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Sample records for distinct ecg patterns

  1. Brugada ECG patterns in athletes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eugene H

    2015-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is responsible for up to 4% of all sudden cardiac deaths worldwide and up to 20% of sudden cardiac deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Heterogeneity of repolarization and depolarization, particularly over the right ventricle and the outflow tract, is responsible for the arrhythmogenic substrate. The coved Type I ECG pattern is considered diagnostic of the syndrome but its prevalence is very low. Distinguishing between a saddle back Type 2 Brugada pattern and one of many "Brugada-like" patterns presents challenges especially in athletes. A number of criteria have been proposed to assess Brugada ECG patterns. Proper precordial ECG lead placement is paramount. This paper reviews Brugada syndrome, Brugada ECG patterns, and recently proposed criteria. Recommendations for evaluating a Brugada ECG pattern are provided.

  2. An unusual ECG pattern in restrictive cardimyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Selvaganesh, M.; Arul, A.S.; Balasubramanian, S.; Ganesan, N.; Naina Mohammed, S.; Sivakumar, G.S.; Veeramani, S.R.; Jeyasingh, P.; Sathishkumar, S.; Selvaraju, S.

    2015-01-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common type of primary cardiomyopathies. Electrocardiographic recording is abnormal in 99% of patients with RCM. Biatrial enlargement, obliquely elevated ST segment with notched or biphasic late peaking T waves are considered characteristic ECG finding. Significant ST depression with T inversion mimicking subendocardial ischemia has also been reported in patients with RCM and is even suggested as a predictor of sudden cardiac death. We noted a similar ECG pattern in a 16 yr girl with Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy. Coronaries were normal, stress perfusion imaging did not show any perfusion defect. This diffuse resting ST depression with T inversion in precordial & inferior leads along with ST elevation in aVR was persistent for more than six months. PMID:26304570

  3. An unusual ECG pattern in restrictive cardimyopathy.

    PubMed

    Selvaganesh, M; Arul, A S; Balasubramanian, S; Ganesan, N; Naina Mohammed, S; Sivakumar, G S; Veeramani, S R; Jeyasingh, P; Sathishkumar, S; Selvaraju, S

    2015-01-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common type of primary cardiomyopathies. Electrocardiographic recording is abnormal in 99% of patients with RCM. Biatrial enlargement, obliquely elevated ST segment with notched or biphasic late peaking T waves are considered characteristic ECG finding. Significant ST depression with T inversion mimicking subendocardial ischemia has also been reported in patients with RCM and is even suggested as a predictor of sudden cardiac death. We noted a similar ECG pattern in a 16 yr girl with Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy. Coronaries were normal, stress perfusion imaging did not show any perfusion defect. This diffuse resting ST depression with T inversion in precordial & inferior leads along with ST elevation in aVR was persistent for more than six months. PMID:26304570

  4. The 24-lead ECG display for enhanced recognition of STEMI-equivalent patterns in the 12-lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Pahlm, Ulrika; Pahlm, Olle; Wagner, Galen S

    2014-01-01

    In a patient with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only readily available diagnostic tool. It is important to maximize its usefulness to detect acute myocardial ischemia that may evolve to myocardial infarction unless the patient is treated expediently with reperfusion therapy. Since diagnostic guidelines have usually included only ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as the entity that should be diagnosed and treated urgently, a patient with coronary occlusion represented on ECG as ST depression is likely not to be considered a candidate for receiving immediate coronary angiography and coronary intervention. ECG criteria for STEMI detection require that ST elevation meet predetermined millivolt thresholds and appear in at least two spatially contiguous ECG leads. The typical ECG reader recognizes only three contiguous pairs: aVL and I; II and aVF; aVF and III. However, viewing the "orderly sequenced" 12-lead ECG display, two more contiguous pairs become obvious in the frontal plane: +I and -aVR; -aVR and +II. The 24-lead ECG is a display of the standard 12-lead ECG as both the classical positive leads and their negative (inverted) counterparts. Leads +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, and +V6 and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a "clock-face display" for the transverse plane. Similarly, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III in the frontal plane and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a clock-face display for the frontal plane. Optimum results, 78% sensitivity and 93% specificity, were obtained using the following 19 ECG leads: frontal plane: +aVR, -III, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III, -aVL; transverse plane: +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, +V6, -V1, -V2, -V3.

  5. The 24-lead ECG display for enhanced recognition of STEMI-equivalent patterns in the 12-lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Pahlm, Ulrika; Pahlm, Olle; Wagner, Galen S

    2014-01-01

    In a patient with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only readily available diagnostic tool. It is important to maximize its usefulness to detect acute myocardial ischemia that may evolve to myocardial infarction unless the patient is treated expediently with reperfusion therapy. Since diagnostic guidelines have usually included only ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as the entity that should be diagnosed and treated urgently, a patient with coronary occlusion represented on ECG as ST depression is likely not to be considered a candidate for receiving immediate coronary angiography and coronary intervention. ECG criteria for STEMI detection require that ST elevation meet predetermined millivolt thresholds and appear in at least two spatially contiguous ECG leads. The typical ECG reader recognizes only three contiguous pairs: aVL and I; II and aVF; aVF and III. However, viewing the "orderly sequenced" 12-lead ECG display, two more contiguous pairs become obvious in the frontal plane: +I and -aVR; -aVR and +II. The 24-lead ECG is a display of the standard 12-lead ECG as both the classical positive leads and their negative (inverted) counterparts. Leads +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, and +V6 and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a "clock-face display" for the transverse plane. Similarly, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III in the frontal plane and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a clock-face display for the frontal plane. Optimum results, 78% sensitivity and 93% specificity, were obtained using the following 19 ECG leads: frontal plane: +aVR, -III, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III, -aVL; transverse plane: +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, +V6, -V1, -V2, -V3. PMID:24880763

  6. Implementation of a Data Packet Generator Using Pattern Matching for Wearable ECG Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent. PMID:25029280

  7. Implementation of a data packet generator using pattern matching for wearable ECG monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Noh, Yun Hong; Jeong, Do Un

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a packet generator using a pattern matching algorithm for real-time abnormal heartbeat detection is proposed. The packet generator creates a very small data packet which conveys sufficient crucial information for health condition analysis. The data packet envelopes real time ECG signals and transmits them to a smartphone via Bluetooth. An Android application was developed specifically to decode the packet and extract ECG information for health condition analysis. Several graphical presentations are displayed and shown on the smartphone. We evaluate the performance of abnormal heartbeat detection accuracy using the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database and real time experiments. The experimental result confirm our finding that abnormal heart beat detection is practically possible. We also performed data compression ratio and signal restoration performance evaluations to establish the usefulness of the proposed packet generator and the results were excellent. PMID:25029280

  8. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. Key Points First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differences Seasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlled Seasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided PMID:25821275

  9. Vestibular stimulation leads to distinct hemodynamic patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; Emanuel, B. A.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that responses of a particular sympathetic nerve to vestibular stimulation depend on the type of tissue the nerve innervates as well as its anatomic location. In the present study, we sought to determine whether such precise patterning of vestibulosympathetic reflexes could lead to specific hemodynamic alterations in response to vestibular afferent activation. We simultaneously measured changes in systemic blood pressure and blood flow (with the use of Doppler flowmetry) to the hindlimb (femoral artery), forelimb (brachial artery), and kidney (renal artery) in chloralose-urethane-anesthetized, baroreceptor-denervated cats. Electrical vestibular stimulation led to depressor responses, 8 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- SE) in magnitude, that were accompanied by decreases in femoral vasoconstriction (23 +/- 4% decrease in vascular resistance or 36 +/- 7% increase in vascular conductance) and increases in brachial vascular tone (resistance increase of 10 +/- 6% and conductance decrease of 11 +/- 4%). Relatively small changes (<5%) in renal vascular tone were observed. In contrast, electrical stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents produced pressor responses (20 +/- 6 mmHg) that were accompanied by vasoconstriction in all three beds. These data suggest that vestibular inputs lead to a complex pattern of cardiovascular changes that is distinct from that which occurs in response to activation of other types of somatic afferents.

  10. Pattern classification of time plane features of ECG wave from cell-phone photography for machine aided cardiac disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Rupendra Nath; Pramanik, Sayak; Mitra, Sucharita; Chaudhuri, Bidyut B

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a robust technique for extracting time plane features of Electrocardiogram (ECG) from digital images of ECG paper strips. We concluded this article reporting performance evaluation of the system developed for machine aided cardiac disease detection. Mostly paper based ECG recordings are used in developing countries and digital photographs of different leads could easily be taken and sent with a mediocre cellular phone set. Apart from extracting the features, the proposed system detects cardiac axis deviation and diagnose if Left or Right Bundle Branch Blockage (LBBB or RBBB) is present while fed with the digital photographs of different leads of ECG strips. Preprocessing of the low-resolution images involves background grid line noise removal, adaptive image binarization by Sauvola's method and Bresenham's line joining algorithm to link the ECG signature, if broken. Pattern extraction mainly delineate the time plane features like P wave, QRS complex and T wave using water reservoir based pattern recognition techniques and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Cardiac axis deviation detection is done by checking the overall voltage levels of QRS complexes of lead I, II and III. Having the knowledge of cardiac axis completes the requirements to comment on the cardiac blockage like Left or Right Bundle Branch Blockage (LBBB or RBBB). Thus, the proposed algorithm is primarily developed for machine aided diagnosis of LBBB or RBBB from the digital photographs of ECG paper strips. PMID:25571067

  11. Multifractal properties of ECG patterns of patients suffering from congestive heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Srimonti

    2010-12-01

    The multifractal properties of two-channel ECG patterns of patients suffering from severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes III-IV) are studied and are compared with those for normal healthy people using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis methodology. Ivanov et al (1999 Nature 399 461) have studied the multifractality of human heart rate dynamics using the wavelet transformation modulus maxima (WTMM) methodology. But it has been observed by several scientists that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) works better than the WTMM method in the detection of monofractal and multifractal characteristics of the data. Galaska et al (2008 Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 13 155) have observed that MFDFA is more sensitive compared to the WTMM method in the differentiation between multifractal properties of the heart rate in healthy subjects and patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In the present work the variation of two parameters of the multifractal spectrum—its width W (related to the degree of multifractality) and the value of the Hölder exponent α0—for the healthy and congestive heart failure patients is studied. α0 is a measure of the degree of correlation. The degree of multifractality varies appreciably (85-90% C.L.) for the normal and the CHF sets for channel I. For channel II no significant change in the values is observed. The degree of correlation is found to be comparatively high for the normal healthy people compared to those suffering from CHF.

  12. [Brugada ECG].

    PubMed

    Richter, Sergio

    2015-09-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by a typical electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern of right precordial ST-segment elevation and the cardinal symptoms syncope and sudden cardiac death as clinical correlate of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in young adults without structural heart disease. The diagnosis of a type 1 Brugada-ECG is based on the documentation of a coved-type (≥ 0.2 mV) ST elevation followed by a negative T wave. The use of the ECG criteria postulated in the consensus of 2012 is helpful to distinguish between saddleback-type 2 (or type 3) J point/ST elevation and incomplete right bundle branch block. Spontaneous or drug-induced type 1 ST elevation can frequently only be detected in a single right precordial lead (V1 or V2), occurs sometimes together with a type 2 (or type 3) pattern in one and the same 12-lead ECG and can sometimes only be seen in modified right precordial leads. The ST elevation is less pronounced in females. Spontaneous and exercise-induced type 1 ST elevation, fragmented QRS complex, prolonged PR interval (> 200 ms), QRS prolongation in V2 (≥ 120 ms) and markers of an increased heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization are associated with an increased arrhythmic risk. The occurrence of spontaneous or dynamic type 1 ST elevation, a macroscopic T wave alternans or pronounced inferior (lateral) J point/ST elevation are signs of acute electrical instability.

  13. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node {sup 67}Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland {sup 67}Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures.

  14. Distinctive Pattern of Behavioral Functioning in Angelman Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Jane A.; Feldman, Maurice A.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 27 participants with Angelman syndrome to clinical and community participants (n=948) with developmental disabilities of mixed etiology to determine whether Angelman syndrome is associated with a distinctive patterns of behavioral functioning. Those with Angelman syndrome had significantly lower scores on measures of irritability…

  15. Distinct signals generate repeating striped pattern in the embryonic parasegment.

    PubMed

    Hatini, V; DiNardo, S

    2001-01-01

    How repeating striped patterns arise across cellular fields is unclear. To address this we examined the repeating pattern of Stripe (Sr) expression across the parasegment (PS) in Drosophila. This pattern is generated in two steps. First, the ligands Hedgehog (Hh) and Wingless (Wg) subdivide the PS into smaller territories. Second, the ligands Hh, Spitz (Spi), and Wg each emanate from a specific territory and induce Sr expression in an adjacent territory. We also show that the width of Sr expression is determined by signaling strength. Finally, an enhancer trap in the sr gene detects the response to Spi and Wg, but not to Hh, implying the existence of separable control elements in the sr gene. Thus, a distinct inductive event is used to initiate each element of the repeating striped pattern.

  16. Conservation of Distinct Genetically-Mediated Human Cortical Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qian; Schork, Andrew; Bartsch, Hauke; Lo, Min-Tzu; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Westlye, Lars T.; Kremen, William S.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Steen, Vidar M.; Espeseth, Thomas; Huentelman, Matt; Agartz, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A.; Dale, Anders M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Chen, Chi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The many subcomponents of the human cortex are known to follow an anatomical pattern and functional relationship that appears to be highly conserved between individuals. This suggests that this pattern and the relationship among cortical regions are important for cortical function and likely shaped by genetic factors, although the degree to which genetic factors contribute to this pattern is unknown. We assessed the genetic relationships among 12 cortical surface areas using brain images and genotype information on 2,364 unrelated individuals, brain images on 466 twin pairs, and transcriptome data on 6 postmortem brains in order to determine whether a consistent and biologically meaningful pattern could be identified from these very different data sets. We find that the patterns revealed by each data set are highly consistent (p<10−3), and are biologically meaningful on several fronts. For example, close genetic relationships are seen in cortical regions within the same lobes and, the frontal lobe, a region showing great evolutionary expansion and functional complexity, has the most distant genetic relationship with other lobes. The frontal lobe also exhibits the most distinct expression pattern relative to the other regions, implicating a number of genes with known functions mediating immune and related processes. Our analyses reflect one of the first attempts to provide an assessment of the biological consistency of a genetic phenomenon involving the brain that leverages very different types of data, and therefore is not just statistical replication which purposefully use very similar data sets. PMID:27459196

  17. Conservation of Distinct Genetically-Mediated Human Cortical Pattern.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Schork, Andrew; Bartsch, Hauke; Lo, Min-Tzu; Panizzon, Matthew S; Westlye, Lars T; Kremen, William S; Jernigan, Terry L; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Steen, Vidar M; Espeseth, Thomas; Huentelman, Matt; Håberg, Asta K; Agartz, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Dale, Anders M; Schork, Nicholas J; Chen, Chi-Hua

    2016-07-01

    The many subcomponents of the human cortex are known to follow an anatomical pattern and functional relationship that appears to be highly conserved between individuals. This suggests that this pattern and the relationship among cortical regions are important for cortical function and likely shaped by genetic factors, although the degree to which genetic factors contribute to this pattern is unknown. We assessed the genetic relationships among 12 cortical surface areas using brain images and genotype information on 2,364 unrelated individuals, brain images on 466 twin pairs, and transcriptome data on 6 postmortem brains in order to determine whether a consistent and biologically meaningful pattern could be identified from these very different data sets. We find that the patterns revealed by each data set are highly consistent (p<10-3), and are biologically meaningful on several fronts. For example, close genetic relationships are seen in cortical regions within the same lobes and, the frontal lobe, a region showing great evolutionary expansion and functional complexity, has the most distant genetic relationship with other lobes. The frontal lobe also exhibits the most distinct expression pattern relative to the other regions, implicating a number of genes with known functions mediating immune and related processes. Our analyses reflect one of the first attempts to provide an assessment of the biological consistency of a genetic phenomenon involving the brain that leverages very different types of data, and therefore is not just statistical replication which purposefully use very similar data sets. PMID:27459196

  18. Distinctive Damage Patterns on THA Metal Bearing Surfaces: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Heiner, Anneliese D; Tikekar, Nishant M; Kruger, Karen M; Lannutti, John J; Brown, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval analysis of total joint arthroplasty components has primarily focused on assessing wear or other damage to polyethylene components. As damage to the opposing bearing surface can accelerate polyethylene wear and damage, and especially with the use of hard-on-hard articulations, retrieval analysis benefits from incorporating evaluation of hard bearing surfaces as well. The purpose of this study is to report six case studies of metal bearing surfaces with distinctive damage patterns, to interpret them in the context of adverse events plausibly responsible for their creation, and to suggest their likely clinical or scientific significance. The specific damage patterns reported here are 1) extensive scraping, 2) circumferential discoloration, 3) a long chain of periodic micro-indentations, 4) pitting with deposits, 5) scratches with small-radius directional changes, and 6) indentation with scraping. PMID:25328465

  19. Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Lily; Dungan, James; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane

    2016-08-15

    How do people consider other minds during cooperation versus competition? Some accounts predict that theory of mind (ToM) is recruited more for cooperation versus competition or competition versus cooperation, whereas other accounts predict similar recruitment across these two contexts. The present fMRI study examined activity in brain regions for ToM (bilateral temporoparietal junction, precuneus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) across cooperative and competitive interactions with the same individual within the same paradigm. Although univariate analyses revealed that ToM regions overall were recruited similarly across interaction contexts, multivariate pattern analyses revealed that these regions nevertheless encoded information separating cooperation from competition. Specifically, ToM regions encoded differences between cooperation and competition when people believed the outcome was determined by their and their partner's choices but not when the computer determined the outcome. We propose that, when people are motivated to consider others' mental states, ToM regions encode different aspects of mental states during cooperation versus competition. Given the role of these regions for ToM, these findings reveal distinct patterns of social cognition for distinct motivational contexts.

  20. Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Lily; Dungan, James; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane

    2016-08-15

    How do people consider other minds during cooperation versus competition? Some accounts predict that theory of mind (ToM) is recruited more for cooperation versus competition or competition versus cooperation, whereas other accounts predict similar recruitment across these two contexts. The present fMRI study examined activity in brain regions for ToM (bilateral temporoparietal junction, precuneus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) across cooperative and competitive interactions with the same individual within the same paradigm. Although univariate analyses revealed that ToM regions overall were recruited similarly across interaction contexts, multivariate pattern analyses revealed that these regions nevertheless encoded information separating cooperation from competition. Specifically, ToM regions encoded differences between cooperation and competition when people believed the outcome was determined by their and their partner's choices but not when the computer determined the outcome. We propose that, when people are motivated to consider others' mental states, ToM regions encode different aspects of mental states during cooperation versus competition. Given the role of these regions for ToM, these findings reveal distinct patterns of social cognition for distinct motivational contexts. PMID:27165762

  1. Distinct loading conditions reveal various patterns of right ventricular adaptation.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, Marinus A J; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Dickinson, Michael G; Steendijk, Paul; de Vroomen, Maartje; Berger, Rolf M F

    2013-08-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure due to chronically abnormal loading is a main determinant of outcome in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and congenital heart disease. However, distinct types of RV loading have been associated with different outcomes. To determine whether the adaptive RV response depends on loading type, we compared hemodynamics, exercise, and hypertrophy in models of pressure overload due to pulmonary artery banding (PAB), pressure overload due to PH, combined pressure and volume overload, and isolated volume load. Ninety-four rats were subjected to either PAB, monocrotaline-induced PH (PH), aortocaval shunt (shunt), or combined monocrotaline and aortocaval shunt (PH + shunt). We performed pressure-volume analysis and voluntary exercise measurements at 4 wk. We compared PAB to PH (part I) and PH + shunt to either isolated PH or shunt (part II). In part I, enhanced contractility (end-systolic elastance and preload recruitable stroke work) was present in PH and PAB, but strongest in PAB. Frank-Starling mechanism was active in both PAB and PH. In PAB this was accompanied by diastolic dysfunction (increased end-diastolic elastance, relaxation constant), clinical signs of RV failure, and reduced exercise. These distinct responses were not attributable to differences in hypertrophy. In part II, in PH + shunt the contractility response was blunted compared with PH, which caused pseudonormalization of parameters. Additional volume overload strongly enhanced hypertrophy in PH. We conclude that different types of loading result in distinct patterns of RV adaptation. This is of importance for the approach to patients with chronically increased RV load and for experimental studies in various types of RV failure.

  2. Effects of a postexercise sauna bath on ECG pattern and other physiologic variables.

    PubMed

    Paolone, A M; Lanigan, W T; Lewis, R R; Goldstein, M J

    1980-03-01

    In an attempt to determine the risk of sauna bathing after heavy exercise, the responses of 10 clinically normal adult males (mean age 44 years) were observed and recorded for 26 min. during recovery from a standard, heavy exercise task on two separate days. On one of the 2d, recovery was interrupted by a 10-min (min 6-16) exposure to intense, dry heat (70-74 degrees C, 3-6% R.H.). The higher heart rate and rectal temperature during the treatment (min 6-16) and post treatment (min 16-26) phases on the experimental day were indicative of the expected response to the heat stress. Systolic blood pressure did not differ on experimental and control days during either phase of recovery, while diastolic blood pressure decreased during the heat exposure. Double product was higher during treatment and post-treatment phases on the experimental day indicating an increased myocardial O2 need in response to the heat. ECG (CM5) changes were limited to increased J-point displacement during the treatment phase on the experimental day, with S-T segment flattening (0.08 s) in one case, and prolongation of the Q-T interval (corrected for rate) with reduction in T-wave amplitude. The prolongation of electrical systole and T-wave flattening were not observed during exercise at comparable and higher heart rates and may be associated with reduced subendocardial perfusion. We concluded that sauna bathing of short duration after exercise represents a tenable risk for clinically normal males.

  3. Ovarian phagocyte subsets and their distinct tissue distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Carlock, Colin; Wu, Jean; Zhou, Cindy; Ross, April; Adams, Henry; Lou, Yahuan

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian macrophages, which play critical roles in various ovarian events, are probably derived from multiple lineages. Thus, a systemic classification of their subsets is a necessary first step for determination of their functions. Utilizing antibodies to five phagocyte markers, i.e. IA/IE (major histocompatibility complex class II), F4/80, CD11b (Mac-1), CD11c, and CD68, this study investigated subsets of ovarian phagocytes in mice. Three-color immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, together with morphological observation on isolated ovarian cells, demonstrated complicated phenotypes of ovarian phagocytes. Four macrophage and one dendritic cell subset, in addition to many minor phagocyte subsets, were identified. A dendritic cell-like population with a unique phenotype of CD11c(high)IA/IE⁻F4/80⁻ was also frequently observed. A preliminary age-dependent study showed dramatic increases in IA/IE⁺ macrophages and IA/IE⁺ dendritic cells after puberty. Furthermore, immunofluorescences on ovarian sections showed that each subset displayed a distinct tissue distribution pattern. The pattern for each subset may hint to their role in an ovarian function. In addition, partial isolation of ovarian macrophage subset using CD11b antibodies was attempted. Establishment of this isolation method may have provided us a tool for more precise investigation of each subset's functions at the cellular and molecular levels.

  4. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. Key words: phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. PMID:27343287

  5. [Transponder ECG].

    PubMed

    Bedrich, M R

    1997-04-01

    Apart from X-rays, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is probably the most frequently employed routine investigation. The 24-hour (Holter) ECG is a valuable diagnostic tool both for the general practitioner and the cardiologist. For the patient, the procedure can be experienced as something of a nuisance during the course of his/her normal life. Not least of the reasons for this are the leads connecting the electrodes to the device, which impair the movements of the patient's trunk. In addition, the patient feels constrained by a desire to avoid the disconnection of the electrodes by uncontrolled movements. Despite positive findings obtained by other means, this situation often leads to false negative results, making repetition of the procedure at some later date.

  6. Propofol and sevoflurane induce distinct burst suppression patterns in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Jonathan D.; Westover, M. Brandon; Ching, ShiNung; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression is an EEG pattern characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude activity (bursts) and relatively low amplitude activity (suppressions). Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological conditions, as well as from general anesthesia. Here we review current algorithms that are used to quantify burst suppression, its various etiologies, and possible underlying mechanisms. We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Finally, we report the results of our new study showing clear electrophysiological differences in burst suppression patterns induced by two common general anesthetics, sevoflurane and propofol. Our data suggest that the circuit mechanisms that generate burst suppression activity may differ among general anesthetics. PMID:25565990

  7. Contrasting patterns of transgenerational plasticity in ecologically distinct congeners.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sonia E; Barton, Kasey; Wilczek, Amity M

    2009-07-01

    Stressful parental environments can influence offspring size and development either adaptively or maladaptively, yet little is known about species' differences in this complex aspect of phenotypic plasticity. We performed a reciprocal split-brood experiment to compare transgenerational plasticity in response to drought stress in two closely related annual plant species. We raised inbred replicate parent plants of eight genotypes per species in dry vs. moist soil to generate offspring of each genetic line that differed only in parental environment, then monitored seedling development in both dry and moist conditions. Individuals of the two species expressed contrasting patterns of transgenerational plasticity for traits important to seedling drought tolerance. In Polygonum persicaria, a weedy generalist found in moist, dry, and variably dry sites, drought-stressed plants produced offspring with longer and more rapidly extending root systems and greater biomass when growing in dry soil. In contrast, in P. hydropiper, a non-weedy congener restricted to moist habitats, the offspring of drought-stressed parents had reduced root system development and seedling biomass in dry soil. In P. persicaria, transgenerational and immediate adaptive plasticity combined to produce drought-adapted seedling phenotypes. These results make clear that characteristic patterns of transgenerational plasticity can contribute to ecological diversity among species.

  8. Human Insulinomas Show Distinct Patterns of Insulin Secretion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Henquin, Jean-Claude; Nenquin, Myriam; Guiot, Yves; Rahier, Jacques; Sempoux, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Insulinomas are β-cell tumors that cause hypoglycemia through inappropriate secretion of insulin. Characterization of the in vitro dynamics of insulin secretion by perifused fragments of 10 human insulinomas permitted their subdivision into three functional groups with similar insulin content. Group A (four patients with fasting and/or postprandial hypoglycemic episodes) showed qualitatively normal responses to glucose, leucine, diazoxide, tolbutamide, and extracellular CaCl2 omission or excess. The effect of glucose was concentration dependent, but, compared with normal islets, insulin secretion was excessive in both low- and high-glucose conditions. Group B (three patients with fasting hypoglycemic episodes) was mainly characterized by large insulin responses to 1 mmol/L glucose, resulting in very high basal secretion rates that were inhibited by diazoxide and restored by tolbutamide but were not further augmented by other agents except for high levels of CaCl2. Group C (three patients with fasting hypoglycemic episodes) displayed very low rates of insulin secretion and virtually no response to stimuli (including high CaCl2 concentration) and inhibitors (CaCl2 omission being paradoxically stimulatory). In group B, the presence of low-Km hexokinase-I in insulinoma β-cells (not in adjacent islets) was revealed by immunohistochemistry. Human insulinomas thus show distinct, though not completely heterogeneous, defects in insulin secretion that are attributed to the undue expression of hexokinase-I in 3 of 10 patients. PMID:26116696

  9. Control of programmed cell death by distinct electrical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Golbs, Antje; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sava, Irina E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-01

    Electrical activity and sufficient supply with survival factors play a major role in the control of apoptosis in the developing cortex. Coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, which efficiently releases neurotrophins, is essential for the survival of immature neurons. We studied the influence of neuronal activity on apoptosis in the developing cortex. Dissociated cultures of the newborn mouse cerebral cortex were grown on multielectrode arrays to determine the activity patterns that promote neuronal survival. Cultures were transfected with a plasmid coding for a caspase-3-sensitive fluorescent protein allowing real-time analysis of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in individual neurons. Elevated extracellular potassium concentrations (5 and 8 mM), application of 4-aminopyridine or the γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist Gabazine induced a shift in the frequency distribution of activity toward high-frequency bursts. Under these conditions, a reduction or delay in caspase-3 activation and an overall increase in neuronal survival could be observed. This effect was dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, as blockade of this enzyme abolished the survival-promoting effect of high extracellular potassium concentrations. Our data indicate that increased network activity can prevent apoptosis in developing cortical neurons.

  10. Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.; Bronikowski, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Women rarely give birth after ∼45 y of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles, menopause, at ∼50 y of age after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Furthermore, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that reproductive senescence in midlife, although apparent in natural-fertility, natural-mortality populations of humans, is generally absent in other primates living in such populations. PMID:23898189

  11. Comparison of melanoblast expression patterns identifies distinct classes of genes

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Stacie K.; Baxter, Laura L.; Buac, Kristina; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Larson, Denise M.; Pavan, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A full understanding of transcriptional regulation requires integration of information obtained from multiple experimental datasets. These include datasets annotating gene expression within the context of an entire organism under normal and genetically perturbed conditions. Here we describe an expression dataset annotating pigment cell-expressed genes of the developing melanocyte and RPE lineages. Expression images are annotated and available at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/manuscripts/Loftus/March2009/. Data is also summarized in a standardized manner using a universal melanoblast scoring scale that accounts for the embryonic location of cells and regional cell density. This approach allowed us to classify 14 pigment genes into 4 groupings classified by cell lineage expression, temporal-spatial context, and differential alteration in response to altered MITF and SOX10 status. Significant differences in regional populations were also observed across inbred strain backgrounds highlighting the value of this approach to identify modifier allele influences on melanoblast number and distributions. This analysis revealed novel features of in vivo expression patterns that are not measurable by in vitro-based assays, providing data that in combination with genomic analyses will allow modeling of pigment cell gene expression in development and disease. PMID:19493314

  12. Capsular contracture simulating myocardial infarction on ECG.

    PubMed

    Peters, W; McEwan, P

    1993-03-01

    A patient is presented with severe bilateral class IV capsular contractures who presented 16 years after prepectoral breast augmentation with a "septal infarct" pattern on ECG. This abnormal ECG proved to be an artifact caused by unavoidable misplacement of the V2 and V3 leads because of the severe capsular contracture. Following open capsulotomy, normal anatomic lead placement was possible, and a normal ECG was produced.

  13. Distinct Quantitative Computed Tomography Emphysema Patterns Are Associated with Physiology and Function in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    San José Estépar, Raúl; Mendoza, Carlos S.; Hersh, Craig P.; Laird, Nan; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Washko, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Emphysema occurs in distinct pathologic patterns, but little is known about the epidemiologic associations of these patterns. Standard quantitative measures of emphysema from computed tomography (CT) do not distinguish between distinct patterns of parenchymal destruction. Objectives: To study the epidemiologic associations of distinct emphysema patterns with measures of lung-related physiology, function, and health care use in smokers. Methods: Using a local histogram-based assessment of lung density, we quantified distinct patterns of low attenuation in 9,313 smokers in the COPDGene Study. To determine if such patterns provide novel insights into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epidemiology, we tested for their association with measures of physiology, function, and health care use. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with percentage of low-attenuation area less than −950 Hounsfield units (%LAA-950), local histogram-based measures of distinct CT low-attenuation patterns are more predictive of measures of lung function, dyspnea, quality of life, and health care use. These patterns are strongly associated with a wide array of measures of respiratory physiology and function, and most of these associations remain highly significant (P < 0.005) after adjusting for %LAA-950. In smokers without evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the mild centrilobular disease pattern is associated with lower FEV1 and worse functional status (P < 0.005). Conclusions: Measures of distinct CT emphysema patterns provide novel information about the relationship between emphysema and key measures of physiology, physical function, and health care use. Measures of mild emphysema in smokers with preserved lung function can be extracted from CT scans and are significantly associated with functional measures. PMID:23980521

  14. A novel algorithm for Bluetooth ECG.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Utpal T; Desai, Uday B

    2012-11-01

    In wireless transmission of ECG, data latency will be significant when battery power level and data transmission distance are not maintained. In applications like home monitoring or personalized care, to overcome the joint effect of previous issues of wireless transmission and other ECG measurement noises, a novel filtering strategy is required. Here, a novel algorithm, identified as peak rejection adaptive sampling modified moving average (PRASMMA) algorithm for wireless ECG is introduced. This algorithm first removes error in bit pattern of received data if occurred in wireless transmission and then removes baseline drift. Afterward, a modified moving average is implemented except in the region of each QRS complexes. The algorithm also sets its filtering parameters according to different sampling rate selected for acquisition of signals. To demonstrate the work, a prototyped Bluetooth-based ECG module is used to capture ECG with different sampling rate and in different position of patient. This module transmits ECG wirelessly to Bluetooth-enabled devices where the PRASMMA algorithm is applied on captured ECG. The performance of PRASMMA algorithm is compared with moving average and S-Golay algorithms visually as well as numerically. The results show that the PRASMMA algorithm can significantly improve the ECG reconstruction by efficiently removing the noise and its use can be extended to any parameters where peaks are importance for diagnostic purpose.

  15. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-11-05

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis.

  16. Three R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulate distinct floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

  17. Ultrafast laser assisted microinjection enables distinct spatial localization pattern in cells and retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, L.; Shivalingaiah, S.; Mohanty, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Laser microbeam has enabled highly precise non-contact delivery of exogenous materials into targeted cells, which has been a highly challenging task while using traditional methods without compromising cell viability. We report distinct spatial localization of impermeable substances into mammalian cells and goldfish retinal cells in explants subsequent to ultrafast laser microbeam assisted injection, realized by focusing a near infrared tunable Ti: sapphire laser beam. Introduction of impermeable dye into the cell through localized pore formation was confirmed by distinct fluorescence at the site of pore formation on the membrane and its spatiotemporal diffusion pattern through the nucleus. Indirect optoporation by bubble formation, external to cell, led to a similar spatial diffusion pattern but with a larger time constant for injection. Using optimized laser intensity, exposure and spatial irradiation pattern, desired spatial transfection patterns in goldfish retina explants were achieved as confirmed by expression of injected plasmids encoded for light-activable channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) ion channel tagged with fluorescent protein. Laser assisted delivery of exogenous material into specific area of three-dimensional neuronal tissue, such as the retina, will help to understand the functioning of neuronal circuitry of normal and degenerated retina.

  18. Distinct subtypes of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia based on patterns of network degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Rankin, Katherine P; Pressman, Peter S; Perry, David C; Lobach, Iryna V; Seeley, William W; Coppola, Giovanni; Karydas, Anna M; Grinberg, Lea T; Shany-Ur, Tal; Lee, Suzee E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Boxer, Adam L; Miller, Zachary A; Chiong, Winston; DeMay, Mary; Kramer, Joel H; Possin, Katherine L; Sturm, Virginia E; Bettcher, Brianne M; Neylan, Michael; Zackey, Diana D; Nguyen, Lauren A; Ketelle, Robin; Block, Nikolas; Wu, Teresa Q; Dallich, Alison; Russek, Natanya; Caplan, Alyssa; Geschwind, Daniel H; Vossel, Keith A; Miller, Bruce L

    2016-01-01

    Importance Clearer delineation of the phenotypic heterogeneity within behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) will help uncover underlying biological mechanisms, and will improve clinicians’ ability to predict disease course and design targeted management strategies. Objective To identify subtypes of bvFTD syndrome based on distinctive patterns of atrophy defined by selective vulnerability of specific functional networks targeted in bvFTD, using statistical classification approaches. Design, Setting and Participants In this retrospective observational study, 104 patients meeting the Frontotemporal Dementia Consortium consensus criteria for bvFTD were evaluated at the Memory and Aging Center of Department of Neurology at University of California, San Francisco. Patients underwent a multidisciplinary clinical evaluation, including clinical demographics, genetic testing, symptom evaluation, neurological exam, neuropsychological bedside testing, and socioemotional assessments. Ninety patients underwent structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging at their earliest evaluation at the memory clinic. From each patients’ structural imaging, the mean volumes of 18 regions of interest (ROI) comprising the functional networks specifically vulnerable in bvFTD, including the ‘salience network’ (SN), with key nodes in the frontoinsula and pregenual anterior cingulate, and the ‘semantic appraisal network’ (SAN) anchored in the anterior temporal lobe and subgenual cingulate, were estimated. Principal component and cluster analyses of ROI volumes were used to identify patient clusters with anatomically distinct atrophy patterns. Main Outcome Measures We evaluated brain morphology and other clinical features including presenting symptoms, neurologic exam signs, neuropsychological performance, rate of dementia progression, and socioemotional function in each patient cluster. Results We identified four subgroups of bvFTD patients with distinct anatomic patterns of

  19. Distinct Patterns of Climate Response to Anthropogenic Aerosol Versus Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, H.; Xie, S. P.; Liu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Patterns of climate response to anthropogenic aerosols and well-mixed greenhouse gas (GHG) changes are investigated using eight models from Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. In the 20th century, the principal climate response patterns show both similarities and differences between aerosol and GHG runs. This paper focuses on distinct patterns of climate response to aerosol and GHG changes, while a recent companion study discussed the similarities. The GHG induced radiative forcing gives rise to amplified warming in the tropical upper troposphere and intensified mid-latitude jets in both hemispheres. However, for the anthropogenic aerosols, they are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere and the temperature change shows a deep cooling structure in the troposphere around 40°N. Consistent with thermal wind balance, the cooling anchors a westerly acceleration to its south in aerosol runs. The response to aerosol induced inter-hemispheric asymmetry is also interpreted in terms of an anomalous Hadley circulation across the equator. Careful comparison indicates that the aerosol forcing dominates the Northern Hemisphere response in atmospheric circulation and precipitation, including a southward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, the drying trend over the East Asia monsoon region, the southward shift of the East Asia westerly jet and the North Pacific cooling. The GHG forcing dominates the tropical Pacific rainfall increase mediated by the sea surface temperature pattern. Several climate response pattern indices are evaluated for the relative importance of aerosol and GHG forcing. The aerosol induced inter-hemisphere thermal contrast plays a key role in inducing climate response patterns that are quite different from the results in GHG runs.

  20. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5–7, 8–10, and 11–15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  1. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5-7, 8-10, and 11-15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  2. Behavioral states may be associated with distinct spatial patterns in electrocorticogram.

    PubMed

    Panagiotides, Heracles; Freeman, Walter J; Holmes, Mark D; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    To determine if behavioral states are associated with unique spatial electrocorticographic (ECoG) patterns, we obtained recordings with a microgrid electrode array applied to the cortical surface of a human subject. The array was constructed with the intent of extracting maximal spatial information by optimizing interelectrode distances. A 34-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy underwent intracranial ECoG monitoring after standard methods failed to reveal localization of seizures. During the 8-day period of invasive recording, in addition to standard clinical electrodes a square 1 × 1 cm microgrid array with 64 electrodes (1.25 mm separation) was placed on the right inferior temporal gyrus. Careful review of video recordings identified four extended naturalistic behaviors: reading, conversing on the telephone, looking at photographs, and face-to-face interactions. ECoG activity recorded with the microgrid that corresponded to these behaviors was collected and ECoG spatial patterns were analyzed. During periods of ECoG selected for analysis, no electrographic seizures or epileptiform patterns were present. Moments of maximal spatial variance are shown to cluster by behavior. Comparisons between conditions using a permutation test reveal significantly different spatial patterns for each behavior. We conclude that ECoG recordings obtained on the cortical surface with optimal high spatial frequency resolution reveal distinct local spatial patterns that reflect different behavioral states, and we predict that similar patterns will be found in many if not most cortical areas on which a microgrid is placed. PMID:21464836

  3. Distinct neural patterns enable grasp types decoding in monkey dorsal premotor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Li, Yue; Li, Juncheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Chiara Carrozza, Maria; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial grasp pathway, is involved in grasp movements. However, the neural ensemble firing property of PMd during grasp movements and the extent to which it can be used for grasp decoding are still unclear. Approach. To address these issues, we used multielectrode arrays to record both spike and local field potential (LFP) signals in PMd in macaque monkeys performing reaching and grasping of one of four differently shaped objects. Main results. Single and population neuronal activity showed distinct patterns during execution of different grip types. Cluster analysis of neural ensemble signals indicated that the grasp related patterns emerged soon (200-300 ms) after the go cue signal, and faded away during the hold period. The timing and duration of the patterns varied depending on the behaviors of individual monkey. Application of support vector machine model to stable activity patterns revealed classification accuracies of 94% and 89% for each of the two monkeys, indicating a robust, decodable grasp pattern encoded in the PMd. Grasp decoding using LFPs, especially the high-frequency bands, also produced high decoding accuracies. Significance. This study is the first to specify the neuronal population encoding of grasp during the time course of grasp. We demonstrate high grasp decoding performance in PMd. These findings, combined with previous evidence for reach related modulation studies, suggest that PMd may play an important role in generation and maintenance of grasp action and may be a suitable locus for brain-machine interface applications.

