechanisms of CF4(+) ions in these electronic states have been proposed. CF4(+) ions in both X(2)T1 and A(2)T2 states directly dissociate to CF3(+) and F fragments along the repulsive C-F coordinate, while a two-step dissociation mechanism is suggested for B(2)E state: CF4(+)(B(2)E) ion first converts to the lower A(2)T2 state via internal conversion, then dissociates to CF3(+) and F fragments along the steep A(2)T2 potential energy surface. In addition, an adiabatic appearance potential of AP0(CF3(+)∕CF4) has also been established to be 14.71 ± 0.02 eV, which is very consistent with the recent calculated values.

  8. Development and analysis of regional curves for streams in the non-urban valley and ridge physiographic province, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keaton, Jefferson N.; Messinger, Terence; Doheny, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area (often called 'regional curves') are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. Bankfull stream characteristics were assessed for stream reaches at 41 streamflow-gaging stations in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Regional curves were developed for bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge with R2 values of 0.95, 0.89, 0.87, and 0.91, respectively. Examination of the regional curves residuals indicates that there is more variability in bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge for smaller streams than for larger streams. In contrast, there is more variability for bankfull mean depth for larger streams than for smaller streams. Geographic analysis of regional curve residuals indicated that there were no further subdivisions within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in the three-state study area for which individual sets of regional curves should be developed. In addition, two separate sets of regional curves were developed with data from the 41 sites to examine potential differences in the relations between the southern (n = 9) and central (n = 32) sections of the province. There were differences in slope and intercept between the two bankfull discharge test relations and a difference in intercept for the width test relations at the 95-percent confidence level. However, the results of this analysis were inconclusive and therefore one set of regional curves for the study area is presented in this report. The regional curves were compared to regression models developed from

  9. Dissociation of energy-selected 1,1-dimethylhydrazine ions.

    PubMed

    Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Borkar, Sampada N; Sztáray, Bálint

    2010-05-27

    The unimolecular dissociation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine ions was studied by threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (TPEPICO). Time-of-flight distributions and breakdown curves were recorded in the photon energy range of 9.5-10.4 eV. The 0 K appearance energies of the fragment ions were extracted by modeling the experimental data with rigid activated complex (RAC-) RRKM theory. It was found that the data could be well-reproduced with a single TS for each dissociation channel if two different H-loss channels were assumed, one corresponding to a C-H and the other to a N-H bond dissociation. Once the appearance energies were established, heats of formation of the fragment ions could be derived. The heat of formation of the neutral molecule was computed by applying composite ab initio methods (G3, CBS-APNO, W1U) on a series of isodesmic reactions between methyl hydrazines and methyl amines.

  10. Energetics and Dynamics of Fragmentation of Protonated Leucine Enkephalin from Time- and Energy-Resolved Surface-Induced Dissociation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia

    2006-07-01

    Dissociation of singly protonated leucine enkephalin (YGGFL) was studied using surface-induced dissociation in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer specially configured for studying ion activation by collisions with surfaces. The energetics and dynamics of seven primary dissociation channels were deduced from modeling the time- and energy-resolved fragmentation efficiency curves for different fragment ions using an RRKM-based approach developed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL).

  11. High-resolution DNA melt-curve analysis for cost-effective mass screening of pairwise species interactions.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James K; Didham, Raphael K; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; van Bysterveldt, Katherine A; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-09-01

    Ecological studies of pairwise interactions are constrained by the methods available for rapid species identification of the interacting organisms. The resolution of data required to characterize species interaction networks at multiple spatio-temporal scales can be intensive, and therefore laborious and costly to collect. We explore the utility of high-resolution DNA melt-curve analysis (HRM) as a rapid species identification method. An approach was developed to identify organisms at the pairwise interaction level, with particular application to cryptic species interactions that are traditionally difficult to study. Here, we selected a challenging application; to identify the presence/absence of pathogenic fungi (Sporothrix inflata, Ophiostoma nigrocarpum and Ophiostoma galeiforme) transported by bark beetle vectors (Hylastes ater and Hylurgus ligniperda). The technique was able to distinguish between different species of DNA within a single, pooled sample. In test applications, HRM was effective in the mass screening and identification of pathogenic fungal species carried by many individual bark beetle vectors (n = 455 beetles screened) across large geographic scales. For two of the fungal species, there was no difference in the frequency of association with either of their vectors, but for the third fungal species there was a shift in vector-pathogen associations across locations. This technique allows rapid, mass screening and characterization of species interactions at a fraction of the time and cost of traditional methods. It is anticipated that this method can be readily applied to explore other cryptic species interactions, or other studies requiring rapid generation of large data sets and/or high-throughput efficiency.

