Science.gov

Sample records for distal malignant biliary

  1. A comparison between endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous and percutaneous biliary drainage after failed ERCP for malignant distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Jason G.; Darcy, Michael; Fujii-Lau, Larissa L.; Mullady, Daniel K.; Gaddam, Srinivas; Murad, Faris M.; Early, Dayna S.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Kushnir, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study Aims: Selective biliary cannulation is unsuccessful in 5 % to 10 % of patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO). Percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) has been the gold standard, but endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUSr) have been increasingly used for biliary decompression in this patient population. Our aim was to compare the initial success rate, long-term efficacy, and safety of PBD and EUSr in relieving MDBO after failed ERC Patients and methods: A retrospective study involving 50 consecutive patients who had an initial failed ERCP for MDBO. Twenty-five patients undergoing EUSr between 2008 – 2014 were compared to 25 patients who underwent PBD immediately prior to the introduction of EUSr at our center (2002 – 2008). Comparisons were made between the two groups with regard to technical success, duration of hospital stay and adverse event rates after biliary decompression. Results: The mean age at presentation was 66.5 (± 12.6 years), 28 patients (54.9 %) were female. The etiology of MDBO was pancreaticobiliary malignancy in 44 (88 %) and metastatic disease in 6 (12 %) cases. Biliary drainage was technically successful by EUSr in 19 (76 %) cases and by PBD in 25 (100 %) (P = 0.002). Median length of hospital stay after initial drainage was 1 day in the EUSr group vs 5 days in PBD group (P = 0.02). Repeat biliary intervention was required for 4 patients in the EUSr group and 15 in the PBD group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Initial technical success with EUSr was significantly lower than with PBD, however when EUSr was successful, patients had a significantly shorter post-procedure hospital stay and required fewer follow-up biliary interventions. Meeting presentations: Annual Digestive Diseases Week 2015 PMID:27652305

  2. Feasibility of one-step endoscopic metal stenting for distal malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuya; Naitoh, Itaru; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Hayashi, Kazuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Hiromu; Yoshida, Michihiro; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Joh, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to clarify the clinical usefulness of one-step self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for distal malignant biliary obstruction by comparing with two-step SEMS placement. We retrospectively compared early complications, bilirubin level decreasing rate, and period of hospitalization between 40 patients with one-step SEMS and 52 patients with two-step SEMS. We also evaluated the complications in patients with two-step SEMS by classifying them into first drainage (ERBD or ENBD) and second drainage (SEMS). The total incidence of early complications was significantly higher in patients with one-step SEMS than the second drainage of two-step SEMS (42.5% [17/40] vs. 13.5% [7/52]; P = 0.004). However, there was no significant difference in the early complications between one-step SEMS and two-step SEMS (total of first and second drainage) (42.5% [17/40] vs. 36.5% [19/52]; P = 0.561). The period required to reach the bilirubin level (<3 mg/dL) after initial drainage was significantly shorter in one-step SEMS than in two-step SEMS (5.7 vs. 10.1 days; P = 0.025). Similar results were observed in the period of hospitalization for patients without chemotherapy (22.2 vs. 37.3 days; P = 0.004). One-step SEMS placement is the alternative option of drainage method for distal malignant biliary obstruction. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  3. Antireflux Metal Stent as a First-Line Metal Stent for Distal Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Togawa, Osamu; Takahara, Naminatsu; Uchino, Rie; Mizuno, Suguru; Mohri, Dai; Yagioka, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Ito, Yukiko; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims In distal malignant biliary obstruction, an antireflux metal stent (ARMS) with a funnel-shaped valve is effective as a reintervention for metal stent occlusion caused by reflux. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of this ARMS as a first-line metal stent. Methods Patients with nonresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction were identified between April and December 2014 at three Japanese tertiary centers. We retrospectively evaluated recurrent biliary obstruction and adverse events after ARMS placement. Results In total, 20 consecutive patients were included. The most common cause of biliary obstruction was pancreatic cancer (75%). Overall, recurrent biliary obstruction was observed in seven patients (35%), with a median time to recurrent biliary obstruction of 246 days (range, 11 to 246 days). Stent occlusion occurred in five patients (25%), the causes of which were sludge and food impaction in three and two patients, respectively. Stent migration occurred in two patients (10%). The rate of adverse events associated with ARMS was 25%: pancreatitis occurred in three patients, cholecystitis in one and liver abscess in one. No patients experienced non-occlusion cholangitis. Conclusions The ARMS as a first-line biliary drainage procedure was feasible. Because the ARMS did not fully prevent stent dysfunction due to reflux, further investigation is warranted. PMID:27282268

  4. Transjugular Insertion of Bare-Metal Biliary Stent for the Treatment of Distal Malignant Obstructive Jaundice Complicated by Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsauo Jiaywei Li Xiao Li Hongcui Wei Bo Luo Xuefeng Zhang Chunle Tang Chengwei; Wang Weiping

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to investigate retrospectively the feasibility of transjugular insertion of biliary stent (TIBS) for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice complicated by coagulopathy. Between April 2005 and May 2010, six patients with distal malignant obstructive jaundice associated with coagulopathy that was unable to be corrected underwent TIBS at our institution for the palliation of jaundice. Patients' medical record and imaging results were reviewed to obtain information about demographics, procedure details, complications, and clinical outcomes. The intrahepatic biliary tract was successfully accessed in all six patients via transjugular approach. The procedure was technically successfully in five of six patients, with a bare-metal stent implanted after traversing the biliary strictures. One procedure failed, because the guidewire could not traverse the biliary occlusion. One week after TIBS, the mean serum bilirubin in the five successful cases had decreased from 313 {mu}mol/L (range 203.4-369.3) to 146.2 {mu}mol/L (range 95.8-223.3) and had further decreased to 103.6 {mu}mol/L (range 29.5-240.9) at 1 month after the procedure. No bleeding, sepsis, or other major complications were observed after the procedure. The mean survival of these five patients was 4.5 months (range 1.9-5.8). On imaging follow-up, there was no evidence of stent stenosis or migration, with 100 % primary patency. When the risks of hemorrhage from percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage are high, TIBS may be an effective alternative for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice.

  5. Comparison of outcomes among secondary covered metallic, uncovered metallic, and plastic biliary stents in treating occluded primary metallic stents in malignant distal biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Hee; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Jeong Youp; Kim, Hee Man; Kim, Yoon Jae; Park, Seung Woo; Chung, Jae Bock; Song, Si Young; Bang, Seungmin

    2011-02-01

    The self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been widely used for unresectable malignant biliary obstruction but eventually becomes occluded by tumor ingrowth/overgrowth and sludge. Therefore, we aimed to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of secondary stents and to find differences according to various combinations of the first and second stents for the management of occluded SEMSs in patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction. Between 1999 and November 2008, 77 patients with malignant biliary obstruction underwent secondary biliary stent placement as "stent-in-stent" at three university hospitals in Korea (40 covered, 26 uncovered, and 11 plastic stents). The membrane of the covered SEMS was regarded as the barrier against tumor ingrowth. We categorized the patients into three groups based on whether the covered SEMS was either the first or the second stent: membrane-SEMS (18 covered-covered; 9 covered-uncovered; 22 uncovered-covered SEMS), bare-SEMS (17 uncovered-uncovered SEMS), and plastic stent (3 covered-plastic; 8 uncovered-plastic). The median patency of second stents was 138, 109, and 88 days (covered, uncovered, and plastic stents). The second covered SEMSs had a significantly longer patency than plastic stents (p=0.047). In a multivariate analysis including membrane-SEMS, bare-SEMS, and plastic stent groups, the bare-SEMS had a worse cumulative stent patency (HR=2.04, CI=1.08-3.86) and survival time (HR=2.37, CI=1.25-4.49) than the membrane-SEMS. Patients with ampulla of Vater cancer had better stent patency (HR=0.27, CI=0.08-0.98) and survival (HR=0.17, CI=0.04-0.77) than those with other pancreatobiliary malignancies. In addition, antitumor treatment prolonged survival time (HR=0.50, CI=0.26-0.99). The placement of additional biliary stents using the "stent-in-stent" method is an effective treatment for an occluded metallic primary stent. In addition, double biliary SEMS placement using at least one covered SEMS (in the primary and

  6. Nitinol versus steel partially covered self-expandable metal stent for malignant distal biliary obstruction: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Soderlund, Claes; Linder, Stefan; Bergenzaun, Per E; Grape, Tomas; Hakansson, Hans-Olof; Kilander, Anders; Lindell, Gert; Ljungman, Martin; Ohlin, Bo; Nielsen, Jorgen; Rudberg, Claes; Stotzer, Per-Ove; Svartholm, Erik; Toth, Ervin; Frozanpor, Farshad

    2014-11-01

    Covered nitinol alloy self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been developed to overcome the shortcomings of steel SEMS in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. In a randomized, multicenter trial, we compared stent patency, patient survival, and adverse events in patients with partly covered stents made from steel or nitinol. A total of 400 patients with unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction were randomized at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to insertion of a steel or nitinol partially covered SEMS, with 200 patients in each group. The primary outcome was confirmed stent failure during 300 days of follow-up.  At 300 days, the proportion of patients with patent stents was 77 % in the steel group, compared with 89 % in the nitinol group (P = 0.01). Confirmed stent failure occurred more often in the steel SEMS group compared with the nitinol SEMS group, in 30 versus 14 patients (P = 0.02). Stent migration occurred in 13 patients in the steel group and in 3 patients in the nitinol group (P = 0.01). Median patient survival (secondary outcome) was 137 days and 120 days in the steel SEMS and nitinol SEMS groups, respectively (P = 0.59). The nitinol SEMS showed longer patency time, and the nitinol group had fewer patients with stent failure, compared with the steel SEMS group. We could not detect any differences between the two groups regarding survival time, and regarding adverse event rate.Clinical trial registration : NCT 00980889. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. A randomized trial comparing uncovered and partially covered self-expandable metal stents in the palliation of distal malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Telford, Jennifer J; Carr-Locke, David L; Baron, Todd H; Poneros, John M; Bounds, Brenna C; Kelsey, Peter B; Schapiro, Robert H; Huang, Christopher S; Lichtenstein, David R; Jacobson, Brian C; Saltzman, John R; Thompson, Christopher C; Forcione, David G; Gostout, Christopher J; Brugge, William R

    2010-11-01

    The most common complication of uncovered biliary self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) is tumor ingrowth. The addition of an impenetrable covering may prolong stent patency. To compare stent patency between uncovered and partially covered SEMSs in malignant biliary obstruction. Multicenter randomized trial. Four teaching hospitals. Adults with inoperable distal malignant biliary obstruction. Uncovered or partially covered SEMS insertion. Time to recurrent biliary obstruction, patient survival, serious adverse events, and mechanism of recurrent biliary obstruction. From October 2002 to May 2008, 129 patients were randomized. Recurrent biliary obstruction was observed in 11 of 61 uncovered SEMSs (18%) and 20 of 68 partially covered SEMSs (29%). The median times to recurrent biliary obstruction were 711 days and 357 days for the uncovered and partially covered SEMS groups, respectively (P = .530). Median patient survival was 239 days for the uncovered SEMS and 227 days for the partially covered SEMS groups (P = .997). Serious adverse events occurred in 27 (44%) and 42 (62%) patients in the uncovered and partially covered SEMS groups, respectively (P = .046). None of the uncovered and 8 (12%) of the partially covered SEMSs migrated (P = .0061). Intended sample size was not reached. Allocation to treatment groups was unequal. There was no significant difference in time to recurrent biliary obstruction or patient survival between the partially covered and uncovered SEMS groups. Partially covered SEMSs were associated with more serious adverse events, particularly migration. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective international multicenter study on endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage for patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Khashab, Mouen A.; Van der Merwe, Schalk; Kunda, Rastislav; El Zein, Mohamad H.; Teoh, Anthony Y.; Marson, Fernando P.; Fabbri, Carlo; Tarantino, Ilaria; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Modayil, Rani J.; Stavropoulos, Stavros N.; Peñas, Irene; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Kumbhari, Vivek; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Shah, Raj; Kalloo, Anthony N.; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Artifon, Everson L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has emerged as an alternative to traditional radiologic and surgical drainage procedures after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, prospective multicenter data are lacking. The aims of this study were to prospectively assess the short- and long-term efficacy and safety of EUS-BD in patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction. Patients and methods: Consecutive patients at 12 tertiary centers (5 US, 5 European, 1 Asian, 1 South American) with malignant distal biliary obstruction and failed ERCP underwent EUS-BD. Technical success was defined as successful stent placement in the desired position. Clinical success was defined as a reduction in bilirubin by 50 % at 2 weeks or to below 3 mg/dL at 4 weeks. Adverse events were prospectively tracked and graded according to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) lexicon’s severity grading system. Overall survival and duration of stent patency were calculated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: A total of 96 patients (mean age 66 years, female 45 %, pancreatic cancer 55 %) underwent EUS-BD. Stent placement (technical success) was achieved in 92 (95.8 %) patients (metallic stent 84, plastic stent 8). Mean procedure time was 40 minutes. Clinical success was achieved in 86 (89.5 %) patients. A total of 10 (10.5 %) adverse events occurred: pneumoperitoneum (n = 2), sheared wire (n = 1), bleeding (n = 1), bile leak (n = 3), cholangitis (n = 2), and unintentional perforation (n = 1); 4 graded as mild, 4 moderate, 1 severe, and 1 fatal (due to perforation). A total of 38 (44 %) patients died of disease progression during the study period. The median patient survival was 167 days (95 %CI 112 – 221) days. The 6-month stent patency rate was 95 % (95 %CI 94.94 – 95.06 %) and the 1-year stent patency was 86 % (95 %CI 85.74 – 86

  9. Covered versus Uncovered Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Managing Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Yu, Qihong; Wang, Kun; Chang, Weilong; Song, Zifang; Zheng, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy of using covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) and uncovered self-expandable metal stents (UCSEMSs) to treat objective jaundice caused by an unresectable malignant tumor. Methods We performed a comprehensive electronic search from 1980 to May 2015. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CSEMSs and UCSEMSs to treat malignant distal biliary obstruction were included. Results The analysis included 1417 patients enrolled in 14 trials. We did not detect significant differences between the UCSEMS group and the CSEMS group in terms of cumulative stent patency (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19–4.53; p = 0.93, I2 = 0%), patient survival (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.05–10.87; p = 0.85, I2 = 0%), overall stent dysfunction (relative ratio (RR) 0.85, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.57–1.25; p = 0.83, I2 = 63%), the overall complication rate (RR 1.26, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 0.94–1.68; p = 0.12, I2 = 0%) or the change in serum bilirubin (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.13, IV fixed, 95% CI 0.56–0.3; p = 0.55, I2 = 0%). However, we did detect a significant difference in the main causes of stent dysfunction between the two groups. In particular, the CSEMS group exhibited a lower rate of tumor ingrowth (RR 0.25, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.12–0.52; p = 0.002, I2 = 40%) but a higher rate of tumor overgrowth (RR 1.76, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.03–3.02; p = 0.04, I2 = 0%). Patients with CSEMSs also exhibited a higher migration rate (RR 9.33, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 2.54–34.24; p = 0.008, I2 = 0%) and a higher rate of sludge formation (RR 2.47, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.36–4.50; p = 0.003, I2 = 0%). Conclusions Our meta-analysis indicates that there is no significant difference in primary stent patency and stent dysfunction between CSEMSs and UCSEMSs during the period from primary stent insertion to primary stent dysfunction or patient death. However, when taking further management for occluded stents into consideration, CSEMSs is a

  10. Covered versus Uncovered Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Managing Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjin; Li, Tong; Sun, Ping; Yu, Qihong; Wang, Kun; Chang, Weilong; Song, Zifang; Zheng, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of using covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) and uncovered self-expandable metal stents (UCSEMSs) to treat objective jaundice caused by an unresectable malignant tumor. We performed a comprehensive electronic search from 1980 to May 2015. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CSEMSs and UCSEMSs to treat malignant distal biliary obstruction were included. The analysis included 1417 patients enrolled in 14 trials. We did not detect significant differences between the UCSEMS group and the CSEMS group in terms of cumulative stent patency (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-4.53; p = 0.93, I2 = 0%), patient survival (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.05-10.87; p = 0.85, I2 = 0%), overall stent dysfunction (relative ratio (RR) 0.85, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.57-1.25; p = 0.83, I2 = 63%), the overall complication rate (RR 1.26, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 0.94-1.68; p = 0.12, I2 = 0%) or the change in serum bilirubin (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.13, IV fixed, 95% CI 0.56-0.3; p = 0.55, I2 = 0%). However, we did detect a significant difference in the main causes of stent dysfunction between the two groups. In particular, the CSEMS group exhibited a lower rate of tumor ingrowth (RR 0.25, M-H, random, 95% CI 0.12-0.52; p = 0.002, I2 = 40%) but a higher rate of tumor overgrowth (RR 1.76, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04, I2 = 0%). Patients with CSEMSs also exhibited a higher migration rate (RR 9.33, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 2.54-34.24; p = 0.008, I2 = 0%) and a higher rate of sludge formation (RR 2.47, M-H, fixed, 95% CI 1.36-4.50; p = 0.003, I2 = 0%). Our meta-analysis indicates that there is no significant difference in primary stent patency and stent dysfunction between CSEMSs and UCSEMSs during the period from primary stent insertion to primary stent dysfunction or patient death. However, when taking further management for occluded stents into consideration, CSEMSs is a better choice for patients with malignant biliary

  11. Plastic biliary stents for malignant biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Inge; Fockens, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Plastic biliary endoprostheses have not changed much since their introduction more than 3 decades ago. Although their use has been challenged by the introduction of metal stents, plastic stents still remain commonly used. Much work has been done to improve the problem of stent obstruction but without substantial clinical success. In this review, the authors discuss the history of plastic biliary stent development and the current use of plastic stents for malignant biliary diseases.

  12. Partially covered versus uncovered self-expandable nitinol stents with anti-migration properties for the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Jae; Kim, Jin Hong; Yoo, Byung Moo; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Lee, Ki Seong; Kang, Joon Koo; Kim, Soon Sun; Lim, Sun Gyo; Shin, Sung Jae; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lee, Kee Myung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Cho, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are increasingly used as alternatives to uncovered SEMSs for the palliation of inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction to counteract tumor ingrowth. We aimed to compare the outcomes of partially covered and uncovered SEMSs with identical mesh structures and anti-migration properties, such as low axial force and flared ends. One hundred and three patients who were diagnosed with inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction between January 2006 and August 2013 were randomly assigned to either the partially covered (n = 51) or uncovered (n = 52) SEMS group. There were no significant differences in the cumulative stent patency, overall patient survival, stent dysfunction-free survival and overall adverse events, including pancreatitis and cholecystitis, between the two groups. Compared to the uncovered group, stent migration (5.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.118) and tumor overgrowth (7.8% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.205) were non-significantly more frequent in the partially covered group, whereas tumor ingrowth showed a significantly higher incidence in the uncovered group (5.9% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.041). Stent migration in the partially covered group occurred only in patients with short stenosis of the utmost distal bile duct (two in ampullary cancer, one in bile duct cancer), and did not occur in any patients with pancreatic cancer. For the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction, endoscopic placement of partially covered SEMSs with anti-migration designs and identical mesh structures to uncovered SEMSs failed to prolong cumulative stent patency or reduce stent migration.

  13. Covered versus uncovered self-expandable nitinol stents in the palliative treatment of malignant distal biliary obstruction: results from a randomized, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kullman, Eric; Frozanpor, Farshad; Söderlund, Claes; Linder, Stefan; Sandström, Per; Lindhoff-Larsson, Anna; Toth, Ervin; Lindell, Gert; Jonas, Eduard; Freedman, Jacob; Ljungman, Martin; Rudberg, Claes; Ohlin, Bo; Zacharias, Rebecka; Leijonmarck, Carl-Eric; Teder, Kalev; Ringman, Anders; Persson, Gunnar; Gözen, Mehmet; Eriksson, Olle

    2010-11-01

    Covered biliary metal stents have been developed to prevent tumor ingrowth. Previous comparative studies are limited and often include few patients. To compare differences in stent patency, patient survival, and complication rates between covered and uncovered nitinol stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Randomized, multicenter trial conducted between January 2006 and October 2008. Ten sites serving a total catchment area of approximately 2.8 million inhabitants. A total of 400 patients with unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction. ERCP with insertion of covered or uncovered metal stent. Follow-up conducted monthly for symptoms indicating stent obstruction. Time to stent failure, survival time, and complication rate. The patient survival times were 116 days (interquartile range 242 days) and 174 days (interquartile range 284 days) in the covered and uncovered stent groups, respectively (P = .320). The first quartile stent patency time was 154 days in the covered stent group and 199 days in the uncovered stent group (P = .326). There was no difference in the incidence of pancreatitis or cholecystitis between the 2 groups. Stent migration occurred in 6 patients (3%) in the covered group and in no patients in the uncovered group (P = .030). Randomization was not blinded. There were no significant differences in stent patency time, patient survival time, or complication rates between covered and uncovered nitinol metal stents in the palliative treatment of malignant distal biliary obstruction. However, covered stents migrated significantly more often compared with uncovered stents, and tumor ingrowth was more frequent in uncovered stents. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoscopic Stent Placement in the Palliation of Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Biliary drainage with biliary stent placement is the treatment of choice for palliation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable neoplasms. In such patients, the endoscopic approach can be initially used with percutaneous radiological intervention. In patients with unresectable malignant distal bile duct obstructions, endoscopic biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has now become the main and least invasive palliative modality, which has been proven to be more effective in >80% of cases with lower morbidity than surgery, and perhaps may provide a survival benefit. In patients with unresectable malignant hilar obstruction, the endoscopic approach for biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has also been considered as the treatment of choice. There is still a lack of clear consensus on the use of covered versus uncovered metal stents in malignant distal bile duct obstructions and plastic versus metal stents and unilateral versus bilateral drainage in malignant hilar obstructions. PMID:22741117

  15. Comparison of partially covered nitinol stents with partially covered stainless stents as a historical control in a multicenter study of distal malignant biliary obstruction: the WATCH study.

    PubMed

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Itoi, Takao; Maetani, Iruru; Nakai, Yousuke; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Ryozawa, Shomei; Hanada, Keiji; Hasebe, Osamu; Ito, Kei; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Irisawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tamito; Togawa, Osamu; Hara, Taro; Kamada, Hideki; Toda, Nobuo; Kogure, Hirofumi

    2012-07-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) were developed to prevent tumor ingrowth, but stent migration is one of the problems with CSEMSs. To evaluate a new, commercially available CSEMS with flared ends and low axial force compared with a commercially available CSEMS without the anti-migration system and high axial force. Multicenter, prospective study with a historical cohort. Twenty Japanese referral centers. This study involved patients with unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction. Placement of a new, commercially available, partially covered SEMS. Recurrent biliary obstruction rate, time to recurrent biliary obstruction, stent-related complications, survival. Between April 2009 and March 2010, 141 patients underwent partially covered nitinol stent placement, and between May 2001 and January 2007, 138 patients underwent placement of partially covered stainless stents as a historical control. The silicone cover of the partially covered nitinol stents prevented tumor ingrowth. There were no significant differences in survival (229 vs 219 days; P = .250) or the rate of recurrent biliary obstruction (33% vs 38%; P = .385) between partially covered nitinol stents and partially covered stainless stents. Stent migration was less frequent (8% vs 17%; P = .019), and time to recurrent biliary obstruction was significantly longer (373 vs 285 days; P = .007) with partially covered nitinol stents. Stent removal was successful in 26 of 27 patients (96%). Nonrandomized, controlled trial. Partially covered nitinol stents with an anti-migration system and less axial force demonstrated longer time to recurrent biliary obstruction with no tumor ingrowth and less stent migration. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simple Clinical Score to Predict 24-Week Survival Times in Patients with Inoperable Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction as a Tool for Selecting Palliative Metallic or Plastic Stents.

    PubMed

    Sripongpun, Pimsiri; Attasaranya, Siriboon; Chamroonkul, Naichaya; Sookpaisal, Theerapong; Khow-Ean, Uthai; Siripun, Aroon; Kongkamol, Chanon; Piratvisuth, Teerha; Ovartlarnporn, Bancha

    2017-01-17

    Endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) is the mainstay treatment for inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO). Some authorities suggest that metallic stents are more cost-effective than plastic stents in patients with expected survival of at least 6 months. However, studies attempting to define the predictive factors for such survival times are limited. This study aims to develop a scoring system for predicting a survival time of <24 weeks in these patients. Patients with MDBO from inoperable periampullary cancers who underwent EBD at Songklanagarind Hospital during 2004-2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were retrieved. The survival time data were retrieved from the medical records and Thailand's civil registration database. Multivariate Cox regression model coefficients were used in the development of a survival time prediction scoring system. Ninety-eight patients were included. The overall median survival was 17.6 weeks. Fifty-seven (58.1%) survived <24 weeks. By multivariate analysis, cancer type and liver metastasis were significant predictive factors. The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) was calculated from (2× liver metastasis) + (1× pancreatic cancer) - (2× ampullary cancer) - (1× cholangiocarcinoma), when 1 and 0 were used for the presence and absence of each factor, respectively. The cutoff value of the score ≥0 had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.77 and 0.63, respectively, for predicting a survival time of <24 weeks, with AUC of 0.76. The median survival of patients with SCS <0 and ≥0 was 36.6 and 13.1 weeks, respectively. The scoring system from this study may be beneficial for clinicians to select the appropriate stents in endoscopic biliary drainage in inoperable MDBO patients.

  17. Self-expandable metal stents in malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jaganmohan, Sathya; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction can be due to direct tumor infiltration, extrinsic compression, adjacent inflammation, desmoplastic reaction from tumors or, more commonly, a combination of the above factors. Pancreatic cancer is the most common cause of malignant biliary obstruction, and jaundice occurs in 70-90% of the patients during the course of the disease. Compared with the uncovered metal stents, covered metal stents have longer patency and a lower rate of tumor ingrowth, but have a higher rate of stent migration. To combat the occlusion and provide an antitumor effect, drug-eluting stents were developed. A duodenal stricture complicates biliary stent placement in 10-20% of patients with distal biliary obstruction due to pancreatic cancer. When both strictures are considered, a biliary stent can be placed either preceding or following duodenal stent placement. Complications of self-expandable metal stents include stent occlusion, stent migration, cholecystitis and pancreatitis.

  18. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27247718

  19. Malignant transformation of biliary adenofibroma: a rare biliary cystic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zendejas-Mummert, Benjamin; Hartgers, Mindy L.; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Mahipal, Amit; Smoot, Rory L.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary adenofibromas (BAFs) are rare, benign biliary cystic tumors with potential for malignant transformation. Of the eleven prior cases of BAF reported in the literature, six showed evidence of malignant transformation. We describe the clinical, imaging and pathology features of two cases of malignant BAF and review the existing literature to raise awareness of this entity and provide additional tools for diagnosing this rare tumor Additionally, we identified a loss of function mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) tumor suppressor gene in a malignant caudate lobe BAF, thereby providing potential insight into the molecular pathogenesis of BAF malignant transformation. Although additional cases and longer-term follow-up are needed, our cases suggest that recurrence or metastasis of malignant BAF is not common and that complete surgical resection can be curative. PMID:28078134

  20. Computed tomography of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Furui, S.; Yashiro, N.; Ohtomo, K.; Iio, M.

    1983-05-01

    Fifteen patients with primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma in 13, biliary cystadenocarcinoma in two) were examined by computed tomography (CT). The CT features were classified into three types: (A) a well-defined round cystic mass with internal papillary projections, (B) a localized intrahepatic biliary dilatation without a definite mass lesion, and (C) miscellaneous low-density masses. Intraphepatic biliary dilatation was noted in all cases of Types A and B and half of those of Type C; dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred in 4/4, 1/3, and 0/8, respectively. CT patterns, such as a well-defined round cystic mass with papillary projections or dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic ducts, give important clues leading to a correct diagnosis of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy.

  1. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  2. [A case of choledochoduodenal fistula as a delayed complication after biliary metallic stent placement in distal cholangiocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moon, Seol Kyung; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Ji Hun; Im, Eun Joo; Ha, Jick Hwan; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2008-05-01

    Biliary drainage in patients with malignant biliary obstruction relieves jaundice and prevents the development of cholangitis or hepatic failure from biliary obstruction. Therefore, this may result in better quality of life along with survival prolongation. Biliary stent placement is an effective and safe measure for biliary decompression and is preferred than bypass surgery in high risk patients. Entero-biliary perforation-communication is one of the rare complications of biliary stent. We herein report a case of duodeno-biliary perforation-communication in patient with distal cholangiocarcinoma who presented with duodenal ulcer and obstruction, occurring 4 years later from the metallic biliary stent insertion. Patient was managed with a pyloric metal stent and conservative care.

  3. Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin; Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B.

    1996-03-15

    Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

  4. Malignant biliary obstruction: From palliation to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Brian R; Birg, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, or other tumors is a common problem which may cause debilitating symptoms and increase the risk of subsequent surgery. The optimal treatment - including the decision whether to treat prior to resection - depends on the type of malignancy, as well as the stage of disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is generally discouraged due to the risk of infectious complications, though some situations may benefit. Patients who require neoadjuvant therapy will require decompression for the prolonged period until attempted surgical cure. For pancreatic cancer patients, self-expanding metallic stents are superior to plastic stents for achieving lasting decompression without stent occlusion. For cholangiocarcinoma patients, treatment with percutaneous methods or nasobiliary drainage may be superior to endoscopic stent placement, with less risk of infectious complications or failure. For patients of either malignancy who have advanced disease with palliative goals only, the choice of stent for endoscopic decompression depends on estimated survival, with plastic stents favored for survival of < 4 mo. New endoscopic techniques may actually extend stent patency and patient survival for these patients by achieving local control of the obstructing tumor. Both photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation may play a role in extending survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27326319

  5. Metallic stents in malignant biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rieber, Andrea; Brambs, Hans-Juergen

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. Retrospective analysis of our results with metallic stent placement for malignant biliary strictures. We sought to determine parameters that influence stent patency. Methods. A total of 95 Wallstents were implanted in 65 patients (38 men, 27 women; mean age, 65.1 years) with malignant biliary obstruction. Serum bilirubin levels were assessed in 48 patients; the mean value prior to intervention was 15.0 mg/dl. Results. In 12 patients (21%) complications occurred as a result of percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Stent implantation was complicated in 13 patients, but was possible in all patients. A significant decrease in bilirubin level was seen in 83.3% of patients following stent implantation. Approximately 30% of patients developed recurrent jaundice after a mean 97.1 days. In 9 patients (15%) the recurrent jaundice was caused by stent occlusion due to tumor growth. The mean follow-up was 141.8 days, the mean survival 118.7 days. Patients with cholangiocarcinomas and gallbladder carcinomas had the best results. Worse results were seen in patients with pancreatic tumors and with lymph node metastases of colon and gastric cancers. Conclusions. The main predictive factors for occlusion rate and survival are the type of primary tumor, tumor stage, the decrease in bilirubin level, and the general condition of the patient.

  6. Antireflux Versus Conventional Plastic Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Vihervaara, Hanna; Grönroos, Juha M; Hurme, Saija; Gullichsen, Risto; Salminen, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic stents are used to relieve obstructive jaundice. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the patency of antireflux and conventional plastic biliary stent in relieving distal malignant biliary obstruction. All jaundiced patients admitted to hospital with suspected unresectable malignant distal biliary stricture between October 2009 and September 2010 were evaluated for the study. Eligible patients were randomized either to antireflux or conventional plastic stent arms. The primary endpoint was stent patency and the follow-up was continued either until the stent was occluded or until 6 months after the stent placement. At an interim analysis, antireflux stents (ARSs; n = 6) had a significantly shorter median patency of 34 (8-49) days compared with the conventional stent (n = 7) patency of 167 (38-214) days (P = .0003). Based on these results, the study was terminated due to ethical concerns. According to these results, the use of this ARS is not recommended.

  7. Covered biliary stents with proximal bare stent extension for the palliation of malignant biliary disease: can we reduce tumour overgrowth rate?

    PubMed

    Krokidis, Miltiadis; Hatzidakis, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Covered biliary stents have shown significant effectiveness in the palliative management of patients with malignant biliary disease due to prevention of tumour ingrowth. However, stent dysfunction may still occur due to growth of tumour at the borders of the covered stent (tumour overgrowth). The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a bare extension in the prevention of tumour overgrowth when covered stents are used in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary strictures. This is a prospective, single arm, cohort study. Twenty-two patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures in the distal common bile duct (Bismuth I-II) and life expectancy more than 6 months were included in the study. The combination of a fully covered biliary stent and a bare proximal and distal extension was used in all cases. All patients were followed-up until death. Primary patency, survival, complication rates and dysfunction cause were assessed. Mean survival was 263.7 days (median 255, SD: 77.6). Mean patency was 240 days (median: 237, SD: 87). The primary patency rate at 3, 6 and 12 months was 90%, 86% and 86% respectively. Tumour inor overgrowth did not occur in any of the patients. Dysfunction due to sludge formation occurred in three cases; all three were treated with bilioplasty. The combined use of a covered biliary stent and a bare extension appears to be a very effective tool in the palliation of malignant biliary disease, offering long-term patency for patients with inoperable malignant distal common bile duct strictures and increasing the quality of life of such patients.

  8. Metal versus plastic stents for malignant biliary obstruction: an update meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wan-dong; Chen, Xiao-wei; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Zhu, Qi-huai; Chen, Xiang-rong

    2013-11-01

    The data on comparisons of stent patency, re-intervention rate and patient survival between metal and plastic stents in palliation of malignant biliary obstruction have never been pooled. We carry out a meta-analysis to summarise current evidence for clinical efficacy of metal and plastic stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. A comprehensive search of several databases was conducted. A fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to pool data of all study endpoints. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis (distal vs. hilar biliary obstruction) were also performed. Ten randomized clinical trials were identified. Compared with plastic stents, metal stents were associated with a significantly longer stent patency (HR=0.36; 95% CI: 0.28-0.47; I(2)=0%), fewer numbers of re-intervention (WMD=0.59; 95% CI: 0.28-0.90; I(2)=76.4%) and longer patient survival (HR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.64-0.85; I(2)=16.0%). These results were still significant by sensitivity analysis. All outcomes reached statistical significance except of the pooled WMD of number of re-intervention in the studies with hilar biliary obstruction. No publication bias was observed. Metal stents were associated with a significantly longer stent patency, lower re-intervention rate and longer patient survival in palliation of malignant biliary obstruction when compared to plastic stents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging of malignancies of the biliary tract- an update

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malignancies of the biliary tract include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancers and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Biliary tract adenocarcinomas are the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer. Due to their slow growing nature, non-specific and late symptomatology, these malignancies are often diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis. Apart from incidental discovery of gall bladder carcinoma upon cholecystectomy, early stage biliary tract cancers are now detected with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Accurate characterization and staging of these indolent cancers will determine outcome as majority of the patients’ are inoperable at the time of presentation. Ultrasound is useful for initial evaluation of the biliary tract and gallbladder masses and in determining the next suitable modality for further evaluation. Multimodality imaging plays an integral role in the management of the biliary tract malignancies. The imaging techniques most useful are MRI with MRCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In this review we will discuss epidemiology and the role of imaging in detection, characterization and management of the biliary tract malignancies under the three broad categories of cholangiocarcinomas (intra- and extrahepatic), gallbladder cancers and ampullary carcinomas. PMID:25608662

  10. Drug-eluting stent in malignant biliary obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Ki; Jang, Sung Ill

    2012-10-01

    Endoscopic stent insertion is the treatment of choice for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. However, conventional stents enable only mechanical palliation of the obstruction, without any anti-tumor effects. Drugeluting stent (DES), which was first introduced in coronary artery disease, are currently under investigation for sustaining stent patency and prolonging patient survival by inhibiting tumor ingrowth in malignant biliary obstruction. Many factors affecting efficient drug delivery have been studied to determine how drugs with antitumor effects suppress tumor ingrowth, including the specific drugs incorporated, means of incorporating the drugs, mode of drug release, and stent structure. Advances have resulted in the construction of more effective non-vascular DES and ongoing clinical research. Non-vascular DES is expected to play a vital role in prolonging the survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.

  11. Impact of anticancer treatment on recurrent obstruction in covered metallic stents for malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Itoi, Takao; Maetani, Iruru; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Ryozawa, Shomei; Hanada, Keiji; Hasebe, Osamu; Ito, Kei; Kawamoto, Hiorofumi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Irisawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tamito; Togawa, Osamu; Hara, Taro; Kamada, Hideki; Toda, Nobuo; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Hirofumi

    2013-11-01

    In patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction (MBO), anticancer treatment is often administered. The impact of anticancer treatment on recurrent biliary obstruction in covered self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) has not been fully elucidated. Data on 279 patients enrolled in a multicenter prospective cohort study of two different covered SEMS for distal MBO, WATCH study (141 partially covered WallFlex stents and 138 partially covered Wallstents) were retrospectively analyzed. The rates and causes of recurrent biliary obstruction (stent occlusion or migration) were compared between anticancer treatment group (n = 173) and best supportive care alone (BSC) group (n = 106). Cumulative time and prognostic factors for recurrent biliary obstruction were analyzed, using a proportional hazards model with death without recurrent biliary obstruction as a competing risk. The overall rate (43 vs. 25%, P = 0.002) and the cumulative incidence (16.1 vs. 8.2, 27.9 vs. 18.9 and 44.1 vs. 26.6% at 3, 6 and 12 months, P = 0.030 by Gray's test) of recurrent biliary obstruction were significantly higher in anticancer treatment group compared with BSC group. The multivariate analysis revealed anticancer treatment [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) 1.93, P = 0.007) as well as the use of a partially covered WallFlex stent (SHR 0.65, P = 0.049) as prognostic factors. Anticancer treatment was a risk factor for recurrent biliary obstruction in covered SEMS for distal MBO. The superiority of a partially covered WallFlex stent was again confirmed in this competing risk analysis; UMIN-CTR: UMIN000002293.

  12. Technical tips and troubleshooting of endoscopic biliary drainage for unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroshi; Itoi, Takao; Kuwatani, Masaki; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-04-01

    Unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHBO) occurs in various diseases, such as cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and lymph node metastasis of the hilum of the liver. The majority of patients with advanced MHBO are not candidates for surgical resection because of the tumor location in the hepatic hilum and adjacent areas, advanced tumor stage, or comorbidities. Therefore, these patients often have a poor prognosis in terms of survival and quality of life. Most of these patients will require non-surgical, palliative biliary drainage. To date, various biliary drainage techniques for unresectable MHBO (UMHBO) have been reported. Of these techniques, endoscopic biliary drainage is currently considered to be the most safe and minimally invasive procedure. However, endoscopic biliary drainage for UMHBO is still not standardized regarding the optimal stent, drainage area, stenting method, and reintervention technique. Recently, towards standardization of this technique for UMHBO, clinical research and trials including randomized controlled trials have been performed. In this article, we reviewed the most important issues regarding endoscopic biliary drainage for UMHBO, focusing on prospective studies. We also described in detail the techniques and future perspectives of endoscopic biliary drainage in patients with UMHBO.

  13. Percutaneous biliary drainage using open cell stents for malignant biliary hilar obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Jun; Bae, Jae Ik; Han, Tae Sun; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Ji Dae; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and the effectiveness of the complex assembly of open cell nitinol stents for biliary hilar malignancy. During the 10 month period between January and October 2007, 26 consecutive patients with malignant biliary hilar obstruction underwent percutaneous insertion of open cell design nitinol stents. Four types of stent placement methods were used according to the patients' ductal anatomy of the hilum. We evaluated the technical feasibility of stent placement, complications, patient survival, and the duration of stent patency. Bilobar biliary stent placement was conducted in 26 patients with malignant biliary obstruction-T (n = 9), Y (n = 7), crisscross (n = 6) and multiple intersecting types (n = 4). Primary technical success was obtained in 24 of 26 (93%) patients. The crushing of the 1st stent during insertion of the 2nd stent occurred in two cases. Major complications occurred in 2 of 26 patients (7.7%). One case of active bleeding from hepatic segmental artery and one case of sepsis after procedure occurred. Clinical success was achieved in 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients, who were followed for a mean of 141.5 days (range 25-354 days). The mean primary stent patency period was 191.8 days and the mean patient survival period was 299 days. Applying an open cell stent in the biliary system is feasible, and can be effective, especially in multiple intersecting stent insertions in the hepatic hilum.

  14. Percutaneous Biliary Drainage Using Open Cell Stents for Malignant Biliary Hilar Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sun Jun; Han, Tae Sun; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Ji Dae; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, safety and the effectiveness of the complex assembly of open cell nitinol stents for biliary hilar malignancy. Materials and Methods During the 10 month period between January and October 2007, 26 consecutive patients with malignant biliary hilar obstruction underwent percutaneous insertion of open cell design nitinol stents. Four types of stent placement methods were used according to the patients' ductal anatomy of the hilum. We evaluated the technical feasibility of stent placement, complications, patient survival, and the duration of stent patency. Results Bilobar biliary stent placement was conducted in 26 patients with malignant biliary obstruction-T (n = 9), Y (n = 7), crisscross (n = 6) and multiple intersecting types (n = 4). Primary technical success was obtained in 24 of 26 (93%) patients. The crushing of the 1st stent during insertion of the 2nd stent occurred in two cases. Major complications occurred in 2 of 26 patients (7.7%). One case of active bleeding from hepatic segmental artery and one case of sepsis after procedure occurred. Clinical success was achieved in 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients, who were followed for a mean of 141.5 days (range 25-354 days). The mean primary stent patency period was 191.8 days and the mean patient survival period was 299 days. Conclusion Applying an open cell stent in the biliary system is feasible, and can be effective, especially in multiple intersecting stent insertions in the hepatic hilum. PMID:23118579

  15. Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Evidence for Best Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Leonardo Zorrón Cheng Tao; Singh, Rajvinder; Loong, Cheong Kuan; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux

    2016-01-01

    What should be done next? Is the stricture benign? Is it resectable? Should I place a stent? Which one? These are some of the questions one ponders when dealing with biliary strictures. In resectable cases, ongoing questions remain as to whether the biliary tree should be drained prior to surgery. In palliative cases, the relief of obstruction remains the main goal. Options for palliative therapy include surgical bypass, percutaneous drainage, and stenting or endoscopic stenting (transpapillary or via an endoscopic ultrasound approach). This review gathers scientific foundations behind these interventions. For operable cases, preoperative biliary drainage should not be performed unless there is evidence of cholangitis, there is delay in surgical intervention, or intense jaundice is present. For inoperable cases, transpapillary stenting after sphincterotomy is preferable over percutaneous drainage. The use of plastic stents (PS) has no benefit over Self-Expandable Metallic Stents (SEMS). In case transpapillary drainage is not possible, Endoscopic Ultrasonography- (EUS-) guided drainage is still an option over percutaneous means. There is no significant difference between the types of SEMS and its indication should be individualized. PMID:26981114

  16. Clinical outcome of simultaneous self-expandable metal stents for palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kaw, M; Singh, S; Gagneja, H

    2003-03-01

    cholangiography (PTC). Two other patients had recurrent duodenal obstruction, respectively, 36 and 45 days after the initial stenting. One obstruction was secondary to tumor ingrowth, and the other was caused by distal stent migration. Both patients had successful duodenal restenting. Combined self-expandable metal stenting for simultaneous palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction may provide a safe and less invasive alternative to surgical palliation with an acceptable clinical outcome. Simultaneous self-expandable metal stents should be considered as a treatment option for patients who are poor candidates for surgery.

  17. The safety and efficacy of nasobiliary drainage versus biliary stenting in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huapeng; Li, Shengwei; Liu, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) has been widely used to treat patients with malignant biliary obstruction. However, it is still unclear which method of PBD (endoscopic nasobiliary drainage or endoscopic biliary stenting) is more effective. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) and endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) in malignant biliary obstruction in terms of preoperative and postoperative complications. Methods: We conducted a literature search of EMBASE databases, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant available articles that were published in English, and we then compared ENBD and EBS in malignant biliary obstruction patients. The preoperative cholangitis rate, the preoperative pancreatitis rate, the incidence of stent dysfunction, the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate, and morbidity were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the pooled effect on dichotomous variables, and the pooled analyses were performed using RevMan 5.3. Results: Seven published studies (n = 925 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. We determined that patients with malignant biliary obstruction who received ENBD had reductions in the preoperative cholangitis rate (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.25–0.51, P < 0.0001), the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18–0.82, P = 0.01), the incidence of stent dysfunction (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.28–0.56, P < 0.0001), and morbidity (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27–0.82, P = 0.008) compared with patients who received EBS. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis suggests that ENBD is better than EBS for malignant biliary obstruction in terms of the preoperative cholangitis rate, the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate, the incidence of stent dysfunction, and morbidity. However, a limitation is that there are no data

  18. Malignant biliary obstruction: the current role of interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Tsetis, Dimitrios; Krokidis, Μiltiadis; Negru, Dragos; Prassopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic head cancer are still linked with extremely high 5-year mortality in the western world. The management of such patients is complex and typically requires a multidisciplinary approach in a tertiary care center. Interventional radiology offers minimally invasive, image-guided treatment for a variety of diseases and conditions. Regarding patients with malignant biliary obstruction, IR options are considered for more than two decades as a valid management tool for both operable and non-operable cases. The options include placement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drains, preoperative embolization of the portal vein and deployment of covered and uncovered biliary stents. The purpose of this review is to describe the current evidence in this continuously evolving field. PMID:26752947

  19. Endoscopic management of combined malignant biliary and gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yousuke; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Itoi, Takao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Patients with periampullary cancer or gastric cancer often develop malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) and gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), and combined MBO and GOO is not rare in these patients. Combined MBO and GOO is classified by its location and sequence, and treatment strategy can be affected by this classification. Historically, palliative surgery, hepaticojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy were carried out, but the current standard treatment is combined transpapillary stent and duodenal stent placement. Although a high technical success rate is reported, the procedure can be technically difficult and duodenobiliary reflux with subsequent cholangitis is common after double stenting. Recent development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided procedures enables the management of MBO as well as GOO under EUS guidance. EUS-guided biliary drainage is now increasingly reported as an alternative to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and GOO is one of the major reasons for failed ERCP. In addition to EUS-guided biliary drainage, the feasibility of EUS-guided double-balloon-occluded gastrojejunostomy bypass for MBO was recently reported, and EUS-guided double stenting can potentially become the treatment of choice in the future. However, as each procedure has its advantages and disadvantages, treatment strategy should be selected based on the type of obstruction and the prognosis and performance status of the patient.

  20. Intraluminal radiation therapy in the management of malignant biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Molt, P.; Hopfan, S.; Watson, R.C.; Botet, J.F.; Brennan, M.F.

    1986-02-01

    Fifteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction from carcinoma of the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas (Group I) or metastatic disease (Group II) were treated with intraluminal radiation therapy (ILRT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In 11 cases ILRT was used as a central boost in combination with 3000 cGy external beam radiation therapy (ERT). No significant treatment toxicity was observed. Cholangiographic response was observed in 2 of 12 evaluable patients. In no patient was long-term relief of jaundice without indwelling biliary stent achieved. Survival from treatment in eight Group I patients treated with ILRT +/- ERT was 3 to 13 months (median, 4.5). Survival in seven similarly treated Group II patients was 0.5 to 8 months (median, 4.0). Additional data for ten similar patients referred for ILRT but treated with ERT alone are presented. Analysis of this and other reports indicate the need for prospective controlled trials of the role of this regimen in the management of malignant biliary obstruction before wider application can be recommended.

  1. Malignant biliary stenosis: conventional cytology versus DNA image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Binek, Janek; Lindenmann, Nadja; Meyenberger, Christa M; Hell, Margarete; Ulmer, Hanno; Spieler, Peter; Borovicka, Jan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of image cytometry (ICM)-DNA analysis on cytological brush specimens in improving the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for biliary neoplasias. A total of 71 patients with 89 samples of biliary tree brushing from a stenosis were included in this prospective study. Conventional cytology (CC) and DNA ploidy using ICM of the brushing were performed. Benign or malignant findings were confirmed by surgical exploration or a clinical follow-up of at least 12 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical follow-up in 44 cases and surgical investigation or histology in 41 cases. A definitive diagnosis of the smears resulted in 40 malignant and 49 benign diagnoses. The sensitivity was 0.666 for CC and 0.658 for ICM, and the specificity was 0.920 and 0.937, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.866 for CC and 0.900 for ICM. McNemar's test did not reveal a significant difference between CC and ICM (P=0.803). Agreement of the two methods was found in 73 samples, raising specificity to 0.998 but not sensitivity (0.725). ICM-DNA seems not to improve significantly the PPV and NPV for detecting neoplasias of the biliary tract compared to CC. Nevertheless a clinical advantage can be seen in the agreement of the two methods in diagnosing dysplasia or cancer, since it did not show false positive results.

  2. Therapeutic approach to the malignant tumors of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Mihalache, Florentina; Tantău, M; Iancu, C; Bodea, Raluca; Părău, Angela; Acalovschi, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are malignant tumors that originate in the cholangiocytes, occur at any level of the biliary tract, are very aggressive and have a 5-year survival rate of 7-8%. Their diagnosis is late and difficult, and the prognosis is very poor. The only curative treatment of these tumors is the complete surgical resection. Signs of unresectability can be detected in most patients with CCA when establishing the diagnosis. Thus, only certain palliative measures can be employed in most cases. The ideal palliative method should be minimally invasive, accompanied by few complications, should offer an increased quality of life, require reduced hospitalization and the lowest costs. The palliative treatment of the obstructive jaundice may be achieved by means of surgical bypass, endoscopic insertion of biliary stents, percutaneous stents, transhepatic stents, photodynamic therapy and/or radio-chemotherapy.

  3. Biliary stenting in patients with malignant biliary obstruction: comparison of double layer, plastic and metal stents.

    PubMed

    Elwir, Saleh; Sharzehi, Kaveh; Veith, Joshua; Moyer, Mathew T; Dye, Charles; McGarrity, Thomas; Mathew, Abraham

    2013-07-01

    The double layer stent (DLS) has a unique design and has been used for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction, but literature on this stent is limited. Our aim was to compare plastic (PS), DLS and metal stents (MS) in terms of complication rates, time to occlusion, and patency rate in patients with malignant biliary obstruction (MBO). A retrospective review of stents placed for MBO at our institution in the period between January 2009 and April 2011 was conducted. A total of 114 stents were identified, of which 44 were MS (39 %), 37 DLS (32 %), and 33 PS (29 %). A stent was considered occluded when an unplanned stent removal or intervention occurred due to clinical suspicion of biliary obstruction. Stents remained patent for 95 days (range 7-359 days) in the DLS group and 59 days (range 7-228 days) in the PS group (P = 0.014) and 128.7 days (range 4-602 days) in the metal stent group. Twenty-seven percent (n = 9) of PS occluded after a mean of 60 days while 16 % (n = 7) of MS occluded after a mean of 87 days and 5 % (n = 2) of DLS occluded after a mean of 85 days (DLS vs. PS P = 0.012, DLS vs. MS P = 0.13, MS vs. PS P = 0.22). DLS are superior to PS in patients with MBO and appear to be comparable to MS. MS had a longer patency rate but were comparable to DLS in early and late complications. We speculate that the less expensive DLS may be a cost effective alternative in the palliation of MBO.

  4. Diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary malignancy by detection of minichromosome maintenance protein 5 in biliary brush cytology

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Margaret G; Huggett, Matthew T; Chapman, Michael H; Johnson, Gavin J; Webster, George J; Thorburn, Douglas; Mackay, James; Pereira, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary brush cytology is the standard method of evaluating biliary strictures, but is insensitive at detecting malignancy. In pancreaticobiliary cancer minichromosome maintenance replication proteins (MCM 2–7) are dysregulated in the biliary epithelium and MCM5 levels are elevated in bile samples. This study aimed to validate an immunocolorimetric ELISA assay for MCM5 as a pancreaticobiliary cancer biomarker in biliary brush samples. Methods: Biliary brush specimens were collected prospectively at ERCP from patients with a biliary stricture. Collected samples were frozen at −80 °C. The supernatant was washed and lysed cells incubated with HRP-labelled anti-MCM5 mouse monoclonal antibody. Test positivity was determined by optical density absorbance. Patients underwent biliary brush cytology or additional investigations as per clinical routine. Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study; 50 had malignant strictures. Median age was 65 years (range 21–94) and 51 were male. Compared with final diagnosis the MCM5 assay had a sensitivity for malignancy of 65.4% compared with 25.0% for cytology. In the 72 patients with paired MCM5 assay and biliary brush cytology, MCM5 demonstrated an improved sensitivity (55.6% vs 25.0% P=0.0002) for the detection of malignancy. Conclusions: Minichromosome maintenance replication protein5 is a more sensitive indicator of pancreaticobiliary malignancy than standard biliary brush cytology. PMID:28081547

  5. Outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic stenting has become a widely method for the management of various malignant and benign pancreatico-biliary disorders. Biliary and pancreatic stents are devices made of plastic or metal used primarily to establish patency of an obstructed bile or pancreatic duct and may also be used to treat biliary or pancreatic leaks, pancreatic fluid collections and to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases. PMID:26290631

  6. Improvement of Liver Function, Quality of Life and Survival after Insertion of Endoprosthesis in Advance Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ullah, A A; Rahman, A; Chowdhury, L H; Bhuiya, A H

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice due to advance malignancy is a fatal problem. It most commonly occurs at the distal common bile duct or at the hilum of liver. Magnetic Resonance Cholangio Pancreatography (MRCP) and Computed Tomography (CT) are most useful in identifying the underlying cause as well as localize the position of the stricture. For those patients with unresectable disease, progressive jaundice constitutes an immediate threat to their survival, in addition to significant loss to their quality of life secondary to pruritus, malaise and cholangitis. Effective and lasting decompression of the biliary tree is a priority and consists of positioning of a biliary endoprosthesis (stent). To observe the improvement of liver function, quality of life and survival after successful insertion of endoprosthesis (stenting) in malignant biliary obstruction, a study was performed in the department of surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from September 2013 to August 2014, in 50 patients with clinically visible jaundice and unresectable disease. There were significant (p<0.001) reductions in the levels of serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum SGPT and Prothrombin time from the time of admission to 2 weeks and 3 weeks after stenting. Physical and functional quality of life was greatly improved 2-4 weeks after stenting, where emotional quality remained the same throughout the study period. Successful palliation by stenting of malignant biliary obstruction is a priority to achieve improvements in liver function, quality of life and prolong survival. Endoscopic stent placement appears to be safe, well tolerated and can be offered without delay as a primary treatment option for all patients with unresectable malignant biliary lesion.

  7. Metallic stents are more efficacious than plastic stents in unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Nakashima, Masanori; Doi, Shinpei; Iwashita, Takuji; Iwata, Keisuke; Kato, Tomohiro; Tomita, Eiichi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2013-02-01

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is a well-established palliative treatment for unresectable malignant biliary strictures, for which plastic tube stents (PSs) and self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are most commonly used. The efficacy of these stents has been extensively described in distal biliary strictures, but not in hilar biliary strictures. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of PSs and SEMSs for unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures. From June 2004 to November 2008, 60 patients were enrolled and prospectively randomized into the PS or SEMS group. The 6-month patency rate was significantly higher in the SEMS group than in the PS group (81 vs. 20%; p = 0.0012). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly longer patency in the SEMS group than in the PS group (p = 0.0002); the 50% patency period was 359 days in the SEMS group and 112 days in the PS group. There was no significant difference in the overall survival period between the PS and SEMS groups (p = 0.2834). The mean number of reinterventions for stent failures was significantly lower in the SEMS group (0.63 times/patient) than in the PS group (1.80 times/patient) (p = 0.0008). The overall total cost for the treatment was significantly lower in the SEMS group than in the PS group (p = 0.0222). SEMSs were associated with a longer patency than PSs in patients with unresectable hilar biliary stricture. SEMSs were also more advantageous in reducing the number of reintervention sessions and the overall treatment cost.

  8. Prospective study of outcomes after percutaneous biliary drainage for malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Robson, P. C.; Heffernan, N.; Gonen, M.; Thornton, R.; Brody, L. A.; Holmes, R.; Brown, K. T.; Covey, A. M.; Fleischer, D.; Getrajdman, G. I.; Jarnagin, W.; Sofocleous, C.; Blumgart, L.; D’Angelica, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) is used to relieve malignant bile duct obstruction (MBO) when endoscopic drainage is not feasible. Little is known about the effects of PBD on the quality of life (QoL) in patients with MBO. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in QoL and pruritus after PBD and to explore the variables that impact these changes. Patients and Methods Eligible patients reported their QoL and pruritus before and after PBD using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Hepatobiliary instrument (FACT-HS) and the Visual Analog Scale for Pruritus (VASP). Instruments were completed pre-procedure and at one and four weeks following PBD. Results One hundred and nine (60 male/49 female) patients enrolled, 102 (94%) had unresectable disease. PBD was technically successful (hepatic ducts cannulated at the conclusion of procedure) in all patients. There were two procedure-related deaths. All-cause mortality was 10% (N=11) at 4 weeks and 28% (N=31) at 8 weeks post PBD with a median survival of 4.74 months. The mean FACT-HS scores declined significantly (P<.01) over time (101.3, 94.8, 94.7 at baseline, 1 week, 4 weeks, respectively). The VASP scores showed significant improvement at 1 week with continued improvement at 4 weeks (P<.01). Conclusion PBD improves pruritus but not QoL in patients with MBO and advanced malignancy. There is high early mortality in this population. PMID:20358300

  9. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Biliary Stent Placement for Nonresectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction Improves Stent Patency but not Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Lizhen; Zhou, Chuanguo; Gao, Kun; Huang, Qiang; Wei, Baojie; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been accepted as a curative treatment modality for solid organ tumors, intraductal RF ablation for malignant biliary obstruction has not been widely described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy (in terms of stent patency and survival) of intraductal RF ablation combined with biliary stent placement for nonresectable malignant biliary obstruction. A search of the nonresectable malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction database (179 patients) identified 18 consecutive patients who were treated with biliary intraluminal RF ablation during percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and inner stent placement (RF ablation group) and 18 patients who underwent inner stent placement without biliary intraluminal RF ablation (control group). The patients were matched for tumor type, location of obstruction, tumor stage, and Child–Pugh class status. Primary endpoints included safety, stent patency time, and survival rates. The secondary endpoint was effectiveness of the technique. The RF ablation and control groups were closely matched in terms of age, diagnosis, presence of metastases, presence of locally advanced tumor, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, and chemotherapy regimen (all P > 0.05). The technical success rate for both groups was 100%. The median time of stent patency in the RF ablation and control groups were 5.8 (2.8–11.5) months and 4.5 (2.4–8.0) months, respectively (Kaplan–Meier analysis: P = 0.03). The median survival times in the RF ablation and control groups were 6.1 (4.8–15.2) months and 5.8 (4.2–16.5) months, with no significant difference according to Kaplan–Meier analysis (P = 0.45). In univariate and multivariate analyses, poorer overall survival was associated with advanced age and presence of metastases (P < 0.05). Intraductal RF ablation combined with biliary stent placement for nonresectable malignant

  10. EUS-guided biliary drainage with placement of a new partially covered biliary stent for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, C; Luigiano, C; Fuccio, L; Polifemo, A M; Ferrara, F; Ghersi, S; Bassi, M; Billi, P; Maimone, A; Cennamo, V; Masetti, M; Jovine, E; D'Imperio, N

    2011-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has been developed as an alternative drainage technique in patients with obstructive jaundice where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has failed. Between July 2008 and December 2009, 16 patients (9 men; median age 79 years) with biliopancreatic malignancy, who were candidates for alternative techniques of biliary decompression because ERCP had been unsuccessful, underwent EUS-BD with placement of a transmural or transpapillary partially covered nitinol self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). EUS-assisted cholangiography was successful in all patients, with definition of the relevant anatomy, but biliary drainage was successfully performed in only 12 (75 %) of the 16 patients (9 choledochoduodenostomies with SEMS placement and 3 biliary rendezvous procedures with papillary SEMS placement), with regression of the cholestasis. No major complications and no procedure-related deaths occurred. There was one case of pneumoperitoneum which was managed conservatively. The median follow-up was 170 days. During the follow-up, eight patients of the 12 patients in whom biliary draining was successful died; four are currently alive. None of the patients required endoscopic reintervention. This series demonstrated that EUS-BD with a partially covered SEMS has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates, and could represent an alternative choice for biliary decompression.