  4. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-08-21

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack-the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals.

  5. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack-the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals. PMID:26307995

  6. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack—the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals. PMID:26307995

  7. Atomic-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of DNA-Polycation Complexes: Two Distinct Binding Patterns.

    PubMed

    Kondinskaia, Diana A; Kostritskii, Andrei Yu; Nesterenko, Alexey M; Antipina, Alexandra Yu; Gurtovenko, Andrey A

    2016-07-14

    Synthetic cationic polymers represent a promising class of delivery vectors for gene therapy. Here, we employ atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the structure and properties of complexes of DNA with four linear polycations: polyethylenimine (PEI), poly-l-lysine (PLL), polyvinylamine (PVA), and polyallylamine (PAA). These polycations differ in their polymer geometries, protonation states, and hydrophobicities of their backbone chains. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time the existence of two distinct patterns of binding of DNA with polycations. For PEI, PLL, and PAA, the complex is stabilized by the electrostatic attraction between protonated amine groups of the polycation and phosphate groups of DNA. In contrast, PVA demonstrates an alternative binding pattern as it gets embedded into the DNA major groove. It is likely that both the polymer topology and affinity of the backbone chain of PVA to the DNA groove are responsible for such behavior. The differences in binding patterns can have important biomedical implications: embedding PVA into a DNA groove makes it less sensitive to changes in the aqueous environment (pH level, ionic strength, etc.) and could therefore hinder the intracellular release of genetic material from a delivery vector, leading to lower transfection activity. PMID:27280954

  8. Field potential signature of distinct multicellular activity patterns in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Reichinnek, Susanne; Künsting, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Both, Martin

    2010-11-17

    Cognitive functions go along with complex patterns of distributed activity in neuronal networks, thereby forming assemblies of selected neurons. To support memory processes, such assemblies have to be stabilized and reactivated in a highly reproducible way. The rodent hippocampus provides a well studied model system for network mechanisms underlying spatial memory formation. Assemblies of place-encoding cells are repeatedly activated during sleep-associated network states called sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs). Behavioral studies suggest that at any time the hippocampus harbors a limited number of different assemblies that are transiently stabilized for memory consolidation. We hypothesized that the corresponding field potentials (sharp wave-ripple complexes) contain a specific signature of the underlying neuronal activity patterns. Hence, they should fall into a limited number of different waveforms. Application of unbiased sorting algorithms to sharp wave-ripple complexes in mouse hippocampal slices did indeed reveal the reliable recurrence of defined waveforms that were robust over prolonged recording periods. Single-unit discharges tended to fire selectively with certain SPW-R classes and were coupled above chance level. Thus, field SPW-Rs of different waveforms are directly related to the underlying multicellular activity patterns that recur with high fidelity. This direct relationship between the coordinated activity of distinct groups of neurons and macroscopic electrographic signals may be important for cognition-related physiological studies in humans and behaving animals.

  9. Distinct patterns in the regulation and evolution of human cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Furney, Simon J; Madden, Stephen F; Kisiel, Tomasz A; Higgins, Desmond G; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of regulation of cancer genes and the constraints on their coding sequences is of fundamental importance in understanding the process of tumour development. Here we test the hypothesis that tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, due to their involvement in tumourigenesis, have distinct patterns of regulation and coding selective constraints compared to non-cancer genes. Indeed, we found significantly greater conservation in the promoter regions of proto-oncogenes, suggesting that these genes are more tightly regulated, i.e. they are more likely to contain a higher density of cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, proto-oncogenes appear to be preferentially targeted by microRNAs and have longer 3' UTRs. In addition, proto-oncogene evolution appears to be highly constrained, compared to tumour suppressor genes and non-cancer genes. A number of these trends are confirmed in breast and colon cancer gene sets recently identified by mutational screening.

  10. Patterns of Interaction in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Distinct Features and Links to Other Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Wyndol; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences between adolescents' interactions with romantic partners and those with friends and mothers. Thirty-two adolescents were observed interacting with a romantic partner, a close friend, and their mother. Adolescents and romantic partners engaged in more conflict than adolescents and friends. Adolescents' affective responsiveness was less positive with romantic partners than with their friends. Additionally, the dyadic positivity was lower in romantic relationships than in friendships. More off task behavior occurred in romantic relationships than in mother-adolescent relationships. Romantic partners were also less skillful communicators and had lower levels of affective responsiveness than mothers. Adolescents perceived more support and fewer negative interactions in romantic relationships than in relationships with mothers. Consistent with expectations, adolescents' interactions with romantic partners were associated with those with friends and mothers. Thus, romantic relationships are characterized by distinct patterns of interaction, yet also are associated with other close relationships. PMID:18093642

  11. Distinct RNA transcriptome patterns are potentially associated with angiogenesis in Tie2-expressing monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-04-10

    Tie2-expressing Monocytes (TEMs) were previously identified as a novel subset of monocytes and were believed to have prominent pro-angiogenesis activities in human tumors. While the molecular mechanism of the angiogenesis promoting capacity of TEMs remains unclear. RNA transcriptome pattern, including non-coding RNAs as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays important role in cell differentiation and functions. However, little is known about the transcriptome patterns of TEMs, including those non-coding RNAs. We explore the transcriptome of TEMs and the matched monocytes that do not express Tie2 (Tie2(-)monocytes) isolated from peripheral blood of healthy adults employing the Agilent Human miRNA(8*60K,Design ID: 046064)microarray and the Agilent lncRNA Gene Expression(4*180K, Design ID: 042818)microarray. A total of 141 mRNAs, 142 lncRNAs and 75 miRNAs were found dysregulated in TEMs compared to Tie2(-)monocytes. TEMs have the distinct RNA transcriptome patterns according to the Hierarchical clustering and then the gene expression patterns were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Functional annotation by Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the up-regulated mRNAs in TEMs were associated to blood vessel remodeling and positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, and the up-regulated insulin like growth factor 1(IGF1) mRNA was involved in both pathways. For functional analysis of those dysregulated non-coding RNAs, target genes of the miRNAs were predicted and cis/trans-regulation analysis of the lncRNAs were performed.

  12. Distinctive patterns of static and dynamic gamma motor activity during locomotion in the decerebrate cat.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Ellaway, P H; Durbaba, R; Rawlinson, S

    2000-12-15

    Simultaneous recordings were made from gamma (gamma) motor axons and from muscle spindle afferents of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle during locomotion in decerebrate cats. The gamma-neurons were identified as static or dynamic (gammas or gammad) by correlating their behaviour during midbrain stimulation with changes in muscle spindle afferent responses to muscle stretch. On the basis of their behaviour during locomotion, gammas neurons could be divided into two groups. One group (type-1) showed strongly and smoothly modulated discharge increasing in parallel with the active muscle shortening in ankle extension, but with phase advance. The other group (type-2) also showed a modulated pattern, but with increased firing centred on the flexion phase. The proportions of the two were 13 type-1 and 7 type-2. The type-1 firing pattern accurately predicted the difference in firing frequency for secondary afferents obtained by subtracting from the recordings made during active movements the response of the same units to the movements repeated passively in the absence of fusimotor activity. The type-2 pattern also became consistent with the difference signal, when operated on by a phase lag appropriate to the effects of bag2 intrafusal fibres. These results suggest that there may be some degree of separate control of chain and bag2 intrafusal fibres. The discharge of gammad axons was also found to fluctuate with the locomotor cycle, with a pattern very distinct from that of the gammas records. The gammad firing frequency rose very suddenly from zero to a maximum at the onset of muscle shortening and continued into the beginning of lengthening. The term 'interrupted' discharge is suggested as a useful description. The timing of this discharge was shown to be appropriate for sensitising the primary afferents to detect the onset of stretch.

  13. Distinct Seasonal Velocity Patterns Based on Ice-Sheet-Wide Analysis of Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, T. A.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Usher, M.

    2014-12-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet increased significantly over the last several decades and current mass losses of 260-380 Gt ice/yr contribute 0.7-1.1 mm/yr to global sea-level rise. Greenland mass loss includes ice discharge via marine-terminating outlet glaciers and surface meltwater runoff, the former now making up a third to a half of total ice loss. The magnitude of ice discharge depends in part on ice-flow speed, which has broadly increased since 2000 but varies locally, regionally, and from year to year. Research on a limited set of Greenland glaciers also shows that speeds vary seasonally. However, for much of the west, northwest, and southeast coasts where ice loss is increasing most rapidly, there are few or no records of seasonal velocity variation. Ice velocity is influenced by several key components of the ice-sheet-ocean-climate system: subglacial environment, surface melt and runoff, and ice-ocean interaction at the ice-front (terminus). Thus, knowledge of seasonal velocity patterns is important for predicting annual ice discharge, understanding the effects of increased surface melt on total mass loss, and establishing how ice-flow responds to other climatic changes. We developed 5-year records of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 glaciers around the ice-sheet margin. Among glaciers with significant speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position, with seasonal summer speedup sustained through fall. The other two patterns appear to be meltwater controlled and indicate regional differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. These differences in dominant velocity control mechanisms reveal likely spatiotemporal variations in the dynamic response of the ice sheet to climate change.

  14. Dissociating patterns of anterior and posterior hippocampal activity and connectivity during distinct forms of category fluency.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Signy; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Pruessner, Jens; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-09-01

    Recent work has suggested that there are functionally distinct contributions from hippocampal subregions to episodic memory retrieval. One view of this dissociation is that the anterior and posterior hippocampus support gist-based/conceptual and fine-grained/spatial memory representations, respectively. It is not clear if such distinctions hold for other cognitive domains. To test this possibility, we examined anterior and posterior hippocampal contributions to a standard semantic retrieval task, category fluency. During fMRI scanning, participants generated exemplars to categories that were based on conceptual (autobiographical categories - 'movies that you have seen') or spatio-perceptual (spatial categories - 'items in a kitchen') information. Our main finding was that the autobiographical categories preferentially recruited the anterior hippocampus whereas the spatial categories preferentially recruited the posterior hippocampus. Differences were also evident when we examined the patterns of task-based hippocampal connectivity associated with these two forms of fluency. Our findings provide evidence for a functional organization along the long axis of the hippocampus that is based on conceptual and perceptual relational retrieval and indicate that this manner of organization is apparent outside the domain of episodic memory. PMID:27343687

  15. Distinct CCR7 glycosylation pattern shapes receptor signaling and endocytosis to modulate chemotactic responses.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Mark A; Kindinger, Ilona; Laufer, Julia M; Späte, Anne-Katrin; Bucher, Delia; Vanes, Sarah L; Krueger, Wolfgang A; Wittmann, Valentin; Legler, Daniel F

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their common cognate chemokine receptor CCR7 orchestrate immune cell trafficking by eliciting distinct signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that human CCR7 is N-glycosylated on 2 specific residues in the N terminus and the third extracellular loop. Conceptually, CCR7 glycosylation adds steric hindrance to the receptor N terminus and extracellular loop 3, acting as a "swinging door" to regulate receptor sensitivity and cell migration. We found that freshly isolated human B cells, as well as expanded T cells, but not naïve T cells, express highly sialylated CCR7. Moreover, we identified that human dendritic cells imprint T cell migration toward CCR7 ligands by secreting enzymes that deglycosylate CCR7, thereby boosting CCR7 signaling on T cells, permitting enhanced T cell locomotion, while simultaneously decreasing receptor endocytosis. In addition, dendritic cells proteolytically convert immobilized CCL21 to a soluble form that is more potent in triggering chemotactic movement and does not desensitize the receptor. Furthermore, we demonstrate that soluble CCL21 functionally resembles neither the CCL19 nor the CCL21 phenotype but acts as a chemokine with unique features. Thus, we advance the concept of dendritic cell-dependent generation of micromilieus and lymph node conditioning by demonstrating a novel layer of CCR7 regulation through CCR7 sialylation. In summary, we demonstrate that leukocyte subsets express distinct patterns of CCR7 sialylation that contribute to receptor signaling and fine-tuning chemotactic responses. PMID:26819318

  16. Distinct neural activation patterns underlie economic decisions in high and low psychopathy scorers

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Pedro R.; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Marsh, Abigail A.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic traits affect social functioning and the ability to make adaptive decisions in social interactions. This study investigated how psychopathy affects the neural mechanisms that are recruited to make decisions in the ultimatum game. Thirty-five adult participants recruited from the community underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while they performed the ultimatum game under high and low cognitive load. Across load conditions, high psychopathy scorers rejected unfair offers in the same proportion as low scorers, but perceived them as less unfair. Among low scorers, the perceived fairness of offers predicted acceptance rates, whereas in high scorers no association was found. Imaging results revealed that responses in each group were associated with distinct patterns of brain activation, indicating divergent decision mechanisms. Acceptance of unfair offers was associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity in low scorers and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity in high scorers. Overall, our findings point to distinct motivations for rejecting unfair offers in individuals who vary in psychopathic traits, with rejections in high psychopathy scorers being probably induced by frustration. Implications of these results for models of ventromedial prefrontal cortex dysfunction in psychopathy are discussed. PMID:23748499

  17. Distinct regulatory elements mediate similar expression patterns in the excretory cell of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongying; Fang, Li; Chen, Nansheng; Johnsen, Robert C; Stein, Lincoln; Baillie, David L

    2005-11-18

    Identification of cis-regulatory elements and their binding proteins constitutes an important part of understanding gene function and regulation. It is well accepted that co-expressed genes tend to share transcriptional elements. However, recent findings indicate that co-expression data show poor correlation with co-regulation data even in unicellular yeast. This motivates us to experimentally explore whether it is possible that co-expressed genes are subject to differential regulatory control using the excretory cell of Caenorhabditis elegans as an example. Excretory cell is a functional equivalent of human kidney. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the cell is largely unknown. We isolated a 10-bp excretory cell-specific cis-element, Ex-1, from a pgp-12 promoter. The significance of the element has been demonstrated by its capacity of converting an intestine-specific promoter into an excretory cell-specific one. We also isolated a cDNA encoding an Ex-1 binding transcription factor, DCP-66, using a yeast one-hybrid screen. Role of the factor in regulation of pgp-12 expression has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Search for occurrence of Ex-1 reveals that only a small portion of excretory cell-specific promoters contain Ex-1. Two other distinct cis-elements isolated from two different promoters can also dictate the excretory cell-specific expression but are independent of regulation by DCP-66. The results indicate that distinct regulatory elements are able to mediate the similar expression patterns.

  18. Gustatory stimuli representing different perceptual qualities elicit distinct patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

    PubMed

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-04-24

    Taste stimuli that evoke different perceptual qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, bitter, sour, salty) are detected by dedicated subpopulations of taste bud cells that use distinct combinations of sensory receptors and transduction molecules. Here, we report that taste stimuli also elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds that are correlated with those perceptual qualities. We measured tastant-dependent secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) from circumvallate papillae of Tas1r3(+/+), Tas1r3(+/-) and Tas1r3 (-/-) mice. Isolated tongue epithelia were mounted in modified Ussing chambers, permitting apical stimulation of taste buds; secreted peptides were collected from the basal side and measured by specific ELISAs. Appetitive stimuli (sweet: glucose, sucralose; umami: monosodium glutamate; polysaccharide: Polycose) elicited GLP-1 and NPY secretion and inhibited basal glucagon secretion. Sweet and umami stimuli were ineffective in Tas1r3(-/-) mice, indicating an obligatory role for the T1R3 subunit common to the sweet and umami taste receptors. Polycose responses were unaffected by T1R3 deletion, consistent with the presence of a distinct polysaccharide taste receptor. The effects of sweet stimuli on peptide secretion also required the closing of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, as the KATP channel activator diazoxide inhibited the effects of glucose and sucralose on both GLP-1 and glucagon release. Both sour citric acid and salty NaCl increased NPY secretion but had no effects on GLP-1 or glucagon. Bitter denatonium showed no effects on these peptides. Together, these results suggest that taste stimuli of different perceptual qualities elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

  19. Poorly differentiated forms of papillary thyroid carcinoma: distinctive entities or morphological patterns?

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Manzari, A; Marubini, E; Rilke, F

    1995-08-01

    The concept that poorly differentiated carcinomas (PDC) represent a group in an intermediate position in the spectrum of follicular cell-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland is currently well established. Because at the well-differentiated end of the spectrum there are two groups of entities with distinct biological characteristics, ie, the papillary carcinoma (PC) and the follicular carcinoma (FC), we examined the group represented by PCs to ascertain whether papillary carcinoma-related PDCs (pPDC) represent merely a histologic variant or a distinct pathologic entity. For this purpose 227 consecutive PCs were reclassified according to current criteria. The association between the presence of a tumoral pattern consistent with pPDC (response variable), and prognostic factors such as gender age, pTNM (predictive variables) was evaluated in terms of odds ratio statistics. One hundred eighty-three of 227 cases, defined as PCs met the World Health Organization criteria of the not otherwise specified (NOS) (79 cases), microcarcinoma (65 cases), encapsulated (4 cases) and follicular (35 cases) variants. Forty-four cases, defined as pPDCs, met those of the tall cell (39 cases), columnar cell PC (2 cases) and mixed tall cell-columnar cell PC (3 cases) variants. Statistical analyses of the two groups of patients showed a significant correlation between differentiation and age above 40 years, extrathyroid tumor extension and low ratio of regional nodal involvement at the onset of disease. More strikingly they also showed that morphology, ie, a tumoral pattern consistent with pPDC (differentiation), is the strongest predictor of biological behavior including recurrences and recurrence-related deaths that appear to occur five and twenty times more frequently in pPDCs than in PCs, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Distinct expression patterns of ICK/MAK/MOK protein kinases in the intestine implicate functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tufeng; Wu, Di; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Fu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    ICK/MRK (intestinal cell kinase/MAK-related kinase), MAK (male germ cell-associated kinase), and MOK (MAPK/MAK/MRK-overlapping kinase) are closely related serine/threonine protein kinases in the protein kinome. The biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of the ICK/MAK/MOK family are still largely elusive. Despite significant similarities in their catalytic domains, they diverge markedly in the sequence and structural organization of their C-terminal non-catalytic domains, raising the question as to whether they have distinct, overlapping, or redundant biological functions. In order to gain insights into their biological activities and lay a fundamental groundwork for functional studies, we investigated the spatio-temporal distribution patterns and the expression dynamics of ICK/MAK/MOK protein kinases in the intestine. We found that ICK/MAK/MOK proteins display divergent expression patterns along the duodenum-to-colon axis and during postnatal murine development. Furthermore, they are differentially partitioned between intestinal epithelium and mesenchyme. A significant increase in the protein level of ICK, but not MAK, was induced in human primary colon cancer specimens. ICK protein level was up-regulated whereas MOK protein level was down-regulated in mouse intestinal adenomas as compared with their adjacent normal intestinal mucosa. These data suggest distinct roles for ICK/MAK/MOK protein kinases in the regulation of intestinal neoplasia. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the expressions of ICK/MAK/MOK proteins in the intestinal tract can be differentially and dynamically regulated, implicating a significant functional diversity within this group of protein kinases.

  1. Modulatory effects of plasma and serum on T lymphocyte activation: distinctive patterns for different mitogens.

    PubMed

    Prince, H E; Jensen, E R

    1993-03-01

    Published reports have shown that fresh plasma, but not cryoprecipitate-depleted plasma or fresh serum, inhibits T cell activation by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). We sought to determine if this pattern of inhibition also characterized T cell responses to mitogens differing from PHA with regard to the cell surface molecules utilized for signal transduction. The activation system included colchicine, which limits the cells to one round of division, masking stimulatory factors that enhance proliferation by boosting the number of divisions per culture period. A distinctive modulatory pattern characterized T cell responses to each of 4 mitogens tested (PHA, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, desialyzed oxidized erythrocytes (DOE), pokeweed mitogen). Enhanced proliferative responses to anti-CD3 and DOE were observed in the presence of serum, and reflected an increased percentage of T cells expressing CD25. These findings suggest that concerns regarding a negative impact of plasma components on T cell responsiveness, when based on results from PHA-induced activations systems, may be unwarranted.

  2. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    SciTech Connect

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric . E-mail: wattel@lyon.fnclcc.fr

    2006-02-05

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population.

  3. Distinct patterns of cell motion inside a micro-channel under different osmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Kaneko, Makoto; Sakuma, Shinya; Arai, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    The effect of osmotic condition on a living cell inside a micro-channel is firstly studied in this work. By utilizing a high-speed camera, we observed distinct patterns of cell motion under different osmotic conditions, which are established by saline with different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl). The cell motions are tracked by a computer, and are presented by the coordinates of location and time (x-t chart). The motions of cells under hypotonic condition (NaCl% < 0.9%) are convex curves on the chart while the ones under isotonic and hypertonic conditions (NaCl% ≥ 0.9%) are concave curves. Since saline is widely used in both medical practices and cell-related researches, our results point out two important facts: 1) Cells are sensitive to the percentage of NaCl. One percent difference in overall concentration makes dramatic changes in cell characteristics, such as cell stiffness. 2) The micro-channel method can clearly tell the difference between hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic conditions according to the pattern of cell motion. Interpretations of the phenomena from different perspectives are also discussed in this paper. PMID:24110988

  4. Morphologic and molecular evaluation of Chlamydia trachomatis growth in human endocervix reveals distinct growth patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Maria E.; Belland, Robert J.; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Beatty, Wandy L.; Aiyar, Ashok A.; Zea, Arnold H.; Greene, Sheila J.; Marrero, Luis; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Tate, David J.; McGowin, Chris L.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; O'Brien, Michelle; Lillis, Rebecca A.; Martin, David H.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro models of Chlamydia trachomatis growth have long been studied to predict growth in vivo. Alternative or persistent growth modes in vitro have been shown to occur under the influence of numerous stressors but have not been studied in vivo. Here, we report the development of methods for sampling human infections from the endocervix in a manner that permits a multifaceted analysis of the bacteria, host and the endocervical environment. Our approach permits evaluating total bacterial load, transcriptional patterns, morphology by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and levels of cytokines and nutrients in the infection microenvironment. By applying this approach to two pilot patients with disparate infections, we have determined that their contrasting growth patterns correlate with strikingly distinct transcriptional biomarkers, and are associated with differences in local levels of IFNγ. Our multifaceted approach will be useful to dissect infections in the human host and be useful in identifying patients at risk for chronic disease. Importantly, the molecular and morphological analyses described here indicate that persistent growth forms can be isolated from the human endocervix when the infection microenvironment resembles the in vitro model of IFNγ-induced persistence. PMID:24959423

  5. Distinct patterns of ALDH1A1 expression predict metastasis and poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Zeng, Dong-Zu; Dong, Wei-Guo; Ding, Yan-Qing; Rao, Jun; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jing; Zhan, Na; Liu, Ying; Hu, Qi-Ping; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yu, Shi-Cang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the heterogeneity of its expression makes it difficult to predict the outcome of CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of this molecule in CRC. Methods and Results: In this study, we examined ALDH1A1 expression by immunohistochemistry including 406 cases of primary CRC with corresponding adjacent mucosa, with confirmation of real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that the expression patterns of ALDH1A1 were heterogeneous in the CRC and corresponding adjacent tissues. We defined the ratio of ALDH1A1 level in adjacent mucosa to that in tumor tissues as RA/C and found that the capabilities of tumor invasion and metastasis in the tumors with RA/C < 1 were significantly higher than those with RA/C ≥ 1. Follow-up data showed the worse prognoses in the CRC patients with RA/C < 1. For understanding the underlying mechanism, the localization of β-catenin was detected in the CRC tissues with different patterns of ALDH1A1 expression from 221 patients and β-catenin was found preferentially expressed in cell nuclei of the tumors with RA/C < 1 and ALDH1A1high expression of HT29 cell line, indicating that nuclear translocation of β-catenin might contribute to the increased potentials of invasion and metastasis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that RA/C is a novel biomarker to reflect the distinct expression patterns of ALDH1A1 for predicting metastasis and prognosis of CRC. PMID:25031716

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism array profiling identifies distinct chromosomal aberration patterns across colorectal adenomas and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zarzour, Peter; Boelen, Lies; Luciani, Fabio; Beck, Dominik; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sieber, Oliver M; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Hesson, Luke B; Ward, Robyn L; Wong, Jason W H

    2015-05-01

    The progression of benign colorectal adenomas into cancer is associated with the accumulation of chromosomal aberrations. Even though patterns and frequencies of chromosomal aberrations have been well established in colorectal carcinomas, corresponding patterns of aberrations in adenomas are less well documented. The aim of this study was to profile chromosomal aberrations across colorectal adenomas and carcinomas to provide a better insight into key changes during tumor initiation and progression. Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis was performed on 216 colorectal tumor/normal matched pairs, comprising 60 adenomas and 156 carcinomas. While many chromosomal aberrations were specific to carcinomas, those with the highest frequency in carcinomas (amplification of chromosome 7, 13q, and 20q; deletion of 17p and chromosome 18; LOH of 1p, chromosome 4, 5q, 8p, 17p, chromosome 18, and 20p) were also identified in adenomas. Hierarchical clustering using chromosomal aberrations revealed three distinct subtypes. Interestingly, these subtypes were only partially dependent on tumor staging. A cluster of colorectal cancer patients with frequent chromosomal deletions had the least favorable prognosis, and a number of adenomas (n = 9) were also present in the cluster suggesting that, at least in some tumors, the chromosomal aberration pattern is determined at a very early stage of tumor formation. Finally, analysis of LOH events revealed that copy-neutral/gain LOH (CN/G-LOH) is frequent (>10%) in carcinomas at 5q, 11q, 15q, 17p, chromosome 18, 20p, and 22q. Deletion of the corresponding region is sometimes present in adenomas, suggesting that LOH at these loci may play an important role in tumor initiation.

  7. Microbial pattern recognition causes distinct functional micro-RNA signatures in primary human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Häsler, Robert; Jacobs, Gunnar; Till, Andreas; Grabe, Nils; Cordes, Christian; Nikolaus, Susanna; Lao, Kaiqin; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post transcriptionally. Several studies have demonstrated the relevance of miRNAs for a wide range of cellular mechanisms, however, the current knowledge on how miRNAs respond to relevant external stimuli, e.g. in disease scenarios is very limited. To generate a descriptive picture of the miRNA network associated to inflammatory responses, we quantified the levels of 330 miRNAs upon stimulation with a panel of pro-inflammatory components such as microbial pattern molecules (flagellin, diacylated lipopeptide lipopolysaccharide, muramyl dipeptide), infection with Listeria monocytogenes and TNF-α as pro-inflammatory control in primary human monocytes using real time PCR. As a result, we found distinct miRNA response clusters for each stimulus used. Additionally, we identified potential target genes of three selected miRNAs miR-129-5p, miR-146a and miR-378 which were part of PAMP-specific response clusters by transfecting THP1 monocytes with the corresponding pre- or anti-miRNAs and microfluidic PCR arrays. The miRNAs induced distinct transcriptomal signatures, e.g. overexpression of miRNA129-5p, which was selectively upregulated by the NOD2-elicitor MDP, led to an upregulation of DEFB1, IRAK1, FBXW7 and IKK γ (Nemo). Our findings on highly co-regulated clusters of miRNAs support the hypothesis that miRNAs act in functional groups. This study indicates that miRNAs play an important role in fine-tuning inflammatory mechanisms. Further investigation in the field of miRNA responses will help to understand their effects on gene expression and may close the regulatory gap between mRNA and protein expression in inflammatory diseases. PMID:22363568

  8. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Wehmeyer, Malte H; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany.Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake.NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001).Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  9. Atrophy patterns in early clinical stages across distinct phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; La Joie, Renaud; Vogel, Jacob W; Möller, Christiane; Lehmann, Manja; van Berckel, Bart N M; Seeley, William W; Pijnenburg, Yolande A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Kramer, Joel H; Barkhof, Frederik; Rosen, Howard J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Jagust, William J; Miller, Bruce L; Scheltens, Philip; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, "visual variant," n=93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, "language variant," n=74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, <65 years, n=114) and late age-of-onset (LOAD, >65 years, n=114). Patients with each syndrome were stratified based on: (1) degree of functional impairment, as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and (2) overall extent of brain atrophy, as measured by a neuroimaging approach that sums the number of brain voxels showing significantly lower gray matter volume than cognitively normal controls (n=80). Even at the earliest clinical stage (CDR=0.5 or bottom quartile of overall atrophy), patients with each syndrome showed both common and variant-specific atrophy. Common atrophy across variants was found in temporoparietal regions that comprise the posterior default mode network (DMN). Early syndrome-specific atrophy mirrored functional brain networks underlying functions that are uniquely affected in each variant: Language network in lvPPA, posterior cingulate cortex-hippocampal circuit in amnestic EOAD and LOAD, and visual networks in PCA. At more advanced stages, atrophy patterns largely converged across AD variants. These findings support a model in which neurodegeneration selectively targets both the DMN and syndrome-specific vulnerable networks at the earliest clinical stages of AD. PMID:26260856

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern

    PubMed Central

    Wehmeyer, Malte H.; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany. Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake. NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001). Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  11. b-FGF Induces Corneal Blood and Lymphatic Growth in a Spatially Distinct Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Hajrasouliha, Amir R.; Sadrai, Zahra; Chauhan, Sunil K.; Dana, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the spatial variances in ligand expression and angiogenic effect in response to the inflammatory response induced by b-FGF. Methods b-FGF micropellets (80ng) were implanted in the temporal side of the cornea of Balbc/c mice. On days 1, 3, and 7 blood (heme) and lymph-angiogenesis were observed by immunofluorescence staining of corneal flat mounts with LYVE-1 and CD31 to identify lymphatic and blood vessels, respectively. A second group of corneas were harvested for quantitative RT-PCR. Each cornea was divided in two different area defines as (i) pre-pellet area and (ii) opposite-pellet area. Expression of VEGF ligands were evaluated using Real-time PCR in each respective zone. Results Blood vessels grew into the cornea from the pre-pellet area while corneal lymphatic vessels grew from the opposite-pellet area toward the center of the cornea. VEGF-A was upregulated in the pre-pellet while VEGF-D expression was mostly observed in the opposite-pellet area. VEGF-C level increased simultaneously in both areas. Conclusion A single inducing factor, i.e., b-FGF, may simultaneously provoke heme-and lymph-angiogenesis in different locations of the cornea through differential expression of VEGF ligands. This distinctive spatial pattern should be considered while evaluating the corneal predilection for inflammation beyond that which is directly visible by slit lamp examination. PMID:22467003

  12. Common and distinctive localization patterns of Crumbs polarity complex proteins in the mammalian eye

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Song, Ji Yun; Karnam, Santi; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Jamie JH; Kim, Seonhee; Cho, Seo-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Crumbs polarity complex proteins are essential for cellular and tissue polarity, and for adhesion of epithelial cells. In epithelial tissues deletion of any of three core proteins disrupts localization of the other proteins, indicating structural and functional interdependence among core components. Despite previous studies of function and co-localization that illustrated the properties that these proteins share, it is not known whether an individual component of the complex plays a distinct role in a unique cellular and developmental context. In order to investigate this question, we primarily used confocal imaging to determine the expression and subcellular localization of the core Crumbs polarity complex proteins during ocular development. Here we show that in developing ocular tissues core Crumbs polarity complex proteins, Crb, Pals1 and Patj, generally appear in an overlapping pattern with some exceptions. All three core complex proteins localize to the apical junction of the retinal and lens epithelia. Pals1 is also localized in the Golgi of the retinal cells and Patj localizes to the nuclei of the apically located subset of progenitor cells. These findings suggest that core Crumbs polarity complex proteins exert common and independent functions depending on cellular context. PMID:25636444

  13. Distinct patterns of marine bacterial communities in the South and North Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Park, Mirye; Hwang, Jinik; Lee, Sukchan; Chung, Youngjae; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    The study of oceanic microbial communities is crucial for our understanding of the role of microbes in terms of biomass, diversity and ecosystem function. In this study, 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing was used to investigate change in bacterial community structure between summer and winter water masses from Gosung Bay in the South Sea of Korea and Chuuk in Micronesia, located in the North and South Pacific Oceans, respectively. Summer and winter sampling from each water mass revealed highly diverse bacterial communities, containing ~900 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). The microbial distribution and highly heterogeneous composition observed at both sampling sites were different from those of most macroorganisms. The bacterial communities in the seawater at both sites were most abundant in Proteobacteria during the summer in Gosung and in Bacterioidetes during the winter. The proportion of Cyanobacteria was higher in summer than in winter in Chuuk and similar in Gosung. Additionally, the microbial community during summer in Gosung was significantly different from other communities observed based on the unweighted UniFrac distance. These data suggest that in both oceanic areas sampled, the bacterial communities had distinct distribution patterns with spatially- and temporally-heterogeneous distributions. PMID:25269604

  14. Three Distinct Patterns of Histone H3Y41 Phosphorylation Mark Active Genes

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Mark A.; Foster, Samuel D.; Bannister, Andrew J.; Robson, Samuel C.; Hannah, Rebecca; Wang, Xiaonan; Xhemalce, Blerta; Wood, Andrew D.; Green, Anthony R.; Göttgens, Berthold; Kouzarides, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Summary The JAK2 tyrosine kinase is a critical mediator of cytokine-induced signaling. It plays a role in the nucleus, where it regulates transcription by phosphorylating histone H3 at tyrosine 41 (H3Y41ph). We used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) to define the genome-wide pattern of H3Y41ph in human erythroid leukemia cells. Our results indicate that H3Y41ph is located at three distinct sites: (1) at a subset of active promoters, where it overlaps with H3K4me3, (2) at distal cis-regulatory elements, where it coincides with the binding of STAT5, and (3) throughout the transcribed regions of active, tissue-specific hematopoietic genes. Together, these data extend our understanding of this conserved and essential signaling pathway and provide insight into the mechanisms by which extracellular stimuli may lead to the coordinated regulation of transcription. PMID:22999934

  15. Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus Proviral Loci and Clustered Replication Genes Exhibit Distinct DNA Amplification Patterns during Replication

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Tyler J.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Strand, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    associated with insects called parasitoid wasps, which are of additional applied interest because many are biological control agents of pest insects. Polydnaviruses in the genus Bracovirus (BVs) evolved ∼100 million years ago from an ancestor related to the baculovirus-nudivirus lineage but have also established many novelties due to their symbiotic lifestyle. These include the fact that BVs are transmitted only vertically as proviruses and produce replication-defective virions that package only a portion of the viral genome. Here, we studied Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV) and report that its genome exhibits three distinct patterns of DNA amplification during replication. We also identify several previously unknown features of BV genomes that correlate with these different amplification patterns. PMID:26157119

  16. Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and newborns - the urinary metabolite excretion pattern differs distinctly.

    PubMed

    Enke, Uta; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Pälmke, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Koch, Holger Martin

    2013-11-01

    Some phthalates are endocrine disruptors and reproductive and developmental toxicants. Data on newborn phthalate exposure and elimination characteristics are scarce. We determined 21 urinary phthalate metabolites (indicating exposure to 11 parent phthalates) in two study approaches: in the first approach we collected the urine of 20 healthy newborns at days 2-5 post partum together with 47 urine samples of 7 women during pregnancy. In the second fine tuned approach we collected first urine samples of 9 healthy newborns together with their mother's urine shortly before birth. To ensure full and contamination free collection of the newborns first urines we used special adhesive urine bags for children. All urine samples revealed ubiquitous exposures to phthalates comparable to other populations. Metabolite levels in the newborns first day urine samples were generally lower than in all other samples. However, the newborns urines (both first and day 2-5 urines) showed a metabolite pattern distinctly different from the maternal and general population samples: in the newborns urines the carboxy-metabolites of the long chain phthalates (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP) were the by far dominant metabolites with a relative share in the metabolite spectrum up to 6 times higher than in maternal urine. Oppositely, for the short chain phthalates (DBP, DiBP) oxidized metabolites seemed to be less favored than the simple monoesters in the newborns urines. The skewed metabolite distribution in the newborns urine warrants further investigation in terms of early phthalate metabolism, the quantity of internal phthalate exposure of the fetus/newborn and its possible health effects. PMID:23474103

  17. Distinct expression patterns of alveolar "alarmins" in subtypes of chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Liu, M; Binnie, M; Sato, M; Hwang, D; Azad, S; Machuca, T N; Zamel, R; Waddell, T K; Cypel, M; Keshavjee, S

    2014-06-01

    The long-term success of lung transplantation is limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the alveolar alarmin profiles in CLAD subtypes, restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from 53 recipients who underwent double lung or heart-lung transplantation, including patients with RAS (n = 10), BOS (n = 18) and No CLAD (n = 25). Protein levels of alarmins such as S100A8, S100A9, S100A8/A9, S100A12, S100P, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in BAL fluid were measured. RAS and BOS showed higher expressions of S100A8, S100A8/A9 and S100A12 compared with No CLAD (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 in RAS vs. No CLAD, p = 0.0006, p = 0.0044, p = 0.0086 in BOS vs. No CLAD, respectively). Moreover, RAS showed greater up-regulation of S100A9, S100A8/A9, S100A12, S100P and HMGB1 compared with BOS (p = 0.0094, p = 0.038, p = 0.041, p = 0.035 and p = 0.010, respectively). sRAGE did not show significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.174). Our results demonstrate distinct expression patterns of alveolar alarmins in RAS and BOS, suggesting that RAS and BOS may represent biologically different subtypes. Further refinements in biologic profiling will lead to a better understanding of CLAD. PMID:24787265

  18. Different 2-Aminothiazole Therapeutics Produce Distinct Patterns of Scrapie Prion Neuropathology in Mouse Brains

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kurt; Berry, David B.; Condello, Carlo; Hawley, Ronald C.; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Bryant, Clifford; Oehler, Abby; Elepano, Manuel; Bhardwaj, Sumita; Patel, Smita; Silber, B. Michael; Guan, Shenheng; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Renslo, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Because no drug exists that halts or even slows any neurodegenerative disease, developing effective therapeutics for any prion disorder is urgent. We recently reported two compounds (IND24 and IND81) with the 2-aminothiazole (2-AMT) chemical scaffold that almost doubled the incubation times in scrapie prion-infected, wild-type (wt) FVB mice when given in a liquid diet. Remarkably, oral prophylactic treatment with IND24 beginning 14 days prior to intracerebral prion inoculation extended survival from ∼120 days to over 450 days. In addition to IND24, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of five additional 2-AMTs; one was not followed further because its brain penetration was poor. Of the remaining four new 2-AMTs, IND114338 doubled and IND125 tripled the incubation times of RML-inoculated wt and Tg4053 mice overexpressing wt mouse prion protein (PrP), respectively. Neuropathological examination of the brains from untreated controls showed a widespread deposition of self-propagating, β-sheet-rich “scrapie” isoform (PrPSc) prions accompanied by a profound astrocytic gliosis. In contrast, mice treated with 2-AMTs had lower levels of PrPSc and associated astrocytic gliosis, with each compound resulting in a distinct pattern of deposition. Notably, IND125 prevented both PrPSc accumulation and astrocytic gliosis in the cerebrum. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction in the IND125-treated mice was presumably due to the PrPSc that accumulated in their brainstems. Disappointingly, none of the four new 2-AMTs prolonged the lives of mice expressing a chimeric human/mouse PrP transgene inoculated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions. PMID:26224882

  19. Programmable ECG Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Le Huy, P.; Yvroud, E.; Gilgenkrantz, J.M.; Baille, N.; Aliot, E.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the simulation of an electrocardiogram using a CMOS microprocessor is described. The programmability has been made accessible to every user. All inherent parameters of different waves in an ECG, such as amplitude, slope, duration can be independently modified by software. Thus, the testing of some sophisticated devices may be easily performed.

  20. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  1. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  2. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-06-17

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  3. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  4. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  5. Distinct patterns of functional and effective connectivity between perirhinal cortex and other cortical regions in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Edward B; Protzner, Andrea B; McCormick, Cornelia; McLean, D Adam; Poppenk, Jordan; Cate, Anthony D; Köhler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is thought to be dedicated to declarative memory. Recent evidence challenges this view, suggesting that perirhinal cortex (PrC), which interfaces the MTL with the ventral visual pathway, supports highly integrated object representations in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination. Even with comparable representational demands, perceptual and memory tasks differ in numerous task demands and the subjective experience they evoke. Here, we tested whether such differences are reflected in distinct patterns of connectivity between PrC and other cortical regions, including differential involvement of prefrontal control processes. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging data for closely matched perceptual and recognition memory tasks for faces that engaged right PrC equivalently. Multivariate seed analyses revealed distinct patterns of interactions: Right ventrolateral prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices exhibited stronger functional connectivity with PrC in recognition memory; fusiform regions were part of the pattern that displayed stronger functional connectivity with PrC in perceptual discrimination. Structural equation modeling revealed distinct patterns of effective connectivity that allowed us to constrain interpretation of these findings. Overall, they demonstrate that, even when MTL structures show similar involvement in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination, differential neural mechanisms are reflected in the interplay between the MTL and other cortical regions.