  12. Inference and analysis of xenon outflow curves under multi-pulse injection in two-dimensional chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shu-Jiang, Liu; Zhan-Ying, Chen; Yin-Zhong, Chang; Shi-Lian, Wang; Qi, Li; Yuan-Qing, Fan

    2013-10-11

    Multidimensional gas chromatography is widely applied to atmospheric xenon monitoring for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). To improve the capability for xenon sampling from the atmosphere, sampling techniques have been investigated in detail. The sampling techniques are designed by xenon outflow curves which are influenced by many factors, and the injecting condition is one of the key factors that could influence the xenon outflow curves. In this paper, the xenon outflow curves of single-pulse injection in two-dimensional gas chromatography has been tested and fitted as a function of exponential modified Gaussian distribution. An inference formula of the xenon outflow curve for six-pulse injection is derived, and the inference formula is also tested to compare with its fitting formula of the xenon outflow curve. As a result, the curves of both the one-pulse and six-pulse injections obey the exponential modified Gaussian distribution when the temperature of the activated carbon column's temperature is 26°C and the flow rate of the carrier gas is 35.6mLmin(-1). The retention time of the xenon peak for one-pulse injection is 215min, and the peak width is 138min. For the six-pulse injection, however, the retention time is delayed to 255min, and the peak width broadens to 222min. According to the inferred formula of the xenon outflow curve for the six-pulse injection, the inferred retention time is 243min, the relative deviation of the retention time is 4.7%, and the inferred peak width is 225min, with a relative deviation of 1.3%.

  13. Development of Web-based Load Duration Curve system for analysis of total maximum daily load and water quality characteristics in a waterbody.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Engel, Bernard A; Park, Youn Shik; Theller, Larry; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Kong, Dong Soo; Lim, Kyoung Jae

    2012-04-30

    In many states of the US, the total maximum daily load program has been widely developed for watershed water quality restoration and management. However, the total maximum daily load is often represented as an average daily pollutant load based on average long-term flow conditions, and as such, it does not adequately describe the problems they aim to address. Without an adequate characterization of water quality problems, appropriate solutions cannot be identified and implemented. The total maximum daily load approach should consider adequate water quality characterizations based on overall flow conditions rather than on a single flow event such as average daily flow. The Load Duration Curve, which provides opportunities for enhanced pollutant source and best management practice targeting both in the total maximum daily load development and in water quality restoration efforts, has been used for the determination of appropriate total maximum daily load targets. However, at least 30 min to an hour is needed for unskilled people based on our experiences to generate the Load Duration Curve using a desktop-based spreadsheet computer program. Therefore, in this study, the Web-based Load Duration Curve system (https://engineering.purdue.edu/∼ldc/) was developed and applied to a study watershed for an analysis of the total maximum daily load and water quality characteristics in the watershed. This system provides diverse options for Flow Duration Curve and Load Duration Curve analysis of a watershed of interest in a brief time. The Web-based Load Duration Curve system is useful for characterizing the problem according to flow regimes, and for providing a visual representation that enables an easy understanding of the problem and the total maximum daily load targets. In addition, this system will be able to help researchers identify appropriate best management practices within watersheds.

  14. Shock induced dissociation of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Loughran, E.D.; Mortensen, G.F.; Gray, G.T. III; Shaw, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the physical processes occurring on the Hugoniot, shock-recovery experiments were performed. Cylindrical recovery systems were used that enabled a wide range of single-shock Hugoniot states to be examined. Mass spectroscopy was used to examine the gaseous dissociation products. X-ray and TEM measurements were made to characterize the post-shock carbon structures. A dissociation product equation of state is presented to interpret the observed results. Polyethylene (PE) samples that were multiply shocked to their final states dissociated at much higher pressures than single-shocked samples. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A new method for ABO genotyping using fluorescence melting curve analysis based on peptide nucleic acid probes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungmyung; Park, Hyun-Chul; An, Sanghyun; Ahn, Eu-Ree; Lee, Yang-Han; Kim, Mi-Jung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Jae Sin; Jung, Jin Wook; Lim, Sikeun

    2015-09-01

    ABO genotyping has been routinely used to identify suspects or unknown remains in crime investigations. Probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) is a powerful tool for mutation detection and is based on melting temperature shifts due to thermal denaturation. In the present study, we developed a new method for ABO genotyping using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe-based FMCA. This method allowed for the simultaneous detection of three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the ABO gene (nucleotide positions 261, 526, and 803) and the determination of 14 ABO genotypes (A/A, A/O01 or A/O02, A/O03, B/B, B/O01 or B/O02, B/O03, O01/O01 or O01/O02 or O02/O02, O01/O03 or O02/O03, O03/O03, A/B, cis-AB01/A, cis-AB01/B, cis-AB01/O01 or cis-AB01/O02, and cis-AB01/cis-AB01). Using this method, we analyzed 80 samples and successfully identified ABO genotypes (A/A [n=5], A/O01 or A/O02 [n=23], B/B [n=3], B/O01 or B/O02 [n=18], A/B [n=9], O01/O01 or O01/O02 or O02/O02 [n=20], cis-AB01/A [n=1], and cis-AB01/O01 or cis-AB01/O02 [n=1]). In addition, all steps in the method, including polymerase chain reaction, PNA probe hybridization, and FMCA, could be performed in one single closed tube in less than 3h. Since no processing or separation steps were required during analysis, this method was more convenient and rapid than traditional methods and reduced the risk of contamination. Thus, this method may be an effective and helpful tool in forensic investigations.