  11. Endoscopic bilateral deployment of multiple metallic stents for malignant hilar biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Harada, Ryo; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-05-01

    Jaundice and cholangitis are associated with morbidity and mortality for patients with malignant hilar biliary strictures. Endoscopic biliary drainage is considered a useful procedure for palliation of unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures. However, even today, the devices and methods to effectively achieve the drainage of these strictures are under debate. Endoscopic bilateral deployment of multiple metallic stents for malignant hilar biliary strictures is a feasible and useful procedure, providing long-term patency and the preservation of functional liver volume. We report the cases of two patients who underwent endoscopic bilateral deployment of multiple metallic stents using the partial stent-in-stent method. Both of the patients had malignant hilar biliary stricture due to biliary tract cancer. The cancers were unresectable and the patients decided to receive chemotherapy. Before the chemotherapy, bilateral deployment of metallic stents was carried out and each patient has been receiving chemotherapy without occlusion of the metallic stents for several months. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  12. Fractures of self-expanding metallic stents in periampullary malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, I C; Dahlstrand, U; Sandblom, G; Eriksson, L G; Nyman, R

    2009-09-01

    Self-expanding metallic stents are widely used for relieving biliary duct obstruction in patients with unresectable periampullary malignancies. However, only a few studies have assessed the occurrence of fractures in these stents. To determine the prevalence and significance of stent fracture after placement of self-expanding metallic stents for periampullary malignant biliary obstruction. Over a 5-year period, 48 patients underwent placement of self-expanding metallic stents for periampullary malignant biliary obstructions. Stents were introduced 2-6 weeks after a percutaneous transhepatic biliary decompression. The medical records and relevant images were reviewed for stent patency, stent fracture, type of stent, and stent-related complications. Stent fracture was detected in four of the 48 patients (8%): in one patient at 1 month and in three patients between 10 and 21 months after stenting. All four fractures involved one type of nitinol stent used in 38 patients. In one of the patients, fracture was complicated by life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. The mean survival time for all patients was 251 days (standard deviation [SD]+/-275 days) and the mean overall patency time for all stents was 187 days (SD+/-205 days). Stent fracture occurs after placement of self-expanding nitinol stents for periampullary malignant biliary obstruction. The low reported incidence of this complication may be due to a lack of awareness of and difficulty in detecting stent fracture. Fracture should be considered as a possible contributing factor in recurrent biliary obstruction after self-expanding metallic stent insertion.

  13. [Cost-effectiveness trial of self-expandable metal stents and plastic biliary stents in malignant biliary obstruction].

    PubMed

    Daróczi, Tímea; Bor, Renáta; Fábián, Anna; Szabó, Ella; Farkas, Klaudia; Bálint, Anita; Czakó, László; Rutka, Mariann; Szűcs, Mónika; Milassin, Ágnes; Molnár, Tamás; Szepes, Zoltán

    2016-02-14

    Self-expandable metal and plastic stents can be applied in the palliative endoscopic treatment of patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. The use of metal stentsis recommended if the patient's life expectancy is more than four months. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and cost-effectiveness of metal and plastic stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. The authors retrospectively enrolled patients who received metal (37 patients) or plastic stent (37 patients). The complication rate, stent patency and cumulative cost of treatment were assessed in the two groups. The complication rate of metal stents was lower (37.84% vs. 56.76%), but the stent patency was higher compared with plastic stents (19.11 vs. 8.29 weeks; p = 0.0041). In the plastic stent group the frequency of hospitalization of patients in context with stent complications (1.18 vs. 2.32; p = 0.05) and the necessity of reintervention for stent dysfunction (17 vs. 27; p = 0.033) were substantially higher. In this group multiple stent implantation raised the stent patency from 7.68 to 10.75 weeks. There was no difference in the total cost of treatment of malignant biliary obstruction between the two groups (p = 0.848). Considering the cost of treatment and the burden of patients the authors recommend self-expandable metal sten timplantation if the life expectancy of patients is more than two months. In short survival cases multiple plastic stent implantation is recommended.

  14. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mizandari, Malkhaz; Pai, Madhava Xi Feng; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Ao Guokun; Kyriakides, Charis; Dickinson, Robert; Nicholls, Joanna; Habib, Nagy

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14-260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14-260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14-260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38-210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  15. Polyurethane-Covered Nitinol Strecker Stents as Primary Palliative Treatment of Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira; Kane, Teruyuki; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyurethane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n = 5), pancreatic cancer (n = 6), gallbladder cancer (n = 4), metastatic lymph nodes (n = 2), and tumor of the papilla (n 1).Results: The mean patency period of the stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed in two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.

  16. Interval Biliary Stent Placement Via Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystostomy: Another Approach to Palliative Treatment in Malignant Biliary Tract Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, James Mortimer, Alex; Kelly, Michael; Loveday, Eric

    2010-12-15

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure for providing gallbladder decompression, often in critically ill patients. It can be used in malignant biliary obstruction following failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography when the intrahepatic ducts are not dilated or when stent insertion is not possible via the bile ducts. In properly selected patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy in obstructive jaundice is a simple, safe, and rapid option for biliary decompression, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality involved with percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Subsequent use of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for definitive biliary stent placement is an attractive concept and leaves patients with no external drain. To the best of our knowledge, it has only been described on three previous occasions in the published literature, on each occasion forced by surgical or technical considerations. Traditionally, anatomic/technical considerations and the risk of bile leak have precluded such an approach, but improvements in catheter design and manufacture may now make it more feasible. We report a case of successful interval metal stent placement via percutaneous cholecystostomy which was preplanned and achieved excellent palliation for the patient. The pros and cons of the procedure and approach are discussed.

  17. Palliation of Malignant Biliary and Duodenal Obstruction with Combined Metallic Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Akinci, Devrim Akhan, Okan; Ozkan, Fuat; Ciftci, Turkmen; Ozkan, Orhan S.; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa N.

    2007-11-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction with combined metallic stenting under fluoroscopy guidance. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 9 patients (6 men and 3 women) who underwent biliary and duodenal stenting was performed. The mean age of patients was 61 years (range: 42-80 years). The causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma in 7 patients, cholangiocellular carcinoma in one, and duodenal carcinoma in the other. Biliary and duodenal stents were placed simultaneously in 4 patients. In other 5 patients dudodenal stents were placed after biliary stenting when the duodenal obstruction symptoms have developed. In two patients duodenal stents were advanced via transgastric approach. Results. Technical success rate was 100 %. After percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting bilirubin levels decreased to normal levels in 6 patients and in remaining 3 patients mean reduction of 71% in bilirubin levels was achieved. Tumoral ingrowth occurred in one patient and percutaneous biliary restenting was performed 90 days after the initial procedure. Of the 9 patients, 6 patients were able to tolerate solid diet, whereas 2 patients could tolerate liquid diet and one patient did not show any improvement. Mean survival periods were 111 and 73 days after biliary and duodenal stenting, respectively. Conclusion. Combined biliary and duodenal stent placement which can be performed under fluoroscopic guidance without assistance of endoscopy is feasible and an effective method of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions. If transoral and endoscopic approaches fail, percutaneous gastrostomy route allows duodenal stenting.

  18. Covered Stents versus Uncovered Stents for Unresectable Malignant Biliary Strictures: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Yu; Lin, Jia-Wei; Zhu, He-Pan; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Guang-Yi; Yan, Pei-Jian; Cai, Xiu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the covered or uncovered SEMS for treatment of unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction, comparing the stent patency, patient survival, and incidence of adverse events between the two SEMSs. The meta-analysis search was performed independently by two of the authors, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, and Cochrane databases on all studies between 2010 and 2015. Pooled effect was calculated using either the fixed or the random effects model. Statistics shows that there is no difference between SEMSs in the hazard ratio for patient survival (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.17; P = 0.55) and stent patency (HR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.30, P = 0.5). However, incidence of adverse events (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.97, P = 0.03) showed significant different results in the covered SEMS, with dysfunctions events (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.00, P = 0.05) playing a more important role than complications (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.30, P = 0.50). Covered SEMS group had lower incidence of adverse events. There is no significant difference in dysfunctions, but covered SEMS trends to be better, with no difference in stent patency, patient survival, and complications.

  19. Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Haipeng; Guo Zhi Xing Wenge; Guo Xiuying; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of {beta}-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

  20. The current role of U tubes for benign and malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, K W; Gleason, T G; Deziel, D J; Doolas, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The recent experience with U tubes at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center was reviewed in order to assess their current role in hepatobiliary surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA. Transhepatic intubation by a variety of methods has been used routinely for biliary decompression and inhibition of anastomotic stricture since the 1960s. U tubes were popularized in the early 1970s. However, little has been written about their use and efficacy in recent years. Because of the apparent benefits associated with the use of U tubes versus other stenting techniques, the authors performed this study. METHODS. The hospital and office charts of all patients who had U tubes placed between 1980 and 1992 were reviewed retrospectively. Between 1980 and 1992, U tubes were placed intraoperatively in 54 patients for biliary decompression and/or stenting. Twelve patients were operated on for benign causes of obstruction. Forty-two patients with malignant tumors underwent surgery for U tube placement in conjunction with or without tumor resection and anastomotic bypass. RESULTS. There was a 0% operative mortality rate in the benign group. In six patients, the U tube played a major role in the long-term management of their disease processes. None of these patients has had restricture since removal of the tube. In the malignant group, the 30-day operative mortality rate was 12%. After 3 months, marked clinical improvement and complete biliary decompression were achieved, with mean bilirubin levels dropping from 14.0 mg/dL to 1.3 mg/dL. No patients in the malignant group required reoperation for recurrent biliary obstruction after U tube placement. CONCLUSIONS. The use of U tubes is advocated for biliary decompression and/or anastomotic stenting in patients with benign stricture or resectable malignancy and in patients with nonresectable, malignant biliary obstruction for adequate palliation of intractable jaundice. PMID:8239776

  1. Managing malignant biliary obstruction in pancreas cancer: Choosing the appropriate strategy

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Brian R; Parepally, Mayur

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with pancreatic cancer develop malignant biliary obstruction. Treatment of obstruction is generally indicated to relieve symptoms and improve morbidity and mortality. First-line therapy consists of endoscopic biliary stent placement. Recent data comparing plastic stents to self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) has shown improved patency with SEMS. The decision of whether to treat obstruction and the means for doing so depends on the clinical scenario. For patients with resectable disease, preoperative biliary decompression is only indicated when surgery will be delayed or complications of jaundice exist. For patients with locally advanced disease, self-expanding metal stents are superior to plastic stents for long-term patency. For patients with advanced disease, the choice of metallic or plastic stent depends on life expectancy. When endoscopic stent placement fails, percutaneous or surgical treatments are appropriate. Endoscopic therapy or surgical approach can be used to treat concomitant duodenal and biliary obstruction. PMID:25071329

  2. Isolated microorganisms in plastic biliary stents placed for benign and malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Basioukas, Paris; Vezakis, Antonios; Zarkotou, Olympia; Fragulidis, Georgios; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Rizos, Spyros; Polydorou, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Biliary stenting is a well-established method to treat patients with malignant and benign biliary diseases. However, occlusion of plastic biliary stents is considered as a drawback and bacterial colonization seems to be the key factor in this process. During a 3-year period, 51 plastic biliary stents were extracted from 42 patients. Twenty three stents were inserted for treating malignant and 28 for benign diseases. Stent samples were taken under a strict protocol, and were immediately sent to microbiological laboratory for culturing. A polymicrobial growth was present in nearly all stents. The most frequently isolated organisms were Enterococcus spp (74%), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (62%), and Klebsiella spp (58%). E. coli was more frequently encountered in benign vs. malignant disease (78% vs. 43%, P<0.05). Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Candida spp were more frequently isolated in occluded vs. non-occluded stents, 68% vs. 37%, 22% vs. 0 and 40% vs. 6% respectively (P<0.05). E. coli and Pseudomonas spp had 34% and 50% resistance rate to quinolones respectively. Enterobacter spp expressed Amp-C derepression in 35%. Enterococcus spp, Klebsiella spp and Pseudomonas spp had a low resistance rate. Enterococcus spp, E. coli and Klebsiella spp are the most frequently associated organisms in plastic biliary stents. In occluded stents Pseudomonas spp and Candida spp should be taken into account. Quinolones may not be adequate for the treatment of cholangitis associated with stent occlusion. In patients under chemotherapy for malignancy and stent occlusion-related biliary sepsis, antifungal and enterococcal covering should be considered.

  3. Comparison of the utility of covered metal stents versus uncovered metal stents in the management of malignant biliary strictures in 749 patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey H; Krishna, Somashekar G; Singh, Amanpal; Ladha, Harshad S; Slack, Rebecca S; Ramireddy, Srinivas; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Davila, Marta; Ross, William A

    2013-08-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are used to relieve malignant biliary obstruction. To compare outcomes between covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) and uncovered self-expandable metal stents (USEMSs) in malignant biliary obstruction. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary cancer center. Patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Placement of CSEMS or USEMS. Time to recurrent biliary obstruction (TRO), overall survival (OS), and adverse events. From January 2000 to June 2011, 749 patients received SEMSs: 171 CSEMSs and 578 USEMSs. At 1 year, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients with recurrent obstruction (CSEMSs, 35% vs USEMSs, 38%) and survival (CSEMSs, 45% vs USEMSs, 49%). There was no significant difference in the median OS (CSEMSs, 10.4 months vs USEMSs, 11.8 months; P = .84) and the median TRO (CSEMSs, 15.4 months vs USEMSs, 26.3 months; P = .61). The adverse event rate was 27.5% for the CSEMS group and 27.7% for the USEMS group. Although tumor ingrowth with recurrent obstruction was more common in the USEMS group (76% vs 9%, P < .001), stent migration (36% vs 2%, P < .001) and acute pancreatitis (6% vs 1%, P < .001) were more common in the CSEMS group. Retrospective study. There was no significant difference in the patency rate or overall survival between CSEMSs and USEMSs for malignant distal biliary strictures. The CSEMS group had a significantly higher rate of migration and pancreatitis than the USEMS group. No significant SEMS-related adverse events were observed in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation or surgical resection. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Late Migration of Covered Metal Stent to the Stomach Through a Spontaneous Choledochoduodenal Fistula in a Patient With Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Yoshiki; Asaki, Tsutoshi; Adachi, Seitaro; Yasuda, Ikuma; Toyomizu, Michifumi; Fukita, Yosho

    2012-06-01

    We report a case in which a spontaneous choledochoduodenal fistula occurred after biliary covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) placement and a late transfistula migration of the stent in a patient with malignant distal biliary obstruction. A partially covered WallFlex biliary stent (Boston Scientific) was appropriately implanted in the common bile duct. Subsequently the patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine. After 7 months of the SEMS insertion, the patient presented with frequent vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the obstruction of the duodenal descending part and the migrated stent in the stomach. A choledochoduodenal fistula was observed endoscopically at the proximal point of the duodenal obstruction. These findings can cleanly account for the SEMS migration through the fistula. The mechanism of formation of the fistula is mostly associated with a mechanical contact between the bile duct wall and the SEMS edge, which is pushed up in the direction of the duodenum because of the enlargement of the primary tumor, finally penetrating through the duodenal wall. To our knowledge, this is an extreme unusual case, which has been unreported previously. Therefore, we emphasize the necessity of being alert to the potential for such complications in cases involving placement of SEMS for malignant biliary obstruction.

  5. [Malignant biliary obstruction, general review and clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Bonnel, Didier; André, Thierry; Mader, Benoît; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Bensoussan, Emmanuel; Liguory, Claude

    2013-05-01

    This review recalls the clinical, anatomic, physiopathological and etiological features necessary in the management of patients with neoplastic bile duct obstruction and exposes the current practice concerning endoscopic and radiologic palliative drainage. Clinical practice according to the clinical situations is explained. This review exposes complications management for patients having undergone an endoscopic or percutaneous drainage of the biliary ducts, the particular case of periportal stenosis, the respective indications of endoscopic and transhepatic percutaneous drainage, usual immediate evolution according to the type of the stenosis and the technique used as well as the management in case of stent obstruction.

  6. Efficacy of preoperative biliary drainage in malignant obstructive jaundice: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moole, Harsha; Bechtold, Matthew; Puli, Srinivas R

    2016-07-11

    In patients requiring surgical resection for malignant biliary jaundice, it is unclear if preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) would improve mortality and morbidity by restoration of biliary flow prior to operation. This is a meta-analysis to pool the evidence and assess the utility of PBD in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. The primary outcome is comparing mortality outcomes in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice undergoing direct surgery (DS) versus PBD. The secondary outcomes include major adverse events and length of hospital stay in both the groups. Studies using PBD in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were included in this study. For the data collection and extraction, articles were searched in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials & Database of Systematic Reviews, etc. Pooled proportions were calculated using both Mantel-Haenszel method (fixed effects model) and DerSimonian-Laird method (random effects model). Initial search identified 2230 reference articles, of which 204 were selected and reviewed. Twenty-six studies (N = 3532) for PBD in malignant obstructive jaundice which met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. The odds ratio for mortality in PBD group versus DS group was 0.96 (95 % CI = 0.71 to 1.29). Pooled number of major adverse effects was lower in the PBD group at 10.40 (95 % CI = 9.96 to 10.83) compared to 15.56 (95 % CI = 15.06 to 16.05) in the DS group. Subgroup analysis comparing internal PBD to DS group showed lower odds for major adverse events (odds ratio, 0.48 with 95 % CI = 0.32 to 0.74). In patients with malignant biliary jaundice requiring surgery, PBD group had significantly less major adverse effects than DS group. Length of hospital stay and mortality rate were comparable in both the groups.

  7. Preoperative Drainage for Malignant Biliary Strictures: Is It Time for Self-Expanding Metallic Stents?

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Jason; Ho, Shiaw-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Palliation of jaundice improves the general health of the patient and, therefore, surgical outcomes. Because of the complexity and location of strictures, especially proximally, drainage has been accompanied by increased morbidity due to sepsis. Another concern is the provocation of an inflammatory and fibrotic reaction around the area of stent placement. Preoperative biliary drainage with self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) insertion can be achieved via a percutaneous method or through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A recently published multicenter randomized Dutch study has shown increased morbidity with preoperative biliary drainage. A Cochrane meta-analysis has also shown a significantly increased complication rate with preoperative drainage. However, few of these studies have used a SEMS, which allows better biliary drainage. No randomized controlled trials have compared preoperative deployment of SEMS versus conventional plastic stents. The outcomes of biliary drainage also depend on the location of the obstruction, namely the difficulty with proximal compared to distal strictures. Pathophysiologically, palliation of jaundice will benefit all patients awaiting surgery. However, preoperative drainage often results in increased morbidity because of procedure-related sepsis. The use of SEMS may change the outcome of preoperative biliary drainage dramatically. PMID:25674520

  8. Efficacy of Covered Metallic Stents in the Treatment of Unresectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Matsui, Osamu; Akakura, Yukari; Yamamoto, Toru; Nishida, Hiroto; Yoneda, Kenji; Kawai, Keiichi; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Mitsui, Takeshi; Asada, Yasuyuki

    2004-08-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of covered stents for malignant biliary obstruction. We studied 62 patients with obstruction distal to the hilar confluence who survived longer than 10 weeks and divided them into a covered stent group (group 1, n = 22), a Z stent group (group 2, n = 19), and a mesh stent group (group 3, n = 21), according to their type of the stent. Patency rates of each group were compared. Early stent revision was required after 3 days in 18% (4/22) of group 1, 26% (5/19) of group 2, and 0% (0/21) of group 3. The 10, 20, and 40-week primary patency rates were 77%, 77%, and 59% (group 1), 42%, 25%, and 8% (group 2), and 76%, 71%, and 55% (group 3), respectively. Primary patency rates of groups 1 and 3 were significantly higher than those of group 2 (p < 0.05), and there was no statistically difference between those of group 1 and group 3. The 10, 20, and 40-week assisted primary (secondary) patency rates were 96%, 96%, and 96% (group 1), 68%, 49%, and 39% (group 2), and 86%, 74%, and 58% (group 3), respectively. Assisted primary patency (secondary) rates of group 1 were significantly higher than those of groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Our study suggests that the primary patency rates of the covered stents are equal to those of mesh stents, but these may be improved further if covered stents, which avoid the need for early revision, are used.

  9. Percutaneous transhepatic self-expanding metal stents for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lawson, A J; Beningfield, S J; Krige, J E J; Rischbieter, P; Burmeister, S

    2012-07-11

    Malignant biliary obstruction is often inoperable at presentation and has a poor prognosis. Percutaneously placed self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have been widely used for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction as an alternative to major bypass surgery or when endoscopic drainage is not technically feasible. The success rate, procedural complications and outcomes in patients who underwent placement of SEMS in a tertiary referral centre are presented. All patients who had percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and SEMS for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction between May 2008 and July 2010 at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, were reviewed. A retrospective chart review was undertaken using multidisciplinary case notes of all patients. The data analysed included demographic information, diagnosis, level of biliary obstruction, number and type of procedures, efficacy and complications of SEMS insertion. Boston Scientific 69 mm by 10 mm Wallstent SEMS were used in all patients. RESULTS; Fifty patients (28 men, 22 women, mean age 61 years, range 48 - 80 years) underwent percutaneous SEMS placement. Twenty-one patients had biliary obstruction at the level of the hilum involving the hepatic duct bifurcation, 5 in the mid-common bile duct and 24 in the low common bile duct. In 20 patients (40%) SEMS were placed at the time of initial biliary drainage (one-stage procedure), while the remaining 30 patients underwent stent placement within 2 - 23 days of biliary drainage as a two-stage procedure because of difficult access through the lesion during the initial procedure. Five patients (10%) required bilateral SEMS insertion. Stent placement was successful in all patients and biliary obstruction was relieved in all. The mean serum bilirubin level decreased by a mean of 56% from 294 µmol/l to 129 µmol/l measured 5 days after stent insertion. Mean hospital stay after stent insertion was 4.1 days. The average length of hospital stay for patients who

  10. Risk factors for recurrent biliary obstruction following placement of self-expandable metallic stents in patients with malignant perihilar biliary stricture.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shin; Kanno, Atsushi; Masamune, Atsushi; Hamada, Shin; Hongou, Seiji; Yoshida, Naoki; Nakano, Eriko; Takikawa, Tetsuya; Kume, Kiyoshi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-06-01

    Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are used for palliation in patients with malignant perihilar biliary strictures. However, recurrent biliary obstruction occasionally causes cholangitis and jaundice. This study aimed to identify risk factors for recurrent biliary obstruction in such patients. Data from consecutive patients with malignant perihilar biliary strictures treated with endoscopic placement of SEMSs between 2007 and 2014 in Tohoku University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors for recurrent biliary obstruction were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models (with hazard ratios [HRs] and 95 % confidence interval [95 %CIs]), and SEMS patency period was examined using the Kaplan - Meier method. SEMS patency was defined as the period between SEMS insertion and the development of recurrent biliary obstruction. 104 patients were included. Median survival time was 281 days; and 85 patients died during a median follow-up period of 320 days. Recurrent biliary obstruction occurred in 35 patients. Median SEMS patency period was 549 days. Multivariable analyses showed that: compared with bile duct carcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma was associated with shorter SEMS patency (HR 8.18, 95 %CI 2.41 - 26.83); patency of left-sided SEMS was inferior to that of bilateral (HR 0.5, 95 %CI 0.32 - 0.93) and right-sided SEMS (HR 0.1, 95 %CI 0.02 - 0.65). Cholangitis before SEMS placement increased the risk of recurrent biliary obstruction (HR 11.44; 95 %CI 4.48 - 32.35) and reduced the SEMS patency period (746 vs. 210 days). Gallbladder carcinoma, left-sided stent placement, and cholangitis before SEMS placement are risk factors for recurrent biliary obstruction after SEMS placement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting for malignant portal vein stenosis secondary to recurrent perihilar biliary cancer.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takashi; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Gen; Mori, Yoshine; Suzuki, Kojiro; Nagino, Masato

    2015-10-01

    Transhepatic portal vein (PV) stenting has been shown to be one of the most important treatments for patients with PV stenosis caused by hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy. Ten consecutive patients with PV stenosis caused by the recurrence of a perihilar biliary malignancy underwent transhepatic PV stenting. A self-expandable metallic stent was deployed at the stenosis site. The patients were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the procedure, complications, and survival after the stent placement. The median interval between the primary resection and the PV stenting was 22 months. The initial hepatic resection was a left trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy in seven patients, a left hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy in one patient, a right anterior sectionectomy with caudate lobectomy following a left hepatectomy in one patient and a partial liver resection in one patient. The angle of the PV around the stenosis was greater in the patients with PV stenosis located in the right posterior PV. Eight patients with successful PV stent placement were able to receive anticancer treatment, with a median survival of 14 months. The remaining two patients without successful PV stent placement survived less than 6 months. Portal vein stenting might offer relief from the symptoms associated with PV hypertension and the opportunity for sustainable anticancer therapy in patients with recurrent perihilar biliary malignancy. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  12. Polyorethaoe-covered nitinol strecker stents as primary palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira; Kane, Teruyuki; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyure-thane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n=5), pancreatic Cancer (n=6), gallbladder Cancer (n=4), metastatic lymph nodes (n=2), and tumor of the papilla (n=1).Resulrs: The mean patency period of the Stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed in two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.

  13. Future developments in biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Clark D; Sejpal, Divyesh V

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting. PMID:23837001

  14. A meta-analysis and systematic review: Success of endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary stenting in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures and a failed ERCP

    PubMed Central

    Moole, Harsha; Bechtold, Matthew L.; Forcione, David; Puli, Srinivas R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) guided biliary stenting fails in 5% to 10% patients due to difficult anatomy/inability to cannulate the papilla. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has been described. Primary outcomes were to evaluate the biliary drainage success rates with EUS and compare it to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Secondary outcomes were to evaluate overall procedure related complications. Methods: Study selection criteria: Studies evaluating the efficacy of EUS-BD and comparing EUS-BD versus PTBD in inoperable malignant biliary stricture patients with a failed ERCP were included in this analysis. Data collection and extraction: Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Ovid journals. Two authors independently searched and extracted data. The study design was written in accordance to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Subgroup analyses of prospective studies and EUS-BD versus PTBD were performed. Statistical method: Pooled proportions were calculated using fixed and random effects model. I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity among studies. Results: Initial search identified 846 reference articles, of which 124 were selected and reviewed. Sixteen studies (N = 528) that met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. In the pooled patient population, the percentage of patients that had a successful biliary drainage with EUS was 90.91% (95% CI = 88.10–93.38). The proportion of patients that had overall procedure related complications with EUS-PD was 16.46% (95% CI = 13.20–20.01). The pooled odds ratio for successful biliary drainage in EUS-PD versus PTBD group was 3.06 (95% CI = 1.11–8.43). The risk difference for overall procedure related complications in EUS-PD versus PTBD group was −0.21 (95% CI = −0

  15. Endoscopic bilio-duodenal bypass: outcomes of primary and revision efficacy of combined metallic stents in malignant duodenal and biliary obstructions.

    PubMed

    Canena, Jorge; Coimbra, João; Carvalho, Diana; Rodrigues, Catarina; Silva, Mário; Costa, Mariana; Horta, David; Mateus Dias, António; Seves, Isabel; Ramos, Gonçalo; Ricardo, Leonel; Coutinho, António Pereira; Romão, Carlos; Veiga, Pedro Mota

    2014-11-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) can be used for palliation of combined malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions. However, the results of the concomitant stent placement for the duration of the patients' lives, as well as the need for and efficacy of endoscopic revision, are unclear. This study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of SEMS placement for combined biliary and duodenal obstructions throughout the patients' lives and the need for endoscopic revision. This study is a retrospective multicenter study of 50 consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous or sequential SEMS placement for malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions. The data were collected to analyze the sustained relief of obstructive symptoms until the patients' death and the efficacy of endoscopic revision, as well as stent patency, adverse events, survival and prognostic factors for stent patency. Technical and immediate clinical success was achieved in all of the patients. Duodenal stricture occurred before the papilla in 35 patients (70 %), involved the papilla in 11 patients (22 %) and was observed distal to the papilla in four patients (8 %). Initial biliary stenting was performed endoscopically in 42 patients (84 %) and percutaneously in eight patients. After combined stenting, 30 patients (60 %) required no additional intervention until the time of their death. The remaining 20 patients were successfully treated using endoscopic stent reinsertion: nine patients needed biliary revision, three patients needed duodenal restenting and eight patients needed both biliary and duodenal reinsertion. The median duodenal stent patency and median biliary stent patency were 34 and 27 weeks, respectively. The median survival after combined stent placement was 18 weeks. A Cox multivariate analysis showed that duodenal stent obstruction after combined stenting was a risk factor for biliary stent obstruction (hazard ratio 6.85; 95 % confidence interval 1.43-198.98; P = 0

  16. Metal versus plastic stents for drainage of malignant biliary obstruction before primary surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Jun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sang Soo; Jang, Ji Woong; Kim, Jung Wook; Ok, Tae Jin; Oh, Dong Wook; Park, Do Hyun; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Song Cheol; Kim, Chul Nam; Yun, Sung Cheol

    2016-11-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) with stent placement has been commonly used for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. In PBD, the placement of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) may provide better patency duration and a lower incidence of cholangitis compared with plastic stents. We aimed to evaluate which type of stent showed better outcomes in PBD. In this multicenter, prospective randomized trial, we compared PBD with FCSEMSs versus plastic stents in 86 patients with malignant biliary obstruction between January 2012 and December 2014. Patients with obstructive jaundice were randomly assigned to undergo PBD either with plastic stents or FCSEMS placement. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Endoscopic stent placement was technically successful in all patients. Procedure-related adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 groups (plastic vs FCSEMS group; 16.3% vs 16.3%, P = 1.0). Reintervention was required in 16.3% of the plastic stent group and 14.0% of the FCSEMS group (P = .763). The interval to surgery after PBD (plastic vs FCSEMS group; 14.2 ± 8.3 vs 12.3 ± 6.9 days, P = .426) was not significantly different between groups. Surgery-related adverse events occurred in 43.6% of the plastic stent group and 40.0% of the FCSEMS group (P = .755). In patients with resectable malignant biliary obstruction, the outcomes of PBD with plastic stents and FCSEMSs were similar. Considering the cost-effectiveness, PBD with plastic stents may be preferable to FCSEMS placement. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01789502.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomy-shaped design of a fully-covered, biliary, self-expandable metal stent for treatment of benign distal biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Weigt, Jochen; Kandulski, Arne; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: The treatment success of benign biliary strictures with fully covered metal stents (CSEMS) is altered by high stent dislocation rates. We aimed to evaluate a new stent design to prevent dislocation. Patients and methods: Patients with benign biliary strictures were treated with a newly designed double-coned stent (dcSEMS). Mechanical analysis of the new stent was performed and it was compared with a cylindrical stent. Results: A total of 13 dcCSEMS were implanted in 11 patients (2 female, 9 male, median age 47, range 33 – 71). All patients had distal biliary strictures due to chronic pancreatitis. No stent migration occurred. In all but one patient the stents were removed. One patient refused stent extraction and was lost to follow up. Stent occlusion occurred twice leading to cholangitis in both cases. The duration of stent treatment was 170 days (range 61 – 254). After extraction only one patient had early recurrent stricture and received the same stent again. Three stents showed minimal tissue granulation at the papilla. One stent presented ingrowth at the proximal end and was removed after implantation of a second fully covered stent. Mechanical examination revealed significantly lower radial expansion force of the new stent as compared to the cylindrical stent. Conclusions: The new stent design has a low rate of migration. Biomechanical properties may explain this effect. PMID:26793789

  18. Polyurethane-Covered Self-expandable Nitinol Stent for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Young-Min; Hwang, Seung-Bae; Lee, Soo-Teik; Lee, Jeong-Min; Chung, Gyung-Ho

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the immediate and long-term results in ten patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a polyurethane-covered, self-expandable nitinol stent.Methods: A nitinol stent, fully covered with high-elasticity polyurethane, with an unconstrained diameter of 10 mm and a total length of 60-80 mm, was placed transhepatically under fluoroscopic guidance in ten patients. The length of the biliary obstruction varied between 30-50 mm. The follow-up examination included a clinical assessment, serum bilirubin measurement, and ultrasound examinations at one-month intervals in all patients. Results: Initial stent deployment was successful in eight patients. Two patients experienced proximal migration,which was solved by insertion of two, uncovered Wallstents. One patient had the stent removed after two weeks because of severe nausea and vomiting. One patient had delayed migration of the covered stent after 40 weeks. The follow-up duration was 3-40 weeks (Mean: 16.9 weeks). Seven patients died(3-26 weeks) and three patients survived (24-40 weeks). The bilirubin measurements in all patients had significantly decreased one week after stent insertion. The levels of amylase and lipase had did not increase after stent insertion. Conclusions: Apolyurethane-covered, self-expandable nitinol stent can be used effectively and safely in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. The preliminary results are favorable, but there is a need for further large studies to determine both long-term survival and patency.

  19. Photodynamic therapy with polyhematoporphyrin for malignant biliary obstruction: A nationwide retrospective study of 150 consecutive applications

    PubMed Central

    Schwaighofer, Hubert; Hellmich, Brigitte; Stadler, Bernhard; Spaun, Georg; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Hebenstreit, Arnold; Weber-Eibel, Jutta; Siebert, Franz; Emmanuel, Klaus; Knoflach, Peter; Gschwantler, Michael; Vogel, Wolfgang; Trauner, Michael; Püspök, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a palliative treatment for malignant biliary obstruction. Objective The objective of this article is to assess the feasibility and safety of this technique. Methods In this nationwide, retrospective study of prospectively collected clinical data, all patients treated with PDT using polyhematoporphyrin in Austria from March 2004 to May 2013 were included. Feasibility, adverse events, stent patency and mortality rates were investigated. Results Eighty-eight patients (54 male, 34 female, median age 69 years) underwent 150 PDT procedures at seven Austrian referral centers for biliary endoscopy. The predominant underlying disease was Klatskin tumor (79/88). All PDT procedures were feasible without technical issues. Cholangitis was the most frequent adverse event (21/88). Stent patency was 246 days (95% CI 203–289) median and was significantly longer for metal than for plastic stents (269 vs. 62 days, p < 0.01). The median survival was 12.4 months (95% CI 9.7–14.9 m) calculated from first PDT and 15.6 months (95% CI 12.3–18.7 m) calculated from initial diagnosis. In patients suffering from biliary tract cancer, Cox regression revealed the number of PDT treatment sessions as the only independent predictor of survival at a multivariate analysis (p = 0.048). Conclusion PDT using polyhematoporphyrin was feasible and safe in this nationwide analysis. Survival data suggest a benefit of PDT in this unselected real-life patient population. Prospective trials comparing PDT to other palliative treatments will help to define its role in the management of malignant biliary obstruction. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02504957. PMID:28405328

  20. IgG4-related cholecystitis presenting as biliary malignancy: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Feely, Michael M; Gonzalo, David H; Corbera, Montserrat; Hughes, Steven J; Trevino, Jose G

    2014-09-01

    An increased awareness of IgG4-related diseases has led to an escalation in the number of sites known to be involved by this fibroinflammatory disease. We report three cases of IgG4-related cholecystitis which were thought to represent biliary malignancies both clinically and radiographically. All three cases underwent surgery tailored towards presumed malignant neoplasms. Only following pathologic examination was the true nature of the disease identified. Recognition of the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic presentation of IgG4-related cholecystitis is essential for the consideration of this disease process prior to surgical management for suspected gallbladder malignancies. However, the pre-operative diagnosis remains challenging and extensive surgical intervention is often necessary given the distressing presentation of IgG4-related cholecystitis.

  1. Clinical Study on Using (125)I Seeds Articles Combined with Biliary Stent Implantation in the Treatment of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Yan-Bo; Song, Xue-Peng; Sun, Bo-Lin; Jiang, Wen-Jin; Wang, Li-Gang

    2017-08-01

    Aim: To study the feasibility and curative effect of(125)I seeds articles combined with biliary stent implantation in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were included. Twenty-four were treated by biliary stent implantation combined with intraluminal brachytherapy by (125)I seeds articles as the experimental group, while the remaining 26 were treated by biliary stent implantation only as the control group. The goal of this study was to evaluate total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and tumor markers (cancer antigen (CA)-199, CA-242 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)), as well as biliary stent patency status and survival time before and after surgery. Results: Jaundice improved greatly in both groups. The decreases of CA-199 and CA-242 had statistical significance (p=0.003 and p=0.004) in the experimental group. The ratio of biliary stent patency was 83.3% (20/24) in the experimental group and 57.7% (15/26) in the control group (p=0.048). The biliary stent patency time in the experimental group was 1~15.5 (mean=9.84) months. The biliary stent patency time in the control group was 0.8~9 (mean=5.57) months, which was statistically significant (p=0.018). The median survival time was 10.2 months in the experimental group, while 5.4 months in control group (p<0.05). Conclusion:(125)I seeds articles combined with biliary stent implantation significantly prolongs biliary stent patency time and survival time for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice possibly by inhibiting the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells and the growth of tumor. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Air cholangiogram is not inferior to dye cholangiogram for malignant hilar biliary obstruction: a randomized study of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Sud, Randhir; Puri, Rajesh; Choudhary, Narendra S; Mehta, Ashish; Jain, Parvesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Endoscopic biliary drainage is the palliative treatment of choice in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction. Contrast injection can lead to cholangitis, whereas air cholangiography may have a lesser incidence of cholangitis. The objective of the present study is to prospectively compare the efficacy and safety of air vs. dye cholangiogram in malignant hilar biliary obstruction. Patients with type II and III malignant hilar biliary stricture were included in a prospectively randomized manner at a tertiary care center. Unilateral self-expanding metal stent was placed in patients with a malignant hilar block using either air or dye as a contrast medium. Outcome measures were successful deployment, successful drainage, early complications, and procedure-related and 30-day mortality. Forty-nine patients were randomized to air cholangiogram (25 patients, group A) or dye cholangiogram (24 patients, group B). Most of the patients had type II stricture (19 in group A and 20 in group B). Successful stenting and drainage were achieved in 25 (100 %) and 24 (96 %) in group A and 23 (95.8 %) and 22 (91.6 %) (p = ns), respectively. Cholangitis developed in 1 (4 %) and 4 (16.6 %) in group A and B, respectively (p < 0.05). There was no procedure-related or 30-day mortality. Use of air cholangiography was as safe and as effective as dye cholangiography in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction, and it decreased the risk of post-ERCP cholangitis.

  3. For biliary dilatation, a negative endosonography needs additional image studies in weight loss suggesting malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Yang, Chi-Chieh; Yeh, Yung-Hsiang

    2013-08-01

    Biliary dilatation frequently raises concerns about the possibility of pancreatobiliary diseases. This study assessed the etiologic yield of endosonography (EUS) in this situation. A retrospective review was completed with 163 consecutive patients who had undergone EUS for a dilated common bile duct (CBD) without definite pathology on ultrasonography. Binary logistic regression analysis disclosed that malignancy was positively related to weight loss and was inversely related to abdominal pain; nevertheless, choledocholithiasis was positively related to fever and elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (p < 0.05). The accuracy of EUS was 95.1 % (155/163) for overall cause of biliary dilatation, 100 % (73/73) for no pathological finding, 96.3 % (26/27) for ampullary cancer, 84.6 % (11/13) for pancreatic cancer, 40.0 % (2/5) for CBD cancer, and 92.6 % (25/27) for choledocholithiasis, respectively. The accuracy of EUS decreased in the presence of malignancy (86.7 %, 39/45 vs. 98.3 %, 116/118, p = 0.006). EUS missed three CBD cancers, two pancreatic cancers, and one ampullary cancer; however, the diagnosis was rescued by computed tomography in two pancreatic cancers and one CBD cancer. EUS is accurate in patients with fever suggestive of choledocholithiasis. However, a negative EUS finding should call for additional image studies in patients with weight loss suggestive of malignancy.

  4. Late migration of two covered biliary stents through a spontaneous bilioenteric fistula in a patient with malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Krokidis, Miltiadis E; Hatzidakis, Adam A; Manousaki, Eirini G; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of simultaneous late migration of two ePTFE-FEP covered biliary endoprostheses (Viabil, W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) that were percutaneously implanted for the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. The first Viabil covered stent was placed successfully without any evidence of dislocation or other complication during follow-up. Occlusion of the stent occurred 4 months later and was treated with the placement of a second stent of the same type. Thirteen months later the patient became symptomatic. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed the presence of a choledocho-duodenal fistula and the disappearance of the two endoprostheses previously implanted. A third metallic stent was then percutaneously positioned through the bilioenteric fistula. The computed tomography scan that followed for the detection of the metallic bodies did not reveal the dislocated metallic stents. Stent migration is a well-known complication of uncovered metallic stents, though Viabil stent migration is assumed to be most unlikely to happen due to the stent's anchoring barbs. Furthermore, the stent had already been tightly fixed by tumor over- and ingrowth, as recognized in previous imaging. This is a very unusual case, describing the disappearance of two metallic foreign bodies encapsulated by tumor.

  5. Late Migration of Two Covered Biliary Stents Through a Spontaneous Bilioenteric Fistula in a Patient with Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Krokidis, Miltiadis E.; Hatzidakis, Adam A. Manousaki, Eirini G.; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C.

    2008-01-15

    We report a case of simultaneous late migration of two ePTFE-FEP covered biliary endoprostheses (Viabil, W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) that were percutaneously implanted for the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. The first Viabil covered stent was placed successfully without any evidence of dislocation or other complication during follow-up. Occlusion of the stent occurred 4 months later and was treated with the placement of a second stent of the same type. Thirteen months later the patient became symptomatic. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed the presence of a choledocho-duodenal fistula and the disappearance of the two endoprostheses previously implanted. A third metallic stent was then percutaneously positioned through the bilioenteric fistula. The computed tomography scan that followed for the detection of the metallic bodies did not reveal the dislocated metallic stents. Stent migration is a well-known complication of uncovered metallic stents, though Viabil stent migration is assumed to be most unlikely to happen due to the stent's anchoring barbs. Furthermore, the stent had already been tightly fixed by tumor over- and ingrowth, as recognized in previous imaging. This is a very unusual case, describing the disappearance of two metallic foreign bodies encapsulated by tumor.

  6. Current Status of Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhara, SH; Gamanagatti, S; Singh, Anuradha; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Malignancies leading to obstructive jaundice present too late to perform surgery with a curative intent. Due to inexorably progressing hyperbilirubinemia with its consequent deleterious effects, drainage needs to established even in advanced cases. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are widely used palliative procedures each with its own merits and lacunae. With the current state-of-the-art PTBD technique consequent upon procedural and hardware improvement, it is equaling ERCP regarding technical success and complications. In addition, there is a reduction in immediate procedure-related mortality with proven survival benefit. Nonetheless, it is the only imminent lifesaving procedure in cholangitis and sepsis. PMID:27803558

  7. Percutaneous trans-hepatic bilateral biliary stenting in Bismuth IV malignant obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Katsakiori, Paraskevi; Romanos, Odissefs; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Siablis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical efficiency of percutaneous trans-hepatic bilateral biliary metallic stenting for the management of Bismuth IV malignant obstructive disease. METHODS: Our hospital’s database was searched for all patients suffering from the inoperable malignant biliary obstruction Bismuth IV, and treated with percutaneous bilateral trans-hepatic placement of self-expandable nitinol stents. The indication for percutaneous stenting was an inoperable, malignant, symptomatic, biliary obstruction. An un-correctable coagulation disorder was the only absolute contra-indication for treatment. Bismuth grading was performed using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Computed tomography evaluation of the lesion and the dilatation status of the biliary tree was always performed prior to the procedure. All procedures were performed under conscious sedation. A single trans-hepatic track technique was preferred (T-configuration stenting) and a second, contra-lateral trans-hepatic track (Y-configuration stenting) was used only in cases of inability to access the contra-lateral lobe using a single track technique. The study’s primary endpoints were clinical success, defined as a decrease in bilirubin levels within 10 d and patient survival rates. Secondary endpoints included peri-procedural complications, primary and secondary patency rates. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (18 female, 51.4%) with a mean age 69 ± 13 years (range 33-88) were included in the study. The procedures were performed between March 2000 and June 2008 and mean time follow-up was 13.5 ± 22.0 mo (range 0-96). The underlying malignant disease was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 9), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 5), gastric cancer (n = 2), bile duct tumor (n = 2), colorectal cancer (n = 2), gallbladder carcinoma (n = 2), lung cancer (n = 1), breast cancer (n = 1) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). In all cases, various self-expandable bare metal stents with

  8. Clinical Experience with Covered Wallstents for Biliary Malignancies: 23-Month Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Plinio; Bezzi, Mario; Salvatori, Filippo M.; Panzetti, Claudio; Rossi, Michele; Pavia, Gianluca

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of partially covered metallic Wallstents to prevent tumoral ingrowth in patients with neoplastic obstruction of the biliary tract. Methods: Twenty-one patients with malignant obstructive jaundice have been treated with Wallstents partially covered with a polyurethane polymer. In total, 36 covered stents (8 and 10 mm in diameter, 70 and 90 mm long) were deployed. All the stents were free from covering at both ends. Results: Jaundice was successfully treated in 100% of cases. There were no problems related to the releasing system during stent positioning, no major complications, and no incompatibility reactions to the materials composing the endoprostheses. At 23-month follow-up, 6 patients are still alive and 15 are dead; of these 15 patients, 11 died in the first 6 months and the last 4 died between 6 and 23 months. Seven patients had an obstructed stent; in four of these, cholangioscopy showed the presence of tumoral ingrowth and in one it showed necrotic tissue with biliary pigments and inflammatory cells. No biopsy specimen was obtained in the remaining two patients with stent obstruction. The follow-up, ranging from 7 to 23 months, showed a primary patency of 46.8% and 24.6% and an assisted patency of 66.3% and 59% at 6 months and 23 months, respectively. Conclusions: Covered metallic stents are effective and may produce improved survival in patients with malignant biliary obstruction (27.8% at 23 months). Stent patency, however, is similar to that of uncovered stents. Modifications in the design of the covering membrane may reduce stent obstruction resulting from disruption of the plastic covering.

  9. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Clearance of Occluded Metal Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Madhava; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Doros, Attila; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Habib, Nagy

    2013-07-11

    PurposeThe major complication occurring with biliary stents is stent occlusion, frequently seen because of tumour in-growth, epithelial hyperplasia, and sludge deposits, resulting in recurrent jaundice and cholangitis. We report a prospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation to clear the blocked metal stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a novel bipolar RF catheter.MethodsNine patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary RF ablation through the blocked metal stent following external biliary decompression with an internal–external biliary drainage.ResultsAll nine patients had their stent patency restored successfully without the use of secondary stents. Following this intervention, there was no 30-day mortality, haemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the nine patients, six are alive and three patients are dead with a median follow-up of 122 (range 50–488) days and a median stent patency of 102.5 (range 50–321) days. Six patients had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. Three patients with stent blockage at 321, 290, and 65 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and repeat ablation.ConclusionsIn this selective group of patients, it appears that this new approach is safe and feasible. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  10. Comparison of covered and uncovered self-expandable stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Flores Carmona, Diana Yamel; Alonso Lárraga, Juan Octavio; Hernández Guerrero, Angélica; Ramírez Solís, Mauro Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Drainage with metallic stents is the treatment of choice in malignant obstructive jaundice. Technical and clinical success with metallic stents is obtained in over 90% and 80% of cases, respectively. There are self-expandable metallic stents designed to increase permeability. The aim of this study was to describe the results obtained with totally covered self-expandable and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Sixty eight patients with malignant obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatobiliary or metastatic disease not amenable to surgery were retrospectively included. Two groups were created: group A (covered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 22) and group B (uncovered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 46). Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels decreased in both groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (p = 0.800, p = 0.190, p = 0.743, p = 0.521). Migration was greater with covered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.101). Obstruction was greater in the group with uncovered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.476). There are no differences when using covered self-expandable stents or uncovered self-expandable stents in terms of technical and clinical success or complications in the palliative treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice.

  11. Endoscopic stenting for inoperable malignant biliary obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zorrón Pu, Leonardo; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Baracat, Felipe Iankelevich; Mendonça, Ernesto Quaresma; Kondo, André; Luz, Gustavo Oliveira; Furuya Júnior, Carlos Kiyoshi; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze through meta-analyses the benefits of two types of stents in the inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCT) was conducted, with the last update on March 2015, using EMBASE, CINAHL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, LILACS/CENTRAL (BVS), SCOPUS, CAPES (Brazil), and gray literature. Information of the selected studies was extracted in sight of six outcomes: primarily regarding dysfunction, complication and re-intervention rates; and secondarily costs, survival, and patency time. The data about characteristics of trial participants, inclusion and exclusion criteria and types of stents were also extracted. The bias was mainly assessed through the JADAD scale. This meta-analysis was registered in the PROSPERO database by the number CRD42014015078. The analysis of the absolute risk of the outcomes was performed using the software RevMan, by computing risk differences (RD) of dichotomous variables and mean differences (MD) of continuous variables. Data on RD and MD for each primary outcome were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel test and inconsistency was qualified and reported in χ2 and the Higgins method (I2). Sensitivity analysis was performed when heterogeneity was higher than 50%, a subsequent assay was done and other findings were compiled. Student’s t-test was used for the comparison of weighted arithmetic means regarding secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Initial searching identified 3660 studies; 3539 were excluded through title, repetition, and/or abstract, while 121 studies were fully assessed and were excluded mainly because they did not compare self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) and plastic stents (PS), leading to thirteen RCT selected, with 13 articles and 1133 subjects meta-analyzed. The mean age was 69.5 years old, that were affected mostly by bile duct (proximal) and pancreatic tumors (distal). The preferred SEMS diameter used was the 10 mm (30 Fr) and the preferred PS diameter used was 10 Fr

  12. Extracellular Vesicles in Bile as Markers of Malignant Biliary Stenoses.

    PubMed

    Severino, Valeria; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Delhaye, Myriam; Moll, Solange; Annessi-Ramseyer, Isabelle; Robin, Xavier; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Farina, Annarita

    2017-08-01

    Algorithms for diagnosis of malignant common bile duct (CBD) stenoses are complex and lack accuracy. Malignant tumors secrete large numbers of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into surrounding fluids; EVs might therefore serve as biomarkers for diagnosis. We investigated whether concentrations of EVs in bile could discriminate malignant from nonmalignant CBD stenoses. We collected bile and blood samples from 50 patients undergoing therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography at university hospitals in Europe for CBD stenosis of malignant (pancreatic cancer, n = 20 or cholangiocarcinoma, n = 5) or nonmalignant (chronic pancreatitis [CP], n = 15) origin. Ten patients with CBD obstruction due to biliary stones were included as controls. EV concentrations in samples were determined by nanoparticle tracking analyses. The discovery cohort comprised the first 10 patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, based on tissue analysis, and 10 consecutive controls. Using samples from these subjects, we identified a threshold concentration of bile EVs that could best discriminate between patients with pancreatic cancer from controls. We verified the diagnostic performance of bile EV concentration by analyzing samples from the 30 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of malignant (pancreatic cancer or cholangiocarcinoma, n = 15) or nonmalignant (CP, n = 15) CBD stenosis. Samples were compared using the Mann-Whitney test and nonparametric Spearman correlation analysis. Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was used to determine diagnostic accuracy. In both cohorts, the median concentration of EVs was significantly higher in bile samples from patients with malignant CBD stenoses than controls or nonmalignant CBD stenoses (2.41 × 10(15) vs 1.60 × 10(14) nanoparticles/L in the discovery cohort; P < .0001 and 4.00 × 10(15) vs 1.26 × 10(14) nanoparticles/L in the verification cohort; P < .0001). A threshold of 9.46 × 10(14) nanoparticles

  13. A Survival Analysis of Patients with Malignant Biliary Strictures Treated by Percutaneous Metallic Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, Elias N. Ptochis, Nikolaos; Panagiotou, Irene; Malagari, Katerina; Tzavara, Chara; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2007-02-15

    Background. Percutaneous metal stenting is an accepted palliative treatment for malignant biliary obstruction. Nevertheless, factors predicting survival are not known. Methods. Seventy-six patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were treated with percutaneous placement of metallic stents. Twenty patients had non-hilar lesions. Fifty-six patients had hilar lesions classified as Bismuth type I (n = 15 patients), type II (n = 26), type III (n = 12), or type IV (n = 3 patients). Technical and clinical success rates, complications, and long-term outcome were recorded. Clinical success rates, patency, and survival rates were compared in patients treated with complete (n = 41) versus partial (n = 35) liver parenchyma drainage. Survival was calculated and analyzed for potential predictors such as the tumor type, the extent of the disease, the level of obstruction, and the post-intervention bilirubin levels. Results. Stenting was technically successful in all patients (unilateral drainage in 70 patients, bilateral drainage in 6 patients) with an overall significant reduction of the post-intervention bilirubin levels (p < 0.001), resulting in a clinical success rate of 97.3%. Clinical success rates were similar in patients treated with whole-liver drainage versus partial liver drainage. Minor and major complications occurred in 8% and 15% of patients, respectively. Mean overall primary stent patency was 120 days, while the restenosis rate was 12%. Mean overall secondary stent patency was 242.2 days. Patency rates were similar in patients with complete versus partial liver drainage. Mean overall survival was 142.3 days. Survival was similar in the complete and partial drainage groups. The post-intervention serum bilirubin level was an independent predictor of survival (p < 0.001). A cut-off point in post-stenting bilirubin levels of 4 mg/dl dichotomized patients with good versus poor prognosis. Patient age and Bismuth IV lesions were also independent predictors

  14. [Application of (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Liu, S; Zheng, Y B; Song, X P; Jiang, W J; Sun, B L; Wang, L G

    2016-03-23

    To study the feasibility and therapeutic effect of the application of (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation on the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. Fifty patients with malignant obstructive jaundice treated from September 2010 to February 2013 in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital were included in this study. Among them, 24 patients received biliary stent implantation combined with (125)I seeds intraluminal brachytherapy as experimental group, and 26 were treated by biliary stent implantation as control group.The total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and tumor markers (CA-199, CA-242, CEA) before and after surgery, the biliary stent patency status was assessed, and the survival time was evaluated. The 24 patients in experimental group were implanted with 30 (125)I seeds successfully in a total of 450 seeds. Jaundice was improved greatly in both groups. The CA-199 and CA-242 after treatment in the experimental group were significantly decreased than that before treatment (P=0.003 and P=0.004). CEA was also decreased, but showed no statistical significance (P>0.05). There were no significant improvement comparing the CA-199, CA-242 and CEA before and 2 months after surgery in the control group (P>0.05). The rate of biliary stent patency was 83.3% (20/24) in the experimental group and 57.7% (15/26) in the control group (P=0.048). The mean biliary stent patency time in the experimental group was 9.84 months (range 1-15.5 months). The mean biliary stent patency time in the control group was 5.57 months (range 0.8-9 months). There was a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.018). The median survival time was 10.2 months in the experimental group and 5.4 months in the control group (P<0.05). (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation can inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells and the growth of tumor effectively, and can prolong the biliary stent patency time and the survival time obviously for patients with

  15. Should plastic stents be avoided in all unresectable malignant perihilar biliary strictures?

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroki; Itoh, Akihiro; Ohno, Eizaburo; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2013-05-01

    Clinical guidelines of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommend the insertion of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) as opposed to plastic stents (PS) in patients with unresectable malignant perihilar stricture (MHS). However, PS are cheaper and easier to insert into the biliary duct compared to SEMS. Furthermore, PS are removable and easy to move into subsequent drainage procedures. We conducted the present retrospective single-center study to elucidate the predictive factors associated with stent patency period duration in patients with unresectable MHS who would benefit from a long patency period after PS placement. This study included 56 consecutive patients with unresectable MHS who were drained using PS. PS failure occurred in 26 (46.4%) patients. The median patency period was 72 days (95% confidence interval: 29.8-114). The only significant predictive factor associated with the length of the stent patency period was history of previous endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Median patency periods with and without previous EST were 28 and 109 days, respectively (P = 0.016). In conclusion, we suggest that conventional biliary drainage with PS is still a suitable option for the treatment of unresectable MHS in patients without previous EST. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  16. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Li; Han, Xin-Wei; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion. Methods Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative complications, jaundice remission, stent patency and survival time were analyzed. Results Combination treatment was successful for all patients. There were no severe complications during RFA or local treatments. All patients had stent patency restored, with a decline in serum bilirubin. Three patients had recurrent jaundice by 195, 237 and 357 days; two patients underwent repeat intraductal RFA; and one required an internal-external biliary drain. The average stent patency time was 234 days (range 187-544 days). With a median follow-up of 384 days (range 187-544 days), six patients were alive, while eight had died. There was no mortality at 30 days. The 3, 6, 12 and 18 month survival rates were 100%, 100%, 64.3% and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion Intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments for occluded metal stents is safe and practically feasible and potential increase stent patency and survival times. PMID:26244367

  17. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Li; Han, Xin-Wei; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion. Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative complications, jaundice remission, stent patency and survival time were analyzed. Combination treatment was successful for all patients. There were no severe complications during RFA or local treatments. All patients had stent patency restored, with a decline in serum bilirubin. Three patients had recurrent jaundice by 195, 237 and 357 days; two patients underwent repeat intraductal RFA; and one required an internal-external biliary drain. The average stent patency time was 234 days (range 187-544 days). With a median follow-up of 384 days (range 187-544 days), six patients were alive, while eight had died. There was no mortality at 30 days. The 3, 6, 12 and 18 month survival rates were 100%, 100%, 64.3% and 42.9%, respectively. Intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments for occluded metal stents is safe and practically feasible and potential increase stent patency and survival times.