  6. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  7. Eye movements reveal distinct encoding patterns for number and cumulative surface area in random dot arrays

    PubMed Central

    Odic, Darko; Halberda, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Humans can quickly and intuitively represent the number of objects in a scene using visual evidence through the Approximate Number System (ANS). But the computations that support the encoding of visual number—the transformation from the retinal input into ANS representations—remain controversial. Two types of number encoding theories have been proposed: those arguing that number is encoded through a dedicated, enumeration computation, and those arguing that visual number is inferred from nonnumber specific visual features, such as surface area, density, convex hull, etc. Here, we attempt to adjudicate between these two theories by testing participants on both a number and a cumulative area task while also tracking their eye-movements. We hypothesize that if approximate number and surface area depend on distinct encoding computations, saccadic signatures should be distinct for the two tasks, even if the visual stimuli are identical. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that discriminating number versus cumulative area modulates both where participants look (i.e., participants spend more time looking at the more numerous set in the number task and the larger set in the cumulative area task), and how participants look (i.e., cumulative area encoding shows fewer, longer saccades, while number encoding shows many short saccades and many switches between targets). We further identify several saccadic signatures that are associated with task difficulty and correct versus incorrect trials for both dimensions. These results suggest distinct encoding algorithms for number and cumulative area extraction, and thereby distinct representations of these dimensions. PMID:26575191

  8. Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis with distinct biphasic pattern: An extremely rare entity and diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis is one of the rarest intrascrotal tumors. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. In addition, presence of biphasic component creates difficulty in the diagnosis. We present here a unique third case of rete testis adenocarcinoma having distinct cytologically malignant spindle cell component in a young male who presented with recurrent hydrocele. PMID:25810664

  9. Assessing ECG signal quality indices to discriminate ECGs with artefacts from pathologically different arrhythmic ECGs.

    PubMed

    Daluwatte, C; Johannesen, L; Galeotti, L; Vicente, J; Strauss, D G; Scully, C G

    2016-08-01

    False and non-actionable alarms in critical care can be reduced by developing algorithms which assess the trueness of an arrhythmia alarm from a bedside monitor. Computational approaches that automatically identify artefacts in ECG signals are an important branch of physiological signal processing which tries to address this issue. Signal quality indices (SQIs) derived considering differences between artefacts which occur in ECG signals and normal QRS morphology have the potential to discriminate pathologically different arrhythmic ECG segments as artefacts. Using ECG signals from the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 training set, we studied previously reported ECG SQIs in the scientific literature to differentiate ECG segments with artefacts from arrhythmic ECG segments. We found that the ability of SQIs to discriminate between ECG artefacts and arrhythmic ECG varies based on arrhythmia type since the pathology of each arrhythmic ECG waveform is different. Therefore, to reduce the risk of SQIs classifying arrhythmic events as noise it is important to validate and test SQIs with databases that include arrhythmias. Arrhythmia specific SQIs may also minimize the risk of misclassifying arrhythmic events as noise.

  10. Assessing ECG signal quality indices to discriminate ECGs with artefacts from pathologically different arrhythmic ECGs.

    PubMed

    Daluwatte, C; Johannesen, L; Galeotti, L; Vicente, J; Strauss, D G; Scully, C G

    2016-08-01

    False and non-actionable alarms in critical care can be reduced by developing algorithms which assess the trueness of an arrhythmia alarm from a bedside monitor. Computational approaches that automatically identify artefacts in ECG signals are an important branch of physiological signal processing which tries to address this issue. Signal quality indices (SQIs) derived considering differences between artefacts which occur in ECG signals and normal QRS morphology have the potential to discriminate pathologically different arrhythmic ECG segments as artefacts. Using ECG signals from the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 training set, we studied previously reported ECG SQIs in the scientific literature to differentiate ECG segments with artefacts from arrhythmic ECG segments. We found that the ability of SQIs to discriminate between ECG artefacts and arrhythmic ECG varies based on arrhythmia type since the pathology of each arrhythmic ECG waveform is different. Therefore, to reduce the risk of SQIs classifying arrhythmic events as noise it is important to validate and test SQIs with databases that include arrhythmias. Arrhythmia specific SQIs may also minimize the risk of misclassifying arrhythmic events as noise. PMID:27454007

  11. Gremlin 2 regulates distinct roles of BMP and Endothelin 1 signaling in dorsoventral patterning of the facial skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, Elizabeth; Rippen, Marie; Alexander, Courtney; Schilling, Thomas F.; Crump, J. Gage

    2011-01-01

    Patterning of the upper versus lower face involves generating distinct pre-skeletal identities along the dorsoventral (DV) axes of the pharyngeal arches. Whereas previous studies have shown roles for BMPs, Endothelin 1 (Edn1) and Jagged1b-Notch2 in DV patterning of the facial skeleton, how these pathways are integrated to generate different skeletal fates has remained unclear. Here, we show that BMP and Edn1 signaling have distinct roles in development of the ventral and intermediate skeletons, respectively, of the zebrafish face. Using transgenic gain-of-function approaches and cell-autonomy experiments, we find that BMPs strongly promote hand2 and msxe expression in ventral skeletal precursors, while Edn1 promotes the expression of nkx3.2 and three Dlx genes (dlx3b, dlx5a and dlx6a) in intermediate precursors. Furthermore, Edn1 and Jagged1b pattern the intermediate and dorsal facial skeletons in part by inducing the BMP antagonist Gremlin 2 (Grem2), which restricts BMP activity to the ventral-most face. We therefore propose a model in which later cross-inhibitory interactions between BMP and Edn1 signaling, in part mediated by Grem2, separate an initially homogenous ventral region into distinct ventral and intermediate skeletal precursor domains. PMID:22031546

  12. Three R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors Regulate Distinct Floral Pigmentation Patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp. PMID:25739699

  13. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  14. Distinct Expression Pattern of a Deafness Gene, KIAA1199, in a Primate Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Makoto; Fujioka, Masato; Okano, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Deafness is one of the most common types of congenital impairments, and at least half of the cases are caused by hereditary mutations. Mutations of the gene KIAA1199 are associated with progressive hearing loss. Its expression is abundant in human cochlea, but interestingly the spatial expression patterns are different between mouse and rat cochleae; the pattern in humans has not been fully investigated. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of a nonhuman primate, common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), cochlea with a KIAA1199-specific antibody. In the common marmoset cochlea, KIAA1199 protein expression was more widespread than in rodents, with all epithelial cells, including hair cells, expressing KIAA1199. Our results suggest that the primate pattern of KIAA1199 expression is wider in comparison with rodents and may play an essential role in the maintenance of cochlear epithelial cells. PMID:27403418

  15. Distinct Expression Pattern of a Deafness Gene, KIAA1199, in a Primate Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Makoto; Okano, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Deafness is one of the most common types of congenital impairments, and at least half of the cases are caused by hereditary mutations. Mutations of the gene KIAA1199 are associated with progressive hearing loss. Its expression is abundant in human cochlea, but interestingly the spatial expression patterns are different between mouse and rat cochleae; the pattern in humans has not been fully investigated. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of a nonhuman primate, common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), cochlea with a KIAA1199-specific antibody. In the common marmoset cochlea, KIAA1199 protein expression was more widespread than in rodents, with all epithelial cells, including hair cells, expressing KIAA1199. Our results suggest that the primate pattern of KIAA1199 expression is wider in comparison with rodents and may play an essential role in the maintenance of cochlear epithelial cells. PMID:27403418

  16. hESC Differentiation toward an Autonomic Neuronal Cell Fate Depends on Distinct Cues from the Co-Patterning Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Lisette M.; Lindquist, Jeffrey N.; Walsh, Breda M.; Sia, Peik; Cimadamore, Flavio; Chen, Connie; Denzel, Martin; Pernia, Cameron D.; Ranscht, Barbara; Terskikh, Alexey; Snyder, Evan Y.; Cheresh, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To gain insight into the cellular and molecular cues that promote neurovascular co-patterning at the earliest stages of human embryogenesis, we developed a human embryonic stem cell model to mimic the developing epiblast. Contact of ectoderm-derived neural cells with mesoderm-derived vasculature is initiated via the neural crest (NC), not the neural tube (NT). Neurovascular co-patterning then ensues with specification of NC toward an autonomic fate requiring vascular endothelial cell (EC)-secreted nitric oxide (NO) and direct contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via T-cadherin-mediated homotypic interactions. Once a neurovascular template has been established, NT-derived central neurons then align themselves with the vasculature. Our findings reveal that, in early human development, the autonomic nervous system forms in response to distinct molecular cues from VSMCs and ECs, providing a model for how other developing lineages might coordinate their co-patterning. PMID:26004631

  17. Cloud-ECG for real time ECG monitoring and analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Henian; Asif, Irfan; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in mobile technology and cloud computing have inspired numerous designs of cloud-based health care services and devices. Within the cloud system, medical data can be collected and transmitted automatically to medical professionals from anywhere and feedback can be returned to patients through the network. In this article, we developed a cloud-based system for clients with mobile devices or web browsers. Specially, we aim to address the issues regarding the usefulness of the ECG data collected from patients themselves. Algorithms for ECG enhancement, ECG quality evaluation and ECG parameters extraction were implemented in the system. The system was demonstrated by a use case, in which ECG data was uploaded to the web server from a mobile phone at a certain frequency and analysis was performed in real time using the server. The system has been proven to be functional, accurate and efficient. PMID:23261079

  18. Comparative analysis of human mitochondrial methylomes shows distinct patterns of epigenetic regulation in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sourav; Sengupta, Shantanu; Scaria, Vinod

    2014-09-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications across the nuclear genome have been extensively analyzed, but the epigenetic modifications associated with the mitochondrial genome have not yet been analyzed at high resolutions. In the present work, we analyzed methyl-cytosine profiles from methylated DNA immunoprecipitation datasets from 39 different human cell and tissue types from the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics project and validated the data using an orthologous bisulfite sequencing dataset. We observe a distinct distribution of zmethyl-cytosine in mitochondrial genomes which are conserved across all cell and tissue types. This study thus describes the first comprehensive map of methyl cytosines across the human mitochondrial genome.

  19. Electroencephalographic Coherence and Learning: Distinct Patterns of Change during Word Learning and Figure Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Peter; Hogan, Michael; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen; Fischer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    One likely mechanism in learning new skills is change in synchronous connections between distributed neural networks, which can be measured by coherence analysis of electroencephalographic patterns. This study examined coherence changes during the learning of two tasks, a word association task and a figure association task. Although learning…

  20. Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Whole Saliva Reveals a Distinct Phosphorylation Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Matthew D.; Chen, Xiaobing; McGowan, Thomas; Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Cheng, Bin; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    In-depth knowledge of bodily fluid phosphoproteomes, such as whole saliva, is limited. To better understand the whole saliva phosphoproteome, we generated a large-scale catalog of phosphorylated proteins. To circumvent the wide dynamic range of phosphoprotein abundance in whole saliva, we combined dynamic range compression using hexapeptide beads, strong cation exchange HPLC peptide fractionation, and immobilized metal affinity chromatography prior to mass spectrometry. In total, 217 unique phosphopeptides sites were identified representing 85 distinct phosphoproteins at 2.3% global FDR. From these peptides, 129 distinct phosphorylation sites were identified of which 57 were previously known, but only 11 of which had been previously identified in whole saliva. Cellular localization analysis revealed salivary phosphoproteins had a distribution similar to all known salivary proteins, but with less relative representation in “extracellular” and “plasma membrane” categories compared to salivary glycoproteins. Sequence alignment showed that phosphorylation occurred at acidic-directed kinase, proline-directed, and basophilic motifs. This differs from plasma phosphoproteins, which predominantly occur at Golgi casein kinase recognized sequences. Collectively, these results suggest diverse functions for salivary phosphoproteins and multiple kinases involved in their processing and secretion. In all, this study should lay groundwork for future elucidation of the functions of salivary protein phosphorylation. PMID:21299198

  1. Atom-column distinction by Kikuchi pattern observed by an aberration-corrected convergent electron probe.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Koh; Tatara, Yoshihide; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Kikuchi patterns of an MgO crystal at the [110] incidence have been taken by a sub-angstrom electron beam focused on the single atom-column. A significant change in intensity has been observed in the 111 band; that is, the contrast in the central and side bands is reversed depending on the illuminated atom-column. The contrast reversal in the 111 band has been reproduced by multislice simulation using the frozen-phonon approach. The beam-position dependence of the 111 band intensity can be interpreted by electron channelling and the reciprocity theorem. The anomalous Kikuchi pattern can be a probe for identifying the illuminated atom-column, which is useful for column-by-column electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy.

  2. Distinct Mechanisms for Synchronization and Temporal Patterning of Odor-Encoding Neural Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Katrina; Laurent, Gilles

    1996-11-01

    Stimulus-evoked oscillatory synchronization of neural assemblies and temporal patterns of neuronal activity have been observed in many sensory systems, such as the visual and auditory cortices of mammals or the olfactory system of insects. In the locust olfactory system, single odor puffs cause the immediate formation of odor-specific neural assemblies, defined both by their transient synchronized firing and their progressive transformation over the course of a response. The application of an antagonist of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors to the first olfactory relay neuropil selectively blocked the fast inhibitory synapse between local and projection neurons. This manipulation abolished the synchronization of the odor-coding neural ensembles but did not affect each neuron's temporal response patterns to odors, even when these patterns contained periods of inhibition. Fast GABA-mediated inhibition, therefore, appears to underlie neuronal synchronization but not response tuning in this olfactory system. The selective desynchronization of stimulus-evoked oscillating neural assemblies in vivo is now possible, enabling direct functional tests of their significance for sensation and perception.

  3. Recurrent aerosol antigen exposure induces distinct patterns of experimental allergic asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jungsuwadee, Paiboon; Dekan, Gerhard; Stingl, Georg; Epstein, Michelle M

    2002-02-01

    Patients with allergic asthma present clinically with chronic or intermittent disease caused by either persistent or periodic allergen exposure. We sought to generate clinically relevant disease in mice, which would reflect the relapsing, remitting, and constant nature of this syndrome. We generated and compared acute onset, remission, relapse, and overt phases of the disease and found that acute disease was characterized by airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic lung inflammation, excessive mucus production, and antigen-specific antibody and was rapidly followed by a remission. Mice rechallenged with aerosol antigen during the remission or treated with repeated aerosol challenges developed relapse and overt disease, respectively. Recurrent antigen exposure induced a progressive increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immunoglobulin, mucus production, and a change in inflammatory infiltrates indicating a transition from acute to chronic inflammation. These data demonstrate distinct phases of disease representing a clinical spectrum of experimental allergic asthma and may have important implications for new treatment strategies.

  4. Distinct pattern of P3a event-related potential in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Meares, Russell; Melkonian, Dmitriy; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne

    2005-02-28

    P3a and P3b event-related brain potentials to auditory stimuli were recorded for 17 unmedicated patients with borderline personality disorder, 17 matched healthy controls and 100 healthy control participants spanning five decades. Using high-resolution fragmentary decomposition for single-trial event-related potential analysis, distinctive disturbances in P3a in borderline personality disorder patients were found: abnormally enhanced amplitude, failure to habituate and a loss of temporal locking with P3b. Normative age dependencies from 100 controls suggest that natural age-related decline in P3a amplitude is reduced in borderline personality disorder patients and is likely to indicate failure of frontal maturation. On the basis of the theories of Hughlings Jackson, this conceptualization of borderline personality disorder is consistent with an aetiological model of borderline personality disorder. PMID:15706238

  5. Evolution at a different pace: distinctive phylogenetic patterns of cone snails from two ancient oceanic archipelagos.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Lima, Fernando P; Tenorio, Manuel J; Ramos, Ana A; Castilho, Rita; Williams, Suzanne T

    2014-11-01

    Ancient oceanic archipelagos of similar geological age are expected to accrue comparable numbers of endemic lineages with identical life history strategies, especially if the islands exhibit analogous habitats. We tested this hypothesis using marine snails of the genus Conus from the Atlantic archipelagos of Cape Verde and Canary Islands. Together with Azores and Madeira, these archipelagos comprise the Macaronesia biogeographic region and differ remarkably in the diversity of this group. More than 50 endemic Conus species have been described from Cape Verde, whereas prior to this study, only two nonendemic species, including a putative species complex, were thought to occur in the Canary Islands. We combined molecular phylogenetic data and geometric morphometrics with bathymetric and paleoclimatic reconstructions to understand the contrasting diversification patterns found in these regions. Our results suggest that species diversity is even lower than previously thought in the Canary Islands, with the putative species complex corresponding to a single species, Conus guanche. One explanation for the enormous disparity in Conus diversity is that the amount of available habitat may differ, or may have differed in the past due to eustatic (global) sea level changes. Historical bathymetric data, however, indicated that sea level fluctuations since the Miocene have had a similar impact on the available habitat area in both Cape Verde and Canary archipelagos and therefore do not explain this disparity. We suggest that recurrent gene flow between the Canary Islands and West Africa, habitat losses due to intense volcanic activity in combination with unsuccessful colonization of new Conus species from more diverse regions, were all determinant in shaping diversity patterns within the Canarian archipelago. Worldwide Conus species diversity follows the well-established pattern of latitudinal increase of species richness from the poles towards the tropics. However, the eastern

  6. Does the Reading of Different Orthographies Produce Distinct Brain Activity Patterns? An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Kochva, Irit; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Orthographies vary in the degree of transparency of spelling-sound correspondence. These range from shallow orthographies with transparent grapheme-phoneme relations, to deep orthographies, in which these relations are opaque. Only a few studies have examined whether orthographic depth is reflected in brain activity. In these studies a between-language design was applied, making it difficult to isolate the aspect of orthographic depth. In the present work this question was examined using a within-subject-and-language investigation. The participants were speakers of Hebrew, as they are skilled in reading two forms of script transcribing the same oral language. One form is the shallow pointed script (with diacritics), and the other is the deep unpointed script (without diacritics). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while skilled readers carried out a lexical decision task in the two forms of script. A visual non-orthographic task controlled for the visual difference between the scripts (resulting from the addition of diacritics to the pointed script only). At an early visual-perceptual stage of processing (∼165 ms after target onset), the pointed script evoked larger amplitudes with longer latencies than the unpointed script at occipital-temporal sites. However, these effects were not restricted to orthographic processing, and may therefore have reflected, at least in part, the visual load imposed by the diacritics. Nevertheless, the results implied that distinct orthographic processing may have also contributed to these effects. At later stages (∼340 ms after target onset) the unpointed script elicited larger amplitudes than the pointed one with earlier latencies. As this latency has been linked to orthographic-linguistic processing and to the classification of stimuli, it is suggested that these differences are associated with distinct lexical processing of a shallow and a deep orthography. PMID:22615746

  7. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  8. Distinctive clinical course and pattern of relapse in adolescents with medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tabori, Uri . E-mail: uri.tabori@sickkids.ca; Sung, Lillian; Laperriere, Normand; Crooks, Bruce; Wilson, Beverly

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical course of adolescents with medulloblastoma, with specific emphasis on prognosis and pattern of relapse. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied the clinical course and outcomes of children aged 10-20 years with medulloblastoma, treated at centers throughout Canada between 1986 and 2003. To better assess time to relapse, a cohort of patients aged 3-20 years at diagnosis was generated. Results: A total of 72 adolescents were analyzed. Five-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 78.3% {+-} 5.4% and 68.0% {+-} 6.2%, respectively. Late relapses occurred at a median of 3.0 years (range, 0.3-6.8 years). In univariate analysis, conventional risk stratification and the addition of chemotherapy to craniospinal radiation did not have prognostic significance. Female patients had improved overall survival (p = 0.007). Time to relapse increased with age in a linear fashion. After relapse, patients faired poorly regardless of treatment modality. Patients who did not receive chemotherapy initially had improved progression-free survival at relapse (p 0.05). Conclusions: Our study suggests that adolescents with medulloblastoma might have a unique prognosis and pattern of relapse, dissimilar to those in younger children. They might benefit from different risk stratifications and prolonged follow-up. These issues should be addressed in future prospective trials.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Newt Lens Regeneration Reveals Distinct Gradients in Gene Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Nobuyasu; Ivester, Clifford J.; Braun, Thomas; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration of the lens in newts is quite a unique process. The lens is removed in its entirety and regeneration ensues from the pigment epithelial cells of the dorsal iris via transdifferentiation. The same type of cells from the ventral iris are not capable of regenerating a lens. It is, thus, expected that differences between dorsal and ventral iris during the process of regeneration might provide important clues pertaining to the mechanism of regeneration. In this paper, we employed next generation RNA-seq to determine gene expression patterns during lens regeneration in Notophthalmus viridescens. The expression of more than 38,000 transcripts was compared between dorsal and ventral iris. Although very few genes were found to be dorsal- or ventral-specific, certain groups of genes were up-regulated specifically in the dorsal iris. These genes are involved in cell cycle, gene regulation, cytoskeleton and immune response. In addition, the expression of six highly regulated genes, TBX5, FGF10, UNC5B, VAX2, NR2F5, and NTN1, was verified using qRT-PCR. These graded gene expression patterns provide insight into the mechanism of lens regeneration, the markers that are specific to dorsal or ventral iris, and layout a map for future studies in the field. PMID:23613853

  10. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop–wild hybrid crosses

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

  11. Tolerance is established in polyclonal CD4(+) T cells by distinct mechanisms, according to self-peptide expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepali; Linehan, Jonathan L; Dileepan, Thamotharampillai; Lee, You Jeong; Purtha, Whitney E; Lu, Jennifer V; Nelson, Ryan W; Fife, Brian T; Orr, Harry T; Anderson, Mark S; Hogquist, Kristin A; Jenkins, Marc K

    2016-02-01

    Studies of repertoires of mouse monoclonal CD4(+) T cells have revealed several mechanisms of self-tolerance; however, which mechanisms operate in normal repertoires is unclear. Here we studied polyclonal CD4(+) T cells specific for green fluorescent protein expressed in various organs, which allowed us to determine the effects of specific expression patterns on the same epitope-specific T cells. Peptides presented uniformly by thymic antigen-presenting cells were tolerated by clonal deletion, whereas peptides excluded from the thymus were ignored. Peptides with limited thymic expression induced partial clonal deletion and impaired effector T cell potential but enhanced regulatory T cell potential. These mechanisms were also active for T cell populations specific for endogenously expressed self antigens. Thus, the immunotolerance of polyclonal CD4(+) T cells was maintained by distinct mechanisms, according to self-peptide expression patterns. PMID:26726812

  12. Distinct synoptic patterns and air masses responsible for long-range desert dust transport and sea spray in Palermo, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, K.; Paschalidou, A. K.; Kassomenos, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    Undoubtedly, anthropogenic emissions carry a large share of the risk posed on public health by particles exposure in urban areas. However, natural emissions, in the form of desert dust and sea spray, are well known to contribute significantly to the PM load recorded in many Mediterranean environments, posing an extra risk burden on public health. In the present paper, we examine the synoptic climatology in a background station in Palermo, Italy, through K-means clustering of the mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) maps, in an attempt to associate distinct synoptic patterns with increased PM10 levels. Four-day backward trajectory analysis is then applied, in order to study the origins and pathways of air masses susceptible of PM10 episodes. It is concluded that a number of atmospheric patterns result in several kind of flows, namely south, west, and slow-moving/stagnant flows, associated with long-range dust transport and sea spray.

  13. Genes associated with ant social behavior show distinct transcriptional and evolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mikheyev, Alexander S; Linksvayer, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the genetic basis and evolution of complex social behavior emphasize either conserved or novel genes. To begin to reconcile these perspectives, we studied how the evolutionary conservation of genes associated with social behavior depends on regulatory context, and whether genes associated with social behavior exist in distinct regulatory and evolutionary contexts. We identified modules of co-expressed genes associated with age-based division of labor between nurses and foragers in the ant Monomorium pharaonis, and we studied the relationship between molecular evolution, connectivity, and expression. Highly connected and expressed genes were more evolutionarily conserved, as expected. However, compared to the rest of the genome, forager-upregulated genes were much more highly connected and conserved, while nurse-upregulated genes were less connected and more evolutionarily labile. Our results indicate that the genetic architecture of social behavior includes both highly connected and conserved components as well as loosely connected and evolutionarily labile components. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04775.001 PMID:25621766

  14. COPD Hospitalization Risk Increased with Distinct Patterns of Multiple Systems Comorbidities Unveiled by Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ji; Boyd, Andrew D.; Li, Jianrong ‘John’; Gardeux, Vincent; Kenost, Colleen; Saner, Don; Li, Haiquan; Abraham, Ivo; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lussier, Yves A.

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies on hospitalization risk are largely based on regression models. To our knowledge, network modeling of multiple comorbidities is novel and inherently enables multidimensional scoring and unbiased feature reduction. Network modeling was conducted using an independent validation design starting from 38,695 patients, 1,446,581 visits, and 430 distinct clinical facilities/hospitals. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for every pair of comorbidity using patient counts and compared their tendency with hospitalization rates and ED visits. Network topology analyses were performed, defining significant comorbidity associations as having OR≥5 & False-Discovery-Rate≤10−7. Four COPD-associated comorbidity sub-networks emerged, incorporating multiple clinical systems: (i) metabolic syndrome, (ii) substance abuse and mental disorder, (iii) pregnancy-associated conditions, and (iv) fall-related injury. The latter two have not been reported yet. Features prioritized from the network are predictive of hospitalizations in an independent set (p<0.004). Therefore, we suggest that network topology is a scalable and generalizable method predictive of hospitalization. PMID:25954392

  15. Distinctive Pattern of Serum Elements During the Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Miedico, Oto; Cristofano, Adriana; Vitale, Michela; Angiolillo, Antonella; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Corso, Gaetano; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Element profiling is an interesting approach for understanding neurodegenerative processes, considering that compelling evidences show that element toxicity might play a crucial role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aim of this study was to profile 22 serum elements in subjects with or at risk of AD. Thirtyfour patients with probable AD, 20 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 24 with subjective memory complaint (SMC) and 40 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. Manganese, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, thallium, antimony, mercury, vanadium and molybdenum changed significantly among the 4 groups. Several essential elements, such as manganese, selenium, zinc and iron tended to increase in SMC and then progressively to decrease in MCI and AD. Toxic elements show a variable behavior, since some elements tended to increase, while others tended to decrease in AD. A multivariate model, built using a panel of six essential elements (manganese, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and calcium) and their ratios, discriminated AD patients from HS with over 90% accuracy. These findings suggest that essential and toxic elements contribute to generate a distinctive signature during the progression of AD, and their monitoring in elderly might help to detect preclinical stages of AD. PMID:26957294

  16. Distinctive Pattern of Serum Elements During the Progression of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Miedico, Oto; Cristofano, Adriana; Vitale, Michela; Angiolillo, Antonella; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Corso, Gaetano; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Element profiling is an interesting approach for understanding neurodegenerative processes, considering that compelling evidences show that element toxicity might play a crucial role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim of this study was to profile 22 serum elements in subjects with or at risk of AD. Thirtyfour patients with probable AD, 20 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 24 with subjective memory complaint (SMC) and 40 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. Manganese, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, thallium, antimony, mercury, vanadium and molybdenum changed significantly among the 4 groups. Several essential elements, such as manganese, selenium, zinc and iron tended to increase in SMC and then progressively to decrease in MCI and AD. Toxic elements show a variable behavior, since some elements tended to increase, while others tended to decrease in AD. A multivariate model, built using a panel of six essential elements (manganese, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and calcium) and their ratios, discriminated AD patients from HS with over 90% accuracy. These findings suggest that essential and toxic elements contribute to generate a distinctive signature during the progression of AD, and their monitoring in elderly might help to detect preclinical stages of AD. PMID:26957294

  17. Distinct patterns of somatic genome alterations in lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joshua D; Alexandrov, Anton; Kim, Jaegil; Wala, Jeremiah; Berger, Alice H; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Shukla, Sachet A; Guo, Guangwu; Brooks, Angela N; Murray, Bradley A; Imielinski, Marcin; Hu, Xin; Ling, Shiyun; Akbani, Rehan; Rosenberg, Mara; Cibulskis, Carrie; Ramachandran, Aruna; Collisson, Eric A; Kwiatkowski, David J; Lawrence, Michael S; Weinstein, John N; Verhaak, Roel G W; Wu, Catherine J; Hammerman, Peter S; Cherniack, Andrew D; Getz, Gad; Artyomov, Maxim N; Schreiber, Robert; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Meyerson, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    To compare lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and to identify new drivers of lung carcinogenesis, we examined the exome sequences and copy number profiles of 660 lung ADC and 484 lung SqCC tumor-normal pairs. Recurrent alterations in lung SqCCs were more similar to those of other squamous carcinomas than to alterations in lung ADCs. New significantly mutated genes included PPP3CA, DOT1L, and FTSJD1 in lung ADC, RASA1 in lung SqCC, and KLF5, EP300, and CREBBP in both tumor types. New amplification peaks encompassed MIR21 in lung ADC, MIR205 in lung SqCC, and MAPK1 in both. Lung ADCs lacking receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras-Raf pathway alterations had mutations in SOS1, VAV1, RASA1, and ARHGAP35. Regarding neoantigens, 47% of the lung ADC and 53% of the lung SqCC tumors had at least five predicted neoepitopes. Although targeted therapies for lung ADC and SqCC are largely distinct, immunotherapies may aid in treatment for both subtypes.

  18. Distinct patterns of autophagy evoked by two benzoxazine derivatives in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Dong, ZhiWu; Huang, Bin; Zhao, BaoXiang; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Jing; Kung, HsiangFu; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing

    2010-11-01

    Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved, bulk-destruction process in eukaryotes. During this process, the cytoplasm containing long-lived proteins and organelles is engulfed into double-membrane autophagosomes, and ultimately undergoes enzymatic degradation within lysosomes. Autophagy serves as a prosurvival machinery, or it may contribute to cell death. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis and intervention of various human diseases. Pharmacological autophagy modulators are arousing interest from biologists and clinical physicians in light of their potential for disease therapy and increasing our understanding of the mechanism of autophagy. In this study, we identified two autophagy enhancers, 6-amino-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzoxazine (ABO) and 6,8-dichloro-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzoxazine (DBO), in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC s) by autophagy assays, and demonstrate that ABO and DBO could stimulate autophagy in an mtor-independent and mtor-dependent manner, respectively; ABO-stimulated autophagy was attributed to the elevation of the Ca2+ channel annexin A7 (ANXA7), whereas DBO's effect was due to the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, we found that ANXA7 was essential for autophagy induction via modulating the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in HUVEC s. In summary, our work introduced two distinct autophagy enhancers and highlighted the critical role of ANXA7 in endothelial autophagy.

  19. Cognitive subtypes of dyslexia are characterized by distinct patterns of grey matter volume.

    PubMed

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Gawron, Natalia; Marchewka, Artur; Heim, Stefan; Grabowska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The variety of different causal theories together with inconsistencies about the anatomical brain markers emphasize the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. Attempts were made to test on a behavioral level the existence of subtypes of dyslexia showing distinguishable cognitive deficits. Importantly, no research was directly devoted to the investigation of structural brain correlates of these subtypes. Here, for the first time, we applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to study grey matter volume (GMV) differences in a relatively large sample (n = 46) of dyslexic children split into three subtypes based on the cognitive deficits: phonological, rapid naming, magnocellular/dorsal, and auditory attention shifting. VBM revealed GMV clusters specific for each studied group including areas of left inferior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, right putamen, and bilateral parietal cortex. In addition, using discriminant analysis on these clusters 79% of cross-validated cases were correctly re-classified into four groups (controls vs. three subtypes). Current results indicate that dyslexia may result from distinct cognitive impairments characterized by distinguishable anatomical markers.

  20. Salmonella typhimurium infection triggers dendritic cells and macrophages to adopt distinct migration patterns in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfang; Wood, Michael W; Galyov, Edouard E; Höpken, Uta E; Lipp, Martin; Bodmer, Helen C; Tough, David F; Carter, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    The presence of an anti-bacterial T cell response and evidence of bacterial products in inflamed joints of reactive arthritis patients suggests an antigen transportation role in this disease for macrophages and dendritic cells. We have investigated the functional properties and in vivo migration of macrophages and DC after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). BM-derived macrophages and DC displayed enhanced expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86) and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-12p40) and nitric oxide after infection. Upon adoptive transfer into mice, infected DC migrated to lymphoid tissues and induced an anti-Salmonella T cell response, whereas infected macrophages did not. Infection of DC with S. typhimurium was associated with strong up-regulation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 and acquisition of responsiveness to chemokines acting through this receptor. Moreover, S. typhimurium-infected CCR7-deficient DC were unable to migrate to lymph nodes after adoptive transfer, although they did reach the spleen. Our data demonstrate distinct roles for macrophages and DC as antigen transporters after S. typhimurium infection and a dependence on CCR7 for migration of DC to lymph nodes after bacterial infection. PMID:17048271

  1. The distinct genetic pattern of ALS in Turkey and novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Özoğuz, Aslıhan; Uyan, Özgün; Birdal, Güneş; Iskender, Ceren; Kartal, Ece; Lahut, Suna; Ömür, Özgür; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Eken, Aslı Gündoğdu; Sen, Nesli Ece; Kavak, Pınar; Saygı, Ceren; Sapp, Peter C; Keagle, Pamela; Parman, Yeşim; Tan, Ersin; Koç, Filiz; Deymeer, Feza; Oflazer, Piraye; Hanağası, Haşmet; Gürvit, Hakan; Bilgiç, Başar; Durmuş, Hacer; Ertaş, Mustafa; Kotan, Dilcan; Akalın, Mehmet Ali; Güllüoğlu, Halil; Zarifoğlu, Mehmet; Aysal, Fikret; Döşoğlu, Nilgün; Bilguvar, Kaya; Günel, Murat; Keskin, Özlem; Akgün, Tahsin; Özçelik, Hilmi; Landers, John E; Brown, Robert H; Başak, A Nazlı

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mutations has been extensively investigated in several populations; however, a systematic analysis in Turkish cases has not been reported so far. In this study, we screened 477 ALS patients for mutations, including 116 familial ALS patients from 82 families and 361 sporadic ALS (sALS) cases. Patients were genotyped for C9orf72 (18.3%), SOD1 (12.2%), FUS (5%), TARDBP (3.7%), and UBQLN2 (2.4%) gene mutations, which together account for approximately 40% of familial ALS in Turkey. No SOD1 mutations were detected in sALS patients; however, C9orf72 (3.1%) and UBQLN2 (0.6%) explained 3.7% of sALS in the population. Exome sequencing revealed mutations in OPTN, SPG11, DJ1, PLEKHG5, SYNE1, TRPM7, and SQSTM1 genes, many of them novel. The spectrum of mutations reflect both the distinct genetic background and the heterogeneous nature of the Turkish ALS population. PMID:25681989

  2. Interplay between stochasticity and negative feedback leads to pulsed dynamics and distinct gene activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Bianchi, Marco E.; Agresti, Alessandra; Molina, Nacho

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression is an inherently stochastic process that depends on the structure of the biochemical regulatory network in which the gene is embedded. Here we study the dynamical consequences of the interplay between stochastic gene switching and the widespread negative feedback regulatory loop in a simple model of a biochemical regulatory network. Using a simplified hybrid simulation approach, in which only the gene activation is modeled stochastically, we find that stochasticity in gene switching by itself can induce pulses in the system, providing also analytical insights into their origin. Furthermore, we find that this simple network is able to reproduce both exponential and peaked distributions of gene active and inactive times similar to those that have been observed experimentally. This simplified hybrid simulation approach also allows us to link these patterns to the dynamics of the system for each gene state.

  3. Semantic mapping reveals distinct patterns in descriptions of social relations in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sean X; Shinall, Jacqueline A; Peterson, Bradley S; Gerber, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may describe other individuals differently compared with typical adults. In this study, we first asked participants to describe closely related individuals such as parents and close friends with 10 positive and 10 negative characteristics. We then used standard natural language processing methods to digitize and visualize these descriptions. The complex patterns of these descriptive sentences exhibited a difference in semantic space between individuals with ASD and control participants. Machine learning algorithms were able to automatically detect and discriminate between these two groups. Furthermore, we showed that these descriptive sentences from adults with ASD exhibited fewer connections as defined by word-word co-occurrences in descriptions, and these connections in words formed a less "small-world" like network. Autism Res 2016, 9: 846-853. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26613541

  4. Distinct development patterns of c-mos protooncogene expression in female and male mouse germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, G.L.; Wolgemuth, D.J.

    1987-08-01

    The protooncogene c-mos is expressed in murine reproductive tissues, producing transcripts of 1.7 and 1.4 kilobases in testis and ovary, respectively. In situ hybridization analysis of c-mos expression in histological sections of mouse ovaries revealed that oocytes are the predominant if not exclusive source of c-mos transcripts. /sup 35/S- or /sup 32/P-labelled RNA probes were transcribed. c-mos transcripts accumulate in growing oocytes, increasing 40- to 90-fold during oocyte and follicular development. c-mos transcripts were also detected in male germ cells and are most abundant after the cells have entered the haploid stage of spermatogenesis. This developmentally regulated pattern of c-mos expression in oocytes and spermatogenic cells suggest that the c-mos gene product may have a function in normal germ-cell differentiation or early embryogenesis.