  16. Dissociation of D2+ by UV and THz light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tian-Yu; He, Feng

    2013-10-01

    The dissociation of D2+ in the few-cycle UV and THz light pulses is studied by numerically simulating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. With only the UV pulse, we find the dissociation probability does not increase monotonously with the increasing of the UV pulse intensity or duration. The UV-triggered dissociation is streaked by the time-delayed THz light pulse, i.e., the nuclear momentum oscillates with the half of the THz period when the UV-THz time delay or the carrier envelope phase of the THz pulse is scanned. The difference of the maximum and minimum nuclear momenta equals the THz laser vector potential. The classical calculation of the Newtonian equation for a mass point moving on the THz light-modified molecular potential curves reproduces the quantum simulation results and therefore intuitively explores the physical scenario: The nuclear wave packets propagate along the THz field-dressed molecular potential curves adiabatically but make a fully diabatic transition, while the THz electric field changes direction. This study offers a visual angle to understand the molecular dissociation in the strong laser field with very long wavelengths.

  17. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Andrew L.; Schiller, Frederik; Corso, Martina; Merte, Lindsay R.; Bertram, Florian; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Shipilin, Mikhail; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Brión-Ríos, Anto´n X.; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel; Ortega, J. Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a ‘tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. These results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions. PMID:26561388

  18. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Walter, Andrew L.; Schiller, Frederik; Corso, Martina; ...

    2015-11-12

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a 'tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Throughmore » such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. Lastly, these results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions.« less

  19. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew L.; Schiller, Frederik; Merte, Lindsay R.; Bertram, Florian; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Brión-Ríos, Anto´n X.; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    2015-11-12

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a 'tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. Lastly, these results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions.

  20. Are major dissociative disorders characterized by a qualitatively different kind of dissociation?

    PubMed

    Rodewald, Frauke; Dell, Paul F; Wilhelm-Gossling, Claudia; Gast, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    A total of 66 patients with a major dissociative disorder, 54 patients with nondissociative disorders, and 30 nonclinical controls were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Dissociative patients reported significantly more dissociative and nondissociative symptoms than did nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls. When general psychopathology was controlled, the dissociation scores of dissociative patients were still significantly higher than those of both other groups, whereas the dissociation scores of nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls no longer differed. These findings appear to be congruent with a typological model of dissociation that distinguishes between 2 qualitatively different kinds of dissociation. Specifically, the results of this study suggest that the dissociation that occurs in major dissociative disorders (i.e., dissociative identity disorder [DID] and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, Type 1 [DDNOS-1]) is qualitatively different from the dissociation that occurs in persons who do not have a dissociative disorder. In contrast to previous research, the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder is not limited to absorption; it covers a much wider range of phenomena. The authors hypothesize that different mechanisms produce the dissociation of persons with DID and DDNOS-1 as opposed to the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder.

  1. Energy and Entropy Effects in Dissociation of Peptide Radical Anions

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Yang, Zhibo; Lam, Corey; Chu, Ivan K.

    2012-04-15

    Time- and collision energy-resolved surface-induced dissociation (SID) of peptide radical anions was studied for the first time using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) configured for SID experiments. Peptide radical cations and anions were produced by gas-phase fragmentation of CoIII(salen)-peptide complexes. The effect of the charge, radical, and the presence of a basic residue on the energetics and dynamics of dissociation of peptide ions was examined using RVYIHPF (1) and HVYIHPF (2) as model systems. Comparison of the survival curves for of [M+H]{sup +}, [M-H]{sup -}, M{sup +{sm_bullet}}, and [M-2H]{sup -{sm_bullet}} ions of these precursors demonstrated that even-electron ions are more stable towards fragmentation than their odd-electron counterparts. RRKM modeling of the experimental data demonstrated that the lower stability of the positive radicals is mainly attributed to lower dissociation thresholds while entropy effects are responsible the relative instability of the negative radicals. Substitution of arginine with less basic histidine residue has a strong destabilizing effect on the [M+H]{sup +} ions and a measurable stabilizing effect on the odd-electron ions. Lower threshold energies for dissociation of both positive and negative radicals of 1 are attributed to the presence of lower-energy dissociation pathways that are most likely promoted by the presence of the basic residue.

  2. The development and validation of a rapid genetic method for species identification and genotyping of medically important fungal pathogens using high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Alnuaimi, A D; Wiesenfeld, D; O'Brien-Simpson, N M; Reynolds, E C; Peng, B; McCullough, M J

    2014-06-01

    Accurate, rapid and economical fungal species identification has been a major aim in mycology. In this study, our goal was to examine the feasibility of a high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMA) of internal transcribed regions ITS1 and ITS2 in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for a rapid, simple and inexpensive differentiation of eight clinically relevant Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida dubliniensis and Candida lusitaniae). In addition, for the first time, we tested the applicability of HRMA to classify C. albicans strains into four previously described genotypes (A, B, C and D) using a primer set that spans the transposable intron region of 25S of rDNA. Type and unknown clinical oral isolates were used in this study and the melting curve analysis was compared with both amplicons' sequencing and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. Real-time PCR and subsequent HRMA of the two described rDNA regions generated distinct melting curve profiles that were in accord with sequencing and gel electrophoresis analysis, highly reproducible, and characteristic of each of the eight Candida species and C. albicans genotypes. Moreover, results were obtained in 4 h and without the need for any post-amplification handling, so reducing time and cost. Owing to its simplicity and speed, this technique is a good fit for genotypic analysis of hundreds of clinical strains in large epidemiological settings.