  18. Treatment of Malignant Biliary Obstruction with a PTFE-Covered Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Jin, Gong-Yong; Lee, Seung-Ok; Chung, Gyung-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Objective We wanted to determine the technical and clinical efficacy of using a PTFE-covered self-expandable nitinol stent for the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Materials and Methods Thirty-seven patients with common bile duct strictures caused by malignant disease were treated by placing a total of 37 nitinol PTFE stents. These stents were covered with PTFE with the exception of the last 5 mm at each end; the stent had an unconstrained diameter of 10 mm and a total length of 50-80 mm. The patient survival rate and stent patency rate were calculated by performing Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The bilirubin, serum amylase and lipase levels before and after stent placement were measured and then compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The average follow-up duration was 27.9 weeks (range: 2-81 weeks). Results Placement was successful in all cases. Seventy-six percent of the patients (28/37) experienced adequate palliative drainage for the remainder of their lives. There were no immediate complications. Three patients demonstrated stent sludge occlusion that required PTBD (percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage) irrigation. Two patients experienced delayed stent migration with stone formation at 7 and 27 weeks of follow-up, respectively. Stent insertion resulted in acute elevations of the amylase and lipase levels one day after stent insertion in 11 patients in spite of performing endoscopic sphincterotomy (4/6). The bilirubin levels were significantly reduced one week after stent insertion (p < 0.01). The 30-day mortality rate was 8% (3/37), and the survival rates were 49% and 27% at 20 and 50 weeks, respectively. The primary stent patency rates were 85%, and 78% at 20 and 50 weeks, respectively. Conclusion The PTFE-covered self-expandable nitinol stent is safe to use with acceptable complication rates. This study is similar to the previous studies with regard to comparing the patency rates and survival rates. PMID:17923784

  19. An integrated approach for comparative proteomic analysis of human bile reveals overexpressed cancer-associated proteins in malignant biliary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Natalija; Visentin, Rémy; Delhaye, Myriam; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Lescuyer, Pierre; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Farina, Annarita

    2014-05-01

    Proteomics is a key tool in the identification of new bile biomarkers for differentiating malignant and nonmalignant biliary stenoses. Unfortunately, the complexity of bile and the presence of molecules interfering with protein analysis represent an obstacle for quantitative proteomic studies in bile samples. The simultaneous need to introduce purification steps and minimize the use of pre-fractionation methods inevitably leads to protein loss and limited quantifications. This dramatically reduces the chance of identifying new potential biomarkers. In the present study, we included differential centrifugation as a preliminary step in a quantitative proteomic workflow involving iTRAQ labeling, peptide fractionation by OFFGEL electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS, to compare protein expression in bile samples collected from patients with malignant or nonmalignant biliary stenoses. A total of 1267 proteins were identified, including a set of 322 newly described bile proteins, mainly belonging to high-density cellular fractions. The subsequent comparative analysis led to a 5-fold increase in the number of quantified proteins over previously published studies and highlighted 104 proteins overexpressed in malignant samples. Finally, immunoblot verifications performed on a cohort of 8 malignant (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, n=4; cholangiocarcinoma, n=4) and 5 nonmalignant samples (chronic pancreatitis, n=3; biliary stones, n=2) confirmed the results of proteomic analysis for three proteins: olfactomedin-4, syntenin-2 and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.

  20. Partially covered self-expanding metal stent for unresectable malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction: results of a large prospective series.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliva, Cristina; Guarner-Argente, Carlos; Concepción, Mar; Jiménez, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez, Sarbelio; Gonzalez-Huix, Ferran; Mugica, Fernando; Cabriada, José Luis; Rodríguez, Claudio; Aguilar, Carlos Guarner

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is a well-established palliative treatment in patients with unresectable malignant biliary strictures. Obstruction of uncovered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) due to tumor ingrowth is the most frequent complication. Partially covered SEMS might increase stent patency but could favor complications related to stent covering, such as pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of partially covered SEMS in patients with an unresectable malignant biliary stricture. Patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction treated endoscopically with partially covered SEMS were included in this multicenter, prospective, nonrandomized study. One hundred ninety-nine patients were endoscopically treated with partially covered SEMS in 32 Spanish hospitals. Clinical success after deep cannulation was 96%. Early complications occurred in 4% (3 pancreatitis, 2 cholangitis, 1 hemorrhage, 1 perforation, and 1 cholecystitis). Late complications occurred in 19.5% (18 obstructions, 10 migrations, 6 cholangitis without obstruction, 3 acute cholecystitis, and 2 pancreatitis), with no tumor ingrowth in any case. Median stent patency was 138.9 ± 112.6 days. One-year actuarial probability of stent patency was 70% and that of nonmigration was 86%. Multivariate analysis showed adjuvant radio- or chemotherapy as the only independent predictive factor of stent patency and previous insertion of a biliary stent was the only predictive factor of migration. The partially covered SEMS was easily inserted, had a high clinical success rate, and prevented tumor ingrowth. The incidence of possible complications related to stent coverage, namely, migration, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis, was lower than in previously published series.

  1. Malignant biliary obstruction complicated by ascites: Closure of the transhepatic tract with cyanoacrylate glue after placement of an endoprosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cekirge, Saruhan; Akhan, Okan; Ozmen, Mustafa; Saatci, Isil; Besim, Aytekin

    1997-05-15

    A new technique using cyanoacrylate glue is suggested for closing the transparenchymal tract following metallic endoprosthesis placement in a patient with malignant biliary obstruction complicated by ascites. With this technique, complications related to bile reflux through the transparenchymal tract would be avoided after transhepatic endoprosthesis placement in patients who have ascites. This technique would also be useful for avoiding bleeding following transhepatic portal venous puncture.

  2. Percutaneous “Y” biliary stent placement in palliative treatment of type 4 malignant hilar stricture

    PubMed Central

    Centore, Luca; Soreca, Emilio; Corvino, Antonio; Farbo, Vincenzo; Bencivenga, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the technical and clinical efficacy of percutaneous bilateral biliary stent-in-stent (SIS) deployment technique with a “Y” configuration using open-cell-design stents in type 4 Klatskin tumor patients. Methods Retrospective evaluation ten patients with type IV Bismuth malignant hilar stricture (MHS) treated with percutaneous bilateral “Y” SIS deployment technique placement followed in our institution between March of 2012 and November of 2014. Results Bilateral SIS deployment was technically successful in all patients. One patient (10%) had major complications (episode of cholangitis); one patient (10%) had minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia. Successful internal drainage was achieved in nine (90%) patients. Stent occlusion by tumor overgrowth and sludge formation occurred in two patient (20%). The median survival and stent patency time were 298 and 315 days respectively. Conclusions Percutaneous bilateral metal stenting using a Y-stent is a valid option for the palliative treatment of type 4 Bismuth MHS, improving quality patient’ life. PMID:27034794

  3. mRNA expression of CDH3, IGF2BP3, and BIRC5 in biliary brush cytology specimens is a useful adjunctive tool of cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Hee Jin; Kim, Jean A; Lim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chang Whan; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although advances have been made in diagnostic tools, the distinction between malignant and benign biliary strictures still remains challenging. Intraductal brush cytology is a convenient and safe method that is used for the diagnosis of biliary stricture, but, low sensitivity limits its usefulness. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of mRNA expression levels of target genes in brush cytology specimens combined with cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture. Immunohistochemistry for cadherin 3 (CDH3), p53, insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), homeobox B7 (HOXB7), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) was performed in 4 benign and 4 malignant bile duct tissues. Through endoscopic or interventional radiologic procedures, brush cytology specimens were prospectively obtained in 21 and 35 paitents with biliary strictures. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expressions levels of 5 genes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry for CDH3, p53, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 all showed positive staining in malignant tissues in contrast to benign tissues, which were negative. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expression levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 were significantly higher in cases of malignant biliary stricture compared with cases of benign stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001). The receiver-operating characteristic curves of these 4 mRNAs demonstrated that mRNA expression levels are useful for the prediction of malignant biliary stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002). The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for malignant biliary stricture were 57.1% and 100% for cytology, 57.1% and 64.3% for CDH3, 76.2% and 100% for IGF2BP3, 71.4% and 57.1% for HOXB7, and 76.2% and 64.3% for BIRC5. When cytology was combined with the mRNA levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, or BIRC5, the

  4. Improved Accuracy of Percutaneous Biopsy Using “Cross and Push” Technique for Patients Suspected with Malignant Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Prashant; Rangarajan, Balaji; Mangat, Kamarjit E-mail: kamarjit.mangat@nhs.net

    2015-08-15

    PurposeVarious methods have been used to sample biliary strictures, including percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy, intraluminal biliary washings, and cytological analysis of drained bile. However, none of these methods has proven to be particularly sensitive in the diagnosis of biliary tract malignancy. We report improved diagnostic accuracy using a modified technique for percutaneous transluminal biopsy in patients with this disease.Materials and MethodsFifty-two patients with obstructive jaundice due to a biliary stricture underwent transluminal forceps biopsy with a modified “cross and push” technique with the use of a flexible biopsy forceps kit commonly used for cardiac biopsies. The modification entailed crossing the stricture with a 0.038-in. wire leading all the way down into the duodenum. A standard or long sheath was subsequently advanced up to the stricture over the wire. A Cook 5.2-Fr biopsy forceps was introduced alongside the wire and the cup was opened upon exiting the sheath. With the biopsy forceps open, within the stricture the sheath was used to push and advance the biopsy cup into the stricture before the cup was closed and the sample obtained. The data were analysed retrospectively.ResultsWe report the outcomes of this modified technique used on 52 consecutive patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to a biliary stricture. The sensitivity and accuracy were 93.3 and 94.2 %, respectively. There was one procedure-related late complication.ConclusionWe propose that the modified “cross and push” technique is a feasible, safe, and more accurate option over the standard technique for sampling strictures of the biliary tree.

  5. Air cholangiography in endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement of metallic stents for malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Sang Hyub; Jang, Dong Kee; Chung, Kwang Hyun; Park, Jin Myung; Paik, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2016-03-01

    Although endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent (SIS) placement of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is one of the major palliative treatments for unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction, post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) cholangitis can occur frequently due to inadequate drainage, especially after contrast injection into the biliary tree. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of air cholangiography-assisted stenting. This study included 47 patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction who underwent endoscopic bilateral SEMS placement using the SIS technique. They were divided into two groups, air (n = 23) or iodine contrast (n = 24) cholangiography. We retrospectively compared comprehensive clinical and laboratory data of both groups. There were no significant differences found between the two groups with respect to technical success (87% versus 87.5%, air versus contrast group, respectively), functional success (95% versus 95.2%), 30-day mortality (8.3% versus 8.7%) and stent patency. Post-ERCP adverse events occurred in 5 (21.7%) of the patients in the air group and 8 (33.3%) of the patients in the contrast group. Among these, the rate of cholangitis was significantly lower in the air group (4.8% versus 29.2%, p = 0.048). In multivariate analysis, air cholangiography, technical success and a shorter procedure time were significantly associated with a lower incidence of post-ERCP cholangitis. Air cholangiography-assisted stenting can be a safe and effective method for endoscopic bilateral SIS placement of SEMS in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

  6. Management of occluded metal stents in malignant biliary obstruction: similar outcomes with second metal stents compared to plastic stents.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tilak; Desai, Svetang; Haque, Mahfuzul; Dakik, Hassan; Fisher, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    Covered or uncovered self expandable metallic stents (SEMS) placed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction can occlude in 19-40 %, but optimal management is unclear. We sought to summarize current evidence regarding management of occluded SEMS in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Two investigators independently searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science using pre-defined search criteria, and reviewed bibliographies of included studies. Data were independently abstracted by two investigators, and analyzed using RevMan. We compared strategies of second SEMS versus plastic stents with respect to the following outcomes: rate of second stent re-occlusion, duration of second stent patency, and survival. Ten retrospective studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Management options described were placement of an uncovered SEMS (n = 125), covered SEMS (n = 106), plastic stent (n = 135), percutaneous biliary drain (n = 7), mechanical cleaning (n = 18), or microwave coagulation (n = 7). Relative risk of re-occlusion was not significantly different in patients with second SEMS compared to plastic stents (RR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.92, 1.67, I(2) = 0, p 0.16). Duration of second stent patency was not significantly different between patients who received second SEMS versus plastic stents (weighted mean difference 0.46, 95 % CI -0.30, 1.23, I(2) = 83 %). Survival was not significantly different among patients who received plastic stents versus SEMS (weighted mean difference -1.13, 95 % CI -2.33, 0.07, I(2) 86 %, p = 0.07). Among patients with malignant biliary obstruction and occluded SEMS, available evidence suggests a strategy of placing a plastic stent may be as effective as second SEMS. Limitations of these findings were that all studies were retrospective and heterogeneity between studies was detected for two of the outcomes.

  7. Endoscopic management of malignant biliary obstruction by means of covered metallic stents: primary stent placement vs. re-intervention.

    PubMed

    Kida, M; Miyazawa, S; Iwai, T; Ikeda, H; Takezawa, M; Kikuchi, H; Watanabe, M; Imaizumi, H; Koizumi, W

    2011-12-01

    Recent progress in chemotherapy has prolonged the survival of patients with malignant biliary strictures, leading to increased rates of stent occlusion. Occlusion of covered metallic stents now occurs in about half of all patients with malignant biliary strictures. The removal of metallic stents followed by placement of a second stent has been attempted, but outcomes remain controversial. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the primary placement and secondary placement (re-intervention) of covered metallic stents and to assess the feasibility and safety of stent removal. The study included 186 patients with unresectable malignant biliary strictures who underwent primary stent placement between October 2001 and March 2010.  Covered biliary self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) were removed in 39 of these patients, and 36 underwent re-intervention. The patency times, occlusion rates of the first stent and re-intervention, success rates of stent removal, and complications were investigated. Covered SEMSs were placed in 186 patients. The median patency time of the first stent was 352 days. Stent occlusion occurred in 48.9 % of the patients and was mainly caused by debris or food residue (37 %), dislocation (19 %), and migration with hyperplasia (19 %). Stent removal was attempted in 50 patients and was successful without complication in 39 (78 %). Most of the patients in whom stent removal was unsuccessful had migration with hyperplasia. The median patency time of the second stent was 263 days. The stent patency time did not significantly differ between the first and the second stent. Covered SEMSs could be safely removed at the time of stent occlusion. Patency rates were similar for initial stent placement and re-intervention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Hepatic portocholecystostomy (HPC) is ineffective in the treatment of biliary atresia with patent distal extrahepatic bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Li, Hao; Shen, Chun; Zheng, Shan; Xiao, Xianmin

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effects of hepatic portocholecystostomy (HPC) and the Kasai procedure for the treatment of biliary atresia with patent distal extrahepatic bile ducts (BA with PDEBD) and to determine the reasons for the differences between the two procedures. The case files of 29 patients with BA with PDEBD were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty patients were treated with the Kasai procedure, and 9 patients were treated with HPC. We compared the rate of jaundice clearance, the incidence of cholangitis, survival rates of the native liver, and clinical outcomes between the two groups. Healthy gallbladders were collected for comparison with the pathologic specimens. Van-Gieson stains were used to detect the severity of fibrosis, and immunohistochemical methods were used to investigate the expression of CD68. Image analysis technology was used to quantitatively analyze the results. Six months after surgery, the rate of jaundice clearance was 85% in the Kasai group and 33.3% in the HPC group (p = .01). The three-year survival rates of the two groups were 73.68% and 33.3%, respectively (p = .009). According to the criteria that define a cured state, there was an obvious difference between the two groups (p = .0056). The fibrosis and CD68(+) cell infiltration were more severe in the gallbladders of patients with BA than in controls (p < .05). HPC was inferior to the Kasai procedure in the treatment of BA with PDEBD. This result may be due to the progressive inflammation and fibrosis of the extrahepatic bile duct.

  9. Efficacy and safety of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy before self-expandable metal stent insertion for malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Choi, Cheol Woong; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Su Jin; Ryu, Dae Gon

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety and efficacy of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) before placement of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of 244 consecutive patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction, who underwent placement of SEMSs following limited ES from December 2008 to February 2015. The diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction and assessment of patient eligibility for the study was established by a combination of clinical findings, laboratory investigations, imaging and pathological results. All patients were monitored in the hospital for at least 24 h following endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP). The incidence of immediate or early post-ERCP complications such as post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and bleeding related to limited ES were considered as primary outcomes. Also, characteristics and complications according to the cancer type were classified. RESULTS Among the 244 patients included, the underlying diagnosis was cholangiocarcinoma in 118 patients, pancreatic cancer in 79, and non-pancreatic or non-biliary malignancies in the remaining 47 patients. Early post-ERCP complications occurred in 9 patients (3.7%), with PEP in 7 patients (2.9%; mild, 6; moderate, 1) and mild bleeding in 2 patients (0.8%). There was no significant association between the incidence of post-ERCP complications and the type of malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma vs pancreatic cancer vs others, P = 0.696) or the type of SEMS used (uncovered vs covered, P = 1.000). Patients who had more than one SEMS placed at the first instance were at a significantly higher risk of post-ERCP complications (one SEMS vs two SEMS, P = 0.031). No other factors were predictive of post-ERCP complications. CONCLUSION Limited ES is feasible and safe, and effectively facilitates the placement of SEMS, without any significant risk of PEP or severe bleeding. PMID:28321164

  10. Best endoscopic stents for the biliary tree and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baron, Todd H

    2014-09-01

    To determine trends in pancreaticobiliary stents over the past 12-18 months. Metal biliary stents continue to be used for palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction with superior patency to plastic stents. The use of covered metal biliary stents is increasingly being used for the management of benign biliary disease. Plastic stents predominate in patients with pancreatic disease, with the exception of transmural drainage of pancreatic necrosis. In both biliary and pancreatic disorders, there is a trend towards greater utilization of endoscopic ultrasound-guided interventions. Endoscopic placement of pancreaticobiliary stents plays an important role in the treatment of complex benign and malignant disease. Further comparative trials are needed to determine the optimal role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural stent placement.

  11. Threaded biliary inside stents are a safe and effective therapeutic option in cases of malignant hilar obstruction.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Shioya, Makoto; Mochizuki, Yosuke; Ban, Hiromitsu; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Saito, Yasuharu; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2013-02-14

    Although endoscopic biliary stents have been accepted as part of palliative therapy for cases of malignant hilar obstruction, the optimal endoscopic management regime remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of placing a threaded stent above the sphincter of Oddi (threaded inside plastic stents, threaded PS) and compared the results with those of other stent types. Patients with malignant hilar obstruction, including those requiring biliary drainage for stent occlusion, were selected. Patients received either one of the following endoscopic indwelling stents: threaded PS, conventional plastic stents (conventional PS), or metallic stents (MS). Duration of stent patency and the incident of complication were compared in these patients. Forty-two patients underwent placement of endoscopic indwelling stents (threaded PS = 12, conventional PS = 17, MS = 13). The median duration of threaded PS patency was significantly longer than that of conventional PS patency (142 vs. 32 days; P = 0.04, logrank test). The median duration of threaded PS and MS patency was not significantly different (142 vs. 150 days, P = 0.83). Stent migration did not occur in any group. Among patients who underwent threaded PS placement as a salvage therapy after MS obstruction due to tumor ingrowth, the median duration of MS patency was significantly shorter than that of threaded PS patency (123 vs. 240 days). Threaded PS are safe and effective in cases of malignant hilar obstruction; moreover, it is a suitable therapeutic option not only for initial drainage but also for salvage therapy.

  12. Partially covered self-expandable metal stents versus polyethylene stents for malignant biliary obstruction: A cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barkun, Alan N; Adam, Viviane; Martel, Myriam; AlNaamani, Khalid; Moses, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Partially covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) and polyethylene stents (PES) are both commonly used in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. Although SEMS are significantly more expensive, they are more efficacious than PES. Accordingly, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis compared the approach of initial placement of PES versus SEMS for the study population. Patients with malignant biliary obstruction underwent an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to insert the initial stent. If the insertion failed, a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram was performed. If stent occlusion occurred, a PES was inserted at repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, either in an outpatient setting or after admission to hospital if cholangitis was present. A third-party payer perspective was adopted. Effectiveness was expressed as the likelihood of no occlusion over the one-year adopted time horizon. Probabilities were based on a contemporary randomized clinical trial, and costs were issued from national references. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: A PES-first strategy was both more expensive and less efficacious than an SEMS-first approach. The mean per-patient costs were US$6,701 for initial SEMS and US$20,671 for initial PES, which were associated with effectiveness probabilities of 65.6% and 13.9%, respectively. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results. CONCLUSION: At the time of initial endoscopic drainage for patients with malignant biliary obstruction undergoing palliative stenting, an initial SEMS insertion approach was both more effective and less costly than a PES-first strategy. PMID:26125107

  13. Partially covered self-expandable metal stents versus polyethylene stents for malignant biliary obstruction: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkun, Alan N; Adam, Viviane; Martel, Myriam; AlNaamani, Khalid; Moses, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND⁄ Partially covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) and polyethylene stents (PES) are both commonly used in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. Although SEMS are significantly more expensive, they are more efficacious than PES. Accordingly, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. A cost-effectiveness analysis compared the approach of initial placement of PES versus SEMS for the study population. Patients with malignant biliary obstruction underwent an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to insert the initial stent. If the insertion failed, a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram was performed. If stent occlusion occurred, a PES was inserted at repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, either in an outpatient setting or after admission to hospital if cholangitis was present. A third-party payer perspective was adopted. Effectiveness was expressed as the likelihood of no occlusion over the one-year adopted time horizon. Probabilities were based on a contemporary randomized clinical trial, and costs were issued from national references. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. A PES-first strategy was both more expensive and less efficacious than an SEMS-first approach. The mean per-patient costs were US$6,701 for initial SEMS and US$20,671 for initial PES, which were associated with effectiveness probabilities of 65.6% and 13.9%, respectively. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results. At the time of initial endoscopic drainage for patients with malignant biliary obstruction undergoing palliative stenting, an initial SEMS insertion approach was both more effective and less costly than a PES-first strategy.

  14. A Newly Designed Stent for Management of Malignant Distal Duodenal Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei-Zhong Yang, Zheng-Qiang Liu, Sheng Zhou, Chun-Gao Xia, Jin-Guo Zhao, Lin-Bo Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a newly designed stent for the treatment of malignant distal duodenal stenosis.MethodsFrom March 2011 to May 2013, six patients with malignant duodenal stenosis underwent fluoroscopically guided placement of the new duodenal stent consisting of braided, nested stent wires, and a delivery system with a metallic mesh inner layer. Primary diseases were pancreatic cancer in three patients, gastric cancer in two patients, and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one patient. Duodenal obstructions were located in the horizontal part in two patients, the ascending part in two patients, and the duodenojejunal flexure in two patients. Technical success, defined as the successful stent deployment, clinical symptoms before and after the procedure, and complications were evaluated.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients. No major complications were observed. Before treatment, two patients could not take any food and the gastric outlet obstruction scoring system (GOOSS) score was 0; the other four patients could take only liquids orally (GOOSS score = 1). After treatment, five patients could take soft food (GOOSS score = 2) and one patient could take a full diet (GOOSS score = 3). The mean duration of primary stent patency was 115.7 days.ConclusionsThe newly designed stent is associated with a high degree of technical success and good clinical outcome and may be clinically effective in the management of malignant distal duodenal obstruction.

  15. Covered stents versus uncovered stents for the palliation of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion: a cohort comparative study.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xinshun; Ji, Donghua; Li, Jun; Wang, Ningfang; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Tao; Li, Ke

    2012-12-01

    Biliary stenting is a well-established palliative treatment in patients with unresectable malignant biliary strictures. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical outcomes of covered and uncovered stents in patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion. Patients diagnosed with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 37 received ePTFE-covered stent placement and were prospectively studied, and 47 received uncovered stent placement and were retrospectively studied. The technical success rate, tumor ingrowth rate, complication rate, stent patency, and patient survival were evaluated for both groups. Stent placement was successful in all cases except one in the covered group due to stent kinking. Tumor ingrowth occurred exclusively in the uncovered group. No significant differences were observed for the complication rate and patient survival between the two groups. Three patients in the covered group experienced stent migration, whereas no patients did in the uncovered group. A significant difference was found regarding stent patency, which was greater for the covered group compared to the uncovered group. The placement of ePTFE-covered stents for the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion was a safe and an effective method characterized by greater stent patency.

  16. Malignant conversion of a solitary papilloma in the distal trachea: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Lioulias, Achilleas; Misthos, Panagiotis; Papagiannakis, Georgios; Mermigkis, Dimitrios; Karagianidis, Napoleon; Neofotistos, Kostas; Kokotsakis, John

    2008-01-01

    A solitary papilloma versus the usual multiple lesions of papillomatosis is extremely rare. Even more infrequent is a solitary papilloma of the trachea in an adult patient. In the present report, a case of a solitary papilloma in the distal trachea is presented. After two unsuccessful sessions of laser ablation, resection of the lower one-third of the trachea was performed through a right posterolateral thoracotomy. Postoperative histology results disclosed a malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma. The patient had an excellent outcome after resection of the affected portion of the trachea. There was no evidence of recurrence after 20 months of follow-up. PMID:18949108

  17. Primary patency of percutaneously inserted self-expanding metallic stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dahlstrand, Ursula; Sandblom, Gabriel; Eriksson, Lars-Gunnar; Nyman, Rickard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Effective bile duct drainage is crucial to the health-related quality of life of patients with jaundice caused by obstruction of the bile duct by inoperable malignant tumours. Methods: All patients who were treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden with percutaneous stenting between 2000 and 2005 were identified retrospectively. Data on the location of the obstruction and type of stent used, date and cause of death and date of stent failure were abstracted from the patients' notes. Stent patency was defined as the duration from the insertion of the stent to the date of failure. In cases in which the cause of death was directly related to failure of the stent, the date of death was defined as the patency endpoint. Results: A total of 64 patients (34 women, 30 men) were identified. Their mean age was 71 years (standard deviation 11 years). The median length of patency was 11.4 months. Stent diameter >10 mm and distal stricture were found to be associated with significantly longer patency time in univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, only location of the stricture was found to be independently and significantly associated with patency time. Discussion: Percutaneous stenting is a good alternative for patients with obstructive jaundice and a life expectancy ≤1 year. It may give instant relief from the symptoms associated with jaundice. Patency time may be prolonged by using stents with a diameter ≥10 mm. However, patency time was found to be lower for hilar tumours. PMID:19718365

  18. Covered self-expandable metal stents with an anti-migration system improve patency duration without increased complications compared with uncovered stents for distal biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Masayuki; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Tanaka, Kiyohito; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yazumi, Shujiro; Nakai, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Osamu; Uehara, Hiroyuki; Mitoro, Akira; Sanuki, Tsuyoshi; Takaoka, Makoto; Koshitani, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Shiba, Masatsugu; Hoki, Noriyuki; Sato, Hideki; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Masako; Hasegawa, Kazunori; Kawabata, Hideaki; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Hidekazu

    2013-11-01

    The requirements of biliary stents used in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction are a long duration of patency and minimal adverse effects. Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been shown to prevent tumor ingrowth, which is the most frequent complication of uncovered SEMSs. However, because they are prone to migration, the superiority of covered SEMS has yet to be convincingly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the superiority of covered over uncovered SEMSs in the palliation of distal biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, using both stent types with relatively low axial force and uncovered flared ends to prevent their migration. From April 2009 to December 2010, 120 patients who were admitted to 22 tertiary-care centers because of distal biliary obstruction from unresectable pancreatic carcinomas were enrolled in this prospective randomized multicenter study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a covered or uncovered SEMS deployed at the site of the biliary stricture during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Stent patency time, patient survival time, patient survival time without stent dysfunction (time to stent dysfunction or patient death), cause of stent dysfunction (ingrowth, overgrowth, migration, or sludge formation), and serious adverse events were compared between covered and uncovered SEMS groups. Patient survival time in the two groups did not significantly differ (median: 285 and 223 days, respectively; P=0.68). Patient survival time without stent dysfunction was significantly longer in the covered than in the uncovered SEMS group (median: 187 vs. 132 days; P=0.043). Stent patency was also significantly longer in the covered than in the uncovered SEMS group (mean±s.d.: 219.3±159.1 vs. 166.9±124.9 days; P=0.047). Reintervention for stent dysfunction was performed in 14 of 60 patients with covered SEMSs (23%) and in 22 of 60 patients with uncovered SEMSs (37%; P=0

  19. ePTFE/FEP-Covered Metallic Stents for Palliation of MalignantBiliary Disease: Can Tumor Ingrowth Be Prevented?

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzidakis, Adam Krokidis, Miltiadis; Kalbakis, Kostantinos; Romanos, Jiannis; Petrakis, Ioannis; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. To determine the application and clinical effectiveness of ePTFE/FEP-covered metallic stents for palliation of malignant biliary disease, and to evaluate the efficiency of stent coverage in preventing tumor ingrowth. Methods. During a 3-year period, 36 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were treated with ePTFE/FEP-covered stents, with or without proximal side holes. The stricture was located in the lower common bile duct (CBD) in 18 cases, the upper CBD in 9, the lower common hepatic duct (CHD) in 6, and the upper CHD in 3 patients. Results.Thirty-seven covered stents were percutaneously implanted. The technical success rate was 97%. Reintervention was required in 6 cases. The 30-day mortality rate was 40%, not procedure-related. Mean survival was 128 days. Primary patency rates were 100%,55.5%, and 25% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, while the assisted patency rate was 100% at 12 months. Stents without side holes had higher primary patency rates compared with those with side holes, where occlusion was always due to tumor ingrowth. Tumor ingrowth did not occur in the completely covered stents. No stent dysfunction due to sludge incrustation was found.Complications were 1 case of arterial laceration that occurred during percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and a subcapsular hematoma and 1 case of bile peritonitis, that both occurred during primary stenting. No complications followed the secondary stenting technique. Conclusion. ePTFE/FEP-covered metallic stents are safe and effective for palliation of malignant biliary disease. The presence of the ePTFE/FEP coating is likely to prevent from tumor ingrowth.

  20. The Effects of Endothelial Cells-Preserving Technique on Microsurgical Vascular Reconstruction in Biliary Tract Malignancy: Report of Twenty Cases

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Shigehito; Nakanishi, Wataru; Kawagishi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    We describe our experience of resectional surgery with microsurgical reconstruction of the hepatic arteries in 20 cases with biliary tract malignancy. Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) is a lethal complication; therefore, it is important to perform microsurgical reconstruction safely. Recently, we adopted the back wall support suture technique with double needle sutures that does not require the damaged short arteries to be turned over. In this technique, each stitch is placed from the inner side to the outer side to keep endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to develop safety methods. From 2003 to 2012, 20 patients with biliary tract malignancy with possible involvement of the hepatic arteries underwent resectional surgery with microvascular reconstruction (cholangiocarcinoma: n = 15; others: n = 5). For this cohort study, patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 5) included patients who underwent the conventional ‘twist technique’ and group II (n = 15) included patients who underwent the microsurgical back wall support suture technique with double needle sutures and received gabexate mesilate, a strong serine protease inhibitor (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. We investigated HAT using Doppler ultrasonography for 10 days. No postoperative mortality was observed. The incidence of HAT was only one case in group I, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. However, the value of the pulsatile index and acceleration time were significantly improved in group II. In conclusion, the back wall support suture technique with gabexate mesilate administration during microvascular reconstruction was found to be safe. It is important to keep endothelial cells healthy for microvascular reconstruction. PMID:24574945

  1. The effects of endothelial cells-preserving technique on microsurgical vascular reconstruction in biliary tract malignancy: report of twenty cases.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Shigehito; Nakanishi, Wataru; Kawagishi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    We describe our experience of resectional surgery with microsurgical reconstruction of the hepatic arteries in 20 cases with biliary tract malignancy. Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) is a lethal complication; therefore, it is important to perform microsurgical reconstruction safely. Recently, we adopted the back wall support suture technique with double needle sutures that does not require the damaged short arteries to be turned over. In this technique, each stitch is placed from the inner side to the outer side to keep endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to develop safety methods. From 2003 to 2012, 20 patients with biliary tract malignancy with possible involvement of the hepatic arteries underwent resectional surgery with microvascular reconstruction (cholangiocarcinoma: n = 15; others: n = 5). For this cohort study, patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 5) included patients who underwent the conventional 'twist technique' and group II (n = 15) included patients who underwent the microsurgical back wall support suture technique with double needle sutures and received gabexate mesilate, a strong serine protease inhibitor (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. We investigated HAT using Doppler ultrasonography for 10 days. No postoperative mortality was observed. The incidence of HAT was only one case in group I, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. However, the value of the pulsatile index and acceleration time were significantly improved in group II. In conclusion, the back wall support suture technique with gabexate mesilate administration during microvascular reconstruction was found to be safe. It is important to keep endothelial cells healthy for microvascular reconstruction.

  2. Comparison of patency and cost-effectiveness of self-expandable metal and plastic stents used for malignant biliary strictures: a Polish single-center study.

    PubMed

    Budzyńska, Agnieszka; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Marek, Tomasz; Hartleb, Marek

    2016-10-01

    Most patients with malignant biliary obstruction are suited only for palliation by endoscopic drainage with plastic stents (PS) or self-expandable metal stents (SEMS). To compare the clinical outcome and costs of biliary stenting with SEMS and PS in patients with malignant biliary strictures. A total of 114 patients with malignant jaundice who underwent 376 endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) were studied. ERBD with the placement of PS was performed in 80 patients, with one-step SEMS in 20 patients and two-step SEMS in 14 patients. Significantly fewer ERBD interventions were performed in patients with one-step SEMS than PS or the two-step SEMS technique (2.0±1.12 vs. 3.1±1.7 or 5.7±2.1, respectively, P<0.0001). The median hospitalization duration per procedure was similar for the three groups of patients. The patients' survival time was the longest in the two-step SEMS group in comparison with the one-step SEMS and PS groups (596±270 vs. 276±141 or 208±219 days, P<0.001). Overall median time to recurrent biliary obstruction was 89.3±159 days for PS and 120.6±101 days for SEMS (P=0.01). The total cost of hospitalization with ERBD was higher for two-step SEMS than for one-step SEMS or PS (1448±312, 1152±135 and 977±156&OV0556;, P<0.0001). However, the estimated annual cost of medical care for one-step SEMS was higher than that for the two-step SEMS or PS groups (4618, 4079, and 3995&OV0556;, respectively). Biliary decompression by SEMS is associated with longer patency and reduced number of auxiliary procedures; however, repeated PS insertions still remain the most cost-effective strategy.

  3. Antireflux stents to reduce the risk of cholangitis in patients with malignant biliary strictures: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Tian-tian; Wu, Jun; Shi, Zhi-mei; Gao, Dao-jian; Pan, Ya-min

    2014-02-01

    There are limited data on the role of antireflux biliary stents. This single-center randomized trial compared the endoscopic use of partly covered antireflux metal stents (pcARMS) with that of standard uncovered self-expandable metal stents (ucSEMS) for the palliation of nonhilar malignant biliary obstruction. Between August 2007 and February 2012, patients with nonhilar malignant biliary obstruction were randomly assigned to treatment with either pcARMS or ucSEMS. Subsequent follow-up was conducted in clinic or by phone. The primary outcome was onset of cholangitis within 12 months of stenting. Secondary outcomes included other morbidities, stent dysfunctions, and survival. Altogether 112 patients were included, 56 in each group. The stents were successfully deployed in all patients. Satisfactory jaundice control was achieved in 49 cases in the pcARMS group, compared with 47 in the ucSEMS group (P = 0.135). Fewer patients experienced cholangitis in the pcARMS group than in the ucSEMS group (10 vs. 21 patients; P = 0.035), and the frequency of episodes was less (P = 0.022). Respectively, 17 and 29 stent dysfunctions before death were observed in the pcARMS and ucSEMS groups (P = 0.051) and the median stent patency was 13.0 (standard deviation [SD] 3.4) and 10.0 (1.2) months, respectively (P = 0.044). At final follow-up, in January 2013, 50 /52 and 52 /55 patients had died and no difference in median survival was seen between the two groups (8.0 vs. 9.0 months, P = 0.56). Stenting with pcARMS compared with standard ucSEMS reduces risk of ascending cholangitis and has longer stent patency, but does not increase patient survival. Chictr.org. number, ChiCTR-TRC-11001800. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Covered Self-Expanding Transhepatic Biliary Stents:Clinical Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Thurnher, Siegfried A.; Lammer, Johannes; Thurnher, Majda M.; Winkelbauer, Friedrich; Graf, Oswald; Wildling, Reinhard

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: We report our preliminary results with a new type of self-expanding covered stent for treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Methods: Wallstents, fully covered with high elasticity polyurethane, with an unconstrained diameter of 10 mm and a total length of 69 mm, were placed transhepatically under fluoroscopic guidance in five patients. The length of the biliary obstruction varied between 30<+>-<+>50 mm. At 1 and 3 months (82<+>-<+>98 days) clinical assessment, serum bilirubin measurement, and ultrasound examination of the biliary tree were performed. Results: Initial uncomplicated deployment of the stents and internal drainage was possible in all patients. Distal stent migration resulted in early biliary reobstruction in one patient. At 3-month follow-up, partial reobstruction, most probably due to sludge formation, was found in another patient. Conclusion: Our initial results indicate that the covered, self-expanding Wallstent endoprosthesis can be reliably and safely deployed transhepatically for malignant biliary obstruction.

  5. Prognostic utility of serum neopterin in obstructive jaundice secondary to malignant lesions treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Betul; Parildar, Zuhal; Bozkaya, Halil; Barutcuoglu, Burcu; Cinar, Celal; Basol, Gunes; Parildar, Mustafa; Ozmen, Dilek

    2013-06-01

    To perform biochemical profiles before and after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and investigate the potential utility of measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), circulating cytokines, and neopterin, a marker of cell-mediated immunity, to predict outcomes of patients with obstructive jaundice. In a prospective study, 47 patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to malignant lesions were evaluated before, at the fifth hour after, and on the fifth day after PTBD for neopterin, nitrate, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, CRP levels, and liver function. Neopterin levels on day 5 after PTBD were significantly higher than the levels before treatment and at the fifth hour. However, nitrate, cytokine, white blood cell, albumin, and creatinine levels were not significantly different. On the fifth day after PTBD, CRP levels were significantly higher and total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase values were lower than the before-treatment values. Seven patients (15%) died within 30 days after drainage. On the fifth day after PTBD, neopterin, IL-6, IL-10, and creatinine levels were significantly higher and albumin levels were lower in the early mortality group. The performance characteristics of neopterin and creatinine were statistically significant in predicting mortality. Neopterin levels increased after PTBD, indicating cellular immune activation. The nonsignificant change in cytokine levels may be related to low enduring release in malignancy. The extremely elevated levels of neopterin and creatinine after PTBD might serve as harbingers of early death in patients with cholestasis secondary to malignant lesions. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plastic vs. Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Palliation in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Series of Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Barkun, Alan; Martel, Myriam

    2017-02-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are thought to have an advantage over plastic stents in achieving biliary drainage. We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CENTRAL, and ISI Web of knowledge databases, from January 1980 to September 2015, for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SEMS vs. plastic stents in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. Primary outcomes were durations of stent patency, patient survival, and 30-day mortality. Numerous secondary outcomes were assessed, and extensive sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. In all, 20 RCTs totaling 1,713 patients yielded a weighted mean difference (WMD) in time to stent patency (4 studies) of 4.45 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31, 8.59; GRADE=moderate) favoring SEMS. There were no differences in overall patient survival (5 studies) WMD=0.67 months (95% CI, -0.66, 1.99; GRADE=moderate), or 30-day mortality (8 studies) odds ratio (OR)=0.80 (95% CI, 0.52, 1.24; GRADE=moderate) but there was a higher symptom-free survival at 6 months (4 studies) OR=5.96 (95% CI, 1.71, 20.81; GRADE=moderate). SEMS use resulted in lower rates of late complications (11 studies) OR=0.43 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.71; GRADE=moderate), sepsis or cholangitis (14 studies) OR=0.53 (95% CI, 0.37, 0.77; GRADE=high), blocking from sludge (8 studies) OR=0.11(95% CI, 0.07, 0.17; GRADE=moderate), and mean number of re-interventions (8 studies) WMD=-0.83 interventions (95% CI, -1.64, -0.02; GRADE=moderate). There was a longer patency of SEMS for those without a prior drainage attempt (2 studies) WMD 7.70 months (95% CI, 7.14, 8.25; GRADE=high). Although a survival advantage was found when an uncovered SEMS was used (3 studies) WMD 1.31 months (95% CI, 0.30, 2.32; GRADE=high), but not partially or fully covered SEMS (2 studies) WMD -0.66 months (95% CI, -1.02, -0.30; GRADE=high) vs. plastic stents, and for SEMS in the setting of pre- or post-procedural antibiotic administration (2 studies) WMD 1

  7. Treatment of malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic implantation of iridium 192 using a new double lumen endoprosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, J.H.; Lichtenstein, J.L.; Pullano, W.E.; Ramsey, W.H.; Rosenbaum, A.; Halpern, G.; Nonkin, R.; Jacob, H.

    1988-07-01

    Iridium 192 seeds contained in a ribbon were preloaded into a new double lumen 11 Fr endoprosthesis which was then inserted into malignant strictures of the bile duct and ampulla and left in place for 48 hours until 5000 rads were delivered to the tumor. The procedure was carried out in 14 patients (7 women, 7 men; mean age, 63.2 years; range, 46 to 86 years). Six patients were treated for cholangiocarcinomas, four with pancreatic carcinomas, and four with ampullary carcinomas. No complications occurred. The mean survival of the group was 7 months (range, 3 days to 27 months). This new technique provides both intraluminal brachytherapy and biliary drainage and is inserted intraduodenally across the papilla of Vater avoiding puncture of the liver and external hardware required by the percutaneous technique and hardware necessitated with a nasobiliary tube. Following removal of the iridium prosthesis, a large caliber endoprosthesis is inserted for continued decompression. Because of proven efficacy of endoprostheses, this new technique should be considered when intraluminal irradiation is indicated.

  8. High single-session success rate of endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement with modified large cell Niti-S stents for malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Hirofumi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Tsujino, Takeshi; Matsubara, Saburo; Yashima, Yoko; Ito, Yukiko; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Takahara, Naminatsu; Miyabayashi, Koji; Mizuno, Suguru; Mohri, Dai; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Sasaki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Hirano, Kenji; Sasahira, Naoki; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic bilateral self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement in a stent-in-stent method for malignant hilar biliary obstruction is technically challenging. Technical difficulties in the initial placement and reinterventions for stent occlusion are disadvantages inherent to this stent-in-stent method. We previously reported the feasibility of Niti-S large cell D-type biliary stents (LCD). This multicenter prospective consecutive study evaluated the efficacy of bilateral SEMS placement using modified LCD with large and uniform cells, a slimmer delivery system and high radial force. From July 2010 to June 2011, 26 consecutive patients with unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction underwent endoscopic bilateral placement of modified LCD in a stent-in-stent method at three tertiary hospitals. Ten patients had gallbladder cancer, eight had cholangiocarcinoma, four had lymph node metastasis, two had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and two had liver metastasis. Single-session and final technical success rate was 96% and 100%, respectively. Functional success rate was 89%. Stent occlusion occurred in 11 patients (42%) because of sludge (n = 7) or tumor ingrowth (n = 4). Endoscopic bilateral reintervention was technically easy and successful: six patients had stent clearance by balloon sweeping and five had plastic stent placement. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival and stent patency were 220 days and 157 days, respectively. Modified LCD achieved a high technical success rate both in the initial stent-in-stent placement and in bilateral reinterventions in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  9. Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Stents in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: One-Stage or Two-Stage Procedure? Pre-Dilate or Not?

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Aksungur, Erol; Akguel, Erol; Oguz, Mahmut; Seydaoglu, Guelsah

    2003-02-15

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the necessity of percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation procedures performed before stent insertion. One hundred and twenty-six patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction underwent palliative therapy by means of percutaneous transhepatic placement of 183 metallic biliary endoprotheses. Forty-four (35%) patients underwent metallic stent insertion in a one-stage procedure and 82(65%) had undergone percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage before stent insertion. Balloon dilation of the stenosis before stent placement (pre-dilation) was performed in 53 (42%) of 126 patients. The rate of the 30-day mortality was 11%, with no procedure-related deaths. The total rate of early complications was 29%, and 84% of these complications were due to percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation procedures. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation had no clinical or statistically significant effect on the patients' survival and stent patency rate. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation increased the cost of stent placement 18% and 19%, respectively. Palliation of malignant biliary obstruction with percutaneous transhepatic stent insertion should be done directly, in the simplest way, without performing percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation before stent placement. It is more useful, safe, and cost-effective.

  10. Technical feasibility and revision efficacy of the sequential deployment of endoscopic bilateral side-by-side metal stents for malignant hilar biliary strictures: a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Hyun Jong; Lee, Jun Kyu; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Jeong, Seok; Park, Sang-Heum; Moon, Jong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Theoretically, the side-by-side bilateral placement of metal stents may be technically easier than stent-in-stent bilateral placement in stent revision. However, side-by-side placement can be technically challenging, as the deployment of the first stent can preclude the passage of the second stent. We explored the technical feasibility and revision efficacy of endoscopic bilateral side-by-side stent placement for malignant hilar biliary strictures. Forty-four patients with Bismuth type II or higher malignant hilar biliary strictures were enrolled in seven academic tertiary referral centers. Endoscopic placement of side-by-side bilateral metal stents with 7F thin delivery shaft was performed. The outcome measurements were the technical and functional success, adverse events, endoscopic revision success rate, and stent patency. Overall, the technical and functional success rates were 91 % (40/44), and 98 % (39/40), respectively. Two of the failed patients were converted successfully with subsequent contralateral stent-in-stent placement, and the other patients underwent percutaneous intervention. Early stent-related adverse events occurred in 10 %. The endoscopic revision rate due to stent malfunction during follow-up (median: 180 days) was 45 % (18/40; tumor ingrowth in 4 and in-stent sludge impaction/stone formation in 14 patients). The endoscopic revision success rate was 92 % (12/13). Five patients with comorbidity underwent initial percutaneous intervention. The median survival and stent patency periods were 180 and 157 days, respectively. The sequential placement of a metal stent with a 7F thin delivery shaft in bilateral side-by-side procedures may be feasible and effective for malignant hilar biliary strictures and for endoscopic stent revision.

  11. A prospective randomized study for efficacy of an uncovered double bare metal stent compared to a single bare metal stent in malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jik; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Yup; Park, Seung Woo; Nam, Chung Mo; Song, Si Young; Bang, Seungmin

    2017-08-01

    A biliary self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is commonly used to relieve malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a conventional uncovered SEMS with that of a newly developed uncovered double bare metal stent in reducing the risk of stent occlusion caused by tumor ingrowth. We performed a prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial in 71 patients at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine from June 2013 to June 2014. Patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included and randomized to receive an uncovered single bare metal stent (SBSs; S&G Biotech Inc.), an uncovered single bare metal stent (SBSt; Taewoong Medical), or an uncovered double bare metal stent (DBS; S&G Biotech Inc.). The mean age was 66.6 years (range, 35-83), and 42 (59.2%) were male. The mean duration of stent patency was 212 days (±152) in the DBS group (n = 24) compared with 124 days (±98) in the SBSs group (n = 23; P = 0.022 for noninferiority) and 116 days (±79) in the SBSt group (n = 24; P = 0.010 for noninferiority). There were no differences in the incidences of early and delayed complications or migration. The newly developed DBS is noninferior to the conventional uncovered SEMSs on duration of stent patency and tumor ingrowth occurred less frequently in the DBS group. This might decrease the need for reintervention and offer a better quality of life. The trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT01869894.

  12. Prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice treated by reimplantation of biliary metal stents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hao; Pang, Qing; Liu, Huichun; Li, Zongkuang; Wang, Yong; Lu, Yimin; Zhou, Lei; Pan, Hongtao; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of reimplantation of biliary metal stents by percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ). Furthermore, we explored the prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in these patients. We reviewed 33 cases of recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents by PTCD, all of which underwent reimplantation of stents under digital subtraction angiography guidance. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin were compared between before and after reimplantation (1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively). Preoperative clinical data were collected to calculate the inflammation-based markers, including systemic immune-inflammation index (SII, neutrophil × platelets/ lymphocyte), platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), which was estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis. The levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin significantly reduced after the reimplantation operation. During a median follow-up time of 10 months, 18 (54.5%) patients died. Gender, albumin, SII, PLR, NLR, and MLR were found to be associated with OS by the log-rank test and univariate analysis. Multivariate Cox analysis identified elevated levels of SII and PLR as significant factors for predicting poor OS. Reimplantation is clinically feasible in patients with recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents. SII and PLR are independent, useful inflammation-based prognostic models for predicting outcomes in these patients. PMID:28099348

  13. Prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice treated by reimplantation of biliary metal stents: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hao; Pang, Qing; Liu, Huichun; Li, Zongkuang; Wang, Yong; Lu, Yimin; Zhou, Lei; Pan, Hongtao; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of reimplantation of biliary metal stents by percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ). Furthermore, we explored the prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in these patients.We reviewed 33 cases of recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents by PTCD, all of which underwent reimplantation of stents under digital subtraction angiography guidance. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin were compared between before and after reimplantation (1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively). Preoperative clinical data were collected to calculate the inflammation-based markers, including systemic immune-inflammation index (SII, neutrophil × platelets/ lymphocyte), platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), which was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.The levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin significantly reduced after the reimplantation operation. During a median follow-up time of 10 months, 18 (54.5%) patients died. Gender, albumin, SII, PLR, NLR, and MLR were found to be associated with OS by the log-rank test and univariate analysis. Multivariate Cox analysis identified elevated levels of SII and PLR as significant factors for predicting poor OS.Reimplantation is clinically feasible in patients with recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents. SII and PLR are independent, useful inflammation-based prognostic models for predicting outcomes in these patients.

  14. Endoscopic bile duct brushing of malignant pancreatic biliary strictures: retrospective study with comparison of conventional smear and ThinPrep techniques.

    PubMed

    Ylagan, Lourdes R; Liu, Lucy H; Maluf, Horacio M

    2003-04-01

    Endoscopic bile duct brushing (EBDB) is carried out to differentiate benign from malignant biliary strictures in patients who have pancreaticobiliary disease. The sensitivity of this method for the diagnosis of malignancy is relatively low. The aim of this study is to analyze the cytomorphologic features that are helpful in increasing the sensitivity of detecting these lesions on cytologic samples. These features are compared with slides prepared with the ThinPrep technique. The study included 142 patients with bile duct obstruction or pancreatic mass who underwent EBDB and follow-up surgery or biopsy between 1997 to 2000. Twenty-five (18%) of these cases were positive for malignancy in both EBDB and follow-up surgical biopsy; 20 of these cases were used as positive controls (PC). Sixty-one (43%) were negative in both EBDB and follow-up surgical biopsy specimens, and 21 of those cases were used as negative controls (NC). Fifty-six (39%) cases were negative/atypical in EBDB cytology but were suspicious or positive in the surgical or biopsy specimens (false-negative). We identified the cytologic criteria that were helpful in differentiating our positive and negative control groups and applied these criteria to our false-negative group to see whether our sensitivity could be increased, using well-defined cytologic criteria alone. Of the 56 false-negative cases, 9 (16%) were upgraded to suspicious/positive based on the presence of the following features: three-dimensional (3D) micropapillae (95% PC vs 19% NC, P < 0.0001), anisonucleosis (90% PC vs 5% NC, P < 0.0001), high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio (95% PC vs 9% NC, P < 0.0001), nuclear contour irregularity (65% PC vs 24% NC, P = 0.0079), and prominent nucleoli (70% PC vs 38% NC, P = 0.0406). Cytomorphologic features which were not helpful in distinguishing positive and negative cases were: single naked nuclei (50% PC vs 28% NC, P = 0.1597), chromatin granularity (50% PC vs 62% NC, P = 0.54), and necrosis (10

  15. Placement of multiple metal stents for malignant intrahepatic biliary obstruction via an endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy fistula.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Kaoru; Mizuno, Suguru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CDS) using a fully-covered self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is increasingly used as an alternative to failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. An EUS-CDS fistula can provide endoscopists with a new approach route for intrahepatic bile ducts. Here, we present successful placement of multiple SEMS for intrahepatic biliary obstruction via an EUS-CDS fistula.

  16. A distal ileum malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor causing intussusception in a patient in China: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin-Bo; Li, Peng-Fei; Xiao, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Peng-Bin; Li, Jun-Qiang; Sun, Ming-Fei

    2017-01-19

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) arise from a peripheral nerve or display nerve sheath differentiation. Most MPNSTs typically originate on the trunk, extremities, head, neck, and paravertebral regions. Gastrointestinal MPNSTs are rare entities with only 10 cases reported worldwide in the literatures. Here, we report the first Chinese case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the distal ileum presenting as intussusception. A 53-year-old female patient without pathological antecedent for neurofibromatosis was admitted with pain in the right lower abdomen and multiple episodes of vomiting for 1 week. Preoperative diagnosis was intussusception with a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan (CECT) of the abdomen showing characteristic target sign. Due to difficulty reducing the ileum-colon intussusception, right hemicolectomy with ileocolostomy was performed. Histopathology was suggestive of low-grade MPNST. The patient received postoperative care and was followed up for 9 months. There is no sign of tumor recurrence and metastatic disease. This case is unique in terms of a rare tumor presenting with unusual complication.

  17. Primary and revision efficacy of cross-wired metallic stents for endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement in malignant hilar biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Moon, J H; Kim, J H; Park, D H; Lee, S S; Choi, H J; Cho, Y D; Park, S H; Kim, S J

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic bilateral drainage for inoperable malignant hilar biliary strictures (HBS) using metal stents is considered to be technically difficult. Furthermore, endoscopic revision of bilateral stenting after occlusion can be challenging. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement of cross-wired metallic stents in high-grade malignant HBS and planned endoscopic bilateral revision. A total of 84 patients with inoperable high-grade malignant HBS were enrolled from three academic tertiary referral centers. Two cross-wired metal stents were inserted using a bilateral stent-in-stent placement method. Bilateral endoscopic revision was also performed during follow-up using either identical metal stents or plastic stents. The main outcome measurements were technical and functional success, complications, stent patency, and endoscopic revision efficacy. The technical and clinical success rates of endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement of cross-wired metallic stents were 95.2% (80/84) and 92.9% (78/84), respectively. Median patency (range) and survival were 238 days (10-429) and 256 days (10-1130), respectively. Obstruction of primary bilateral stents occurred in 30.8% (24/78) of patients with functionally successful stent placement. The technical and clinical success rates of planned bilateral endoscopic revision for occluded stents were 83.3% (20/24) and 79.2% (19/24), respectively. For revision, bilateral metallic stents were placed in 11 patients (55.0%); the remaining patients received plastic stents. Palliative endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement of cross-wired metallic stents was effective in patients with inoperable HBS. Revision endoscopic bilateral stenting may be feasible and successful in cases where the primary deployed metal stents are occluded. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Biliary system

    MedlinePlus

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  19. Unicompartmental isoelastic resurfacing prosthesis for malignant tumor of the distal radius: A case report with a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, S; Hidalgo-Diaz, J J; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of 74-year-old man in whom a unicompartmental isoelastic resurfacing prosthesis was used to reconstruct the distal radius after en-bloc resection of a malignant tumor. Thirty-nine months after the operation, on a visual analogic scale, pain score was 0/10 and range of motion was 25° of flexion, 5° of extension, 70° of pronation, 45° of supination, 20° of radial deviation, and 30° of ulnar deviation. The Quick DASH functional score was 72.72/100. With radiographic finding, the prosthesis was well-aligned, with no evidence of loosening but with slightly implant conflict with the lunate. This case report indicates that unicompartmental isoelastic resurfacing prosthesis seems a simple and reliable technique for distal radius reconstruction after en-bloc resection of malignant tumor.

  20. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  1. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  2. Obstructive Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas Taylor

    1982-01-01

    The techniques that have come into general use for diagnosing problems of obstructive jaundice, particularly in the past ten years, have been ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging, transhepatic percutaneous cholangiography using a long thin needle, transhepatic percutaneous drainage for obstructive jaundice due to malignancy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the papilla (ERCP), endoscopic sphincterotomy and choledochoscopy. It is helpful to review obstructive jaundice due to gallstones from a clinical point of view and the use of the directable stone basket for the retrieval of retained stones, choledochoscopy for the same purpose using the rigid versus flexible choledochoscopes and dissolution of stones using various fluids through a T tube. The use of dilation of the sphincter for the treatment of stenosis or stricture of the bile duct is now frowned on; rather, treatment choices are between the use of sphincteroplasty versus choledochoduodenostomy and choledochojejunostomy. Any patient with obstructive jaundice or anyone undergoing manipulation of the bile ducts should have prophylactic antibiotic therapy. The current literature regarding treatment of cancer of the bile ducts is principally devoted to the new ideas relative to treatment of tumors of the upper third, especially the bifurcation tumors that are now being resected rather than bypassed. Tumors of the distal bile duct are still being resected by focal operations. Finally, it is now felt that early operation for congenital biliary atresia and choledochal cysts gives the best prognosis, with preoperative diagnosis now possible with the use of ultrasonography and ERCP. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:7051569

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy versus percutaneous transhepatic drainage for malignant biliary obstruction after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a retrospective expertise-based study from two centers

    PubMed Central

    Sportes, Adrien; Camus, Marine; Greget, Michel; Leblanc, Sarah; Coriat, Romain; Hochberger, Jürgen; Chaussade, Stanislas; Grabar, Sophie; Prat, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is widely performed as a salvage procedure in patients with unresectable malignant obstruction of the common bile duct (CBD) after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or in case of surgically altered anatomy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EU-HGS) is a more recently introduced alternative to relieve malignant obstructive jaundice. The aim of this prospective observational study was to compare the outcome, efficacy and adverse events of EU-HGS and PTBD. Methods: From April 2012 to August 2015, consecutive patients with malignant CBD obstruction who underwent EU-HGS or PTBD in two tertiary-care referral centers were included. The primary endpoint was the clinical success rate. Secondary endpoints were technical success, overall survival, procedure-related adverse events, incidence of adverse events, and reintervention rate. Results: A total of 51 patients (EU-HGS, n = 31; PTBD, n = 20) were included. Median survival was 71 days (range 25–75th percentile; 30–95) for the EU-HGS group and 78 days (range 25–75th percentile; 42–108) for the PTBD group (p = 0.99). Technical success was achieved in all patients in both groups. Clinical success was achieved in 25 (86%) of 31 patients in the EU-HGS group and in 15 (83%) of 20 patients in the PTBD group (p = 0.88). There was no difference in adverse events rates between the two groups (EU-HGS: 16%; PTBD: 10%) (p = 0.69). Four deaths within 1 month (two hemorrhagic and two septic) were considered procedure related (two in the EU-HGS group and two in the PTBD group). Overall reintervention rate was significantly lower after EU-HGS (n = 2) than after PTBD (n = 21) (p = 0.0001). Length of hospital stay was shorter after EU-HGS (8 days versus 15 days; p = 0.002). Conclusions: EU-HGS can be an effective and safe mini invasive-procedure alternative to PTBD, with similar success and adverse-event rates, but with lower

  4. Imaging of autoimmune biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Melinda J; Kim, So Yeon; Jhaveri, Kartik S; Behr, Spencer C; Seo, Nieun; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune biliary diseases are poorly understood but important to recognize. Initially, autoimmune biliary diseases are asymptomatic but may lead to progressive cholestasis with associated ductopenia, portal hypertension, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. The three main forms of autoimmune biliary disease are primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and IgG4-associated cholangitis. Although some overlap may occur between the three main autoimmune diseases of the bile ducts, each disease typically affects a distinct demographic group and requires a disease-specific diagnostic workup. For all the autoimmune biliary diseases, imaging provides a means to monitor disease progression, assess for complications, and screen for the development of hepatobiliary malignancies that are known to affect patients with these diseases. Imaging is also useful to suggest or corroborate the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and IgG4-associated cholangitis. We review the current literature and emphasize radiological findings and considerations for these autoimmune diseases of the bile ducts.