  5. Urothelial eddies in papillary urothelial neoplasms: a distinct morphologic pattern with low risk for progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Misung; Ro, Jae Y; Amin, Mahul B; de Peralta-Venturina, Mariza; Kwon, Ghee Young; Park, Yong Wook; Cho, Yong Mee

    2013-01-01

    We encountered an undescribed histologic feature of papillary urothelial neoplasms: “urothelial eddy”, which was histologically reminiscent of squamous eddy of irritated follicular keratosis of the skin. A review of 756 patients with transurethral resection of bladder tumor revealed 10 patients (1.3%) of papillary urothelial neoplasms with urothelial eddies. All cases were male with a median age of 65 years. Urothelial eddies were characterized by small ovoid nests of ovoid to spindle cells arranged in an onion-skin pattern with fine cytoplasmic processes within wide intercellular space. The cytoplasmic processes mimicked intercellular bridges but ultrastructurally were cytoplasmic microvillous projections. They were of papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential in seven patients and low-grade urothelial carcinoma in three patients. Nine patients presented as non-invasive tumor and one patient showed microinvasion within papillary stalks. Six patients showed an inverted growth pattern. Their immunoprofile was more similar to that of conventional urothelial carcinoma rather than squamous cell carcinoma: high expressions of GATA3, S100P, uroplakin III, and cytokeratin 7; and low expressions of high molecular weight cytokeratin and p53. The Ki-67 labeling index was low (mean and median values, 2% each). During the follow-up period (mean, 88.7 months), four patients, including the microinvasive patient, showed recurrence with the same grade and stage but neither progressed into muscle-invasive tumor nor caused death. Our results suggest that urothelial eddy is a rare aberrant histology of papillary urothelial neoplasms with indolent behavior and should be discriminated from squamous differentiation of urothelial carcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. PMID:23923064

  6. Arabidopsis Roots and Shoots Show Distinct Temporal Adaptation Patterns toward Nitrogen Starvation1[W

    PubMed Central

    Krapp, Anne; Berthomé, Richard; Orsel, Mathilde; Mercey-Boutet, Stéphanie; Yu, Agnes; Castaings, Loren; Elftieh, Samira; Major, Hilary; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. N levels in soil vary widely, and plants have developed strategies to cope with N deficiency. However, the regulation of these adaptive responses and the coordinating signals that underlie them are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize N starvation in adult Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants in a spatiotemporal manner by an integrative, multilevel global approach analyzing growth, metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcript levels. We determined that the remobilization of N and carbon compounds to the growing roots occurred long before the internal N stores became depleted. A global metabolite analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed organ-specific differences in the metabolic adaptation to complete N starvation, for example, for several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, but also for carbohydrates, secondary products, and phosphate. The activities of central N metabolism enzymes and the capacity for nitrate uptake adapted to N starvation by favoring N remobilization and by increasing the high-affinity nitrate uptake capacity after long-term starvation. Changes in the transcriptome confirmed earlier studies and added a new dimension by revealing specific spatiotemporal patterns and several unknown N starvation-regulated genes, including new predicted small RNA genes. No global correlation between metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcripts was evident. However, this multilevel spatiotemporal global study revealed numerous new patterns of adaptation mechanisms to N starvation. In the context of a sustainable agriculture, this work will give new insight for the production of crops with increased N use efficiency. PMID:21900481

  7. Distinct Patterns of Desynchronized Limb Regression in Malagasy Scincine Lizards (Squamata, Scincidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Aurélien; Hipsley, Christy A.; Erens, Jesse; Gehara, Marcelo; Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Glaw, Frank; Müller, Johannes; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Scincine lizards in Madagascar form an endemic clade of about 60 species exhibiting a variety of ecomorphological adaptations. Several subclades have adapted to burrowing and convergently regressed their limbs and eyes, resulting in a variety of partial and completely limbless morphologies among extant taxa. However, patterns of limb regression in these taxa have not been studied in detail. Here we fill this gap in knowledge by providing a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of three mitochondrial and four nuclear gene fragments in an extended sampling of Malagasy skinks, and microtomographic analyses of osteology of various burrowing taxa adapted to sand substrate. Based on our data we propose to (i) consider Sirenoscincus Sakata & Hikida, 2003, as junior synonym of Voeltzkowia Boettger, 1893; (ii) resurrect the genus name Grandidierina Mocquard, 1894, for four species previously included in Voeltzkowia; and (iii) consider Androngo Brygoo, 1982, as junior synonym of Pygomeles Grandidier, 1867. By supporting the clade consisting of the limbless Voeltzkowia mira and the forelimb-only taxa V. mobydick and V. yamagishii, our data indicate that full regression of limbs and eyes occurred in parallel twice in the genus Voeltzkowia (as hitherto defined) that we consider as a sand-swimming ecomorph: in the Voeltzkowia clade sensu stricto the regression first affected the hindlimbs and subsequently the forelimbs, whereas the Grandidierina clade first regressed the forelimbs and subsequently the hindlimbs following the pattern prevalent in squamates. Timetree reconstructions for the Malagasy Scincidae contain a substantial amount of uncertainty due to the absence of suitable primary fossil calibrations. However, our preliminary reconstructions suggest rapid limb regression in Malagasy scincids with an estimated maximal duration of 6 MYr for a complete regression in Paracontias, and 4 and 8 MYr respectively for complete regression of forelimbs in Grandidierina and

  8. Tumor endothelial cells with distinct patterns of TGFβ-driven endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Kim, Dae Joong; Davis, Clayton L.; McCann, James V.; Dunleavey, James M.; Vanderlinden, Alissa; Xu, Nuo; Pattenden, Samantha G.; Frye, Stephen V.; Xu, Xia; Onaitis, Mark; Monaghan-Benson, Elizabeth; Burridge, Keith; Dudley, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) occurs during development and underlies the pathophysiology of multiple diseases. In tumors, unscheduled EndMT generates cancer-associated myofibroblasts that fuel inflammation and fibrosis, and may contribute to vascular dysfunction that promotes tumor progression. We report that freshly isolated subpopulations of tumor-specific endothelial cells (TEC) from a spontaneous mammary tumor model undergo distinct forms of EndMT in response to TGFβ stimulation. Whereas some TEC strikingly up-regulate alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA), a principal marker of EndMT and activated myofibroblasts, counterpart normal mammary gland endothelial cells (NEC) showed little change in SMA expression after TGFβ treatment. Compared with NEC, SMA+ TEC were 40 % less motile in wound healing assays and formed more stable vascular-like networks in vitro when challenged with TGFβ. Lineage tracing using ZsGreenCdh5-Cre reporter mice confirmed that only a fraction of vessels in breast tumors contain SMA+ TEC, suggesting that not all endothelial cells (EC) respond identically to TGFβ in vivo. Indeed, examination of 84 TGFβ-regulated target genes revealed entirely different genetic signatures in TGFβ-stimulated NEC and TEC cultures. Finally, we found that basic FGF (bFGF) exerts potent inhibitory effects on many TGFβ-regulated genes but operates in tandem with TGFβ to up-regulate others. EC challenged with TGFβ secrete bFGF which blocks SMA expression in secondary cultures suggesting a cell-autonomous or lateral-inhibitory mechanism for impeding mesenchymal differentiation. Together, our results suggest that TGFβ-driven EndMT produces a spectrum of EC phenotypes with different functions that could underlie the plasticity and heterogeneity of the tumor vasculature. PMID:25634211

  9. Cell type-specific genes show striking and distinct patterns of spatial expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ko, Younhee; Ament, Seth A; Eddy, James A; Caballero, Juan; Earls, John C; Hood, Leroy; Price, Nathan D

    2013-02-19

    To characterize gene expression patterns in the regional subdivisions of the mammalian brain, we integrated spatial gene expression patterns from the Allen Brain Atlas for the adult mouse with panels of cell type-specific genes for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from previously published transcriptome profiling experiments. We found that the combined spatial expression patterns of 170 neuron-specific transcripts revealed strikingly clear and symmetrical signatures for most of the brain's major subdivisions. Moreover, the brain expression spatial signatures correspond to anatomical structures and may even reflect developmental ontogeny. Spatial expression profiles of astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes also revealed regional differences; these defined fewer regions and were less distinct but still symmetrical in the coronal plane. Follow-up analysis suggested that region-based clustering of neuron-specific genes was related to (i) a combination of individual genes with restricted expression patterns, (ii) region-specific differences in the relative expression of functional groups of genes, and (iii) regional differences in neuronal density. Products from some of these neuron-specific genes are present in peripheral blood, raising the possibility that they could reflect the activities of disease- or injury-perturbed networks and collectively function as biomarkers for clinical disease diagnostics.

  10. [ECG mapping in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Boudík, F; Aschermann, M; Anger, Z

    2002-12-01

    First the authors present a review of important cornerstones in the history of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and ECG mapping. The first to describe the electric cardiac field based on twenty ECGs was A.D. Waller in 1889. The decisive cornerstone for practical use was the introduction of a string galvanometer in 1901 by W. Einthoven and his triaxial lead system. Another very important cornerstone in the development of ECG were the findings of F.N. Wilson. Merits as regards the development and application of ECG mapping are due to B. Taccardi. Workers of the Second Medical Clinic in Prague enhanced after 15 years of studies and comparison of ECG maps with coronarographic findings in subjects with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and microvascular coronary dysfunction (syndrome X--SyX) substantially the specificity of this method in impaired myocardial vascularization. Better diagnosis was achieved by introduction of diagnostic tests which influence coronary vascularization such as e.g. hyperventilation, as well as other tests. After their application progression of chronic myocardial ischaemia occurs, e.g. by the mechanism of the "steal phenomenon" or restriction of the microcirculation after hyperventilation in patients with SyX. Furthermore the authors present examples of ECG maps after PTCA, after application of diagnostic tests in IHD and SyX and also regression of myocardial ischaemia after marked reduction of total cholesterol. PMID:12744039

  11. Distinctive Patterns of Evolution of the δ-Globin Gene (HBD) in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Moleirinho, Ana; Lopes, Alexandra M.; Seixas, Susana; Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Prata, Maria J.; Amorim, António

    2015-01-01

    In most vertebrates, hemoglobin (Hb) is a heterotetramer composed of two dissimilar globin chains, which change during development according to the patterns of expression of α- and β-globin family members. In placental mammals, the β-globin cluster includes three early-expressed genes, ε(HBE)-γ(HBG)-ψβ(HBBP1), and the late expressed genes, δ (HBD) and β (HBB). While HBB encodes the major adult β-globin chain, HBD is weakly expressed or totally silent. Paradoxically, in human populations HBD shows high levels of conservation typical of genes under strong evolutionary constraints, possibly due to a regulatory role in the fetal-to-adult switch unique of Anthropoid primates. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the two adult β-like globin genes in a set of diverse mammalian taxa, focusing on the evolution and functional divergence of HBD in primates. Our analysis revealed that anthropoids are an exception to a general pattern of concerted evolution in placental mammals, showing a high level of sequence conservation at HBD, less frequent and shorter gene conversion events. Moreover, this lineage is unique in the retention of a functional GATA-1 motif, known to be involved in the control of the developmental expression of the β-like globin genes. We further show that not only the mode but also the rate of evolution of the δ-globin gene in higher primates are strictly associated with the fetal/adult β-cluster developmental switch. To gain further insight into the possible functional constraints that have been shaping the evolutionary history of HBD in primates, we calculated dN/dS (ω) ratios under alternative models of gene evolution. Although our results indicate that HBD might have experienced different selective pressures throughout primate evolution, as shown by different ω values between apes and Old World Monkeys + New World Monkeys (0.06 versus 0.43, respectively), these estimates corroborated a

  12. Arsenic and the epigenome: interindividual differences in arsenic metabolism related to distinct patterns of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kathryn A; Wu, Michael C; Ward, William O; Smeester, Lisa; Rager, Julia E; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Del Razo, Luz-Maria; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Fry, Rebecca C

    2013-02-01

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is one of the factors that determines the character and magnitude of the diverse detrimental health effects associated with chronic iAs exposure, but it is unknown how iAs biotransformation may impact the epigenome. Here, we integrated analyses of genome-wide, gene-specific promoter DNA methylation levels of peripheral blood leukocytes with urinary arsenical concentrations of subjects from a region of Mexico with high levels of iAs in drinking water. These analyses revealed dramatic differences in DNA methylation profiles associated with concentrations of specific urinary metabolites of arsenic (As). The majority of individuals in this study had positive indicators of As-related disease, namely pre-diabetes mellitus or diabetes mellitus (DM). Methylation patterns of genes with known associations with DM were associated with urinary concentrations of specific iAs metabolites. Future studies will determine whether these DNA methylation profiles provide mechanistic insight into the development of iAs-associated disease, predict disease risk, and/or serve as biomarkers of iAs exposure in humans. PMID:23315758

  13. Arsenic and the epigenome: interindividual differences in arsenic metabolism related to distinct patterns of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kathryn A; Wu, Michael C; Ward, William O; Smeester, Lisa; Rager, Julia E; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Del Razo, Luz-Maria; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Fry, Rebecca C

    2013-02-01

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is one of the factors that determines the character and magnitude of the diverse detrimental health effects associated with chronic iAs exposure, but it is unknown how iAs biotransformation may impact the epigenome. Here, we integrated analyses of genome-wide, gene-specific promoter DNA methylation levels of peripheral blood leukocytes with urinary arsenical concentrations of subjects from a region of Mexico with high levels of iAs in drinking water. These analyses revealed dramatic differences in DNA methylation profiles associated with concentrations of specific urinary metabolites of arsenic (As). The majority of individuals in this study had positive indicators of As-related disease, namely pre-diabetes mellitus or diabetes mellitus (DM). Methylation patterns of genes with known associations with DM were associated with urinary concentrations of specific iAs metabolites. Future studies will determine whether these DNA methylation profiles provide mechanistic insight into the development of iAs-associated disease, predict disease risk, and/or serve as biomarkers of iAs exposure in humans.

  14. Patterns of variation among distinct alleles of the Flag silk gene from Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Linden E; White, Sheryl; Nuñez-Farfán, Juan; Vargas, Jesus

    2007-02-20

    Spider silk proteins and their genes are very attractive to researchers in a wide range of disciplines because they permit linking many levels of organization. However, hypotheses of silk gene evolution have been built primarily upon single sequences of each gene each species, and little is known about allelic variation within a species. Silk genes are known for their repeat structure with high levels of homogenization of nucleotide and amino acid sequence among repeated units. One common explanation for this homogeneity is gene convergence. To test this model, we sequenced multiple alleles of one intron-exon segment from the Flag gene from four populations of the spider Nephila clavipes and compared the new sequences to a published sequence. Our analysis revealed very high levels of heterozygosity in this gene, with no pattern of population differentiation. There was no evidence of gene convergence within any of these alleles, with high levels of nucleotide and amino acid substitution among the repeating motifs. Our data suggest that minimally, there is relaxed selection on mutations in this gene and that there may actually be positive selection for heterozygosity.

  15. Amitotic chromosome loss predicts distinct patterns of senescence and non-senescence in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Morgens, David W; Cavalcanti, Andre R O

    2015-05-01

    Over time and repeated asexual divisions, many ciliate species display the characteristics of senescence, reduced fecundity and increased mortality. Their only path to recovery is sexual conjugation or autogamy. While more traditional models of cellular aging have been proposed, one of the most accepted explanations relies on the faulty mechanism by which ciliates duplicate their somatic nucleus, a process referred to as amitosis. Amitosis involves the random segregation of chromosomes with no consideration for homology. Over subsequent divisions, chromosome copy numbers will fluctuate until an entire chromosome is lost, resulting in death. Via simulations of this process, we find that senescence and death via chromosome loss is not the only possible result of amitosis. Random chromosome loss is less damaging to populations than previously thought, and strict adherence to the model predicts that Paramecium tetraurelia would not senesce. A combination of the reciprocal nature of amitosis and lethal selection against low-copy number chromosomes is responsible for this startling prediction. Additionally, our results provide an alternate explanation to recent evidence for selection on chromosome copy number in Tetrahymena thermophila and peculiar patterns of senescence in Tetrahymena pyriformis. PMID:25840368

  16. Satellite III non-coding RNAs show distinct and stress-specific patterns of induction

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Sonali; Parihar, Rashmi; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2009-04-24

    The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.

  17. Evidence of distinct contaminant transport patterns in rivers using tracer tests and a multiple domain retention model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea; Marion, Andrea; Musner, Tommaso; Tregnaghi, Matteo; Zaramella, Mattia

    2011-06-01

    Solute transport in rivers is controlled by surface hydrodynamics and by mass exchanges with distinct retention zones. Surface and hyporheic retention processes can be accounted for separately in solute transport models with multiple storage compartments. In the simplest two component model, short term storage can be associated to in-channel transient retention, e.g. produced by riparian vegetation or surface dead zones, and the long-term storage can be associated to hyporheic exchange. The STIR (Solute Transport In Rivers) multiple domain transport model is applied here to tracer test data from three very different Mediterranean streams with distinctive characteristics in terms of flow discharge, vegetation and substrate material. The model is used with an exponential residence time distribution (RTD) to represent surface storage processes and two distinct modeling closures are tested to simulate hyporheic retention: a second exponential RTD and a power-law distribution approximating a known solution for bedform-induced hyporheic exchange. Each stream shows distinct retention patterns characterized by different timescales of the storage time distribution. Both modeling closures lead to very good approximations of the observed breakthrough curves in the two rivers with permeable bed exposed to the flow, where hyporheic flows are expected to occur. In the one case where the occurrence of hyporheic flows is inhibited by bottom vegetation, only the two exponential RTD model is acceptable and the time scales of the two components are of the same magnitude. The significant finding of this work is the recognition of a strong signature of the river properties on tracer data and the evidence of the ability of multiple-component models to describe individual stream responses. This evidence may open a new perspective in river contamination studies, where rivers could possibly be classified based on their ability to trap and release pollutants.

  18. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis activate distinct patterns of defence responses in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Farace, Giovanni; Fernandez, Olivier; Jacquens, Lucile; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Jacquard, Cédric; Dorey, Stéphan

    2015-02-01

    Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B. subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B. subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo. cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants. PMID:25040001

  19. Identification of distinct movement patterns in Pacific leatherback turtle populations influenced by ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Benson, Scott R; Shillinger, George L; Bograd, Steven J; Dutton, Peter H; Eckert, Scott A; Morreale, Stephen J; Paladino, Frank V; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Foley, David G; Block, Barbara A; Piedra, Rotney; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Tapilatu, Ricardo F; Spotila, James R

    2012-04-01

    Interactions with fisheries are believed to be a major cause of mortality for adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), which is of particular concern in the Pacific Ocean, where they have been rapidly declining. In order to identify where these interactions are occurring and how they may be reduced, it is essential first to understand the movements and behavior of leatherback turtles. There are two regional nesting populations in the East Pacific (EP) and West Pacific (WP), comprising multiple nesting sites. We synthesized tracking data from the two populations and compared their movement patterns. A switching state-space model was applied to 135 Argos satellite tracks to account for observation error, and to distinguish between migratory and area-restricted search behaviors. The tracking data, from the largest leatherback data set ever assembled, indicated that there was a high degree of spatial segregation between EP and WP leatherbacks. Area-restricted search behavior mainly occurred in the southeast Pacific for the EP leatherbacks, whereas the WP leatherbacks had several different search areas in the California Current, central North Pacific, South China Sea, off eastern Indonesia, and off southeastern Australia. We also extracted remotely sensed oceanographic data and applied a generalized linear mixed model to determine if leatherbacks exhibited different behavior in relation to environmental variables. For the WP population, the probability of area-restricted search behavior was positively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration. This response was less strong in the EP population, but these turtles had a higher probability of search behavior where there was greater Ekman upwelling, which may increase the transport of nutrients and consequently prey availability. These divergent responses to oceanographic conditions have implications for leatherback vulnerability to fisheries interactions and to the effects of climate change. The occurrence of

  20. Identification of distinct movement patterns in Pacific leatherback turtle populations influenced by ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Benson, Scott R; Shillinger, George L; Bograd, Steven J; Dutton, Peter H; Eckert, Scott A; Morreale, Stephen J; Paladino, Frank V; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Foley, David G; Block, Barbara A; Piedra, Rotney; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Tapilatu, Ricardo F; Spotila, James R

    2012-04-01

    Interactions with fisheries are believed to be a major cause of mortality for adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), which is of particular concern in the Pacific Ocean, where they have been rapidly declining. In order to identify where these interactions are occurring and how they may be reduced, it is essential first to understand the movements and behavior of leatherback turtles. There are two regional nesting populations in the East Pacific (EP) and West Pacific (WP), comprising multiple nesting sites. We synthesized tracking data from the two populations and compared their movement patterns. A switching state-space model was applied to 135 Argos satellite tracks to account for observation error, and to distinguish between migratory and area-restricted search behaviors. The tracking data, from the largest leatherback data set ever assembled, indicated that there was a high degree of spatial segregation between EP and WP leatherbacks. Area-restricted search behavior mainly occurred in the southeast Pacific for the EP leatherbacks, whereas the WP leatherbacks had several different search areas in the California Current, central North Pacific, South China Sea, off eastern Indonesia, and off southeastern Australia. We also extracted remotely sensed oceanographic data and applied a generalized linear mixed model to determine if leatherbacks exhibited different behavior in relation to environmental variables. For the WP population, the probability of area-restricted search behavior was positively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration. This response was less strong in the EP population, but these turtles had a higher probability of search behavior where there was greater Ekman upwelling, which may increase the transport of nutrients and consequently prey availability. These divergent responses to oceanographic conditions have implications for leatherback vulnerability to fisheries interactions and to the effects of climate change. The occurrence of

  1. Interobserver reproducibility study of the histological patterns of primary lung adenocarcinoma with emphasis on a more complex glandular pattern distinct from the typical acinar pattern.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congli; Durra, Heba Y; Huang, Yajue; Manucha, Varsha

    2014-04-01

    The newly proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) classification of lung adenocarcinoma has emphasized the prognostic significance of histological subtyping. In this study, 2 surgical pathologists reevaluated 49 consecutive cases of invasive primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas; histological subtyping was performed according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification. The 2 reviewers agreed on the predominant pattern in 23 out of 32 independently reviewed cases (71.9%, k = 0.628, 95% confidence interval = 0.442-0.815). Postconsensus, a complex glandular pattern consisting of fused, closely packed glands and cribriform architecture was identified in 9 of 49 (18%) cases. This pattern has a strong association with lymphovascular invasion (78%; P = .0091), high mitotic activity (89%), and higher tumor stage (78%). Frequent association of complex glandular pattern with poor prognostic factors and its overlap with acinar pattern warrant a more detailed description of this pattern in the classification system and a large-scale study to evaluate its prognostic significance. PMID:24477939

  2. Distinct Cell- and Layer-Specific Expression Patterns and Independent Regulation of Kv2 Channel Subtypes in Cortical Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Hannah I.; Guan, Dongxu; Bocksteins, Elke; Parajuli, Laxmi Kumar; Murray, Karl D.; Cobb, Melanie M.; Misonou, Hiroaki; Zito, Karen; Foehring, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The Kv2 family of voltage-gated potassium channel α subunits, comprising Kv2.1 and Kv2.2, mediate the bulk of the neuronal delayed rectifier K+ current in many mammalian central neurons. Kv2.1 exhibits robust expression across many neuron types and is unique in its conditional role in modulating intrinsic excitability through changes in its phosphorylation state, which affect Kv2.1 expression, localization, and function. Much less is known of the highly related Kv2.2 subunit, especially in forebrain neurons. Here, through combined use of cortical layer markers and transgenic mouse lines, we show that Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 are localized to functionally distinct cortical cell types. Kv2.1 expression is consistently high throughout all cortical layers, especially in layer (L) 5b pyramidal neurons, whereas Kv2.2 expression is primarily limited to neurons in L2 and L5a. In addition, L4 of primary somatosensory cortex is strikingly devoid of Kv2.2 immunolabeling. The restricted pattern of Kv2.2 expression persists in Kv2.1-KO mice, suggesting distinct cell- and layer-specific functions for these two highly related Kv2 subunits. Analyses of endogenous Kv2.2 in cortical neurons in situ and recombinant Kv2.2 expressed in heterologous cells reveal that Kv2.2 is largely refractory to stimuli that trigger robust, phosphorylation-dependent changes in Kv2.1 clustering and function. Immunocytochemistry and voltage-clamp recordings from outside-out macropatches reveal distinct cellular expression patterns for Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 in intratelencephalic and pyramidal tract neurons of L5, indicating circuit-specific requirements for these Kv2 paralogs. Together, these results support distinct roles for these two Kv2 channel family members in mammalian cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons within the neocortex are arranged in a laminar architecture and contribute to the input, processing, and/or output of sensory and motor signals in a cell- and layer-specific manner. Neurons of different

  3. Distinct Patterns of Dysfunctional Appetitive and Aversive Motivation in Bipolar Disorder Versus Schizophrenia: An Event Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Hajcak, Greg; Altshuler, Lori; Green, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with different clinical profiles of disturbances in motivation, yet few studies have compared the neurophysiological correlates of such disturbances. Outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 34), or bipolar disorder I (n = 33), and healthy controls (n = 31) completed a task in which the Late Positive Potential (LPP), an index of motivated attention, was assessed along motivational gradients determined by apparent distance from potential rewards or punishments. Sequences of cues signaling possible monetary gains or losses appeared to loom progressively closer to the viewer; a reaction time (RT) task after the final cue determined the outcome. Controls showed the expected pattern with LPPs for appetitive and aversive cues that were initially elevated, smaller during intermediate positions, and escalated just prior to the RT task. The clinical groups showed different patterns in the final positions just prior to the RT task: the bipolar group’s LPPs to both types of cues peaked relatively early during looming sequences and subsequently decreased, whereas the schizophrenia group showed relatively small LPP escalations, particularly for aversive cues. These distinct patterns suggest that the temporal unfolding of attentional resource allocation for motivationally significant events may qualitatively differ between these disorders. PMID:26845261

  4. ECG data compression by modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Madhukar, B.; Murthy, I. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for data compression of single lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) data. The method is based on Parametric modeling of the Discrete Cosine Transformed ECG signal. Improved high frequency reconstruction is achieved by separately modeling the low and the high frequency regions of the transformed signal. Differential Pulse Code Modulation is applied on the model parameters to obtain a further increase in the compression. Compression ratios up to 1:40 were achieved without significant distortion. PMID:1482940

  5. The modified ultrasound pattern sum score mUPSS as additional diagnostic tool for genetically distinct hereditary neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Alexander; Rasenack, Maria; Athanasopoulou, Ioanna M; Dammeier, Nele Maria; Lipski, Christina; Wolking, Stefan; Vittore, Debora; Décard, Bernhard F; Axer, Hubertus

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the nerve ultrasound characteristics in genetically distinct inherited neuropathies, the value of the modified ultrasound pattern sum score (mUPSS) to differentiate between the subtypes and the correlation of ultrasound with nerve conduction studies (NCS), disease duration and severity. All patients underwent a standardized neurological examination, ultrasound, and NCS. In addition, genetic testing was performed. Consequently, mUPSS was applied, which is a sum-score of cross-sectional areas (CSA) at predefined anatomical points in different nerves. 31 patients were included (10xCharcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT)1a, 3xCMT1b, 3xCMTX, 9xCMT2, 6xHNPP [Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies]). Generalized, homogeneous nerve enlargement and significantly increased UPS scores emphasized the diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy, particularly CMT1a and CMT1b. The amount of enlargement did not depend on disease duration, symptom severity, height and weight. In CMTX the nerves were enlarged, as well, however, only in the roots and lower limbs, most prominent in men. In CMT2 no significant enlargement was detectable. In HNPP the CSA values were increased at entrapped sites, and not elsewhere. However, a distinction from CMT1, which also showed enlarged CSA values at entrapment sites, was only possible by calculating the entrapment ratios and entrapment score. The mUPSS allowed distinction between CMT1a (increased UPS scores, entrapment ratios <1.0) and HNPP (low UPS scores, entrapment ratios >1.4), while CMT1b and CMTX showed intermediate UPS types and entrapment ratios <1.0. Although based on few cases, ultrasound revealed consistent and homogeneous nerve alteration in certain inherited neuropathies. The modified UPSS is a quantitative tool, which may provide useful information for diagnosis, differentiation and follow-up evaluation in addition to NCS and molecular testing.

  6. Using ordinal partition transition networks to analyze ECG data.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Christopher W; Chobot, Jeremy M; Freitas, Helena R; Sprechini, Gene D

    2016-07-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from patients with a variety of heart conditions are studied using ordinal pattern partition networks. The ordinal pattern partition networks are formed from the ECG time series by symbolizing the data into ordinal patterns. The ordinal patterns form the nodes of the network and edges are defined through the time ordering of the ordinal patterns in the symbolized time series. A network measure, called the mean degree, is computed from each time series-generated network. In addition, the entropy and number of non-occurring ordinal patterns (NFP) is computed for each series. The distribution of mean degrees, entropies, and NFPs for each heart condition studied is compared. A statistically significant difference between healthy patients and several groups of unhealthy patients with varying heart conditions is found for the distributions of the mean degrees, unlike for any of the distributions of the entropies or NFPs.

  7. Using ordinal partition transition networks to analyze ECG data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Chobot, Jeremy M.; Freitas, Helena R.; Sprechini, Gene D.

    2016-07-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from patients with a variety of heart conditions are studied using ordinal pattern partition networks. The ordinal pattern partition networks are formed from the ECG time series by symbolizing the data into ordinal patterns. The ordinal patterns form the nodes of the network and edges are defined through the time ordering of the ordinal patterns in the symbolized time series. A network measure, called the mean degree, is computed from each time series-generated network. In addition, the entropy and number of non-occurring ordinal patterns (NFP) is computed for each series. The distribution of mean degrees, entropies, and NFPs for each heart condition studied is compared. A statistically significant difference between healthy patients and several groups of unhealthy patients with varying heart conditions is found for the distributions of the mean degrees, unlike for any of the distributions of the entropies or NFPs.

  8. The future of remote ECG monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na; Liu, Hong-Wei; Si, Quan-Jin; Kong, De-Feng; Guo, Fu-Su

    2016-09-01

    Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc. This paper tries to clarify the future developmental strategies of the ECG remote monitoring, which can be helpful in guiding the research and development of remote ECG monitoring. PMID:27582770

  9. The future of remote ECG monitoring systems

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na; Liu, Hong-Wei; Si, Quan-Jin; Kong, De-Feng; Guo, Fu-Su

    2016-01-01

    Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc. This paper tries to clarify the future developmental strategies of the ECG remote monitoring, which can be helpful in guiding the research and development of remote ECG monitoring. PMID:27582770

  10. Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape.

    PubMed

    Hands, Philip; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Sharples, Donna; Harris, Robert G; Drea, Sinéad

    2012-10-01

    Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe.

  11. Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape

    PubMed Central

    Drea, Sinéad

    2012-01-01

    Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe. PMID:23081982

  12. Distinct Expression Patterns Of Causative Genes Responsible For Hereditary Progressive Hearing Loss In Non-Human Primate Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Makoto; Fujioka, Masato; Ogawa, Kaoru; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hearing impairment is the most frequent sensory deficit in humans. Deafness genes, which harbor pathogenic mutations that have been identified in families with hereditary hearing loss, are commonly expressed in the auditory end organ or the cochlea and may contribute to normal hearing function, yet some of the mouse models carrying these mutations fail to recapitulate the hearing loss phenotype. In this study, we find that distinct expression patterns of those deafness genes in the cochlea of a non-human primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We examined 20 genes whose expression in the cochlea has already been reported. The deafness genes GJB3, CRYM, GRHL2, DFNA5, and ATP6B1 were expressed in marmoset cochleae in patterns different from those in mouse cochleae. Of note, all those genes are causative for progressive hearing loss in humans, but not in mice. The other tested genes, including the deafness gene COCH, in which mutation recapitulates deafness in mice, were expressed in a similar manner in both species. The result suggests that the discrepancy in the expression between rodents and primates may account for the phenotypic difference. This limitation of the rodent models can be bypassed by using non-human primate models such as the marmoset. PMID:26915689

  13. Distinct patterns of expression but similar biochemical properties of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Thapar, N; Kim, A K; Clarke, S

    2001-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is a widely distributed repair enzyme that initiates the conversion of abnormal L-isoaspartyl residues to their normal L-aspartyl forms. Here we show that this activity is expressed in developing corn (Zea mays) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers Half Long) plants in patterns distinct from those previously seen in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Augusta) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas the pattern of expression observed in rice (Oryza sativa) is similar to that of winter wheat. Although high levels of activity are found in the seeds of all of these plants, relatively high levels of activity in vegetative tissues are only found in corn and carrot. The activity in leaves was found to decrease with aging, an unexpected finding given the postulated role of this enzyme in repairing age-damaged proteins. In contrast with the situation in wheat and Arabidopsis, we found that osmotic or salt stress could increase the methyltransferase activity in newly germinated seeds (but not in seeds or seedlings), whereas abscisic acid had no effect. We found that the corn, rice, and carrot enzymes have comparable affinity for methyl-accepting substrates and similar optimal temperatures for activity of 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C as the wheat and Arabidopsis enzymes. These experiments suggest that this enzyme may have specific roles in different plant tissues despite a common catalytic function.

  14. Flexible or leaky attention in creative people? Distinct patterns of attention for different types of creative thinking.

    PubMed

    Zabelina, Darya; Saporta, Arielle; Beeman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Creativity has been putatively linked to distinct forms of attention, but which aspects of creativity and which components of attention remains unclear. Two experiments examined how divergent thinking and creative achievement relate to visual attention. In both experiments, participants identified target letters (S or H) within hierarchical stimuli (global letters made of local letters), after being cued to either the local or global level. In Experiment 1, participants identified the targets more quickly following valid cues (80% of trials) than following invalid cues. However, this smaller validity effect was associated with higher divergent thinking, suggesting that divergent thinking was related to quicker overcoming of invalid cues, and thus to flexible attention. Creative achievement was unrelated to the validity effect. Experiment 2 examined whether divergent thinking (or creative achievement) is related to "leaky attention," so that when cued to one level of a stimulus, some information is still processed, or leaks in, from the non-cued level. In this case, the cued stimulus level always contained a target, and the non-cued level was congruent, neutral, or incongruent with the target. Divergent thinking did not relate to stimulus congruency. In contrast, high creative achievement was related to quicker responses to the congruent than to the incongruent stimuli, suggesting that real-world creative achievement is indeed associated with leaky attention, whereas standard laboratory tests of divergent thinking are not. Together, these results elucidate distinct patterns of attention for different measures of creativity. Specifically, creative achievers may have leaky attention, as suggested by previous literature, whereas divergent thinkers have selective yet flexible attention. PMID:26527210

  15. Flexible or leaky attention in creative people? Distinct patterns of attention for different types of creative thinking.

    PubMed

    Zabelina, Darya; Saporta, Arielle; Beeman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Creativity has been putatively linked to distinct forms of attention, but which aspects of creativity and which components of attention remains unclear. Two experiments examined how divergent thinking and creative achievement relate to visual attention. In both experiments, participants identified target letters (S or H) within hierarchical stimuli (global letters made of local letters), after being cued to either the local or global level. In Experiment 1, participants identified the targets more quickly following valid cues (80% of trials) than following invalid cues. However, this smaller validity effect was associated with higher divergent thinking, suggesting that divergent thinking was related to quicker overcoming of invalid cues, and thus to flexible attention. Creative achievement was unrelated to the validity effect. Experiment 2 examined whether divergent thinking (or creative achievement) is related to "leaky attention," so that when cued to one level of a stimulus, some information is still processed, or leaks in, from the non-cued level. In this case, the cued stimulus level always contained a target, and the non-cued level was congruent, neutral, or incongruent with the target. Divergent thinking did not relate to stimulus congruency. In contrast, high creative achievement was related to quicker responses to the congruent than to the incongruent stimuli, suggesting that real-world creative achievement is indeed associated with leaky attention, whereas standard laboratory tests of divergent thinking are not. Together, these results elucidate distinct patterns of attention for different measures of creativity. Specifically, creative achievers may have leaky attention, as suggested by previous literature, whereas divergent thinkers have selective yet flexible attention.

  16. Distinct iEEG activity patterns in temporal-limbic and prefrontal sites induced by emotional intentionality.

    PubMed

    Singer, Neomi; Podlipsky, Ilana; Esposito, Fabrizio; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Andelman, Fani; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Neufeld, Miri Y; Goebel, Rainer; Fried, Itzhak; Hendler, Talma

    2014-11-01

    Our emotions tend to be directed towards someone or something. Such emotional intentionality calls for the integration between two streams of information; abstract hedonic value and its associated concrete content. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we found that the combination of these two streams, as modeled by short emotional music excerpts and neutral film clips, was associated with synergistic activation in both temporal-limbic (TL) and ventral-lateral PFC (vLPFC) regions. This additive effect implies the integration of domain-specific 'affective' and 'cognitive' processes. Yet, the low temporal resolution of the fMRI limits the characterization of such cross-domain integration. To this end, we complemented the fMRI data with intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings from twelve patients with intractable epilepsy. As expected, the additive fMRI activation in the amygdala and vLPFC was associated with distinct spatio-temporal iEEG patterns among electrodes situated within the vicinity of the fMRI activation foci. On the one hand, TL channels exhibited a transient (0-500 msec) increase in gamma power (61-69 Hz), possibly reflecting initial relevance detection or hedonic value tagging. On the other hand, vLPFC channels showed sustained (1-12 sec) suppression of low frequency power (2.3-24 Hz), possibly mediating changes in gating, enabling an on-going readiness for content-based processing of emotionally tagged signals. Moreover, an additive effect in delta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) was found among the TL channels, possibly reflecting the integration between distinct domain specific processes. Together, this study provides a multi-faceted neurophysiological signature for computations that possibly underlie emotional intentionality in humans.

  17. Relationship of the South Asian Monsoon and Regional Drought with Distinct Equatorial Pacific SST Patterns on Interannual and Decadal Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.; Ummenhofer, C.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Asian monsoon system influences the lives of over 60% of the planet's population, with widespread socioeconomic effects resulting from weakening or failure of monsoon rains. Spatially broad and temporally extended drought episodes have been known to dramatically influence human history, including the Strange Parallels Drought in the mid-18th century. Here, we explore the dynamics of sustained monsoon failure using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas - a high-resolution network of hydro-climatically sensitive tree-ring records - and a 1300-year pre-industrial control run of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Spatial drought patterns in the instrumental and model-based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) during years with extremely weakened South Asian monsoon are similar to those reconstructed during the Strange Parallels Drought in the MADA. We further explore how the large-scale Indo-Pacific climate during weakened South Asian monsoon differs between interannual and decadal timescales. The Strange Parallels Drought pattern is observed during March-April-May primarily over Southeast Asia, with decreased precipitation and reduced moisture fluxes, while anomalies in June-July-August are confined to the Indian subcontinent during both individual and decadal events. Individual years with anomalous drying exhibit canonical El Niño conditions over the eastern equatorial Pacific and associated shifts in the Walker circulation, while decadal events appear to be related to anomalous warming around the dateline in the equatorial Pacific, typical of El Niño Modoki events. The results suggest different dynamical processes influence drought at different time scales through distinct remote ocean influences.

  18. Immunogold electron microscopy and confocal analyses reveal distinctive patterns of histone H3 phosphorylation during mitosis in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yitang; Cummings, Connie A; Sutton, Deloris; Yu, Linda; Castro, Lysandra; Moore, Alicia B; Gao, Xiaohua; Dixon, Darlene

    2016-04-01

    Histone phosphorylation has a profound impact on epigenetic regulation of gene expression, chromosome condensation and segregation, and maintenance of genome integrity. Histone H3 Serine 10 is evolutionally conserved and heavily phosphorylated during mitosis. To examine Histone H3 Serine 10 phosphorylation (H3S10ph) dynamics in mitosis, we applied immunogold labeling and confocal microscopy to visualize H3S10ph expression in MCF-7 cells. Confocal observations showed that MCF-7 cells had abundant H3S10ph expression in prophase and metaphase. In anaphase, the H3S10ph expression was significantly decreased and displayed only sparsely localized staining that mainly associated with the chromatid tips. We showed that immunogold bead density distribution followed the H3S10ph expression patterns observed in confocal analysis. At a higher magnification in metaphase, the immunogold beads were readily visible and the bead distribution along the condensed chromosomes was distinctive, indicating the specificity and reliability of the immunogold staining procedure. In anaphase, the beads were found to distribute focally in specific regions of chromatids, reinforcing the confocal observations of differential H3 phosphorylation. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show the specific H3S10ph expression with an immunogold technique and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, with confocal microscopy, we analyzed H3S10ph expression in an immortalized cell line derived from benign uterine smooth muscle tumor cells. H3S10ph epitope was expressed more abundantly during anaphase in the benign tumor cells, and there was no dramatic differential expression within the condensed chromatid clusters as observed in MCF-7 cells. The differences in H3S10ph expression pattern and dynamics may contribute to the differential proliferative potential between benign tumor cells and MCF-7 cells.

  19. Early and prolonged ECG alterations resembling a myocardial injury after severe amitriptyline poisoning.

    PubMed

    Berlot, G; Vergolini, A; Calderan, C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of cardiovascular toxicity is present in the majority of tricyclic antidepressant overdoses. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman admitted to our department with a severe amitriptyline poisoning. The ECG at admission showed a pattern mimicking an acute anteroseptal subepicardial infarction. This pattern persisted for 11 days. Myocardial enzymes and echocardiographic findings never confirmed an ischemic event. At discharge, the ECG returned normal without cardiac or neurologic sequelae. Our experience suggest that after severe tricyclic antidepressant ingestion, ECG alterations resembling myocardial injury may occur early and last for a longer period than previously reported.

  20. Pulsed microwave-driven argon plasma jet with distinctive plume patterns resonantly excited by surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao-Quan; Yin, Zhi-Xiang; Xia, Guang-Qing; Hong, Ling-Li; Hu, Ye-Lin; Liu, Ming-Hai; Hu, Xi-Wei; A. Kudryavtsev, A.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric lower-power pulsed microwave argon cold plasma jets are obtained by using coaxial transmission line resonators in ambient air. The plasma jet plumes are generated at the end of a metal wire placed in the middle of the dielectric tubes. The electromagnetic model analyses and simulation results suggest that the discharges are excited resonantly by the enhanced electric field of surface plasmon polaritons. Moreover, for conquering the defect of atmospheric argon filamentation discharges excited by 2.45-GHz of continued microwave, the distinctive patterns of the plasma jet plumes can be maintained by applying different gas flow rates of argon gas, frequencies of pulsed modulator, duty cycles of pulsed microwave, peak values of input microwave power, and even by using different materials of dielectric tubes. In addition, the emission spectrum, the plume temperature, and other plasma parameters are measured, which shows that the proposed pulsed microwave plasma jets can be adjusted for plasma biomedical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11105002 and 61170172), the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant Nos. 1408085QA16 and 1408085ME101), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M551788), and the Open-end Fund of State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology (HUST), China (Grant No. GZ1301).

  1. Nitrate and ammonium lead to distinct global dynamic phosphorylation patterns when resupplied to nitrogen-starved Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Engelsberger, Wolfgang R; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Inorganic nitrogen and its assimilation products control various metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Although the transcriptional responses induced by nitrogen have been extensively studied in the past, our work here focused on the discovery of candidate proteins for regulatory events that are complementary to transcriptional changes. Most signaling pathways involve modulation of protein abundance and/or activity by protein phosphorylation. Therefore, we analyzed the dynamic changes in protein phosphorylation in membrane and soluble proteins from plants exposed to rapid changes in nutrient availability over a time course of 30 min. Plants were starved of nitrogen and subsequently resupplied with nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium. Proteins with maximum change in their phosphorylation level at up to 5 min after nitrogen resupply (fast responses) included GPI-anchored proteins, receptor kinases and transcription factors, while proteins with maximum change in their phosphorylation level after 10 min of nitrogen resupply (late responses) included proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation, as well as proteins with functions in central metabolism and hormone metabolism. Resupply of nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium resulted in distinct phosphorylation patterns, mainly of proteins with signaling functions, transcription factors and transporters. PMID:22060019

  2. A Candida albicans gene expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a distinct pattern of mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Iborra, A; Sentandreu, R; Gozalbo, D

    1996-09-01

    Two plasmids (derived from YCplac22 and YEplac112) carrying a Candida albicans gene (including the 5' non-coding promoter sequences) coding for a 30 kDa membrane-bound protein, were used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A 30 kDa protein was immunodetected by Western blot in the membrane fraction of transformants. Northern analysis showed the presence of three mRNA species (of about 1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 kb) hybridizing with the C. albicans gene as a probe. The same result was obtained using the 5' and 3' regions of the gene as probes, whereas only a 1.1 kb mRNA was found in C. albicans and none was detected in S. cerevisiae control transformants. Thus, heterologous expression of this gene in S. cerevisiae results in a distinct pattern of mRNA processing, either due to the location on plasmid vectors and/or to differences in the mRNA processing systems in the two microorganisms.