  3. Multi-institutional retrospective analysis of learning curves on dosimetry and operation time before and after introduction of intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds in prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Saito, Shiro; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryuji; Tanji, Susumu; Masui, Koji; Okihara, Koji; Ohashi, Toshio; Momma, Tetsuo; Aoki, Manabu; Miki, Kenta; Kato, Masako; Morita, Masashi; Katayama, Norihisa; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kawanaka, Takashi; Fukumori, Tomoharu; Ito, Fumitaka; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Baba, Yuji; Inadome, Akito; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Takayama, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    This multi-institutional retrospective analysis examined learning curves for dosimetric parameters and operation time after introduction of intraoperatively built custom-linked (IBCL) seeds. Data from consecutive patients treated with seed implantation before and after introduction of IBCL seeds (loose seed, n = 428; IBCL seed, n = 426) were collected from 13 centers. Dose-volume histogram parameters, operation times, and seed migration rates were compared before and after introduction of IBCL seeds. At the 1-month CT analysis, no significant differences were seen in dose to 90% of prostate volume between before and after IBCL seed introduction. No learning curve for dosimetry was seen. Prostate and rectal volume receiving at least 150% of prescription dose (V150 and RV150) were higher in the loose-seed group than in the IBCL-seed group. Operation time was extended by up to 10 min when IBCL seeds were used, although there was a short learning curve of about five patients. The percentage of patients with seed migration in the IBCL-seed group was one-tenth that in the loose-seed group. Our study revealed no dosimetric demerits, no learning curve for dosimetry, and a slightly extended operation time for IBCL seeds. A significant reduction in the rate of seed migration was identified in the IBCL-seed group.

  4. Analysis of tipping-curve measurements performed at the DSS-13 beam-waveguide antenna at 32.0 and 8.45 GigaHertz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Skjerve, L.

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of the Ka-band Antenna Performance Experiment tipping-curve data acquired at the DSS-13 research and development beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna. By measuring the operating system temperatures as the antenna is moved form zenith to low-elevation angles and fitting a model to the data, one can obtain information on how well the overall temperature model behaves at zenith and approximate the contribution due to the atmosphere. The atmospheric contribution estimated from the data can be expressed in the form of (1) atmospheric noise temperatures that can provide weather statistic information and be compared against those estimated from other methods and (2) the atmospheric loss factor used to refer efficiency measurements to zero atmosphere. This article reports on an analysis performed on a set of 68 8.4-GHz and 67 32-GHz tipping-curve data sets acquired between December 1993 and May 1995 and compares the results with those inferred from a surface model using input meteorological data and from water vapor radiometer (WVR) data. The general results are that, for a selected subset of tip curves, (1) the BWG tipping-curve atmospheric temperatures are in good agreement with those determined from WVR data (the average difference is 0.06 +/- 0.64 K at 32 GHz) and (2) the surface model average values are biased 3.6 K below those of the BWG and WVR at 32 GHz.

  5. Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Angothu, Hareesh; Pabbathi, Lokeswar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is rare entity to encounter with possible differentials of epilepsy and malingering. It is one of the dissociative disorders rarely seen in clinical practice more often because of the short lasting nature of this condition. This might also be because of organized travel of the individuals during the episodes and return to their families after the recovery from episodes. This is a case description of a patient who has experienced total three episodes of dissociative fugue. The patient has presented during the third episode and two prior episodes were diagnosed as fugue episodes retrospectively based on the history. Planned travel in this case by the patient to a distant location was prevented because of early diagnosis and constant vigilance till the recovery. As in this case, it may be more likely that persons with Dissociative fugue may develop similar episodes if they encounter exceptional perceived stress. However, such conclusions may require follow-up studies. PMID:27114633

  6. Dissociation Rates of Diatomic Molecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    relatively simple design that we have used extensively in earlier research; its characteristics were recently described in detail. 10 This source is by...the dominant dissociation background when observing electron- impact dissociation products. This background constitutes the single greatest impediment...a3aF) + o(3P) at 11.385 eV. Photoexcitation studies indeed find that O(1S) and CO(a) are the dominant photodissociation products. 32,33 If the energy

  7. FIRST PRECISION LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF THE NEGLECTED EXTREME MASS RATIO SOLAR-TYPE BINARY HR BOOTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, Ronald G.; Benkendorf, Barry; Dignan, James B.; Robb, Russell; Kring, James; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2015-04-15

    HR Bootis is a neglected binary that is found to be a solar-type (G2V) extreme mass ratio binary (EMRB). It was discovered by Hanley and Shapley in 1940. Surprisingly, little has been published in the intervening years. In 1999 it was characterized by a 0.31587 day orbital period. Since that time it has been observed by various observers who have determined ∼20 timings of minimum light over the past ∼15,000 orbits. Our observations in 2012 represent the first precision curves in the BVR{sub c}I{sub c} Johnson–Cousins wavelength bands. The light curves have rather low amplitudes, averaging some 0.5 magnitudes, yet they exhibit total eclipses, which is typical of the rare group of solar-type EMRBs. An improved linear ephemeris was computed along with a quadratic ephemeris showing a decaying orbit, which indicates magnetic breaking may be occurring. The light curve solution reveals that HR Boo is a contact system with a somewhat low 21% Roche-lobe fill-out but a mass ratio of q = 4.09 (0.2444), which defines it as an EMRB. Two spots, both hot, were allowed to iterate to fit the light curve asymmetries. Their radii are 32° and 16°. Both are high-latitude polar spots indicative of strong magnetic activity. The shallow contact yet nearly equal component temperatures makes it an unusual addition to this group.