  5. [Biliary ascariasis].

    PubMed

    Mensing, M; Cruz y Rivero, M A; Alarcon Hernandez, C; Garcia Himmelstine, L; Vogel, H

    1986-06-01

    Biliary ascariasis is a complication of intestinal ascariasis. This results in characteristic findings in the intravenous cholangiocholecystogram and in the sonogram. Characteristic signs of biliary ascariasis are, in the longitudinal section, the "strip sign", "spaghetti sign", "inner tube sign", and in transverse section "a bull's eye in the triple O". The helminth can travel from out of the biliary duct system back into the intestines, so that control examinations can even be negative.

  6. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Metal Stent for Malignant Hilar Obstruction: Results and Predictive Factors for Efficacy in 159 Patients from a Single Center

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingwu Bai, Ming Qi, Xingshun Li, Kai Yin, Zhanxin; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Wenbing Zhen, Luanluan He, Chuangye; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Zhuoli; Han, Guohong E-mail: Hangh@fmmu.edu.cn

    2015-06-15

    AimTo investigate and compare the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) using a one- or two-stage procedure and determine the predictive factors for the efficacious treatment of malignant hilar obstruction (MHO).Methods159 consecutive patients with MHO who underwent PTBS were enrolled between January 2010 and June 2013. Patients were classified into one- or two-stage groups. Independent predictors of therapeutic success were evaluated using a logistic regression model.Results108 patients were treated with one-stage PTBS and 51 patients were treated with two-stage PTBS. The stents were technically successful in all patients. Successful drainage was achieved in 114 patients (71.4 %). A total of 42 early major complications were observed. Re-interventions were attempted in 23 patients during follow-up. The cumulative primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 88, 71, and 48 %, respectively. Stent placement using a one- or two-stage procedure did not significantly affect therapeutic success, early major complications, median stent patency, or survival. A stent placed across the duodenal papilla was an independent predictor of therapeutic success (odds ratio = 0.262, 95 % confidence interval [0.107–0.642]). Patients with stents across papilla had a lower rate of cholangitis compared with patients who had a stent above papilla (7.1 vs. 20.3 %, respectively, p = 0.03).ConclusionsThe majority of patients with MHO who underwent one-stage PTBS showed similar efficacy and safety outcomes compared with those who underwent two-stage PTBS. Stent placement across the duodenal papilla was associated with a higher therapeutic success rate.

  7. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Oto, Aytekin; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Various biliary pathologic conditions can lead to acute abdominal pain. Specific diagnosis is not always possible clinically because many biliary diseases have overlapping signs and symptoms. Imaging can help narrow the differential diagnosis and lead to a specific diagnosis. Although ultrasonography (US) is the most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of the biliary system, multidetector computed tomography (CT) is helpful when US findings are equivocal or when biliary disease is suspected. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by optimizing the CT protocol and using multiplanar reformations to localize biliary obstruction. CT can be used to diagnose and stage acute cholecystitis, including complications such as emphysematous, gangrenous, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis; gallbladder perforation; gallstone pancreatitis; gallstone ileus; and Mirizzi syndrome. CT also can be used to evaluate acute biliary diseases such as biliary stone disease, benign and malignant biliary obstruction, acute cholangitis, pyogenic hepatic abscess, hemobilia, and biliary necrosis and iatrogenic complications such as biliary leaks and malfunctioning biliary drains and stents. Treatment includes radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Familiarity with CT imaging appearances of emergent biliary pathologic conditions is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical referral and treatment.

  8. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  9. Biliary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 356. Suchy FJ. Anatomy, histology, embryology, developmental anomalies, and pediatric disorders of the biliary ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Use of Fully Covered Self-Expanding Metal Biliary Stents in Pediatrics: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Mark, Jacob A; Mack, Cara L; Marwan, Ahmed I; Kramer, Robert E

    2017-08-23

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is used to manage biliary pathology in pediatric patients. Plastic biliary stents have been utilized in this population for obstructive lesions and bile leaks, however they are sometimes not effective due to migration, occlusion, or ineffective sealing. Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) have larger diameters making them more suitable for some situations. However, their use in pediatrics has not been defined. The aim of this study is to describe our experience with FCSEMS at our institution. We present a series of all patients who underwent FCSEMS placement at Children's Hospital Colorado including three adolescents and one young adult with complex medical needs. Patient age range was 12-24 years and the weight ranged between 36-75 kg. All patients underwent previous ERCP and one or more rounds of plastic stenting without adequate clinical response prior to consideration of FCSEMS placement. Indications included: 1) Recalcitrant biliary anastomotic stricture post liver transplant, 2) Persistent bile leak after needle perforation, 3) Recurrent obstructive choledocholithiasis after cholecystectomy, and 4) Malignant biliary stricture. Sizes of FCSEMS depended on patient bile duct size and biliary pathology. Dwell time was 6-8 weeks. Three patients had resolution of biliary pathology after FCSEMS therapy. One patient had distal migration of FCSEMS necessitating repeat stenting. There were no adverse events from FCSEMS placement or removal. FCSEMS therapy should be considered in appropriate pediatric patients when plastic biliary stents are not effective. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FCSEMS in the pediatric age group.

  11. Migrated biliary stent causing perforation of sigmoid colon and pelvic abscess

    PubMed Central

    Mady, Raafat Fadly; Niaz, Osamah Saad; Assal, Mohamed Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopically placed biliary stents are a well-established procedure for the treatment of benign and malignant causes of obstructive jaundice. A plastic stent is usually inserted in patients with obstructive jaundice due to pancreatic cancer as a short-term procedure. Stent migration has been reported as a complication, although in most cases the stent will pass through or remain in the bowel lumen for a period of time. In rare cases, the stent may cause sigmoid perforation and pelvic abscess formation, especially in patients with sigmoid diverticulae or abdominal adhesions due to previous surgery. We present a patient with sigmoid perforation and pelvic abscess due to distal migration of a biliary stent placed to decompress a pancreatic head carcinoma. PMID:25870211

  12. [The endoscopic management of postoperative biliary fistulae].

    PubMed

    Uribarrena, R; Simón, M A; Sebastián, J J; Gomollón, F; Bajador, E; Botella, M T; Cabrera, T

    1994-10-01

    We report a series of 15 patients with a postoperative biliary fistula treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy. The exact location of the bile leak was revealed by ERCP in 13 cases (87%): cystic duct remnant in 6 (39%), intrahepatic biliary tree in 4 (26%), and main bile duct in 3 (20%). In all cases a distal obstacle (ie: retained stones, hydatid material) to bile flow was also found in ERCP. Treatment consisted of endoscopic sphincterotomy and subsequent removal of the distal obstacle, and could be completed in 13 (87%) cases. In our experience the treatment of postoperative biliary fistula with a distal obstruction bile flow by endoscopic sphincterotomy is a safe and effective procedure, and should be recommended as the first option in those patients.

  13. Biliary cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Miguel A Hernandez; Ruiz, Sagrario Fuerte; Romero, Israel Manzanedo; Lojo, Beatriz Ramos; Prieto, Ignacio Rodriguez; Alvira, Luis Gimenez; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Esteban, Manuel Limones

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of cystadenoma is rare, even more so when located in the extrahepatic bile duct. Unspecific clinical signs may lead this pathology to be misdiagnosed. The need for pathological anatomy in order to distinguish cystadenomas from simple biliary cysts is crucial. The most usual treatment nowadays is resection of the bile duct, together with cholecystectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction. PMID:19630118

  14. Biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chardot, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease characterised by a biliary obstruction of unknown origin that presents in the neonatal period. It is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in this age group. BA occurs in approximately 1/18,000 live births in Western Europe. In the world, the reported incidence varies from 5/100,000 to 32/100,000 live births, and is highest in Asia and the Pacific region. Females are affected slightly more often than males. The common histopathological picture is one of inflammatory damage to the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with sclerosis and narrowing or even obliteration of the biliary tree. Untreated, this condition leads to cirrhosis and death within the first years of life. BA is not known to be a hereditary condition. No primary medical treatment is relevant for the management of BA. Once BA suspected, surgical intervention (Kasai portoenterostomy) should be performed as soon as possible as operations performed early in life is more likely to be successful. Liver transplantation may be needed later if the Kasai operation fails to restore the biliary flow or if cirrhotic complications occur. At present, approximately 90% of BA patients survive and the majority have normal quality of life. PMID:16872500

  15. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  16. Biliary strictures: endoscopic assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Paranandi, Bharat; Oppong, Kofi W

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of biliary strictures can be challenging. Endoscopy has an established role in the diagnosis and therapy of biliary strictures. However, the diagnostic yield from conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography tissue sampling is modest. Improvements in existing technologies as well as the implementation of novel technologies and techniques have the potential to improve the diagnostic performance of endoscopy and expand its therapeutic role. Recent studies have enabled greater clarity about the role of preoperative biliary drainage and the choice of stents in this setting as well as the utility of metal stents in benign and malignant disease. PMID:28261440

  17. Biliary Stent Migration with Duodenal Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Yaprak, Muhittin; Mesci, Ayhan; Colak, Taner; Yildirim, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal perforation from a migrated biliary stent is a known complication of endoscopic biliary stent placement. We present a case of stent migration and resultant duodenal perforation after stent placement for a malignant biliary stricture in a 52-year-old woman. We review the current literature on the diagnosis and management of stent migration and intestinal perforation after endoscopic stent placement for biliary strictures. A plain abdominal radiograph is necessary for early diagnosis of biliary stent migration. If a stent becomes lodged in the gastrointestinal tract, endoscopic or operative extraction of the stent is necessary to prevent subsequent intestinal perforation and peritonitis. Intestinal perforation secondary to biliary stent dislocation should be considered in all patients presenting with fever and abdominal pain after biliary stent insertion. Any abnormality that prevents stent migration through the intestinal tract such as gastroenterostomy, abdominal wall hernia, extensive adhesions or colonic divertucula may be a contraindication for insertion of a plastic biliary stent because of increased perforation risk. PMID:25610053

  18. Molecular genetics and targeted therapeutics in biliary tract carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marks, Eric I; Yee, Nelson S

    2016-01-28

    The primary malignancies of the biliary tract, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, often present at an advanced stage and are marginally sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that molecularly targeted agents may provide new hope for improving treatment response in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). In this article, we provide a critical review of the pathogenesis and genetic abnormalities of biliary tract neoplasms, in addition to discussing the current and emerging targeted therapeutics in BTC. Genetic studies of biliary tumors have identified the growth factors and receptors as well as their downstream signaling pathways that control the growth and survival of biliary epithelia. Target-specific monoclonal antibodies and small molecules inhibitors directed against the signaling pathways that drive BTC growth and invasion have been developed. Numerous clinical trials designed to test these agents as either monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy have been completed or are currently underway. Research focusing on understanding the molecular basis of biliary tumorigenesis will continue to identify for targeted therapy the key mutations that drive growth and invasion of biliary neoplasms. Additional strategies that have emerged for treating this malignant disease include targeting the epigenetic alterations of BTC and immunotherapy. By integrating targeted therapy with molecular profiles of biliary tumor, we hope to provide precision treatment for patients with malignant diseases of the biliary tract.

  19. Molecular genetics and targeted therapeutics in biliary tract carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Eric I; Yee, Nelson S

    2016-01-01

    The primary malignancies of the biliary tract, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, often present at an advanced stage and are marginally sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that molecularly targeted agents may provide new hope for improving treatment response in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). In this article, we provide a critical review of the pathogenesis and genetic abnormalities of biliary tract neoplasms, in addition to discussing the current and emerging targeted therapeutics in BTC. Genetic studies of biliary tumors have identified the growth factors and receptors as well as their downstream signaling pathways that control the growth and survival of biliary epithelia. Target-specific monoclonal antibodies and small molecules inhibitors directed against the signaling pathways that drive BTC growth and invasion have been developed. Numerous clinical trials designed to test these agents as either monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy have been completed or are currently underway. Research focusing on understanding the molecular basis of biliary tumorigenesis will continue to identify for targeted therapy the key mutations that drive growth and invasion of biliary neoplasms. Additional strategies that have emerged for treating this malignant disease include targeting the epigenetic alterations of BTC and immunotherapy. By integrating targeted therapy with molecular profiles of biliary tumor, we hope to provide precision treatment for patients with malignant diseases of the biliary tract. PMID:26819503

  20. Acute Duodenal Obstruction After Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Biliary Stents: Peroral Treatment with Enteral Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Alvarez, Oscar A.; Perdigao, Joseph; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2003-09-15

    Three patients with malignant biliary obstruction were treated with placement of metallic biliary stents. Two patients had known partial duodenal stenosis but had no symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction. The patients developed symptomatic duodenal obstruction early after biliary metallic stent placement. The symptomatic duodenal obstructions were successfully treated with peroral placement of duodenal stents, which obviated the need for surgical intervention.

  1. Aspirin Use Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Occlusion of Metallic Biliary Stents.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sunguk; Stevens, Tyler; Parsi, Mansour A; Lopez, Rocio; Vargo, John J

    2017-03-01

    Biliary self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are widely used to treat malignant and benign conditions of bile duct. Despite their lower rate of occlusion and longer patency than plastic stents, SEMSs still have significant rates of occlusion. We aimed to identify factors associated with occlusion of biliary SEMS. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with biliary SEMS placement at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation from March 2011 to April 2016. We collected clinical, endoscopic, radiographic, and surgical data from medical records and performed multivariable analysis to identify factors associated with SEMS patency. Subjects that received minimal daily dose of 81 mg at the time of stent placement until the end of follow-up were assigned to the aspirin exposure group (n = 157) and compared with subjects with no aspirin exposure (n = 436). Patients were followed for a median 81 days. The primary outcome was hazard ratio for SEMS occlusion requiring an interventional maneuver for biliary drainage. We analyzed data from patients receiving a total of 593 biliary SEMS for treatment of malignant and benign conditions of bile duct. Stent occlusion was observed in 126 cases. Multivariable analysis showed that daily use of aspirin (81 mg or more) was associated with 51% lower risk of stent occlusion than in patients without daily use of aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.75). Furthermore, SEMSs had a longer duration of stent patency in patients in the aspirin exposure group (434.4 days) versus the no aspirin exposure group (339.9 days) (P < .001). Stricture location limited to distal bile duct (in comparison with strictures involving proximal extrahepatic duct) was associated with lower risk of stent occlusion (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.71). In an analysis of a large cohort of subjects with metallic biliary stent placement for malignant and benign

  2. Y-Shaped Bilateral Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement for Malignant Hilar Biliary Obstruction: Data from a Referral Center for Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Di Mitri, R.; Mocciaro, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Malignant hilar strictures are a clinical challenge because of the current therapeutic approach and the poor prognosis. In recent years, self-expandable metallic stents have proven more effective than plastic stents for palliation of malignant hilar strictures, with the bilateral stent-in-stent technique registering a high success rate. We report our experience with Y-shaped endoscopic self-expandable metallic stents placement for treatment of advanced malignant hilar strictures. Methods. From April 2009 to August 2012, we prospectively collected data on patients treated with Y-shaped SEMS placement for advanced malignant hilar carcinoma. Data on technical success, clinical success, and complications were collected. Results. Twenty patients (9 males) were treated (mean age 64.2 ± 15.3 years). The grade of malignant hilar strictures according to the Bismuth classification was II in 5 patients (25%), IIIa in 1 (5%), and IV in 14 (70%). The mean bilirubin level was 14.7 ± 4.9 mg/dL. Technical success was achieved in all patients, with a significant reduction in bilirubin levels (2.9 ± 1.7 mg/dL). One patient experienced cholangitis as early complication, while in 2 patients stent ingrowth was observed. No stents migration was recorded. There was no procedure-related mortality. At the end of the follow-up (7.1 ± 3.1 months), 13 of the 20 patients (65%) had died. Conclusions. Our experience confirms endoscopic bilateral self-expandable metallic stents placement with stent-in-stent technique (Y-shaped configuration) as a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for palliation of unresectable malignant hilar strictures. PMID:24790548

  3. Role of stents and laser therapy in biliary strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennupati, Raja S.; Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    The most frequent primary cancers causing malignant obstructive jaundice were pancreatic cancer (57%), hilar biliary cancer (19% including metastatic disease), nonhilar biliary cancer (14%) and papillary cancer (10%). Endoscopic stenting has widely replaced palliative surgery for malignant biliary obstruction because of its lower risk and cost. Self-expandable metal stents are the preferred mode of palliation for hilar malignancies. Plastic stents have a major role in benign biliary strictures. Major complications and disadvantages associated with metallic stents include high cost, cholangitis. malposition, migration, unextractability, and breakage of the stents, pancreatitis and stent dysfunction. Dysfunction due to tumor ingrowth can be relieved by thermal methods (argon plasma coagulator therapy). We present a concise review of the efficacy of metallic stents for palliation of malignant strictures.

  4. Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Mikelle D.; Murray, Karen F.

    2011-01-01

    Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA), an inflammatory sclerosing cholangiopathy, is the leading indication for liver transplantation in children. The cause is still unknown, although possible infectious, genetic, and immunologic etiologies have received much recent focus. These theories are often dependent on each other for secondary or coexisting mechanisms. Concern for EHBA is raised by a cholestatic infant, but the differential diagnosis is large and the path to diagnosis remains varied. Current treatment is surgical with an overall survival rate of approximately 90%. The goals of this article are to review the important clinical aspects of EHBA and to highlight some of the more recent scientific and clinical developments contributing to our understanding of this condition. PMID:18496390

  5. Functional Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stents are widely used not only for palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction but also for benign biliary diseases. Each plastic stent or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has its own advantages, and a proper stent should be selected carefully for individual condition. To compensate and overcome several drawbacks of SEMS, functional self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS) has been developed with much progress so far. This article looks into the outcomes and defects of each stent type for benign biliary stricture and describes newly introduced FSEMSs according to their functional categories. PMID:24143314

  6. Type of Combined Endoscopic Biliary and Gastroduodenal Stenting Is Significant for Biliary Route Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takamitsu; Hara, Kazuo; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Yogi, Tatsuji; Tsutsumi, Hideharu; Fujiyoshi, Toshihisa; Niwa, Yasumasa; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Kubota, Kensuke; Nakajima, Atsushi; Yamao, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction require combined biliary and gastroduodenal stenting (double stenting). However, biliary stent dysfunction can often disturb biliary route maintenance, thus making the optimal biliary stenting for these patients unclear. The present study was designed to assess the factors associated with the long-term maintenance of biliary drainage routes. Methods The clinical features and long-term outcomes were assessed in patients who underwent double stenting. Patients The outcomes were reviewed in 43 consecutive patients who successfully underwent endoscopic double stenting with metallic stents. Results An univariate analysis of all patients with biliary stent dysfunction showed the separate type of double stenting (two stents placed in a non-crossed position) to be the only predictive factor related to successful biliary re-intervention for stent dysfunction (odds ratio 73.67, p=0.001). A comparison of the clinical features in patients who underwent separate and cross (two stents placed in a crossed position) stenting showed the functional success rate to be higher for the separate (93.3%) than for the cross (61.5%) stent type, with the median times to biliary stent dysfunction differing significantly (330 vs. 298 days, respectively; p=0.048). The success rates of re-intervention in patients with separate and cross type stents were 88.9% and 0.0%, respectively (p=0.001), and the initial biliary route maintenance rates were 96.7% and 53.8%, respectively (p=0.002). Conclusion The separate type of double stenting may enhance successful biliary re-intervention for stent dysfunction and also maintain the initial drainage route longer. The biliary drainage outcomes should therefore be considered when choosing the type of double stenting.

  7. Risk and Surveillance of Cancers in Primary Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hrad, Valery; Abebe, Yoftahe; Ali, Syed Haris; Velgersdyk, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary diseases have been associated in several studies with various malignancies. Understanding the risk and optimizing surveillance strategy of these malignancies in this specific subset of patients are an important facet of clinical care. For instance, primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma (which is very challenging to diagnose) and when IBD is present for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis patients with cirrhosis or not responding to 12 months of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review we will discuss in detail the risks and optimal surveillance strategies for patients with primary biliary diseases. PMID:27413366

  8. Association between Helicobacter spp. infections and hepatobiliary malignancies: A review

    PubMed Central

    Segura-López, Fany Karina; Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Torres, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cancers are highly lethal cancers that comprise a spectrum of invasive carcinomas originating in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma, the bile ducts intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the gallbladder and the ampulla of Vater (collectively known as biliary tract cancers). These tumors account for approximately 13% of all annual cancer-related deaths worldwide and for 10%-20% of deaths from hepatobiliary malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease that displays a poor survival rate for which few therapeutic options are available. Population genetics, geographical and environmental factors, cholelithiasis, obesity, parity, and endemic infection with liver flukes have been identified as risk factors that influence the development of biliary tract tumors. Other important factors affecting the carcinogenesis of these tumors include chronic inflammation, obstruction of the bile ducts, and impaired bile flow. It has been suggested that CCA is caused by infection with Helicobacter species, such as Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus, in a manner that is similar to the reported role of Helicobacter pylori in distal gastric cancer. Due to the difficulty in culturing these Helicobacter species, molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, or immunologic assays have become the methods of choice for diagnosis. However, clinical studies of benign or malignant biliary tract diseases revealed remarkable variability in the methods and the findings, and the use of uniform and validated techniques is needed. PMID:25663761

  9. Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease & NASH Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis) Hepatitis ...

  10. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000282.htm Primary biliary cirrhosis To use the sharing features on this page, ... and leads to scarring of the liver called cirrhosis. This is called biliary cirrhosis. Causes The cause ...

  11. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for retrieval of a proximally migrated pancreatic stent.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Donald J; Glaser, Jacob J; Pearl, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic stents placed by ERCP are common in the treatment of benign and malignant pancreatic and biliary disease. Proximal migration of the stent into the duct occurs in 2% to 5% of cases, often resulting in pancreatitis. Although technically challenging, proximally migrated pancreatic stents can usually be removed endoscopically. Little has been written about surgical management of irretrievable stents, and no reports of laparoscopic approaches were found. We report on a case of unsuccessful ERCP retrieval of a proximally migrated pancreatic stent. Using laparoscopy, we exposed the pancreas and used ultrasound to locate the distal end of the stent. We incised the pancreas at that point, removed the stent, and completed the distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Several case series on retrieval of migrated pancreatic stents are reviewed. Although ERCP is often successful and sometimes requires several attempts, we recommend surgical consultation after the first or second failed ERCP.

  12. Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy for Retrieval of a Proximally Migrated Pancreatic Stent

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Jacob J.; Pearl, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pancreatic stents placed by ERCP are common in the treatment of benign and malignant pancreatic and biliary disease. Proximal migration of the stent into the duct occurs in 2% to 5% of cases, often resulting in pancreatitis. Although technically challenging, proximally migrated pancreatic stents can usually be removed endoscopically. Little has been written about surgical management of irretrievable stents, and no reports of laparoscopic approaches were found. Methods: We report on a case of unsuccessful ERCP retrieval of a proximally migrated pancreatic stent. Results: Using laparoscopy, we exposed the pancreas and used ultrasound to locate the distal end of the stent. We incised the pancreas at that point, removed the stent, and completed the distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Discussion: Several case series on retrieval of migrated pancreatic stents are reviewed. Conclusion: Although ERCP is often successful and sometimes requires several attempts, we recommend surgical consultation after the first or second failed ERCP. PMID:22906350

  13. A case of distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with two positive resection margins

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Wayne A.; Ramcharan, Wesley; Harnanan, Dave; Umakanthan, Srikanth; Maharaj, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is an uncommon primary malignancy of the biliary tract that is challenging to diagnose and treat effectively due to its relatively silent and late clinical presentation. The present study reports a case of a 60-year-old male with distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a 3-week history of painless obstructive jaundice symptoms and subjective weight loss. Imaging revealed an obstructing lesion in the common bile duct, just distal to the entrance of the cystic duct. Pathology revealed moderately differentiated cholangiocarcinoma with two positive proximal resection margins. The two positive resection margins presented a challenge during surgery and points to an urgent need for further studies to better illuminate diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with similar clinicopathological presentation. PMID:27895774

  14. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-10-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus.

  15. Common controversies in management of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2017-01-01

    Biliary strictures are caused by a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant conditions, each requiring a specific treatment approach. Management of biliary strictures often involves endoscopy either for definite treatment, as a bridge to surgery or for palliative purposes. Endoscopic treatment of various types of biliary strictures is not standardized and there are multiple areas of controversy regarding the best treatment options. These controversies are mainly due to lack of well-designed comparative studies to support a specific therapy. This paper reviews three common areas of controversy in the endoscopic management of biliary strictures. The areas discussed in this editorial include the role of biliary drainage in resectable malignant strictures and whether such drainage should be performed routinely prior to surgery, the best endoscopic palliation for unresectable hilar strictures and whether unilateral or bilateral stenting should be attempted, and the optimal endoscopic management for dominant strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The goal of this editorial is twofold. The first is to review the current literature on management of the aforementioned strictures and offer recommendations based on available evidence. The second goal is to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which in turn can encourage future research on these topics. PMID:28275292

  16. Diagnostic criteria for congenital biliary dilatation 2015.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshinori; Ando, Hisami; Kamisawa, Terumi; Itoi, Takao; Urushihara, Naoto; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Hideki; Morotomi, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    The Diagnostic Criteria for Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction 2013 were published by the Japanese Study Group on Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction (JSGPM) in 2014. The committee of JSGPM for diagnostic criteria for pancreaticobiliary maljunction has established the standard diameter of the bile duct, and a definition of dilatation of the bile duct was proposed in 2014. The committee of JSGPM prepared the diagnostic criteria for congenital biliary dilatation in 2014, and a final revised version was approved in 2015. Congenital biliary dilatation is defined as a congenital malformation involving both local dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct, including the common bile duct, and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. However, cases associated with intrahepatic bile duct dilatation can also be included. Various kinds of pathological conditions can occur on hepatobiliary systems and pancreas by bile duct dilatation and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. For a diagnosis of congenital biliary dilatation, both abnormal dilatation of the bile duct and pancreaticobiliary maljunction must be evident by either imaging test or anatomical examination. Acquired or secondary dilatation of the bile duct by obstruction due to biliary stones or malignancy should be strictly excluded. Diagnostic criteria for congenital biliary dilatation 2015 were established from Japan representing a world first. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  17. Biliary stent migration presenting with leg pain

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Ryan; Agrawal, Satyanisth; Aoun, Elie; Kulkarni, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    Although the therapeutic benefits of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) usually outweigh the risks, there can be rare complications, including stent migration leading to perforation, intestinal obstruction or penetration. An 87-year-old woman presented with symptomatic choledocholithiasis. Two previous endoscopic attempts at stone removal were unsuccessful. On repeat ERCP at our institution, multiple large stones were removed, but complete duct clearance could not be achieved. A plastic biliary stent was placed with plans to reattempt in 6 weeks. Postoperatively, she had mild back pain radiating into her right leg that gradually worsened to the point where she was unable to ambulate. An abdominal CT scan showed the distal aspect of the biliary stent extending through the wall of the duodenum with the tip positioned within the right psoas muscle. The stent was successfully removed via a rat-toothed forceps. Our case illustrates an extremely rare complication of biliary stent placement. PMID:23162034

  18. Improved classification of indeterminate biliary strictures by probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy using the Paris Criteria following biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Taunk, Pushpak; Singh, Satish; Lichtenstein, David; Joshi, Virendra; Gold, Jason; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-10-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) using the Miami Criteria has improved classification of indeterminate biliary strictures. However, previous biliary stenting may result in their misclassification as malignant strictures. Inflammatory criteria were added to form the Paris Classification to prevent this misclassification and reduce false positives. The aim of this study was to assess if the Paris Classification was more accurate than the Miami Classification in classifying indeterminate biliary strictures after biliary stenting. This was a retrospective observational study involving 21 patients with indeterminate biliary strictures from whom 27 pCLE video sequences were obtained (20 benign and seven malignant). Patients with and without prior biliary stenting underwent pCLE. Two investigators classified the strictures as malignant or benign using the Miami and Paris Classifications. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity (Se), and specificity (Sp) of endoscopic retrograde-guided pCLE were compared with final histopathology. In those without biliary stenting, the Miami Criteria resulted in Se 88%, Sp 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 64%, negative predictive value (NPV) 92%, and accuracy 79%, while the Paris Classification resulted in Se 63%, Sp 88%, PPV 71%, NPV 82%, and accuracy 79%. In those with prior biliary stenting, the Miami Criteria resulted in Se 88%, Sp 36%, PPV 23%, NPV 93%, and accuracy 45%, while the Paris Classification resulted in Se 63%, Sp 73%, PPV 31%, NPV 91%, and accuracy 71%. The kappa statistic was 0.56. The Paris Classification improved specificity and accuracy of biliary stricture classification in those who had been previously stented and decreased the rate of misclassification of benign strictures as malignant. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. An S100P-positive biliary epithelial field is a preinvasive intraepithelial neoplasm in nodular-sclerosing cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Uchida, Tsuneyuki; Sato, Yasunori; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Nodular-sclerosing cholangiocarcinoma (NS-CCA) is a common CCA of the intrahepatic large, perihilar, and distal bile ducts. Intraepithelial biliary neoplasms, such as the mucosal extension of carcinoma and preinvasive neoplastic lesions (ie, biliary intraepithelial neoplasia) reportedly occur in the bile ducts around CCA. In the present study, we collectively refer to these intraepithelial lesions as "intraepithelial neoplasms of the bile duct (IENBs)". We examined the IENBs in 57 surgically resected cases of NS-CCA. S100P immunostaining was used to help detect IENBs. The IENBs formed field(s) of continuous neoplastic biliary epithelial cells and showed a flat, micropapillary, or papillotubular configuration. IENBs could be classified into 3 categories based on their atypia: group A (neoplastic but not enough for malignancy), B (neoplastic and sufficiently well differentiated for high-grade dysplasia), and C (overtly malignant and variably differentiated). IENB was found in 31 of 57 cases, with group C the most common (26 cases) followed by group B (22 cases) and group A (16 cases). The expression of cancer-related molecules and MIB-1 index of groups A and B differed from those of invasive CCA, whereas these features of group C were relatively similar to those of invasive CCA. In conclusion, IENB was not infrequently found in NS-CCA and could be classified into 3 grades. Preinvasive lesions (biliary intraepithelial neoplasias) are likely to be found in groups A and B, whereas cancerization would be included in group C. The classification of IENB may be useful for future studies of the preinvasive intraepithelial neoplastic lesions of NS-CCAs.

  20. TRENDS AND ALTERNATIVES IN TREATMENT OF MALIGNANT TUMORS OF EXTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, V; Dimitrova, V

    2015-01-01

    Neoplasms of extrahepatic bile ducts are rare and represent about 2% of all malignant diseases. Their clinical manifestation is delayed, when they are in advanced stage and the opportunities for radical treatment are limited. The resectability rate of the tumors of the middle and distal part of the bile ducts is higher than the percentage of the neoplasms with perihilar localization. Improved methods for preoperative diagnostic and staging as well as the individualized therapeutic approach, including biliary drainage, use of contemporary surgical techniques and methods, selective embolization of portal vein, partial hepatectomy, resection of caudal lobe, lead to increased rate of radical operations and improved long-term results.

  1. Advanced endoscopic imaging of indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tabibian, James H; Visrodia, Kavel H; Levy, Michael J; Gostout, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures (IDBSs) has evolved considerably since the development of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography pancreatography (ERCP) was introduced nearly a decade later and has since become the mainstay of therapy for relieving obstruction of the biliary tract. However, longstanding methods of ERCP-guided tissue acquisition (i.e., biliary brushings for cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy for histology) have demonstrated disappointing performance characteristics in distinguishing malignant from benign etiologies of IDBSs. The limitations of these methods have thus helped drive the search for novel techniques to enhance the evaluation of IDBSs and thereby improve diagnosis and clinical care. These modalities include, but are not limited to, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography. In this review, we discuss established and emerging options in the evaluation of IDBSs. PMID:26675379

  2. [Biliary atresia in children].

    PubMed

    Famulski, W; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Sulkowski, S; Ostapiuk, H; Kemona, A

    1989-05-01

    Congenital biliary tract atresia was found in 0.58% of children dying in the first year of life. Most frequently atresia included the extrahepatic bile ducts, among them the common bile duct. Five cases (35.7%) had atresia associated with other developmental anomalies, which may suggest a genetic determination of the atresia. The most frequent cause of death of the newborns and infants with congenital biliary tract atresia was bronchopneumonia with associated biliary cirrhosis of the liver.

  3. DISTAL MYOPATHIES

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Over a century ago, Gowers described two young patients in whom distal muscles weakness involved the hand, foot, sternocleidomastoid, and facial muscles in the other case the shoulder and distal leg musculature. Soon after, , similar distal myopathy cases were reported whereby the absence of sensory symptoms and of pathologic changes in the peripheral nerves and spinal cord at postmortem examination allowed differentiation from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In 1951, Welander described autosomal dominant (AD) distal arm myopathy in a large Scandanavian cohort. Since then the number of well-characterized distal myopathies has continued to grow such that the distal myopathies have formed a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Affected kindred commonly manifest weakness that is limited to foot and toe muscles even in advanced stages of the disease, with variable mild proximal leg, distal arm, neck and laryngeal muscle involvement in selected individuals. An interesting consequence of the molecular characterization of the distal myopathies has been the recognition that mutation in a single gene can lead to more than one clinical disorder. For example, Myoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2B are allelic disorders due to defects in the gene that encodes dysferlin. The six well described distal myopathy syndromes are shown in Table 1. Table 2 lists advances in our understanding of the myofibrillar myopathy group and Table 3 includes more recently delineated and less common distal myopathies. In the same manner, the first section of this review pertains to the more traditional six distal myopathies followed by discussion of the myofibrillar myopathies. In the third section, we review other clinically and genetically distinctive distal myopathy syndromes usually based upon single or smaller family cohorts. The fourth section considers other neuromuscular disorders that are important to recognize as they display prominent

  4. Advances in the Management of Biliary Tract Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ciombor, Kristen Keon; Goff, Laura Williams

    2013-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTC), though uncommon, are highly fatal malignancies, and current treatments fail to cure or control the majority of tumors. Given the complexity of the anatomy and often aggressive nature of the disease, multidisciplinary treatment, including palliation, is often required. However, systemic therapy with cytotoxics and/or targeted agents are routinely the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced biliary tract cancers, and new targets and agents provide hope for this disease. This article focuses on recent advances in the management of biliary tract cancers, with a special focus on the molecular basis for current therapeutic investigation in this disease. PMID:23416860

  5. The role of sonography in imaging of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Foley, W Dennis; Quiroz, Francisco A

    2007-06-01

    Sonography is the recommended initial imaging test in the evaluation of patients presenting with right upper quadrant pain or jaundice. Dependent upon clinical circumstances, the differential diagnosis includes choledocholithiasis, biliary stricture, or tumor. Sonography is very sensitive in detection of mechanical biliary obstruction and stone disease, although less sensitive for detection of obstructing tumors, including pancreatic carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. In patients with sonographically documented cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy with operative clearance of the biliary stone disease is usually performed. In patients with clinically suspected biliary stone disease, without initial sonographic documentation of choledocholithiasis, endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is the next logical imaging step. Endoscopic ultrasound documentation of choledocholithiasis in a postcholecystectomy patient should lead to retrograde cholangiography, sphincterotomy, and clearance of the ductal calculi by endoscopic catheter techniques. In patients with clinical and sonographic findings suggestive of malignant biliary obstruction, a multipass contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination to detect and stage possible pancreatic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, or periductal neoplasm is usually recommended. Assessment of tumor resectability and staging can be performed by CT or a combination of CT and endoscopic ultrasound, the latter often combined with fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspected periductal tumor. In patients whose CT scan suggests hepatic hilar or central intrahepatic biliary tumor, percutaneous cholangiography and transhepatic biliary stent placement is usually followed by brushing or fluoroscopically directed fine needle aspiration biopsy for tissue diagnosis. Sonography is the imaging procedure of choice for biliary tract intervention, including cholecystostomy, guidance for

  6. Prevention of biliary leakage after partial liver resection using topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Deha; Busch, Olivier R C; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Liver resection is widely accepted as the only potentially curative treatment in malignant or benign hepatobiliary lesions. Although not frequent, biliary leakage is a postoperative complication which may have considerable consequences. The field of topical hemostatic agents is rapidly developing, with various products currently available. This article reviews the risk factors associated with biliary leakage and the methods used for testing or prevention of biliary leakage. A literature search was performed using key words related to experimental and clinical studies dealing with biliary leakage. Experimental studies assessed the potential bilio-static effect of different topical hemostatic agents after bile duct reconstruction. Clinical series show biliary leakage rates up to 12%. There is no evidence that flushing of the bile duct system after resection reduces the incidence of biliary leakage. Further controlled studies are needed to clarify the preventive effect of topical hemostatic agents on biliary leakage after liver resection.

  7. Management of iatrogenic porto-biliary fistula following biliary stent.

    PubMed

    Chaitowitz, I M; Heng, R; Bell, K W

    2007-12-01

    We describe a case of cystic pancreatic disease causing biliary obstruction requiring percutaneous biliary stenting. The patient subsequently re-presented with severe melaena shown to be due to a rare complication of biliary stenting with development of a porto-biliary fistula from stent erosion, successfully managed with a 'stent-within-stent'.

  8. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-16

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  9. Elective use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-flow nasal oxygen for resection of subtotal malignant distal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Fung, Rkf; Stellios, J; Bannon, P G; Ananda, A; Forrest, P

    2017-01-01

    We describe the use of peripheral veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) and high-flow nasal oxygen as procedural support in a patient undergoing debulking of a malignant tumour of the lower airway. Due to the significant risk of complete airway obstruction upon induction of anaesthesia, ECMO was established while the patient was awake, and was maintained without systemic anticoagulation to minimise the risk of intraoperative bleeding. This case illustrates that ECMO support with high-flow nasal oxygen can be considered as part of the algorithm for airway management during surgery for subtotal lower airway obstruction, as it may be the only viable option for maintaining adequate gas exchange.

  10. Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stones: A Population-based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chang, Shih-Chen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Danforth, Kim N.; Althuis, Michelle D.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are rare, but highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the predominant risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. As part of a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we examined the associations of serum lipid levels with biliary stones and cancers. We included 460 biliary cancer cases (264 gallbladder, 141 extrahepatic bile duct, and 55 ampulla of Vater), 981 biliary stone cases, and 858 healthy individuals randomly selected from the population. Participants completed an in-person interview and gave overnight fasting blood samples. Participants in the highest quintile of triglycerides (≥ 160 mg/dl) had a 1.4-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=1.1-1.9), a 1.9-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=1.3-2.8), and a 4.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=2.8-8.1), compared to the reference group (third quintile: 90-124 mg/dl). Participants in the lowest quintile of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 30 mg/dl) had a 4.2-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=3.0-6.0), an 11.6-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=7.3-18.5), and a 16.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=9.1-30.9), relative to the reference group (third quintile: 40-49 mg/dl). In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein A (apo A) were inversely associated with biliary stones; whereas low levels as well as high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, apo A, and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were associated with excess risks of biliary tract cancers. Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis. PMID:18076041

  11. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  12. Cell lineage tracing reveals a biliary origin of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Rachel V; Boulter, Luke; Kendall, Timothy J; Minnis-Lyons, Sarah E; Walker, Robert; Wigmore, Stephen J; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a treatment refractory malignancy with a high mortality and an increasing incidence worldwide. Recent studies have observed that activation of Notch and AKT signalling within mature hepatocytes is able to induce the formation of tumours displaying biliary lineage markers, thereby raising the suggestion that it is hepatocytes, rather than cholangiocytes or hepatic progenitor cells that represent the cell of origin of this tumour. Here we utilise a cholangiocyte-lineage tracing system to target p53 loss to biliary epithelia and observe the appearance of labelled biliary lineage tumours in response to chronic injury. Consequent to this, up-regulation of native functional Notch signalling is observed to occur spontaneously within cholangiocytes and hepatocytes in this model as well as in human ICC. These data prove that in the context of chronic inflammation and p53 loss, frequent occurrences in human disease, biliary epithelia are a target of transformation and an origin of ICC. PMID:24310400

  13. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Gallbladder and Biliary Tract ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  14. Novel endoscopic approaches in the diagnosis and management of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Margaret G.; Marlow, Neale J.

    2013-01-01

    Indeterminate bilary strictures present the clinician with a wide differential diagnosis. Histological confirmation is usually required for treatment, but tissue acquisition remains challenging. Novel developments in endoscopic technology, such as single operator cholangioscopy and confocal endomicroscopy, have led to improvements in diagnostic accuracy in recent years. In patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction, effective biliary decompression improves symptoms and enables patients to undergo palliative therapies. Improvements in endoscopic techniques, biliary stents and the development of local ablative techniques have led to further improvements in stent patency and survival in these patients. In this article, we review emerging diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for the endoscopic management of indeterminate biliary strictures. PMID:24049642

  15. Primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carey, Elizabeth J; Ali, Ahmad H; Lindor, Keith D

    2015-10-17

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterised by destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and potential cirrhosis through resulting complications. The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis is the antimitochondrial antibody, a highly disease-specific antibody identified in about 95% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. These patients usually have fatigue and pruritus, both of which occur independently of disease severity. The typical course of primary biliary cirrhosis has changed substantially with the introduöction of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Several randomised placebo-controlled studies have shown that UDCA improves transplant-free survival in primary biliary cirrhosis. However, about 40% of patients do not have a biochemical response to UDCA and would benefit from new therapies. Liver transplantation is a life-saving surgery with excellent outcomes for those with decompensated cirrhosis. Meanwhile, research on nuclear receptor hormones has led to the development of exciting new potential treatments. This Seminar will review the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis, discuss management of the disease and its sequelae, and introduce research on new therapeutic options.

  16. Drug eluting biliary stents to decrease stent failure rates: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shatzel, Joseph; Kim, Jisoo; Sampath, Kartik; Syed, Sharjeel; Saad, Jennifer; Hussain, Zilla H; Mody, Kabir; Pipas, J Marc; Gordon, Stuart; Gardner, Timothy; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    Biliary stenting is clinically effective in relieving both malignant and non-malignant obstructions. However, there are high failure rates associated with tumor ingrowth and epithelial overgrowth as well as internally from biofilm development and subsequent clogging. Within the last decade, the use of prophylactic drug eluting stents as a means to reduce stent failure has been investigated. In this review we provide an overview of the current research on drug eluting biliary stents. While there is limited human trial data regarding the clinical benefit of drug eluting biliary stents in preventing stent obstruction, recent research suggests promise regarding their safety and potential efficacy. PMID:26839648

  17. A novel biliary stent coated with silver nanoparticles prolongs the unobstructed period and survival via anti-bacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fuchun; Ren, Zhigang; Chai, Qinming; Cui, Guangying; Jiang, Li; Chen, Hanjian; Feng, Zhiying; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Jian; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic biliary stricture causes life-threatening complications, such as jaundice, recurrent cholangitis and secondary biliary cirrhosis. Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) are gaining acceptance for treatments of benign biliary stricture and palliative management of malignant biliary obstructions. However, the high rate of FCSEMS obstruction limits their clinic use. In this study, we developed a novel biliary stent coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and investigated its efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. We first identified properties of the AgNP complex using ultraviolet detection. The AgNP complex was stable without AgNP agglomeration, and Ag abundance was correspondingly increased with an increased bilayer number. The AgNP biliary stent demonstrated good performance in the spin-assembly method based on topographic observation. The AgNP biliary stent also exhibited a long-term anti-coagulation effect and a slow process of Ag+ release. In vitro anti-bacteria experiments indicated that the AgNP biliary stent exhibited high-efficiency anti-bacterial activity for both short- and long-term periods. Importantly, application of the AgNP biliary stent significantly prolonged the unobstructed period of the biliary system and improved survival in preclinical studies as a result of its anti-microbial activity and decreased granular tissue formation on the surface of the anastomotic biliary, providing a novel and effective treatment strategy for symptomatic biliary strictures. PMID:26883081

  18. Choledocholithiasis in anomalous biliary system.

    PubMed

    Leung, L C; Wong, C Y; Wong, C M; Cheung, K K

    1996-06-01

    Although congenital biliary abnormalities are common, preduodenal portal vein is very rare, not to mention preduodenal common bile duct (CBD) which has not been described before in the literature. A case with both anomalies complicated by biliary tract stones is reported. A brief review of embryonic development is also presented to explain the unusual biliary anatomy of this patient.

  19. Early biliary complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Malgras, Brice; Duron, Sandrine; Gaujoux, Sébastien; Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Rebours, Vinciane; Palazzo, Maxime; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background Early biliary complications (EBC) following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are poorly known. This study aimed to assess incidence, predictive factors, and treatment of EBC including bilio-enteric stricture, transient jaundice, biliary leak, and cholangitis. Method From 2007 to 2011, 352 patients underwent PD. Statistical analysis including logistic regression was performed to determine EBC predictive factors. Results 49 patients (14%) developed 51 EBC, including 7(2%) bilio-enteric strictures, 15(4%) transient jaundices, 9(3%) biliary leaks, and 20(6%) cholangitis with no mortality and a 18% reoperation rate. In multivariate analysis, male gender, benign disease, malignancy with preoperative chemoradiation, and common bile duct (CBD) diameter ≤5 mm were predictive of EBC. Of the 7 strictures, all were associated with CBD ≤5 mm and 5(71%) required reoperation. Transient jaundice resolved spontaneously in all 15 cases. Among 8 patients with serum bilirubin level >50 μmol/L (3 mg/dL) at POD3, 7(88%) developed bilio-enteric stricture. Biliary leak resolved spontaneously in 5(56%); otherwise, it required reoperation. Cholangitis recurred after antibiotics discontinuation in 5(25%). Conclusions EBC following PD do not increase mortality. EBC are more frequent with male gender, benign disease, malignancy with preoperative chemoradiation, and CBD ≤5 mm. Transient jaundice or cholangitis has a favorable outcome, whereas bilio-enteric stricture or biliary leak can require reintervention. PMID:27037207

  20. Biliary stenting: indications, choice of stents and results: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) clinical guideline.

    PubMed

    Dumonceau, J-M; Tringali, A; Blero, D; Devière, J; Laugiers, R; Heresbach, D; Costamagna, G

    2012-03-01

    This article is part of a combined publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy about endoscopic biliary stenting. The present Clinical Guideline describes short-term and long-term results of biliary stenting depending on indications and stent models; it makes recommendations on when, how, and with which stent to perform biliary drainage in most common clinical settings, including in patients with a potentially resectable malignant biliary obstruction and in those who require palliative drainage of common bile duct or hilar strictures. Treatment of benign conditions (strictures related to chronic pancreatitis, liver transplantation, or cholecystectomy, and leaks and failed biliary stone extraction) and management of complications (including stent revision) are also discussed. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. A separate Technology Review describes the models of biliary stents available and the stenting techniques, including advanced techniques such as insertion of multiple plastic stents, drainage of hilar strictures, retrieval of migrated stents and combined stenting in malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions.The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes digestive endoscopists, gastroenterologists, oncologists, radiologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technology Review should be most useful to endoscopists who perform biliary drainage.

  1. Biliary metastasis in colorectal cancer confers a poor prognosis: case study of 5 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Frederick Hong-Xiang; Shi, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The biliary duct is an extremely rare site for colon cancer metastasis. It often leads to a diagnostic dilemma, since primary cholangiocarcinoma (potentially treatable with surgery) has a similar presentation. This paper highlights our experience with 5 consecutive patients who had colon malignancy with biliary metastasis, and prognosis of their disease. Five patients, with a history of primary colon cancer since 2010, were identified to have biliary metastasis. Of these, 4 (80.0%) patients were male. The median time to diagnosis of biliary metastasis from diagnosis of colon cancer was 59.2 months (0-70.1 months), and all exhibited symptoms of biliary obstruction or its associated complications. Evaluation of the tumour samples revealed all specimens to be negative for CK7 but positive for CK20, suggestive of a colorectal primary. The median survival of the 5 patients was 23.5 months (1.8-44.5 months) from the diagnosis of biliary metastasis. However, none of their death was related to the direct complication of biliary obstruction. Biliary metastasis is a rare entity for metastatic colon malignancy. Diagnosis may be difficult radiologically, and immunohistochemical staining may help in identification. The overall survival for these patients is dismal. PMID:28317047

  2. International multicenter comparative trial of transluminal EUS-guided biliary drainage via hepatogastrostomy vs. choledochoduodenostomy approaches

    PubMed Central

    Khashab, Mouen A.; Messallam, Ahmed A.; Penas, Irene; Nakai, Yousuke; Modayil, Rani J.; De la Serna, Carlos; Hara, Kazuo; El Zein, Mohamad; Stavropoulos, Stavros N.; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Kumbhari, Vivek; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Dhir, Vinay K.; Park, Do Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) can be performed entirely transgastrically (hepatogastrostomy/EUS-HG) or transduodenally (choledochoduodenostomy/EUS-CDS). It is unknown how both techniques compare. The aims of this study were to compare efficacy and safety of both techniques and identify predictors of adverse events. Patients and methods: Consecutive jaundiced patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction who underwent EUS-BD at multiple international centers were included. Technical/clinical success, adverse events, stent complications, and survival were assessed. Results: A total of 121 patients underwent EUS-BD (CDS 60, HG 61). Technical success was achieved in 112 (92.56 %) patients (EUS-CDS 93.3 %, EUS-HG 91.8 %, P = 0.75). Clinical success was attained in 85.5 % of patients who underwent EUS-CDS group as compared to 82.1 % of patients who underwent EUS-HG (P = 0.64). Adverse events occurred more commonly in the EUS-HG group (19.67 % vs. 13.3 %, P = 0.37). Both plastic stenting (OR 4.95, 95 %CI 1.41 – 17.38, P = 0.01) and use of non-coaxial electrocautery (OR 3.95, 95 %CI 1.16 – 13.40, P = 0.03) were independently associated with adverse events. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the CDS group (5.6 days vs. 12.7 days, P < 0.001). Mean follow-up duration was 151 ± 159 days. The 1-year stent patency probability was greater in the EUS-CDS group [0.98 (95 %CI 0.76 – 0.96) vs 0.60 (95 %CI 0.35 – 0.78)] but overall patency was not significantly different. There was no difference in median survival times between the groups (P = 0.36) Conclusions: Both EUS-CDS and EUS-HG are effective and safe techniques for the treatment of distal biliary obstruction after failed ERCP. However, CDS is associated with shorter hospital stay, improved stent patency, and fewer procedure- and stent-related complications. Metallic stents

  3. Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2006-12-15

    A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

  4. Endoscopic Stents for the Biliary Tree and Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthi, Rajesh; Jayaraj, Mahendran; Kozarek, Richard

    2017-07-20

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recently published literature on biliary and pancreatic stents. Covered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are increasingly being used in the endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures. Given the costs associated with SEMS, plastic stents are still the most commonly used stents. In this setting, SEMS are preferred over plastic stents for palliation of malignant biliary strictures due to superior patency and have a role in preoperative management of malignant biliary strictures. While plastic stents are predominantly used for management of pancreatic strictures, newer endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided lumen-apposing SEMS have been increasingly used in management of pancreatic fluid collections. EUS-guided SEMS also enable safe transmural drainage of gall bladder and bile ducts in benign and malignant conditions. Endoscopic management is the first line treatment for multiple pancreatobiliary disorders. EUS-guided interventions have widened the scope of endoscopic management and decreased the need for surgical intervention. Further studies are needed to determine the safety and cost effectiveness of SEMS in benign pancreatic disorders.

  5. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Lehman, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs]) have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations. PMID:27000422

  6. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and personality change. An increased risk of other disease. In addition to bile duct and liver damage, people with primary biliary cirrhosis are likely to have other metabolic or immune system disorders, including thyroid problems, limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome) and rheumatoid arthritis. ...

  7. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of liver cancer every 6 to 12 months. Health care providers use blood tests, ultrasound, or both to check for signs of ... make the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. A health care provider uses the test selectively when he or she is concerned that ...

  8. Biliary obstruction - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100199.htm Biliary obstruction - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary access versus precut papillotomy in patients with failed biliary cannulation: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alexander; Aditi, Anupam; Bhat, Yasser M; Binmoeller, Kenneth F; Hamerski, Chris; Sendino, Oriol; Kane, Steve; Cello, John P; Day, Lukejohn W; Mohamadnejad, Medi; Muthusamy, V Raman; Watson, Rabindra; Klapman, Jason B; Komanduri, Sri; Wani, Sachin; Shah, Janak N

    2017-02-01

    Background and aims Precut papillotomy is widely used after failed biliary cannulation. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary access techniques are newer methods to facilitate access and therapy in failed cannulation. We evaluated the impact of EUS-guided biliary access on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) success and compared these techniques to precut papillotomy. Patients and methods We retrospectively compared two ERCP cohorts. One cohort consisted of biliary ERCPs (n = 1053) attempted in patients with native papillae and surgically unaltered anatomy in whom precut papillotomy and/or EUS-guided biliary access were routinely performed immediately after failed cannulation. This cohort was compared with a similar ERCP cohort (n = 1062) in which only precut papillotomy was available for failed cannulation. The following outcomes were compared: conventional cannulation success, rates of attempted advanced access techniques (precut or EUS), precut success, EUS-guided biliary access success, and ERCP failure rates. Results Although conventional cannulation success, rates of attempted advanced access technique (precut or EUS), and precut success were similar, the ERCP failure rate was lower when both EUS-guided biliary access and precut were available (1.0 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.4 - 1.6]), compared with when only precut was possible for failed access (3.6 % [95 %CI 2.5 - 4.7]; P < 0.001). Success for EUS-guided biliary access (95.1 % [95 %CI 89.7 - 100]) was significantly higher than for precut (75.3 % [95 %CI 68.2 - 82.4]; P < 0.001), and mainly due to superiority in malignant obstruction (93.5 % vs. 64 %; P < 0.001). Conclusions EUS-guided biliary access decreases the rate of therapeutic biliary ERCP failure. Our results support the use of EUS-guided biliary access to optimize single-session ERCP success. In experienced hands, these techniques appear as effective, if

  10. Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Rendezvous Drainage of Biliary Obstruction Using a New Flexible 19-Gauge Fine Needle Aspiration Needle

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhouwen; Igbinomwanhia, Efehi; Elhanafi, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. A successful endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) biliary drainage is dependent on accurate puncture of the bile duct and precise guide wire manipulation across the ampulla of Vater. We aim to study the feasibility of using a flexible 19-gauge fine aspiration needle in the performance of EUS-RV biliary drainage. Method. This is a retrospective case series of EUS-RV biliary drainage procedures at a single center. Patients who failed ERCP during the same session for benign or malignant biliary obstruction underwent EUS-RV using a flexible, nitinol covered, 19-gauge needle for biliary access and guide wire manipulation. Result. 24 patients underwent EUS-RV biliary drainage via extrahepatic access while 1 attempt was via intrahepatic access. The technical success rate was 80%, including 83.3% of cases via extrahepatic access. There was no significant difference in success rate of inpatient and outpatient procedures, benign or malignant indications, or type of guide wire used. Adverse events included mild pancreatitis (3 patients) and cholangitis (1 patient). Conclusion. A flexible 19-gauge needle for biliary access can be safe and effective when used to perform EUS-RV biliary drainage. Direct comparison between the nitinol needle and conventional metal needles in the performance of EUS guided biliary drainage is needed. PMID:27822005

  11. External biliary fistula.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K

    2001-01-01

    A biliary fistula is almost invariably related to gallstone disease and commonly follows a hurried cholecystectomy by an inexperienced surgeon. This catastrophy which is largely preventable, often necessitates repeated surgical intervention and accrues an estimated 5-year mortality rate approaching 30%. Published series only show a slight increase in the incidence (one per 150-200) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The injury results from imprecise dissection and inadequate demonstration of the anatomical structures. The diagnosis is usually obvious and persistent tachycardia and hypotension inspite of an adequate intravenous infusion and a normal central venous pressure is another well known indicator of subhepatic collection of bile, which indicates an urgent ultrasonographic scanning of the upper abodmen. ERCP is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool when the continuity of the extra-hepatic biliary system has not been disrupted. An endobiliary stent can be placed across the defect in the same sitting, to tide over the immediate crisis and perhaps treat the patient on a permanent basis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive technique of outlining both the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree, which can provide a better road map of the fistula than an ERCP. The management has to be tailored to the patient's condition and the expertise available. A bilio-enteric anastomosis, performed 4 to 6 months after the initial surgery on a dilated common hepatic duct is more likely to succeed than an operation on a septic, hypoproteinemic patient with sodden, friable, non-dilated bile ducts. On the other hand, waiting for the ducts to dilate in a patient with a complete transection of the bile ducts with complete biliary diversion only leads to depletion of the bile acid pool, severe electrolyte derangement and nutritional failure, leading on to sepsis and death.

  12. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case with biliary microhamartomas.

    PubMed

    Dilli, Alper; Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Yüksel, Ilhami; Damar, Cagrı; Ayaz, Sevin; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2012-01-01

    Biliary microhamartomas, also known as bile duct hamartomas and von Meyenburg complexes, are benign neoplasms containing cystic dilated bile ducts embedded in fibrous stroma. They develop in hepatobiliary system, do not generally give clinical outcomes, and are detected incidentally. However, they can rarely show malignant transformation. Our aim was to report the contribution of computed tomography, routine magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of biliary microhamartomas in a 61-year-old woman.

  13. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in a Case with Biliary Microhamartomas

    PubMed Central

    Dilli, Alper; Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Yüksel, Ilhami; Damar, Cagrı; Ayaz, Sevin; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2012-01-01

    Biliary microhamartomas, also known as bile duct hamartomas and von Meyenburg complexes, are benign neoplasms containing cystic dilated bile ducts embedded in fibrous stroma. They develop in hepatobiliary system, do not generally give clinical outcomes, and are detected incidentally. However, they can rarely show malignant transformation. Our aim was to report the contribution of computed tomography, routine magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of biliary microhamartomas in a 61-year-old woman. PMID:22431945

  14. Sclerosing Cholangitis and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis—a Disease Spectrum?

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Henry J.; Gewirtz, Harold; Schiller, Juan; Longmire, William P.