  3. Asymmetric and node-specific nodal expression patterns are controlled by two distinct cis-acting regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Dominic P.; Robertson, Elizabeth J.

    1999-01-01

    The TGFβ-related molecule Nodal is required for establishment of the anterior–posterior (A–P) and left–right (L-R) body axes of the vertebrate embryo. In mouse, several discrete sites of nodal activity closely correlate with its highly dynamic expression domains. nodal function in the posterior epiblast promotes primitive streak formation, whereas transient nodal expression in the extraembryonic visceral endoderm is essential for patterning the rostral central nervous system. Asymmetric nodal expression in the developing node and at later stages in left lateral plate mesoderm has been implicated as a key regulator of L-R axis determination. We have analyzed the cis-regulatory elements controlling nodal expression domains during early development. We show that the regulatory sequences conferring node-specific expression are contained in an upstream region of the locus, whereas early expression in the endoderm and epiblast and asymmetric expression at later stages on the left side of the body axis are controlled by a 600-bp intronic enhancer. Targeted deletion of a 100-bp subregion of this intronic enhancer eliminates nodal expression in the early epiblast and visceral endoderm and disrupts asymmetric expression in the node and lateral plate mesoderm. Thus, developmentally regulated nodal expression at distinct tissue sites during A–P and L-R axis formation is potentially controlled by common transcriptional activators. PMID:10385626

  4. Nitrate and ammonium lead to distinct global dynamic phosphorylation patterns when resupplied to nitrogen-starved Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Engelsberger, Wolfgang R; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Inorganic nitrogen and its assimilation products control various metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Although the transcriptional responses induced by nitrogen have been extensively studied in the past, our work here focused on the discovery of candidate proteins for regulatory events that are complementary to transcriptional changes. Most signaling pathways involve modulation of protein abundance and/or activity by protein phosphorylation. Therefore, we analyzed the dynamic changes in protein phosphorylation in membrane and soluble proteins from plants exposed to rapid changes in nutrient availability over a time course of 30 min. Plants were starved of nitrogen and subsequently resupplied with nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium. Proteins with maximum change in their phosphorylation level at up to 5 min after nitrogen resupply (fast responses) included GPI-anchored proteins, receptor kinases and transcription factors, while proteins with maximum change in their phosphorylation level after 10 min of nitrogen resupply (late responses) included proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation, as well as proteins with functions in central metabolism and hormone metabolism. Resupply of nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium resulted in distinct phosphorylation patterns, mainly of proteins with signaling functions, transcription factors and transporters.

  5. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, TYRO3, AXL, and MER, Demonstrate Distinct Patterns and Complex Regulation of Ligand-induced Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Wen-I; Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh N.; Calarese, Daniel A.; Garforth, Scott J.; Antes, Anita L.; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Almo, Steve C.; Birge, Raymond B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    TYRO3, AXL, and MER receptors (TAMs) are three homologous type I receptor-tyrosine kinases that are activated by endogenous ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6). These ligands can either activate TAMs as soluble factors, or, in turn, opsonize phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells (ACs) and serve as bridging molecules between ACs and TAMs. Abnormal expression and activation of TAMs have been implicated in promoting proliferation and survival of cancer cells, as well as in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Despite the fact that TAM receptors share significant similarity, little is known about the specificity of interaction between TAM receptors and their ligands, particularly in the context of ACs, and about the functional diversity of TAM receptors. To study ligand-mediated activation of TAMs, we generated a series of reporter cell lines expressing chimeric TAM receptors. Using this system, we found that each TAM receptor has a unique pattern of interaction with and activation by GAS6 and PROS1, which is also differentially affected by the presence of ACs, PS-containing lipid vesicles and enveloped virus. We also demonstrated that γ-carboxylation of ligands is essential for the full activation of TAMs and that soluble immunoglobulin-like TAM domains act as specific ligand antagonists. These studies demonstrate that, despite their similarity, TYRO3, AXL, and MER are likely to perform distinct functions in both immunoregulation and the recognition and removal of ACs. PMID:25074926

  6. Acral Vitiligo and Lichen Sclerosus - Association or a Distinct Pattern?: A Clinical and Histopathological Review of 15 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Attili, Venkat Ratnam; Attili, Sasi Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acral or acrofacial vitiligo (AFV) with bilateral lesions over the extremities and face is considered as a transitional form that may progress to generalized vitiligo. Oral and genital mucosal lesions are often integral to this pattern. Lichen sclerosus (LS) in a milder expression, results in oral and genital vitiligoid depigmentation without textural changes and thus needs to be differentiated from AFV. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 217 cases of AFV recorded over a period of 12 years. Results: One hundred and sixteen cases had associated oral/genital lesions. Among these, 15 patients demonstrated typical clinical as well as histological features of LS. Discussion: Coexistence of typical LS essentially among oral and genital lesions of acral vitiligo suggests that acral vitiligo might be a distinct sub-group of NSV. Since both the diseases have an autoimmune basis, the co-existence may be explained by epitope spreading, as a result of interface dermatitis seen in vitiligo. In addition, the possibility of a common genetic predisposition needs to be explored. PMID:26538715

  7. Model-based analysis of Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells reveals distinct division and expansion patterns for pavement and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Asl, Leila Kheibarshekan; Dhondt, Stijn; Boudolf, Véronique; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Govaerts, Willy; De Veylder, Lieven

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently capture sunlight for photosynthesis, leaves typically develop into a flat and thin structure. This development is driven by cell division and expansion, but the individual contribution of these processes is currently unknown, mainly because of the experimental difficulties to disentangle them in a developing organ, due to their tight interconnection. To circumvent this problem, we built a mathematic model that describes the possible division patterns and expansion rates for individual epidermal cells. This model was used to fit experimental data on cell numbers and sizes obtained over time intervals of 1 d throughout the development of the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The parameters were obtained by a derivative-free optimization method that minimizes the differences between the predicted and experimentally observed cell size distributions. The model allowed us to calculate probabilities for a cell to divide into guard or pavement cells, the maximum size at which it can divide, and its average cell division and expansion rates at each point during the leaf developmental process. Surprisingly, average cell cycle duration remained constant throughout leaf development, whereas no evidence for a maximum cell size threshold for cell division of pavement cells was found. Furthermore, the model predicted that neighboring cells of different sizes within the epidermis expand at distinctly different relative rates, which could be verified by direct observations. We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery.

  8. New evidence for distinct patterns of brain organization in rats differentiated on the basis of inherent laterality.

    PubMed

    LaHoste, G J; Mormède, P; Rivet, J M; Le Moal, M

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to search for possible relationships among diverse measures of behavioral laterality in a non-human species or to identify an index of laterality that was predictive of other non-lateralized functions. Several indices of behavioral laterality and open field activity were assessed in male and female rats before and after asymmetric neocortical ablations. Plasma adrenocorticotropin, corticosterone, and prolactin were measured following stress at sacrifice. Sex-dependent population-level lateral biases were observed preoperatively in the choice of arms in a T-maze and initial direction out of a corner of an open field. Unilateral left neocortical ablation induced a leftward bias in the T-maze in both male and female rats. The direction of rotation following the peripheral administration of amphetamine was correlated with: (a) the degree of sensitization to amphetamine; (b) preoperative open field activity in females; (c) the induction of hyperactivity following right neocortical ablation in males; (d) rotational responses to amphetamine in male rats sustaining bilateral ablations; and (e) the effect of left neocortical ablation on prolactin levels in males. We propose that these data provide new evidence for distinct patterns of brain organization in rats differentiated by a measure of inherent cerebral laterality. PMID:3208134

  9. Pattern-based classification of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma, depth of invasion measurement and distinction from adenocarcinoma in situ: interobserver variation among gynecologic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Taljaard, Monica; Djordjevic, Bojana; Reyes, M Carolina; Schwartz, Lauren; Schoolmeester, John K; Lastra, Ricardo R; Quick, Charles M; Laury, Anna; Rasty, Golnar; Nucci, Marisa R; Howitt, Brooke E

    2016-08-01

    A pattern-based classification for invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma has been proposed as predictive of the risk of nodal metastases. We aimed to determine the reproducibility of such classification in the context of common diagnostic challenges: distinction between in situ and invasive adenocarcinoma and depth of invasion measurement. Nine gynecologic pathologists independently reviewed 96 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma (two slides per case). They diagnosed each case as in situ or invasive carcinoma classifying the latter following the pattern-based classification as pattern A (non-destructive), B (focally destructive) or C (diffusely destructive). Depth of invasion, when applicable, was measured (mm). Overall, diagnostic reproducibility of pattern diagnosis was good (κ=0.65). Perfect agreement (9/9 reviewers) was seen in only 11 cases (11%), all destructively invasive (10 pattern C and 1 pattern B). In all, ≥5/9 reviewer concordance was achieved in 82/96 cases (85%). Distinction between in situ and invasive carcinoma, regardless of the pattern, showed only slight agreement (κ=0.37). Likewise, distinction restricted to in situ versus pattern A was poor (κ=0.23). Distinction between non-destructive (in situ+pattern A) and destructive (patterns B+C) carcinoma showed significantly higher agreement (κ=0.62). Estimation of depth of invasion showed excellent reproducibility (ICC=0.82). However, different measurements resulting in differing FIGO stages were common (from at least 1 reviewer in 79% cases). On the basis of interobserver agreement, the pattern-based classification is best at diagnosing destructive invasion, which carries a risk for nodal metastases. Agreement in diagnosing in situ versus invasive carcinoma, including pattern A, was poor. Given the nil risk of nodal spread in in situ and pattern A lesions, the term 'endocervical adenocarcinoma with non-destructive growth' can be considered when the distinction is difficult, after excluding

  10. Relative Amplitude based Features of characteristic ECG-Peaks for Identification of Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohel, Bakul; Tiwary, U. S.; Lahiri, T.

    Coronary artery disease or Myocardial Infarction is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. ECG is widely used as a cheap diagnostic tool for diagnosis of coronary artery disease but has low sensitivity with the present criteria based on ST-segment, T wave and Q wave changes. So to increase the sensitivity of the ECG we have introduced relative amplitude based new features of characteristic ‘R’ and ‘S’ ECG-peaks between two leads. Relative amplitude based features shows remarkable capability in discriminating Myocardial Infarction and Healthy pattern using backpropogation neural network classifier yield results with 81.82% sensitivity and 81.82% specificity. Also relative amplitude might be an efficient method in minimizing the effect of body composition on ECG amplitude based features without use of any information from other than ECG

  11. Non-contact ECG monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexey S.; Erlikh, Vadim V.; Kodkin, Vladimir L.; Keller, Andrei V.; Epishev, Vitaly V.

    2016-03-01

    The research is dedicated to non-contact methods of electrocardiography. The authors describe the routine of experimental procedure and suggest the approach to solving the problems which arise at indirect signal recording. The paper presents the results of experiments conducted by the authors, covers the flow charts of ECG recorders and reviews the drawbacks of filtering methods used in foreign equivalents.

  12. Distinctive pattern of let-7 family microRNAs in aggressive carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients

    PubMed Central

    Hilly, Ohad; Pillar, Nir; Stern, Sagit; Strenov, Yulia; Bachar, Gideon; Shomron, Noam; Shpitzer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma may be more aggressive at presentation and recurrence in young patients compared with older patients. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) has been associated with the development and prognosis of oral cavity cancer. The present study investigated miRNA expression in carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. miRNA expression profiles were evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of tumor and normal mucosa from 12 patients aged <30 years old with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The levels of let-7f-5p, miR-30b-5p and let-7e-5p were upregulated in tumors (P<0.05). The expression of let-7f-5p was upregulated in non-aggressive tumors, while the expression of let-7e-5p was upregulated in aggressive tumors, compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Aggressive tumors had higher levels of let-7c, miR-130a-3p, miR-361-5p, miR-99a-5p, miR-29c-3p and let-7d-5p than non-aggressive tumors (P<0.05). The findings remained significant for let-7c upon false-discovery rate correction. An excellent correlation was noticed on validation of NanoString counts by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The comparison with published findings in adults demonstrated a unique miRNA signature in young patients with aggressive disease. Aggressive oral cavity cancer in patients <30 years old is associated with a distinctive expression pattern of the let-7 family. Larger studies including direct comparison with older patients are warranted. PMID:27602107

  13. Distinctive pattern of let-7 family microRNAs in aggressive carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients

    PubMed Central

    Hilly, Ohad; Pillar, Nir; Stern, Sagit; Strenov, Yulia; Bachar, Gideon; Shomron, Noam; Shpitzer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma may be more aggressive at presentation and recurrence in young patients compared with older patients. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) has been associated with the development and prognosis of oral cavity cancer. The present study investigated miRNA expression in carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. miRNA expression profiles were evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of tumor and normal mucosa from 12 patients aged <30 years old with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The levels of let-7f-5p, miR-30b-5p and let-7e-5p were upregulated in tumors (P<0.05). The expression of let-7f-5p was upregulated in non-aggressive tumors, while the expression of let-7e-5p was upregulated in aggressive tumors, compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Aggressive tumors had higher levels of let-7c, miR-130a-3p, miR-361-5p, miR-99a-5p, miR-29c-3p and let-7d-5p than non-aggressive tumors (P<0.05). The findings remained significant for let-7c upon false-discovery rate correction. An excellent correlation was noticed on validation of NanoString counts by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The comparison with published findings in adults demonstrated a unique miRNA signature in young patients with aggressive disease. Aggressive oral cavity cancer in patients <30 years old is associated with a distinctive expression pattern of the let-7 family. Larger studies including direct comparison with older patients are warranted.

  14. REDOX regulation of IL-13 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells: usage of alternate pathways mediates distinct gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Debasmita; Fu, Pingfu; Levine, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    In the classic view interleukin-13 (IL-13) binds to a heterodimer protein complex of the IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα chains and signals through a janus kinase 1 (JAK1)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) mechanism. We recently reported that IL-13 also signals through the IL-13Rα2 chain initiating all three mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and the relative expression of IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2 modulates one another’s transduction pathway. Therefore we investigated whether generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers may serve as a common nexus between these two pathways emanating from the individual IL-13 receptor chains in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). IL-13 stimulates intracellular ROS synthesis within 5 min via IL-13Rα1-JAK1-STAT6- and IL-13Rα2-MEK1/2-ERK1/2-dependent activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-1 (NOX-1). IL-13-induced ROS generation in turn positively regulates phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT6, yielding a feed forward amplification loop. IL-13 also stimulates the stable, long-term gene expression of two other NADPH oxidases, NOX-4 and DUOX-2, which along with constitutive NOX-1, might facilitate elevated, continuous production of ROS in IL-13-activated IEC. The contribution of each signal transduction pathway initiated by IL-13 engagement to such biological functions as wound healing, inflammation, and apoptosis was mapped for representative, responsive genes. Distinct usage patterns were observed, demonstrating that not only is IL-13 signal transduction through STAT6, MAPK, and ROS regulated in both an antagonistic and cyclic fashion, but each pathway also plays a specific role in modulating the wound healing and anti-apoptotic capabilities of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:20570727

  15. Real-time CHF detection from ECG signals using a novel discretization method.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Umut

    2013-10-01

    This study proposes a new method, equal frequency in amplitude and equal width in time (EFiA-EWiT) discretization, to discriminate between congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm (NSR) patterns in ECG signals. The ECG unit pattern concept was introduced to represent the standard RR interval, and our method extracted certain features from the unit patterns to classify by a primitive classifier. The proposed method was tested on two classification experiments by using ECG records in Physiobank databases and the results were compared to those from several previous studies. In the first experiment, an off-line classification was performed with unit patterns selected from long ECG segments. The method was also used to detect CHF by real-time ECG waveform analysis. In addition to demonstrating the success of the proposed method, the results showed that some unit patterns in a long ECG segment from a heart patient were more suggestive of disease than the others. These results indicate that the proposed approach merits additional research.

  16. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; p<0.0001). Competency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; p<0.0001) but no difference was found between students who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (p<0.0001), being in clinical years (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  17. Different Phases of Long-Term Memory Require Distinct Temporal Patterns of PKA Activity after Single-Trial Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Maximilian; Kemenes, Ildiko; Muller, Uli; Kemenes, Gyorgy

    2008-01-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is known to play a critical role in both transcription-independent short-term or intermediate-term memory and transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM). Although distinct phases of LTM already have been demonstrated in some systems, it is not known whether these phases require distinct temporal patterns…

  18. Distinct expression patterns of Notch ligands, Dll1 and Dll4, in normal and inflamed mice intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hiromichi; Ito, Go; Fujii, Satoru; Nakata, Toru; Suzuki, Kohei; Murano, Tatsuro; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Hozumi, Katsuto; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    ligand in the crypts of the inflamed colonic mucosa. Our results illustrate distinct expression patterns of Dll1 and Dll4 within the intestinal epithelium, and suggest that these two ligands may have different roles in normal and inflamed mucosa. PMID:24860699

  19. Environmental surveillance of norovirus in Argentina revealed distinct viral diversity patterns, seasonality and spatio-temporal diffusion processes.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María D Blanco; Torres, Carolina; Poma, Hugo R; Riviello-López, Gabriela; Martínez, Laura C; Cisterna, Daniel M; Rajal, Verónica B; Nates, Silvia V; Mbayed, Viviana A

    2012-10-15

    Norovirus (NoV) contamination was evaluated in five rivers of Argentina between 2005 and 2011. NoV was present in all sampled rivers, with distinct NoV patterns in waters impacted by different-sized communities. In rivers affected by medium-sized populations (Salta and Córdoba cities) only one or two genotypes were present, GII.4 being the main one, with winter seasonality. In contrast, in the much more heavily populated area of Buenos Aires city the prevalent GII.4 was accompanied by several additional genotypes (GII.4, GII.b, GII.2, GII.7, GII.17, GII.e and GII.g) and one ungenotyped GII NoV, with no clear seasonality. GII.4 2006b was the main variant detected (60.9%). Phylogeographic and phylodynamic analyses performed in region D of the VP1 gene showed a most recent common ancestor in 2002 and a substitution rate of 3.7×10(-3) substitutions per site per year (HPD95%=2.3×10(-3)-5.2×10(-3)) for this variant still involving a significant population size with a slight decrease since 2008. The spatio-temporal diffusion analysis proposed Europe as an intermediate path between the American Continent and the rest of the World for NoV dissemination. Given the importance of NoV as a cause of epidemic gastroenteritis and the likelihood of its environmental transmission, the results of this work should increase public and institutional awareness of the health risk involved in sewage discharges into the environment. Environmental surveillance of enteric viruses could be a very useful tool not only to prevent waterborne outbreaks, but also to describe the epidemiology of the viruses. The detailed analysis of the viral genomes disposed into the environment contributed to the characterization of the dissemination, diversity and seasonality of NoV in its natural host population. In future studies, environmental surveillance and molecular analysis should be complemented with a quantitative viral risk assessment for estimating the disease burden from viruses in the

  20. ECG-ELECTRODE INDUCED HYPOPIGMENTATION.

    PubMed

    Tripi, Paul A; Parthasarathy, Supraja N; Honda, Kord

    2016-06-01

    Skin reactions following the application of electrocardiography (ECG) electrodes have been reported in adults and children, and are postulated to result from contact with the conductive gel or adhesive used on the electrodes. Although contact dermatitis is the usual cause of such reactions, contact depigmentation or hypopigmentation may also occur. We report a case of hypopigmentation in a healthy boy following continuous electrocardiography monitoring during general anesthesia for dental rehabilitation.

  1. ECG-ELECTRODE INDUCED HYPOPIGMENTATION.

    PubMed

    Tripi, Paul A; Parthasarathy, Supraja N; Honda, Kord

    2016-06-01

    Skin reactions following the application of electrocardiography (ECG) electrodes have been reported in adults and children, and are postulated to result from contact with the conductive gel or adhesive used on the electrodes. Although contact dermatitis is the usual cause of such reactions, contact depigmentation or hypopigmentation may also occur. We report a case of hypopigmentation in a healthy boy following continuous electrocardiography monitoring during general anesthesia for dental rehabilitation. PMID:27487645

  2. Adaptive Fourier decomposition based ECG denoising.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; Wan, Feng; Wong, Chi Man; Zhang, Liming

    2016-10-01

    A novel ECG denoising method is proposed based on the adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD). The AFD decomposes a signal according to its energy distribution, thereby making this algorithm suitable for separating pure ECG signal and noise with overlapping frequency ranges but different energy distributions. A stop criterion for the iterative decomposition process in the AFD is calculated on the basis of the estimated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the noisy signal. The proposed AFD-based method is validated by the synthetic ECG signal using an ECG model and also real ECG signals from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database both with additive Gaussian white noise. Simulation results of the proposed method show better performance on the denoising and the QRS detection in comparing with major ECG denoising schemes based on the wavelet transform, the Stockwell transform, the empirical mode decomposition, and the ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

  3. The maximal exercise ECG in asymptomatic men.

    PubMed

    Cumming, G R; Borysyk, L; Dufresne, C

    1972-03-18

    Lead MC5 bipolar exercise ECG was obtained in 510 asymptomatic males, aged 40 to 65, utilizing the bicycle ergometer, with maximal stress in 71% of the subjects. "Ischemic changes" occurred in 61 subjects, the frequency increasing from 4% at age 40 to 45, to 20% at age 50 to 55, to 37% at age 61 to 65. Subjects having an ischemic type ECG change on exercise had more frequent minor resting ECG changes, more resting hypertension, and a greater incidence of high cholesterol values than subjects with a normal ECG response to exercise, but there was no difference in the incidence of obesity, low fitness, or high systolic blood pressure after exercise. Current evidence suggests that asymptomatic male subjects with an abnormal exercise ECG develop clinical coronary heart disease from 2.5 to over 30 times more frequently than those with a normal exercise ECG.

  4. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user’s physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone. PMID:25996508

  5. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-05-19

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user's physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone.

  6. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user's physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone. PMID:25996508

  7. Distinct rhythmic locomotor patterns can be generated by a simple adaptive neural circuit: biology, simulation, and VLSI implementation.

    PubMed

    Ryckebusch, S; Wehr, M; Laurent, G

    1994-12-01

    Rhythmic motor patterns can be induced in leg motor neurons of isolated locust thoracic ganglia by bath application of pilocarpine. We observed that the relative phases of levators and depressors differed in the three thoracic ganglia. Assuming that the central pattern generating circuits underlying these three segmental rhythms are probably very similar, we developed a simple model circuit that can produce any one of the three activity patterns and characteristic phase relationships by modifying a single synaptic weight. We show results of a computer simulation of this circuit using the neuronal simulator NeuraLOG/Spike. We built and tested an analog VLSI circuit implementation of this model circuit that exhibits the same range of "behaviors" as the computer simulation. This multidisciplinary strategy will be useful to explore the dynamics of central pattern generating networks coupled to physical actuators, and ultimately should allow the design of biologically realistic walking robots.

  8. Imaging transcription in vivo: distinct regulatory effects of fast and slow activity patterns on promoter elements from vertebrate troponin I isoform genes

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Zaheer A; Gundersen, Kristian; Buonanno, Andres; Vullhorst, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Firing patterns typical of slow motor units activate genes for slow isoforms of contractile proteins, but it remains unclear if there is a distinct pathway for fast isoforms or if their expression simply occurs in the absence of slow activity. Here we first show that denervation in adult soleus and EDL muscles reverses the postnatal increase in expression of troponin I (TnI) isoforms, suggesting that high-level transcription of both genes in mature muscles is under neural control. We then use a combination of in vivo transfection, live muscle imaging and fluorescence quantification to investigate the role of patterned electrical activity in the transcriptional control of troponin I slow (TnIs) and fast (TnIf) regulatory sequences by directly stimulating denervated muscles with pattern that mimic fast and slow motor units. Rat soleus muscles were electroporated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs harbouring 2.7 and 2.1 kb of TnIs and TnIf regulatory sequences, respectively. One week later, electrodes were implanted and muscles stimulated for 12 days. The change in GFP fluorescence of individual muscle fibres before and after the stimulation was used as a measure for transcriptional responses to different patterns of action potentials. Our results indicate that the response of TnI promoter sequences to electrical stimulation is consistent with the regulation of the endogenous genes. The TnIf and TnIs enhancers were activated by matching fast and slow activity patterns, respectively. Removal of nerve-evoked activity by denervation, or stimulation with a mismatching pattern reduced transcriptional activity of both enhancers. These results strongly suggest that distinct signalling pathways couple both fast and slow patterns of activity to enhancers that regulate transcription from the fast and slow troponin I isoforms. PMID:15528243

  9. Misinterpretation of the mouse ECG: ‘musing the waves of Mus musculus’

    PubMed Central

    Boukens, Bastiaan J; Rivaud, Mathilde R; Rentschler, Stacey; Coronel, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The ECG is a primary diagnostic tool in patients suffering from heart disease, underscoring the importance of understanding factors contributing to normal and abnormal electrical patterns. Over the past few decades, transgenic mouse models have been increasingly used to study pathophysiological mechanisms of human heart diseases. In order to allow extrapolation of insights gained from murine models to the human condition, knowledge of the similarities and differences between the mouse and human ECG is of crucial importance. In this review, we briefly discuss the physiological mechanisms underlying differences between the baseline ECG of humans and mice, and provide a framework for understanding how these inherent differences are relevant to the interpretation of the mouse ECG during pathology and to the translation of the results from the mouse to man. PMID:25260630

  10. Heritability of ECG Biomarkers in the Netherlands Twin Registry Measured from Holter ECGs

    PubMed Central

    Hodkinson, Emily C.; Neijts, Melanie; Sadrieh, Arash; Imtiaz, Mohammad S.; Baumert, Mathias; Subbiah, Rajesh N.; Hayward, Christopher S.; Boomsma, Dorret; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vandenberg, Jamie I.; Hill, Adam P.; De Geus, Eco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The resting ECG is the most commonly used tool to assess cardiac electrophysiology. Previous studies have estimated heritability of ECG parameters based on these snapshots of the cardiac electrical activity. In this study we set out to determine whether analysis of heart rate specific data from Holter ECGs allows more complete assessment of the heritability of ECG parameters. Methods and Results: Holter ECGs were recorded from 221 twin pairs and analyzed using a multi-parameter beat binning approach. Heart rate dependent estimates of heritability for QRS duration, QT interval, Tpeak–Tend and Theight were calculated using structural equation modeling. QRS duration is largely determined by environmental factors whereas repolarization is primarily genetically determined. Heritability estimates of both QT interval and Theight were significantly higher when measured from Holter compared to resting ECGs and the heritability estimate of each was heart rate dependent. Analysis of the genetic contribution to correlation between repolarization parameters demonstrated that covariance of individual ECG parameters at different heart rates overlap but at each specific heart rate there was relatively little overlap in the genetic determinants of the different repolarization parameters. Conclusions: Here we present the first study of heritability of repolarization parameters measured from Holter ECGs. Our data demonstrate that higher heritability can be estimated from the Holter than the resting ECG and reveals rate dependence in the genetic—environmental determinants of the ECG that has not previously been tractable. Future applications include deeper dissection of the ECG of participants with inherited cardiac electrical disease. PMID:27199769

  11. Contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode paste.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R J; Rosen, T

    1980-12-01

    A case of contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode cream is presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Our patient was found to be allergic to propylene glycol. Patch-testing remains an invaluable tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of being allergic to ECG paste, creams, and gels.

  12. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-01-01

    In general, the stability of different wetland pattern types is most strongly related to factors controlling the erosion and deposition of sediment at vegetation patch edges, the magnitude of sediment redistribution by flow, patch elevation relative to water level, and the variability of erosion rates in vegetation patches with low flow-resistance. As we exemplify in our case-study of the Everglades ridge and slough landscape, feedback between flow and vegetation also causes hysteresis in landscape evolution trajectories that will affect the potential for landscape restoration. Namely, even if the hydrologic conditions that historically produced higher flows are restored, degraded portions of the ridge and slough landscape are unlikely to revert to their former patterning. As wetlands and floodplains worldwide become increasingly threatened by climate change and urbanization, the greater mechanistic understanding of landscape pattern and process that our analysis provides will improve our ability to forecast and manage the behavior of these ecosystems.

  13. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: distinct pattern of disease

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Buchert, Ralph; Kleiter, Ingo; Marienhagen, Jörg; Gelderblom, Mathias; Magnus, Tim; Dalmau, Josep; Gerloff, Christian; Lewerenz, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with encephalitis associated with antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antibody (NMDAR-ab) encephalitis frequently show psychotic symptoms, amnesia, seizures and movement disorders. While brain MRI in NMDAR-ab encephalitis is often normal, abnormalities of cerebral glucose metabolism have been demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in a few usually isolated case reports. However, a common pattern of FDG-PET abnormalities has not been reported. Methods The authors retrospectively identified six patients with NMDAR-ab encephalitis in two large German centres who underwent at least one whole-body FDG-PET for tumour screening between January 2007 and July 2010. They analysed the pattern of cerebral uptake derived from whole-body PET data for characteristic changes of glucose metabolism compared with controls, and the changes of this pattern during the course of the disease. Results Groupwise analysis revealed that patients with NMDAR-ab encephalitis showed relative frontal and temporal glucose hypermetabolism associated with occipital hypometabolism. Cross-sectional analysis of the group demonstrated that the extent of these changes is positively associated with clinical disease severity. Longitudinal analysis of two cases showed normalisation of the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism with recovery. Conclusions A characteristic change in cerebral glucose metabolism during NMDAR-ab encephalitis is an increased frontotemporal-to-occipital gradient. This pattern correlates with disease severity. Similar changes have been observed in psychosis induced by NMDAR antagonists. Thus, this pattern might be a consequence of impaired NMDAR function. PMID:22566598

  14. [Wireless ECG measurement system with capacitive coupling].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, Adrian; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a measurement system that captures an electrocardiogram (ECG) using capacitively coupled electrodes. The measurement system was integrated into an off-the-shelf office chair (so-called "Aachen SmartChair"). Whereas for classical ECG measurement adhesive is used to attach conductively coupled electrodes to bare skin, the system presented allows ECG measurement through clothing without direct skin contact. Furthermore, a ZigBee communication module was integrated to allow wireless transmission of ECG data to a PC or an ICU patient monitor. For system validation, classical ECG using conductive electrodes was obtained simultaneously. First measurement results, including variations of cloth thickness and material, are presented and some of the system-specific problems of this approach are discussed.

  15. III Lead ECG Pulse Measurement Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraju, S. K.; Munisamy, K.

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate sensing is very important. Method of measuring heart pulse by using an electrocardiogram (ECG) technique is described. Electrocardiogram is a measurement of the potential difference (the electrical pulse) generated by a cardiac tissue, mainly the heart. This paper also reports the development of a three lead ECG hardware system that would be the basis of developing a more cost efficient, portable and easy to use ECG machine. Einthoven's Three Lead method [1] is used for ECG signal extraction. Using amplifiers such as the instrumentation amplifier AD620BN and the conventional operational amplifier Ua741 that would be used to amplify the ECG signal extracted develop this system. The signal would then be filtered from noise using Butterworth filter techniques to obtain optimum output. Also a right leg guard was implemented as a safety feature to this system. Simulation was carried out for development of the system using P-spice Program.

  16. Body surface ECG signal shape dispersion.

    PubMed

    Khaddoumi, Balkine; Rix, Hervé; Meste, Olivier; Fereniec, Małgorzata; Maniewski, Roman

    2006-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the shape of the electrocardiography (ECG) waves obtained by body surface potential mapping (BSPM) is studied, using a 64-channel high-resolution ECG system. The index associated to each lead is the shape difference between its ECG wave and a reference computed taking into account all the leads on the same column. The reference is either a selected real wave or a synthetic signal computed by integral shape averaging (ISA). Better results are obtained with the ISA signal using the distribution function method (DFM) for computing the shape difference. The spatial dispersion of ECG waves is showed to allow the separation of patients after myocardial infarction (MI) from healthy subjects. In addition, the reference signal position for each column is computed. The path linking these positions appears as an invariant, i.e., it is independent of the subject and the ECG wave.

  17. Spontaneous formation of spiral-like patterns with distinct periodic physical properties by confined electrodeposition of Co-In disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golvano-Escobal, Irati; Gonzalez-Rosillo, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Neus; Illa, Xavi; López-Barberá, José Francisco; Fornell, Jordina; Solsona, Pau; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Puig, Teresa; Pané, Salvador; Nogués, Josep; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns are ubiquitous in different areas of materials science and biological systems. However, typically the motifs in these types of systems present a random distribution with many possible different structures. Herein, we demonstrate that controlled spatio-temporal patterns, with reproducible spiral-like shapes, can be obtained by electrodeposition of Co-In alloys inside a confined circular geometry (i.e., in disks that are commensurate with the typical size of the spatio-temporal features). These patterns are mainly of compositional nature, i.e., with virtually no topographic features. Interestingly, the local changes in composition lead to a periodic modulation of the physical (electric, magnetic and mechanical) properties. Namely, the Co-rich areas show higher saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity and are mechanically harder than the In-rich ones. Thus, this work reveals that confined electrodeposition of this binary system constitutes an effective procedure to attain template-free magnetic, electric and mechanical surface patterning with specific and reproducible shapes.

  18. Spontaneous formation of spiral-like patterns with distinct periodic physical properties by confined electrodeposition of Co-In disks.

    PubMed

    Golvano-Escobal, Irati; Gonzalez-Rosillo, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Neus; Illa, Xavi; López-Barberá, José Francisco; Fornell, Jordina; Solsona, Pau; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Puig, Teresa; Pané, Salvador; Nogués, Josep; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns are ubiquitous in different areas of materials science and biological systems. However, typically the motifs in these types of systems present a random distribution with many possible different structures. Herein, we demonstrate that controlled spatio-temporal patterns, with reproducible spiral-like shapes, can be obtained by electrodeposition of Co-In alloys inside a confined circular geometry (i.e., in disks that are commensurate with the typical size of the spatio-temporal features). These patterns are mainly of compositional nature, i.e., with virtually no topographic features. Interestingly, the local changes in composition lead to a periodic modulation of the physical (electric, magnetic and mechanical) properties. Namely, the Co-rich areas show higher saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity and are mechanically harder than the In-rich ones. Thus, this work reveals that confined electrodeposition of this binary system constitutes an effective procedure to attain template-free magnetic, electric and mechanical surface patterning with specific and reproducible shapes. PMID:27462025

  19. Spontaneous formation of spiral-like patterns with distinct periodic physical properties by confined electrodeposition of Co-In disks

    PubMed Central

    Golvano-Escobal, Irati; Gonzalez-Rosillo, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Neus; Illa, Xavi; López-Barberá, José Francisco; Fornell, Jordina; Solsona, Pau; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Puig, Teresa; Pané, Salvador; Nogués, Josep; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns are ubiquitous in different areas of materials science and biological systems. However, typically the motifs in these types of systems present a random distribution with many possible different structures. Herein, we demonstrate that controlled spatio-temporal patterns, with reproducible spiral-like shapes, can be obtained by electrodeposition of Co-In alloys inside a confined circular geometry (i.e., in disks that are commensurate with the typical size of the spatio-temporal features). These patterns are mainly of compositional nature, i.e., with virtually no topographic features. Interestingly, the local changes in composition lead to a periodic modulation of the physical (electric, magnetic and mechanical) properties. Namely, the Co-rich areas show higher saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity and are mechanically harder than the In-rich ones. Thus, this work reveals that confined electrodeposition of this binary system constitutes an effective procedure to attain template-free magnetic, electric and mechanical surface patterning with specific and reproducible shapes. PMID:27462025

  20. Co-evolution of cancer microenvironment reveals distinctive patterns of gastric cancer invasion: laboratory evidence and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer invasion results from constant interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. Major components of the cancer microenvironment are stromal cells, infiltrating inflammatory cells, collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and newly formed blood vessels. This study was to determine the roles of MMP-9, MMP-2, type IV collagen, infiltrating macrophages and tumor microvessels in gastric cancer (GC) invasion and their clinico-pathological significance. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 37 GC patients were studied by Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical technique to determine the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, type IV collagen, macrophages infiltration and microvessel density (MVD). Different invasion patterns were delineated and their correlation with major clinico-pathological information was explored. Results MMP2 expression was higher in malignant gland compared to normal gland, especially nearby the basement membrane (BM). High densities of macrophages at the interface of cancer nests and stroma were found where BM integrity was destroyed. MMP2 expression was significantly increased in cases with recurrence and distant metastasis (P = 0.047 and 0.048, respectively). Infiltrating macrophages were correlated with serosa invasion (P = 0.011) and TNM stage (P = 0.001). MVD was higher in type IV collagen negative group compared to type IV collagen positive group (P = 0.026). MVD was related to infiltrating macrophages density (P = 0.040). Patients with negative MMP9 expression had better overall survival (OS) compared to those with positive MMP9 expression (Median OS 44.0 vs 13.5 mo, P = 0.036). Median OS was significantly longer in type IV collagen positive group than negative group (Median OS 25.5 vs 10.0 mo, P = 0.044). The cumulative OS rate was higher in low macrophages density group than in high macrophages density group (median OS 40.5 vs 13.0 mo, P = 0.056). Median OS was significantly longer in low MVD group than

  1. Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Different Sources Diverge in Their Expression of Cell Surface Proteins and Display Distinct Differentiation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Kourosch C.; Klein, Gerd; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Sievert, Karl D.; MacNeil, Sheila; Aicher, Wilhelm K.

    2016-01-01

    When germ-free cell cultures became a laboratory routine, hopes were high for using this novel technology for treatment of diseases or replacement of cells in patients suffering from injury, inflammation, or cancer or even refreshing cells in the elderly. Today, more than 50 years after the first successful bone marrow transplantation, clinical application of hematopoietic stem cells is a routine procedure, saving the lives of many every day. However, transplanting other than hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is still limited to a few applications, and it mainly applies to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow. But research progressed and different trials explore the clinical potential of human MSCs isolated from bone marrow but also from other tissues including adipose tissue. Recently, MSCs isolated from bone marrow (bmMSCs) were shown to be a blend of distinct cells and MSCs isolated from different tissues show besides some common features also some significant differences. This includes the expression of distinct antigens on subsets of MSCs, which was utilized recently to define and separate functionally different subsets from bulk MSCs. We therefore briefly discuss differences found in subsets of human bmMSCs and in MSCs isolated from some other sources and touch upon how this could be utilized for cell-based therapies. PMID:26770208

  2. Patterns of Risk for Multiple Co‐Occurring Medical Conditions Replicate Across Distinct Cohorts of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Veenstra‐VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may present with multiple medical conditions in addition to ASD symptoms. This study investigated whether there are predictive patterns of medical conditions that co‐occur with ASD, which could inform medical evaluation and treatment in ASD, as well as potentially identify etiologically meaningful subgroups. Medical history data were queried in the multiplex family Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). Fourteen medical conditions were analyzed. Replication in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) was attempted using available medical condition data on gastrointestinal disturbances (GID), sleep problems, allergy and epilepsy. In the AGRE cohort, no discrete clusters emerged among 14 medical conditions. GID and seizures were enriched in unaffected family members, and together with sleep problems, were represented in both AGRE and SSC. Further analysis of these medical conditions identified predictive co‐occurring patterns in both samples. For a child with ASD, the presence of GID predicts sleep problems and vice versa, with an approximately 2‐fold odds ratio in each direction. These risk patterns were replicated in the SSC sample, and in addition, there was increased risk for seizures and sleep problems to co‐occur with GID. In these cohorts, seizure alone was not predictive of the other conditions co‐occurring, but behavioral impairments were more severe as the number of co‐occurring medical symptoms increased. These findings indicate that interdisciplinary clinical care for children with ASD will benefit from evaluation for specific patterns of medical conditions in the affected child and their family members. Autism Res 2015, 8: 771–781. © 015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. PMID:26011086

  3. Distinct Conformational Transition Patterns of Noncoding 7SK snRNA and HIV TAR RNAs upon Tat Binding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding 7SK snRNA is believed to play an important role in the recruitment of P-TEFb by viral protein Tat to stimulate HIV processive transcription. Because HIV-2 TAR RNA and 7SK both evolved to feature a dinucleotide bulge region, compared to the trinucleotide bulge for HIV-1 TAR, ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to probe the conformational landscape of HIV-2 TAR and 7SK-SL4 RNA to monitor the conformational changes upon Tat binding. Our studies demonstrate that both HIV-1/2 TAR and 7SK-SL4 sample heterogeneous ensembles in the free state and undergo distinct conformational transitions upon Tat binding. These findings provide exquisite knowledge on the conformational complexity and intricate mechanism of molecular recognition and pave the way for drug design and discovery that incorporate dynamics information. PMID:24422492

  4. Improving ECG Services at a Children's Hospital: Implementation of a Digital ECG System

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Frank A.; Gates, Gregory J.; Choi, Steven J.; Hsu, Daphne T.; Pass, Robert H.; Ceresnak, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of digital ECG software and services is becoming common. We hypothesized that the introduction of a completely digital ECG system would increase the volume of ECGs interpreted at our children's hospital. Methods. As part of a hospital wide quality improvement initiative, a digital ECG service (MUSE, GE) was implemented at the Children's Hospital at Montefiore in June 2012. The total volume of ECGs performed in the first 6 months of the digital ECG era was compared to 18 months of the predigital era. Predigital and postdigital data were compared via t-tests. Results. The mean ECGs interpreted per month were 53 ± 16 in the predigital era and 216 ± 37 in the postdigital era (p < 0.001), a fourfold increase in ECG volume after introduction of the digital system. There was no significant change in inpatient or outpatient service volume during that time. The mean billing time decreased from 21 ± 27 days in the postdigital era to 12 ± 5 days in the postdigital era (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Implementation of a digital ECG system increased the volume of ECGs officially interpreted and reported. PMID:26451150

  5. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S; Wilson, Calum R

    2015-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable) pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato) roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI) and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response) suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate) rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate. PMID:26352757

  6. Comparison of polyphenol intakes according to distinct dietary patterns and food sources in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort.