  8. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

  9. A Statistical Comparison of the Blossom Blight Forecasts of MARYBLYT and Cougarblight with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ...

  10. The Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist Predicts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudziak, James J.; Althoff, Robert R.; Stanger, Catherine; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Todd, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine a score on the Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to screen for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and to rigorously test the specificity and sensitivity of a single cutpoint. Methods: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis…

  11. Growth curve analysis of placental and fetal growth influenced by adjacent fetal sex status under crowded uterine conditions in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine position and sex of adjacent fetuses in litter bearing species have been implicated in physiological and behavioral differences in males and females. Our objective was to establish growth curves for fetal and placental weight gain as influenced by sex status of flanking fetuses under cr...

  12. Application of a tangent curve mathematical model for analysis of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalingging, Riswanti; Herák, David; Kabutey, Abraham; Dajbych, Oldřich; Hrabě, Petr; Mizera, Čestmír

    2015-10-01

    This paper evaluate the use of a tangent curve mathematical model for representation of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds. Compression machine (Tempos Model 50, Czech Republic) and pressing vessel diameter 60 mm were used for the loading experiment. Varying forces between 50 and 130 kN and speeds ranging from 10, 50, and 100 mm min-1 were applied respectively on the bulk seeds with moisture content 12.37±0.38% w.b. The relationship between force and deformation curves of bulk seeds of pressing height 80 mm was described. The oil point strain was also determined from the different deformation values namely 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm at speed 10 mm min-1. Based on the results obtained, model coefficients were determined for fitting the experimental load and deformation curves. The validity of these coefficients were dependent on the bulk seeds of pressing height, vessel diameter, maximum force 110 kN, and speed 10 mm min-1, where optimal oil yield was observed. The oil point was detected at 45 mm deformation giving the strain value of 0.56 with the corresponding force 16.65±3.51 kN and energy 1.06±0.18 MJ m-3. At the force of 130 kN, a serration effect on the curves was indicated; hence, the compression process was ceased.

  13. Langevin power curve analysis for numerical wind energy converter models with new insights on high frequency power performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mücke, Tanja A.; Wächter, Matthias; Milan, Patrick; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Based on the Langevin equation it has been proposed to obtain power curves for wind turbines from high frequency data of wind speed measurements u(t) and power output P (t). The two parts of the Langevin approach, power curve and drift field, give a comprehensive description of the conversion dynamic over the whole operating range of the wind turbine. The method deals with high frequent data instead of 10 min means. It is therefore possible to gain a reliable power curve already from a small amount of data per wind speed. Furthermore, the method is able to visualize multiple fixed points, which is e.g. characteristic for the transition from partial to full load or in case the conversion process deviates from the standard procedures. In order to gain a deeper knowledge it is essential that the method works not only for measured data but also for numerical wind turbine models and synthetic wind fields. Here, we characterize the dynamics of a detailed numerical wind turbine model and calculate the Langevin power curve for different data samplings. We show, how to get reliable results from synthetic data and verify the applicability of the method for field measurements with ultra-sonic, cup and Lidar measurements. The independence of the fixed points on site specific turbulence effects is also confirmed with the numerical model. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of the Langevin approach to detect failures in the conversion process and thus show the potential of the Langevin approach for a condition monitoring system.

  14. Structure and end-group analysis of complex hexanediol-neopentylglycol-adipic acid copolyesters by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Steffen M; Falkenhagen, Jana; Knop, Karin; Thünemann, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Sequences and end groups of complex copolyesters were determined by fragmentation analysis by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI CID MS/MS). The complexity of the crude copolyester mixture was reduced by a chromatographic separation followed by a MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) investigation of fractions. Due to overlapping compositional and end-group information a clear assignment of end groups was very difficult. However, the fragmentation of suitable precursor ions resulted in typical fragment ion patterns and, therefore, enabled a fast and unambiguous determination of the end groups and composition of this important class of polymers.

  15. Estimation of dissociation energy of NiC molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambasiva Rao, P.; Reddy, R. R.; Potukuchi, D. M.

    2006-03-01

    The experimental potential-energy curve for the electronic ground state of an astrophysically important NiC molecule is constructed by applying the Rydberg Klein Rees method as modified by Vanderslice et al. The ground state dissociation energy is estimated by a curve-fitting technique using the modified Lippincott potential function, and this estimated value of D0=3.454eV is in good agreement with the value of D0⩾3.34eV reported by Brugh and Morse.

  16. Atlas of fatigue curves

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This Atlas was developed to serve engineers who are looking for fatigue data on a particular metal or alloy. Having these curves compiled in a single book will also facilitate the computerization of the involved data. It is pointed out that plans are under way to make the data in this book available in ASCII files for analysis by computer programs. S-N curves which typify effects of major variables are considered along with low-carbon steels, medium-carbon steels, alloy steels, HSLA steels, high-strength alloy steels, heat-resisting steels, stainless steels, maraging steels, cast irons, and heat-resisting alloys. Attention is also given to aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, molybdenum, tin alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium, steel castings, closed-die forgings, powder metallurgy parts, composites, effects of surface treatments, and test results for component parts.