    1977-01-01

    Sclerosing diseases of the biliary system encompass a spectrum ranging from primary sclerosing cholangitis (usually of the extrahepatic biliary tree) to primary biliary cirrhosis of the intrahepatic bile canaliculi. In a study of 35 patients with primary intra- and extrahepatic biliary sclerosis, age of onset, sex distribution, symptomatology, associated diseases, radiographic abnormalities and chemical profile were considered. The difficulty of differentiating sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis from other causes of obstructive jaundice preoperatively was stressed, in addition to points of differential clinical and laboratory findings. The etiology of these entities as well as the possibility that they represent variant clinical manifestations of the same disease process were also considered. Mechanical and pharmacological treatment alternatives that were attempted included drainage procedures, the easiest and most widely used of which was the T-tube. However, this could prove to be a source of infection and should therefore be removed early, inasmuch as cholangitis represents a major cause of morbidity. Steroids have been used with varying effectiveness; subjective improvement was generally attained, although objective improvement has been difficult to document. When choleuretics and cholestyramine were administered, we noted significant palliation. Antibiotics were reserved for treatment of cholangitis. Until the underlying etiology of this rare malignant sclerosing process is found, only symptomatic treatment can be offered. PMID:921353

  15. Biliary tract perforation following percutaneous endobiliary radiofrequency ablation: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, CHUANGUO; WEI, BAOJIE; GAO, KUN; ZHAI, RENYOU

    2016-01-01

    Endobiliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has recently been recognized as a beneficial treatment option for malignant biliary obstruction using percutaneous or endoscopic approaches. The feasibility and safety of this method has been demonstrated in clinical studies, with pain, cholangitis and asymptomatic biochemical pancreatitis reported as relatively common complications. By contrast, hepatic coma, newly diagnosed left bundle branch block and partial liver infarction have been reported as uncommon complications. Biliary tract perforation is a serious potential complication of percutaneous intraductal RFA, which may result in severe infection, peritonitis or even mortality, and which has not been previously reported in clinical research. The current study presents the first reports of biliary tract perforation in two patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction following percutaneous intraductal RFA. Although the patient in case 1 succumbed 12 days after RFA, the minor biliary tract perforation in case 2 was successfully treated by the deployment of a self-expanding metal stent. This study demonstrates that biliary tract perforation should be recognized as a serious potential complication of endobiliary RFA, and that metal stent deployment should be considered as a treatment option for minor biliary tract perforation. PMID:27313699

  16. Role of biliary tract cytology in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity. PMID:24130407

  17. Use of articulated catheters in the treatment of biliary strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Soulen, Michael C.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin

    1997-05-15

    We have used a single articulated catheter to obviate the need for multiple catheters in patients with complex biliary strictures or strictures associated with small or immature tracts. Two- and three-arm articulated drains (8-14 Fr) made from segments of biliary catheters were placed in 16 patients. Nine were placed transhepatically, 6 transperitoneally through existing T-tube tracts, and 1 through a cystic duct fistula. Six malignant and 10 benign strictures were stented with various catheter configurations through a single tract. Fifteen patients had two catheter components with one articulation and 1 patient had three catheter components with two articulations. The average duration of catheter drainage was 7.0 {+-} 4.2 months. Routine catheter exchanges were performed; two spontaneous occlusions occurred. In patients where internal stenting may be difficult or undesirable, articulated catheters allow satisfactory external and internal drainage of complex benign and malignant strictures through a single tract, avoiding the need for multiple transhepatic catheters.

  18. Direct cholangiography and biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Burcharth, F; Kruse, A

    1996-01-01

    Direct cholangiography by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography has greatly improved diagnostic work-up of patients with known or suspected biliary obstruction. These diagnostic procedures were introduced in Denmark in the early 1970s, and technical refinements and clinical research of the methods were initiated. The Danish contribution led to definition of indications for direct cholangiography and general acceptance of the methods in daily clinical practice; nationally as well as internationally. The transhepatic cholangiography with selective catheterization of the biliary ducts permitted external drainage of obstructed ducts. The disadvantages of this technique inspired the innovation of internal biliary drainage and the invention of the biliary endoprosthesis. The endoscopic approach to the biliary tract and the technical improvements of accessory instruments led to the early introduction of therapeutic procedures, i.e. papillotomy, stone removal, biliary drainage and treatment of strictures and post-traumatic lesions. Experimental and clinical research with endoprostheses improved their function and prevented dislodgment. Clinical research documented that biliary drainage by endoprosthesis is a valuable alternative to surgical bypass in patients with inoperable biliary obstructions. Endoscopic therapeutic procedures for common bile duct stones have almost replaced conventional surgical treatment. Endoluminal imaging techniques are under evaluation and may contribute to future improvements.

  19. Usefulness and safety of biliary percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy (PTFB): our experience.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Mangini, Monica; Fontana, Federico; Floridi, Chiara; De Marchi, Giuseppe; Petrillo, Mario; Capasso, Raffaella; Chini, Claudio; Cocozza, Eugenio; Cuffari, Salvatore; Segato, Sergio; Rotondo, Antonio; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and safety of percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy in patients suspected of having a malignant biliary obstruction. Forty consecutive patients (21 men and 19 women; mean age, 71.9 years) underwent forceps biopsy through percutaneous transhepatic biliary access performed to drain bile. Lesions involved the common bile duct (n 8), common hepatic duct (n 18), hilum (n 6), ampullary segment of the common bile duct (n 8) and were biopsied with 7-F biopsy forceps. Final diagnosis was confirmed with pathologic findings at surgery, or clinical and radiologic follow-up. Twenty-one of 40 biopsies resulted in correct diagnosis of malignancy. Thirteen biopsy diagnosis were proved to be true-negative. There were six false-negative and no false-positive diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in aspecific biliary obstructions were 85%, 100% and 88,7% respectively. Sensitivity of biopsy in malignancies was higher than in benign obstructions (100% vs 68,4%, CI = 95%). Sensitivity was lower in the hilum tract and in the common bile duct than in other sites (CI = 95%). No major complications related to biopsy procedures occurred. Percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy is a safe procedure, easy to perform through a transhepatic biliary drainage tract, providing high accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant biliary obstructions.

  20. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis as a Premalignant Biliary Tract Disease: Surveillance and Management.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sumera; Eaton, John E; Gores, Gregory J

    2015-11-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a premalignant biliary tract disease that confers a significant risk for the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The chronic biliary tract inflammation of PSC promotes pro-oncogenic processes such as cellular proliferation, induction of DNA damage, alterations of the extracellular matrix, and cholestasis. The diagnosis of malignancy in PSC can be challenging because inflammation-related changes in PSC may produce dominant biliary tract strictures mimicking CCA. Biomarkers such as detection of methylated genes in biliary specimens represent noninvasive techniques that may discriminate malignant biliary ductal changes from PSC strictures. However, conventional cytology and advanced cytologic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization for polysomy remain the practice standard for diagnosing CCA in PSC. Curative treatment options of malignancy arising in PSC are limited. For a subset of patients selected by using stringent criteria, liver transplantation after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is a potential curative therapy. However, most patients have advanced malignancy at the time of diagnosis. Advances directed at identifying high-risk patients, early cancer detection, and development of chemopreventive strategies will be essential to better manage the cancer risk in this premalignant disease. A better understanding of dysplasia definition and especially its natural history is also needed in this disease. Herein, we review recent developments in our understanding of the risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms of PSC associated with CCA, as well as advances in early detection and therapies. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biliary atresia in lampreys.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H

    1993-01-01

    The preceding pages have described an organism that is far removed from mammals on the taxonomic scale of vertebrates but one that has proven to have a unique and most useful system for studies of liver function and, in particular, bile product transport and excretion. It is also an organism in which iron loading can be studied in the liver and other organs and tissues. Many of the events that occur in this animal during its life cycle with regard to bile pigment metabolism as normal programmed phenomena are unparalleled among the vertebrates. In the larval (ammocoete) period of lampreys, there is an intrahepatic gallbladder and a biliary tree that is well equipped for the storage, transport, and elimination of bile products into the intestine for ultimate excretion with the feces. The importance of the patency of these bile ducts to bile excretion is illustrated in one species of lampreys in which the bile ducts of young ammocoetes become infested with larval nematodes to a degree that bile pigment regurgitation into the blood results in a green serum that is identified as biliverdin. Despite having serum levels of biliverdin that would be toxic to humans, these individuals live a complete larval life. The larvae of all lamprey species undergo a phase of metamorphosis in which they transform into adults. During this phase the larval gallbladder, the bile canaliculi of the hepatocytes, and all the intrahepatic bile ducts completely regress in a developmental process called lamprey biliary atresia. The epithelium of the extrahepatic common bile duct transforms and expands into a caudal portion of the endocrine pancreas of the adult. Many of the events of lamprey biliary atresia resemble events occurring during experimental and pathological conditions of mammalian cholestasis, including disruption to the bile-blood barrier (intercellular junctions), accumulation of bile components in the cytoplasmic inclusions, and alteration of the distribution of membrane enzymes

  2. Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator

    SciTech Connect

    Rerknimitr, Rungsun Naprasert, Pisit; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2007-06-15

    Background. Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative method to solve this problem. Methods. Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in another patient with esophageal Ultraflex stent migration. The power setting was 60-100 watts with an argon flow of 0.8 l/min. Observations. The procedure was successfully performed and all distal parts of the stents were removed. No significant collateral damage to the nearby mucosa was observed. Conclusions. In a patient with a distally migrated metallic stent, trimming of the stent is possible by means of an APC. This new method may be applicable to other sites of metallic stent migration.

  3. A comparative evaluation of early stent occlusion among biliary conventional versus wing stents.

    PubMed

    Khashab, Mouen A; Hutfless, Susan; Kim, Katherine; Lennon, Anne Marie; Canto, Marcia I; Jagannath, Sanjay B; Okolo, Patrick I; Shin, Eun Ji; Singh, Vikesh K

    2012-06-01

    Conventional plastic stents with a lumen typically have limited patency. The lumenless wing stent was engineered to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of early stent occlusion (symptomatic occlusion/cholangitis necessitating re-insertion within 90 days) for wing stents and conventional plastic stents. Patients with biliary pathology treated with plastic biliary stenting during the period 2003-2009 comprised the study cohort. Patients who had at least one biliary wing stent placed comprised the wing stent group, whereas patients who underwent only conventional stent plastic placement comprised the conventional stent group. Patients were stratified by indication: benign biliary strictures (group 1), malignant biliary strictures (group 2), or benign biliary non-stricture pathology (group 3). The association of stent type with the occurrence of primary outcome by indication was analyzed by use of multivariable logistic regression. Three-hundred and forty-six patients underwent 612 ERCP procedures with placement of plastic biliary stent(s). On multivariate analysis, early stent occlusion did not differ between the wing and conventional groups in groups 1, 2, and 3. Among patients who achieved primary outcome in group 2, significantly fewer patients in the wing group had cholangitis (6.7% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.03). Among patients who achieved primary outcome in group 3, significantly fewer patients in the wing group had cholangitis (10% vs. 50%, P = 0.03). Early stent occlusion was similar for wing stents and conventional plastic stents. Wing stents, however, were associated with a lower incidence of cholangitis in patients with malignant biliary obstruction and benign non-stricturing biliary pathology.

  4. Role of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with complications after gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Han; Lee, Ho Byoung; Kim, Sung Heun; Kim, Min Chan; Jung, Ghap Joong

    2015-05-29

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of PTBD in patients with DSL and ALS post-gastrectomy for malignancy or benign ulcer perforation. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is an interventional radiologic procedure used to promote bile drainage. Duodenal stump leakage (DSL) and afferent loop syndrome (ALS) can be serious complications after gastrectomy. From January 2002 through December 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 19 patients who underwent PTBD secondary to DSL and ALS post-gastrectomy. In this study, a PTBD tube was placed in the proximal duodenum near the stump or distal duodenum in order to decompress and drain bile and pancreatic fluids. Nine patients with DSL and 10 patients with ALS underwent PTBD. The mean hospital stay was 34.3 days (range, 12-71) in DSL group and 16.4 days (range, 6-48) in ALS group after PTBD. A liquid or soft diet was started within 2.6 days (range, 1-7) in the ALS group and within 3.4 days (range, 0-15) in the DSL group after PTBD. One patient with DSL had PTBD changed, and 2 patients with ALS underwent additional surgical interventions after PTBD. The PTBD procedure, during which the tube was inserted into the duodenum, was well-suited for decompression of the duodenum as well as for drainage of bile and pancreatic fluids. This procedure can be an alternative treatment for cases of DSL and ALS post-gastrectomy.

  5. Robotic distal pancreatectomy: a valid option?

    PubMed

    Jung, M K; Buchs, N C; Azagury, D E; Hagen, M E; Morel, P

    2013-10-01

    Although reported in the literature, conventional laparoscopic approach for distal pancreatectomy is still lacking widespread acceptance. This might be due to two-dimensional vision and decreased range of motion to reach and safely dissect this highly vascularized retroperitoneal organ by laparoscopy. However, interest in minimally invasive access is growing ever since and the robotic system could certainly help overcome limitations of the laparoscopic approach in the challenging domain of pancreatic resection, notably in distal pancreatectomy. Robotic distal pancreatectomy with and without spleen preservation has been reported with encouraging outcomes for benign and borderline malignant disease. As a result of upgraded endowristed manipulation and three-dimensional visualization, improved outcome might be expected with the launch of the robotic system in the procedure of distal pancreatectomy. Our aim was thus to extensively review the current literature of robot-assisted surgery for distal pancreatectomy and to evaluate advantages and possible limitations of the robotic approach.

  6. Percutaneous cholangioscopy in obstructed biliary metal stents

    SciTech Connect

    Hausegger, Klaus A.; Mischinger, Hans J.; Karaic, Radenko; Klein, Guenther E.; Kugler, Cristian; Kern, Robert; Uggowitzer, Martin; Szolar, Dieter

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To reevaluate the reasons for the occlusion of self-expanding biliary metal stents, on the basis of cholangioscopic findings. Methods. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) was performed in 15 patients with obstructed biliary Wallstents. The reason for stent insertion was a malignant obstruction in 14 patients; 1 had a benign biliary stricture. Conventional noncovered stents had been inserted in 12 patients; in 3 cases a polyurethane-covered prototype Wallstent had been used. Stent occlusions occurred after 1-55 months. PTCS was performed with a 2.3-mm endoscope through an 11 Fr sheath. Biopsies were taken via the working channel of the endoscope. Results. In all patients with noncovered stents the inner surface of the stent was highly irregular with seaweed-like protrusions (biopsy-proven granulation tissue). Stent incorporation varied from absent (n=1) to subtotal (n=8), but was always incomplete, no matter how long the stent had been in place. Tumor ingrowth was histologically proven in 2 patients. One patient had a large occluding concrement at the proximal end of the stent. In patients with covered stents, the inner surface appeared more regular; however, viable granulation tissue was found inside two stents and tumor ingrowth in one of them. Conclusion. PTCS showed that incorporation of the stent is virtually always incomplete. The factors contributing most to stent occlusion are the buildup of granulation tissue, bile sludge, and tumor overgrowth. Stone formation and tumor ingrowth can also be important, although less common causes of occlusion. A polyurethane stent covering could not prevent tumor ingrowth in one patient and the buildup of viable granulation tissue inside the stent in two further patients; mean stent patency in the three patients with such a stent was 3 months.

  7. Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kasper S

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Affected infants exhibit evidence of biliary obstruction within the first few weeks after birth. Early diagnosis and successful surgical drainage of bile are associated with greater survival with the child's native liver. Unfortunately, because noncholestatic jaundice is extremely common in early infancy, it is difficult to identify the rare infant with cholestatic jaundice who has biliary atresia. Hence, the need for timely diagnosis of this disease warrants a discussion of the feasibility of screening for biliary atresia to improve outcomes. Herein, newborn screening for biliary atresia in the United States is assessed by using criteria established by the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Published analyses indicate that newborn screening for biliary atresia by using serum bilirubin concentrations or stool color cards is potentially life-saving and cost-effective. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and costs of potential screening strategies for early identification of biliary atresia in the United States.

  8. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... ducts ( cholangiocarcinoma ) Cysts in the liver Liver cancer Pancreatic cancer Swelling and scarring of the bile ducts ( primary ... More Bile Cholangiocarcinoma Cyst Duodenum Hepatic Malignancy MRI Pancreatic cancer Ultrasound X-ray Review Date 2/11/2015 ...

  10. Ceruletide analgesia in biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A; Celotti, F; De Paolis, C

    1984-10-01

    Ceruletide is a decapeptide isolated from the skin of an Australian frog. Its chemical and biologic relationship to cholecystokinin and its potent relaxant effect on the sphincter of Oddi makes it useful in biliary colic. In this double-blind placebo-controlled experiment, 60 subjects with moderate to severe pain caused by biliary colic were injected with ceruletide, 1 ng/kg iv or with an equal volume of saline solution. Pain in the right hypochondrium, referred pain, and Murphy's sign were scored before and after treatment. Data indicate that ceruletide is effective in biliary colic.

  11. Biliary drainage endoprostheses: Experience with 201 placements

    SciTech Connect

    Lammer, J.; Neumayer, K.

    1986-06-01

    Two hundred one biliary endoprostheses were inserted transhepatically with a two-step procedure in 162 patients. Teflon endoprostheses were inserted in the initial 95 patients and polyethylene in seven others. Because in vitro experiments and clinical experience have revealed a lower incrustation rate with Percuflex and polyurethane, endoprostheses made of these materials were used in the last 60 patients. The mortality rate directly related to the procedure was 3.7%, and postprocedural complications occurred in 9% of the patients. Delayed complications included cholangitis in 20%, obstruction in 6%, and dislocation in 3% of the cases. The mean survival time of all 162 patients was 20 weeks. It is concluded that endoprostheses offer effective palliative treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by malignancy.

  12. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents for the management of benign biliary conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Cano, J; Taberna-Arana, L; Jimeno-Ayllón, C; Martínez-Fernández, R; Serrano-Sánchez, L; Reyes-Guevara, A K; Viñuelas-Chicano, M; Gómez-Ruiz, C J; Morillas-Ariño, M J; Pérez-García, J I; Pérez-Vigara, G; Pérez-Sola, A

    2010-09-01

    biliary self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have the advantage of being inserted undeployed with very small sizes and provide, when fully opened, large diameters for biliary drainage. However, their use in benign conditions has been very limited, mainly because of difficulty in their extraction. We present our initial experience with a fully covered SEMS (Wallflex) for the management of benign problems of the bile duct. in a prospective study, stents of 8 mm in diameter and 4, 6 or 8 cm long were inserted by means of ERCP. These SEMS were chosen when according to medical judgement it was thought that diameters greater than 10 French (3.3 mm) were needed for proper biliary drainage. Stents were extracted also endoscopically, several months later when deemed clinically appropriate. twenty biliary SEMS were inserted. Reasons for insertion were: large intrahepatic biliary fistula after hydatid cyst surgery (1), perforation of the papillary area following endoscopic sphincterotomy (2), coaxial insertion to achieve patency in obstructed uncovered stents inserted in benign conditions (3), benign strictures (7), multiple and large common bile duct stones that could not be extracted because of tapering and stricturing of the distal common bile duct (7). In all cases, successful biliary drainage was achieved and there were no complications from insertion. Stents were easily extracted after a mean time of 132 days (36-270) in place. Complete resolution of biliary problems was obtained in 14 patients (70%). in our initial experience, the fully covered Wallflex biliary stent was removed without any complication after being in place in the common bile duct for a mean time of over four months. Therefore, it could be used in the management of benign biliary conditions.

  13. A new method for treating carcinomatous biliary obstruction with intracatheter radium

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, R.M.; Shahbazian, A.A.; Edwards, K.C.; Moran, E.M.; Swingle, K.F.; Lewis, G.J.; Pribram, H.F.

    1982-04-01

    We describe a new method for relieving biliary obstruction due to malignant solid tumors. The method consists of placement of radium needles in a Ring biliary drainage catheter for three days. After removing the radium needles, the catheter is left in place to allow for repair of irradiated tissues, then it is removed. The object is to leave the patient with a patent biliary tree without a biliary drainage prosthesis. The clinical course of six patients treated by this method is described, and the autopsy findings in three cases are outlined. Three patients died with a serum total bilirubin ranging from 1--4.5 mg/100 ml, two to three months after removing the drainage catheter. Two patients died before the bile drainage catheter could be removed. One patient is alive with a bile drainage catheter in place. Possible modifications in technique and catheters are being considered.

  14. The Emerging Role of miRNAs and Their Clinical Implication in Biliary Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Martins, Nina Nayara; da Silva Oliveira, Kelly Cristina; Braga Bona, Amanda; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Ishak, Geraldo; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers are aggressive malignancies that include gallbladder cancer and tumors of intra- and extrahepatic ducts and have a poor prognosis. Surgical resection remains the main curative therapy. Nevertheless, numerous patients experience recurrence even after radical surgery. This scenario drives the research to identify biliary tract cancer biomarkers despite the limited progress that has been made. Recently, a large number of studies have demonstrated that deregulated expression of microRNAs is closely associated with cancer development and progression. In this review, we highlight the role and importance of microRNAs in biliary tract cancers with an emphasis on utilizing circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers. Additionally, we report several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA genes that are associated with the susceptibility of biliary tract tumors. PMID:28115929

  15. The Emerging Role of miRNAs and Their Clinical Implication in Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Martins, Nina Nayara; da Silva Oliveira, Kelly Cristina; Braga Bona, Amanda; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Ishak, Geraldo; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers are aggressive malignancies that include gallbladder cancer and tumors of intra- and extrahepatic ducts and have a poor prognosis. Surgical resection remains the main curative therapy. Nevertheless, numerous patients experience recurrence even after radical surgery. This scenario drives the research to identify biliary tract cancer biomarkers despite the limited progress that has been made. Recently, a large number of studies have demonstrated that deregulated expression of microRNAs is closely associated with cancer development and progression. In this review, we highlight the role and importance of microRNAs in biliary tract cancers with an emphasis on utilizing circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers. Additionally, we report several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA genes that are associated with the susceptibility of biliary tract tumors.

  16. Intrahepatic biliary dilatation caused by a small simple hepatic cyst: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Takaharu; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kiriyama, Shinsuke; Tabe, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hayato; Suzuki, Masaki; Yoshida, Tomonori; Sakurai, Shinji; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Biliary obstruction caused by small simple cysts is very rare. We present a case of biliary dilatation caused by a simple cyst with a 4-cm diameter. The patient was a 75-year-old woman referred to our hospital for evaluation of a cystic tumor associated with peripheral biliary duct dilatation in the left segment of the liver. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cyst probably communicated with the intrahepatic bile duct. Malignant tumors, including intrahepatic papillary neoplasms of the bile duct, could not be ruled out; therefore, we performed surgery with the patient's consent. Histopathologic examination of the resected liver showed that the cystic lesion was a simple cyst. The finding that even small simple cysts can obstruct the biliary tract is important for the management of cystic lesions of the liver.

  17. Biliary hypoplasia in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, K; Ahmed, S F; Murday, V; McGrogan, P

    2006-05-01

    Neonatal hepatitis and biliary hypoplasia are not recognised features of Williams syndrome. A case of Williams syndrome, presenting with neonatal conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia leading to an initial misdiagnosis is reported.

  18. Biliary Adenofibroma with Invasive Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Godambe, Anjali; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Fulling, Keith H.; Reza Kermanshahi, Taher

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of biliary adenofibroma with an invasive carcinoma in a 71-year-old female who presented with bilateral upper abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a 6.3 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass in the left lateral segment of the liver. Histologically, the adenofibroma showed the characteristic components as previously described of biliary adenofibromata, namely, cystic and tubular structures lined by cuboidal to low columnar biliary type epithelium and a dense fibrous stroma composed of spindled cells. Intimately admixed with the adenofibroma was a distinct tumor composed of malignant clear cells which demonstrated stromal and vascular invasion. Although mitotic figures were inconspicuous, Ki67 was brisk and p53 demonstrated 25–50% positivity. Sections also showed a von Meyenberg complex located adjacent to the tumor. This case expands the understanding of this rare tumor and proves two important assertions from previous case reports. First, the presence of an associated von Meyenberg complex with similar morphology and immunohistochemical staining pattern suggests that biliary adenofibromata and von Meyenberg complexes may share related histogenesis. Second, biliary adenofibromata harbor malignant potential and may show malignant transformation. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for these rare tumors to be followed aggressively, as their biological behavior is poorly understood. PMID:26885426

  19. Management of biliary and duodenal complications of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Vijungco, Joseph D; Prinz, Richard A

    2003-11-01

    Biliary stricture and duodenal obstruction have been increasingly recognized as complications of chronic pancreatitis. The anatomical relationship of the distal common bile duct and the duodenum with the head of the pancreas is the main factor for their involvement in chronic pancreatitis. In hospitalized patients with pancreatitis, the incidence of biliary stricture and duodenal obstruction is reported to be about 6% and 1.2%, respectively. For patients requiring an operation for chronic pancreatitis the incidence increases to 35% for biliary stricture and 12% for duodenal obstruction. Fibrosis around the distal common bile duct can cause stenosis with obstruction of bile flow. Clinically, the presentation of these patients ranges from being asymptomatic with elevated alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin, or both, to being septic with cholangitis. Jaundice, cholangitis, hyperbilirubinemia, and persistent elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase occur more frequently in patients with pancreatitis with a biliary stricture. A twofold elevation of alkaline phosphatase is a marker of possible common duct stenosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of both biliary cirrhosis and cholangitis in these patients is about 10%. ERCP reveals a characteristic long, smoothly tapered stricture of the intrapancreatic common bile duct. In duodenal obstruction, the factors that convert self-limiting edema to chronic fibrosis and stricture formation are unknown, but ischemia superimposed on inflammation may be the major cause. These patients present with a prolonged history of nausea and vomiting. Barium studies typically show a long constricting lesion of the duodenum, and endoscopy reveals reactive inflammatory changes in a narrowed duodenum. Operation is indicated in patients with common bile duct strictures secondary to chronic pancreatitis when there is evidence of cholangitis, biliary cirrhosis, common duct stones, progression of stricture, elevation of alkaline

  20. Biliary stents in the millennium.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Indu; Kahaleh, Michel

    2011-11-01

    Biliary stents have now been in use for over two decades. Although a plethora of literature has been published on them, this review article is unique in its attempt to summarize important landmark trials and their implications on the management of various pancreatico-biliary disorders. This article will cover the various types of stents currently being used, established and upcoming indications, techniques of placement, and complications associated with stent use.

  1. Von Hippel-Lindau disease involving pancreas and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xu-Ting; Bo, Qi-Yu; Zhao, Feng; Sun, Dong; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare inherited, autosomal-dominant syndrome caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the VHL gene. VHL patients are prone to develop benign and malignant tumors and cysts in multiple organ systems involving kidneys, pancreas and central nervous system (CNS). The varied and complex clinical manifestations and radiological findings of VHL are of interest. Patient concerns: We report a 38-year-old woman with a ten-year history of VHL disease involving both pancreas and biliary system. To the best of our knowledge, direct involvement of the biliary system in VHL disease has never been reported. Diagnoses: The diagnosis was established via computed tomography scan and was confirmed by genetic testing. Interventions: The patient chose to receive conservative treatment and was followed up by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance imaging examination. Outcomes: Renal angiomas and cysts were found during follow-up and there were no evidence of malignant change of the pancreas and biliary system. Lessons: We described the first case of VHL-associated choledochal cysts and may present new visceral manifestations of VHL disease. Gastroenterologists should be aware of the clinical presentations of this rare disease for early detection of its life-threatening manifestations. PMID:28072736

  2. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  3. Tips and tricks of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kooby, David A

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer can be a challenging procedure that requires adherence to surgical principles respecting tissue planes and critical vascular structures to obtain the optimal surgical margins and peripancreatic node harvest, while minimizing damage to surrounding structures. This report provides a basic approach with some tips and tricks based on my experience with this procedure. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  4. Role of HIDA scanning in the assessment of external biliary fistulae

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, G.A.; Collier, N.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Blumgart, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Three patients with postoperative external biliary fistula are described. In each, radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc HIDA was used to define the anatomy of the fistula. The extent of the fistula and the presence of distal obstruction to bile flow could also be determined. This information was used to predict the likelihood of spontaneous fistula closure. HIDA scanning is a useful noninvasive alternative to other investigations, such as fistulography and cholangiography, which do not always provide useful information. The results of HIDA scanning can aid the clinical decision on the need for surgical intervention to correct an external biliary fistula.

  5. Novel Biliary Reconstruction Techniques During Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Ian C.; Romano, John; Bohorquez, Humberto; Bugeaud, Emily; Bruce, David S.; Cohen, Ari J.; Seal, John; Reichman, Trevor W.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary complications remain a significant problem following liver transplantation. Several surgical options can be used to deal with a significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient bile ducts during the biliary anastomosis. We compared biliary transposition to recipient biliary ductoplasty in cadaveric liver transplant. Methods: A total of 33 reconstructions were performed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013. In the biliary transposition group (n=23), 5 reconstructions were performed using an internal stent (5 or 8 French pediatric feeding tube), and 18 were performed without. Of the 10 biliary ductoplasties, 2 were performed with a stent. All patients were managed with standard immunosuppression and ursodiol. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5 years. Results: No patients in the biliary transposition group required reoperation; 1 patient had an internal stent removed for recurrent unexplained leukocytosis, and 2 patients required endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and stent placement for evidence of stricture. Three anastomotic leaks occurred in the biliary ductoplasty group, and 2 patients in the biliary ductoplasty group required reoperation for biliary complications. Conclusion: Our results indicate that biliary reconstruction can be performed with either biliary transposition or biliary ductoplasty. These techniques are particularly useful when a significant mismatch in diameter exists between the donor and recipient bile ducts. PMID:28331447

  6. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an idiopathic chronic autoimmune liver disease that primarily affects women. It is believed that the etiology for PBC is a combination between environmental triggers in genetically vulnerable persons. The diagnosis for PBC is made when two of the three criteria are fulfilled and they are: (1) biochemical evidence of cholestatic liver disease for at least 6 month’s duration; (2) anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) positivity; and (3) histologic features of PBC on liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only FDA-approved medical treatment for PBC and should be administered at a recommended dose of 13-15mg/kg/day. Unfortunately despite adequate dosing of UDCA, approximately one-third of patients does not respond adequately and may require liver transplantation. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the role of environmental exposures and overall genetic impact not only in the development of PBC, but on disease progression and variable clinical response to therapy. PMID:20955967

  7. Distal Convoluted Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The distal convoluted tubule is the nephron segment that lies immediately downstream of the macula densa. Although short in length, the distal convoluted tubule plays a critical role in sodium, potassium, and divalent cation homeostasis. Recent genetic and physiologic studies have greatly expanded our understanding of how the distal convoluted tubule regulates these processes at the molecular level. This article provides an update on the distal convoluted tubule, highlighting concepts and pathophysiology relevant to clinical practice. PMID:24855283

  8. Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ

    PubMed Central

    Consolo, Pierluigi; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Crinò, Stefano F; Tortora, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Cintolo, Marcello; Familiari, Luigi; Pallio, Socrate

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing “irretrievable stones” include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis. PMID:23858381

  9. Biliary atresia and neonatal hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wynchank, S.; Guillet, J.; Leccia, F.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.

    1984-03-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m diethyl IDA was performed on 14 jaundiced neonates. It aided greatly the differential diagnosis between neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. Limitations in the interpretation of the results are described, as neonatal hepatitis may be accompanied by biliary excretion ranging from zero to normal. Also both biliary atresia (intra- and extrahepatic) and neonatal hepatitis may show no biliary excretion within 24 hours.

  10. Evaluation of biliary disease by scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, M.D.; Hagihara, P.F.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.; Griffen, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    The value of biliary scintigraphy was studied in 180 patients with suspected biliary tract disease. Most of the patients were investigated additionally by conventional techniques such as cholecystography, cholangiography and ultrasonography. It is concluded that biliary scintigraphy is a simple and safe technique for visualization of the biliary tract. It is particularly useful in the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, in patients with iodine sensitivity obstructive from nonobstructive jaundice.

  11. Biliary obstruction: findings at MR cholangiography and cross-sectional MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soto, J A; Alvarez, O; Lopera, J E; Múnera, F; Restrepo, J C; Correa, G

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with malignant biliary obstruction and 21 patients with suspected obstruction of biliary-enteric anastomoses were evaluated over a 12-month period with magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography and cross-sectional MR imaging. In patients with malignant obstruction, MR cholangiography helped accurately determine the status of the biliary ductal system by identifying the exact location and extent of the obstruction and the severity of duct dilatation. In so doing, MR cholangiography helped determine whether percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with antegrade stent placement or retrograde cholangiography with stent placement constituted the more suitable treatment. Cross-sectional MR imaging was necessary to identify the organ of tumor origin, define the tumor margins, and determine the stage of disease. This information helped evaluate the appropriateness of curative surgical therapy versus palliative drainage procedures. In patients with biliary-enteric anastomoses, MR cholangiography clearly depicted the site of the anastomosis and demonstrated the status of the intrahepatic ducts, thereby helping determine which patients would benefit from undergoing antegrade duct cannulation with a drainage procedure or perhaps balloon dilation. In some of these patients, MR cholangiography was sufficient to help plan therapeutic intervention. MR cholangiography also demonstrates the presence and size of biliary stones and associated findings such as intraductal tumor growth. In addition, MR cholangiography may obviate retrograde cholangiography, which can be technically difficult to perform.

  12. Minimally invasive surgical approach to pancreatic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bencini, Lapo; Annecchiarico, Mario; Farsi, Marco; Bartolini, Ilenia; Mirasolo, Vita; Guerra, Francesco; Coratti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery for malignancy is recognized as challenging for the surgeons and risky for the patients due to consistent perioperative morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the oncological long-term results are largely disappointing, even for those patients who experience an uneventfully hospital stay. Nevertheless, surgery still remains the cornerstone of a multidisciplinary treatment for pancreatic cancer. In order to maximize the benefits of surgery, the advent of both laparoscopy and robotics has led many surgeons to treat pancreatic cancers with these new methodologies. The reduction of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and pain, together with a shorter interval between surgery and the beginning of adjuvant chemotherapy, represent the potential advantages over conventional surgery. Lastly, a better cosmetic result, although not crucial in any cancerous patient, could also play a role by improving overall well-being and patient self-perception. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic surgery is, however, difficult in inexperienced hands and requires a dedicated training in both advanced laparoscopy and pancreatic surgery. The recent large diffusion of the da Vinci® robotic platform seems to facilitate many of the technical maneuvers, such as anastomotic biliary and pancreatic reconstructions, accurate lymphadenectomy, and vascular sutures. The two main pancreatic operations, distal pancreatectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy, are approachable by a minimally invasive path, but more limited interventions such as enucleation are also feasible. Nevertheless, a word of caution should be taken into account when considering the increasing costs of these newest technologies because the main concerns regarding these are the maintenance of all oncological standards and the lack of long-term follow-up. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the use of minimally invasive surgery in pancreatic cancer (and less aggressive tumors

  13. Self-expandable metallic stents vs. plastic stents for endoscopic biliary drainage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Jin Myung; Lee, Jae Min; Ahn, Dong-Won; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-06-01

    The patency of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is known to be better than plastic stents in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. However, data are scarce for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to compare SEMSs and plastic stents for the palliation of obstructive jaundice in unresectable HCC. A total of 96 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage with SEMSs or plastic stents were included in this retrospective analysis. The rate of successful biliary drainage, adverse events, stent patency duration, and patient survival were compared between the SEMS (n = 36) and plastic stent (n = 60) groups. The rate of successful biliary drainage was similar between the SEMS and plastic stent groups (25/36 [69.4 %] vs. 39/60 [65.0 %]; P = 0.655). Adverse events occurred in 6 patients (16.7 %) in the SEMS group and 13 patients (21.7 %) in the plastic stent group (P = 0.552). The median patency duration was also similar between the two groups (60 vs. 68 days; P = 0.396). The median patient survival was longer in the plastic stent group than in the SEMS group (123 vs. 48 days; P = 0.005). SEMSs were not superior to plastic stents for the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction in HCC with regard to successful drainage, stent patency, and adverse events. Patient survival was better in the plastic stent group. Given the lower cost, plastic stents could be a favorable option for malignant biliary obstruction caused by HCC. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Endoscopic management of postoperative biliary fistulas].

    PubMed

    Farca, A; Moreno, M; Mundo, F; Rodríguez, G

    1991-01-01

    Biliary fistulas have been managed by surgical correction with no good results. From 1986 to 1990, endoscopic therapy was attempted in 24 patients with postoperative persistent biliary-cutaneous fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated residual biliary stones in 19 patients (79%). The mean fistula drainage was 540 ml/day, and in 75% the site of the fistula was near the cistic duct stump. Sphincterotomy with or without biliary stent placement resulted in rapid resolution of the fistula in 23 patients (95.8%). In those patients treated with biliary stents the fistula healed spectacularly in 24-72 hrs.

  15. Of cholescintigraphy, sonography, and great bears. A view on modern biliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, M.I.; Zeman, R.K.

    1988-04-01

    We review the discrepancies and the reasons for them, to conclude that clinical findings hold the key to selection of the proper imaging test in biliary obstruction. Cholescintigraphy is a more rewarding approach in detecting low grade obstruction, as by common duct stones, whereas in the patient with prolonged painless jaundice, and the high likelihood of a malignancy, computed tomography or ultrasound will yield the best results. Because of the potential for noninvasive imaging to miss choledocholithiasis and because of ever increasing therapeutic options, direct cholangiography will continue to be the mainstay in definition evaluation of the biliary tract. 12 references.

  16. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  17. [Biliary atresia and polysplenia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kerkeni, Yosra; Ksia, Amine; Zitouni, Hayet; Belghith, Mohsen; Lassad, Sahnoun; Krichene, Imed; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    Polysplenia syndrome is a rare malformation characterized by the association of multiple rates and other congenital anomalies dominated by cardiac, vascular, intestinal and bile malformations. We report the observation of a patient operated in the neonatal period (3 days) for an upper intestinal obstruction with situs inversus. Surgical exploration noted the presence of multiple rates, a preduodenal vein, a biliary atresia and a duodenal atresia. The surgical procedures performed were a latero-lateral duodeno-duodenostomy and hepatoportoenterostomy of KASAI with simple immediate and delayed outcomes. The follow up was of 23 years. We recall the epidemiological characteristics of this malformative association and we discuss the role played by the prognosis of polysplenia syndrome in the evolution of biliary atresia. The diagnosis and treatment of biliary atresia are always urgent to increase the chances of success of the Kasai, and the chances of prolonged survival with native liver. However, almost all long-term survivors (even anicteric) have biliary cirrhosis, which requires lifelong follow up.

  18. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities.

  19. External biliary fistula in orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gilbo, N; Mirabella, S; Strignano, P; Ricchiuti, A; Lupo, F; Giono, I; Sanna, C; Fop, F; Salizzoni, M

    2009-05-01

    During orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), various situations may occur in which biliary reconstruction is neither technically feasible nor recommended. One bridge to a delayed anastomosis can be an external biliary fistula (EBF). This procedure allows the surgeon to execute hemostatic maneuvers, such as abdominal packing; therefore, biliary reconstruction can be subsequently performed in a bloodless operative field without edematous tissues. EBF can be made by placing in the donor biliary tract a cannula that is fixed to the bile duct using 2-0 silk ties and secured outside the abdominal wall. The biliary anastomosis will be performed within 2 days after the OLT. The aim of this study was to examine the safety of EBF in terms of the incidence of biliary complications compared with a direct anastomosis. Among 1,634 adult OLTs performed in 17 years in our center, 1,322 were carried out with termino-terminal hepaticocholedochostomy (HC-TT); two with side-to-side hepaticocholedochostomy; 208 with hepaticojejunostomy (HJ); 31 with EBF and delayed HC-TT, and 71 with EBF and delayed HJ. Biliary complication rates in the EBF group were 24.5%, including 23.9% in the delayed HJ and 25.8% in the delayed HC-TT. Biliary complication incidence among all OLTs was 24.6% (P = NS). No complications related to the procedure were observed. Therefore, EBF is a safe technique without a higher biliary complication rate. It may be useful when a direct biliary anastomosis is dangerous.

  20. Novel biliary self-expanding metal stents: indications and applications.

    PubMed

    Blero, Daniel; Huberty, Vincent; Devière, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic insertion of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) through a malignant common bile duct stricture is the first line of palliation for malignant jaundice. Patency of these stents remains a major concern. SEMS dysfunction can result from tumor ingrowth, overgrowth and/or clogging. Initial SEMS modifications involved covering the central part of the stent in order to reduce ingrowth and ultimately increase patency. Fully covered stents became available shortly after reports of their use in human patients. The potential removability and radial strength of SEMS have led to evaluation of their use in new indications including benign biliary strictures, post sphincterotomy bleeding and perforation. Other aspects of development include the addition of features such as anti-reflux valves, drug elution and spontaneous biodegradability. These aspects and their clinical implications are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Biliary mucinous cystic neoplasm: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Taghi; Shahrokh, Shabnam; Miri, Mohammad Bagher; Foroughi, Forough; Sadeghi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cystadenomas (HBC) is a rare neoplasm which comprising less than one percent of liver cystic neoplasms. Although it’s known as a benign tumor, but they have a potential for neoplastic transformation. Making a proper diagnosis and ruling out of other differential diagnosis is important because of different treatment. In the present study, we described a case of HBC manifested as idiopathic dominant biliary stricture in common hepatic duct (CHD), on the basis of spiral CT scan and MRI, and elevated CA19-9. With a probable diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture, she underwent ERCP and cholangioscopy that were non-diagnostic and final diagnosis was made surgically. HBCs usually found incicentally as a cystic lesion and biliary stricture without visible cyst in imaging like that seen in cholangiocarcinoma is very unlikely. In truth, this patient is an unusual manifestation of one rare disease. PMID:28224034

  2. MicroRNA markers for the diagnosis of pancreatic and biliary-tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Motohiro; Sudo, Hiroko; Kawauchi, Junpei; Takizawa, Satoko; Kondou, Satoshi; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to detect pancreatic cancer or biliary-tract cancer at an early stage using current diagnostic technology. Utilizing microRNA (miRNA) markers that are stably present in peripheral blood, we aimed to identify pancreatic and biliary-tract cancers in patients. With "3D-Gene", a highly sensitive microarray, we examined comprehensive miRNA expression profiles in 571 serum samples obtained from healthy patients, patients with pancreatic, biliary-tract, or other digestive cancers, and patients with non-malignant abnormalities in the pancreas or biliary tract. The samples were randomly divided into training and test cohorts, and candidate miRNA markers were independently evaluated. We found 81 miRNAs for pancreatic cancer and 66 miRNAs for biliary-tract cancer that showed statistically different expression compared with healthy controls. Among those markers, 55 miRNAs were common in both the pancreatic and biliary-tract cancer samples. The previously reported miR-125a-3p was one of the common markers; however, it was also expressed in other types of digestive-tract cancers, suggesting that it is not specific to cancer types. In order to discriminate the pancreato-biliary cancers from all other clinical conditions including the healthy controls, non-malignant abnormalities, and other types of cancers, we developed a diagnostic index using expression profiles of the 10 most significant miRNAs. A combination of eight miRNAs (miR-6075, miR-4294, miR-6880-5p, miR-6799-5p, miR-125a-3p, miR-4530, miR-6836-3p, and miR-4476) achieved a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and AUC of 80.3%, 97.6%, 91.6% and 0.953, respectively. In contrast, CA19-9 and CEA gave sensitivities of 65.6% and 40.0%, specificities of 92.9% and 88.6%, and accuracies of 82.1% and 71.8%, respectively, in the same test cohort. This diagnostic index identified 18/21 operable pancreatic cancers and 38/48 operable biliary-tract cancers in the entire cohort. Our results suggest that the assessment of

  3. Extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinoma. Report of seven cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, W; Chow, M; Nagorney, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to describe the clinical features, diagnosis, pathologic characteristics, and optimal surgical management for patients with extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas are rare epithelial neoplasms. The clinical features and optimal surgical management for these lesions have not been defined clearly. The usual presenting symptom is jaundice. These lesions should be considered premalignant and necessitate resection. Sporadic case studies have reported instances of recurrence with local excision. To the authors' knowledge, this study represents the largest collected single series of extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas and reviews previously reported cases. METHODS: The authors reviewed and reported their institutional experience from 1950 to 1993 in treating seven patients with extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas as well as 19 previously reported cases in the literature. RESULTS: A strong female predominance (96.3% of patients reviewed) was associated with extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas. Obstructive jaundice was the most common presenting symptom (85%). Abdominal pain occurred in 50% of patients; other symptoms included fever and hemobilia. The most common site of occurrence was the common hepatic duct (32%). Papillary cystadenoma with foci of invasive adenocarcinoma, thus supporting the malignant potential of cystadenomas, occurred in one patient. Local excision from the wall of the bile duct was performed in 18 patients and was associated with 50% recurrence within a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 4-24 months). No recurrence was reported after formal sleeve resection and bilioenteric reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas can become malignant, and in this study, local surgical excision was associated with a 50% local recurrence rate. Sleeve resection with negative histologic resection margins followed by bilioenteric reconstruction, therefore

  4. Outcomes of Salvage Percutaneous Biliary Drainage after Occlusion of Endoscopic Stents.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Jonathan; Lee, Aram; Frankel, Paul; Dagis, Andrew; Park, John J; Lin, James

    2017-04-01

    To describe outcomes of patients with malignant biliary obstruction who undergo salvage percutaneous biliary drainage after occlusion of endoscopic biliary stents. A single-center retrospective review was performed of 47 patients (25 men, 22 women) who underwent percutaneous biliary drainage for recurrent obstruction after endoscopic stent placement between 2005 and 2015. Primary malignancies were bile duct (n = 13), colorectal (n = 11), gallbladder (n = 7), pancreas (n = 5), hepatocellular (n = 4), and other (n = 7). Indication for salvage drain placement was infection (n = 19) and jaundice or need to decrease bilirubin (n = 28). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used for survival analysis. Logistic and multivariate regressions were employed to identify factors associated with survival. Median survival after salvage biliary drain placement was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7). Elevated international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.5 before drainage was associated with poorer survival after drainage (median survival 0.7 months vs 2.4 months, P < .01). Median survival was shorter in 28 patients (64%) with bilirubin ≤ 2 mg/dL (34.2 µmol/L) after drainage (1.2 months vs 5.4 months, P < .001). Left-sided drain placement, elevated bilirubin, and elevated INR correlated with decreased likelihood of achieving bilirubin ≤ 2 mg/dL (34.2 µmol/L) (odds ratio [OR] 0.13, 95% CI, 0.02-0.71, P = .02; OR 0.18, 95% CI, 0.05-0.69, P = .01; OR 0.10, 95% CI, 0.01-0.90, P = .04). Survival is limited for most patients who undergo salvage percutaneous biliary drainage. Elevated bilirubin and INR before drainage portend a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fully covered, self-expandable metal stents for first-step endoscopic treatment of biliary leaks secondary to hepato-biliary surgery: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Luigiano, Carmelo; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Dinelli, Marco; Frego, Roberto; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo; Viaggi, Paolo; Traina, Mario; Santoro, Tara; Masci, Enzo

    2013-05-01

    Fully covered self-expanding metal stents are now being used to treat benign biliary diseases. To assess the outcomes of these stents as first-step therapy in patients with biliary leaks secondary to hepato-biliary surgery. Thirty patients (56.7% males; mean age: 60.2 ± 13 years) were retrospectively evaluated. The data collected included technical and clinical success, adverse events and follow-up findings (1, 3 and 6 months). Technical and clinical success rates were 100%. One early mild post-procedure pancreatitis occurred and resolved spontaneously. Three late stent distal migrations occurred, however cholangiography showed correct leak sealing in all patients. Stents were removed after a mean of 55.9 days. During follow-up no other complications occurred. In our experience fully covered self-expanding metal stent placement was safe and efficacious as first-step therapy for post-operative biliary leaks. However, prospective comparative studies with plastic stents are required to validate these findings. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of anomolous biliary anatomy using near-infrared cholangiography.

    PubMed

    Sherwinter, Danny A

    2012-09-01

    Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is especially helpful for the detection of anomalous biliary anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fluorescent cholangiography using an intravenously injected fluorophore and near-infrared (NIR) imaging provides similar anatomical detail to standard radiographic cholangiography without ionizing radiation, puncture of the biliary system, or additional operative time. This video shows a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed under NIR cholangiographic guidance and highlights its ability to identify anomalous anatomy. The attached video shows a laparoscopic cholecystectomy being performed on a 28-year-old female with a history of biliary colic and ultrasonographic evidence of cholelithiasis. This patient agreed to be part of a larger randomized study looking at near-infrared cholangiography and its ability to prevent common bile duct injuries (approved by the ethics review board of our institution and registered with clinicaltrials.gov Identifier# NCT01424215). This study uses the Pinpoint system (Novadaq, Ontario, Canada) for NIR imaging (Fig. 1). The Pinpoint mates a high definition white light laparoscopic view to the NIR cholangiography, providing an uninterrupted, augmented view of the anatomy. 1 cm(3) of indocyanine green was injected intravenously prior to the procedure. As shown in the video, an anomalous duct was identified during dissection and development of the critical view of safety. Because of the possibility that this represented an aberrant right hepatic duct, the cystic duct was controlled and divided distal to the anomalous duct and the gall bladder excised from the fossa in the usual manner. The patient did well without sequelae at 1 week and 1 month follow-up. Anomolous ductal anatomy of the biliary tree has been reported in up to 23 % of cases.1,2 The ability of IOC to elucidate biliary anatomy and thus prevent bile duct injury has led many to espouse routine cholangiography for all laparoscopic

  7. Pseudo-obstruction of the biliary tract associated with a traumatic biliary fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-05-01

    Documentation of a biliary fistula as a complication of hepatic trauma may be made simply and noninvasively using radionuclide (technetium) cholescintigraphy. This report describes the utility of this approach in the evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying apparent biliary obstruction in a patient with a large traumatic biliary fistula.

  8. Transhepatic Insertion of a Metallic Stent for the Relief of Malignant Afferent Loop Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Caldicott, David G.E.; Ziprin, Paul; Morgan, Robert

    2000-03-15

    A 65-year-old man with a polya gastrectomy presented with biliary obstruction. Percutaneous cholangiography indicated strictures of the distal common bile duct and afferent duodenal loop due to an inoperable carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. The patient was unfit for bypass surgery, and a previous gastrectomy precluded endoscopic intervention. Successful palliation of the biliary obstruction was achieved by placing metallic stents across the duodenal and biliary strictures via the transhepatic route. The use of stents for gastrointestinal stricture is reviewed.

  9. Clinical implications of APEX1 and Jagged1 as chemoresistance factors in biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Beum; Cho, Won Jin; Choi, Nam Gyu; Kim, Sung-Soo; Park, Jun Hee; Lee, Hee-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Biliary cancer is a highly malignant neoplasm with poor prognosis and most patients need to undergo palliative chemotherapy, however major clinical problem associated with the use of chemotherapy is chemoresistance. So far, we aimed at investigating clinical implications of apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APEX1) and Jagged1 as chemoresistance factors in biliary tract cancer. Methods We used 5 human biliary tract cancer cell lines (SNU-245, SNU-308, SNU-478, SNU-1079, and SNU-1196), and investigated the chemosensitivity of APEX1 and Jagged1 through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Western blot. Alternately, the 10 patients of advanced biliary cancer consist of 2 group according to the chemotherapy response examined by immunohistochemistry using APEX1 and Jagged1 antibody, and protein expression level was scored for staining intensity and percent positive cell. Results The result of MTT assay after APEX1 knockdown showed that strong coexpression of APEX1 and Jagged1 cell line (SNU-245, SNU-1079, and SNU-1196) showed a greater decrease in IC50 of chemotherapeutic agent (5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine and cisplatin). The Western blot analysis of APEX1 and Jagged1 expression in biliary cancer cell lines after APEX1 knockdown definitively demonstrated decreased Jagged1 expression. The APEX1 and Jagged1expression level of immunohistochemistry represented that chemorefractory patients had higher than chemoresponsive patients. Conclusion These results demonstrate that simultaneous high expression of APEX1 and Jagged1 is associated with chemoresistance in biliary cancer and suggest that is a potential therapeutic target for chemoresistance in advanced biliary cancer. PMID:28090501

  10. Side-by-side placement of bilateral endoscopic metal stents for the treatment of postoperative biliary stricture.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Seiji; Sen-Yo, Manabu; Shinoda, Shuhei; Kawano, Michitaka; Harima, Hirofumi; Suenaga, Shigeyuki; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative biliary strictures are usually complications of cholecystectomy. Endoscopic plastic stent prosthesis is generally undertaken for treating benign biliary strictures. Recently, fully covered metal stents have been shown to be effective for treating benign distal biliary strictures. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with liver injury in which imaging studies showed a common hepatic duct stricture. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also confirmed the presence of a common hepatic duct stricture. Temporally fully covered metal stents with dilated diameters of 6 mm were placed in a side-by-side fashion in the left and right hepatic ducts, respectively. We removed the stents 2 months after their placement. Subsequent cholangiography revealed an improvement in the biliary strictures. Although we were apprehensive about the fully covered metal stents obstructing the biliary side branches, we noted that careful placement of the bilateral metal stents did not cause any complications. Side-by-side deployment of bilateral endoscopic fully covered metal stents can be one of the safe and effective therapies for postoperative biliary stricture.

  11. SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE LIVER DISEASE CAUSED BY A BILIARY CALCULUS IN A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Chatterton, James; Unwin, Steve; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Bridson-Walton, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    A 40-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with intermittent, short-duration episodes of nonspecific clinical signs that included lethargy and reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Clinical examination and diagnostics suggested obstructive hepatic disease, which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonographic examination. During routine laparotomy, a biliary calculus was removed from the distal common bile duct and the gallbladder was removed, which resulted in complete clinical recovery. The biliary calculus was analyzed as a mixed composition of predominantly cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium.

  12. Endoluminal Nd:YAG laser application in ex vivo biliary porcine tissue.

    PubMed

    Rea, Roberta; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Martino, Margareth; Pandolfi, Monica; Saccomandi, Paola; Rabitti, Carla; Crescenzi, Anna; Costamagna, Guido

    2017-08-01

    Adequate biliary drainage with endoscopic or percutaneous placement of self-expandable metal stents represents the goal of palliation in patients with inoperable malignant obstruction of the biliary tree. As an adjunct to stenting, various tissue ablation treatments have been proposed with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to test the effect on biliary tissue of a new ablation technique based on Nd:YAG laser light delivery. The study was conducted on ex vivo specimens of 18 healthy farm pigs, using cystic ducts that are the simplest biliary structures to isolate and cannulate ex vivo. A 22G cannula was positioned into the cystic duct and a quartz optical fibre, with a prototypal cooling system, was inserted into the cannula. Nd:YAG laser output powers of 10, 12, and 15 W were tested, with a total delivered energy of 1000 J in continuous mode in each case. After laser treatment, histological analysis was performed. At macroscopical examination, no lesions of the external wall of the cystic ducts were detected. At histopathological examination, a coagulative necrosis involving the entire mucosa up to the muscolaris propria without significant changes of periductal tissues was observed in all specimens. This study shows the possibility of using Nd:YAG laser on ex vivo porcine biliary ducts with the effect of obtaining a coagulative necrosis involving the whole mucosa.

  13. Covered self-expandable metal stents for benign biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Baron, Todd H

    2011-05-01

    Benign biliary diseases are often managed endoscopically using plastic stents. Benign biliary strictures (BBS) respond to placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents, though requiring multiple procedures to place stents, and to exchange stents to prevent and/or treat stent occlusion. Bile leaks close using plastic stents, which divert bile away from the leak into the duodenum. Covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMS), intended for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction, have been used to treat benign biliary diseases. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. For strictures, one CSEMS is inserted without need for dilation and remains in place for up to 6 months. Successful removal has been reported in all cases. Long-term stricture resolution is achieved in up to 92%. Adverse events include migration and new stricture formation. For treatment of complex bile leaks, the covering and large diameter allow successful closure in nearly all cases. Other uses of CSEMS include treatment of postsphincterotomy bleeding and closure of perforations. CSEMS show promise for treatment of BBS and complex biliary leaks. Successful resolution can be achieved in the majority of patients with the advantage of fewer procedures, which offsets their higher cost.

  14. Failed biliary cannulation: Clinical and technical outcomes after tertiary referral endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Michael P; Bourke, Michael J; Williams, Stephen J; Alexander, Sina; Moss, Alan; Hope, Rick; Ruppin, David

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Prospective evaluation of repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for failed Schutz grade 1 biliary cannulation in a high-volume center. METHODS: Prospective intention-to-treat analysis of patients referred for biliary cannulation following recent unsuccessful ERCP. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (35 female; mean age: 62.5 years; age range: 40-87 years) with previous failed biliary cannulation were referred for repeat ERCP. The indication for ERCP was primarily choledocholithiasis (45%) or pancreatic malignancy (18%). Successful biliary cannulation was 100%. The precut needle knife sphincterotomy (NKS) rate was 27.4%. Complications occurred in 3.9% (post-ERCP pancreatitis). An identifiable reason for initial unsuccessful biliary cannulation was present in 55% of cases. Compared to a cohort of 940 naïve papilla patients (female 61%; mean age: 59.9 years; age range: 18-94 years) who required sphincterotomy over the same time period, there was no statistical difference in the cannulation success rate (100% vs 98%) or post-ERCP pancreatitis (3.1% vs 3.9%). Precut NKS use was more frequent (27.4% vs 12.7%) (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Referral to a high-volume center following unsuccessful ERCP is associated with high technical success, with a favorable complication rate, compared to routine ERCP procedures. PMID:22174549

  15. Biliary tract obstruction secondary to cancer: management guidelines and selected literature review.

    PubMed

    Lokich, J J; Kane, R A; Harrison, D A; McDermott, W V

    1987-06-01

    Malignant biliary tract obstruction (MBTO) due to either primary biliary tract cancer or metastasis to the porta hepatis is a common clinical problem. The most common metastatic tumors causing MBTO in order of frequency are gastric, colon, breast, and lung cancers. Radiographic diagnostic procedures should proceed in a cost-effective sequence from ultrasonography, computerized tomography (CT), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC), and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography with the goal of establishing the site of the biliary tract obstruction. The identification of the site of obstruction could be established by ultrasound 70% to 80%, CT scan 80% to 90%, PTHC 100%, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) 85%. Therapeutic intervention by radiographic decompression (PTHC or endoscopic prosthesis), surgical bypass, or radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy may be selectively used based on (1) the site of obstruction; (2) the type of primary tumor; and (3) the presence of specific symptoms related to the obstruction. ("Prophylactic" biliary tract decompression to prevent ascending cholangitis is not supported by the literature in that the frequency of sepsis in the face of malignant obstruction is small (in contrast to sepsis associated with stone disease). Furthermore, PTHC with drainage as a long-term procedure is associated with a substantial frequency of sepsis and is unnecessary and possibly problematic as a preoperative procedure simply to reduce the bilirubin level. The use of radiation therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy for patients not deemed suitable for a surgical bypass because of the presence of proximal obstruction is an important alternative to PTHC.