    PubMed

    Burkholder-Cooley, Nasira; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella; Fraser, Gary E; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between polyphenol intake and health benefits. Polyphenol intake among a large US cohort with diverse dietary practices ranging from meatless to omnivorous diets has not been previously evaluated. The primary aim of this study was to compare polyphenol intakes of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns and to assess phenolic intake by food source. To characterise dietary intake, a FFQ was administered to 77 441 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Dietary patterns were defined based on the absence of animal food consumption as vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Polyphenol intakes were calculated based on chromatography-derived polyphenol content data of foods from Phenol-Explorer, US Department of Agriculture databases and relevant literature. Results revealed a mean unadjusted total polyphenol intake of 801 (sd 356) mg/d, and the main foods contributing to polyphenol intakes were coffee, fruits and fruit juices. Total polyphenol intake differed significantly between dietary patterns, with phenolic acids from coffee contributing the greatest variation. The dominant classes and sources of dietary polyphenols differed between vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Flavonoid intake was the highest among pesco-vegetarians, and phenolic acid intake was the highest among non-vegetarians. In addition, coffee consumers appeared to have a different dietary profile than non-coffee consumers, including greatly reduced contribution of fruits, vegetables and legumes to total phenolic intake. Coffee drinkers were more likely to be non-vegetarians, which explained several of these observations. Further evaluating these differences may be important in identifying relationships between plant-based diets and health outcomes. PMID:27080936

  7. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. PMID:26685787

  8. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S.; Wilson, Calum R.

    2015-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable) pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato) roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15–20 days after inoculation (DAI) and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15–45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response) suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate) rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate. PMID:26352757

  9. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance.

  10. Gene Set-Based Integrative Analysis Revealing Two Distinct Functional Regulation Patterns in Four Common Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yang, Yi-Ping; Chuang, Jen-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jie; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Chang, Cheng-Chang

    2016-08-05

    Clear cell (CCC), endometrioid (EC), mucinous (MC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (SC) are the four most common subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). The widely accepted dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis divided EOCs into type I and II categories based on the molecular features. However, this hypothesis has not been experimentally demonstrated. We carried out a gene set-based analysis by integrating the microarray gene expression profiles downloaded from the publicly available databases. These quantified biological functions of EOCs were defined by 1454 Gene Ontology (GO) term and 674 Reactome pathway gene sets. The pathogenesis of the four EOC subtypes was investigated by hierarchical clustering and exploratory factor analysis. The patterns of functional regulation among the four subtypes containing 1316 cases could be accurately classified by machine learning. The results revealed that the ERBB and PI3K-related pathways played important roles in the carcinogenesis of CCC, EC and MC; while deregulation of cell cycle was more predominant in SC. The study revealed that two different functional regulation patterns exist among the four EOC subtypes, which were compatible with the type I and II classifications proposed by the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis.

  11. Gene Set−Based Integrative Analysis Revealing Two Distinct Functional Regulation Patterns in Four Common Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yang, Yi-Ping; Chuang, Jen-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jie; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Chang, Cheng-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell (CCC), endometrioid (EC), mucinous (MC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (SC) are the four most common subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). The widely accepted dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis divided EOCs into type I and II categories based on the molecular features. However, this hypothesis has not been experimentally demonstrated. We carried out a gene set-based analysis by integrating the microarray gene expression profiles downloaded from the publicly available databases. These quantified biological functions of EOCs were defined by 1454 Gene Ontology (GO) term and 674 Reactome pathway gene sets. The pathogenesis of the four EOC subtypes was investigated by hierarchical clustering and exploratory factor analysis. The patterns of functional regulation among the four subtypes containing 1316 cases could be accurately classified by machine learning. The results revealed that the ERBB and PI3K-related pathways played important roles in the carcinogenesis of CCC, EC and MC; while deregulation of cell cycle was more predominant in SC. The study revealed that two different functional regulation patterns exist among the four EOC subtypes, which were compatible with the type I and II classifications proposed by the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:27527159

  12. Ectomycorrhizal-Dominated Boreal and Tropical Forests Have Distinct Fungal Communities, but Analogous Spatial Patterns across Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Krista L.; Allison, Steven D.; Fierer, Noah; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi regulate key nutrient cycling processes in many forest ecosystems, but their diversity and distribution within and across ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we examine the spatial distribution of fungi across a boreal and tropical ecosystem, focusing on ectomycorrhizal fungi. We analyzed fungal community composition across litter (organic horizons) and underlying soil horizons (0–20 cm) using 454 pyrosequencing and clone library sequencing. In both forests, we found significant clustering of fungal communities by site and soil horizons with analogous patterns detected by both sequencing technologies. Free-living saprotrophic fungi dominated the recently-shed leaf litter and ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated the underlying soil horizons. This vertical pattern of fungal segregation has also been found in temperate and European boreal forests, suggesting that these results apply broadly to ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems, including tropical rain forests. Since ectomycorrhizal and free-living saprotrophic fungi have different influences on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, information on the spatial distribution of these functional groups will improve our understanding of forest nutrient cycling. PMID:23874569

  13. Cytokeratin and protein expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity provide evidence for two distinct pathogenetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    FROHWITTER, GESCHE; BUERGER, HORST; VAN DIEST, PAUL J.; KORSCHING, EBERHARD; KLEINHEINZ, JOHANNES; FILLIES, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is a morphological heterogeneous disease. Various cytokeratin (CK) expression patterns with different prognostic values have been described, but little is known concerning the underlying biological cell mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated 193 cases of oral SCCs using immunohistochemistry for α/β/γ-catenin, glucose transporter 1, caspase-3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, mast/stem cell growth factor receptor, p21, p27, p16, p53, B-cell lymphoma 6, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1 and CK1, 5/6, 8/18, 10, 14 and 19. Expression patterns were analyzed with biomathematical permutation analysis. The present results revealed a significant association between the expression of low-molecular weight CK8/18 and 19 and a high-tumor grade, β and γ-catenin expression, deregulated cell cycle proteins and a predominant localization of the tumor on the floor of the mouth. By contrast, expression of high-molecular weight CK1, 5/6, 10 and 14 was significantly associated with the expression of p21 and hsp70. In conclusion, the current study presents evidence for the existence of two parallel pathogenetic pathways in oral SCCs, characterized by the expression of low- and high-molecular weight CKs. Additional studies are required to demonstrate the extent that these results may be used to improve therapeutic regimens. PMID:27347109

  14. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  15. [A USB-Based Digital ECG Sensor].

    PubMed

    Shi Bol; Kong, Xiangyong; Ma, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Genxuan

    2016-01-01

    Based on the ECG-specific BMD 101 integrated circun chip, this study designed a digital ECG sensor. In practical application, users just need to connect the ECG sensor 'o upper computer (such as PC or mobile phone) through USB interface, to realize the functions including display, alarm, saving, transfer etc. After tests, They demonstrate that the sensor can be applied to the detection of arrhythmia, such as bigeminy coupled rhythm, proiosystole etc. Besides, the sensor has various advantages in monitoring an managing the heart health of people out of hospital, including low cost, small volume, usableness, simplicity of operation etc. PMID:27197497

  16. Molecular subtypes of serous borderline ovarian tumor show distinct expression patterns of benign tumor and malignant tumor-associated signatures.

    PubMed

    Curry, Edward W J; Stronach, Euan A; Rama, Nona R; Wang, Yuepeng Y P; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona A

    2014-03-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors show heterogeneity in clinical behavior. Most have excellent prognosis, although a small percentage show recurrence or progressive disease, usually to low-grade serous carcinoma. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular relationship between these entities and identify potential markers of tumor progression and therapeutic targets. We studied gene expression using Affymetrix HGU133plus2 GeneChip microarrays in 3 low-grade serous carcinomas, 13 serous borderline tumors and 8 serous cystadenomas. An independent data set of 18 serous borderline tumors and 3 low-grade serous carcinomas was used for validation. Unsupervised clustering revealed clear separation of benign and malignant tumors, whereas borderline tumors showed two distinct groups, one clustering with benign and the other with malignant tumors. The segregation into benign- and malignant-like borderline molecular subtypes was reproducible on applying the same analysis to an independent publicly available data set. We identified 50 genes that separate borderline tumors into their subgroups. Functional enrichment analysis of genes that separate borderline tumors to the two subgroups highlights a cell adhesion signature for the malignant-like subset, with Claudins particularly prominent. This is the first report of molecular subtypes of borderline tumors based on gene expression profiling. Our results provide the basis for identification of biomarkers for the malignant potential of borderline ovarian tumor and potential therapeutic targets for low-grade serous carcinoma.

  17. Dopaminergic Receptors and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Distinct Pattern in Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda; Lima, Margarida; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ribeiro, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Dopamine (DA) may be involved in central obesity (CO), an inflammatory condition, through its role in the central nervous system and in periphery, where it may affect immune cell function through five different DA receptors (DR). Whether dopaminergic pathways in peripheral immune cells are implicated in the inflammatory condition linked to CO is however unknown. Methods In a cohort of blood donors with and without CO, categorized by waist circumference (WC) (CO: WC ≥0.80 m in women and ≥0.94 m in men), we studied the expression of DR and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of DA, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their relation with anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine and inflammatory parameters. DR D1-5 and TH expression was assessed by semi quantitative real-time PCR. As inflammatory markers we investigated the immunophenotype of monocyte subsets by flow cytometry, staining for CD14, CD16, CD11b and CD36. Results CO individuals showed higher plasma levels of leptin and higher inflammatory pattern of monocytes compared with non-CO. PBMC expression of DR D2, DR D4 and DR D5 as well as of TH were lower in CO in comparison with non-CO. DR D2, and DR D5 expression correlated with lower WC and weight, and with lower inflammatory pattern of monocytes, and TH expression correlated with lower WC. DR D4 expression correlated with lower plasma levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, and DR D2 expression correlated with lower CO. Conclusions Results show that CO is associated with peripheral inflammation and downregulation of dopaminergic pathways in PBMCs, possibly suggesting DR expressed on immune cells as pharmacological targets in obesity for better metabolic outcome. PMID:26808524

  18. Secretome Profiling of Periodontal Ligament from Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Reveals a Distinct Expression Pattern of Laminin Chains.

    PubMed

    Giovani, Priscila A; Salmon, Cristiane R; Martins, Luciane; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Rebouças, Pedro; Puppin Rontani, Regina M; Mofatto, Luciana S; Sallum, Enilson A; Nociti, Francisco H; Kantovitz, Kamila R

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that there are histological and functional distinctions between the periodontal ligament (PDL) of deciduous (DecPDL) and permanent (PermPDL) teeth. Thus, we hypothesized that DecPDL and PermPDL display differences in the constitutive expression of genes/proteins involved with PDL homeostasis. Primary PDL cell cultures were obtained for DecPDL (n = 3) and PermPDL (n = 3) to allow us to perform label-free quantitative secretome analysis. Although a highly similar profile was found between DecPDL and PermPDL cells, comparative secretome analysis evidenced that one of the most stickling differences involved cell adhesion molecules, including laminin subunit gamma 1 (LAMC1) and beta 2 (LAMB2). Next, total RNA and protein extracts were obtained from fresh PDL tissues of deciduous (n = 6) and permanent (n = 6) teeth, and Western blotting and qPCR analysis were used to validate our in vitro findings. Western blot analysis confirmed that LAMC1 was increased in DecPDL fresh tissues (p<0.05). Furthermore, qPCR data analysis revealed that mRNA levels for laminin subunit beta 1 (LAMB1), beta 3 (LAMB3), LAMC1, and gamma 2 (LAMC2) were higher in DecPDL fresh tissues, whereas transcripts for LAMB2 were increased in PermPDL (p<0.05). In conclusion, the differential expression of laminin chains in DecPDL and PermPDL suggests an involvement of laminin-dependent pathways in the control of physiological differences between them. PMID:27149379

  19. Secretome Profiling of Periodontal Ligament from Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Reveals a Distinct Expression Pattern of Laminin Chains

    PubMed Central

    Giovani, Priscila A.; Salmon, Cristiane R.; Martins, Luciane; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Rebouças, Pedro; Puppin Rontani, Regina M.; Mofatto, Luciana S.; Sallum, Enilson A.; Nociti, Francisco H.; Kantovitz, Kamila R.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that there are histological and functional distinctions between the periodontal ligament (PDL) of deciduous (DecPDL) and permanent (PermPDL) teeth. Thus, we hypothesized that DecPDL and PermPDL display differences in the constitutive expression of genes/proteins involved with PDL homeostasis. Primary PDL cell cultures were obtained for DecPDL (n = 3) and PermPDL (n = 3) to allow us to perform label-free quantitative secretome analysis. Although a highly similar profile was found between DecPDL and PermPDL cells, comparative secretome analysis evidenced that one of the most stickling differences involved cell adhesion molecules, including laminin subunit gamma 1 (LAMC1) and beta 2 (LAMB2). Next, total RNA and protein extracts were obtained from fresh PDL tissues of deciduous (n = 6) and permanent (n = 6) teeth, and Western blotting and qPCR analysis were used to validate our in vitro findings. Western blot analysis confirmed that LAMC1 was increased in DecPDL fresh tissues (p<0.05). Furthermore, qPCR data analysis revealed that mRNA levels for laminin subunit beta 1 (LAMB1), beta 3 (LAMB3), LAMC1, and gamma 2 (LAMC2) were higher in DecPDL fresh tissues, whereas transcripts for LAMB2 were increased in PermPDL (p<0.05). In conclusion, the differential expression of laminin chains in DecPDL and PermPDL suggests an involvement of laminin-dependent pathways in the control of physiological differences between them. PMID:27149379

  20. Distinct cytokine mRNA expression pattern in immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease associated with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Renya; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Hisano, Satoshi; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Nakashima, Hitoshi

    2014-06-01

    We treated a 61-year-old man with immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). He had a history of allergic diseases and an allergic reaction and had received a diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). He had also received a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and had undergone segmental resection of the left kidney at 59 years of age. His serum amylase level and number of peripheral eosinophils increased after RCC development. We hypothesized that the RCC may have induced AIP and IgG4-RKD and we therefore examined the excised RCC tissue; typical findings of IgG4-RKD associated with RCC were recognized. We next evaluated the mRNA expression of cytokines in the excised tissues of this case and ten other ordinary RCC cases. In all cases, notable levels of IL-10 mRNA and high levels of TGF-β mRNA were seen. Although prominent differences were not observed in the mRNA expression of Th1, Th17 and Treg cytokines in all cases, the present case alone showed increased production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, which were not detected in ordinary RCC cases. Although the mechanism underlying IgG4-RKD development has not yet been determined, Th2 and Treg cells are thought to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis. It is therefore likely that in this case, the association of these two diseases was not coincidental, and a distinct immune response against RCC may trigger IgG4-RKD development.

  1. Distinct Spatiotemporal Activation Patterns of the Perirhinal-Entorhinal Network in Response to Cortical and Amygdala Input

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Janske G. P.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Cappaert, Natalie L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The perirhinal (PER) and entorhinal cortex (EC) receive input from the agranular insular cortex (AiP) and the subcortical lateral amygdala (LA) and the main output area is the hippocampus. Information transfer through the PER/EC network however, is not always guaranteed. It is hypothesized that this network actively regulates the (sub)cortical activity transfer to the hippocampal network and that the inhibitory system is involved in this function. This study determined the recruitment by the AiP and LA afferents in PER/EC network with the use of voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in horizontal mouse brain slices. Electrical stimulation (500 μA) of the AiP induced activity that gradually propagated predominantly in the rostro-caudal direction: from the PER to the lateral EC (LEC). In the presence of 1 μM of the competitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline, AiP stimulation recruited the medial EC (MEC) as well. In contrast, LA stimulation (500 μA) only induced activity in the deep layers of the PER. In the presence of bicuculline, the initial population activity in the PER propagated further towards the superficial layers and the EC after a delay. The latency of evoked responses decreased with increasing stimulus intensities (50–500 μA) for both the AiP and LA stimuli. The stimulation threshold for evoking responses in the PER/EC network was higher for the LA than for the AiP. This study showed that the extent of the PER/EC network activation depends on release of inhibition. When GABAA dependent inhibition is reduced, both the AiP and the LA activate spatially overlapping regions, although in a distinct spatiotemporal fashion. It is therefore hypothesized that the inhibitory network regulates excitatory activity from both cortical and subcortical areas that has to be transmitted through the PER/EC network. PMID:27378860

  2. Distinct expression patterns of two Arabidopsis phytocystatin genes, AtCYS1 and AtCYS2, during development and abiotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Eun; Hong, Joon Ki; Lim, Chan Ju; Chen, Huan; Je, Jihyun; Yang, Kyung Ae; Kim, Dool Yi; Choi, Young Ju; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2010-01-01

    The phytocystatins of plants are members of the cystatin superfamily of proteins, which are potent inhibitors of cysteine proteases. The Arabidopsis genome encodes seven phytocystatin isoforms (AtCYSs) in two distantly related AtCYS gene clusters. We selected AtCYS1 and AtCYS2 as representatives for each cluster and then generated transgenic plants expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of each gene promoter. These plants were used to examine AtCYS expression at various stages of plant development and in response to abiotic stresses. Histochemical analysis of AtCYS1 promoter- and AtCYS2 promoter-GUS transgenic plants revealed that these genes have similar but distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns during normal development. In particular, AtCYS1 was preferentially expressed in the vascular tissue of all organs, whereas AtCYS2 was expressed in trichomes and guard cells in young leaves, caps of roots, and in connecting regions of the immature anthers and filaments and the style and stigma in flowers. In addition, each AtCYS gene has a unique expression profile during abiotic stresses. High temperature and wounding stress enhanced the expression of both AtCYS1 and AtCYS2, but the temporal and spatial patterns of induction differed. From these data, we propose that these two AtCYS genes play important, but distinct, roles in plant development and stress responses. PMID:20526604

  3. Longitudinal tracking of cytokines after acute exposure to tuberculosis: association of distinct cytokine patterns with protection and disease development.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rabia; Talat, Najeeha; Shahid, Firdaus; Dawood, Ghaffar

    2007-12-01

    Household contacts (HCs) of patients with tuberculosis (TB) are at higher risk of infection as well as the development of active disease. Longitudinal tracking of antigen-specific cytokines after acute exposure may significantly advance our understanding of the dynamic changes in cytokine patterns associated with disease establishment. To achieve this objective, we carried out a prospective cohort study with healthy HCs after exposure to TB. The patterns of cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma] and interleukin 10 [IL-10]) in response to mycobacterial antigens (culture filtrate [CF] proteins) and nonspecific mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA] and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months after exposure. Seven of 109 (6.4%) HCs developed active disease. Six of the seven individuals were females, and active disease developed between 12 and 15 months after exposure in 5/20 families. The most significant findings were the exponential increases ( approximately 1,000-fold) in both the CF protein- and the PHA- or LPS-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio in healthy HCs (n = 26), which peaked at 12 months, compared to the levels in HCs who developed disease (n = 7), in whom relatively flat responses were observed during the 24-month period. Linear trends for 0 to 12 and 0 to 24 months for the CF protein-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio showed significant differences between the two groups, as determined by the use of the Mantel extension test for chi(2) analysis (odds ratio = 0.45; 95% confidence interval = 0.295 to 0.685; P = 0.0002). Our results strongly suggest that the magnitude of the IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio at 12 months after exposure may be a critical determinant in the resolution of infection. These studies provide new insights into the cytokine responses associated with disease establishment or the resolution of infection after natural exposure to TB and have implications for TB control programs as well vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:17928427

  4. Wavelets for full reconfigurable ECG acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, D. P.; García, A.; Castillo, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the use of wavelet cores for a full reconfigurable electrocardiogram signal (ECG) acquisition system. The system is compound by two reconfigurable devices, a FPGA and a FPAA. The FPAA is in charge of the ECG signal acquisition, since this device is a versatile and reconfigurable analog front-end for biosignals. The FPGA is in charge of FPAA configuration, digital signal processing and information extraction such as heart beat rate and others. Wavelet analysis has become a powerful tool for ECG signal processing since it perfectly fits ECG signal shape. The use of these cores has been integrated in the LabVIEW FPGA module development tool that makes possible to employ VHDL cores within the usual LabVIEW graphical programming environment, thus freeing the designer from tedious and time consuming design of communication interfaces. This enables rapid test and graphical representation of results.

  5. A Novel Mobile ECG Telemonitoring System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baoming; Zhuo, Yu; Zhu, Xinjian; Yan, Qingguang; Zhu, Lingyun; Li, Gang

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel mobile ECG telemonitoring system. By means of CDMA1x (GPSOne) mobile telecommunication network, the system can perform "full time and space" monitoring of human ECG signal, and once the signal of the monitored subject departed from its normal ranges, the hospital ECG monitoring center can further localize his/her geographical position and give rescue in the first time. Another feature of the system is its high anti-interference capability. In order to reduce 50Hz and RF interferences during mobile monitoring, which are usual much serious than conventional hospital monitoring, a new active recording technology was proposed and an active ECG recording electrode was designed. The system has passed the clinical test and used in China.

  6. Brain-specific tropomyosins TMBr-1 and TMBr-3 have distinct patterns of expression during development and in adult brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294

  7. The movements made by performers in a skilled quartet: a distinctive pattern, and the function that it serves.

    PubMed

    Glowinski, Donald; Mancini, Maurizio; Cowie, Roddy; Camurri, Antonio; Chiorri, Carlo; Doherty, Cian

    2013-01-01

    When people perform a task as part of a joint action, their behavior is not the same as it would be if they were performing the same task alone, since it has to be adapted to facilitate shared understanding (or sometimes to prevent it). Joint performance of music offers a test bed for ecologically valid investigations of the way non-verbal behavior facilitates joint action. Here we compare the expressive movement of violinists when playing in solo and ensemble conditions. The first violinists of two string quartets (SQs), professional and student, were asked to play the same musical fragments in a solo condition and with the quartet. Synchronized multimodal recordings were created from the performances, using a specially developed software platform. Different patterns of head movement were observed. By quantifying them using an appropriate measure of entropy, we showed that head movements are more predictable in the quartet scenario. Rater evaluations showed that the change does not, as might be assumed, entail markedly reduced expression. They showed some ability to discriminate between solo and ensemble performances, but did not distinguish them in terms of emotional content or expressiveness. The data raise provocative questions about joint action in realistically complex scenarios. PMID:24312065

  8. Proteomic-based stable isotope probing reveals taxonomically Distinct Patterns in Amino Acid Assimilation by Coastal Marine Bacterioplankton

    DOE PAGES

    Bryson, Samuel; Li, Zhou; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Robert L. Hettich; Mayali, Xavier; Pan, Chongle; Mueller, Ryan S.

    2016-04-26

    Heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton are a critical component of the carbon cycle, processing nearly a quarter of annual global primary production, yet defining how substrate utilization preferences and resource partitioning structure these microbial communities remains a challenge. In this study, we utilized proteomics-based stable isotope probing (proteomic SIP) to characterize the assimilation of amino acids by coastal marine bacterioplankton populations. We incubated microcosms of seawater collected from Newport, OR and Monterey Bay, CA with 1 M 13C-amino acids for 15 and 32 hours. Subsequent analysis of 13C incorporation into protein biomass quantified the frequency and extent of isotope enrichment for identifiedmore » proteins. Using these metrics we tested whether amino acid assimilation patterns were different for specific bacterioplankton populations. Proteins associated with Rhodobacterales and Alteromonadales tended to have a significantly high number of tandem mass spectra from 13C-enriched peptides, while Flavobacteriales and SAR11 proteins generally had significantly low numbers of 13C-enriched spectra. Rhodobacterales proteins associated with amino acid transport and metabolism had an increased frequency of 13C-enriched spectra at time-point 2, while Alteromonadales ribosomal proteins were 13C- enriched across time-points. Overall, proteomic SIP facilitated quantitative comparisons of dissolved free amino acids assimilation by specific taxa, both between sympatric populations and between protein functional groups within discrete populations, allowing an unprecedented examination of population-level metabolic responses to resource acquisition in complex microbial communities.« less

  9. Molecular characterization of HCV in a Swedish county over 8 years (2002–2009) reveals distinct transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ederth, Josefine; Jern, Camilla; Norder, Helené; Magnius, Lars; Alm, Erik; Rognsvåg, Björg Kleverman; Sundin, Carl-Gustaf; Brytting, Mia; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern and data on its molecular epidemiology in Sweden is scarce. We carried out an 8-year population-based study of newly diagnosed HCV cases in one of Sweden's centrally situated counties, Södermanland (D-county). The aim was to characterize the HCV strains circulating, analyze their genetic relatedness to detect networks, and in combination with demographic data learn more about transmission. Methods Molecular analyses of serum samples from 91% (N=557) of all newly notified cases in D-county, 2002–2009, were performed. Phylogenetic analysis (NS5B gene, 300 bp) was linked to demographic data from the national surveillance database, SmiNet, to characterize D-county transmission clusters. The linear-by-linear association test (LBL) was used to analyze trends over time. Results The most prevalent subtypes were 1a (38%) and 3a (34%). Subtype 1a was most prevalent among cases transmitted via sexual contact, via contaminated blood, or blood products, while subtype 3a was most prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subtype 3a sequences formed more and larger transmission clusters (50% of the sequences clustered), while the 1a sequences formed smaller clusters (19% of the sequences clustered), possibly suggesting different epidemics. Conclusion We found different transmission patterns in D-county which may, from a public health perspective, have implications for how to control virus infections by targeted interventions. PMID:26854010

  10. Excellent Local Control Rates and Distinctive Patterns of Failure in Myxoid Liposarcoma Treated With Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh Zagars, Gunar K.; Ballo, Matthew T.; Patel, Shreyaskumar R.; Lewis, Valerae O.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Pollock, Raphael E.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rates and patterns of metastatic relapse in patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma treated with conservation surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: Between 1960 and 2003, 127 patients with non-metastatic myxoid liposarcoma were treated with conservation surgery and RT at our institution. The median patient age was 39 years (range, 14-79 years). Of the 127 patients, 46% underwent preoperative RT (median dose, 50 Gy) and 54% underwent postoperative RT (median dose, 60 Gy). Also, 28% received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy as a part of their treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 9.1 years. The overall survival rate at 5 and 10 years was 87% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding disease-free survival rates were 81% and 73%. The local control rate at {>=}5 years was 97%. The actuarial rate of distant metastases at 5 and 10 years was 15% and 24%, respectively. Of the 27 patients who developed distant metastases, 48% did so in the retroperitoneum, 22% in other extrapulmonary soft tissues, 22% in the lung, 15% in bone, and 4% in the liver. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that RT and conservation surgery for localized myxoid liposarcoma provide excellent local control. Distant metastatic relapse tended to occur in the retroperitoneum and other nonpulmonary soft tissues. Therefore, staging and surveillance imaging should include the abdomen and pelvis, as well as the thorax, for patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma.

  11. Application of sodium nitroprusside results in distinct antioxidant gene expression patterns in leaves of mature and senescing Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Filippou, Panagiota; Mylona, Photini; Fasoula, Dionysia; Ioannides, Ioannis; Polidoros, Alexios

    2014-07-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) represents one of the most commonly used NO donors in biological sciences, which acts as a signal molecule in plants responsible for the regulation of the expression of many defense-related enzymes. This study attempts to provide novel insight into the effect of application of low (100 μΜ) and high (2.5 mM) concentrations of SNP on antioxidant gene expression (cAPX, GST, FeSOD, CAT, and AOX) in mature (40 day) and senescing (65 day) Medicago truncatula plants. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR suggests that low concentration of SNP applied in mature leaves leads to an overall induction of antioxidant gene expression, while increasing concentration results in suppression of these genes. Conversely, older plants demonstrate a much more variable regulation which appears to be time dependent. The observed transcriptional regulation pattern in mature M. truncatula plants comes in support of the previously documented protective or damaging effect of SNP depending on concentration applied, whereas senescing M. truncatula plants demonstrated a general suppression in antioxidant gene expression levels regardless of SNP concentration, indicative of reduced overall plant defense capacity against free radicals.

  12. The movements made by performers in a skilled quartet: a distinctive pattern, and the function that it serves

    PubMed Central

    Glowinski, Donald; Mancini, Maurizio; Cowie, Roddy; Camurri, Antonio; Chiorri, Carlo; Doherty, Cian

    2013-01-01

    When people perform a task as part of a joint action, their behavior is not the same as it would be if they were performing the same task alone, since it has to be adapted to facilitate shared understanding (or sometimes to prevent it). Joint performance of music offers a test bed for ecologically valid investigations of the way non-verbal behavior facilitates joint action. Here we compare the expressive movement of violinists when playing in solo and ensemble conditions. The first violinists of two string quartets (SQs), professional and student, were asked to play the same musical fragments in a solo condition and with the quartet. Synchronized multimodal recordings were created from the performances, using a specially developed software platform. Different patterns of head movement were observed. By quantifying them using an appropriate measure of entropy, we showed that head movements are more predictable in the quartet scenario. Rater evaluations showed that the change does not, as might be assumed, entail markedly reduced expression. They showed some ability to discriminate between solo and ensemble performances, but did not distinguish them in terms of emotional content or expressiveness. The data raise provocative questions about joint action in realistically complex scenarios. PMID:24312065

  13. Human miR-1271 is a miR-96 paralog with distinct non-conserved brain expression pattern

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kevin P.; Covault, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Recent deep-sequencing efforts have identified many novel non-conserved small RNAs that are expressed at low levels in certain mammalian cells. Whether these small RNAs are important for mammalian physiology is debatable, therefore we explored the function of one such RNA, human miR-1271. This small RNA is similar in sequence to miR-96, a highly conserved microRNA that when mutated causes hearing loss in humans and mice. Although the miR-1271 and miR-96 sequences differ slightly, our in vitro assays indicate that they have an identical regulatory activity. We have identified brain-expressed mRNAs from genes including, GPHN, RGS2, HOMER1 and KCC2, which share the same miR-96 and miR-1271 regulatory elements. Interestingly, human miR-1271 is expressed abundantly in brain tissue, where miR-96 is not highly expressed. The rodent miR-1271 precursor contains several sequence differences in the precursor stem, which appear to reduce the efficiency of microRNA processing. Our data indicate that although miR-1271 and miR-96 function identically in vitro, they function to some extent uniquely in vivo. Given the expression patterns and nature of the target genes, miR-1271 may have a significant, although non-conserved, role in regulating aspects of neural development or function in humans. PMID:20864449

  14. Use of HCA in Subproteome-immunization and Screening of Hybridoma Supernatants to Define Distinct Antibody Binding Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Szafran, Adam T.; Mancini, Maureen G.; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.; Edwards, Dean P.; Mancini, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties and functions of complex biological systems depends upon knowing the proteins present and the interactions between them. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have given us greater insights into the participating proteomes, however, monoclonal antibodies remain key to understanding the structures, functions, locations and macromolecular interactions of the involved proteins. The traditional single immunogen method to produce monoclonal antibodies using hybridoma technology are time, resource and cost intensive, limiting the number of reagents that are available. Using a high content analysis screening approach, we have developed a method in which a complex mixture of proteins (e.g., subproteome) is used to generate a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to a subproteome located in a defined subcellular compartment such as the nucleus. The immunofluorescent images in the primary hybridoma screen are analyzed using an automated processing approach and classified using a recursive partitioning forest classification model derived from images obtained from the Human Protein Atlas. Using an ammonium sulfate purified nuclear matrix fraction as an example of reverse proteomics, we identified 866 hybridoma supernatants with a positive immunofluorescent signal. Of those, 402 produced a nuclear signal from which patterns similar to known nuclear matrix associated proteins were identified. Detailed here is our method, the analysis techniques, and a discussion of the application to further in vivo antibody production. PMID:26521976

  15. Identification of bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals distinct temperature-driven patterns.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-08-07

    Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry.

  16. ECG Feature Extraction using Time Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Mahesh A.

    The proposed algorithm is a novel method for the feature extraction of ECG beats based on Wavelet Transforms. A combination of two well-accepted methods, Pan Tompkins algorithm and Wavelet decomposition, this system is implemented with the help of MATLAB. The focus of this work is to implement the algorithm, which can extract the features of ECG beats with high accuracy. The performance of this system is evaluated in a pilot study using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

  17. The ECG dilemma: guidelines on improving interpretation.

    PubMed

    Mele, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    The "ECG Dilemma" was recognized by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association more than 10 years ago. Estimates put the number of patients suffering from significant ECG interpretation errors every year in the same range as deaths from diabetes. Missed MI ranks in the top tier of malpractice dollars lost. Guidelines have been put forth to reduce these losses and improve patient safety and quality of care. These guidelines, and suggestions towards implementing them, are discussed.

  18. Human B lymphoblastoid cells contain distinct patterns of cathepsin activity in endocytic compartments and regulate MHC class II transport in a cathepsin S-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Lautwein, Alfred; Kraus, Marianne; Reich, Michael; Burster, Timo; Brandenburg, J; Overkleeft, Herman S; Schwarz, Gerold; Kammer, Winfried; Weber, Ekkehard; Kalbacher, Hubert; Nordheim, Alfred; Driessen, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    Endocytic proteolysis represents a major functional component of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presentation machinery. Although transport and assembly of class II molecules in the endocytic compartment are well characterized, we lack information about the pattern of endocytic protease activity along this pathway. Here, we used chemical tools that visualize endocytic proteases in an activity-dependent manner in combination with subcellular fractionation to dissect the subcellular distribution of the major cathepsins (Cat) CatS, CatB, CatH, CatD, CatC, and CatZ as well as the asparagine-specific endoprotease (AEP) in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (BLC). Endocytic proteases were distributed in two distinct patterns: CatB and CatZ were most prominent in early and late endosomes but absent from lysosomes, and CatH, CatS, CatD, CatC, and AEP distributed between late endosomes and lysosomes, suggesting that CatB and CatZ might be involved in the initial proteolytic attack on a given antigen. The entire spectrum of protease activity colocalized with human leukocyte antigen-DM and the C-terminal and N-terminal processing of invariant chain (Ii) in late endosomes. CatS was active in all endocytic compartments. Surprisingly and in contrast with results from dendritic cells, inhibition of CatS activity by leucine-homophenylalanine-vinylsulfone-phenol prevented N-terminal processing of Ii but did not alter the subcellular trafficking or surface delivery of class II complexes, as deferred from pulse-chase analysis in combination with subcellular fractionation and biotinylation of cell-surface protein. Thus, BLC contain distinct activity patterns of proteases in endocytic compartments and regulate the intracellular transport and surface-delivery of class II in a CatS-independent manner. PMID:14966190

  19. Smartphone home monitoring of ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Landa, Joseph; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    A system of ambulatory, halter, electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system has already been commercially available for recording and transmitting heartbeats data by the Internet. However, it enjoys the confidence with a reservation and thus a limited market penetration, our system was targeting at aging global villagers having an increasingly biomedical wellness (BMW) homecare needs, not hospital related BMI (biomedical illness). It was designed within SWaP-C (Size, Weight, and Power, Cost) using 3 innovative modules: (i) Smart Electrode (lowpower mixed signal embedded with modern compressive sensing and nanotechnology to improve the electrodes' contact impedance); (ii) Learnable Database (in terms of adaptive wavelets transform QRST feature extraction, Sequential Query Relational database allowing home care monitoring retrievable Aided Target Recognition); (iii) Smartphone (touch screen interface, powerful computation capability, caretaker reporting with GPI, ID, and patient panic button for programmable emergence procedure). It can provide a supplementary home screening system for the post or the pre-diagnosis care at home with a build-in database searchable with the time, the place, and the degree of urgency happened, using in-situ screening.

  20. Xylem conduits of a resurrection plant contain a unique lipid lining and refill following a distinct pattern after desiccation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H J; Schneider, H; Mimietz, S; Wistuba, N; Rokitta, M; Krohne, G; Haase, A; Zimmermann, U

    2000-11-01

    The axial and radial refilling with water of cut dry branches (up to 80 cm tall) of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia was studied in both acro- and basipetal directions by using 1H-NMR imaging. NMR measurements showed that the conducting elements were not filled simultaneously. Axial water ascent occurred initially only in a cluster of a very few conducting elements. Refilling of the other conducting elements and of the living cells was mainly achieved by radial extraction of water from these initial conducting elements. With time, xylem elements in a few further regions were apparently refilled axially. Radial water spread through the tissue occurred almost linearly with time, but much faster in the acropetal than in the basipetal direction. Application of hydrostatic pressure (up to 16 kPa) produced similar temporal and spatial radial refilling patterns, except that more conducting elements were refilled axially during the first phase of water rise. The addition of raffinose to the water considerably reduced axial and radial spreading rates. The polarity of water climbing was supported by measurements of the water rise in dry branches using the 'light refraction'(and, sometimes, the 'leaf recurving') method. Basipetal refilling of the xylem conduit exhibited biphasic kinetics; the final rise height did not exceed 20-30 cm. Three-cm-long branch pieces also showed a directionality of water climbing, ruling out the possibility that changes in the conducting area from the base to the apex of the branches were responsible for this effect. The polarity of water ascent was independent of gravity and also did not change when the ambient temperature was raised to c. 40 degrees C. At external pressures of 50-100 kPa the polarity disappeared, with basipetal and acropetal refill times of the xylem conduit of tall branches becoming comparable. Refilling of branches dried horizontally (with a clinostat) or inverted (in the direction of gravity) showed a

  1. Quality assessment of digital annotated ECG data from clinical trials by the FDA ECG Warehouse.

    PubMed

    Sarapa, Nenad

    2007-09-01

    The FDA mandates that digital electrocardiograms (ECGs) from 'thorough' QTc trials be submitted into the ECG Warehouse in Health Level 7 extended markup language format with annotated onset and offset points of waveforms. The FDA did not disclose the exact Warehouse metrics and minimal acceptable quality standards. The author describes the Warehouse scoring algorithms and metrics used by FDA, points out ways to improve FDA review and suggests Warehouse benefits for pharmaceutical sponsors. The Warehouse ranks individual ECGs according to their score for each quality metric and produces histogram distributions with Warehouse-specific thresholds that identify ECGs of questionable quality. Automatic Warehouse algorithms assess the quality of QT annotation and duration of manual QT measurement by the central ECG laboratory.