  17. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  18. Global functioning and disability in dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Rufibach, Kaspar; Perron, Noelle; Wyss, Daniela; Kuenzler, Cornelia; Prezewowsky, Cornelia; Pitman, Roger K; Rufer, Michael

    2012-12-30

    Dissociative disorders are frequent comorbid conditions of other mental disorders. Yet, there is controversy about their clinical relevance, and little systematic research has been done on how they influence global functioning. Outpatients and day care patients (N=160) of several psychiatric units in Switzerland were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II. The association between subjects with a dissociative disorder (N=30) and functional impairment after accounting for non-dissociative axis I disorders was evaluated by linear regression models. We found a proportion of 18.8% dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia=0%, dissociative fugue=0.6%, depersonalization disorder=4.4%, dissociative identity disorder=7.5%, dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified=6.3%) across treatment settings. Adjusted for other axis I disorders, subjects with a comorbid dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified had a median global assessment of functioning score that was 0.86 and 0.88 times, respectively, the score of subjects without a comorbid dissociative disorder. These findings support the hypothesis that complex dissociative disorders, i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified, contribute to functional impairment above and beyond the impact of co-existing non-dissociative axis I disorders, and that they qualify as "serious mental illness".

  19. Estimation of volume flow in curved tubes based on analytical and computational analysis of axial velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkaik, A. C.; Beulen, B. W. A. M. M.; Bogaerds, A. C. B.; Rutten, M. C. M.; van de Vosse, F. N.

    2009-02-01

    To monitor biomechanical parameters related to cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to perform correct volume flow estimations of blood flow in arteries based on local blood velocity measurements. In clinical practice, estimates of flow are currently made using a straight-tube assumption, which may lead to inaccuracies since most arteries are curved. Therefore, this study will focus on the effect of curvature on the axial velocity profile for flow in a curved tube in order to find a new volume flow estimation method. The study is restricted to steady flow, enabling the use of analytical methods. First, analytical approximation methods for steady flow in curved tubes at low Dean numbers (Dn) and low curvature ratios (δ) are investigated. From the results a novel volume flow estimation method, the cos θ-method, is derived. Simulations for curved tube flow in the physiological range (1≤Dn≤1000 and 0.01≤δ≤0.16) are performed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The asymmetric axial velocity profiles of the analytical approximation methods are compared with the velocity profiles of the CFD model. Next, the cos θ-method is validated and compared with the currently used Poiseuille method by using the CFD results as input. Comparison of the axial velocity profiles of the CFD model with the approximations derived by Topakoglu [J. Math. Mech. 16, 1321 (1967)] and Siggers and Waters [Phys. Fluids 17, 077102 (2005)] shows that the derived velocity profiles agree very well for Dn≤50 and are fair for 50100), no analytical approximation method exists. In the position of the maximum axial velocity, a shift toward the inside of the curve is observed for low Dean numbers, while for high Dean numbers, the position of the maximum velocity is located at the outer curve. When the position of

  20. Evaluation of a new rapid molecular diagnostic system for Plasmodium falciparum combined with DNA filter paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Mariko; Makimura, Koichi; Ota, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Falciparum malaria is a fatal infection without immediate diagnosability or treatment. There are shortages of clinicians and examiners skilled in the treatment of malaria in non-endemic countries, including Japan. This study was performed to evaluate a novel rapid molecular diagnostic system consisting of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with DNA filter paper (FTA card) and melting curve analysis. Combining LAMP with melting curve analysis enabled diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum more accurately with relative ease. FTA cards could be used to clarify problems regarding storage, infectivity, and transportation. The LAMP assay was carried out at a constant temperature of 63 degrees C for 90 min. The diagnostic system (malaria-LAMP) accurately diagnosed malaria (47 samples from Thailand and 50 from Zimbabwe) with 97.8% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity as compared with microscopic methods, indicating the usefulness of this combined system.

  1. Does dissociation further our understanding of PTSD?

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Peritraumatic dissociation, and other dissociative reactions, refer to alterations in awareness in the context of a traumatic experience. This review provides an overview of the current conceptualization of dissociation, critiques methodological approaches to studying dissociation, and reviews the evidence for the purported relationship between dissociative reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder. The evidence challenges the notion that a linear relationship exists between dissociation and psychiatric morbidity. Future research should abandon the global construct of dissociation, and study the specific responses that involve altered awareness under experimental conditions.