  16. Analysis of endoscopic management of occluded metal biliary stents at a single tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Rogart, Jason N; Boghos, Ara; Rossi, Federico; Al-Hashem, Hashem; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Jamidar, Priya; Aslanian, Harry

    2008-10-01

    A significant number of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) placed to palliate malignant biliary obstruction will occlude. Few data exist as to what constitutes optimal management. Our purpose was to review the management and outcomes of patients with biliary SEMS occlusion. Retrospective chart review at a single tertiary care hospital. From January 1999 to October 2005, a total of 90 patients had SEMSs placed for malignant biliary obstruction, and 27 of these occluded. Technical success of treating SEMS occlusion, stent patency and need for reintervention, and incremental cost analysis. A total of 60 ERCPs were performed to treat SEMS occlusions in 27 patients. The success rate was 95%; however, 52% of patients eventually required more than 1 intervention. Placing a second SEMS through the existing SEMS (n = 14) provided the lowest reocclusion rate (43% vs 55% and 100%), the longest time to reintervention (172 days vs 66 and 43 days, P = .03), and a trend toward longer survival (285 days vs 188 and 194 days) compared with plastic stent and mechanical balloon cleaning, respectively. Incremental cost analysis showed both uncovered SEMSs and plastic stents to be cost effective strategies. Small number of patients, retrospective study. Treatment of biliary SEMS occlusion with SEMS insertion provides for longer patency and survival, decreases the number of subsequent ERCPs by 50% compared with plastic stents, and is cost-effective.

  17. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Distal median nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy that affects the movement of or sensation in ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more Latest Health News Read more Health ...

  18. Transphyseal Distal Humerus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F; Brighton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed. Cubitus varus caused by a malunion, osteonecrosis of the medial condyle, or growth arrest is the most common complication encountered in the treatment of transphyseal distal humerus fractures. A corrective lateral closing wedge osteotomy can be performed to restore a nearly normal carrying angle.

  19. Distal ulnar growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O A; Buchanan, J R; Harrison, C S

    1984-03-01

    Four cases of arrest of distal ulnar physeal growth occurring in children ages 7 to 13 years had follow-up for 2 to 10 years. Each patient developed bowing of the radial diaphysis, ulnar translation of the distal radial epiphysis, and increased ulnar angulation of the distal radiocarpal joint surface. Growth discrepancies were documented in both the ulna (range 2.2 to 3.9 cm) and to a lesser extent the radius (range 0.2 to 1.6 cm) when compared to the opposite forearm in each patient. The progression of deformity appeared to be greatest during adolescence. Radial deviation and pronation were limited to varying degrees in each case. No patient had significant pain or functional impairment, but the cosmetic appearance was always displeasing. Indications for surgical treatment include increasing ulnar angulation of the distal radial articular surface, progressive loss of motion, and displeasing cosmetic appearance.

  20. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... get better with treatment. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of distal renal tubular acidosis. Get medical help right away if you develop emergency symptoms ...

  1. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  2. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Murata, Ken-ya; Ishiguchi, Hiroshi; Ando, Ryuki; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2013-12-01

    We report a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Except for minimal biochemical abnormalities, clinical symptoms of PBC were not observed, and we diagnosed our patient with asymptomatic PBC from the results of a liver biopsy. Although the patient noticed little muscle weakness, an electrophysiological study demonstrated slow conduction velocities and prolonged distal latencies, with definite conduction blocks in the median, ulnar, and tibial nerves. The disturbed sensory pattern was asymmetrical, and sensory nerve action potentials were not evoked. From these observations, we diagnosed this patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neuropathy associated with PBC is very rare. We must differentiate demyelinating neuropathy with PBC in patients with asymmetrical sensory dominant neuropathy with high immunoglobulin M titers, and investigate for the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies to rule out a complication of asymptomatic PBC.

  3. Biliary Dyskinesia in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Neha R; Hyman, Paul E; Harmon, Carroll M; Schiavo, Julie H; Hussain, Sunny Z

    2017-02-01

    Cholecystectomy rates for biliary dyskinesia in children are rising in the United States, but not in other countries. Biliary dyskinesia is a validated functional gallbladder disorder in adults, requiring biliary colic in the diagnosis. In contrast, most studies in children require upper abdominal pain, absent gallstones on ultrasound, and an abnormal gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) on cholecystokinin-stimulated cholescintigraphy for diagnosis. We aimed to systematically review existing literature in biliary dyskinesia in children, determine the validity and reliability of diagnostic criteria, GBEF, and to assess outcomes following cholecystectomy. We performed a systematic review following the PRISMA checklist and searched 7 databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Ovid, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Bibliographies of articles were screened for additional studies. Our search terms yielded 916 articles of which 28 were included. Three articles were manually added from searched references. We reviewed 31 peer-reviewed publications, all retrospective chart reviews. There was heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and GBEF values. Outcomes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied from 34% to 100% success, and there was no consensus concerning factors influencing outcomes. The observational, retrospective study designs that comprised our review limited interpretation of safety and efficacy of the investigations and treatment in biliary dyskinesia in children. Symptoms of biliary dyskinesia overlapped with functional dyspepsia. There is a need for consensus on symptoms defining biliary dyskinesia, validation of testing required for diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia, and randomized controlled trials comparing medical versus surgical management in children with upper abdominal pain.

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in biliary rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Ryan W; Raijman, Isaac; Finegold, Milton J; Russell, Heidi V; Fishman, Douglas S

    2008-01-01

    Biliary rhabdomyosarcoma (BRMS) is an uncommon childhood malignancy which has been managed surgically. We present a case of a 3-year-old boy with BRMS, in whom endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was successfully used both diagnostically and therapeutically, thus obviating the need for surgery and its attendant risks of morbidity and mortality. We conclude that ERCP is an effective alternative to surgery for BRMS in some patients. PMID:18720547

  5. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.

    1981-08-01

    The new 99mTc biliary scintigraphy agents are highly sensitive and specific in detecting biliary tract disease and use of them is the initial procedure of choice in evaluating patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Other clinically useful indications are evaluation of biliary kinetics; evaluation of patients with suspected traumatic bile leakage, gallbladder perforation, or postsurgical biliary tract complications; and evaluation of patients with suspected biliary obstruction. In 99mTc we have a simple radiopharmaceutical of low radiation for evaluating congenital abnormalities and neonatal jaundice. In the Orient 99mTc cholescintigraphy is extremely important in evaluating patients with suspected intrahepatic stones. The overall advantages of this technique include availability, safety, simplicity, and accuracy. In addition, it may be performed in those patients who are allergic to iodinated contrast agents.

  6. [Echographic signs of biliary atresia].

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, B A; Iaremenko, V V; Babko, S A; Klimenko, E F; Medvedenko, G F

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of echographic features of biliary atresia was conducted in 65 newborn children ageing up to 3 mo. Their characteristic variants were revealed: the absence or reduction in size of gall-bladder, the presence of hyperechogenic triangular formation in V. portae bifurcation (the symptom of "triangular cicatrix"); the thickening of anterior wall of V. portae right branch. The timely and correct establishment of the diagnosis permits a child to survive and serve the hepatic fibrosis prophylaxis. Echohepatography is a sufficiently trustful method of investigation.

  7. [Experimental atrophy/hypertrophy complex of the liver after portal and/or biliary ligation in the rat].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, W; Duda, P; Tanner, S; Balsiger, D; Höflin, F; Zimmermann, A; Blumgart, L H

    1992-08-01

    Patients with lobar or segmental, benign or malignant strictures of the biliary tree (with or without impairment of the portal blood flow) show a considerable atrophy of the involved area of the liver with a compensatory hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the remaining non affected liver. To investigate the importance of the biliary and portal obstruction for the development of this process, we used a rat model, with selective biliary and/or portal ligation of the anterior liver lobes (two thirds of the liver mass). Weight measurements, morphometry, functional scintigraphy (Hepatoiodida-scan) and blood enzyme analyses were done immediately postoperatively, at 30 hours and 4, 8 and 28 days after the operation. The major findings were: 1. 28 days after biliary and/or portal ligation there was no difference between the body weight of the four groups, all ligated animals having compensated for an initial greater percentage body-weight loss. 2. Total liver weight remained constant, while atrophy and hypertrophy/hyperplasia occurred although a progressive derangement of liver morphology was observed during that time. 3. A severe atrophy-hypertrophy-complex (AHC) developed after selective portal ligation, which in our experiment did not appear after selective biliary ligation. 4. Morphometrical changes after selective biliary ligation were reversible, whereas in liver lobes with selective portal ligation a progressive parenchymal destruction and involution with subsequent impairment of hepatic function of the concerned lobe was observed.

  8. Immunocytochemical assessment of p53 protein to detect malignancy in increased cell-yield brush cytology from the biliopancreatic tree.

    PubMed

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Cestari, Renzo; Giulini, Stefano; Cengia, Paolo; Missale, Guido; Berenzi, Angiola; Rossi, Elisa; Bonardi, Massimo; Baiocchi, Luca; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2009-04-01

    Malignancies arising from the biliopancreatic tree are often diagnostic challenges for the gastroenterologist and the pathologist, especially when strictures without masses are present. To evaluate the diagnostic yield of p53 immunocytology for the detection of malignancies in material obtained by biliopancreatic tree brushing by means of an increased cell-yield procedure. Cytologic specimens obtained from biliary and pancreatic tree brushing in 24 patients with biliary strictures suspected for malignancy were assessed by conventional Papanicolau staining and p53 immunocytochemistry. Papanicolau staining detected 67% and p53 87% of the malignancies in the study group. p53 immunocytology displayed excellent sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy. p53 immunocytology may represent a useful diagnostic tool in the detection of malignancies from biliary and pancreatic tree brushing, especially when using an increasing cell-yield procedure.

  9. Impact of early biliary complications in liver transplantation in the presence or absence of a T‐tube: a Chinese transplant centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tang; Chen, Zhi‐Shui; Zeng, Fan‐Jun; Ming, Chang‐Sheng; Zhang, Wei‐Jie; Liu, Dun‐Gui; Jiang, Ji‐Ping; Du, Dun‐Feng; Chen, Zhong‐Hua Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Background Biliary complications continue to be an important determinant of the recipient's survival rate after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of early biliary complications in OLT in the presence or absence of a T‐tube. Methods This retrospective study, based on inpatient data, focused on the relationship between T‐tube placement and early biliary complications of 84 patients after OLT, from November 2002 to June 2005. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not a T‐tube was used following bile duct reconstruction: T‐tube group (group I, n = 33); non‐T‐tube group (group II, n = 51). Results 45.2% of OLT recipients had a malignant neoplasm. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics or operation data between the two groups. Overall, early biliary tract complications developed in 19.0% (16/84) of patients. The rate of early biliary complications was 30.3% (10/33) and 11.8% (6/51) in groups I II, respectively (p = 0.035). Biliary complications which were directly caused by T‐tube placement occurred in 12.1% (4/33) of patients in group I. Overall, the percentage of malignant neoplasms, chronic viral cirrhosis, fulminant liver failure and other primary disease recipients with early biliary complications were 6.2%, 37.5%, 43.8% and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that the use of a T‐tube in Chinese patients undergoing OLT causes a higher incidence of early biliary complications. Most of the early biliary complications occurred in chronic viral cirrhosis and fulminant liver failure recipients. PMID:17308216

  10. Mesothelioma - malignant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Mesothelioma - malignant; Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) Images Respiratory system References Broaddus VC, Robinson BWS. Pleural tumors. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  11. Pleural malignancies.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Late Development of Bile Duct Cancer in Patients Who Had Biliary-Enteric Drainage for Benign Disease: A Follow-Up Study of More Than 1,000 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tocchi, Adriano; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Liotta, Gianluca; Lepre, Luca; Cassini, Diletta; Miccini, Michelangelo

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between biliary-enteric surgical drainage and the late development of cholangiocarcinoma of the biliary tract. Summary Background Data In patients with biliary-enteric drainage, reflux of intestinal contents into the bile duct may occur and cause cholangitis, which is regarded as the most serious complication of these procedures. Lithiasis of the biliary tract and a previous biliary-enteric anastomosis have both been suggested to favor the late onset of cholangiocarcinoma. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 1,003) undergoing three different procedures of biliary-enteric anastomosis (transduodenal sphincteroplasty, choledochoduodenostomy, and hepaticojejunostomy) between 1967 and 1997 were included in this study. The postoperative clinical course and long-term outcome were evaluated by a retrospective review of the hospital records and follow-up. Mean follow-up was 129.6 months. Results Fifty-five (5.5%) cases of primary bile duct cancer were found among the 1,003 patients at intervals of 132 to 218 months from biliary-enteric anastomosis. The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the three groups was 5.8% in transduodenal sphincteroplasty patients, 7.6% in choledochoduodenostomy patients, and 1.9% in hepaticojejunostomy patients. The incidence of malignancy related to the different underlying diagnosis was 5.9%, 7.2%, and 1.9% in patients with choledocholithiasis, sphincter of Oddi stenosis, and postoperative benign stricture, respectively. Although only one patient who developed cholangiocarcinoma had previous concurrent lithiasis of the biliary tract, 40 patients had experienced mostly severe, recurrent cholangitis. No case of malignancy occurred in patients scored as having no cholangitis in the early and long-term postoperative outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses have shown the presence of cholangitis as the only factor affecting the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions Chronic inflammatory changes consequent

  13. Effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy on biliary epithelium: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzis, John; Vezakis, Antonios; Fragulidis, George; Anagnostopoulou, Irene; Rizos, Spyros; Papalambros, Efstathios; Polydorou, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the long-term effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy on biliary epithelium. METHODS: This is a prospective case-control study. A total of 25 patients with a median age of 71 years (range 49-89 years) and prior endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) for benign disease formed the first group. The median time from ES was 42 mo (range 8-144 mo). Another 25 patients with a median age of 76 years (range 44-94 mo) and similar characteristics who underwent current endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and ES for benign disease formed the second group (control group). Brush cytology of the biliary tree with p53 immunocytology was performed in all patients of both groups. ERCPs and recruitment were conducted at the Endoscopic Unit of Aretaieion University Hospital and Tzaneio Hospital, Athens, from October 2006 to June 2010. RESULTS: No cases were positive or suspicious for malignancy. Epithelial atypia was higher in the first group (32% vs 8% in the second group, P = 0.034). Acute cholangitis and previous biliary operation rates were also higher in the first group (acute cholangitis, 60% vs 24% in the second group, P = 0.01; previous biliary operation, 76% vs 24% in the second group, P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that previous ES was the main causal factor for atypia, which was not related to the time interval from the ES (P = 0.407). Two patients (8%) with atypia in the first group were p53-positive. CONCLUSION: ES causes biliary epithelial atypia that represents mostly reactive/proliferative rather than premalignant changes. The role of p53 immunoreactivity in biliary atypia needs to be further studied. PMID:22371639

  14. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  15. Nerve Infiltration by Benign Biliary Glands - A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Conlon, Niamh; Bennett, Michael W; Heffron, Cynthia C B B

    2017-08-29

    Perineural and intraneural infiltration is most often considered a diagnostic feature of malignancy but has been demonstrated in benign entities in a variety of organs. This brief report describes benign glands apparently infiltrating nerves around bile ducts in a resected extra-hepatic biliary tree performed on a background of recurrent cholangitis and prior cholecystectomy. To our knowledge, benign glands infiltrating nerves within bile ducts has not been reported outside of the setting of end stage primary sclerosing cholangitis where one example has been described. We identify several features which support the benign nature of this process including bland cytomorphology, identical appearance to adjacent glands and an exuberant neural rather than glandular proliferation supporting the probability of a reactive neural proliferation akin to traumatic neuroma. We propose a pathogenesis that is somewhat analogous to traumatic neuroma of the biliary tree which, despite its rarity, is a documented complication of cholecystectomy, comprising a reactive proliferation of nerve tissue in response to injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Biliary Tract Cancers.

    PubMed

    Letelier, Pablo; Riquelme, Ismael; Hernández, Alfonso H; Guzmán, Neftalí; Farías, Jorge G; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-23

    Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a group of highly aggressive malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. The current diagnosis is based mainly on imaging and intraoperative exploration due to brush cytology havinga low sensitivity and the standard markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate 19-9 (CA19-9), not having enough sensitivity nor specificity to be used in a differential diagnosis and early stage detection. Thus, better non-invasive methods that can distinguish between normal and pathological tissue are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules of ~20-22 nucleotides that regulate relevant physiological mechanisms and can also be involved in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are detectable in multiple body fluids, showing great stability, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles, such as exosomes. miRNAs are ideal biomarkers that may be used in screening and prognosis in biliary tract cancers, aiding also in the clinical decisions at different stages of cancer treatment. This review highlights the progress in the analysis of circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma and bile as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of BTCs.

  17. Targeting Angiogenesis in Biliary Tract Cancers: An Open Option

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Valeria; Brunetti, Oronzo; Lupo, Luigi; Testini, Mario; Maiorano, Eugenio; Simone, Michele; Longo, Vito; Rolfo, Christian; Peeters, Marc; Scarpa, Aldo; Azzariti, Amalia; Russo, Antonio; Ribatti, Domenico; Silvestris, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are characterized by a bad prognosis and the armamentarium of drugs for their treatment is very poor. Although the inflammatory status of biliary tract represents the first step in the cancerogenesis, the microenvironment also plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BTCs, promoting tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Several molecules, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), are involved in the angiogenesis process and their expression on tumor samples has been explored as prognostic marker in both cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Recent studies evaluated the genomic landscape of BTCs and evidenced that aberrations in several genes enrolled in the pro-angiogenic signaling, such as FGF receptor-2 (FGFR-2), are characteristic of BTCs. New drugs targeting the signaling pathways involved in angiogenesis have been tested in preclinical studies both in vitro and in vivo with promising results. Moreover, several clinical studies tested monoclonal antibodies against VEGF and tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the VEGF and the MEK/ERK pathways. Herein, we evaluate both the pathogenic mechanisms of BTCs focused on angiogenesis and the preclinical and clinical data available regarding the use of new anti-angiogenic drugs in these malignancies. PMID:28212293

  18. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Biliary Tract Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Letelier, Pablo; Riquelme, Ismael; Hernández, Alfonso H.; Guzmán, Neftalí; Farías, Jorge G.; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a group of highly aggressive malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. The current diagnosis is based mainly on imaging and intraoperative exploration due to brush cytology havinga low sensitivity and the standard markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate 19-9 (CA19-9), not having enough sensitivity nor specificity to be used in a differential diagnosis and early stage detection. Thus, better non-invasive methods that can distinguish between normal and pathological tissue are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules of ~20–22 nucleotides that regulate relevant physiological mechanisms and can also be involved in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are detectable in multiple body fluids, showing great stability, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles, such as exosomes. miRNAs are ideal biomarkers that may be used in screening and prognosis in biliary tract cancers, aiding also in the clinical decisions at different stages of cancer treatment. This review highlights the progress in the analysis of circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma and bile as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of BTCs. PMID:27223281

  19. Targeting Angiogenesis in Biliary Tract Cancers: An Open Option.

    PubMed

    Simone, Valeria; Brunetti, Oronzo; Lupo, Luigi; Testini, Mario; Maiorano, Eugenio; Simone, Michele; Longo, Vito; Rolfo, Christian; Peeters, Marc; Scarpa, Aldo; Azzariti, Amalia; Russo, Antonio; Ribatti, Domenico; Silvestris, Nicola

    2017-02-15

    Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are characterized by a bad prognosis and the armamentarium of drugs for their treatment is very poor. Although the inflammatory status of biliary tract represents the first step in the cancerogenesis, the microenvironment also plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BTCs, promoting tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Several molecules, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), are involved in the angiogenesis process and their expression on tumor samples has been explored as prognostic marker in both cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Recent studies evaluated the genomic landscape of BTCs and evidenced that aberrations in several genes enrolled in the pro-angiogenic signaling, such as FGF receptor-2 (FGFR-2), are characteristic of BTCs. New drugs targeting the signaling pathways involved in angiogenesis have been tested in preclinical studies both in vitro and in vivo with promising results. Moreover, several clinical studies tested monoclonal antibodies against VEGF and tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the VEGF and the MEK/ERK pathways. Herein, we evaluate both the pathogenic mechanisms of BTCs focused on angiogenesis and the preclinical and clinical data available regarding the use of new anti-angiogenic drugs in these malignancies.

  20. Choledochal cyst and biliary atresia in the neonate: Imaging findings in five cases

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, J.M.; Haller, J.O.; Velcek, F.T. )

    1990-12-01

    The radiologic findings in five neonates with choledochal cyst associated with extra-hepatic biliary atresia are described. All five patients (age range, 13-72 days) presented with jaundice and acholic stools. In all four patients who underwent sonographic examination, a cystic structure separate from the gallbladder representing the choledochal cyst was shown. The diagnosis of atresia of the distal common bile duct was made preoperatively in all cases by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and was demonstrated by intraoperative cholangiography in four cases. All patients were successfully treated with surgical intervention within 1 month from the time of diagnosis. Early detection of this rare disorder, which may be distinct from choledochal cyst found in children and adults, is important to prevent fatal complications of biliary obstruction. The combined use of sonography and hepatobiliary scintigraphy can correctly identify this subset of patients with persistent neonatal jaundice and provide valuable information for prompt surgical management.

  1. [Clinical signs, diagnosis and surgical treatment of extrahepatic biliary duct tumors].

    PubMed

    Shalimov, A A; Kopchak, V M; Dronov, A I; Todurov, I M; Diachenko, V V; Duvalko, A V; Khomiak, I V; Vasil'ev, O V

    2001-06-01

    Experience of surgical treatment of 271 patients the extrahepatic biliary ducts tumor for the 1992-1999 yrs period is presented. Indirect signs of extrahepatic biliary ducts tumor were revealed in 84% of observations. Depending on the tumor localization the trustworthiness of the endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography method had constituted from 79.8 to 96.4%. Correct diagnosis was established before the operation in 94.3% of patients. Radical operation was done in 93 (34.3%) of patients, including 22 with proximal localization of tumor, 13--with central one, 10--distal, 48--terminal. Palliative operation was performed in 178 patients, in 76 of them biliodigestive anastomosis was done. Total postoperative mortality was 14.8%.

  2. Inaccurate preoperative imaging assessment on biliary anatomy not increases biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Wei, Xuyong; Ling, Qi; Wang, Kai; Bao, Haiwei; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2012-04-01

    Accurate assessment of graft bile duct is important to plan surgical procedure. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has become an important diagnostic procedure in evaluation of pancreaticobiliary ductal abnormalities and has been reported as highly accurate. We aim to estimate the efficacy of preoperative MRCP on depicting biliary anatomy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and to determine whether inaccurate preoperative imaging assessment would increase the biliary complications after LDLT. The data of 118 cases LDLT were recorded. Information from preoperative MRCP was assessed using intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) as the gold standard. The possible risk factors of recipient biliary complications were analyzed. Of 118 donors, 84 had normal anatomy (type A) and 34 had anatomic variants (19 cases of type B, 9 cases of type C, 1 case of type E, 2 cases of type F and 3 cases of type I) confirmed by IOC. MRCP correctly predicted all 84 normal cases and 17 of 34 variant cases, and showed an accuracy of 85.6% (101/118). The incidence of biliary complications was comparable between cases with accurate and inaccurate classification of biliary tree from MRCP, and between cases with normal and variant anatomy of bile duct. While cases with graft duct opening ≤5mm showed a significant higher incidence of total biliary complications (21.1% vs. 6.6%, P=0.028) and biliary stricture (10.5% vs. 1.6%, P=0.041) compared with cases with large duct opening >5mm. MRCP could correctly predict normal but not variant biliary anatomy. Inaccurate assessment of biliary anatomy from MRCP not increases the rate of biliary complications, while small-sized graft duct may cause an increase in biliary complications particularly biliary stricture after LDLT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and safety of novel digital single-operator peroral cholangioscopy-guided laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary stones

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John CT; Tang, Raymond SY; Teoh, Anthony YB; Sung, Joseph JY; Lau, James YW

    2017-01-01

    Background/study aims Laser lithotripsy can effectively fragment complicated biliary stones, but current cholangioscopes are limited by fragility, restricted mobility or moderate visual resolution. The efficacy and safety of a new digital single-operator peroral cholangioscope to guide laser lithotripsy were evaluated. Patients and methods In this prospective single-center series, consecutive patients with complicated biliary stones, defined as impacted stones > 1.5 cm in size and wider than the more distal common bile duct, or stones that failed extraction by basket mechanical lithotripsy, underwent ERCP and SpyGlass DS peroral cholangioscope (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, United States)-guided laser lithotripsy. Stone clearance rate and incidence of adverse events were determined. Results Seventeen patients (10 men, 7 women; median age 76 years) with a median biliary stone size of 2 cm underwent predominantly holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser lithotripsy, achieving a 94 % stone clearance rate over 1 median procedure. Lithotripsy was performed in 8 of 17 patients due to an impacted biliary stone. The remaining patients underwent lithotripsy due to prior failure of the basket mechanical lithotripter to capture or crush their stones. Post lithotripsy, 2 patients developed cholangitis and 1 patient with underlying COPD developed respiratory distress, all resolved with conservative management. There were no hemobilia, perforations, pancreatitis nor any deaths. Conclusion SpyGlass DS peroral cholangioscopy-guided laser lithotripsy is an efficient and safe modality for management of complicated biliary stones. PMID:28337482

  4. Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Melotti, Gianluigi; Butturini, Giovanni; Piccoli, Micaela; Casetti, Luca; Bassi, Claudio; Mullineris, Barbara; Lazzaretti, Maria Grazia; Pederzoli, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, indications, technical procedures, and outcome of a consecutive series of laparoscopic distal pancreatic resections performed by the same surgical team. Summary Background Data: Laparoscopic distal pancreatic resection has increasingly been described as a feasible and safe procedure, although accompanied by a high rate of conversion and morbidity. Methods: A consecutive series of patients affected by solid and cystic tumors were selected prospectively to undergo laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy performed by the same surgical team. Clinical characteristics as well as diagnostic preoperative assessment and intra- and postoperative data were prospectively recorded. A follow-up of at least 3 months was available for all patients. Results: Fifty-eight patients underwent laparoscopic resection between May 1999 and November 2005. All procedures were successfully performed laparoscopically, and no patient required intraoperative blood transfusion. Splenic vessel preservation was possible in 84.4% of spleen-preserving procedures. There were no mortalities. The overall median hospital stay was 9 days, while it was 10.5 days for patients with postoperative pancreatic fistulae (27.5% of all cases). Follow-up was available for all patients. Conclusions: Our experience in 58 consecutive patients was characterized by the lack of conversions and by acceptable rates of postoperative pancreatic fistulae and morbidity. Laparoscopy proved especially beneficial in patients with postoperative complications as they had a relatively short hospital stay. Solid and cystic tumors of the distal pancreas represent a good indication for laparoscopic resection whenever possible. PMID:17592294

  5. Malignant hyperthermia

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling is recommended for anyone with a family history of myopathy, muscular dystrophy, or malignant ... et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine . 17th ed. [online version]. New York, NY: McGraw ...

  6. Do We Really Need Additional Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal Computed Tomography for Differential Diagnosis in Triage of Middle-Aged Subjects With Suspected Biliary Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Kyeom; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jaihwan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enhanced computed tomography (CT) is widely used for evaluating acute biliary pain in the emergency department (ED). However, concern about radiation exposure from CT has also increased. We investigated the usefulness of pre-contrast CT for differential diagnosis in middle-aged subjects with suspected biliary pain. A total of 183 subjects, who visited the ED for suspected biliary pain from January 2011 to December 2012, were included. Retrospectively, pre-contrast phase and multiphase CT findings were reviewed and the detection rate of findings suggesting disease requiring significant treatment by noncontrast CT (NCCT) was compared with cases detected by multiphase CT. Approximately 70% of total subjects had a significant condition, including 1 case of gallbladder cancer and 126 (68.8%) cases requiring intervention (122 biliary stone-related diseases, 3 liver abscesses, and 1 liver hemangioma). The rate of overlooking malignancy without contrast enhancement was calculated to be 0% to 1.5%. Biliary stones and liver space-occupying lesions were found equally on NCCT and multiphase CT. Calculated probable rates of overlooking acute cholecystitis and biliary obstruction were maximally 6.8% and 4.2% respectively. Incidental significant finding unrelated with pain consisted of 1 case of adrenal incidentaloma, which was also observed in NCCT. NCCT might be sufficient to detect life-threatening or significant disease requiring early treatment in young adults with biliary pain. PMID:25700321

  7. Sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Schulman, A; Loxton, A J; Heydenrych, J J; Abdurahman, K E

    1982-09-01

    In a prospective 6 month study, sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made in 12 patients: In five, the diagnosis was confirmed by other means, mainly intravenous cholangiography. In three, such confirmation was not sought, but all had proven intestinal infestation. One possible and three definite false-positive diagnoses were made. There were no established false-negative diagnoses. The echogenic, nonshadowing images of the worms were seen in the main bile duct and/or gallbladder as single strips (on one occasion with its digestive tract seen as an anechoic "inner tube"), as multiple strips giving a spaghettilike appearance, as coils, or as more amorphous fragments. Follow-up sonograms were obtained in six patients and showed expulsion of the worms by medical treatment.

  8. The rise of the FGFR inhibitor in advanced biliary cancer: the next cover of time magazine?

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Sumera

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are heterogeneous tumors arising from the biliary tract with features of cholangiocyte differentiation. CCAs are aggressive tumors with limited treatment options and poor overall survival. Only a subset of CCA patients with early stage disease can avail potentially curative treatment options. For advanced biliary tract tumors, currently there are limited effective treatment modalities. Recent advances have provided greater insight into the genomic landscape of CCAs. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway is involved in key cellular processes essential to survival and differentiation. Accordingly, aberrant FGFR signaling has significant oncogenic potential. Recent discovery of FGFR2 gene fusions in CCA has heightened interest in FGFR inhibition in advanced biliary tract cancer. These findings have served as a catalyst for ongoing clinical investigation of FGFR inhibition in CCA patients with various FGFR signaling abnormalities. Herein, we review FGFR aberrations in CCA and their prognostic implications, FGFR targeting as a viable therapeutic option in advanced biliary tract malignancies, and future directions for development of combination approaches utilizing FGFR inhibition. PMID:27747092

  9. The rise of the FGFR inhibitor in advanced biliary cancer: the next cover of time magazine?

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sumera; Borad, Mitesh J

    2016-10-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are heterogeneous tumors arising from the biliary tract with features of cholangiocyte differentiation. CCAs are aggressive tumors with limited treatment options and poor overall survival. Only a subset of CCA patients with early stage disease can avail potentially curative treatment options. For advanced biliary tract tumors, currently there are limited effective treatment modalities. Recent advances have provided greater insight into the genomic landscape of CCAs. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway is involved in key cellular processes essential to survival and differentiation. Accordingly, aberrant FGFR signaling has significant oncogenic potential. Recent discovery of FGFR2 gene fusions in CCA has heightened interest in FGFR inhibition in advanced biliary tract cancer. These findings have served as a catalyst for ongoing clinical investigation of FGFR inhibition in CCA patients with various FGFR signaling abnormalities. Herein, we review FGFR aberrations in CCA and their prognostic implications, FGFR targeting as a viable therapeutic option in advanced biliary tract malignancies, and future directions for development of combination approaches utilizing FGFR inhibition.

  10. Autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D

    2000-01-01

    The automimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterised by serum autoantibodies directed at mitochondrial and nuclear antigens (seen in most patients and a subset of patients, respectively). The antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) characteristic of PBC are directed at members of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase components of multienzyme complexes; in particular, the E2 and E3 binding protein (E3BP) components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The presence of autoantibodies reactive with PDC-E2 and/or E3BP is strongly predictive of the presence of PBC. Therefore, the detection of these antibodies plays a very important role in the diagnosis of PBC. Originally demonstrated using immunofluorescence approaches, AMA can now be detected by the use of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Although the ELISA based approaches have advantages in terms of laboratory practicality, they are slightly less sensitive for the diagnosis of PBC than immunofluorescence (occasional patients with PBC show reactivity with PDC related antigens not present in the antigen preparations available for use with ELISA). Therefore, immunofluorescence should continue to be available as a complementary diagnostic test for use in occasional patients. In a subset of patients with PBC, autoantibodies are directed at increasingly well characterised nuclear antigens. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive patients are typically AMA negative. There are no significant differences in disease phenotype between AMA positive and AMA negative groups. At present, the clinical detection of ANA is mostly by Hep2 immunofluorescence, although ELISA kits for individual nuclear antigens are increasingly becoming available. Key Words: liver cirrhosis • biliary • autoimmunity • autoantibody PMID:11127262

  11. Endoscopic management of biliary hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Akkiz, Hikmet; Akinoglu, Alper; Çolakoglu, Salih; Demiryürek, Haluk; Yagmur, Özgür

    1996-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of biliary hydatid disease. Design A case study between January 1992 and December 1994. Setting A university-affiliated hospital in Adana, Turkey. Patients Five patients with biliary hydatid disease, in which the cyst had ruptured into the biliary tree. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. Intervention Endoscopic sphincterotomy. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results All patients underwent successful endoscopic sphincterotomy, including removal of daughter cysts. During the follow-up period, ultrasonography and laboratory investigations showed complete cure in all patients. There were no complications due to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Conclusion Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for the management of hydatid cysts that have ruptured into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. PMID:8697318

  12. Contemporary Management of Biliary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    George, Josh; Baillie, John

    2005-03-01

    Biliary tract infections are a worldwide problem, with a large financial burden on health care. Biliary infections can result from multiple causes, but the most common culprit is cholelithiasis. In the past decade, our knowledge of the mechanism of disease, microbiology of infections, and management options has grown enormously. Although at times perplexing, it is important to understand this information to allow for efficient, quality, and cost-effective health care.

  13. Anthony Eden's (Lord Avon) biliary tract saga.

    PubMed

    Braasch, John W

    2003-11-01

    Anthony Eden (Lord Avon) was the youngest foreign secretary in Great Britain's history. He subsequently became Prime Minister, succeeding Winston Churchill. Eden had the misfortune to have, during cholecystectomy, a biliary tract injury which required four subsequent biliary tract operations. He was subject to recurrent fevers and postoperative disability at important times in his career and during international crises. This report details the operative procedures used and his clinical status at crucial times in national and international affairs.

  14. Percutaneous management of postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E A

    2008-06-01

    Postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures can occur after surgery in bile ducts belonging to transplanted or native (nontransplanted) livers. The majority of postoperative anastomotic strictures encountered by interventional radiologists are most likely in liver transplant recipients due to the large and growing liver transplant recipient population worldwide compared with patients with native livers and biliary enteric anastomoses. They occur after 2.5 to 13% of liver transplantations and they represent at least one-half of biliary strictures encountered after liver transplantation. Anastomotic biliary strictures are considered technical in nature, accentuated by fibrosis and scarring that may be secondary to, if not exacerbated by, graft ischemia. There are numerous variables in the percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation protocols applied to treat anastomotic biliary strictures. These include (1) types of balloons, (2) how long balloons are inflated, (3) how frequently patients return for additional dilation sessions, and (4) the interval(s) at which they return. No alteration in these variables has proven to improve long-term patency. In addition, new technology such as cutting balloons and stents has not been fully evaluated to determine their effect on long-term patency. The current article describes the overall theme of balloon dilation protocols for the management of anastomotic biliary strictures and discusses possible future management of such strictures.

  15. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  16. Status evaluation: biliary stents. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Technology Assessment Committee.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D A; DiMarino, A J; Jensen, D M; Katon, R M; Kimmey, M B; Laine, L A; MacFaydyen, B V; Michaletz-Onody, P A; Zuckerman, G

    1992-01-01

    Large caliber plastic stents (10 to 11.5 French) have become widely accepted as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of many malignant and benign lesions of the biliary tract. Procedure-related early complications occur at an acceptable rate (8 to 10%) and procedure-related mortality is approximately 2%. Late clogging occurs at a mean of 4 to 6 months. This results in the need to change a clogged stent in 20 to 35% of surviving patients with malignant disease. In benign or malignant disease, when long-term stenting is desired, it is generally recommended to prophylactically replace the stent every 4 to 6 months to avoid clogging. While several mechanisms of clogging have been elucidated, research studies have failed to lead to a clinically available improvement in duration of patency. The role of expandable metal stents in the treatment of malignant and benign biliary strictures has not been established. Despite their large internal diameter, they may be associated with late problems related to stent clogging from tumor ingrowth or overgrowth. Technical difficulties and expense, as well as lack of data from prospective randomized trials, limit current recommendation for their use at this time.

  17. Distal Radioulnar Joint Instability

    PubMed Central

    Mirghasemi, Ali R.; Lee, Daniel J.; Rahimi, Narges; Rashidinia, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability is a common clinical condition but a frequently missed diagnosis. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are possible for chronic cases of DRUJ instability. Nonsurgical treatment can be considered as the primary therapy in less active patients, while surgery should be considered to recover bone and ligament injuries if nonsurgical treatment fails to restore forearm stability and function. The appropriate choice of treatment depends on the individual patient and specific derangement of the DRUJ PMID:26328241

  18. Postcholecystectomy syndrome: evaluation using biliary scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Burrell, M.I.; Dobbins, J.; Jaffe, M.K.; Choyke, P.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors prospectively studied 30 patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome to determine the efficacy of biliary scintigraphy in the detection of stenosis of the sphincter of Oddi. All patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Biliary scintigraphy disclosed stenosis of the sphincter by agreement with the ERCP or surgical findings in nine (90%) of ten patients and in eight (100%) of eight patients with biliary obstruction from other causes. Retention of activity at 2 hours in visually prominent ducts was the best predictor of abnormal biliary drainage. Biliary scintigraphy is a useful, noninvasive screening test for the detection of postcholecystectomy biliary obstruction.

  19. Laser ablation of a biliary duct for treatment of a persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula.

    PubMed

    Eicher, Chad A; Adelson, Anthony B; Himmelberg, Jeffrey A; Chintalapudi, Udaya

    2008-02-01

    A persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula detected after biliary drainage catheter removal could not be resolved with diversionary techniques and Gelfoam and fibrin glue administration in the fistulous tract. As an alternative approach for treatment of the fistula, obliteration of the contributing bile duct with laser ablation was performed.

  20. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

  1. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  2. [Biliary-duodenal fistula following radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Gill; Park, Sung Jae; Koo, Ho Suk; Park, Sang Won; Park, Eun Tack; Lee, Youn Jae; Lee, Sang Hyuk; Seol, Sang Young

    2008-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms occurring worldwide. Surgical resection currently provides the best chance of long-term tumor free survival, but the most HCCs are not candidates for surgical excision due to poor liver function or poor medical background. Numerous noninvasive alternatives to surgical resection have been introduced to treat liver cancers. Radiofrequency thermal ablation has begun to receive much attention as an effective and minimally invasive technique for the local control of HCC. The biliary system related complications after radiofrequency ablation has rarely been reported. We report a case of biliary-duodenal fistula with liver abscess after radiofrequency ablation for HCC. The case was treated by abscess drainage and antibiotics.

  3. A case of biliary gastric fistula following percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Falco, Angela; Orlando, Dante; Sciarra, Roberto; Sergiacomo, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) is an effective and safe therapeutic modality in the management of liver malignancies, performed with ultrasound guidance. Potential complications of RFA include liver abscess, ascites, pleural effusion, skin burn, hypoxemia, pneumothorax, subcapsular hematoma, hemoperitoneum, liver failure, tumour seeding, biliary lesions. Here we describe for the first time a case of biliary gastric fistula occurred in a 66-year old man with a Child’s class A alcoholic liver cirrhosis as a complication of RFA of a large hepatocellular carcinoma lesion in the III segment. In the light of this case, RFA with injection of saline between the liver and adjacent gastrointestinal tract, as well as laparoscopic RFA, ethanol injection (PEI), or other techniques such as chemoembolization, appear to be more indicated than percutaneous RFA for large lesions close to the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:17278208

  4. Distal pancreatectomy: en-bloc splenectomy vs spleen-preserving pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Orduña, David; Cesar-Borges, Gleydson; Angel López-Boado, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Distal pancreatectomy with en-bloc splenectomy has been considered the standard technique for management of benign and malignant pancreatic disorders. However, splenic preservation has recently been advocated. The aim of this study was to review the experiences of distal pancreatectomy using the open or the laparoscopic approach and to critically discuss the need to perform splenectomy. Original articles published in the English literature of peer-reviewed medical journals were selected for detailed analysis. In patients with malignant neoplasms in the body-tail of the pancreas, splenectomy has a negative influence on long-term survival after resection. The incidence of diabetes after spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis is less than after en-bloc splenectomy. Spleen salvage eliminates the risk of overwhelming infections. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy may be preferable for the advantages of a minimally invasive approach. PMID:18333170

  5. Forgotten biliary stents: ignorance is not bliss.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saket; Chandra, Abhijit; Kulkarni, Rugved; Maurya, Ajeet Pratap; Gupta, Vishal

    2017-06-22

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is a common procedure in routine gastroenterology practice. Plastic stents are the most common type of stents used and are indicated mainly for short-term biliary drainage. Prolonged indwelling plastic stents can result in disastrous complications. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who presented with complications of forgotten biliary stents in a tertiary care hospital during January 2010 to October 2016. All patients were managed either by endoscopic or surgical means. Details of these patients were obtained from departmental patient database, endoscopy records, and surgical register. A total of 21 cases of retained biliary stents were managed in the study period and their outcome was analyzed. The median age was 47 years (range 17-70 years) and 17 (80.9%) patients were female. Primary indication of biliary stenting was stone disease in 76.2% (n = 16), while benign biliary stricture accounted for 19% of cases (n = 4). Mean duration at presentation to hospital after ERCP stenting was 3.53 years (range 1-14 years), with cholangitis being the most common presentation (66.67%). Definitive endoscopic treatment for forgotten stent and its associated complication was possible only in five patients (23.8%); in remaining 16 (76.2%) cases, surgical exploration was required. Despite life-threatening complications and major surgical interventions, no mortality was recorded. Instances of forgotten biliary stents presenting with serious complications are not uncommon in Indian setup. Patients either ignore advice for timely stent removal or are unaware of the presence of endoprosthesis or need for removal. Adequate patient counseling, information, and proper documentation are essential to avoid this condition.

  6. GWAS in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gulamhusein, Aliya F.; Juran, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been a significant technological advance in our ability to evaluate the genetic architecture of complex diseases such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC). To date, six large-scale studies have been performed which identified 27 non-HLA risk loci associated with PBC. The identified risk variants emphasize important disease concepts; namely, that disturbances in immunoregulatory pathways are important in the pathogenesis of PBC and that such perturbations are shared among a diverse number of autoimmune diseases – suggesting the risk architecture may confer a generalized propensity to autoimmunity not necessarily specific to PBC. Furthermore, the impact of non-HLA risk variants, particularly in genes involved with IL-12 signaling, and ethnic variation in conferring susceptibility to PBC have been highlighted. While GWAS have been a critical stepping-stone in understanding common genetic variation contributing to PBC, limitations pertaining to power, sample availability, and strong linkage disequilibrium across genes have left us with an incomplete understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease pathogenesis. Future efforts to gain insight into this missing heritability, the genetic variation that contributes to important disease outcomes and the functional consequences of associated variants will be critical if practical clinical translation is to be realized. PMID:26676814

  7. [Primary biliary cirrhosis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Bernuau, J; Luton, D

    2014-05-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, asymptomatic during a protracted time, characterized by changes in the small-sized bile ducts near portal spaces. The etiology of PBC is undefined, but immunologic and environmental disturbances may contribute to the disease. Infertility is often associated with PBC and cirrhosis, but pregnancy may well occur in women with PBC and without cirrhosis or in some others with compensated cirrhosis. A pluridisciplinary approach including gastroenterologists and obstetricians is recommended. The patient must be closely monitored throughout her pregnancy with maternal and routine antenatal care. Medical treatment requires ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In non-cirrhotic UDCA-treated women with PBC, pregnancy often follows a normal course with vaginal delivery. In cirrhotic patients, UDCA must be continued during pregnancy, esophageal and gastric varices must be evaluated before pregnancy, and endoscopic ligature is recommended for treating large varices. Additionally, beta-blocker therapy may be associated, especially when variceal rupture occurred previously. Elective cesarean section is recommended in patients with large esophageal or gastric varices because of the potentially increased risk of variceal bleeding during maternal expulsive efforts in case of vaginal delivery.

  8. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  9. Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Falchero, F.; Valentini, M.; Ciambellotti, E.; Becchi, G.

    1985-04-01

    Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging was performed in 11 jaundiced patients before, during, and after biliary decompression. The rates of plasma clearances and radionuclide accumulation in liver cells and biliary tree were calculated, in addition to the uptake and retention index.

  10. Management of Biliary Strictures After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.

    2015-01-01

    Strictures of the bile duct are a well-recognized complication of liver transplant and account for more than 50% of all biliary complications after deceased donor liver transplant and living donor liver transplant. Biliary strictures that develop after transplant are classified as anastomotic strictures or nonanastomotic strictures, depending on their location in the bile duct. The incidence, etiology, natural history, and response to therapy of the 2 types vary greatly, so their distinction is clinically important. The imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of biliary strictures is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography because of its high rate of diagnostic accuracy and limited risk of complications. Biliary strictures that develop after liver transplant may be managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), or surgical revision, including retransplant. The initial treatment of choice for these strictures is ERC with progressive balloon dilation and the placement of increasing numbers of plastic stents. PTC and surgery are generally reserved for failures of endoscopic therapy or for anatomic variants that are not suitable for ERC. In this article, we discuss the classification of biliary strictures, their diagnosis, and the therapeutic strategies that can be used to manage these common complications of liver transplant. PMID:27482175

  11. Biliary Cast Syndrome in an Opium Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Reza; Aghdae, Hamid Asadzadeh; Rajabalinia, Hasan; Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang

    2013-01-01

    Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon complication which is mostly described in orthotopic liver transplantation. However, BCS has also been reported rarely in non-liver transplant patients. We describe a male long-term opium inhaler with BCS who underwent successful endoscopic cast removal by balloon enteroscopy-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A 52-year-old man, who was a known case of opium addiction, presented with the chief complaint of epigastric pain for 1 week prior to admission. Routine laboratory evaluation revealed cholestatic liver enzyme elevation. A cholestatic pattern was seen in radiographic modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a linear filling defect in the intra- and extrahepatic duct. A long biliary cast was successfully removed using an extractor balloon. After removal of the biliary cast the patient is receiving ursodeoxycholic acid and does not report any problem 4 months after treatment. It seems that biliary dyskinesia due to long-term opium use can be a predisposing factor for biliary cast formation. PMID:24163648

  12. [Dynamic biliary manometry: display modelling and graphic interpretation].

    PubMed

    Tkachuk, O L; Shevchuk, I M

    2003-10-01

    Tendencies of development of biliary manometry have been analyzed. Key advantages and problems of manometric investigation of biliary tracts have been summarized. New method of graphic registration and pressure monitoring in biliary tracts called biliary manometry has been suggested. Characteristic types of manometric curves were determined using stand modelling, their physical and mathematical analysis was conducted, clinical analogues have been suggested. The emphasis has been made on expediency of its further elaboration and clinical application.

  13. Distal tibiofibular radiological overlap

    PubMed Central

    Sowman, B.; Radic, R.; Kuster, M.; Yates, P.; Breidiel, B.; Karamfilef, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Overlap between the distal tibia and fibula has always been quoted to be positive. If the value is not positive then an injury to the syndesmosis is thought to exist. Our null hypothesis is that it is a normal variant in the adult population. Methods We looked at axial CT scans of the ankle in 325 patients for the presence of overlap between the distal tibia and fibula. Where we thought this was possible we reconstructed the images to represent a plain film radiograph which we were able to rotate and view in multiple planes to confirm the assessment. Results The scans were taken for reasons other than pathology of the ankle. We found there was no overlap in four patients. These patients were then questioned about previous injury, trauma, surgery or pain, in order to exclude underlying pathology. Conclusion We concluded that no overlap between the tibia and fibula may exist in the population, albeit in a very small proportion. PMID:23610666

  14. Open Reduction, Internal Fixation Distal Intraarticular Distal Humerus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the surgical repair of an intraarticular distal humerus fracture. A polytrauma patient with an intraarticular distal humerus fracture is shown. The patient is positioned laterally, with a posterior skin incision and olecranon osteotomy for exposure. An anatomic reduction is achieved, and internal fixation with perpendicular plating of the distal humerus is performed. The video is 18 minutes, 34 seconds duration in time and 2,048,752,000 bytes in size. Open reduction with internal fixation of a distal humerus fracture is demonstrated in this video.

  15. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures. PMID:27044769

  16. Biliary atresia: Where do we stand now?

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from clinical suspicion to establishing the diagnosis of biliary atresia in a child with jaundice is a daunting task. However, investigations available help to point towards the correct diagnosis in reasonable time frame. Imaging by Sonography has identified several parameters which can be of utility in the diagnostic work up. Comparison of Sonography with imaging by Nuclear medicine can bring out the significant differences and also help in appropriate imaging. The battery of Biochemical tests, available currently, enable better understanding of the line-up of investigations in a given child with neonatal cholestasis. Management protocols enable standardized care with optimal outcome. The place of surgical management in biliary atresia is undisputed, although Kasai procedure and primary liver transplantation have been pitted against each other. This article functions as a platform to bring forth the various dimensions of biliary atresia. PMID:28083081

  17. [RACAND syndrome associated with primary biliary cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Abouzahir, A; Badaoui, M; Amezyane, T; Fatihi, J; Chahdi, H; Albouzidi, A; Mahassin, F; Ghafir, D; Ohayon, V

    2010-07-01

    The acronym RACAND means the association of Raynaud's phenomenon, anticentromere antibodies and digital necrosis without digital sclerosis. It is a rare syndrome recently individualised. The association with primary biliary cirrhosis has never been previously reported, and leads to discuss its nosology. A 57-year-old woman with a history of Raynaud's phenomenon, presented with recurrent episodes of fingers and toes necrosis. Clinical examination did not evidence digital sclerosis. Anticentromere antibody titer was high. There was no oesophageal or lung involvement. A liver biopsy performed because of moderate increase in liver enzymes showed histological lesions of primary biliary cirrhosis. Treatment with iloprost, platelet aggregation inhibitors and anticalcic drugs could not avoid amputation of several toes. It is possible that anticentromere antibodies are directly toxic to vascular endothelial cells and result in a diffuse or localized vasculopathy. The association with primary biliary cirrhosis is in favour of autoimmune condition of both vascular and ductular endothelial cells.

  18. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-03-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures.

  19. Biliary atresia: Where do we stand now?

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar

    2016-12-28

    The pathway from clinical suspicion to establishing the diagnosis of biliary atresia in a child with jaundice is a daunting task. However, investigations available help to point towards the correct diagnosis in reasonable time frame. Imaging by Sonography has identified several parameters which can be of utility in the diagnostic work up. Comparison of Sonography with imaging by Nuclear medicine can bring out the significant differences and also help in appropriate imaging. The battery of Biochemical tests, available currently, enable better understanding of the line-up of investigations in a given child with neonatal cholestasis. Management protocols enable standardized care with optimal outcome. The place of surgical management in biliary atresia is undisputed, although Kasai procedure and primary liver transplantation have been pitted against each other. This article functions as a platform to bring forth the various dimensions of biliary atresia.

  20. Obstructive jaundice induced by biliary ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Aine; Quigley, James Aidan; Genterola, Al Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections, especially in developing countries. Its presence can lead to a multitude of presentations, one of the rarer ones being obstructive jaundice due to migration of the worm in to the biliary tree. We describe a case of a man who presented as an emergency to the general surgeons complaining of abdominal pain, fever, jaundice and vomiting. Ultrasound was used and the diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made. The patient underwent surgery consisting of a cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration and T-tube choledochostomy. Our report highlights the varied aetiology of obstructive jaundice and the importance of including biliary ascariasis in the differential diagnosis of the jaundiced patient, especially from endemic areas. PMID:23239771

  1. Nervous and Neuroendocrine regulation of the pathophysiology of cholestasis and of biliary carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marzioni, Marco; Fava, Giammarco; Benedetti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the biliary ducts, are the target cells in several liver diseases. Cholangiopathies and cholangiocarcinoma generate interest in many scientists since the genesis. The developing mechanisms, and the therapeutic tools of these diseases are still undefined. Several studies demonstrate that many hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters regulate malignant and non-malignant cholangiocyte pathophysiology in the course of chronic biliary diseases. The aim of this review is to present the findings of several studies published in the recent years that contributed to clarifying the role of nervous and neuroendocrine regulation of the pathophysiologic events associated with cholestasis and cholangiocarcinoma development. This manuscript is organized into two parts. The first part offers an overview of the innervation of the liver and the origin of neuroendocrine hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides affecting cholangiocyte function and metabolism. The first section also reviews the effects played by several neuroendocrine hormones and nervous system on cholangiocyte growth, survival and functional activity in the course of cholestasis. In the second section, we summarize the results of some studies describing the role of nervous system and neuroendocrine hormones in the regulation of malignant cholangiocyte growth. PMID:16773704

  2. Broncho-biliary fistula secondary to biliary obstruction and lung abscess in a patient with pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dipanjan; Aggarwal, Mayank; Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Sachin; Mukund, Amar; Baghmar, Saphalta

    2016-06-01

    We present a case report of broncho-biliary fistula that developed due to the blockage of biliary stent placed during the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET); diagnosed on high clinical suspicion, percutaneous cholangiogram and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT); and successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).

  3. Chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the distal tibia: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Fredj, Aymen Ben; Hassini, Lassaad; Fekih, Aymen; Allagui, Mohamed; Aloui, Issam; Abid, Abderrazek

    2017-01-01

    Chondroblastic osteosarcoma, representing about 25% of osteosarcoma, is a fatal primary malignancy of the skeleton if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. It most commonly occurs in the long bones of the extremities near the metaphyseal growth plates. In this report, we describe the occurrence of chondroblastic osteosarcoma involving the left distal tibia in a 14-year-old male. The diagnosis was confirmed by the histological examination of a surgical biopsy. The patient was treated by both surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. No recurrence was noted at 3 years of follow-up. To our knowledge, only two cases describing chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the distal tibia had been reported through English medical literature. Therefore, the aim of our article is to make the clinician aware of this rare clinical presentation and also to provide a comprehensive review of the literature related to this uncommon malignant tumour.

  4. Sox17 haploinsufficiency results in perinatal biliary atresia and hepatitis in C57BL/6 background mice

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Mami; Ozawa, Aisa; Nagata, Takumi; Kurasawa, Kaoruko; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Taga, Tetsuya; Hara, Kenshiro; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Saijoh, Yukio; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2013-01-01

    Congenital biliary atresia is an incurable disease of newborn infants, of unknown genetic causes, that results in congenital deformation of the gallbladder and biliary duct system. Here, we show that during mouse organogenesis, insufficient SOX17 expression in the gallbladder and bile duct epithelia results in congenital biliary atresia and subsequent acute ‘embryonic hepatitis’, leading to perinatal death in ~95% of the Sox17 heterozygote neonates in C57BL/6 (B6) background mice. During gallbladder and bile duct development, Sox17 was expressed at the distal edge of the gallbladder primordium. In the Sox17+/− B6 embryos, gallbladder epithelia were hypoplastic, and some were detached from the luminal wall, leading to bile duct stenosis or atresia. The shredding of the gallbladder epithelia is probably caused by cell-autonomous defects in proliferation and maintenance of the Sox17+/− gallbladder/bile duct epithelia. Our results suggest that Sox17 plays a dosage-dependent function in the morphogenesis and maturation of gallbladder and bile duct epithelia during the late-organogenic stages, highlighting a novel entry point to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of human congenital biliary atresia. PMID:23293295

  5. Polysomy and p16 deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Tamas A; Glick, Michael P; Sethi, Amrita; Poneros, John M; Palmas, Walter; Iqbal, Shahzad; Gonzalez, Susana; Nandula, Subhadra V; Emond, Jean C; Brown, Robert S; Murty, Vundavalli V; Stevens, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures is limited because of the low sensitivity of cytology. However, an accurate diagnosis of malignancy is critical in the management of patients with suspected biliary malignancy. Testing for chromosomal aneuploidy by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may increase the yield. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FISH in indeterminate biliary strictures and the additional value of including deletion of 9p21 (p16) in the diagnostic criteria of malignant biliary strictures. Retrospective review. Academic medical center. This study involved 76 consecutive patients who were seen for the evaluation of indeterminate strictures at our institution. These patients were screened, and 50 patients with either a final pathologic diagnosis or ≥ 12 months' conclusive follow-up were included in the analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) analysis of cytology alone compared with the presence of FISH polysomy versus FISH polysomy and 9p21 deletion. The presence of increased copy numbers (polysomy) of chromosome 3, 7, or 17 by FISH increased the sensitivity of brush cytology from 21% to 58%, and when the presence of 9p21 deletion was included, the sensitivity increased to 89%. The specificity of FISH was 97% (vs 100% for cytology). The accuracy of cytology combined with FISH polysomy (AUC = 0.93) or p16 deletion was significantly greater than the accuracy of cytology alone (AUC 0.6; P < .001) or even cytology combined with FISH polysomy (AUC = 0.77; P ≤ .05). Sample size. There is a relatively high incidence of malignant biliary strictures in the entire cohort but low incidence among primary sclerosing cholangitis patients, and the majority of cancers are cholangiocarcinomas (as opposed to pancreatic). FISH significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy of brush cytology in indeterminate biliary strictures. In our series, the addition of 9p21 deletion to FISH polysomy and cytology further improved

  6. Interstitial microwave-induced hyperthermia and iridium brachytherapy for the treatment of obstructing biliary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, C T; Wong, T Z; Ryan, T P; Jones, E L; Crichlow, R W; Spiegel, P K; Jeffery, R

    1992-01-01

    In a phase I clinical study, 10 patients with obstructive biliary carcinomas were treated with single-antenna interstitial microwave hyperthermia and iridium-192 brachytherapy. For each patient a standard biliary drainage catheter was implanted percutaneously through the obstructed common bile duct. This catheter accommodated a single microwave antenna which operated at 915 MHz, and one or two fibreoptic thermometry probes for temperature measurement. Under fluoroscopic guidance the microwave antenna and temperature probes were positioned in the CT-determined tumour mass. The 60-min heat treatment achieved a central tumour temperature of 45-55 degrees C while keeping temperatures at the proximal and distal margins at 43 degrees C. Immediately following the hyperthermia treatment the microwave antenna and temperature probes were removed, and a single strand of iridium-192 double-strength seeds was inserted to irradiate the tumour length. A dose of 5500-7900 cGy calculated at 0.5 cm radially from the catheter was administered over 5-7 days. Upon removal of the iridium a second hyperthermia treatment was performed. A total of 18 hyperthermia treatments were administered to the 10 patients. In two cases the second hyperthermia treatment after brachytherapy was not possible due to a kink in the catheter, or bile precipitation in the catheter. All patients tolerated the procedure well, and there were no acute complications. To evaluate the volumetric heating potential of this hyperthermia method, specific absorption rate (SAR) values were measured at 182 planar points in muscle phantom. Insulated and non-insulated antenna performance was tested at 915 MHz in a biliary catheter filled with air, saline, or bile to mimic clinical treatments. The insulated antenna exhibited the best performance. Differences between antenna performance in saline and bile were also noted. In summary, this technique may have potential for tumours which obstruct biliary drainage and are

  7. Distal arthrogryposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, K. P.; Panigrahi, I.; Ray, M.; Marwaha, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    A 5-month-old male infant presented with weak cry, decreased body movements, tightness of whole body since birth, and one episode of generalized seizure on day 4 of life. He was born at term by elective caesarian section performed for breech presentation. The child had failure to thrive, contractures at elbow and knee joints, hypertonia, microcephaly, small mouth, retrognathia, and camptodactyly. There was global developmental delay. Abdominal examination revealed umbilical and bilateral inguinal hernia. Visual evoked response and brainstem evoked response audiometry were abnormal. Nerve conduction velocity was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed paucity of white matter in bilateral cerebral hemispheres with cerebellar and brain stem atrophy. The differential diagnoses considered in the index patient were distal arthrogryposis (DA) syndrome, cerebroculofacioskeletal syndrome, and Pena Shokier syndrome. The index patient most likely represents a variant of DA: Sheldon Hall syndrome. PMID:20300297

  8. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  9. Closure of a controlled biliary fistula complicating partial cholecystectomy with endoscopic biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Burton, F

    1992-02-01

    An elderly woman presented 2 months after partial cholecystectomy performed for gangrenous cholecystitis with choledocholithiasis and a controlled biliary fistula. Despite ductal clearance of stones via endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy and stone extraction, bilious drainage via the fistulous tract persisted. Endoscopic insertion of a 10F Amsterdam endoprosthesis resulted in complete closure of the fistula within 6 wk. This case represents the first example of closure of a biliary fistula after partial cholecystectomy.