  2. Discriminative Common Spatial Pattern Sub-bands Weighting Based on Distinction Sensitive Learning Vector Quantization Method in Motor Imagery Based Brain-computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Jamaloo, Fatemeh; Mikaeili, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Common spatial pattern (CSP) is a method commonly used to enhance the effects of event-related desynchronization and event-related synchronization present in multichannel electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. In the present study, a novel CSP sub-band feature selection has been proposed based on the discriminative information of the features. Besides, a distinction sensitive learning vector quantization based weighting of the selected features has been considered. Finally, after the classification of the weighted features using a support vector machine classifier, the performance of the suggested method has been compared with the existing methods based on frequency band selection, on the same BCI competitions datasets. The results show that the proposed method yields superior results on “ay” subject dataset compared against existing approaches such as sub-band CSP, filter bank CSP (FBCSP), discriminative FBCSP, and sliding window discriminative CSP. PMID:26284171

  3. Rapid and high-resolution distinction of community-acquired and nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus isolates with identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and spa types.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Corinna; Sabat, Artur J; Dreisbach, Annette; Larsen, Anders R; Friedrich, Alexander W; Skov, Robert L; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2013-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent a serious threat for public health worldwide. Of particular concern is the emergence of community-acquired MRSA, which is often difficult to distinguish from nosocomial MRSA due to a lack of suitable typing methods for early detection. For example, the USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern includes both the 'classical' community-acquired USA300 clone with spa type t008 and an epidemiologically unrelated nosocomial clone with spa type t024. Likewise, spa typing cannot distinguish the classic USA300 from nosocomial MRSA with the spa type t008. Since the fast and high-resolution distinction of these S. aureus types is important for infection prevention and surveillance, we investigated whether multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) can be applied to overcome these limitations. Indeed, MLVF correctly grouped 91 MRSA isolates belonging to the classic USA300 lineage, nosocomial MRSA isolates with the USA300 PFGE profile and spa type t024, and nosocomial MRSA isolates with spa type t008 into 3 distinct clusters. Importantly, several sub-clusters were also identified, reflecting epidemiological relationships between the respective isolates. We conclude that MLVF has the discriminatory power needed to rapidly distinguish very similar community-acquired and nosocomial MRSA isolates and that MLVF-based sub-clustering of isolates is highly useful for epidemiological investigations, outbreak prevention, and control.

  4. 12-lead ECG training: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Alinier, Guillaume; Gordon, Ray; Harwood, Colin; Hunt, William B

    2006-01-01

    The teaching of electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring has not changed for decades and still very much relies on access to real patients for practice. However there is nowadays an even greater need for modern training tools in this field as more healthcare professionals than ever before need to be trained on 12-lead ECG monitoring techniques. For example in many parts of the UK ambulance paramedics use features observed from 12-lead ECG monitoring equipment to determine whether or not a patient can receive pre-hospital thrombolytic therapy. Because important decisions are made without the presence of a cardiologist, it is essential that the training is carried out with the most realistic tools, including tools which give realistic feedback of the consequences of incorrect electrode placement. Current mannequins for ECG training are designed with protruding electrodes on the chest, which act as cues for trainees. There is therefore a need for a realistic simulation training tool to teach 12-lead ECG interpretation which includes the ability to give this feedback. We are currently working on the development of such a training tool and it is expected that it will be of great interest to medical, nursing and paramedic schools.

  5. The ECG as decision support in STEMI.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Maria Sejersten

    2012-03-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) can be used for determining the presence, location and extent of jeopardized myocardium during acute coronary occlusion. Accordingly, the ECG has become essential in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This thesis aims at optimizing the decision support, provided by the ECG, for choosing the best treatment strategy in the individual patient with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). ECG recorded in the prehospital setting has become the standard of care in many communities, but to achieve the full advantage of this early approach it is important that the ECG is recorded from accurately placed electrodes to produce an ECG that resembles the standard 12-lead ECG. Accurate electrode placement is difficult especially in the acute setting, and we investigated an alternative lead system with fewer electrodes in easily identified positions. We showed that the system produced waveforms similar to the standard 12-lead ECG. However, occasional diagnostic errors were seen, compromising general acceptance of the system. Once the ECG has been recorded a decision regarding triage must be made on the basis of a correct ECG diagnosis. We found that trained paramedics can diagnose STEMI correctly in patients without ECG confounding factors, while the presence of ECG confounding factors decreased their ability substantially. Consequently, since many patients do present with ECG confounding factors, transmission to an on-call cardiologist for an early correct diagnosis is needed. We showed that time to pPCI was reduced by more than 1 hour by transmitting prehospital ECG to a cardiologist's handheld device for diagnosis, triage, and activation of the catheterization laboratory when needed. The optimal treatment strategy is dependent on the duration of ischemia however patient information is often inaccurate. Accordingly, it would be advantageous if the first available ECG can help identify patients who will

  6. Expression patterns suggest that despite considerable functional redundancy, galectin-4 and -6 play distinct roles in normal and damaged mouse digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Houzelstein, Denis; Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication.

  7. Division of Labor in the Hyperdiverse Ant Genus Pheidole Is Associated with Distinct Subcaste- and Age-Related Patterns of Worker Brain Organization

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary success of ants and other social insects is considered to be intrinsically linked to division of labor among workers. The role of the brains of individual ants in generating division of labor, however, is poorly understood, as is the degree to which interspecific variation in worker social phenotypes is underscored by functional neurobiological differentiation. Here we demonstrate that dimorphic minor and major workers of different ages from three ecotypical species of the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole have distinct patterns of neuropil size variation. Brain subregions involved in sensory input (optic and antennal lobes), sensory integration, learning and memory (mushroom bodies), and motor functions (central body and subesophageal ganglion) vary significantly in relative size, reflecting differential investment in neuropils that likely regulate subcaste- and age-correlated task performance. Worker groups differ in brain size and display patterns of altered isometric and allometric subregion scaling that affect brain architecture independently of brain size variation. In particular, mushroom body size was positively correlated with task plasticity in the context of both age- and subcaste-related polyethism, providing strong, novel support that greater investment in this neuropil increases behavioral flexibility. Our findings reveal striking levels of developmental plasticity and evolutionary flexibility in Pheidole worker neuroanatomy, supporting the hypothesis that mosaic alterations of brain composition contribute to adaptive colony structure and interspecific variation in social organization. PMID:22363686

  8. Distinct Expression Patterns of AAV8 Vectors with Broadly Active Promoters from Subretinal Injections of Neonatal Mouse Eyes at Two Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenjun; Cepko, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The retinal expression patterns were analyzed following the injection of serotype 8 adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vectors that utilize two broadly active and commonly used sets of transcription regulatory sequences. These include the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early (IE) enhancer/promoter and the hybrid CAG element (also known as CAGGS or CBA) composed of a partial human CMV IE enhancer and the chicken β-actin promoter and intron. Subretinal delivery to postnatal day 0 (P0) or 6 (P6) mouse eyes resulted in efficient labeling of retinal cells, but with very distinct patterns. With P0 delivery, AAV8-CMV-GFP selectively labelled photoreceptors, while AAV8-CAG-GFP efficiently labeled both outer and inner retinal neurons, including photoreceptors, horizontal cells, amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells. With P6 delivery, both vectors led to efficient labeling of photoreceptors and Müller glia cells, but not of inner retinal neurons. Our results suggest that the cell types that express the genes encoded by subretinally delivered AAV8 vectors are determined by both the timing of the injection and the regulatory sequences.

  9. Digital pattern recognition-based image analysis quantifies immune infiltrates in distinct tissue regions of colorectal cancer and identifies a metastatic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Angell, H K; Gray, N; Womack, C; Pritchard, D I; Wilkinson, R W; Cumberbatch, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate a relationship between tumour immune infiltrates and clinical outcome. We tested the utility of a digital pattern recognition-based image analysis (DPRIA) system to segregate tissue regions and facilitate automated quantification of immune infiltrates in CRC. Methods: Primary CRC with matched hepatic metastatic (n=7), primary CRC alone (n=18) and primary CRC with matched normal (n=40) tissue were analysed immunohistochemically. Genie pattern recognition software was used to segregate distinct tissue regions in combination with image analysis algorithms to quantify immune cells. Results: Immune infiltrates were observed predominately at the invasive margin. Quantitative image analysis revealed a significant increase in the prevalence of Foxp3 (P<0.0001), CD8 (P<0.0001), CD68 (<0.0001) and CD31 (<0.0001) positive cells in the stroma of primary and metastatic CRC, compared with tumour cell mass. A direct comparison between non-metastatic primary CRC (MET−) and primary CRC that resulted in metastasis (MET+) showed an immunosuppressive phenotype, with elevated Foxp3 (P<0.05) and reduced numbers of CD8 (P<0.05) cells in the stroma of MET+ compared with MET− samples. Conclusion: By combining immunohistochemistry with DPRIA, we demonstrate a potential metastatic phenotype in CRC. Our study accelerates wider acceptance and use of automated systems as an adjunct to traditional histopathological techniques. PMID:23963148

  10. Dormancy-associated MADS genes from the EVG locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] have distinct seasonal and photoperiodic expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Bielenberg, Douglas Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and sequencing of the non-dormant evg mutant in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] identified six tandem-arrayed DAM (dormancy-associated MADS-box) genes as candidates for regulating growth cessation and terminal bud formation. To narrow the list of candidate genes, an attempt was made to associate bud phenology with the seasonal and environmental patterns of expression of the candidates in wild-type trees. The expression of the six peach DAM genes at the EVG locus of peach was characterized throughout an annual growing cycle in the field, and under controlled conditions in response to a long day-short day photoperiod transition. DAM1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were responsive to a reduction in photoperiod in controlled conditions and the direction of response correlated with the seasonal timing of expression in field-grown trees. DAM3 did not respond to photoperiod and may be regulated by chilling temperatures. The DAM genes in peach appear to have at least four distinct patterns of expression. DAM1, 2, and 4 are temporally associated with seasonal elongation cessation and bud formation and are the most likely candidates for control of the evg phenotype.

  11. Serous neoplasms of the pancreas constitute a continuous spectrum of morphological patterns rather than distinct clinico-pathological variants. A study of 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Jacek; Liszka, Łukasz; Mrowiec, Sławomir; Zielińska-Pająk, Ewa; Gołka, Dariusz; Lampe, Paweł

    2011-12-01

    Serous neoplasms (SN) of the pancreas account for 1-2% of all pancreatic tumours. Six morphological variants of SN were previously recognized: serous microcystic (cyst)adenoma, serous macrocystic (cyst)adenoma, von Hippel-Lindau-associated serous cystic neoplasm, solid serous adenoma/neoplasm, mixed serous-neuroendocrine neoplasm and serous cystadenocarcinoma. It was recently postulated that SN shows a continuous spectrum of morphological patterns rather than distinct clinico-pathological subtypes. To address this issue, we performed a detailed review of 40 SN cases diagnosed at our institution between 1989 and 2011. We found 11 cases of serous microcystic (cyst)adenoma, 5 cases of serous macrocystic (cyst)adenoma, and a single case of von Hippel-Lindau-associated serous cystic neoplasm. Apart from that, we found 20 cases of SN which showed features of both microcystic and macrocystic (cyst)adenomas, 2 cases of small 'incipient' SN and a single case of a mixed microcystic and solid adenoma. In conclusion, we showed that 'borderline' lesions among SNs truly exist and are not rare. The reason for such a wide diversity of morphological patterns of SN remains unknown.

  12. Analysis of ECG from pole-zero models.

    PubMed

    Murthy, I S; Prasad, G S

    1992-07-01

    A complete solution to the fundamental problem of ECG analysis, viz., delineation of the signal into its component waves, is proposed from a system theoretic point of view. The discrete cosine transform of a bell shaped biphasic function is approximated mathematically by a system function with two poles and two zeros, i.e., of order (2, 2). Using this concept as the basis, a pole-zero model of suitable order is derived from the discrete cosine transform (DCT) of the given signal using Steiglitz-McBride method. This model is expanded into a unique set of partial fractions each of order (2, 2), and a biphasic function is recovered from each one of these fractions in the inverse process. Each of the P and T waves usually requires only one biphasic function, while the QRS complex needs two or at most three such fractions. A one-to-one relationship between the pole pattern in the z-plane and component wave pattern in the time signal is established. Results of analysis of continuous strips of ECG show that the delineated component waves are in excellent agreement with the original waves both qualitatively and quantitatively. The method is robust for the analysis of signals with artifacts of various kinds, independent of the sampling rate used, and is free from ad hoc back and forth search procedures. PMID:1516941

  13. Real-Time Online Monitoring of Electrocardiogram (ECG) using Very Low Cost for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gavendra; Gupta, Varun; Sekharmantri, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Akash; Kumar, Pankaj

    2010-11-01

    An electrocardiogram or ECG (also known as EKG—abbreviated from the German word Elektro-Kardiographie), is an electrical recording of the heart and is used in the investigation of heart disease. `An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic tracing of the electric current generated by the heart muscle during a heartbeat'. The electrocardiogram (ECG)/(EKG) is a surface measurement of the electrical potential generated by electrical activity in cardiac tissue. It has been used extensively in medicine sine its inventions in the early 1900' sand has been proven to be invaluable in various diagnostics applications such as the detection of irregular heartbeat patterns (i.e. fibrillation & arrhythmia), hearts murmurs (other abnormal sounds), tissue/structural damage (such as valve malfunction) and coronary artery blockage. In this paper we made a circuit network by using this circuit we can acquire an ECG signal of the heart electrical activity. This is one of the cheapest circuit to acquire ECG signal. It's whole cost around Rs.250/- only. Instrumentation amplifier AD620AN, notch filter, various resistances, capacitors, wires etc. are used to made this circuit.

  14. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Methods Design: prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. Patients: 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Interventions: All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Main outcome measures: Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II–III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). Results 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1–8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2–22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia

  15. NUP98/NSD1 characterizes a novel poor prognostic group in acute myeloid leukemia with a distinct HOX gene expression pattern.

    PubMed

    Hollink, Iris H I M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Arentsen-Peters, Susan T C J M; Pratcorona, Marta; Abbas, Saman; Kuipers, Jenny E; van Galen, Janneke F; Beverloo, H Berna; Sonneveld, Edwin; Kaspers, Gert-Jan J L; Trka, Jan; Baruchel, Andre; Zimmermann, Martin; Creutzig, Ursula; Reinhardt, Dirk; Pieters, Rob; Valk, Peter J M; Zwaan, C Michel

    2011-09-29

    Translocations involving nucleoporin 98kD (NUP98) on chromosome 11p15 occur at relatively low frequency in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but can be missed with routine karyotyping. In this study, high-resolution genome-wide copy number analyses revealed cryptic NUP98/NSD1 translocations in 3 of 92 cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML cases. To determine their exact frequency, we screened > 1000 well-characterized pediatric and adult AML cases using a NUP98/NSD1-specific RT-PCR. Twenty-three cases harbored the NUP98/NSD1 fusion, representing 16.1% of pediatric and 2.3% of adult CN-AML patients. NUP98/NSD1-positive AML cases had significantly higher white blood cell counts (median, 147 × 10⁹/L), more frequent FAB-M4/M5 morphology (in 63%), and more CN-AML (in 78%), FLT3/internal tandem duplication (in 91%) and WT1 mutations (in 45%) than NUP98/NSD1-negative cases. NUP98/NSD1 was mutually exclusive with all recurrent type-II aberrations. Importantly, NUP98/NSD1 was an independent predictor for poor prognosis; 4-year event-free survival was < 10% for both pediatric and adult NUP98/NSD1-positive AML patients. NUP98/NSD1-positive AML showed a characteristic HOX-gene expression pattern, distinct from, for example, MLL-rearranged AML, and the fusion protein was aberrantly localized in nuclear aggregates, providing insight into the leukemogenic pathways of these AMLs. Taken together, NUP98/NSD1 identifies a previously unrecognized group of young AML patients, with distinct characteristics and dismal prognosis, for whom new treatment strategies are urgently needed.

  16. [Implementation of ECG Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things].

    PubMed

    Lu, Liangliang; Chen, Minya

    2015-11-01

    In order to expand the capabilities of hospital's traditional ECG device and enhance medical staff's work efficiency, an ECG monitoring system based on internet of things is introduced. The system can monitor ECG signals in real time and analyze data using ECG sensor, PDA, Web servers, which embeds C language, Android systems, .NET, wireless network and other technologies. After experiments, it can be showed that the system has high reliability and stability and can bring the convenience to medical staffs.

  17. [Implementation of ECG Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things].

    PubMed

    Lu, Liangliang; Chen, Minya

    2015-11-01

    In order to expand the capabilities of hospital's traditional ECG device and enhance medical staff's work efficiency, an ECG monitoring system based on internet of things is introduced. The system can monitor ECG signals in real time and analyze data using ECG sensor, PDA, Web servers, which embeds C language, Android systems, .NET, wireless network and other technologies. After experiments, it can be showed that the system has high reliability and stability and can bring the convenience to medical staffs. PMID:27066681

  18. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  20. Arrhythmia Identification with Two-Lead Electrocardiograms Using Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for a Portable ECG Monitor System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shing-Hong; Cheng, Da-Chuan; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    An automatic configuration that can detect the position of R-waves, classify the normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and other four arrhythmic types from the continuous ECG signals obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is proposed. In this configuration, a support vector machine (SVM) was used to detect and mark the ECG heartbeats with raw signals and differential signals of a lead ECG. An algorithm based on the extracted markers segments waveforms of Lead II and V1 of the ECG as the pattern classification features. A self-constructing neural fuzzy inference network (SoNFIN) was used to classify NSR and four arrhythmia types, including premature ventricular contraction (PVC), premature atrium contraction (PAC), left bundle branch block (LBBB), and right bundle branch block (RBBB). In a real scenario, the classification results show the accuracy achieved is 96.4%. This performance is suitable for a portable ECG monitor system for home care purposes. PMID:23303379

  1. The mouse one P-domain (pS2) and two P-domain (mSP) genes exhibit distinct patterns of expression

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have previously shown that the human pS2 gene, which codes for a secreted peptide of 60 amino acids, is expressed in a number of human carcinomas, including carcinomas of the breast, the pancreas, and the large bowel. Strong pS2 gene expression was also observed in the normal gastric mucosa and in the regenerative tissues surrounding ulcerous lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of pS2 similar peptides, designated as P-domain peptides, have been described, notably the porcine (PSP), murine (mSP), and human (hSP) spasmolytic polypeptides, which correspond to duplicated pS2 proteins. We have now cloned a mouse homolog of the human pS2 cDNA to dispose of an animal model to study the pS2 protein function, which remains unknown at the present time. We show that the mouse putative pS2 protein sequence and the physiological pattern of expression of the mouse pS2 gene are well conserved. The mouse pS2 gene is highly expressed in the stomach mucosa cells, whereas no pS2 gene expression could be detected in the mouse mammary gland, even during postnatal development processes dependent on growth factors or hormones. Using in situ hybridization, we show that although coexpressed in the fundus, the antrum and the antrum-pyloric regions of the stomach, the mouse pS2 and mSP genes exhibit distinct and complementary cellular patterns of expression. PMID:8314841

  2. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Feng, Wen-Ting; Chen, Sha-Sha; Xu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jiang-Li; Li, Peng-Min; Ma, Feng-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome.

  3. Different Biosynthesis Patterns among Flavonoid 3-glycosides with Distinct Effects on Accumulation of Other Flavonoid Metabolites in Pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Feng, Wen-Ting; Chen, Sha-Sha; Xu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jiang-Li; Li, Peng-Min; Ma, Feng-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear ‘Zaosu’ (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red mutant ‘Red Zaosu’. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in ‘Zaosu’ pear. By comparison with ‘Red Zaosu’, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of ‘Zaosu’ after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in ‘Zaosu’ pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between ‘Zaosu’ and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome. PMID:24637788

  4. Distinct fine-scale fMRI activation patterns of contra- and ipsilateral somatosensory areas 3b and 1 in humans.

    PubMed

    Ann Stringer, Elizabeth; Qiao, Peng-Gang; Friedman, Robert M; Holroyd, Lauren; Newton, Allen T; Gore, John C; Min Chen, Li

    2014-09-01

    Inter-areal and ipsilateral cortical responses to tactile stimulation have not been well described in human S1 cortex. By taking advantage of the high signal-to-noise ratio at 7 T, we quantified blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response patterns and time courses to tactile stimuli on individual distal finger pads at a fine spatial scale, and examined whether there are inter-areal (area 3b versus area 1) and interhemispheric response differences to unilateral tactile stimulation in healthy human subjects. We found that 2-Hz tactile stimulation of individual fingertips evoked detectable BOLD signal changes in both contralateral and ipsilateral area 3b and area 1. Contralateral digit activations were organized in an orderly somatotopic manner, and BOLD responses in area 3b were more digit selective than those in area 1. However, the area of cortex that was responsive to stimulation of a single digit (stimulus-response field) was similar across areas. In the ipsilateral hemisphere, response magnitudes in both areas 3b and 1 were significantly weaker than those of the contralateral hemisphere. Digit activations exhibited no clear somatotopic organizational pattern in either area 3b or area 1, yet digit selectivity was retained in area 1 but not in area 3b. The observation of distinct digit-selective responses of contralateral area 3b versus area 1 supports a higher order function of contralateral area 1 in spatial integration. In contrast, ipsilateral cortices may play a less discriminative role in the perception of unilateral tactile sensation in humans.

  5. Multichannel ECG and Noise Modeling: Application to Maternal and Fetal ECG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameni, Reza; Clifford, Gari D.; Jutten, Christian; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic model of the electrical activity of the heart is presented. The model is based on the single dipole model of the heart and is later related to the body surface potentials through a linear model which accounts for the temporal movements and rotations of the cardiac dipole, together with a realistic ECG noise model. The proposed model is also generalized to maternal and fetal ECG mixtures recorded from the abdomen of pregnant women in single and multiple pregnancies. The applicability of the model for the evaluation of signal processing algorithms is illustrated using independent component analysis. Considering the difficulties and limitations of recording long-term ECG data, especially from pregnant women, the model described in this paper may serve as an effective means of simulation and analysis of a wide range of ECGs, including adults and fetuses.

  6. Preprocessing and analysis of the ECG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    According to the request of automatic analysis and depressing high frequency interference of the ECG signals, this paper applies low-pass filter to preprocess ECG signals, and proposes a QRS complex detection method based on wavelet transform, which takes advantage of Marr wavelet to decompose and filter the ECG signals with Mallat algorithm, using the relationship between wavelet transform and signal singularity to detect QRS complex with amplitude threshold method in scale 3, and to detect P wave and R wave in scale 4. Meanwhile, compositive detection method is used for re-detection, thus to improving the detection accuracy ratio. At last, records from ECG database of MIT/BIH which is widely accepted in the world are used to test the algorithm. And the result shows that correction detecting ratio under this algorithm has been more than 99.8 percent. The detection method in this paper is simple and running fast, and is easy to be realized in the real-time detecting system using for clinical diagnosis.

  7. Human Identification Using Compressed ECG Signals.

    PubMed

    Camara, Carmen; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2015-11-01

    As a result of the increased demand for improved life styles and the increment of senior citizens over the age of 65, new home care services are demanded. Simultaneously, the medical sector is increasingly becoming the new target of cybercriminals due the potential value of users' medical information. The use of biometrics seems an effective tool as a deterrent for many of such attacks. In this paper, we propose the use of electrocardiograms (ECGs) for the identification of individuals. For instance, for a telecare service, a user could be authenticated using the information extracted from her ECG signal. The majority of ECG-based biometrics systems extract information (fiducial features) from the characteristics points of an ECG wave. In this article, we propose the use of non-fiducial features via the Hadamard Transform (HT). We show how the use of highly compressed signals (only 24 coefficients of HT) is enough to unequivocally identify individuals with a high performance (classification accuracy of 0.97 and with identification system errors in the order of 10(-2)). PMID:26364201

  8. A Mathematical Model for Segmenting ECG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feier, Horea; Roşu, Doina; Falniţǎ, Lucian; Roşu, Şerban; Pater, Liana

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of the modulus of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for some known mother wavelets like the Morlet wavelet and the Mexican Hat. By exploiting these properties, the models presented can behave as a segmentation/ recognition signal processing tool by modeling the temporal structure of the observed surface ECG.

  9. ECG biometric identification: A compression based approach.

    PubMed

    Bras, Susana; Pinho, Armando J

    2015-08-01

    Using the electrocardiogram signal (ECG) to identify and/or authenticate persons are problems still lacking satisfactory solutions. Yet, ECG possesses characteristics that are unique or difficult to get from other signals used in biometrics: (1) it requires contact and liveliness for acquisition (2) it changes under stress, rendering it potentially useless if acquired under threatening. Our main objective is to present an innovative and robust solution to the above-mentioned problem. To successfully conduct this goal, we rely on information-theoretic data models for data compression and on similarity metrics related to the approximation of the Kolmogorov complexity. The proposed measure allows the comparison of two (or more) ECG segments, without having to follow traditional approaches that require heartbeat segmentation (described as highly influenced by external or internal interferences). As a first approach, the method was able to cluster the data in three groups: identical record, same participant, different participant, by the stratification of the proposed measure with values near 0 for the same participant and closer to 1 for different participants. A leave-one-out strategy was implemented in order to identify the participant in the database based on his/her ECG. A 1NN classifier was implemented, using as distance measure the method proposed in this work. The classifier was able to identify correctly almost all participants, with an accuracy of 99% in the database used. PMID:26737619

  10. Distinct Spatial Patterns of SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria Diversity along a Transect in the Ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    West, Nyree J.; Lepère, Cécile; Manes, Carmem-Lara de O.; Catala, Philippe; Scanlan, David J.; Lebaron, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Distinct distribution patterns of members of the major bacterial clades SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria were observed across a transect from the Marquesas islands through the ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre into the Chilean upwelling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RNA–DNA fingerprinting. Three different Actinobacteria sequence clusters belonging to “Candidatus Actinomarinidae” were localized in the western half of the transect, one was limited to the gyre deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) and sequences affiliated to the OCS155 clade were unique to the upwelling. The structure of the surface bacterial community was highly correlated with water mass and remained similar across the whole central gyre (1300 nautical miles). The surface hyperoligotrophic gyre was dominated (>70% of all sequences) by highly diverse SAR11 and SAR86 operational taxonomic units and these communities were significantly different from those in the DCM. Analysis of 16S rRNA fingerprints generated from RNA allowed insights into the potential activity of assigned bacterial groups. SAR11 and Prochlorococcus showed the highest potential activity in all water masses except for the upwelling, accounting together for 65% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA in the gyre surface waters in equal proportions whereas the contribution of SAR11 decreased significantly at the DCM. PMID:27014192

  11. Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Permenter, Matthew G; Lewis, John A; Jackson, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the processes involved in the toxicity of nickel, cadmium, and chromium at the molecular level and to perform a comparative analysis, H4-II-E-C3 rat liver-derived cell lines were treated with soluble salts of each metal using concentrations derived from viability assays, and gene expression patterns were determined with DNA microarrays. We identified both common and unique biological responses to exposure to the three metals. Nickel, cadmium, chromium all induced oxidative stress with both similar and unique genes and pathways responding to this stress. Although all three metals are known to be genotoxic, evidence for DNA damage in our study only exists in response to chromium. Nickel induced a hypoxic response as well as inducing genes involved in chromatin structure, perhaps by replacing iron in key proteins. Cadmium distinctly perturbed genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and invoked the unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. With these studies, we have completed the first gene expression comparative analysis of nickel, cadmium, and chromium in H4-II-E-C3 cells. PMID:22110744

  12. Distinct Spatial Patterns of SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria Diversity along a Transect in the Ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    West, Nyree J; Lepère, Cécile; Manes, Carmem-Lara de O; Catala, Philippe; Scanlan, David J; Lebaron, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Distinct distribution patterns of members of the major bacterial clades SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria were observed across a transect from the Marquesas islands through the ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre into the Chilean upwelling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RNA-DNA fingerprinting. Three different Actinobacteria sequence clusters belonging to "Candidatus Actinomarinidae" were localized in the western half of the transect, one was limited to the gyre deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) and sequences affiliated to the OCS155 clade were unique to the upwelling. The structure of the surface bacterial community was highly correlated with water mass and remained similar across the whole central gyre (1300 nautical miles). The surface hyperoligotrophic gyre was dominated (>70% of all sequences) by highly diverse SAR11 and SAR86 operational taxonomic units and these communities were significantly different from those in the DCM. Analysis of 16S rRNA fingerprints generated from RNA allowed insights into the potential activity of assigned bacterial groups. SAR11 and Prochlorococcus showed the highest potential activity in all water masses except for the upwelling, accounting together for 65% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA in the gyre surface waters in equal proportions whereas the contribution of SAR11 decreased significantly at the DCM. PMID:27014192

  13. Distinct Spatial Patterns of SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria Diversity along a Transect in the Ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    West, Nyree J; Lepère, Cécile; Manes, Carmem-Lara de O; Catala, Philippe; Scanlan, David J; Lebaron, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Distinct distribution patterns of members of the major bacterial clades SAR11, SAR86, and Actinobacteria were observed across a transect from the Marquesas islands through the ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre into the Chilean upwelling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RNA-DNA fingerprinting. Three different Actinobacteria sequence clusters belonging to "Candidatus Actinomarinidae" were localized in the western half of the transect, one was limited to the gyre deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) and sequences affiliated to the OCS155 clade were unique to the upwelling. The structure of the surface bacterial community was highly correlated with water mass and remained similar across the whole central gyre (1300 nautical miles). The surface hyperoligotrophic gyre was dominated (>70% of all sequences) by highly diverse SAR11 and SAR86 operational taxonomic units and these communities were significantly different from those in the DCM. Analysis of 16S rRNA fingerprints generated from RNA allowed insights into the potential activity of assigned bacterial groups. SAR11 and Prochlorococcus showed the highest potential activity in all water masses except for the upwelling, accounting together for 65% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA in the gyre surface waters in equal proportions whereas the contribution of SAR11 decreased significantly at the DCM.

  14. A mobile device system for early warning of ECG anomalies.

    PubMed

    Szczepański, Adam; Saeed, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context of the authors' work and the proposed aforementioned system. Although parts of the solution were described in earlier publications of the authors, the whole concept is presented completely for the first time along with the prototype implementation on mobile device-a Windows 8 tablet with Modern UI. The system has three main purposes. The first goal is the detection of sudden rapid cardiac malfunctions and informing the people in the patient's surroundings, family and friends and the nearest emergency station about the deteriorating health of the monitored person. The second goal is a monitoring of ECG signals under non-clinical conditions to detect anomalies that are typically not found during diagnostic tests. The third goal is to register and analyze repeatable, long-term disturbances in the regular signal and finding their patterns. PMID:24955946

  15. A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Szczepański, Adam; Saeed, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context of the authors' work and the proposed aforementioned system. Although parts of the solution were described in earlier publications of the authors, the whole concept is presented completely for the first time along with the prototype implementation on mobile device—a Windows 8 tablet with Modern UI. The system has three main purposes. The first goal is the detection of sudden rapid cardiac malfunctions and informing the people in the patient's surroundings, family and friends and the nearest emergency station about the deteriorating health of the monitored person. The second goal is a monitoring of ECG signals under non-clinical conditions to detect anomalies that are typically not found during diagnostic tests. The third goal is to register and analyze repeatable, long-term disturbances in the regular signal and finding their patterns. PMID:24955946

  16. Novel electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Clement, Amanda L; Pins, George D; Swiston, Albert; Riistama, Jarno; Florian, John P; Shykoff, Barbara; Qin, Michael; Chon, Ki H

    2014-06-01

    We have developed hydrophobic electrodes that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for both dry and water-immersed conditions. Our electrode is comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For feasibility testing of the CB/PDMS electrodes, various tests were performed. One of the tests included evaluation of the electrode-to-skin contact impedance for different diameters, thicknesses, and different pressure levels. As expected, the larger the diameter of the electrodes, the lower the impedance and the difference between the large sized CB/PDMS and the similarly-sized Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was at most 200 kΩ, in favor of the latter. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios: a dry surface, water immersion, and postwater immersion conditions. In the dry condition, no statistical differences were found for both the temporal and spectral indices of the heart rate variability analysis between the CB/PDMS and Ag/AgCl hydrogel (p > 0.05) electrodes. During water immersion, there was significant ECG amplitude reduction with CB/PDMS electrodes when compared to wet Ag/AgCl electrodes kept dry by their waterproof adhesive tape, but the reduction was not severe enough to obscure the readability of the recordings, and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible even when motion artifacts were introduced. When water did not penetrate tape-wrapped Ag/AgCl electrodes, high fidelity ECG signals were observed. However, when water penetrated the Ag/AgCl electrodes, the signal quality degraded to the point where ECG morphological waveforms were not discernible.

  17. Novel electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Clement, Amanda L; Pins, George D; Swiston, Albert; Riistama, Jarno; Florian, John P; Shykoff, Barbara; Qin, Michael; Chon, Ki H

    2014-06-01

    We have developed hydrophobic electrodes that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for both dry and water-immersed conditions. Our electrode is comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For feasibility testing of the CB/PDMS electrodes, various tests were performed. One of the tests included evaluation of the electrode-to-skin contact impedance for different diameters, thicknesses, and different pressure levels. As expected, the larger the diameter of the electrodes, the lower the impedance and the difference between the large sized CB/PDMS and the similarly-sized Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was at most 200 kΩ, in favor of the latter. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios: a dry surface, water immersion, and postwater immersion conditions. In the dry condition, no statistical differences were found for both the temporal and spectral indices of the heart rate variability analysis between the CB/PDMS and Ag/AgCl hydrogel (p > 0.05) electrodes. During water immersion, there was significant ECG amplitude reduction with CB/PDMS electrodes when compared to wet Ag/AgCl electrodes kept dry by their waterproof adhesive tape, but the reduction was not severe enough to obscure the readability of the recordings, and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible even when motion artifacts were introduced. When water did not penetrate tape-wrapped Ag/AgCl electrodes, high fidelity ECG signals were observed. However, when water penetrated the Ag/AgCl electrodes, the signal quality degraded to the point where ECG morphological waveforms were not discernible. PMID:24845297

  18. The Development of a Portable ECG Monitor Based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, CHI Jian; Tao, YAN Yan; Meng Chen, LIU; Li, YANG

    With the advent of global information, researches of Smart Home system are in the ascendant, the ECG real-time detection, and wireless transmission of ECG become more useful. In order to achieve the purpose we developed a portable ECG monitor which achieves the purpose of cardiac disease remote monitoring, and will be used in the physical and psychological disease surveillance in smart home system, we developed this portable ECG Monitor, based on the analysis of existing ECG Monitor, using TMS320F2812 as the core controller, which complete the signal collection, storage, processing, waveform display and transmission.

  19. Sparse Matrix for ECG Identification with Two-Lead Features

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Luo, Jiao; Wang, Wenmin; Haiting, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiograph (ECG) human identification has the potential to improve biometric security. However, improvements in ECG identification and feature extraction are required. Previous work has focused on single lead ECG signals. Our work proposes a new algorithm for human identification by mapping two-lead ECG signals onto a two-dimensional matrix then employing a sparse matrix method to process the matrix. And that is the first application of sparse matrix techniques for ECG identification. Moreover, the results of our experiments demonstrate the benefits of our approach over existing methods. PMID:25961074

  20. [Development of multi-function ECG signal generator].

    PubMed

    Cheng, F; Wei, Y X

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a portable multi-function ECG signal generator, which is based on micro-controller. It uses technique of LCD screen, and realizes man-machine interaction by keyboard. In constructing and disposing data module of the ECG signal, Eigen-heartbeat Code mapping method gets ROM saved greatly. Therefore it can generate all kinds of user-defined ECG signal sequence with no extension of on-board memory chips. This system can also simulate kinds of ECG signals, which have various heart rates and symptoms. It can meet the needs of researching and maintenance of kinds of ECG instruments. PMID:12583134

  1. Physical activities recognition from ambulatory ECG signals using neuro-fuzzy classifiers and support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Kher, Rahul; Pawar, Tanmay; Thakar, Vishvjit; Shah, Hitesh

    2015-02-01

    The use of wearable recorders for long-term monitoring of physiological parameters has increased in the last few years. The ambulatory electrocardiogram (A-ECG) signals of five healthy subjects with four body movements or physical activities (PA)-left arm up down, right arm up down, waist twisting and walking-have been recorded using a wearable ECG recorder. The classification of these four PAs has been performed using neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) and support vector machines (SVM). The PA classification is based on the distinct, time-frequency features of the extracted motion artifacts contained in recorded A-ECG signals. The motion artifacts in A-ECG signals have been separated first by the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the time-frequency features of these motion artifacts have then been extracted using the Gabor transform. The Gabor energy feature vectors have been fed to the NFC and SVM classifiers. Both the classifiers have achieved a PA classification accuracy of over 95% for all subjects. PMID:25641014

  2. Seasonal patterns in nutrients, carbon, and algal responses in wadeable streams within three geographically distinct areas of the United States, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Lorenz, David L.; Petersen, James C.; Greene, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey determined seasonal variability in nutrients, carbon, and algal biomass in 22 wadeable streams over a 1-year period during 2007 or 2008 within three geographically distinct areas in the United States. The three areas are the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMIS) in Minnesota, the Ozark Plateaus (ORZK) in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, and the Upper Snake River Basin (USNK) in southern Idaho. Seasonal patterns in some constituent concentrations and algal responses were distinct. Nitrate concentrations were greatest during the winter in all study areas potentially because of a reduction in denitrification rates and algal uptake during the winter, along with reduced surface runoff. Decreases in nitrate concentrations during the spring and summer at most stream sites coincided with increased streamflow during the snowmelt runoff or spring storms indicating dilution. The continued decrease in nitrate concentrations during summer potentially is because of a reduction in nitrate inputs (from decreased surface runoff) or increases in biological uptake. In contrast to nitrate concentrations, ammonia concentrations varied among study areas. Ammonia concentration trends were similar at UMIS and USNK sampling sites with winter peak concentrations and rapid decreases in ammonia concentrations by spring or early summer. In contrast, ammonia concentrations at OZRK sampling sites were more variable with peak concentrations later in the year. Ammonia may accumulate in stream water in the winter under ice and snow cover at the UMIS and USNK sites because of limited algal metabolism and increased mineralization of decaying organic matter under reducing conditions within stream bottom sediments. Phosphorus concentration patterns and the type of phosphorus present changes with changing hydrologic conditions and seasons and varied among study areas. Orthophosphate concentrations tended to be greater in the summer at UMIS sites, whereas total

  3. Distinctive Patterns of Initially Presenting Metastases and Clinical Outcomes According to the Histological Subtypes in Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yeon S.; Kay, Chul S.; Kim, Sung H.; Yeo, Chang D.; Kim, Jin W.; Kim, Seung Joon; Kim, Young K.; Ko, Yoon H.; Kang, Jin H.; Lee, Kyo Y.

    2016-01-01

    /neck metastasis (P = 0.006), and treatment factors (P < 0.001) remained independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival. We observed distinctive patterns of primary metastases and clinical outcomes according to the histological subtypes in stage IV NSCLC. Future studies need to disclose the underlying mechanism of these unique metastatic features and tumor biologies. PMID:26871841

  4. Distinct Patterns of Association of Variants at 11q23.3 Chromosomal Region with Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia in the Population of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arramraju Sreenivas; Anuj, Kapadia; Vishnupriya, Satti

    2016-01-01

    In our attempt to comprehensively understand the nature of association of variants at 11q23.3 apolipoprotein gene cluster region, we genotyped a prioritized set of 96 informative SNPs using Fluidigm customized SNP genotyping platform in a sample of 508 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 516 controls. We found 12 SNPs as significantly associated with CAD at P <0.05, albeit only four (rs2849165, rs17440396, rs6589566 and rs633389) of these remained significant after Benjamin Hochberg correction. Of the four, while rs6589566 confers risk to CAD, the other three SNPs reduce risk for the disease. Interaction of variants that belong to regulatory genes BUD13 and ZPR1 with APOA5-APOA4 intergenic variants is also observed to significantly increase the risk towards CAD. Further, ROC analysis of the risk scores of the 12 significant SNPs suggests that our study has substantial power to confer these genetic variants as predictors of risk for CAD, as illustrated by AUC (0.763; 95% CI: 0.729–0.798, p = <0.0001). On the other hand, the protective SNPs of CAD are associated with elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol levels, hence with dyslipidemia, in our sample of controls, which may suggest distinct effects of the variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region towards CAD and dyslipidemia. It may be necessary to replicate these findings in the independent and ethnically heterogeneous Indian samples in order to establish this as an Indian pattern. However, only functional analysis of the significant variants identified in our study can provide more precise understanding of the mechanisms involved in the contrasting nature of their effects in manifesting dyslipidemia and CAD. PMID:27257688

  5. A Liver-Specific Defect of Acyl-CoA Degradation Produces Hyperammonemia, Hypoglycemia and a Distinct Hepatic Acyl-CoA Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Nicolas; Wu, Jiang Wei; Wang, Shu Pei; Allard, Pierre; Mamer, Orval A.; Sweetman, Lawrence; Moser, Ann B.; Kratz, Lisa; Alvarez, Fernando; Robitaille, Yves; Lépine, François; Mitchell, Grant A.