  2. Problems in using p-curve analysis and text-mining to detect rate of p-hacking and evidential value

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The p-curve is a plot of the distribution of p-values reported in a set of scientific studies. Comparisons between ranges of p-values have been used to evaluate fields of research in terms of the extent to which studies have genuine evidential value, and the extent to which they suffer from bias in the selection of variables and analyses for publication, p-hacking. Methods. p-hacking can take various forms. Here we used R code to simulate the use of ghost variables, where an experimenter gathers data on several dependent variables but reports only those with statistically significant effects. We also examined a text-mined dataset used by Head et al. (2015) and assessed its suitability for investigating p-hacking. Results. We show that when there is ghost p-hacking, the shape of the p-curve depends on whether dependent variables are intercorrelated. For uncorrelated variables, simulated p-hacked data do not give the “p-hacking bump” just below .05 that is regarded as evidence of p-hacking, though there is a negative skew when simulated variables are inter-correlated. The way p-curves vary according to features of underlying data poses problems when automated text mining is used to detect p-values in heterogeneous sets of published papers. Conclusions. The absence of a bump in the p-curve is not indicative of lack of p-hacking. Furthermore, while studies with evidential value will usually generate a right-skewed p-curve, we cannot treat a right-skewed p-curve as an indicator of the extent of evidential value, unless we have a model specific to the type of p-values entered into the analysis. We conclude that it is not feasible to use the p-curve to estimate the extent of p-hacking and evidential value unless there is considerable control over the type of data entered into the analysis. In particular, p-hacking with ghost variables is likely to be missed. PMID:26925335

  3. Problems in using p-curve analysis and text-mining to detect rate of p-hacking and evidential value.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Thompson, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Background. The p-curve is a plot of the distribution of p-values reported in a set of scientific studies. Comparisons between ranges of p-values have been used to evaluate fields of research in terms of the extent to which studies have genuine evidential value, and the extent to which they suffer from bias in the selection of variables and analyses for publication, p-hacking. Methods. p-hacking can take various forms. Here we used R code to simulate the use of ghost variables, where an experimenter gathers data on several dependent variables but reports only those with statistically significant effects. We also examined a text-mined dataset used by Head et al. (2015) and assessed its suitability for investigating p-hacking. Results. We show that when there is ghost p-hacking, the shape of the p-curve depends on whether dependent variables are intercorrelated. For uncorrelated variables, simulated p-hacked data do not give the "p-hacking bump" just below .05 that is regarded as evidence of p-hacking, though there is a negative skew when simulated variables are inter-correlated. The way p-curves vary according to features of underlying data poses problems when automated text mining is used to detect p-values in heterogeneous sets of published papers. Conclusions. The absence of a bump in the p-curve is not indicative of lack of p-hacking. Furthermore, while studies with evidential value will usually generate a right-skewed p-curve, we cannot treat a right-skewed p-curve as an indicator of the extent of evidential value, unless we have a model specific to the type of p-values entered into the analysis. We conclude that it is not feasible to use the p-curve to estimate the extent of p-hacking and evidential value unless there is considerable control over the type of data entered into the analysis. In particular, p-hacking with ghost variables is likely to be missed.

  4. Involuntariness in hypnotic responding and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Clark Hull's (1933) research on dissociation was based on a 'straw man' formulation of dissociation; he claimed that dissociation requires noninterference. Hull completely ignored the then-current paradigm of dissociation--dissociation as automatism--and claimed that he had refuted the validity of the phenomenon of dissociation. Hull's view of dissociation held sway in the hypnosis field for 60 years. This essay seeks to retrieve the Janetian paradigm of dissociation as automatism. Automatisms are unexpected, uninitiated, involuntary behaviors that just 'happen.' The author argues that human sensitivity to the experience of involuntariness (a) is quite important, (b) was selected by evolution, and (c) is central to both hypnotic responses and dissociative symptoms. This editorial urges the hypnosis field and the dissociation field to jointly undertake a renewed investigation of the experience of involuntariness and to follow recent neuroimaging studies which indicate that the parietal cortex underlies the experience of involuntariness.

  5. Laser-induced dissociative ionization of H2 from the near-infrared to the mid-infrared regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qingli; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-12-01

    We apply the Monte Carlo wave packet (MCWP) approach to investigate the kinetic energy release (KER) spectra of the protons following double ionization in H2 when interacting with laser pulses with central wavelengths ranging from the near-infrared (IR) (800 nm) to the mid-IR (6400 nm) regions and with durations of 3-21 laser cycles. We uncover the physical origins of the peaks in the nuclear KER spectra and ascribe them to mechanisms such as ionization following a resonant dipole transition, charge-resonance-enhanced ionization, and ionization in the dissociative limit of large internuclear distances. For relatively large pulse durations, i.e., for 15 or more laser cycles at 3200 nm and 10 or more at 6400 nm, it is possible for the nuclear wave packet in H2+ to reach very large separations. Ionization of this part of the wave packet results in peaks in the KER spectra with very low energies. These peaks give direct information about the dissociative energy in the 2 p σu potential energy curve of H2+ at the one- and three-photon resonances between the 2 p σu and 1 s σg curves in H2+ . With the MCWP approach, we perform a trajectory analysis of the contributions to the KER peaks and identify the dominant ionization pathways. Finally, we consider a pump-probe scheme by applying two delayed pulses to track the nuclear dynamics in a time-resolved setting. Low-energy peaks appear for large delays and these are used to obtain the 2 p σu dissociative energy values at the one-photon resonance between the 2 p σu and 1 s σg curves in H2+ for different wavelengths.