  10. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

  11. [PRIMARY BILIARY LIVER CIRRHOSIS: MODERN CONCEPTS].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ya S

    2015-01-01

    Modern data on primary biliary liver cirrhosis are presented including the definition, prevalence, possible etiological factors, and detailed description of pathogenesis (autoimmune mechanisms, intrahepatic cholestasis, hereditary predisposition, environmental factors) and clinical picture. Also considered are complications and concomitant diseases, methods of laboratory, instrumental and morphological diagnostics, approaches to medicamental treatment and its effectiveness, indications for liver transplantation.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes-Associated Biliary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis. In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases. Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32–85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n = 6), IIb (n = 5), and IIa (n = 1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P = 0.033). Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  13. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Cantin, R Y; Poole, A; Ryan, J F

    1986-10-01

    The increasing use of intravenous and inhalation sedation in the dental office has the potential of increasing the incidence of malignant hyperthermia (MH) in susceptible subjects. The object of this article is to present two cases of MH and to discuss its pathophysiology, its clinical picture, and its management in the light of the current literature. Stringent screening procedures should be adopted and maintained in order to channel suspected cases to appropriate centers for expert consultation and management. It is further advocated that a program of education for patients and their families be instituted, as it is an essential prerequisite of effective prophylaxis.

  14. Percutaneous Cholangioscopy in the Management of Biliary Disease: Experience in 25 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Alexandrakis, George; Kouroumalis, Helias; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C.

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: To present our experience performing percutaneous cholangioscopy in the management of 25 patients with biliary disease.Methods: During the last 3 years, 26 percutaneous cholangioscopies were performed in 25 patients with common bile duct disease (n = 16), intrahepatic ducts disease (n = 6), and gallbladder disease (n = 4). Our patient population group included seven with common bile duct stones, three with intrahepatic lithiasis, and eight with benign strictures (six iatrogenic and two postinflammatory). In four patients malignancy was to be excluded, in two the tumor extent was to be evaluated, whereas in one case the correct placement of a metallic stent needed to be controlled. A 9.9 Fr flexible endoscope URF-P (Olympus, 1.2 mm working channel, 70-cm length) was used.Results: In total, percutaneous cholangioscopy answered 30 diagnostic questions, was technically helpful in 19 cases (performing lithotripsy or biopsy or guiding a wire), and of therapeutic help in 12 (performing stone retrieval). In 24 of 26 cases the therapeutic decision and the patient management changed because of the findings or because of the help of the method. In two cases biliary intervention failed to treat the cause of the disease. No major complication due to the use of the endoscopy was noted.Conclusions: Percutaneous cholangioscopy is a very useful tool in the management of patients with biliary disease. The method can help in diagnosis, in performing complex interventional procedures, and in making or changing therapeutic decisions.

  15. Practical Immunohistochemistry in Neoplastic Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract, and Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlin L; Kim, Christopher J; Koo, Jamie; Zhou, Wendi; Choi, Eunice K; Arcega, Ramir; Chen, Zongming Eric; Wang, Huamin; Zhang, Lanjing; Lin, Fan

    2017-09-01

    - Immunomarkers with diagnostic, therapeutic, or prognostic values have been increasingly used to maximize the benefits of clinical management of patients with neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. - To review the characteristics of immunomarkers that are commonly used in surgical pathology practice for neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas, and to summarize the clinical usefulness of immunomarkers that have been discovered in recent years in these fields. - Data sources include literature review, authors' research data, and personal practice experience. - Immunohistochemistry is an indispensable tool for the accurate diagnosis of neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. Useful immunomarkers are available to help distinguish malignant neoplasms from benign conditions, determine organ origins, and subclassify neoplasms that are morphologically and biologically heterogeneous. Specific immunomarkers are also available to help guide patient treatment and assess disease aggressiveness, which are keys to the success of personalized medicine. Pathologists will continue to play a critical role in the discovery, validation, and application of new biomarkers, which will ultimately improve patient care.

  16. Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    PubMed

    Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; George, Sam Varghese; Chacko, Raju Titus; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  17. Malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an uncommon, life-threatening pharmacogenetic disorder of the skeletal muscle. It presents as a hypermetabolic response in susceptible individuals to potent volatile anesthetics with/without depolarizing muscle relaxants; in rare cases, to stress from exertion or heat stress. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MHS) is inherited as an autosomally dominant trait with variable expression and incomplete penetrance. It is known that the pathophysiology of MH is related to an uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes resulting in hypermetabolism of the skeletal muscle. In most cases, defects in the ryanodine receptor are responsible for the functional changes of calcium regulation in MH, and more than 300 mutations have been identified in the RYR1 gene, located on chromosome 19q13.1. The classic signs of MH include increase of end-tidal carbon dioxide, tachycardia, skeletal muscle rigidity, tachycardia, hyperthermia and acidosis. Up to now, muscle contracture test is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of MHS though molecular genetic test is used, on a limited basis so far to diagnose MHS. The mortality of MH is dramatically decreased from 70-80% to less than 5%, due to an introduction of dantrolene sodium for treatment of MH, early detection of MH episode using capnography, and the introduction of diagnostic testing for MHS. This review summarizes the clinically essential and important knowledge of MH, and presents new developments in the field. PMID:23198031

  18. Distal corporoplasty for distal cylinders extrusion after penile prosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Carrino, Maurizio; Chiancone, Francesco; Battaglia, Gaetano; Pucci, Luigi; Fedelini, Paolo

    2017-02-03

    Distal extrusion of cylinders is a potential complication of the penile prosthesis implantation. Several methods have been proposed for repairing a distal penile erosion. We present our preliminary experience in "Distal corporoplasty" technique. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients whose underwent a distal corporoplasty with simultaneous reimplantation of an "AMS 700 inflatable penile prosthesis (LGX)" from January 2013 to November 2015 at our hospital. All procedures were performed by a single surgical team. Intraoperative and postoperative complications have been classified and reported according to Satava6 and Clavien-Dindo (CD) system.7 Mean values with standard deviations (±SD) were computed and reported for all items. Mean age of the patients was 53.61 (±11.90) years. Mean body max index (BMI) was 24.22 (±2.51). Mean operative time was 85.2 (±13.1) minutes. Blood losses were minimal. No intraoperative complications are reported according to Satava classification. Four out of 18 patients (22.22%) experienced postoperative complications according to CD system. All patients had sexual intercourse for the first time postsurgery after a mean of 59.11 ± 2.08 days. Mean follow-up was 22.11 (±9.95). Distal extrusion of cylinders is a potential complication of the penile prosthesis implantation. Distal corporoplasty was first described by Mulcahy. He reported a series of 14 patients with a follow-up of about 2 years with optimal functional outcomes. Moreover, distal corporoplasty resulted in shorter operative time, better function, less pain, and fewer recurrences than Gortex windsock repair.10 In our experience, distal corporoplasty is a simple and safe procedure in the treatment of distal cylinders extrusion when the prosthetic material is not exposed to the exterior.

  19. A pilot proof-of-concept study of a modified device for one-step endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage in a new experimental biliary dilatation animal model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Choi, Jun Hyuck; Lee, Sang Soo; Cho, Hyun Deuk; Seo, Dong Wan; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Park, Do Hyun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the technical feasibility of a modified tapered metal tip and low profile introducer for one-step endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) in a new experimental biliary dilatation porcine model. METHODS: A novel dedicated device for one-step EUS-guided biliary drainage system (DEUS) introducer has size 3F tapered catheter with size 4F metal tip for simple puncture of the intestinal wall and liver parenchyma without graded dilation. A self-expandable metal stent, consisting of both uncovered and nitinol-covered portions, was preloaded into DEUS introducer. After establishment of a biliary dilatation model using endoscopic hemoclips or band ligation with argon plasma coagulation in 9 mini-pigs, EUS-BD using a DEUS was performed following 19-G needle puncture without the use of fistula dilation devices. RESULTS: One-step EUS-BD was technically successful in seven pigs [7/9 (77.8%) as intention to treat] without the aid of devices for fistula dilation from the high body of stomach or far distal esophagus to the intrahepatic (n = 2) or common hepatic (n = 5) duct. Primary technical failure occurred in two cases that did not show adequate biliary dilatation. In seven pigs with a successful bile duct dilatation, the technical success rate was 100% (7/7 as per protocol). Median procedure time from confirmation of the dilated bile duct to successful placement of a metallic stent was 10 min (IQR; 8.9-18.1). There were no immediate procedure-related complications. CONCLUSION: Modified tapered metal tip and low profile introducer may be technically feasible for one-step EUS-BD in experimental porcine model. PMID:24914346

  20. Clinicopathological features of carcinoma of the distal penile urethra.

    PubMed

    Corbishley, Catherine M; Rajab, Ramzi M; Watkin, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Distal urethral carcinomas are very rare and are similar in their pathology and behaviour to tumours of the glans penis and foreskin. Similarly they are associated with penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) of both differentiated and undifferentiated types. Current management is mainly surgical, but increasingly involves specialist penile-preserving techniques. Handling and dissection of the specimens is broadly the same as other primary penile tumours. The prognosis of distal urethral lesions is believed to be worse than penile tumours and better than prostatic urethral tumours, but the evidence is sparse. The staging system for urethral tumours does not distinguish between proximal and distal, apart from prostatic urethra, and has led to much confusion in the literature. Although the subtypes of tumours seen in the distal urethra are the same as those on the glans and foreskin, there is an increased proportion of basaloid squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma whereas the majority of tumours seen in the proximal and prostatic urethra are of urothelial origin. In future, distal urethral tumours should be separately designated with site-specific staging/TNM and reporting system and pathologically classified in the same way as penile and foreskin tumours. Ultimately, this will improve the quality of data and produce evidence to inform management.

  1. Paravertebral Block: An Improved Method of Pain Control in Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, William C. McCowan, Timothy C.; DeValdenebro, Miguel; Wright, Lonnie B.; Workman, James L.; Culp, William C.

    2006-12-15

    Background and Purpose. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage remains a painful procedure in many cases despite the routine use of large amounts of intravenous sedation. We present a feasibility study of thoracic paravertebral blocks in an effort to reduce pain during and following the procedure and reduce requirements for intravenous sedation. Methods. Ten consecutive patients undergoing biliary drainage procedures received fluoroscopically guided paravertebral blocks and then had supplemental intravenous sedation as required to maintain patient comfort. Levels T8-T9 and T9-T10 on the right were targeted with 10-20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sedation requirements and pain levels were recorded. Results. Ten biliary drainage procedures in 8 patients were performed for malignancy in 8 cases and for stones in 2. The mean midazolam use was 1.13 mg IV, and the mean fentanyl requirement was 60.0 {mu}g IV in the block patients. Two episodes of hypotension, which responded promptly to volume replacement, may have been related to the block. No serious complications were encountered. The mean pain score when traversing the chest wall, liver capsule, and upon entering the bile ducts was 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 1 patient reporting a pain level of 1 and 9 reporting 0. The mean peak pain score, encountered when manipulating at the common bile duct level or when addressing stones there, was 5.4 and ranged from 0 to 10. Conclusions. Thoracic paravertebral block with intravenous sedation supplementation appears to be a feasible method of pain control during biliary interventions.

  2. Biliary metal stents are superior to plastic stents for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Decker, Christopher; Christein, John D; Phadnis, Milind A; Wilcox, C Mel; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2011-07-01

    It is unclear whether plastic or metal stents are more suitable for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions in patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing plastic or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placements for preoperative biliary decompression. This was a retrospective study of all patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatic head cancer who underwent their index endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and all follow-up biliary stent placements at our center before undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Plastic or SEMS were placed at ERCP for biliary decompression. The main outcome measure was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions between the plastic and SEMS cohorts. 29 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy had preoperative biliary stent placement (18 plastic, 11 SEMS) at our center. Whereas none of the 11 patients who underwent SEMS placement had stent dysfunction, 7 of 18 (39%) patients with plastic stents required endoscopic reintervention before surgery (P=0.02). Reinterventions were due to cholangitis (n=1) or persistent elevation in serum bilirubin levels (n=6). Two patients with SEMS underwent EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration after ERCP, which yielded a positive diagnosis of cancer in all cases; SEMS did not impair visualization of the tumor mass at EUS. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was undertaken successfully in all 29 patients and the presence of a SEMS did not interfere with biliary anastomosis. On univariate logistic regression, only SEMS placement was associated with less need for endoscopic reintervention (P=0.02). SEMS are superior to plastic stents for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer.

  3. Nitinol Stents for Palliative Treatment of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice: Should We Stent the Sphincter of Oddi in Every Case?

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Tsetis, Dimitris; Chrysou, Evangelia; Sanidas, Elias; Petrakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C.

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the necessity of metallic stenting of the sphincter of Oddi in malignant obstructive jaundice when the tumor is more than 2 cm from the papilla of Vater.Methods: Sixty-seven self-expandable biliary stents were used in 60 patients with extrahepatic lesions of the common hepatic or common bile duct and with the distal margin of the tumor located more than 2 cm from the papilla of Vater. Stents were placed above the papilla in 30 cases (group A) and in another 30 with their distal part protruding into the duodenum (group B).Results: The 30-day mortality was 15%, due to the underlying disease. The stent occlusion rate was 17% after a mean period of 4.3 months. No major complications were noted. Average survival was 132 days for group A and 140 days for group B. In group A, 19 patients survived {<=} 90 days and in eight of these, cholangitis occurred at least once. Of 11 patients in group A with survival > 90 days, only two developed cholangitis. In group B, 13 patients who survived {<=} 90 days had no episodes of cholangitis and in 17 with survival > 90 days, cholangitis occurred in three. There is a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) regarding the incidence of cholangitis in favor of group A.Conclusions: In patients with extrahepatic lesions more than 2 cm from the papilla and with a relative poor prognosis ({<=} 3 months), due to more advanced disease or to a worse general condition, the sphincter of Oddi should also be stented in order to reduce the postprocedural morbidity.

  4. Cholangiocarcinoma and malignant bile duct obstruction: A review of last decades advances in therapeutic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mangiafico, Santi; Caruso, Angelo; Manno, Mauro; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Pigò, Flavia; Barbera, Carmelo; Manta, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades many advances have been achieved in endoscopy, in the diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma, however blood test, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan may fail to detect neoplastic disease at early stage, thus the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is achieved usually at unresectable stage. In the last decades the role of endoscopy has moved from a diagnostic role to an invaluable therapeutic tool for patients affected by malignant bile duct obstruction. One of the major issues for cholangiocarcinoma is bile ducts occlusion, leading to jaundice, cholangitis and hepatic failure. Currently, endoscopy has a key role in the work up of cholangiocarcinoma, both in patients amenable to surgical intervention as well as in those unfit for surgery or not amenable to immediate surgical curative resection owing to locally advanced or advanced disease, with palliative intention. Endoscopy allows successful biliary drainage and stenting in more than 90% of patients with malignant bile duct obstruction, and allows rapid reduction of jaundice decreasing the risk of biliary sepsis. When biliary drainage and stenting cannot be achieved with endoscopy alone, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage represents an effective alternative method affording successful biliary drainage in more than 80% of cases. The purpose of this review is to focus on the currently available endoscopic management options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26078827

  5. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Bandschapp, Oliver; Girard, Thierry

    2012-07-31

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a subclinical myopathy, usually triggered by volatile anaesthetics and depolarising muscle relaxants. Clinical symptoms are variable, and the condition is sometimes difficult to identify. Nevertheless, rapid recognition and specific as well as symptomatic treatment are crucial to avoid a lethal outcome. Molecular genetic investigations have confirmed the skeletal muscle type ryanodine receptor to be the major MH locus with more than 70% of MH families carrying a mutation in this gene. There is no screening method to test for MH, as current tests are invasive (open muscle biopsy) or restricted to MH families with known MH-associated mutations (molecular genetic testing). The prevalence of the MH trait is unknown, because the clinical penetrance after contact with triggering agents is very variable. More recently, MH mutations have been associated with rhabdomyolysis following statin therapy or with non-pharmacological triggering, such as exertional heat stroke.

  6. Prevalence of coeliac disease in primary biliary cirrhosis and of antimitochondrial antibodies in adult coeliac disease patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Floreani, A; Betterle, C; Baragiotta, A; Martini, S; Venturi, C; Basso, D; Pittoni, M; Chiarelli, S; Sategna Guidetti, C

    2002-04-01

    Although an association between primary biliary cirrhosis and coeliac disease has recently been reported in Northern Europe, there are still conflicting data concerning this issue. To evaluate both the prevalence of coeliac disease in a series of primary biliary cirrhosis patients and that of antimitochondrial antibodies in a series of adult biopsy proven coeliac disease patients from Northern Italy. A total of 87 primary biliary cirrhosis patients (79 female, 8 male) were screened for both IgA-transglutaminase antibodies and antiendomysium antibodies and, in those with either IgA-transglutaminase antibodies or antiendomysium antibodies positivity, upper endoscopy with distal duodenum biopsy was offered. In those who refused upper endoscopy, the intestinal permeability test with lactulose/mannitol excretion was performed. Antiendomysium antibodies positivity was detected in 3 subjects (3.4%), all of whom had serum IgA-transglutaminase antibodies above the normal range, and fulfilled the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 21 other patients with serum IgA-transglutaminase antibodies above the normal range, 17 underwent upper endoscopy which revealed normal duodenum architecture. The remaining 4 patients underwent the lactulose/mannitol excretion test which was within the normal range. Sera from 108 adult coeliac disease patients were tested for antimitochondrial antibodies and positivity was found in 4 patients (3.7%): all had normal liver biochemistry tests, whereas 2 of them also presented thyroid disease. Antibodies directed to the 74-kDa polypeptide of antimitochondrial antibodies were found in 3 out of 4 antimitochondrial antibodies+ve patients. These results suggest an association between primary biliary cirrhosis and coeliac disease similar to that observed in the Northern European series. In conclusion, screening for coeliac disease with antiendomysium antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis is justified, and screening for antimitochondrial antibodies is

  7. Clinical Interpretation of Elevated CA 19-9 Levels in Obstructive Jaundice Following Benign and Malignant Pancreatobiliary Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Seong; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Ji Young; Choi, Jeongmin; Shin, Won Chang; Park, Seong Eun; Seo, Ji Young; Kim, Young Moon

    2017-08-25

    Elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level may be unable to differentiate between benign and malignant pancreatobiliary disease with obstructive jaundice. The study aims to determine the clinical interpretation and the diagnostic value of CA 19-9 level in pancreatobiliary diseases with coexistent obstructive jaundice. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 981 patients who underwent biliary drainage due to obstructive jaundice following pancreatobiliary disease at Sanggye Paik Hospital for 5 years. 114 patients with serial follow-up data for CA 19-9 level were included in this study (80 patients with malignancy and 34 patients with benign diseases). We compared the levels of CA 19-9 levels and the biochemical value before and after biliary drainage. The rate of CA 19-9 elevation (>37 U/mL) was significantly different between the benign group and the malignant group (59% vs. 90%, p=0.001). Despite the decrease in serum bilirubin after biliary drainage, CA 19-9 levels remained elevated in 12% of patients in the benign group and in 63% of patients in the malignant group (p<0.001). Finally, 12% of patients in the benign group turned out to have malignant disease. A receiver operating characteristic analysis provided a cut-off value of 38 U/mL for differentiating benign disease from malignant disease after biliary drainage (area under curve, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.703 to 0.871; sensitivity, 62%; specificity, 88%). This study suggested that we should consider the possibility of malignant causes if the CA 19-9 levels remain high or are more than 38 U/mL after resolution of biliary obstruction.

  8. Regulation of rat biliary cholesterol secretion by agents that alter intrahepatic cholesterol metabolism. Evidence for a distinct biliary precursor pool.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, B G; Erickson, S K; Craig, W Y; Cooper, A D

    1985-01-01

    Propensity for cholesterol gallstone formation is determined in part by biliary cholesterol content relative to bile salts and phospholipid. We examined the hypothesis that the rate of biliary cholesterol secretion can be controlled by availability of an hepatic metabolically active free cholesterol pool whose size is determined in part by rates of sterol synthesis, as reflected by activity of the primary rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase and of sterol esterification, as reflected by the activity of the enzyme acyl coenzyme A/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). Rats were prepared with biliary, venous, and duodenal catheters. The enterohepatic circulation of biliary lipids was maintained constant by infusion of a bile salt, lecithin, cholesterol replacement solution. Administration of 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased HMG CoA reductase activity, increased ACAT activity, and decreased biliary cholesterol output 26% by 1 h. By 2 h, ACAT activity and biliary cholesterol secretion were at control levels. Administration of mevinolin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, had no effect on ACAT activity and decreased biliary cholesterol secretion 16%. Administration of progesterone, an inhibitor of ACAT, had no effect on HMG CoA reductase and increased biliary cholesterol output 32% at 1 h. By 2 h, all parameters were near control levels. None of these agents had any significant effect on biliary bile salt or phospholipid secretion. Thus, acutely altering rates of esterification and/or synthesis can have profound effects on biliary cholesterol secretion independent of the other biliary lipids. These experiments suggest the existence of a metabolically active pool of free cholesterol that serves as a precursor pool for biliary cholesterol secretion. Furthermore, the size of this precursor pool is determined in part both by rates of cholesterol synthesis and esterification and is a key determinant of biliary cholesterol

  9. Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Indeterminate Biliary Strictures: Refinement of the Image Interpretation Classification

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc; Jamidar, Priya; Gan, S. Ian; Cesaro, Paola; Caillol, Fabrice; Filoche, Bernard; Karia, Kunal; Smith, Ioana; Slivka, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accurate diagnosis and clinical management of indeterminate biliary strictures are often a challenge. Tissue confirmation modalities during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suffer from low sensitivity and poor diagnostic accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) has been shown to be sensitive for malignant strictures characterization (98%) but lacks specificity (67%) due to inflammatory conditions inducing false positives. Methods. Six pCLE experts validated the Paris Classification, designed for diagnosing inflammatory biliary strictures, using a set of 40 pCLE sequences obtained during the prospective registry (19 inflammatory, 6 benign, and 15 malignant). The 4 criteria used included (1) multiple thin white bands, (2) dark granular pattern with scales, (3) increased space between scales, and (4) thickened reticular structures. Interobserver agreement was further calculated on a separate set of 18 pCLE sequences. Results. Overall accuracy was 82.5% (n = 40 retrospectively diagnosed) versus 81% (n = 89 prospectively collected) for the registry, resulting in a sensitivity of 81.2% (versus 98% for the prospective study) and a specificity of 83.3% (versus 67% for the prospective study). The corresponding interobserver agreement for 18 pCLE clips was fair (k = 0.37). Conclusion. Specificity of pCLE using the Paris Classification for the characterization of indeterminate bile duct stricture was increased, without impacting the overall accuracy. PMID:25866506

  10. Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers.

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Jaume; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Macarulla, Teresa; Elez, Elena; Ruiz-Echarri, Manuel; Perez-Garcia, Jose; Tabernero, Josep

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, interesting advances have been reported in the treatment of infrequent digestive tumors. The increasing development of new targeted therapies in human cancer has also impacted in these rare gastrointestinal malignancies providing a wide range of possibilities in the design of future clinical trials. The inhibition of angiogenesis and the blockage of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway have provided the most interesting activity in recently reported studies for esophageal and biliary tract carcinomas. Additionally, several targeted therapies have been developed to target the main kinase proteins of the most important pathways of these malignancies. The results of the biggest phase III trial in locally advanced anal carcinoma have been recently published. Finally, the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor has also showed promising activity in anal carcinomas. Recent advances in the knowledge of molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis have led to meaningful changes in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. Although the major advances in targeted therapy have been introduced in the treatment of colorectal cancer, new interesting approaches have been reported in less frequent gastrointestinal tumors such as esophageal, biliary tract, and anal canal carcinoma opening a new hope in the treatment of these rare tumors in the molecular targeted therapy era.

  11. [Biliary ileus--potential complication of cholecystolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Okolicány, R; Prochotský, A; Skultéty, J; Sekác, J; Mifkovic, A

    2008-11-01

    Biliary ileus is a rare complication of cholecystolithiasis. The condition occurs predominantly in the elderly with incidence rates of 1-4%, according to the literature data. Most commonly, it develops as a complication of cholelithiasis which remained untreated or was managed conservatively, or as a complication of a gallbladder decubitus necrosis. The condition results in a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. In this case, the cholecystolithiasis is latent or is clinically manifested in a third of the patients. A total of 1560 cholecystectomies (1345 L-CHE and 215 conventional CHE) were performed in our clinic during a five-year period. Biliary ileus was an indication for operation only in two subjects, during the studied period. In the both cases, the diagnosis was established intraoperatively, although upon re-examination of the visualization modalities views (upright native abdominal views, CT scans) the authors concluded that the primary cause of the ileus could have already been identified, based on the above views.

  12. [Lymphoma of the biliary tract: report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Machado, M C; Abdo, E E; Penteado, S; Perosa, M; da Cunha, J E

    1994-01-01

    We report two cases one a primary non Hodgkin lymphoma of the hepatic common duct and the other a secondary involvement of the biliary tract in a patient with a Hodgkin's disease. In the first case a local resection of the biliary lymphoma was undertaken being the patient alive six months after the procedure. The second case died early after the operative biliary external drainage in a septic shock before any specific treatment could be initiated.

  13. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Alexandra T; Clayton, Steven B; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD.

  14. Biliary atresia: From Australia to the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This review is based upon an invited lecture for the 52nd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, July 2015. The aetiology of biliary atresia (BA) is at best obscure, but it is probable that a number of causes or pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved leading to the final common phenotype we recognise clinically. By way of illustration, similar conditions to human BA are described, including biliary agenesis, which is the normal state and peculiar final pattern of bile duct development in the jawless fish, the lamprey. Furthermore, there have been remarkable outbreaks in the Australian outback of BA in newborn lambs whose mothers were exposed to and grazed upon a particular plant species (Dysphania glomulifera) during gestation. More recent work using a zebrafish model has isolated a toxic isoflavonoid, now named Biliatresone, thought to be responsible for these outbreaks. Normal development of the bile ducts is reviewed and parallels drawn with two clinical variants thought to definitively have their origins in intrauterine life: Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) and Cystic Biliary Atresia (CBA). For both variants there is sufficient clinical evidence, including associated anomalies and antenatal detection, respectively, to warrant their aetiological attribution as developmental BA. CMV IgM +ve associated BA is a further variant that appears separate with distinct clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. In these it seems possible that this involves perinatal obliteration of a normally formed duct system. Although still circumstantial, this evidence appears convincing enough to perhaps warrant a different treatment strategy. This then still leaves the most common (more than 60% in Western series) variant, now termed Isolated BA, whereby origins can only be alluded to.

  15. The natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Imam, Mohamad H; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-08-01

    Our understanding of the natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been evolving especially following the introduction of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). A clearer understanding of disease pathophysiology and earlier diagnosis with increased prevalence of the disease worldwide has led to increased interest and improved outcomes in patients with PBC. In this article, the authors touch briefly on features of the disease and describe the natural history of PBC prior to and after the introduction of UDCA.

  16. Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

    1999-02-01

    In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

  17. Diamond stents for palliation of malignant bile duct obstruction: a prospective multicenter evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ferlitsch, A; Oesterreicher, C; Dumonceau, J M; Deviere, J; Leban, T; Born, P; Rösch, T; Suter, W; Binek, J; Meyenberger, C; Müllner, M; Schneider, B; Schöfl, R

    2001-08-01

    Various types of self-expandable metal stents have been introduced for biliary drainage in patients with malignant jaundice, showing prolonged patency compared with plastic endoprostheses. However, there has only been prolonged experience with a meaningful number of patients using the Wallstent. We evaluated the Diamond stent, a self-expanding uncoated biliary metal stent, in a prospective uncontrolled multicenter setting. The eligibility criterion was obstructive jaundice due to inoperable malignant disease. Between August 1995 and January 2000, 126 patients, who received a total of 134 Diamond stents in four European centers, were followed prospectively. Technical and clinical success rates were 96 % and 98 %, respectively. No major procedure-related complications occurred. The 30-day mortality rate was 13 %. Stent occlusion occurred in 28 patients (22 %). Overall median stent patency was 477 days; overall median survival was 173 days. Stent occlusion, confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, was successfully treated with plastic stents in all patients. Cost analysis revealed estimated costs of 3440 euros per patient for palliative treatment with the Diamond stent. The Diamond stent compares favorably with other biliary metal stents for patients requiring biliary drainage of malignant jaundice.

  18. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-10-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology.

  19. Animal models of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjun; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Gershwin, M Eric; Ridgway, William M; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-08-01

    Within the last decade, several mouse models that manifest characteristic features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and immune-mediated biliary duct pathology have been reported. Here, the authors discuss the current findings on two spontaneous (nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease [NOD.ABD] and dominant negative transforming growth factor-β receptor II [dnTGFβRII]) and two induced (chemical xenobiotics and microbial immunization) models of PBC. These models exhibit the serological, immunological, and histopathological features of human PBC. From these animal models, it is evident that the etiology of PBC is multifactorial and requires both specific genetic predispositions and environmental insults (either xenobiotic chemicals or microbial), which lead to the breaking of tolerance and eventually liver pathology. Human PBC is likely orchestrated by multiple factors and hence no single model can fully mimic the immunopathophysiology of human PBC. Nevertheless, knowledge gained from these models has greatly advanced our understanding of the major immunological pathways as well as the etiology of PBC.

  20. Biliary lipids and cholesterol gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David Q-H.; Cohen, David E.; Carey, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Biliary lipids are a family of four dissimilar molecular species consisting of a mixture of bile salts (substituted cholanoic acids), phospholipids, mostly (>96%) diacylphosphatidylcholines, unesterified cholesterol, and bilirubin conjugates known trivially as lipopigments. The primary pathophysiological defect in cholesterol gallstone disease is hypersecretion of hepatic cholesterol into bile with less frequent hyposecretion of bile salts and/or phospholipids. Several other gallbladder abnormalities contribute and include hypomotility, immune-mediated inflammation, hypersecretion of gelling mucins, and accelerated phase transitions; there is also reduced intestinal motility that augments “secondary” bile salt synthesis by the anaerobic microflora. Cholesterol nucleation is initiated when unilamellar vesicles of cholesterol plus biliary phospholipids fuse to form multilamellar vesicles. From these “plate-like” cholesterol monohydrate crystals, the building blocks of macroscopic stones are nucleated heterogeneously by mucin gel. Multiple Lith gene loci have been identified in inbred mice, paving the way for discovery of an ever-increasing number of LITH genes in humans. Because of the frequency of the metabolic syndrome today, insulin resistance and LITH genes all interact with a number of environmental cholelithogenic factors to cause the gallstone phenotype. This review summarizes current concepts of the physical-chemical state of biliary lipids in health and in lithogenic bile and outlines the molecular, genetic, hepatic, and cholecystic factors that underlie the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. PMID:19017613

  1. Role of cholangiocytes in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lleo, Ana; Maroni, Luca; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

    2014-08-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2); characteristics of the disease are also the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. Recent evidence suggests that cholangiocytes show specific immunobiological features that are responsible for the selective targeting of those cells by the immune system. The immune reaction in PBC selectively targets small sized, intrahepatic bile ducts; although a specific reason for that has not been defined yet, it has been established that the biliary epithelium displays a unique heterogeneity, for which the physiological and pathophysiological features of small and large cholangiocytes significantly differ. In this review article, the authors provide a critical overview of the current evidence on the role of cholangiocytes in the immune-mediated destruction of the biliary tree that characterizes PBC.

  2. [Malignant hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Metterlein, T; Schuster, F; Graf, B M; Anetseder, M

    2014-12-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hereditary, mostly subclinical myopathy. Trigger substances, such as volatile anesthetic agents and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine can induce a potentially fatal metabolic increase in predisposed patients caused by a dysregulation of the myoplasmic calcium (Ca) concentration. Mutations in the dihydropyridine ryanodine receptor complex in combination with the trigger substances are responsible for an uncontrolled release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This leads to activation of the contractile apparatus and a massive increase in cellular energy production. Exhaustion of the cellular energy reserves ultimately results in local muscle cell destruction and subsequent cardiovascular failure. The clinical picture of MH episodes is very variable. Early symptoms are hypoxia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia whereas the body temperature rise, after which MH is named, often occurs later. Decisive for the course of MH episodes is a timely targeted therapy. Following introduction of the hydantoin derivative dantrolene, the previously high mortality of fulminant MH episodes could be reduced to well under 10 %. An MH predisposition can be detected using the invasive in vitro contracture test (IVCT) or mutation analysis. Few elaborate diagnostic procedures are in the developmental stage.

  3. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  4. Bilothorax as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Sano, Atsushi; Yotsumoto, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of bilothorax that occurred as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. In an 86-year-old woman who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice, bilothorax occurred after accidental removal of the tube. She recovered with chest drainage only. An 83-year-old man who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for cholecystitis developed bilothorax with infection. He recovered with thoracoscopic curettage. Although bilothorax is a rare complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, appropriate diagnosis and prompt treatment is important, especially when bilothorax is accompanied by infection.

  5. Biliary Atresia: 50 Years after the First Kasai

    PubMed Central

    Wildhaber, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare neonatal disease of unknown etiology, where obstruction of the biliary tree causes severe cholestasis, leading to biliary cirrhosis and death in the first years of life, if the condition is left untreated. Biliary atresia is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in neonates and should be evoked whenever this clinical sign is associated with pale stools and hepatomegaly. The treatment of biliary atresia is surgical and currently recommended as a sequence of, eventually, two interventions. During the first months of life a hepatoportoenterostomy (a “Kasai,” modifications of which are discussed in this paper) should be performed, in order to restore the biliary flow to the intestine and lessen further damage to the liver. If this fails and/or the disease progresses towards biliary cirrhosis and life-threatening complications, then liver transplantation is indicated, for which biliary atresia represents the most frequent pediatric indication. Of importance, the earlier the Kasai is performed, the later a liver transplantation is usually needed. This warrants a great degree of awareness of biliary atresia, and the implementation of systematic screening for this life-threatening pathology. PMID:23304557

  6. Outcome of hepaticojejunostomy for biliary tract obstruction following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Langer, F B; Györi, G P; Pokorny, H; Burghuber, C; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S; Berlakovich, G A; Mühlbacher, F; Steininger, R

    2009-01-01

    Strictures and concrements are the most common biliary complications following liver transplantation. Endoscopic treatment might not lead to a definitive cure in all patients, especially in strictures involving the biliary bifurcation. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and the long-term outcome of hepaticojejunostomy (HJS) for post-transplant biliary tract obstruction. Thirty-seven patients were retrospectively studied for resolving of cholestasis and the incidence of recurring biliary obstruction. Surgery was performed because of anastomotic strictures in 11, ischemic strictures at the donor common bile duct in seven, strictures involving the bile duct bifurcation in 10, hepatolithiasis without strictures in one and biliary cast formation diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or T-tube cholangiography in eight patients. Cholestasis instantly improved in 82% of the patients. After a long-term follow-up of median 33 months (range 3-149), 28 of the patients (76%) required no further intervention for recurring biliary obstruction following HJS. Anastomotic strictures were observed in six (16%), recurring biliary concrements in two patients (5%). HJS did prevent recurrent biliary obstruction in the majority of the patients. We therefore recommend early HJS for complicated post-transplant biliary tract obstruction not treatable by a limited number of endoscopic interventions.

  7. [Jejunal perforation by a plastic biliary stent after injury].

    PubMed

    Krska, Z; Brůha, R; Sváb, J; Demes, R; Votrubová, J; Petrtýl, J; Horejs, J

    2004-02-01

    The authors present case of patient with biliary stent dislocation after chest injury and fracture of VIII. rib. Polymorbid patient with cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, portal hypertension (Child Plugh B) and biliary stent insertion came with acute abdominal pain and inflammatory signs. Progressive signs of acute abdomen have led to laparotomy. Perforation of duodeno-jejunal-loop due to dislocated biliary stent, small loop adhesions and thickened intestine wall were found. Postsurgical period was complicated with obstructive ileus, cholecystitis and cholangiolitis and the second biliary stent was inserted. Present-day status of the patient is satisfactory.

  8. [Implantation of plastic and metal stents to biliary tract in obstructive jaundice in material of Surgery Department of 4th Military Clinical Hospital in Wroclaw].

    PubMed

    Janczak, Dariusz; Wieraszko, Artur; Kabziński, Piotr; Janus, Werner; Rać, Jacek; Debski, Jacek; Malinowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    A method of treatment for malignant bile duct strictures depends on early diagnosis, location and extent of tumor infiltration. Patients eligible for radical surgery should be operated. The authors used plastic and metal prostheses in the treatment of biliary tract cancer cholestasis. Retrospective analysis was done in 2730 endoscopies performed in the Laboratory of the Department of Endoscopic Surgery, 4th Military Hospital in Wroclaw in 2008-2011. The authors analyzed 441 cases of prosthetic biliary cancer. 223 patients (51%) were treated for pancreatic head tumor, 98 pts (22%)--for papilla of Vater tumor, 85 pts (19%)--due to Klatskin tumor and 35 pts (8%)--due to tumor of the gallbladder. Plastic prostheses were inserted in 228 (65.4%) patients, self-expanding metal prostheses--in 21 patients (4.9%). Dilatation of the bile duct or the inserted prosthesis was performed in 48 (11.1%) pts. 27 patients (6.1%) had endoscopic treatment failure. 32 patients (7.3%) had following complications of biliary prosthesis: bleeding into the bile duct, into the digestive tract--4 cases (1%), the migration of the prosthesis--7 (1.6%), cholangitis--21 cases (4.7%). Palliative biliary stenting is a safe method that provides efficient drainage of bile. It shows a definitive advantage over percutaneous, biliary transhepatic drainage.

  9. Spontaneous Course of Biliary Sludge Over 12 Months in Dogs with Ultrasonographically Identified Biliary Sludge.

    PubMed

    DeMonaco, S M; Grant, D C; Larson, M M; Panciera, D L; Leib, M S

    2016-05-01

    Biliary sludge is associated with gallbladder (GB) dysmotility and mucus hypersecretion suggesting a link between biliary sludge and the formation of GB mucoceles (GBM). If biliary sludge progresses to GBM, treatment to reduce the production and progression of sludge is warranted. The objective of this study was to determine the course of biliary sludge in dogs. Seventy-seven healthy, client-owned dogs ≥4 years of age screened for biliary sludge; 45 affected dogs identified. Prospective, observational design. Serial ultrasound examinations were evaluated at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months to monitor degree of sludge based on proportion of GB filled with sludge (mild [0.01-24.4%], moderate [24.5-49.4%], moderate to severe [49.5-74.4%], severe [74.5-100%]), gravity dependency of sludge, and GB dimensions. After 1 year of follow-up, the degree of sludge was mild (34%), moderate (47%), moderate to severe (13%), severe (3%), or absent (3%). There was no significant difference in median degree of sludge over 1 year (P = .36). There were no significant changes in the gravity dependency of sludge over 1 year. A subset of dogs, 24%, with initial gravity-dependent sludge developed a combination of nondependent and dependent sludge. Dogs had resolved (2%), decreased (19%), static (40%), increased (29%), or recurrent (10%) sludge at the conclusion of the study. Biliary sludge was prevalent, affected dogs remained asymptomatic, and it rarely resolves in healthy dogs over a period of 1 year. Some dogs developed nongravity-dependent sludge within 1 year, which might indicate changes in consistency of sludge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Chlorambucil for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Xin; Yan, Xiang; Shi, Chun Rui; Zhang, Ai Ping

    2012-09-12

    Chlorambucil has been used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis as it possesses immunosuppressive properties. But it is unknown whether it benefits or harms these patients. To evaluate the beneficial and any harmful effects of chlorambucil for primary biliary cirrhosis patients. Eligible trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (March 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1946 to March 2012), EMBASE (1974 to March 2012), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to March 2012), The Chinese Biomedical Database (1976 to March 2012), The Chinese Medical Current Contents (1994 to March 2012), The China Hospital Knowledge Database (1994 to March 2012), and a database of ongoing trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) (accessed 6 March 2012). The reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles were also read through, and pharmaceutical companies known to produce chlorambucil were contacted. Randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, year of publication, and publication status, comparing chlorambucil at any dose versus placebo, no intervention, another active drug, or one dose of chlorambucil with another dose. We planned to assess continuous data with mean differences (MD), and dichotomous outcomes with relative risk (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). As we only identified one trial, Fisher's exact tests were employed. Only one randomised trial was identified and included in the review. The bias risk in the trial was high. The trial compared chlorambucil versus no intervention in 24 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Fisher's exact test did not show a significant reduction of mortality when comparing chlorambucil with no treatment (0/13 (0%) versus (2/11 (18.2%); P = 0.20). There was no significant difference regarding adverse events for chlorambucil compared with no treatment

  11. Reverse Distal Transverse Palmar Arch in Distal Digital Replantation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ching-Yueh; Orozco, Oscar; Vinagre, Gustavo; Shafarenko, Mark

    2017-07-22

    Refinements in microsurgery have made distal finger replantation an established technique with high success rates and good functional and aesthetic outcomes. However, it still represents a technically demanding procedure due to the small vessel caliber and frequent lack of vessel length, requiring the use of interpositional venous grafts in some instances. We describe a new technique for anastomosis in fingertip replantation, whereby the need for venous grafts is eliminated. Applying the reverse distal transverse palmar arch technique, 11 cases of distal digital replantation were performed between January 2011 and July 2016. The described procedure was used for arterial anastomosis in 10 cases and arteriovenous shunting for venous drainage in 1 case. A retrospective case review was conducted. The technical description and clinical outcome evaluations are presented. Ten of the 11 replanted digits survived, corresponding to an overall success rate of 91%. One replant failed due to venous insufficiency. Blood transfusions were not required for any of the patients. Follow-up (range, 1.5-5 months) revealed near-normal range of motion and good aesthetic results. All of the replanted digits developed protective sensation. The average length of hospital admission was 5 days. All patients were satisfied with the results and were able to return to their previous work. The use of the reverse distal transverse palmar arch is a novel and reliable technique in distal digital replantation when an increase in vessel length is required, allowing for a tension-free arterial repair without the need for vein grafts.

  12. Biliary fascioliasis – an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: Report of a case and brief review

    PubMed Central

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report. PMID:22566787

  13. Biliary fascioliasis--an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: report of a case and brief review.

    PubMed

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report.

  14. Single-operator cholangioscopy in patients requiring evaluation of bile duct disease or therapy of biliary stones (with videos).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang K; Parsi, Mansour A; Binmoeller, Kenneth F; Hawes, Robert H; Pleskow, Douglas K; Slivka, Adam; Haluszka, Oleh; Petersen, Bret T; Sherman, Stuart; Devière, Jacques; Meisner, Søren; Stevens, Peter D; Costamagna, Guido; Ponchon, Thierry; Peetermans, Joyce A; Neuhaus, Horst

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility of single-operator cholangioscopy (SOC) for biliary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was previously reported. To confirm the utility of SOC in more widespread clinical use. Prospective clinical cohort study. Fifteen endoscopy referral centers in the United States and Europe. Two hundred ninety-seven patients requiring evaluation of bile duct disease or biliary stone therapy. SOC examination and, as indicated, SOC-directed stone therapy or forceps biopsy. Procedural success defined as ability to (1) visualize target lesions and, if indicated, collect biopsy specimens adequate for histological evaluation or (2) visualize biliary stones and initiate fragmentation and removal. The overall procedure success rate was 89% (95% CI, 84%-92%). Adequate tissue for histological examination was secured in 88% of 140 patients who underwent biopsy. Overall sensitivity in diagnosing malignancy was 78% for SOC visual impression and 49% for SOC-directed biopsy. Sensitivity was higher (84% and 66%, respectively) for intrinsic bile duct malignancies. Diagnostic SOC procedures altered clinical management in 64% of patients. Procedure success was achieved in 92% of 66 patients with stones and complete stone clearance during the study SOC session in 71%. The incidence of serious procedure-related adverse events was 7.5% for diagnostic SOC and 6.1% for SOC-directed stone therapy. The study was observational in design with no control group. Evaluation of bile duct disease and biliary stone therapy can be safely performed with a high success rate by using the SOC system. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage With Postoperative Outcome Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Karpeh, Martin S.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Summary Background Data Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. Conclusions Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased

  16. Distal gastrectomy versus total gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Feng, Fan; Guo, Man; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Xu, Guanghui; Lian, Xiao; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Even though more than a century later, after the first case of gastrectomy has been successfully performed, the best surgical treatment for distal gastric cancer still remains controversial. Thus, the present study was designed to compare the survival impact of distal (DG) or total gastrectomy (TG) for distal gastric cancer. A total of 1262 distal gastric cancer patients were enrolled in current study including 1157 patients who underwent DG and 157 patients who underwent TG. The postoperative complications and 5-year overall survival were compared between the 2 groups. TG group presented a longer surgical time, a higher volume of intraoperative bleeding, and a larger number of excised lymph nodes (all P < 0.05) compared with the DG group. The postoperative complications were comparable (all P >0.05). The 5-year overall survival rate of DG group was significantly higher than that of TG group (67.6% vs 44.3%, P < 0.001). However, multivariate analysis showed that type of resection was not an independent prognostic factor for distal gastric cancer (P > 0.05). The factor-stratified multivariate analysis showed that only in the subgroup of Tumor-node-metastasis staging system (TNM) stage III (P = 0.049), TG was the independent prognostic factor for poor survival. In conclusion, DG was as feasible as TG; however, TG did not increase the survival rate. DG brought better long-term survival than TG in patients with TNM stage III tumor. We recommended that DG should be the optimal surgical procedure for distal gastric cancer under the premise of negative resection margin. PMID:28151896

  17. Risk factors for proximal migration of biliary tube stents

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masami; Kawashima, Yohei; Mizukami, Hajime; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors for biliary stent migration in patients with benign and malignant strictures. METHODS: Endoscopic stent placement was performed in 396 patients with bile duct stenosis, at our institution, between June 2003 and March 2009. The indications for bile duct stent implantation included common bile duct stone in 190 patients, malignant lesions in 112, chronic pancreatitis in 62, autoimmune pancreatitis in 14, trauma in eight, surgical complications in six, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in four. We retrospectively examined the frequency of stent migration, and analyzed the patient factors (disease, whether endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed, location of bile duct stenosis and diameter of the bile duct) and stent characteristics (duration of stent placement, stent type, diameter and length). Moreover, we investigated retrieval methods for migrated stents and their associated success rates. RESULTS: The frequency of tube stent migration in the total patient population was 3.5%. The cases in which tube stent migration occurred included those with common bile duct stones (3/190; 1.6%), malignant lesions (2/112; 1.8%), chronic pancreatitis (4/62; 6.5%), autoimmune pancreatitis (2/14; 14.3%), trauma (1/8; 12.5%), surgical complications (2/6; 33.3%), and PSC (0/4; 0%). The potential risk factors for migration included bile duct stenosis secondary to benign disease such as chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis (P = 0.030); stenosis of the lower bile duct (P = 0.031); bile duct diameter > 10 mm (P = 0.023); duration of stent placement > 1 mo (P = 0.007); use of straight-type stents (P < 0.001); and 10-Fr sized stents (P < 0.001). Retrieval of the migrated stents was successful in all cases. The grasping technique, using a basket or snare, was effective for pig-tailed or thin and straight stents, whereas the guidewire cannulation technique was effective for thick and straight stents. CONCLUSION: Migration of tube stents

  18. Risk factors for proximal migration of biliary tube stents.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masami; Kawashima, Yohei; Mizukami, Hajime; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-02-07

    To analyze the risk factors for biliary stent migration in patients with benign and malignant strictures. Endoscopic stent placement was performed in 396 patients with bile duct stenosis, at our institution, between June 2003 and March 2009. The indications for bile duct stent implantation included common bile duct stone in 190 patients, malignant lesions in 112, chronic pancreatitis in 62, autoimmune pancreatitis in 14, trauma in eight, surgical complications in six, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in four. We retrospectively examined the frequency of stent migration, and analyzed the patient factors (disease, whether endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed, location of bile duct stenosis and diameter of the bile duct) and stent characteristics (duration of stent placement, stent type, diameter and length). Moreover, we investigated retrieval methods for migrated stents and their associated success rates. The frequency of tube stent migration in the total patient population was 3.5%. The cases in which tube stent migration occurred included those with common bile duct stones (3/190; 1.6%), malignant lesions (2/112; 1.8%), chronic pancreatitis (4/62; 6.5%), autoimmune pancreatitis (2/14; 14.3%), trauma (1/8; 12.5%), surgical complications (2/6; 33.3%), and PSC (0/4; 0%). The potential risk factors for migration included bile duct stenosis secondary to benign disease such as chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis (P = 0.030); stenosis of the lower bile duct (P = 0.031); bile duct diameter > 10 mm (P = 0.023); duration of stent placement > 1 mo (P = 0.007); use of straight-type stents (P < 0.001); and 10-Fr sized stents (P < 0.001). Retrieval of the migrated stents was successful in all cases. The grasping technique, using a basket or snare, was effective for pig-tailed or thin and straight stents, whereas the guidewire cannulation technique was effective for thick and straight stents. Migration of tube stents within the bile duct is rare but

  19. Malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Henry; Davis, Mark; James, Danielle; Pollock, Neil; Stowell, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with greater frequency. Dantrolene

  20. Biliary stenting is not a prerequisite to endoscopic placement of duodenal covered self-expandable metal stents.

    PubMed

    Poincloux, L; Goutorbe, F; Rouquette, O; Mulliez, A; Goutte, M; Bommelaer, G; Abergel, A

    2016-02-01

    Duodenal covered self-expandable metal stent (cSEMS) can be used in malignant or benign gastroduodenal obstruction. The need for biliary stenting in patients with no concomitant biliary stricture, before duodenal cSEMS placement, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether cSEMS placement is responsible for biliary obstruction. This is a single-center, retrospective, case-controlled study, including 106 patients with symptomatic gastric outlet obstruction or duodenal fistula who received a covered nitinol duodenal stent by using through-the-scope/over-the-wire placement procedure. The main outcome measurement was the occurrence comparison of jaundice and bilirubin level, between patients with previous or concomitant biliary stenting (cSEMS + BS group), and patients with no biliary stent (cSEMS group) during an observational period of 90 days. Hundred and six patients underwent cSEMS placement between June 2005 and March 2014: 53 in the cSEMS group (58% male, mean age 66.4 ± 13.3 years) and 53 in cSEMS + BS group (60% male, mean age 70.4 ± 11.6 years). The obstruction was due to cancer in 45% in cSEMS group and 87% in cSEMS + BS group. No case of jaundice was reported in the cSEMS group or in the cSEMS + BS group. In cSEMS group, the mean bilirubin level (μmol/L ± SD) was 8.0 ± 4 at baseline and 8.5 ± 4.6 at day 10, while in the cSEMS + BS group it was 91.4 ± 108 at baseline and 35.3 ± 39 at day 10 (p < 0.01). Patients from the two groups were matched on age, gender and bilirubin level at baseline. Evolution of bilirubinemia was +0.98 ± 2.76 µmol/L in experimental group and +0.39 ± 522 µmol/L in the control group (p = 0.34). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in term of technical success, clinical effectiveness, migration and other complications. Previous biliary stenting is not required before endoscopic covered duodenal stent placement in patients with no associated biliary obstruction. Prospective studies

  1. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  2. Biliary-colonic fistula caused by cholecystectomy bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Casillas, Victor J; Davis, James S; Levi, Joe U; Sleeman, Danny

    2013-08-01

    Biliary-colonic fistula is a rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of post-cholecystectomy iatrogenic biliary injury that resulted in a fistula between the common hepatic duct and large bowel. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography provided good visualization of injury even with concurrent normal level of alkaline phosphatase. Radiologic findings and surgical management of this condition are discussed in detail.

  3. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy. PMID:23214186

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of biliary atresia: A case series.

    PubMed

    Shen, O; Sela, H Y; Nagar, H; Rabinowitz, R; Jacobovich, E; Chen, D; Granot, E

    2017-08-01

    Biliary atresia is a progressive disease presenting with jaundice, and is the most common indication for liver transplantation in the pediatric population. Prenatal series have yielded conflicting results concerning a possible association between BA and prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder. This retrospective case series was performed to assess the association between biliary atresia, prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder and other sonographic signs. We identified biliary atresia patients who underwent a Kasai procedure by a single pediatric surgeon and/or follow up by a single pediatric gastroenterologist. Axial plane images and/or video recordings were scrutinized for sonographic signs of biliary atresia on the second trimester anomaly scan. Proportion of biliary atresia cases with prenatal sonographic signs. Twenty five charts of children with biliary and high quality prenatal images were retrieved. 6/25 (24%) of cases analyzed had prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder or a small gallbladder on the prenatal scan. Two cases had biliary atresia splenic malformation syndrome. None of the cases had additional sonographic markers of biliary atresia. Our study suggests that in addition to the well-established embryonic and cystic forms, an additional type can be suspected prenatally, which is characterized by prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder in the second trimester. This provides additional evidence that some cases of BA are of fetal rather than perinatal onset and may have important implications for prenatal diagnosis, for counseling and for research of the disease's etiology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter...

  7. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  8. Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karcı, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases. PMID:25276455

  9. [Tomato peel: rare cause of biliary tract obstruction].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Péter, Zoltán; Csöregh, Eva; Szabó, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2011-11-20

    Foreign bodies in the biliary tree are rare causes of obstructive jaundice. Food bezoars are infrequent as well. They can cause biliary obstruction after biliary tract interventions, or in the presence of biliary-bowel fistula or duodenum diverticulum. Food bezoars usually pass the gastrointestinal tract without any symptoms, but they can cause abdominal pain and obstructive jaundice in the case of biliary tract obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography has the major role in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease. Authors summarize the medical history of a 91-year-old female patient, who developed vomiting and right subcostal pain due to the presence of tomato peel within the ductus choledochus.

  10. Biliary Tract Cancer: Epidemiology, Radiotherapy, and Molecular Profiling.

    PubMed

    Bridgewater, John A; Goodman, Karyn A; Kalyan, Aparna; Mulcahy, Mary F

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer, or cholangiocarcinoma, arises from the biliary epithelium of the small ducts in the periphery of the liver (intrahepatic) and the main ducts of the hilum (extrahepatic), extending into the gallbladder. The incidence and epidemiology of biliary tract cancer are fluid and complex. It is shown that intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is on the rise in the Western world, and gallbladder cancer is on the decline. Radiation therapy has emerged as an important component of adjuvant therapy for resected disease and definitive therapy for locally advanced disease. The emerging sophisticated techniques of imaging tumors and conformal dose delivery are expanding the indications for radiotherapy in the management of bile duct tumors. As we understand more about the molecular pathways driving biliary tract cancers, targeted therapies are at the forefront of new therapeutic combinations. Understanding the gene expression profile and mutational burden in biliary tract cancer allows us to better discern the pathogenesis and identify promising new developmental therapeutic targets.

  11. Current options for management of biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Amy; Esquivel, Carlos O

    2013-03-01

    It is encouraging that we are improving the technical aspects of treatment modalities for biliary atresia. However, it is clear that more needs to be done to best develop new treatment plans while applying the modalities we have (porto-enterostomy or liver transplantation or both) in a way that will afford the best survival and quality-of-life. This review article will discuss a number of points that are vital to improving care and illustrates the need to further scrutinize treatment decisions.

  12. Breach of tolerance: primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2014-08-01

    In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the breach of tolerance that leads to active disease involves a disruption in several layers of control, including central tolerance, peripheral anergy, a "liver tolerance effect," and the action of T regulatory cells and their related cytokines. Each of these control mechanisms plays a role in preventing an immune response against self, but all of them act in concert to generate effective protection against autoimmunity without compromising the ability of the host immune system to mount an effective response to pathogens. At the same time, genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, including infection agents and xenobiotics, play important roles in breach of tolerance in the development of PBC.

  13. Role of laparoscopy in hepatobiliary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Balarajah, Vickna; Watt, Jennifer; Abraham, Ajit T.; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    The many benefits of laparoscopy, including smaller incision, reduced length of hospital stay and more rapid return to normal function, have seen its popularity grow in recent years. With concurrent improvements in non-surgical cancer management the importance of accurate staging is becoming increasingly important. There are two main applications of laparoscopic surgery in managing hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) malignancy: accurate staging of disease and resection. We aim to summarize the use of laparoscopy in these contexts. The role of staging laparoscopy has become routine in certain cancers, in particular T2 staged, locally advanced gastric cancer, hilar cholangiocarcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For other cancers, in particular colorectal, laparoscopy has now become the gold standard management for resection such that there is no role for stand-alone staging laparoscopy. In HPB cancers, although staging laparoscopy may play a role, with ever improving radiology, its role remains controversial. PMID:27377496

  14. [Fractures of the distal radius].

    PubMed

    Rueger, J M; Hartel, M J; Ruecker, A H; Hoffmann, M

    2014-11-01

    The most prevalent fractures managed by trauma surgeons are those involving the distal radius. The injury occurs in two peaks of prevalence: the first peak around the age of 10 years and the second peak around the age of 60 years. Distal radius fracture management requires sensitive diagnostics and classification. The objectives of treatment are the reconstruction of a pain-free unlimited durable functioning of the wrist and avoidance of typical fracture complications. Non-operative conservative management is generally employed for stable non-displaced fractures of the distal radius with the expectation of a good functional outcome. Unstable comminuted fractures with intra-articular and extra-articular fragment zones are initially set in a closed operation and finally by osteosynthesis. An armament of surgical implants is available for instable fractures requiring fixation. Palmar locked plate osteosynthesis has been established in recent years as the gold standard for operative management of distal radius fractures. Complex Working Group on Osteosynthesis (AO) classification type 3 fractures require extensive preoperative diagnostics to identify and treat typical associated injuries around the wrist.

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of biliary leakage with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Piacentino, Filippo; Cardim, Larissa N

    2012-01-01

    Biliary leakage is a known complication after biliary surgery. In this report, we describe an uncommon treatment of a common biliary complication, wherein we used percutaneous transhepatic injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) to treat a biliary leak in an 83-year-old patient. PMID:22623810

  16. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Ali; Akbar, Ali; Baron, Todd H; Khan, Sobia; Kocak, Mehmat; Alastal, Yaseen; Hammad, Tariq; Lee, Wade M; Sofi, Aijaz; Artifon, Everson L A; Nawras, Ali; Ismail, Mohammad Kashif

    2016-03-01

    Variable success and adverse event rates have been reported for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) utilizing either extrahepatic or intrahepatic approach. We aimed to conduct a proportion meta-analysis to evaluate the cumulative efficacy and safety of EUS-BD and to compare the two approaches and transluminal methods of EUS-BD. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus from January 2001 through January 5, 2015, to identify studies reporting technical success and adverse events of EUS-BD. A sample size of more than 20 patients was a further criterion. Weighted pooled rate (WPR) for technical success and post-procedure complications was calculated for overall studies and predefined subgroups. Pooled odds ratios were calculated for technical success and adverse events for two approaches and transluminal methods of EUS-BD for distal common bile duct (CBD) strictures. The WPR with 95% confidence interval (CI) for technical success and post-procedure adverse events was 90% (86, 93%) and 17% (13, 22%), respectively, with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) = 77%). For high-quality studies, the WPR for technical success was 94% (91, 96 %), I(2) = 0% and WPR for post-procedure adverse event was 16% (12, 19%), I(2) = 39%. In meta-regression model, distal CBD stricture and transpapillary drainage were associated with higher technical success and intrahepatic access route was associated with higher adverse event rate. There was no difference in technical success using either approach OR 1.27 (0.52, 3.13), I(2) = 0% or transluminal method OR 1.32 (0.51, 3.38), I(2) = 0%. However, the extrahepatic approach appeared significantly safer as compared to the intrahepatic approach OR 0.35 (0.19, 0.67), I(2) = 27%. Likewise, choledochoduodenostomy was found to have less adverse events as compared to hepaticogastrostomy, OR 0.40 (0.18, 0.87), I (2) = 0%. In cases of failure of traditional ERC to achieve

  17. Vasopressin regulates the growth of the biliary epithelium in polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Romina; Franchitto, Antonio; Glaser, Shannon; Vetuschi, Antonella; Venter, Julie; Sferra, Roberta; Pannarale, Luigi; Olivero, Francesca; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-11-01

    The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) acts by three distinct receptor subtypes: V1a, V1b, and V2. In the liver, AVP is involved in ureogenesis, glycogenolysis, neoglucogenesis and regeneration. No data exist about the presence of AVP in the biliary epithelium. Cholangiocytes are the target cells in a number of animal models of cholestasis, including bile duct ligation (BDL), and in several human pathologies, such as polycystic liver disease characterized by the presence of cysts that bud from the biliary epithelium. In vivo, liver fragments from normal and BDL mice and rats as well as liver samples from normal and ADPKD patients were collected to evaluate: (i) intrahepatic bile duct mass by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin-19; and (ii) expression of V1a, V1b and V2 by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. In vitro, small and large mouse cholangiocytes, H69 (non-malignant human cholangiocytes) and LCDE (human cholangiocytes from the cystic epithelium) were stimulated with vasopressin in the absence/presence of AVP antagonists such as OPC-31260 and Tolvaptan, before assessing cellular growth by MTT assay and cAMP levels. Cholangiocytes express V2 receptor that was upregulated following BDL and in ADPKD liver samples. Administration of AVP increased proliferation and cAMP levels of small cholangiocytes and LCDE cells. We found no effect in the proliferation of large mouse cholangiocytes and H69 cells. Increases were blocked by preincubation with the AVP antagonists. These results showed that AVP and its receptors may be important in the modulation of the proliferation rate of the biliary epithelium.

  18. Soft-Tissue-Anchored Transcutaneous Port for Long-Term Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Rickard Ekloef, Hampus; Eriksson, Lars-Gunnar; Karlsson, Britt-Marie; Rasmussen, Ib; Lundgren, Dan; Thomsen, Peter

    2005-01-15

    Purpose. A transcutaneous port (T-port) has been developed allowing easy exchange of a catheter, which was fixed inside the device, using the Seldinger technique. The objective of the study was to test the T-port in patients who had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Methods. The T-port, made of titanium, was implanted using local anesthesia in 11 patients (mean age 65 years, range 52-85 years) with biliary duct obstruction (7 malignant and 4 benign strictures). The subcutaneous part of the T-port consisted of a flange with several perforations allowing ingrowth of connective tissue. The T-port allowed catheter sizes of 10 and 12 Fr. Results. All wounds healed uneventfully and were followed by a stable period without signs of pronounced inflammation or infection. It was easy to open the port and to exchange the drainage tube. The patient's quality of life was considerably improved even though several patients had problems with repeated bile leakage due to frequent recurrent obstructions of the tubes. The ports were implanted for a mean time of 9 months (range 2-21 months). Histologic examination in four cases showed that the port was well integrated into the soft tissue. Tilting of the T-port in two cases led to perforation of the skin by the subcutaneous part of the ports, which were removed after 7 and 8 months. Conclusion. The T-port served as an excellent external access to the biliary ducts. The drainage tubes were well fixed within the ports. The quality of life of the patients was considerably improved. Together with improved aesthetic appearance they found it easier to conduct normal daily activities and personal care. However, the problem of recurrent catheter obstruction remained unsolved.

  19. Optimal biliary access point and learning curve for endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy with transmural stenting

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dongwook; Park, Do Hyun; Song, Tae Jun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) with transmural stenting has increased for biliary decompression in patients with an inaccessible papilla, the optimal biliary access point and the learning curve of EUS-HGS have not been studied. We evaluated the optimal biliary access point and learning curve for technically successful EUS-HGS. Methods: 129 consecutive patients (male n = 81, 62.3%; malignant n = 113, 87.6%) who underwent EUS-HGS due to an inaccessible papilla were enrolled. EUS finding and procedure times according to each needle puncture attempt in EUS-HGS were prospectively measured. Learning curves of EUS-HGS were calculated for two main outcome measurements (procedure time and adverse events) by using the moving average method and cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis, respectively. Results: A total of 174 EUS-HGS attempts were performed in 129 patients. The mean number of needle punctures was 1.35 ± 0.57. Using the logistic regression model, bile duct diameter of the puncture site ⩽ 5 mm [odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71–8.1, p < 0.01] and hepatic portion length [linear distance from the mural wall to the punctured bile duct wall on EUS; mean hepatic portion length was 27 mm (range 10–47 mm)] > 3 cm (OR 5.7, 95% CI: 2.7–12, p < 0.01) were associated with low technical success. Procedure time and adverse events were shorter after 24 cases, and stabilized at 33 cases of EUS-HGS, respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a bile duct diameter > 5 mm and hepatic portion length 1 cm to ⩽ 3 cm on EUS may be suitable for successful EUS-HGS. In our learning curve analysis, over 33 cases might be required to achieve the plateau phase for successful EUS-HGS. PMID:28286558

  20. [Environmental factors and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, L P; Zhao, H; Lyu, B; Cheng, J L

    2016-07-20

    The complex interplay between immune factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in autoimmune diseases. This is especially true for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of high-titer antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). Among the currently known risk factors, genetic predisposition remains to be the dominant one. However, it is insufficient to explain the different geographic distributions of PBC and the incomplete concordance in identical twins. This suggests an association between specific environmental factors and the development of PBC. Nevertheless, a clear and rational association of environmental factors with primary biliary cirrhosis has not yet been fully elucidated. Our current understanding of the environmental triggers of PBC is limited to numerous suspected factors involved in its development, such as xenobiotics, electrophilic drugs, infection, and other physical, chemical, and even biological factors. Although the factors leading to the breakdown of immune tolerance in PBC are still largely unknown, related geoepidemiological studies may help us better understand the impact of the environment. In addition, a better understanding of the interplay between environmental factors and PBC is the critical step toward improving our management and control of PBC and autoimmunity in general.

  1. [The five syndromes of biliary obstruction].

    PubMed

    Praderi, R C; Gil, J

    1999-01-01

    Clinical description of biliary diseases are slightly over a century old. At the end of last century and beginning of the present one, laws were established and clinical syndromes were described; these are still valid at present. Some modern techniques such as ultrasonography confirmed the importance of the Courvoisier-Terrier law. The first syndromatic description was made by two clinicians from Lyon, Bard and Pic, based on autopsy confirmation of clinical features. This paper analyses those rules and exceptions to Courvoisier-Terrier law. Research carried out by Pablo Marizzi, the Argentine surgeon who introduced operatory cholangiography is also analyzed. By means of this technique he was able to study patients better, transforming biliary surgery into a procedure with scientific basis, thanks to imagenological data. The sphincter described by this author turned out to be a radiological artifact due to the use of oily contrast media. Finally the right and left hydrohepatosis syndromes described by Cattell and Braasch in the 1960s are discussed. In 1971 we pointed out our disagreement over jaundice in left hydrohepatosis.

  2. [Antibiotherapy in biliary surgery. Current status].

    PubMed

    Guyot, L; Allouch, P; Legue, E; Estenne, B

    1989-04-01

    Without antibiotherapy, biliary surgery is often followed by infectious complications, possibly serious, indeed life-threatening. Biliary bacteria do are responsible of these complications; mainly E. Coli, Streptococcus faecalis (whose pathogenicity is disputed) and Klebsiella. Bacteroides fragilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are restricted to special circumstances. It is often difficult to presee whether bile is infected: some risk factors were emerged by Keighley but their specificity is not excellent; peroperative Gram staining got various results according to the studies. Some prefer to give a systematic antibiotherapy. Preoperative antibiotic treatment should be as short as possible because it does not sterilize bile, but selects resistant bacteria, which induce postoperative complications. It must mainly be aimed at preventing infectious scattering. Surgery is the main part of the treatment. Antibiotic choice has to take into account clinical picture, bacteria (those probably responsible for and their sensibility) and goal of the treatment (prophylactic or curative). Analysis of failures should allow to improve this choice. But only multicenter studies concerning full selected populations of patients are able to prove superiority of one antibiotic to another.

  3. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions in Biliary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In most cholangiopathies, liver diseases of different etiologies in which the biliary epithelium is the primary target in the pathogenic sequence, the central mechanism involves inflammation. Inflammation, characterized by pleomorphic peribiliary infiltrate containing fibroblasts, macrophages, lymphocytes, as well as endothelial cells and pericytes, is associated to the emergence of “reactive cholangiocytes.” These biliary cells do not possess bile secretory functions, are in contiguity with terminal cholangioles, and are of a less-differentiated phenotype. They have acquired several mesenchymal properties, including motility and ability to secrete a vast number of proinflammatory chemo/cytokines and growth factors along with de novo expression of a rich receptor machinery. These functional properties enable reactive cholangiocytes to establish intimate contacts and to mutually exchange a variety of paracrine signals with the different mesenchymal cell types populating the portal infiltrate. The extensive crosstalk between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments is the driver of liver repair mechanisms in cholangiopathies, ultimately evolving toward portal fibrosis. Herein, the authors first review the properties of the different cell types involved in their interaction, and then analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms as they relate to liver repair in cholangiopathies. PMID:21344348

  4. The unfinished business of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Zuin, Massimo; Gershwin, M Eric

    2008-09-01

    In nearly every multifactorial human disease, there are three periods that characterize our understanding and definition. First, there is a period in which there is rapid accumulation of descriptive data. Second, there is a longer and slower period as information is obtained that redefines and expands basic and clinical knowledge that lacks the final and important area of understanding aetiology and therapeutic intervention. Third, which is much less common for most diseases, is the vigorous definition of pathobiology and treatment. These phases are well illustrated by our current understanding of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The term PBC was first used nearly 60 years ago and for the first 40 or so years, the primary research efforts were directed at clinical definitions and pathology. Subsequently, with the advent of molecular biology, there began a rigorous dissection of the immune response and, in particular, a better understanding of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. These efforts have greatly helped in our understanding of not only the effector mechanisms of disease, but also the uniqueness of the primary target tissue, biliary epithelium. However, this research has still not led to successful translation for specific therapy.

  5. Vascularized fibular graft as a surgical option for osteosarcoma of distal humerus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Achmad Fauzi; Putra, Anggaditya; Widodo, Wahyu

    2017-08-23

    Distal humerus is a very rare predilection site of osteosarcoma. Limb salvage surgery has widely replaced amputation for surgical treatment of most types of malignant bone sarcomas. We presented a 42 years old male with rapidly growing osteosarcoma on his right distal humerus. After induction chemotherapy, wide excision and reconstruction using free vascularized fibular graft followed with interpositional elbow arthroplasty technique was done. One of the option for surgical treatment for distal humerus osteosarcoma is limb salvage sugery with free vascularized fibular graft technique. Good functional outcome and no signs of local recurrence were found during 2,5 years follow up. Free vascularized fibular graft with interpositional elbow arthroplasty is a good option for management of bone sarcoma of distal humerus. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical treatment of biliary tract complications after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lladó, L; Fabregat, J; Baliellas, C; Gonzalez-Castillo, A; Ramos, E; Gonzalez-Vilatarsana, E; Torras, J; Rafecas, A

    2012-01-01

    Biliary strictures are the most common biliary tract complication after liver transplantation. There are scarce data on the results of hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) in the management of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Thus, the role of surgery in this setting remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment of patients with biliary complications at our institution. We reviewed 1000 consecutive liver transplantations performed at our institution from 1984 to 2007. We used a prospectively recorded database to identify patients who underwent HJ to treat any biliary tract complication. Overall, 62 patients (6.2%) underwent HJ, 40 for an anastomotic and 7 for a non-anastomotic stricture as well as 15 for biliary leaks. Postoperative morbidity was 16%, and postoperative mortality 1.6%. There were 7 cases of anastomotic stenosis (11.3%). Four patients (5%) required retransplantation. HJ is a safe procedure to manage biliary complications after OLT. It may be the first treatment choice especially for cases with anastomotic strictures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of preoperative biliary tract decompression in patients with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Gundry, S R; Strodel, W E; Knol, J A; Eckhauser, F E; Thompson, N W

    1984-06-01

    Fifty consecutive matched patients with benign or malignant biliary tract obstruction were compared to determine the efficacy of preoperative percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). Twenty-five patients underwent PBD for an average of nine days before operation; 25 patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography ( PTHC ) followed immediately by operation. Serum bilirubin levels before PTHC were 16.5 +/- 7.6 mg/dL and 14.9 +/- 7.6 mg/dL in PBD and non-PBD groups, respectively. Serum bilirubin levels decreased to 6.5 +/- 6.2 mg/dL preoperatively in patients having PBD. One week after operation, bilirubin levels were 4.2 +/- 4.3 mg/dL and 9.0 +/- 5.2 mg/dL in the PBD and non-PBD groups, respectively. Major morbidity (sepsis, abscess, renal failure, or bleeding) occurred in two patients (8%) having PBD and in 13 patients (52%) without PBD. One patient (4%) with PBD, and five patients (20%) without PBD, died. The mean hospital stay was shorter for the PBD group. Preoperative PBD reduces operative mortality and morbidity and results in a more rapid resolution of hyperbilirubinemia during the postoperative period.

  8. Development of Biliary and Enteral Stents by the Korean Gastrointestinal Endoscopists

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Jin Hong; Bok, Gene Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Stenting in the gastrointestinal tract is a common procedure used for palliation of obstruction in the enteral and biliary tract. Today, stenting of malignant and benign strictures is performed at almost every major tertiary hospital in Korea. Moreover, Korea has become a major global supplier of cutting edge technology in the field of self-expanding metal stents. However, the history of stenting in Korea is relatively short and was far behind that of other nations such as Japan and Germany. The authors are humbled and gratified to have been able to observe the development and application of these stents in Korea, first hand. In this article, the authors review the overall history of stenting with a specific focus on the development of stenting in Korea. The development of esophageal, gastroduodenal, biliary, and colonic stents in Korea are reviewed in this article from a chronological and historical point of view, and a personal account of some of the significant moments of stent development in Korea are described. PMID:26956192

  9. Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Hung Q; Vu, Ut V; Pham, Quynh T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and cholangiocarcinoma account for 4% and 3%, respectively, of all gastrointestinal cancers. Advanced biliary tract carcinoma has a very poor prognosis with all current available modalities of treatment. In this pilot open-label study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (ademetionine) oral supplementation as palliative pharmacotherapy in nine patients with advanced nonresectable biliary tract carcinomas (ABTCs). Patients with evidence of biliary obstruction with a total serum bilirubin ≤300 μmol/L were allowed to join the study. The results of this 6-month study and follow-up of all nine patients with ABTC indicated that the investigated combination treatment improved pain control, blood biochemical parameters, and quality of life for the patients. Moreover, this method of treatment has led to a 6-month progression-free survival for all investigated patients. The treatment was well tolerated for all patients without major adverse reactions. Given that ABTC is a highly fatal malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs, the authors consider that the combination of DMSO-SB and ademetionine deserves further research and application as a palliative care and survival-enhancing treatment for this group of patients.

  10. A Rare Case of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Biliary Duct in a Patient with Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Ravish; Krol, Gregory; Piraka, Cyrus; Batra, Surinder

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing papillary neoplasms of the pancreatic or biliary ductal system that exhibit variable cellular atypia and cause ductal dilation. There are few reported cases of IPMN arising from the biliary tree in the literature. It has a higher propensity to undergo malignant transformation compared to IPMN arising from the pancreatic duct. An 80-year-old male underwent cross-sectional tomography (CT) imaging of the abdomen for evaluation of prostate adenocarcinoma, which revealed an incidental 2.3 × 2.7 cm soft tissue mass centered at the porta hepatis with diffuse dilatation of the left intrahepatic biliary ductal system and mild prominence of the right intrahepatic ductal system. Endoscopic ultrasound showed 2 adjacent hilar masses involving the common hepatic duct and the left hepatic duct with protrusion of the tissue into the lumen of the duct and upstream ductal dilatation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a large filling defect in the common hepatic duct extending into the left hepatic duct. A large amount of clot and soft tissue with a fish-egg appearance was retrieved. The patient underwent left hepatic lobectomy, radical resection of the common hepatic duct with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy to the right hepatic duct. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with diffuse high-grade dysplasia. Follow-up CT scan of the abdomen 2 months after the surgery was negative for any masses. PMID:28100995

  11. Placement of a new fully covered self-expanding metal stent for postoperative biliary strictures and leaks not responding to plastic stenting.

    PubMed

    Luigiano, Carmelo; Bassi, Marco; Ferrara, Francesco; Fabbri, Carlo; Ghersi, Stefania; Morace, Carmela; Consolo, Pierluigi; Maimone, Antonella; Galluccio, Gabriella; D'Imperio, Nicola; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) are now being used to treat postoperative biliary strictures (BSs) and biliary leaks (BLs). The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of a new FCSEMS (Wallflex) in patients with postoperative BSs and BLs after failure of traditional endoscopic treatment. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 16 patients (10 patients with postcholecystectomy BSs, 4 with postcholecystectomy BLs, and 2 with postorthotopic liver transplantation BSs) were enrolled. The technical and clinical success rate was 100%. All FCSEMSs were removed after a mean of 141 days. Complications occurred in 7 cases: 2 postprocedure pain, 2 mild pancreatitis, 1 early distal, and 2 late proximal FCSEMS migration. The overall long-term clinical success rate was 94% after a mean follow-up of 13 months. In our experience, the placement of FCSEMSs is an effective and secure method of treating refractory postoperative BSs or BLs.

  12. [Biliary atresia - signs and symptoms, diagnosis, clinical management].

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Ewa; Czubkowski, Piotr; Socha, Piotr

    Biliary atresia is a chronic cholangiopathy leading to progressive fibrosis of both intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. The cause of the condition is unknown. Fundamental management of biliary atresia is surgical intervention and the outcomes of the treatment depend on the child's age with best results when performed within the first 2 months of life. Thus, the main role of pediatric healthcare is an urgent differential diagnosis and prompt qualification for the surgery, optimal postoperative management and early qualification for the liver transplantation in patients with persistent cholestasis. The authors discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of biliary atresia.

  13. Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Cafasso, Danielle E; Smith, Richard R

    2014-04-01

    Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract present with similar signs and symptoms. The functional disorders of the biliary tract include functional gallbladder disorder, dyskinesia, and the sphincter of Oddi disorders. Although the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis are relatively straightforward, the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders can be much more challenging. Many aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders are in need of further study. This article discusses uncomplicated gallstone disease and the functional disorders of the biliary tract to emphasize and update the essential components of diagnosis and management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Double Incomplete Internal Biliary Fistula: Coexisting Cholecystogastric and Cholecystoduodenal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae. PMID:26904348

  15. Double Incomplete Internal Biliary Fistula: Coexisting Cholecystogastric and Cholecystoduodenal Fistula.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae.

  16. Pregnancy Complicated by Portal Hypertension Secondary to Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, O. E.; Crosby, D.; Byrne, B.; Regan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare idiopathic neonatal cholestatic disease characterized by the destruction of both the intra- and extrahepatic biliary ducts. As the disease is progressive all cases will develop portal fibrosis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with the sequelae of varices, jaundice, and eventually liver failure requiring a transplant. Survival rates have improved considerably with many females living well in to be childbearing age. Due to the complexity of the disease these pregnancies are considered, high risk. We report the antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum managements of a pregnancy complicated by biliary atresia. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in optimizing obstetric care for this high risk group. PMID:24459595

  17. Timing of cholecystectomy in biliary pancreatitis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Uygar; Yazıcı, Pınar; Bostancı, Özgür; Kaya, Cemal; Köksal, Hakan; Işıl, Gürhan; Bozdağ, Emre; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gallstone pancreatitis constitutes 40% of all cases with pancreatitis while it constitutes up to 90% of cases with acute pancreatitis. The treatment modality in this patient population is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of early and late cholecystectomy for patients with biliary pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Patients treated with a diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis in our clinics between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, patients who underwent cholecystectomy during the first pancreatitis attack, Group B, patients who underwent an interval cholecystectomy at least 8 weeks after the first pancreatitis episode. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, number of episodes, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality data were recorded. All data were evaluated with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 for windows and p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: During the last 12 years, a total of 91 patients with surgical treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis were included into the study. There were 62 female and 29 male patients, with a mean age of 57.9±14.6 years (range: 21–89). A concomitant acute cholecystitis was present in 46.2% of the patients. Group A and B included 48 and 43 patients, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher in group B (9.4 vs. 6.8 days) (p<0,05). More than half of the patients in Group B were readmitted to the hospital for various reasons. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, one patient died due to heart failure in the postoperative period in group B. Conclusion: In-hospital cholecystectomy after remission of acute pancreatitis is feasible. It will not only result in lower recurrence and complication rates but also shorten length of hospital stay. We recommend performing cholecystectomy during the

  18. Biliary diseases as main causes of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Feng, Xiao-Ning; Lai, Ming-Chun; Kong, Hai-Shen; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about aetiology and morbidity and clinical characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. An analysis between pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and those caused by non-extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was performed. Among 817 pyogenic liver abscess patients, there were 176 patients (21.5%) with pyogenic liver abscess of biliary origin, and 67 pyogenic liver abscess patients (8.2%) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Of 176 pyogenic liver abscess patients related to biliary disorders, there were 48 pyogenic liver abscess patients (27.3%) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Within 67 pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, the occurrences of 48 pyogenic liver abscess patients (71.6%) were associated with biliary disorders. When compared with pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by non-extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, there were significantly greater incidences of polymicrobial infections, bacteremia, pulmonary infection, recurrence and death in pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenems remain mainstay drugs against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Independent risk factors for occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were biliary disorders including extra- and intrahepatic cholangiolithiasis and an abnormal bilioenteric communication between bile and gut, a treatment history of malignancy such as operation and chemotherapy, pulmonary infection, and diabetes mellitus

  19. Distal clavicle fractures in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Labronici, Pedro José; da Silva, Ricardo Rodrigues; Franco, Marcos Vinícius Viana; Labronici, Gustavo José; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Franco, José Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze fractures of the distal clavicle region in pediatric patients. Methods Ten patients between the ages of five to eleven years (mean of 7.3 years) were observed. Nine patients were treated conservatively and one surgically. All the fractures were classified using the Nenopoulos classification system. Results All the fractures consolidated without complications. Conservative treatment was used for nine patients, of whom three were in group IIIB, three IIb, two IIa and one IV. The only patient who was treated surgically was a female patient of eleven years of age with a group IV fracture. Conclusion The treatment indication for distal fractures of the clavicle in children should be based on the patient's age and the displacement of the fragments. PMID:26962489

  20. [Distal radius fractures in children].

    PubMed

    Otayek, S; Ramanoudjame, M; Fitoussi, F

    2016-12-01

    Metaphyseal and physeal fractures of the distal radius are common in children. Most cases are best treated with closed reduction and cast immobilization. Long-term outcomes of these injuries are excellent when specific treatment principles of reduction and casting are followed. Surgical indications are limited and include open fractures, intra-articular fractures, non-reducible fractures, unstable fractures, and the presence of associated nerve injury. Closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation is the most commonly used surgical option. The clinician should be aware of delayed complications such as growth disturbance of the distal radius, and understand how to manage these problems to ensure successful long-term outcomes. Epiphysiodesis is uncommon but growth plate injuries need to be followed for one year.

  1. Expanding endourology for biliary stone disease: the efficacy of intracorporeal lithotripsy on refractory biliary calculi.

    PubMed

    Sninsky, Brian C; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Hinshaw, J Louis; McDermott, John C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of ureteroscopic therapy (electrohydraulic lithotripsy [EHL] and intraductal laser lithotripsy [ILL]) in patients with challenging biliary stones secondary to anatomic variations resulting from a previous surgical procedure, including liver transplantation. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with previous surgical alteration of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract who underwent EHL or ILL via peroral or percutaneous access for choledocholithiasis by a single surgeon at our institution from 2000 to 2012. A database containing clinical and surgical variables was created, and long-term follow-up was conducted (3-138 months; median, 99 months). Thirteen patients (51.7±20.0 years; M:F, 10:3) in whom endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC), or both failed were identified. Failure of ERCP/PTHC was because of inaccessibility of the calculi in all cases. Stone clearance was achieved in 12/13 (93%) patients; 8/12 (62%) after one procedure, and 4/12 (31%) after two procedures. One patient with biliary cast syndrome needed four interventions over 9 years. Major complications were low, with only one patient with hypotension and cholangitis that resolved with 24 hours of administration of intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Both endoscopic and percutaneous lithotripsies are effective treatments for refractory biliary calculi resulting from the post-surgical GI tract. Although a staged second procedure may be necessary in patients with significant stone burden, this is significantly better than extensive open surgery.

  2. [Free radical processes at patients with pathologies of biliary ducts and methods of their correction].

    PubMed

    Bolevich, S B; Stupin, V A; Gakhramanov, T V; Khokonov, M A; Silina, E V; Men'shova, N I; Bogdanova, L S

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of a research in the early diagnostics of a functional condition of a liver, is to estimate the degree of the level of its expressiveness and timely pathogenetic correction on the basis of the free radical system processes of studying of patients with mechanical jaundice. Results were carried out among 61 patients with pathologies of bile tracts( biliary ducts) which proved the essential role of free radical processes with strengthening of peroxidation of membrane lipids against the absolute or relative insufficiency of endogenic antioxidants in the mechanism of development of hepatic insufficiency at the given category of patients with the highest degree expressed at the serious conditions of the patients with malignant diseases. It is revealed that the inclusion of energy corrector antioxidants of reamberin to the therapy as a part of standard schemes of treatment promoted positive regressing dynamics of parameters of free radical processes that are correlated with positive clinical symptoms and outcome of diseases.

  3. Distal esophageal spasm: an update.

    PubMed

    Achem, Sami R; Gerson, Lauren B

    2013-09-01

    Distal esophageal spasm (DES) is an esophageal motility disorder that presents clinically with chest pain and/or dysphagia and is defined manometrically as simultaneous contractions in the distal (smooth muscle) esophagus in ≥20% of wet swallows (and amplitude contraction of ≥30 mmHg) alternating with normal peristalsis. With the introduction of high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) in 2000, the definition of DES was modified. The Chicago classification proposed that the defining criteria for DES using EPT should be the presence of at least two premature contractions (distal latency<4.5 s) in a context of normal EGJ relaxation. The etiology of DES remains insufficiently understood, but evidence links nitric oxide (NO) deficiency as a culprit resulting in a disordered neural inhibition. GERD frequently coexists in DES, and its role in the pathogenesis of symptoms needs further evaluation. There is some evidence from small series that DES can progress to achalasia. Treatment remains challenging due in part to lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Current treatment agents include nitrates (both short and long acting), calcium-channel blockers, anticholinergic agents, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors, visceral analgesics (tricyclic agents or SSRI), and esophageal dilation. Acid suppression therapy is frequently used, but clinical outcome trials to support this approach are not available. Injection of botulinum toxin in the distal esophagus may be effective, but further data regarding the development of post-injection gastroesophageal reflux need to be assessed. Heller myotomy combined with fundoplication remains an alternative for the rare refractory patient. Preliminary studies suggest that the newly developed endoscopic technique of per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may also be an alternative treatment modality.

  4. Endoscopic Distal Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-04-01

    Chronic distal tibiofibular syndesmosis disruption can be managed by endoscopic arthrodesis of the syndesmosis. This is performed through the proximal anterolateral and posterolateral portals. The scar tissue and bone block are resected to facilitate the subsequent reduction of the syndesmosis. The reduction of the syndesmosis can be guided either arthroscopically or endoscopically. The tibial and fibular surfaces of the tibiofibular overlap can be microfractured to facilitate subsequent fusion.

  5. [Malignant soft tissue tumors].

    PubMed

    Schauer, A; Altmannsberger, M

    1984-01-01

    This article is a survey of actual aspects. With regard to frequency, the malignant fibrous histocytoma comes first, followed by lipo- and fibrosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant schwannoma, malignant tumours proceeding from arteries and veins and the unstriated musculature. Staging and grading of these tumours are difficult. Until now their overall TNM-classification was not possible due to insufficient hard criteria.

  6. Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lehecka, Martin; Dashti, Reza; Lehto, Hanna; Kivisaari, Riku; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms, also known as pericallosal artery aneurysms, represent about 6% of all intracranial aneurysms. They are located on the A2-A5 segments of the anterior cerebral artery and on its distal branches. This paper summarizes present knowledge on radiological features, treatment options, treatment results, and long-term follow-up of DACA aneurysms. Typical features of DACA aneurysms are small size, broad base, and branches originating from the base. When ruptured, they cause intracerebral hematoma in nearly half of the cases. DACA aneurysms are nowadays more often treated with microsurgical clipping than endovascular coiling due to their distal location and morphologic features. With clipping the results are same or slightly better than for aneurysms at other locations, coiling is often associated with more complications than in other aneurysms. Clipping is a long-lasting treatment with very small recurrence rate, there is no long-term data available on efficacy of coiling yet. For ruptured DACA aneurysms the most important factors affecting outcome is the severity of initial bleeding and patient's age.

  7. Resection of parosteal osteosarcoma of the distal part of the femur: an original reconstruction technique with cement and plate.

    PubMed

    Pezzillo, F; Maccauro, G; Nizegorodcew, T; Rossi, B; Gosheger, G

    2008-01-01

    Parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade malignant bone tumor arising from the distal femur and tibia. Wide resection of a parosteal osteosarcoma usually prevents local recurrence. In literature, hemicortical resections of low-grade malignant bone tumors and allograft reconstruction are described. We describe a new method of resection and reconstruction of parosteal osteosarcoma located in the popliteal paraosseous space of the distal part of the femur using cement and plate (LISS-SYNTHES) through dual medial and lateral incisions. The patient did not present infections and fractures and the functional results were good. After one year, no metastases developed and there were no local recurrences.

  8. Resection of Parosteal Osteosarcoma of the Distal Part of the Femur: An Original Reconstruction Technique with Cement and Plate

    PubMed Central

    Pezzillo, F.; Maccauro, G.; Nizegorodcew, T.; Rossi, B.; Gosheger, G.

    2008-01-01

    Parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade malignant bone tumor arising from the distal femur and tibia. Wide resection of a parosteal osteosarcoma usually prevents local recurrence. In literature, hemicortical resections of low-grade malignant bone tumors and allograft reconstruction are described. We describe a new method of resection and reconstruction of parosteal osteosarcoma located in the popliteal paraosseous space of the distal part of the femur using cement and plate (LISS-SYNTHES) through dual medial and lateral incisions. The patient did not present infections and fractures and the functional results were good. After one year, no metastases developed and there were no local recurrences. PMID:18949052

  9. Antinuclear antibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Worman, Howard J; Courvalin, Jean Claude

    2003-06-01

    The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies. However, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are also detectable in approximately 50% of subjects with PBC. Most clinical laboratories use indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to detect ANA and two labeling patterns that predominate in PBC are 'punctate nuclear rim' and 'multiple nuclear dots.' Work over the past several years has shown that antibodies giving these patterns most often recognize nuclear pore membrane protein gp210 and nuclear body protein sp100, respectively. These ANA are highly specific for PBC and detected in approximately 25% of patients. Less frequently, ANA apparently unique to PBC recognize other proteins of the nuclear envelope and nuclear bodies. While antibodies against gp210, sp100 and some other nuclear proteins are very specific to PBC and may therefore be useful diagnostic markers, their connection to pathogenesis remains to be elucidated.

  10. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dronamraju, Deepti; Odin, Joseph; Bach, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease of unclear etiology. It is a chronic, progressive condition that causes intrahepatic ductal destruction ultimately leading to symptoms of cholestasis, cirrhosis and liver failure. The disease predominantly affects middle aged Caucasian women. It has a predilection to certain regions and is found in higher incidences in North America and Northern Europe. It also has a genetic predisposition with a concordance rate of 60% among monozygotic twins. Combinations of genetic and environmental factors are proposed in the pathogenesis of this disease with a compelling body of evidence that suggests a role for both these factors. This review will elucidate data on the proposed environmental agents involved the disease's pathogenesis including xenobiotic and microbial exposure and present some of the supporting epidemiologic data. PMID:21297251

  11. Extrahepatic Manifestations of Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Chalifoux, Sara L; Konyn, Peter G; Choi, Gina; Saab, Sammy

    2017-03-16

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by progressive destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to cholestasis. PBC is known to have both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in up to 73% of patients with PBC, with the most common being Sjogren's syndrome, thyroid dysfunction and systemic sclerosis. It is thought that patients with PBC are at increased risk of developing these extrahepatic manifestations, almost all of which are autoimmune, because patients with autoimmune disease are at higher risk of developing another autoimmune condition. Due to the high prevalence of extrahepatic diseases in patients with PBC, it is important to complete a thorough medical history at the time of diagnosis. Prompt recognition of extrahepatic disease can lead to improved patient outcomes and quality of life. The following review summarizes the most common extrahepatic conditions associated with PBC.

  12. Toward precision medicine in primary biliary cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Ronca, Vincenzo; Bruno, Savino; Invernizzi, Pietro; Mells, George F

    2016-08-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease characterized by a heterogeneous presentation, symptomatology, disease progression and response to therapy. In contrast, clinical management and treatment of PBC is homogeneous with a 'one size fits all' approach. The evolving research landscape, with the emergence of the -omics field and the availability of large patient cohorts are creating a unique opportunity of translational epidemiology. Furthermore, several novel disease and symptom-modifying agents for PBC are currently in development. The time is therefore ripe for precision medicine in PBC. In this manuscript we describe the concept of precision medicine; review current approaches to risk-stratification in PBC, and speculate how precision medicine in PBC might develop in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Beyond Ursodeoxycholic Acid.

    PubMed

    Corpechot, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Although ursodeoxycholic acid remains the only approved pharmacotherapy for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, the better characterization of factors responsible for the poor response to this drug and the emergence of several new putative therapeutic targets now offer significant opportunities to improve the management of patients and our capacity to treat them more efficiently. The availability of novel treatment options, such as fibrates, budesonide, and obeticholic acid, all capable of improving prognostic markers, invites us to reconsider our management and treatment strategies. Early identification of high-risk patients should remain a priority to deliver adjunctive therapies to appropriately selected populations and increase their chances of success. Given the absence of comparative trials, the choice between second-line treatments should be dictated by the biochemical, histological, and expected tolerance profiles. Here the author presents a brief overview of what should be known in this field and proposes a practical approach to facilitate decision making.

  14. Diagnosis and management of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad H; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-12-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized histologically by destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts and serologically by the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies. The incidence and prevalence of PBC are increasing. Fatigue and pruritus are common symptoms in PBC, although the proportion of asymptomatic PBC is increasing due to the widespread use of screening biochemical tests and antimitochondrial antibody assays. PBC may eventually lead to cirrhosis and its consequent complications. In the 1980s, PBC was the leading indication for liver transplantation. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the only US FDA-approved therapeutic agent for PBC. Clinical trials have shown that the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in PBC results in reduction of liver biochemistries, a delay in histological progression, a delay in the development of varices and improvement in survival without liver transplantation.

  15. Biliary Atresia: Cellular Dynamics and Immune Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy; Mack, Cara L.

    2012-01-01

    The cause of biliary atresia (BA) is unknown and in the past few decades the majority of investigations related to pathogenesis have centered on virus infections and immunity. The acquired or perinatal form of BA entails a progressive, inflammatory injury of bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and obliteration of both the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Theories of pathogenesis include viral infection, chronic inflammatory or autoimmune-mediated bile duct injury and abnormalities in bile duct development. This review will focus solely on human studies pertaining to a potential viral trigger of bile duct injury at diagnosis and provide insight into the interplay of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:22800972

  16. Environmental Factors in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tract infection to be associated with PBC. Current evidence implicates molecular mimicry as a primary mechanism driving loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmunity in PBC, yet other environmentally influenced disease processes are likely to be involved in pathogenesis. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current findings and touch on potential mechanisms behind the environmental component of PBC. PMID:25057950

  17. Pulmonary involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Roisin, R; Pares, A; Bruguera, M; Coll, J; Picado, C; Agusti-Vidal, A; Burgos, F; Rodes, J

    1981-01-01

    The association of pulmonary fibrosis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains controversial. To determine the frequency of pulmonary fibrosis in PBC, a carefully selected series of 14 PBC patients, seven patients with Sicca complex, and 14 control subjects have been studied. Seven of the 14 patients with PBC had Sjögren's syndrome, four of whom had some clinical evidence of pulmonary disease. Evaluation of ventilatory capacity, gas transfer factor, arterial blood gases, and lung mechanics were performed. Gas transfer was reduced in patients with PBC associated with Sjögen's syndrome and in patients with the Sicca complex. These results suggest that the respiratory, clinical, ad functional abnormalities found in PBC are related to the presence of an associated Sjögen's syndrome. PMID:7281088

  18. Idiopathic myelofibrosis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Boluda, J C; Jiménez, M; Rosiñol, L; Cervantes, F

    2002-03-01

    A patient with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) who developed idiopathic myelofibrosis (IM) is reported. The initial diagnosis of PBC was established by liver biopsy, performed after a 2-month history of constitutional symptoms associated with abnormalities of the serum liver enzymes, with typical serum immunological markers being found. Although a favorable response of PBC to prednisone was observed, one and a half year later the patient developed anemia with anisocytosis and poikilocytosis, tear-drop cells, and leukoerythroblastic picture, and IM was diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy. A few months later, a rapid worsening of the patient's clinical condition was noted, with an increase in the constitutional symptoms and need for frequent packed RBC transfusions, and she finally died from an infectious complication. This case represents a new association of IM with an autoimmune disease, supporting the hypothesis of a possible immune basis of IM in some cases.

  19. Induction of biliary cholangiocarcinoma cell apoptosis by 103Pd cholangial radioactive stent gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    He, Gui-jin; Sun, Dan-dan; Ji, Da-wei; Sui, Dong-ming; Yu, Fa-qiang; Gao, Qin-yi; Dai, Xian-wei; Gao, Hong; Jiang, Tao; Dai, Chao-liu

    2008-06-05

    In recent years, interventional tumor therapy, involving implantation of intra-cholangial metal stents through percutaneous trans-hepatic punctures, has provided a new method for treating cholangiocarcinoma. (103)Pd cholangial radioactive stents can concentrate high radioactive dosages into the malignant tumors and kill tumor cells effectively, in order to prevent re-stenosis of the lumen caused by a relapsed tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma-rays released by the (103)Pd biliary duct radioactive stent in treating cholangiocarcinoma via induction of biliary cholangiocarcinoma cell apoptosis. A group of biliary duct cancer cells was collectively treated with a dose of gamma-rays. Cells were then examined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl terazolium-bromide (MTT) technique for determining the inhibition rate of the biliary duct cancer cells, as well as with other methods including electron microscopy, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry were applied for the evaluation of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The growth curve and the growth inhibition rate of the cells were determined, and the changes in the ultrastructure of the cholangiocarcinoma cells and the DNA electrophoresis bands were examined under a UV-lamp. The gamma-ray released by (103)Pd inhibited cholangiocarcinoma cell growth, as demonstrated when the growth rate of the cells was stunned by a gamma-ray with a dosage larger than 197.321 MBq. Typical features of cholangiocarcinoma cell apoptosis were observed in the 197.321 MBq dosage group, while cell necrosis was observed when irradiated by a dosage above 245.865 MBq. DNA agarose gel electrophoresis results were different between the 197.321 MBq irradiation dosage group, the 245.865 MBq irradiation dosage group, and the control group. (103)Pd radioactive stents which provide a radioactive dosage of 197.321 MBq are effective in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma

  20. Aspects of the Pathophysiology of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Margaret; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a classical autoimmune liver disease and is present in around 1 in 1,000 women over the age of 40. It has a number of diagnostic characteristics consistent with autoimmune liver injury, in particular, the high specificity of circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Histologically, the disease is reflected as a granulomatous lymphocytic cholangitis that consequently leads to small bile duct loss and cholestasis. Progressive disease is characterised by the development of a biliary cirrhosis, with end-stage features of liver disease ultimately impacting patient outcomes. Studies support a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors that coalesce to lead to loss of immunological tolerance and persistent biliary inflammation. Significant advances have occurred recently in understanding the genetic risk factors for disease, as well as utilising human and murine studies to characterise the nature of the biliary injury and cholestatic response.

  1. Precursors to Lymphoproliferative Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy. PMID:23549397

  2. Sarcoidosis and primary biliary cirrhosis with co-existing myositis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, P.; McGavin, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    In a small number of cases the co-existence of primary biliary cirrhosis and sarcoidosis is assumed from clinical serological and histological findings. A case of sarcoidosis is reported in which the M2 antibody, a highly specific marker for primary biliary cirrhosis, was detected. The patient also developed a severe myositis and a possible overlap syndrome is discussed. 




 PMID:9059489

  3. Total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy for the treatment of biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexing; Zhu, Andong; Zhang, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (RCJS) has been widely used in biliary bypass surgeries, but in most reported literature, an assisted miniincision was needed, and studies reporting total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (TLRCJS) are rare. The goal of this study was to investigate how to treat hepatic portal bile duct diseases and perform jejunojejunostomy and cholangiojejunostomy totally laparoscopically. We evaluated the feasibility of TLRCJS in treating biliary tract diseases. TLRCJS were performed in 103 patients from January 2000 to August 2011. There were 28 cases of recurrent choledocholithiasis combined with stricture of the common bile duct (CBD) after several stone extractions, 3 patients with iatrogenic bile duct injury, 24 patients with choledochal cyst, 36 patients with hepatic portal cholangiocarcinoma, and 12 patients with cancer of the pancreatic head and periampullary cancer. All surgeries were performed through 5 trocars. First, laparoscopic surgery on the CBD was performed according to the original disease. The CBD was opened and stones were extracted in choledocholithiasis patients. In iatrogenic injury patients, strictured CBD was resected and repaired. Dilated CBD or choledochal cyst with tumor was transected. In patients with malignant jaundice, the CBD was opened longitudinally. At the same time, the bile duct was prepared for cholangiojejunostomy. Second, the positions of the laparoscope and surgeons were altered. The jejunal mesentery and jejunum were transected, and side-to-side jejunojejunostomy (JJS) was performed. The laparoscope and surgeon positions were exchanged again; the Rouxen-Y biliary limb was lifted close to the residual bile duct; and side-to-side or end-to-side choledochojejunostomy (CJS) was performed. Finally, an abdominal drainage tube was placed. All the surgeries were performed successfully. The diameter of the residual bile duct ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 cm (average, 0.9 cm). Three patients had postoperative

  4. [Proximal migration of biliary prosthesis. Endoscopic extraction techniques].

    PubMed

    Alfredo, G; Raúl, A; Barinagarrementeria, R; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, J A; Martínez-Burciaga, J

    2001-01-01

    Proximal migration of a biliary stent is an uncommon event, but its management can present a technical challenge to the therapeutic endoscopist. We reviewed the methods that have been used for retrieval of proximally migrated biliary stents in a referral endoscopic center. PATIENTS-METHOD, AND RESULTS: From January 1995 to December 1998, there were 410 procedures for insertion of biliary stents. Eighteen patients had migrated biliary stents; 15 stents (83%) were extracted successfully. One half of the stents were retrieved by grasping the stent directly with a wire basket. Four were recovered using the Soehendra device, and a stone retrieval balloon alongside the stents to provide traction indirectly in two patients. Surgical techniques were necessary in three cases. In patients with a dilated duct, indirect traction with a balloon or direct grasping of the stent with a wire basket is usually successful. Cannulating the stent lumen with a wire is often the best approach in patients with biliary stricture or nondilated duct. Using these techniques, most proximally migrated biliary stents can be retrieved endoscopically.

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Biliary Fistulas in the Laparoscopic Era

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, M.; Montecamozzo, G.; Foschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary fistulas are rare complications of gallstone. They can affect either the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract and are usually classified as primary or secondary. The primary fistulas are related to the biliary lithiasis, while the secondary ones are related to surgical complications. Laparoscopic surgery is a therapeutic option for the treatment of primary biliary fistulas. However, it could be the first responsible for the development of secondary biliary fistulas. An accurate preoperative diagnosis together with an experienced surgeon on the hepatobiliary surgery is necessary to deal with biliary fistulas. Cholecystectomy with a choledocoplasty is the most frequent treatment of primary fistulas, whereas the bile duct drainage or the endoscopic stenting is the best choice in case of minor iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the extreme therapeutic option for both conditions. The sepsis, the level of the bile duct damage, and the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract increase the complexity of the operation and affect early and late results. PMID:26819608

  6. On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoyu; Li, Wenguang; Bird, Nigel; Chin, Swee Boon; Hill, NA; Johnson, Alan G

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system. Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system, and finally the future challenges in the area. PMID:17457970

  7. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

    1989-06-01

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis.

  8. Management issues in post living donor liver transplant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Biliary complications are common after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) although with advancements in surgical understanding and techniques, the incidence is decreasing. Biliary strictures are more common than leaks. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first line modality of treatment of post LDLT biliary strictures with a technical success rate of 75%-80%. Most of ERCP failures are successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and rendezvous technique. A minority of patients may require surgical correction. ERCP for these strictures is technically more challenging than routine as well post deceased donor strictures. Biliary strictures may increase the morbidity of a liver transplant recipient, but the mortality is similar to those with or without strictures. Post transplant strictures are short segment and soft, requiring only a few session of ERCP before complete dilatation. Long-term outcome of patients with biliary stricture is similar to those without stricture. With the introduction of new generation cholangioscopes, ERCP success rate may increase, obviating the need for PTBD and surgery in these patients. PMID:27057304

  9. Laparoscopic Transcystic Treatment Biliary Calculi by Laser Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lan; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (LTCBDE) is a complex procedure requiring expertise in laparoscopic and choledochoscopic skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of treating biliary calculi through laparoscopic transcystic exploration of the CBD via an ultrathin choledochoscope combined with dual-frequency laser lithotripsy. Methods: From August 2011 through September 2014, 89 patients at our hospital were treated for cholecystolithiasis with biliary calculi. Patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and exploration of the CBD via the cystic duct and the choledochoscope instrument channel. A dual-band, dual-pulse laser lithotripsy system was used to destroy the calculi. Two intermittent laser emissions (intensity, 0.12 J; pulse width 1.2 μs; and pulse frequency, 10 Hz) were applied during each contact with the calculi. The stones were washed out by water injection or removed by a stone-retrieval basket. Results: Biliary calculi were removed in 1 treatment in all 89 patients. No biliary tract injury or bile leakage was observed. Follow-up examination with type-B ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography 3 months after surgery revealed no instances of retained-calculi–related biliary tract stenosis. Conclusion: The combined use of laparoscopic transcystic CBD exploration by ultrathin choledochoscopy and dual-frequency laser lithotripsy offers an accurate, convenient, safe, effective method of treating biliary calculi. PMID:27904308

  10. Innovative technique for gastric retraction during laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: the marionette

    PubMed Central

    Surjan, Rodrigo C.; Basseres, Tiago; Makdissi, Fabio F.; Machado, Marcel A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomies became more common in the past few years as a safe and effective treatment option for benign and low-grade malignant tumors of the body and tail of the pancreas. Adequate exposure and wide operative field are crucial to perform this procedure, and this is achieved by retraction of the stomach with an angled liver retractor or a grasper through a subxiphoid trocar, that is usually used only to this purpose. We developed an innovative technique to retract the stomach during laparoscopic distal pancreatectomies that provides excellent operative field and frees the subxiphoid trocar to be used in other tasks during the surgery. PMID:26690568

  11. Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis in a patient with systemic sclerosis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (Reynolds syndrome): A case report

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Walter Alberto Sifuentes; González-García, Carmen; de las Heras Alonso, Elena; de la Puente Bujidos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis is a rare non-neoplastic inflammatory and degenerative process of the external ear, characterized by necrobiotic changes in the dermis that extend down to the perichondrium. This condition has been occasionally reported in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis but not in those with concomitant primary biliary cirrhosis; this association is known as Reynolds syndrome. We report a 70-year-old woman diagnosed with primary biliary cirrhosis at age 47 and with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis at age 54 who developed a painful ulcerated nodule on the helical rim of the left ear shortly after the last diagnosis. The lesion was excised because of the suspicion of malignancy, but the histopathology was consistent with chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. Although this condition is infrequent, it is necessary to know, because it may occur in patients with systemic sclerosis and be mistaken for neoplasms, such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, and these patients have an increased risk for the development of skin malignancies. PMID:27708905

  12. MicroRNA profiling of human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell lines reveals biliary epithelial cell-specific microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Mishima, Takuya; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Arima, Yasuo; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Kanda, Tomohiro; Ishibashi, Osamu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Tajiri, Takashi; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2009-08-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), which arises in the small bile ducts of the liver, is the second most common liver malignancy. Although modulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been shown to be a potent sign of malignant tumors, miRNA profiles of ICC remains unclear. We performed sequencing analysis of the small RNA libraries of 2 ICC cell lines (HuCCT1 and MEC) and one normal intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell line (HIBEpiC) to produce the miRNA profiles of ICC in vitro. Furthermore, by means of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we validated the differential expression of miRNAs cloned exclusively or predominantly from each of the cell lines. A total of 35,759 small RNA clones were obtained from the 3 cell lines. We identified 27 miRNAs that were expressed exclusively or predominantly in each cell line. Subsequent validation with the real-time PCR confirmed that the miRNAs hsa-miR-22, -125a, -127, -199a, -199a*, -214, -376a, and -424 were expressed specifically in HIBEpiC but were downregulated in the ICC cell lines. Our study provides important information for facilitating studies of the functional role(s) of miRNAs in carcinogenesis of the hepatobiliary system. The biliary epithelial cell-specific miRNAs identified in this study may serve as potential biomarkers for ICC.

  13. [Percutaneous bile drainage in neoplastic obstructive pathology of the biliary tract. Experience of the Hotel-Dieu of France in 100 drainages].

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh Chelala, A; Menassa, L; Slaba, S; Atallah, N

    1996-01-01

    Between 1981 and 1994, a 100 biliary drainages were introduced transhepatically in 71 patients with malignant biliary disease. Eighty-six endoprosthesis were inserted, 6 internal-external drainages and 8 external drainages. Our success rate in catheterization of the stenosis was 97%. The early complication rate was 17% (12/71) most often due to hemorrhage (n = 3), infection (n = 4), duodenal perforation (n = 1), biliary leak (n = 2) and death by septic shock (n = 2). Twenty-nine patients with 39 endoprosthesis had a long-term follow-up. The most common late complication observed was occlusion (15/39, 37%) and migration (1/39, 2.5%). Specific treatment of complications was carried out in 10 of the 29 patients (35%). It is concluded that patients with inoperable malignant obstruction of the bile ducts should be offered an indwelling endoprosthesis whatever their prognosis; an occluded stent can be removed or at least bypassed in nearly all patients, thereby maintaining palliation of symptoms.

  14. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, Guido Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Salvetti, Monica; Romito, Raffaele; Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

  15. Bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer B; Skaife, Tyler L; Leslie, Bruce M

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence of bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures. A retrospective review of 321 patients who underwent operative repair of a distal biceps tendon rupture between 1988 and 2010 identified 26 patients with bilateral ruptures. We recorded patient age, mechanism of injury, time between symptom onset before the first surgery and subsequent contralateral symptoms, and time between surgeries. Twenty-two bilateral ruptures were confirmed intra-operatively, 3 by MRI, and 1 was lost to follow up. A total of 23 bilateral ruptures (92%) occurred in men. The average age at the initial rupture was 44 years (range, 29-74 y). The average age at subsequent rupture was 48 years (range, 36-79 y). Excluding the 2 women (age 72 and 79 y), the average age at the initial rupture was 42 years and the average age at subsequent rupture was 46 years. The average interval between ruptures was 4.1 years (range, 0.8-13.9 y). The initial rupture occurred in the dominant extremity in 12 cases (50%) and in the nondominant extremity in 10 cases (42%); in 3 patients (8%) the dominance was not documented or ambidextrous. Thirty-three percent were heavy laborers, 3 patients had a smoking history, and 1 patient reported a history of steroid use. Twenty-two patients (88%) had the second side repaired, where we noted that 12 (55%) of the second tendon ruptures were partial tears. The 8% cumulative incidence of bilateral biceps tendon ruptures in a consecutive series of biceps tendon repairs may be higher because not all patients were contacted, which introduced a sampling bias. This 8% rate is markedly higher than the reported rate of 1.2 per 100,000 for an isolated distal biceps tendon rupture. This implies that patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture are at risk for a rupture on the contralateral side. Prognostic III. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of multiple biliary stenting for refractory benign biliary strictures due to chronic calcifying pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Hiroshi; Mikata, Rintaro; Ishihara, Takeshi; Sakai, Yuji; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yasui, Shin; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate endoscopic therapy efficacy for refractory benign biliary strictures (BBS) with multiple biliary stenting and clarify predictors. METHODS Ten consecutive patients with stones in the pancreatic head and BBS due to chronic pancreatitis who underwent endoscopic therapy were evaluated. Endoscopic insertion of a single stent failed in all patients. We used plastic stents (7F, 8.5F, and 10F) and increased stents at intervals of 2 or 3 mo. Stents were removed approximately 1 year after initial stenting. BBS and common bile duct (CBD) diameter were evaluated using cholangiography. Patients were followed for ≥ 6 mo after therapy, interviewed for cholestasis symptoms, and underwent liver function testing every visit. Patients with complete and incomplete stricture dilations were compared. RESULTS Endoscopic therapy was completed in 8 (80%) patients, whereas 2 (20%) patients could not continue therapy because of severe acute cholangitis and abdominal abscess, respectively. The mean number of stents was 4.1 ± 1.2. In two (20%) patients, BBS did not improve; thus, a biliary stent was inserted. BBS improved in six (60%) patients. CBD diameter improved more significantly in the complete group than in the incomplete group (6.1 ± 1.8 mm vs 13.7 ± 2.2 mm, respectively, P = 0.010). Stricture length was significantly associated with complete stricture dilation (complete group; 20.5 ± 3.0 mm, incomplete group; 29.0 ± 5.1 mm, P = 0.011). Acute cholangitis did not recur during the mean follow-up period of 20.6 ± 7.3 mo. CONCLUSION Sequential endoscopic insertion of multiple stents is effective for refractory BBS caused by chronic calcifying pancreatitis. BBS length calculation can improve patient selection procedure for therapy. PMID:28101303

  17. [Insertion of biliary endoprosthesis as ambulatory procedure].

    PubMed

    Güitrón, A; Adalid, R; Barinagarrementería, R; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, J A

    2001-01-01

    Because of possible complications, it has been common practice to admit to the hospital most if not all patients undergoing therapeutic ERCP. Therefore, little descriptive data exist on the safety of out-patient therapeutic ERCP for endobiliary stent placement. To assure quality patient care and patient safety, we reviewed our experience with out-patient therapeutic ERCP for palliation of benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction by means of endobiliary stent insertion. PATIENTS-METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective review of all therapeutic ERCPs for palliation of benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction with endobiliary stents was performed from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1999. One hundred forty therapeutic ERCPs were performed to place an endobiliary stent for benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction. Seventy-two procedures were performed on out-patients, sixty-eight on in-patients. There was no significant difference between out-patient and in-patient groups with regard to age, gender, need for endoscopic sphincterotomy, and complication rate. In patients had one procedure-related complication; out patients had four. There was no procedure-related mortality in either group. Therapeutic ERCP for palliation of benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction with endobiliary stents can be safely and successfully performed on an out-patient basis for selected patients. This should result in substantial cost savings.

  18. Vasculitis associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mertz, L E; Conn, D L

    1992-02-01

    A large variety of vasculopathic syndromes are uncommonly associated with malignancies. Vasculitis is usually manifested by skin lesions and is generally associated with hematologic malignancies rather than solid tumors. Evidence of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and complement consumption is typically absent. Myelodysplastic syndromes can be confidently linked to vasculitis on the basis of recent literature. The temporal relationship of malignancy to vasculitis development is variable except that vasculitis generally follows the discovery of hairy cell leukemia and splenectomy. Vasculitis may occasionally be a complication of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation. Occasionally, malignant disorders may mimic vasculitic syndromes. The etiopathogenesis of vasculitis in patients with malignant disorders is unknown. The recent literature on vasculitis and malignancy addresses predominantly case reports and small patient cohorts and identifies clinical characteristics rather than pathogeni