  6. Dissociative amnesia in dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: self-rating assessment in a college population.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze; Karabulut, Sercan

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative amnesia (DA) among subjects with a dissociative disorder and/or borderline personality disorder (BPD) recruited from a nonclinical population was examined. The Steinberg Dissociative Amnesia Questionnaire (SDAQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the self-report screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 college students. A total of 80 participants who were diagnosed with BPD according to the clinician-administered SCID-BPD and 111 nonborderline controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) by a psychiatrist blind to diagnosis and scale scores. Internal consistency analyses and test-retest evaluations suggested that the SDAQ is a reliable instrument for the population studied. Of the participants, 20.6% reported an SDAQ score of 20 or above and impairment by DA. Those who had both dissociative disorder and BPD (n = 78) had the highest SDAQ scores. Both disorders had significant effects on the SCID-D total and amnesia scores in the variance analysis. On SDAQ scores, however, only BPD had this effect. There was a significant interaction between the 2 disorders for the SCID-D total but not for the SDAQ or SCID-D amnesia scores. BPD represented the severity of dissociation and childhood trauma in this study group. However, in contrast to the dissociative disorders, BPD was characterized by better awareness of DA in self-report. The discrepancies between self-report and clinical interview associated with BPD and dissociative disorders are discussed in the context of betrayal theory (J. J. Freyd, 1994) of BPD and perceptual theory (D. B. Beere, 2009) of dissociative disorders.

  7. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in canine blood samples by real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a small pleomorphic gram-negative, coccoid, obligatory intracellular bacterium and the cause of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (real-time FRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was established for detection of E. canis infection in canine blood samples. The VirB9 gene was amplified using one pair of primers and the melting curve analysis was generated by heating the hybridizing probes and amplified products. Eight E. canis-infected dog blood samples were initially identified using the Giemsa staining/microscopic method followed by conventional PCR (cPCR)/Sanger sequencing for confirmation. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time FRET PCR detection were 87.5% and 100%, respectively and the limit of detection was 6.6 x 10(3) copies of positive E. canis control plasmids. The real-time FRET PCR with melting curve analysis reported here is better than microscopic visualization or cPCR because the method is not affected by the false bias inherent in the microscopic method. Furthermore, many samples can be processed rapidly at the same time. This convenient tool is beneficial as an alternative assay for the epidemiologic study of canine ehrlichiosis as well as for eradication of these organisms in prevention and control programs in endemic areas.

  9. Rapid detection of the Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 tcdC gene frame shift mutation at position 117 by real-time PCR and melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolff, D; Brüning, T; Gerritzen, A

    2009-08-01

    The emergence of the hypervirulent strain Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 has increased the necessity for rapid C. difficile typing tests for clinical and epidemiological purposes. We developed a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of C. difficile. As the target, we chose the tcdC gene, which encodes for a negative regulator in toxin production. A deletion at position 117 of the tcdC gene, which is associated with severe tcdC truncation, is well conserved in all PCR ribotype 027 isolates. Probe sequences of the real-time PCR test were designed to result in distinct melt profiles for sequence variations at positions 117 to 120 of the tcdC gene. The tcdC gene deletion at position 117 was easily detected with real-time PCR and melt curve analysis in all C. difficile ribotype 027 isolates. In five non-027 strains and 46 hospitalised patient samples, melt curve analysis detected no deletion. PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The combination of real-time PCR and melt curve analysis is a rapid and accurate method for the detection of C. difficile DNA and simultaneous screening for the tcdC gene deletion at position 117, which is closely related to the C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 strain.

  10. Differentiation of Inflammatory from Fibrotic Ileal Strictures among Patients with Crohn's Disease through Analysis of Time-Intensity Curves Obtained after Microbubble Contrast Agent Injection.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Gennari, Antonio Giulio; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2017-04-03

    The aim of the study described here was to assess whether the analysis of time-intensity curves obtained after microbubble contrast agent injection could differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic ileal strictures among patients with Crohn's disease. Sixty-five consecutive patients (40 male and 25 female; mean age ± SD, 42.2 ± 12.22 y) with stricture of the terminal ileal loop from Crohn's disease were scanned after microbubble injection. Time-intensity curves were obtained from quantitative analysis, and peak enhancement, rise time, time to peak, area under the time-intensity curve (AUC), AUC during wash-in (AUCWI) and AUC during wash-out (AUCWO) were compared between patients with inflammatory strictures and patients with fibrotic strictures. Inflammatory (n = 40) and fibrotic (n = 25) strictures differed (p < 0.05) in peak enhancement, wash-in rate, wash-in perfusion index, AUC, AUCWI and AUCWO. The quantitative analysis of small bowel wall contrast enhancement after microbubble contrast agent injection may differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic ileal strictures in patients with Crohn's disease.

  11. Polymerized and polyethylene glycol-conjugated hemoglobins: a globin-based calibration curve for dynamic light scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, Serena; Ronda, Luca; Bruno, Stefano; Jankevics, Hanna; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2010-06-15

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique capable of determining the hydrodynamic radius of proteins. From this parameter, a molecular weight can be assessed provided that an appropriate calibration curve is available. To this goal, a globin-based calibration curve was used to determine the polymerization state of a recombinant hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier and to assess the equivalent molecular weight of hemoglobins conjugated with polyethylene glycol molecules. The good agreement between DLS values and those obtained from gel filtration chromatography is a