    2013-01-01

    Most conditions detected by expanded newborn screening result from deficiency of one of the enzymes that degrade acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) esters in mitochondria. The role of acyl-CoAs in the pathophysiology of these disorders is poorly understood, in part because CoA esters are intracellular and samples are not generally available from human patients. We created a mouse model of one such condition, deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL), in liver (HLLKO mice). HL catalyses a reaction of ketone body synthesis and of leucine degradation. Chronic HL deficiency and acute crises each produced distinct abnormal liver acyl-CoA patterns, which would not be predictable from levels of urine organic acids and plasma acylcarnitines. In HLLKO hepatocytes, ketogenesis was undetectable. Carboxylation of [2-14C] pyruvate diminished following incubation of HLLKO hepatocytes with the leucine metabolite 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC). HLLKO mice also had suppression of the normal hyperglycemic response to a systemic pyruvate load, a measure of gluconeogenesis. Hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia, cardinal features of many inborn errors of acyl-CoA metabolism, occurred spontaneously in some HLLKO mice and were inducible by administering KIC. KIC loading also increased levels of several leucine-related acyl-CoAs and reduced acetyl-CoA levels. Ultrastructurally, hepatocyte mitochondria of KIC-treated HLLKO mice show marked swelling. KIC-induced hyperammonemia improved following administration of carglumate (N-carbamyl-L-glutamic acid), which substitutes for the product of an acetyl-CoA-dependent reaction essential for urea cycle function, demonstrating an acyl-CoA-related mechanism for this complication. PMID:23861731

  6. Case study of ECG signal used as a reference signal in optical pulse transit time measurement of blood flow: the effect of different electrode placements on pulse transit time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Vihriälä, Erkki V.; Korhonen, Vesa O.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.

    2013-02-01

    The electrocardiography (ECG) signal is often used as a reference signal when calculating pulse transit times (PTT) measured by photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensors. In addition, ECG measurements are widely used in clinical health monitoring. In clinical measurements, small changes in the time delays of R waves in relation to blood flow pulsations between each ECG measurement are not relevant. In most cases, they would not even be observed, due to the rather low sampling rates used in clinical ECG devices. However, in PTT measurements, where time delays are measured with an accuracy of milliseconds, the placement of ECG electrodes can have a distinct effect on the results. This paper presents case studies of ECG signals measured simultaneously and independently by two ECG devices. We explore what effect different placements of ECG electrodes have on the R wave of the QRS complex and how it should be taken into account when used as a reference signal in pulse transit time measurements of blood flow. Additionally, we study what kind of ECG electrode placements are most suitable for PTT measurements.

  7. Microprocessor-Based Ambulatory ECG Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Le-Huy, P.; L'Huillier, J.P.; Oumerzouk, Y.; Yvroud, E.

    1983-01-01

    Ambulatory monitoring of electrocardiograms (ECGs) was facilitated by the introduction of Holter method in the early '60s. Since this time, many researchs have been undertaken in order to improve the overall performances of the recorder and analyser, two unseparated parts of this method. The principal drawbacks of Holter method are well-known: • Recording of ECG is based on the assumption that the arrhythmia of interest will be occurred in monitoring period. • Analysis and arrhythmia detection could be processed only after the monitoring period. This is a time-consuming and tedious job, and subjected to human error. • Process “Recording-Play-back - Analysis - Diagnosis” takes usually many days. In this paper, the design of a microprocessor - based portable recorder will be described. The analysis and classification of arrhythmia are processed immediately upon their occurrence according to a look-up table, which could be programmed to suit a particular need.

  8. Single frequency RF powered ECG telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. H.; Hynecek, J.; Homa, J.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a radio frequency magnetic field can be used to power implanted electronic circuitry for short range telemetry to replace batteries. A substantial reduction in implanted volume can be achieved by using only one RF tank circuit for receiving the RF power and transmitting the telemetered information. A single channel telemetry system of this type, using time sharing techniques, was developed and employed to transmit the ECG signal from Rhesus monkeys in primate chairs. The signal from the implant is received during the period when the RF powering radiation is interrupted. The ECG signal is carried by 20-microsec pulse position modulated pulses, referred to the trailing edge of the RF powering pulse. Satisfactory results have been obtained with this single frequency system. The concept and the design presented may be useful for short-range long-term implant telemetry systems.

  9. To decide medical therapy according to ECG criteria in patients with supraventricular tachycardia in emergency department: adenosine or diltiazem

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Halil; Ozucelik, Dogac Niyazi; Aciksari, Kurtulus; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Okutan, Nursel; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Avyaci, Baris Murat; Simsek, Cem; Ozasir, Derya; Giray, Tufan Akin; Ayan, Cem; Celikmen, Feridun; Okuturlar, Yıldız; Sarikaya, Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ECG criteria which are used for the distinction between AVNRT and AVRT for the choice of treatment in patients with Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT). The 77 patients with narrow QRS complex SVT which was treated with Adenosine or Diltiazem in the Emergency Department were evaluated retrospectively. All 12-lead ECG during tachycardia were blindly reviewed according to ECG criteria (Pseudo-r` in V1, Pseudo-S-wave in the inferior leads, Visible P-wave, aVL notch) by a cardiologist and an emergency physician. In this study, while 59.6% of the patients returned to normal sinus rhythm (NSR) after the first dose 6 mg, 64.91% of them after the first dose 12 mg and 71.92% of them after the second dose of 12 mg adenosine, 95% of the patients returned to NSR after the 0.25 mg/kg diltiazem. The most visible ECG findings were visible P waves and the least visible ECG findings were Pseudo-S waves in the inferior leads. It was statistically significant between converted by adenosine to NSR and converted by diltiazem to NSR to the presence of visible P-wave and the aVL lead notch in their ECG findings. Conclusion: The rate of return to NSR through diltiazem was found higher than that of adenosine in narrow complex SVT patients. Also, diltiazem may be the first medication to be preferred in the presence of retrograt P wave and aVL notch in the ECG of the patients with narrow QRS complex stable SVT. PMID:26309644

  10. Epileptic seizure onset detection based on EEG and ECG data fusion.

    PubMed

    Qaraqe, Marwa; Ismail, Muhammad; Serpedin, Erchin; Zulfi, Haneef

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel method for seizure onset detection using fused information extracted from multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) and single-channel electrocardiogram (ECG). In existing seizure detectors, the analysis of the nonlinear and nonstationary ECG signal is limited to the time-domain or frequency-domain. In this work, heart rate variability (HRV) extracted from ECG is analyzed using a Matching-Pursuit (MP) and Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) algorithm in order to effectively extract meaningful HRV features representative of seizure and nonseizure states. The EEG analysis relies on a common spatial pattern (CSP) based feature enhancement stage that enables better discrimination between seizure and nonseizure features. The EEG-based detector uses logical operators to pool SVM seizure onset detections made independently across different EEG spectral bands. Two fusion systems are adopted. In the first system, EEG-based and ECG-based decisions are directly fused to obtain a final decision. The second fusion system adopts an override option that allows for the EEG-based decision to override the fusion-based decision in the event that the detector observes a string of EEG-based seizure decisions. The proposed detectors exhibit an improved performance, with respect to sensitivity and detection latency, compared with the state-of-the-art detectors. Experimental results demonstrate that the second detector achieves a sensitivity of 100%, detection latency of 2.6s, and a specificity of 99.91% for the MAJ fusion case. PMID:27057745

  11. Genome-wide identification and characterization of TRAF genes in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and their distinct expression patterns in response to bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Ruijia; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Mengran; Ma, Xiaoli; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Meiwei; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-11-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factors (TRAFs) are the major signal transducers for the TNF receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) superfamily, which regulate a variety of cellular activities and innate immune responses. TRAF genes have been extensively studied in various species, including vertebrates and invertebrates. However, as one of the key component of NF-κB pathway, TRAF genes have not been systematically characterized in marine invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized five TRAF genes, PyTRAF2, PyTRAF3, PyTRAF4, PyTRAF6 and PyTRAF7, in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). Phylogenetic and protein structural analyses were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships. In comparison with the TRAF genes from vertebrate species, the structural features were all relatively conserved in the PyTRAF genes. To gain insights into the roles of TRAF genes during scallop innate immune responses, quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate the expression profiles in the different stages of scallop development, in the healthy adult tissues, and in the hemocytes after bacterial infection with Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum. Based on the qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of most of the PyTRAFs was significantly induced in the acute phases (3-6 h) after infection with Gram-positive (M. luteus) and Gram-negative (V. anguillarum) bacteria, and many more dramatic changes in PyTRAFs expression were observed after V. anguillarum challenge. Notably, the strong response in the up-regulation of PyTRAF6 post-bacterial challenge was distinct from that previously reported in scallops and crabs but was similar to that of other shellfish, Echinodermata and even teleost fish. The high level expressions of PyTRAFs in the hemocytes and the gill, and their specific expression patterns after challenges provide insights into the versatile roles and responses

  12. Distinct Patterns of IgG and IgA against Food and Microbial Antigens in Serum and Feces of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Frehn, Lisa; Jansen, Anke; Bennek, Eveline; Mandic, Ana D.; Temizel, Ilknur; Tischendorf, Stefanie; Verdier, Julien; Tacke, Frank; Streetz, Konrad; Trautwein, Christian; Sellge, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a defective intestinal barrier and enhanced adaptive immune responses against commensal microbiota. Immune responses against food antigens in IBD patients remain poorly defined. Methods IgG and IgA specific for food and microfloral antigens (wheat and milk extracts; purified ovalbumin; Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis lysates; mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were analyzed by ELISA in the serum and feces of patients with Crohn's disease (CD; n = 52 for serum and n = 20 for feces), ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 29; n = 17), acute gastroenteritis/colitis (AGE; n = 12; n = 9) as well as non-inflammatory controls (n = 61; n = 39). Results Serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and anti-B. fragilis IgG and IgA levels were increased in CD patients whereas antibody (Ab) levels against E. coli and food antigens were not significantly different within the patient groups and controls. Subgroup analysis revealed that CD patients with severe diseases defined by stricturing and penetrating lesions have slightly higher anti-food and anti-microbial IgA levels whereas CD and UC patients with arthropathy have decreased anti-food IgG levels. Treatment with anti-TNF-α Abs in CD patients was associated with significantly decreased ASCA IgG and IgA and anti-E. coli IgG. In the feces specific IgG levels against all antigens were higher in CD and AGE patients while specific IgA levels were higher in non-IBD patients. Anti-food IgG and IgA levels did not correlate with food intolerance. Summary In contrast to anti-microbial Abs, we found only minor changes in serum anti-food Ab levels in specific subgroups of IBD patients. Fecal Ab levels towards microbial and food antigens show distinct patterns in controls, CD and UC patients. PMID:25215528

  13. Patient-specific ECG beat classification technique.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab K; Ari, Samit

    2014-09-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) beat classification plays an important role in the timely diagnosis of the critical heart condition. An automated diagnostic system is proposed to classify five types of ECG classes, namely normal (N), ventricular ectopic beat (V), supra ventricular ectopic beat (S), fusion (F) and unknown (Q) as recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). The proposed method integrates the Stockwell transform (ST), a bacteria foraging optimisation (BFO) algorithm and a least mean square (LMS)-based multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The ST is utilised to extract the important morphological features which are concatenated with four timing features. The resultant combined feature vector is optimised by removing the redundant and irrelevant features using the BFO algorithm. The optimised feature vector is applied to the LMS-based multiclass SVM classifier for automated diagnosis. In the proposed technique, the LMS algorithm is used to modify the Lagrange multiplier, which in turn modifies the weight vector to minimise the classification error. The updated weights are used during the testing phase to classify ECG beats. The classification performances are evaluated using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Average accuracy and sensitivity performances of the proposed system for V detection are 98.6% and 91.7%, respectively, and for S detections, 98.2% and 74.7%, respectively over the entire database. To generalise the capability, the classification performance is also evaluated using the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics (INCART) database. The proposed technique performs better than other reported heartbeat techniques, with results suggesting better generalisation capability.

  14. First in-depth analysis of the novel Th2-type cytokines in salmonid fish reveals distinct patterns of expression and modulation but overlapping bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiehui; Johansson, Petronella; Abós, Beatriz; Holt, Amy; Tafalla, Carolina; Jiang, Youshen; Wang, Alex; Xu, Qiaoqing; Qi, Zhitao; Huang, Wenshu; Costa, Maria M.; Diaz-Rosales, Patricia; Holland, Jason W.; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are closely related canonical type-2 cytokines in mammals and have overlapping bioactivities via shared receptors. They are frequently activated together as part of the same immune response and are the signature cytokines produced by T-helper (Th)2 cells and type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), mediating immunity against extracellular pathogens. Little is known about the origin of type-2 responses, and whether they were an essential component of the early adaptive immune system that gave a fitness advantage by limiting collateral damage caused by metazoan parasites. Two evolutionary related type-2 cytokines, IL-4/13A and IL-4/13B, have been identified recently in several teleost fish that likely arose by duplication of an ancestral IL-4/13 gene as a consequence of a whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of this lineage. However, studies of their comparative expression levels are largely missing and bioactivity analysis has been limited to IL-4/13A in zebrafish. Through interrogation of the recently released salmonid genomes, species in which an additional whole genome duplication event has occurred, four genomic IL-4/13 loci have been identified leading to the cloning of three active genes, IL-4/13A, IL-4/13B1 and IL-4/13B2, in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Comparative expression analysis by real-time PCR in rainbow trout revealed that the IL-4/13A expression is broad and high constitutively but less responsive to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and pathogen challenge. In contrast, the expression of IL-4/13B1 and IL-4/13B2 is low constitutively but is highly induced by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSH) infection and during proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in vivo, and by formalin-killed bacteria, PAMPs, the T cell mitogen PHA, and the T-cell cytokines IL-2 and IL-21 in vitro. Moreover, bioactive recombinant cytokines of both IL-4/13A and B were produced and found to have shared but also distinct

  15. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication. PMID:25836061

  16. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication.

  17. Compression of ECG signals using variable-length classifıed vector sets and wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkan, Hakan

    2012-12-01

    In this article, an improved and more efficient algorithm for the compression of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is presented, which combines the processes of modeling ECG signal by variable-length classified signature and envelope vector sets (VL-CSEVS), and residual error coding via wavelet transform. In particular, we form the VL-CSEVS derived from the ECG signals, which exploits the relationship between energy variation and clinical information. The VL-CSEVS are unique patterns generated from many of thousands of ECG segments of two different lengths obtained by the energy based segmentation method, then they are presented to both the transmitter and the receiver used in our proposed compression system. The proposed algorithm is tested on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and MIT-BIH Compression Test Database and its performance is evaluated by using some evaluation metrics such as the percentage root-mean-square difference (PRD), modified PRD (MPRD), maximum error, and clinical evaluation. Our experimental results imply that our proposed algorithm achieves high compression ratios with low level reconstruction error while preserving the diagnostic information in the reconstructed ECG signal, which has been supported by the clinical tests that we have carried out.

  18. Distinct Pattern Separation Related Transfer Functions in Human CA3/Dentate and CA1 Revealed Using High-Resolution fMRI and Variable Mnemonic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Joyce W.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Shauna M.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Producing and maintaining distinct (orthogonal) neural representations for similar events is critical to avoiding interference in long-term memory. Recently, our laboratory provided the first evidence for separation-like signals in the human CA3/dentate. Here, we extended this by parametrically varying the change in input (similarity) while…

  19. Defining multiple, distinct, and shared spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication and endoreduplication from 3D image analysis of developing maize (Zea mays L.) root tip nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bass, Hank W; Hoffman, Gregg G; Lee, Tae-Jin; Wear, Emily E; Joseph, Stacey R; Allen, George C; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Thompson, William F

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication have been described for yeast and many types of cultured animal cells, frequently after cell cycle arrest to aid in synchronization. However, patterns of DNA replication in nuclei from plants or naturally developing organs remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report findings from 3D quantitative analysis of DNA replication and endoreduplication in nuclei from pulse-labeled developing maize root tips. In both early and middle S phase nuclei, flow-sorted on the basis of DNA content, replicative labeling was widely distributed across euchromatic regions of the nucleoplasm. We did not observe the perinuclear or perinucleolar replicative labeling patterns characteristic of middle S phase in mammals. Instead, the early versus middle S phase patterns in maize could be distinguished cytologically by correlating two quantitative, continuous variables, replicative labeling and DAPI staining. Early S nuclei exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling preferentially localized to regions with weak DAPI signals. Middle S nuclei also exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling, but the label was preferentially localized to regions with strong DAPI signals. Highly condensed heterochromatin, including knobs, replicated during late S phase as previously reported. Similar spatiotemporal replication patterns were observed for both mitotic and endocycling maize nuclei. These results revealed that maize euchromatin exists as an intermingled mixture of two components distinguished by their condensation state and replication timing. These different patterns might reflect a previously described genome organization pattern, with "gene islands" mostly replicating during early S phase followed by most of the intergenic repetitive regions replicating during middle S phase.

  20. The evolution of ambulatory ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Harold L

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring has undergone continuous technological evolution since its invention and development in the 1950s era. With commercial introduction in 1963, there has been an evolution of Holter recorders from 1 channel to 12 channel recorders with increasingly smaller storage media, and there has evolved Holter analysis systems employing increasingly technologically advanced electronics providing a myriad of data displays. This evolution of smaller physical instruments with increasing technological capacity has characterized the development of electronics over the past 50 years. Currently the technology has been focused upon the conventional continuous 24 to 48 hour ambulatory ECG examination, and conventional extended ambulatory monitoring strategies for infrequent to rare arrhythmic events. However, the emergence of the Internet, Wi-Fi, cellular networks, and broad-band transmission has positioned these modalities at the doorway of the digital world. This has led to an adoption of more cost-effective strategies to these conventional methods of performing the examination. As a result, the emergence of the mobile smartphone coupled with this digital capacity is leading to the recent development of Holter smartphone applications. The potential of point-of-care applications utilizing the Holter smartphone and a vast array of new non-invasive sensors is evident in the not too distant future. The Holter smartphone is anticipated to contribute significantly in the future to the field of global health. PMID:24215744

  1. Multiprocessor system for Holter tape analysis (ECG)

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.L.; Hubelbank, M.; Valvo, V.; Lane, B.

    1983-01-01

    Although techniques for recording and analyzing longterm ambulatory ECGS have been in existence for more than 20 years, the clinical usefulness and frequency of application of the technique continue to grow at an extraordinary rate. To meet the need for faster, more efficient processing of Holter tapes and the growing requirement that the analysis of the tape be quantitatively accurate, a new Holter analysis system has been developed. This system is built around two LSI11 microprocessors and a special purpose byte processor which incorporates an AMD 2903 bit slice chip. It includes 30 MB of mass storage and an impact printer with alphanumeric and graphic capabilities. In a test which included 55 separate readings of 34 12- or 24-hour tapes, correlations with hand counts of vpbs was greater than .99. The system processes either cassette or reel-to-reel tapes at 120* with simultaneous print/process capabilities, has a variety of user interactive displays to assure continuous operator validation, is remarkably nonfatiguing to operate, and automatically produces reports with tables, graphs, and sample ECG strips. 8 references.

  2. Microprocessor Based Real-Time Monitoring of Multiple ECG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Nasipuri, M.; Basu, D.K.; Dattagupta, R.; Kundu, M.; Banerjee, S.

    1987-01-01

    A microprocessor based system capable of realtime monitoring of multiple ECG signals has been described. The system consists of a number of microprocessors connected in a hierarchical fashion and capable of working concurrently on ECG data collected from different channels. The system can monitor different arrhythmic abnormalities for at least 36 patients even for a heart rate of 500 beats/min.

  3. Empirical mode decomposition of the ECG signal for noise removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Jesmin; Bhuiyan, Sharif; Murphy, Gregory; Alam, Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Electrocardiography is a diagnostic procedure for the detection and diagnosis of heart abnormalities. The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal contains important information that is utilized by physicians for the diagnosis and analysis of heart diseases. So good quality ECG signal plays a vital role for the interpretation and identification of pathological, anatomical and physiological aspects of the whole cardiac muscle. However, the ECG signals are corrupted by noise which severely limit the utility of the recorded ECG signal for medical evaluation. The most common noise presents in the ECG signal is the high frequency noise caused by the forces acting on the electrodes. In this paper, we propose a new ECG denoising method based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The proposed method is able to enhance the ECG signal upon removing the noise with minimum signal distortion. Simulation is done on the MIT-BIH database to verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. Experiments show that the presented method offers very good results to remove noise from the ECG signal.

  4. Atrial fibrillation disorganization is reduced by catheter ablation: a standard ECG study.

    PubMed

    Bonizzi, Pietro; Meste, Olivier; Zarzoso, Vicente; Latcu, Decebal Gabriel; Popescu, Irina; Ricard, Philippe; Saoudi, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    Selection of candidates to catheter ablation (CA) of long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is challenging, since success is not guaranteed. In this study, we put forward an automated method for noninvasively evaluating the reduction of the complexity of the AF organization following CA. Complexity is meant as the amount of disorganization observed on the ECG, supposed to be directly correlated to the number and interactions of atrial wavefronts. By means of PCA, the complexity of the AF organization is evaluated quantitatively from a 12-lead ECG recording. Preliminary results show that CA is able to reduce the complexity of AF organization in the atrial wavefront pattern propagation, despite the persistence of AF in most cases. This can be viewed as a first clinical validation of this parameter. Whether AF complexity and its reduction by CA are predictive of long-term outcome is thus still to be determined.

  5. Improving ECG Classification Accuracy Using an Ensemble of Neural Network Modules

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Mehrdad; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Sajedin, Atena; Faridi, Soheil; Zakernejad, Shokoufeh

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of a combined neural network model based on Stacked Generalization method for classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) beats. In conventional Stacked Generalization method, the combiner learns to map the base classifiers' outputs to the target data. We claim adding the input pattern to the base classifiers' outputs helps the combiner to obtain knowledge about the input space and as the result, performs better on the same task. Experimental results support our claim that the additional knowledge according to the input space, improves the performance of the proposed method which is called Modified Stacked Generalization. In particular, for classification of 14966 ECG beats that were not previously seen during training phase, the Modified Stacked Generalization method reduced the error rate for 12.41% in comparison with the best of ten popular classifier fusion methods including Max, Min, Average, Product, Majority Voting, Borda Count, Decision Templates, Weighted Averaging based on Particle Swarm Optimization and Stacked Generalization. PMID:22046232

  6. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance. PMID:25570031

  7. ECG Signal Analysis and Arrhythmia Detection using Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Inderbir; Rajni, Rajni; Marwaha, Anupma

    2016-06-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is used to record the electrical activity of the heart. The ECG signal being non-stationary in nature, makes the analysis and interpretation of the signal very difficult. Hence accurate analysis of ECG signal with a powerful tool like discrete wavelet transform (DWT) becomes imperative. In this paper, ECG signal is denoised to remove the artifacts and analyzed using Wavelet Transform to detect the QRS complex and arrhythmia. This work is implemented in MATLAB software for MIT/BIH Arrhythmia database and yields the sensitivity of 99.85 %, positive predictivity of 99.92 % and detection error rate of 0.221 % with wavelet transform. It is also inferred that DWT outperforms principle component analysis technique in detection of ECG signal.

  8. Noncontact ECG system for unobtrusive long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Neil J; Anumula, Harini A; Duff, Eric; Soussou, Walid

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes measurements made using an ECG system with QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrodes integrated into a pad system that is placed over a chair. QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrode has the property of measuring bioelectric potentials at a small separation from the body. This enables the measurement of ECG signals through fabric, without the removal of clothing or preparation of skin. The ECG was measured through the subject's clothing while the subject sat in the chair without any supporting action from the subject. The ECG pad system is an example of a high compliance system that places minimal requirements upon the subject and, consequently, can be used to generate a long-term record from ECG segments collected on a daily basis, providing valuable information on long-term trends in cardiac health.

  9. A capacitive ECG array with visual patient feedback.

    PubMed

    Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Schommartz, Antje; Walter, Marian; Wartzek, Tobias; Czaplik, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) sensing is a promising technique for less constraining vital signal measurement and close to a commercial application. Even bigger trials testing the diagnostic significance were already done with single lead systems. Anyway, most applications to be found in research are limited to one channel and thus limited in its diagnostic relevance as only diseases coming along with a change of the heart rate can be diagnosed adequately. As a consequence the need for capacitive multi-channel ECGs combining the diagnostic relevance and the advantages of capacitive ECG sensing emerges. This paper introduces a capacitive ECG measurement system which allows the recording of standardized ECG leads according to Einthoven and Goldberger by means of an electrode array with nine electrodes.

  10. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  11. A novel similarity comparison approach for dynamic ECG series.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Zhu, Xiaoqian; Ma, Shaodong; Yang, Shuqiang; Chen, Liqian

    2015-01-01

    The heart sound signal is a reflection of heart and vascular system motion. Long-term continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) contains important information which can be helpful to prevent heart failure. A single piece of a long-term ECG recording usually consists of more than one hundred thousand data points in length, making it difficult to derive hidden features that may be reflected through dynamic ECG monitoring, which is also very time-consuming to analyze. In this paper, a Dynamic Time Warping based on MapReduce (MRDTW) is proposed to make prognoses of possible lesions in patients. Through comparison of a real-time ECG of a patient with the reference sets of normal and problematic cardiac waveforms, the experimental results reveal that our approach not only retains high accuracy, but also greatly improves the efficiency of the similarity measure in dynamic ECG series.

  12. Sequential Total Variation Denoising for the Extraction of Fetal ECG from Single-Channel Maternal Abdominal ECG

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Jin; Lee, Boreom

    2016-01-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) is an important determinant of fetal health. Cardiotocography (CTG) is widely used for measuring the FHR in the clinical field. However, fetal movement and blood flow through the maternal blood vessels can critically influence Doppler ultrasound signals. Moreover, CTG is not suitable for long-term monitoring. Therefore, researchers have been developing algorithms to estimate the FHR using electrocardiograms (ECGs) from the abdomen of pregnant women. However, separating the weak fetal ECG signal from the abdominal ECG signal is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the FHR using sequential total variation denoising and compare its performance with that of other single-channel fetal ECG extraction methods via simulation using the Fetal ECG Synthetic Database (FECGSYNDB). Moreover, we used real data from PhysioNet fetal ECG databases for the evaluation of the algorithm performance. The R-peak detection rate is calculated to evaluate the performance of our algorithm. Our approach could not only separate the fetal ECG signals from the abdominal ECG signals but also accurately estimate the FHR. PMID:27376296

  13. Defining multiple, distinct, and shared spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication and endoreduplication from 3D image analysis of developing maize (Zea mays L.) root tip nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bass, Hank W; Hoffman, Gregg G; Lee, Tae-Jin; Wear, Emily E; Joseph, Stacey R; Allen, George C; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Thompson, William F

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication have been described for yeast and many types of cultured animal cells, frequently after cell cycle arrest to aid in synchronization. However, patterns of DNA replication in nuclei from plants or naturally developing organs remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report findings from 3D quantitative analysis of DNA replication and endoreduplication in nuclei from pulse-labeled developing maize root tips. In both early and middle S phase nuclei, flow-sorted on the basis of DNA content, replicative labeling was widely distributed across euchromatic regions of the nucleoplasm. We did not observe the perinuclear or perinucleolar replicative labeling patterns characteristic of middle S phase in mammals. Instead, the early versus middle S phase patterns in maize could be distinguished cytologically by correlating two quantitative, continuous variables, replicative labeling and DAPI staining. Early S nuclei exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling preferentially localized to regions with weak DAPI signals. Middle S nuclei also exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling, but the label was preferentially localized to regions with strong DAPI signals. Highly condensed heterochromatin, including knobs, replicated during late S phase as previously reported. Similar spatiotemporal replication patterns were observed for both mitotic and endocycling maize nuclei. These results revealed that maize euchromatin exists as an intermingled mixture of two components distinguished by their condensation state and replication timing. These different patterns might reflect a previously described genome organization pattern, with "gene islands" mostly replicating during early S phase followed by most of the intergenic repetitive regions replicating during middle S phase. PMID:26394866

  14. Preprocessing and Analysis of Digitized ECGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalpando, L. E. Piña; Kurmyshev, E.; Ramírez, S. Luna; Leal, L. Delgado

    2008-08-01

    In this work we propose a methodology and programs in MatlabTM that perform the preprocessing and analysis of the derivative D1 of ECGs. The program makes the correction to isoelectric line for each beat, calculates the average cardiac frequency and its standard deviation, generates a file of amplitude of P, Q and T waves, as well as the segments and intervals important of each beat. Software makes the normalization of beats to a standard rate of 80 beats per minute, the superposition of beats is done centering R waves, before and after normalizing the amplitude of each beat. The data and graphics provide relevant information to the doctor for diagnosis. In addition, some results are displayed similar to those presented by a Holter recording.

  15. Performance characterstics of a commerical ECG gate

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.; Cavailloles, F.; Ritchie, J.L.; Williams, D.L.; Hamilton, G.W.

    1980-04-01

    A commercial ECG gate was tested to evaluate its ability to predict accurately the time of end-systole. The predicted times followed the manufacturer's specifications quite well. These times were compared with the actual times of end-systole as determined by computer-derived left-ventricular time-activity curves using Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells. Although there was moderate scatter, the predicted times of end-systole correlated well with the actual time (n = 59, r = 0.829). If the left-ventricular ejection fraction was calculated using the predicted time of end-systole, the error would be 0.03, or less, for 95% of the subjects.

  16. Distinct pattern separation related transfer functions in human CA3/dentate and CA1 revealed using high-resolution fMRI and variable mnemonic similarity

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Joyce W.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Shauna M.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Producing and maintaining distinct (orthogonal) neural representations for similar events is critical to avoiding interference in long-term memory. Recently, our laboratory provided the first evidence for separation-like signals in the human CA3/dentate. Here, we extended this by parametrically varying the change in input (similarity) while monitoring CA1 and CA3/dentate for separation and completion-like signals using high-resolution fMRI. In the CA1, activity varied in a graded fashion in response to increases in the change in input. In contrast, the CA3/dentate showed a stepwise transfer function that was highly sensitive to small changes in input. PMID:21164173

  17. Variable threshold method for ECG R-peak detection.

    PubMed

    Kew, Hsein-Ping; Jeong, Do-Un

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a wearable belt-type ECG electrode worn around the chest by measuring the real-time ECG is produced in order to minimize the inconvenient in wearing. ECG signal is detected using a potential instrument system. The measured ECG signal is transmits via an ultra low power consumption wireless data communications unit to personal computer using Zigbee-compatible wireless sensor node. ECG signals carry a lot of clinical information for a cardiologist especially the R-peak detection in ECG. R-peak detection generally uses the threshold value which is fixed. There will be errors in peak detection when the baseline changes due to motion artifacts and signal size changes. Preprocessing process which includes differentiation process and Hilbert transform is used as signal preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, variable threshold method is used to detect the R-peak which is more accurate and efficient than fixed threshold value method. R-peak detection using MIT-BIH databases and Long Term Real-Time ECG is performed in this research in order to evaluate the performance analysis.

  18. ECG signals denoising using wavelet transform and independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Manjin; Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Zhu; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    A method of two channel exercise electrocardiograms (ECG) signals denoising based on wavelet transform and independent component analysis is proposed in this paper. First of all, two channel exercise ECG signals are acquired. We decompose these two channel ECG signals into eight layers and add up the useful wavelet coefficients separately, getting two channel ECG signals with no baseline drift and other interference components. However, it still contains electrode movement noise, power frequency interference and other interferences. Secondly, we use these two channel ECG signals processed and one channel signal constructed manually to make further process with independent component analysis, getting the separated ECG signal. We can see the residual noises are removed effectively. Finally, comparative experiment is made with two same channel exercise ECG signals processed directly with independent component analysis and the method this paper proposed, which shows the indexes of signal to noise ratio (SNR) increases 21.916 and the root mean square error (MSE) decreases 2.522, proving the method this paper proposed has high reliability.

  19. Diagnostic Role of ECG Recording Simultaneously With EEG Testing.

    PubMed

    Kendirli, Mustafa Tansel; Aparci, Mustafa; Kendirli, Nurten; Tekeli, Hakan; Karaoglan, Mustafa; Senol, Mehmet Guney; Togrol, Erdem

    2015-07-01

    Arrhythmia is not uncommon in the etiology of syncope which mimics epilepsy. Data about the epilepsy induced vagal tonus abnormalities have being increasingly reported. So we aimed to evaluate what a neurologist may gain by a simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in the patients who underwent EEG testing due to prediagnosis of epilepsy. We retrospectively evaluated and detected ECG abnormalities in 68 (18%) of 376 patients who underwent EEG testing. A minimum of 20 of minutes artifact-free recording were required for each patient. Standard 1-channel ECG was simultaneously recorded in conjunction with the EEG. In all, 28% of females and 14% of males had ECG abnormalities. Females (mean age 49 years, range 18-88 years) were older compared with the male group (mean age 28 years, range 16-83 years). Atrial fibrillation was more frequent in female group whereas bradycardia and respiratory sinus arrhythmia was higher in male group. One case had been detected a critical asystole indicating sick sinus syndrome in the female group and treated with a pacemaker implantation in the following period. Simultaneous ECG recording in conjunction with EEG testing is a clinical prerequisite to detect and to clarify the coexisting ECG and EEG abnormalities and their clinical relevance. Potentially rare lethal causes of syncope that mimic seizure or those that could cause resistance to antiepileptic therapy could effectively be distinguished by detecting ECG abnormalities coinciding with the signs and abnormalities during EEG recording.

  20. Real time ECG artifact removal for myoelectric prosthesis control.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Lock, Blair; Kuiken, Todd A

    2007-04-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) artifact is a major noise source contaminating the electromyogram (EMG) of torso muscles. This study investigates removal of ECG artifacts in real time for myoelectric prosthesis control, a clinical application that demands speed and efficiency. Three methods with simple and fast implementation were investigated. Removal of ECG artifacts by digital high-pass filtering was implemented. The effects of the cutoff frequency and filter order of high-pass filtering on the resulting EMG signal were quantified. An alternative adaptive spike-clipping approach was also developed to dynamically detect and suppress the ECG artifacts in the signal. Finally, the two methods were combined. Experimental surface EMG recordings with different ECG/EMG ratios were used as testing signals to evaluate the proposed methods. As a key parameter for clinical myoelectric prosthesis control, the average rectified amplitude of the signal was used as the performance indicator to quantitatively analyze the EMG content distortion and the ECG artifact suppression imposed by the two methods. Aiming at clinical application, the optimal parameter assignment for each method was determined on the basis of the performance using the suite of testing signals with various ECG/EMG ratios. PMID:17395995

  1. A cloud computing based 12-lead ECG telemedicine service

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the great variability of 12-lead ECG instruments and medical specialists’ interpretation skills, it remains a challenge to deliver rapid and accurate 12-lead ECG reports with senior cardiologists’ decision making support in emergency telecardiology. Methods We create a new cloud and pervasive computing based 12-lead Electrocardiography (ECG) service to realize ubiquitous 12-lead ECG tele-diagnosis. Results This developed service enables ECG to be transmitted and interpreted via mobile phones. That is, tele-consultation can take place while the patient is on the ambulance, between the onsite clinicians and the off-site senior cardiologists, or among hospitals. Most importantly, this developed service is convenient, efficient, and inexpensive. Conclusions This cloud computing based ECG tele-consultation service expands the traditional 12-lead ECG applications onto the collaboration of clinicians at different locations or among hospitals. In short, this service can greatly improve medical service quality and efficiency, especially for patients in rural areas. This service has been evaluated and proved to be useful by cardiologists in Taiwan. PMID:22838382

  2. The application of wavelet and feature vectors to ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, A; Jonkman, M

    2006-03-01

    The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most commonly known biological signals. Traditionally ECG recordings are analysed in the time-domain by skilled physicians. However, pathological conditions may not always be obvious in the original time-domain signal. Fourier analysis provides frequency information but has the disadvantage that time characteristics will be lost. Wavelet analysis, which provides both time and frequency information, can overcome this limitation. Here a new method, the combination of wavelet analysis and feature vectors, is applied with the intent to investigate its suitability as a diagnostic tool. ECG signals with normal and abnormal beats were examined. There were two stages in analysing ECG signals: feature extraction and feature classification. To extract features from ECG signals, wavelet decomposition was first applied and feature vectors of normalised energy and entropy were constructed. These feature vectors were used to classify signals. The results showed that normal beats and abnormal beats composed different clusters in most cases. In conclusion, the combination of wavelet transform and feature vectors has shown potential in detecting abnormalities in an ECG recording. It was also found that normalised energy and entropy are features, which are suitable for classification of ECG signals.

  3. Distinctive expression patterns of Hedgehog pathway genes in the Ciona intestinalis larva: implications for a role of Hedgehog signaling in postembryonic development and chordate evolution.

    PubMed

    Islam, A F M Tariqul; Moly, Pricila Khan; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G

    2010-02-01

    Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family are soluble ligands that orchestrate a wide spectrum of developmental processes ranging from left-right axis determination of the embryo to tissue patterning and organogenesis. Tunicates, including ascidians, are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and elucidation of Hh signaling in ascidians should provide an important clue towards better understanding the role of this pathway in development. In previous studies, expression patterns of genes encoding Hh and its downstream factor Gli have been examined up to the tailbud stage in the ascidian embryo, but their expression in the larva has not been reported. Here we show the spatial expression patterns of hedgehog (Ci-hh1, Ci-hh2), patched (Ci-ptc), smoothened (Ci-smo), and Gli (Ci-Gli) orthologs in larvae of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The expression patterns of Ci-hh2 and Ci-Gli dramatically change during the period between the late tailbud embryo and the swimming larva. At the larval stage, expression of Ci-Gli was found in a central part of the endoderm and in the visceral ganglion, while Ci-hh2 was expressed in two discrete endodermal regions, anteriorly and posteriorly adjacent to the cells expressing Gli. The expression patterns of these genes suggest that the Hh ligand controls postembryonic development of the endoderm and the central nervous system. Expression of a gene encoding Hh in the anterior and/or pharyngeal endoderm is probably an ancient chordate character; diversification of regulation and targets of the Hh signaling in this region may have played a major role in the evolution of chordate body structures.

  4. Comparison of sensor arrangements of MCG and ECG with respect to information content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbach, M.; Dössel, O.

    2002-08-01

    Magnetocardiography (MCG) deals with the measurement of biomagnetic fields due to electrical excitation of the heart. The solution of the inverse problem of MCG and electrocardiography (ECG) is the reconstruction and visualization of the excitation process. The calculation is performed from MCG data recorded by multichannel systems. For a maximum of information content an optimized magnetometer arrangement is determined which is not realized at present. The information content with respect to imaging of bioelectric sources is defined by the slope of the singular values, respective the signal-to-noise ratio and the dimension of the nullspace. Reconstruction errors due to modelling errors are not taken into account in this work. The nullspace describes the set of non-detectable source patterns in MCG and ECG. A conventional commercial sensor arrangement will be compared to an improved sensor composition. Recent publications show evidence that MCG contains more or different diagnostic information in cardiac arrhythmia and infarction diagnosis than electrocardiography. Therefore, first results of a general comparison of the information content of MCG and ECG are presented.

  5. Comparison of DNA hydration patterns obtained using two distinct computational methods, molecular dynamics simulation and three-dimensional reference interaction site model theory.

    PubMed

    Yonetani, Yoshiteru; Maruyama, Yutaka; Hirata, Fumio; Kono, Hidetoshi

    2008-05-14

    Because proteins and DNA interact with each other and with various small molecules in the presence of water molecules, we cannot ignore their hydration when discussing their structural and energetic properties. Although high-resolution crystal structure analyses have given us a view of tightly bound water molecules on their surface, the structural data are still insufficient to capture the detailed configurations of water molecules around the surface of these biomolecules. Thanks to the invention of various computational algorithms, computer simulations can now provide an atomic view of hydration. Here, we describe the apparent patterns of DNA hydration calculated by using two different computational methods: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory. Both methods are promising for obtaining hydration properties, but until now there have been no thorough comparisons of the calculated three-dimensional distributions of hydrating water. This rigorous comparison showed that MD and 3D-RISM provide essentially similar hydration patterns when there is sufficient sampling time for MD and a sufficient number of conformations to describe molecular flexibility for 3D-RISM. This suggests that these two computational methods can be used to complement one another when evaluating the reliability of the calculated hydration patterns. PMID:18532849

  6. Comparison of DNA hydration patterns obtained using two distinct computational methods, molecular dynamics simulation and three-dimensional reference interaction site model theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetani, Yoshiteru; Maruyama, Yutaka; Hirata, Fumio; Kono, Hidetoshi

    2008-05-01

    Because proteins and DNA interact with each other and with various small molecules in the presence of water molecules, we cannot ignore their hydration when discussing their structural and energetic properties. Although high-resolution crystal structure analyses have given us a view of tightly bound water molecules on their surface, the structural data are still insufficient to capture the detailed configurations of water molecules around the surface of these biomolecules. Thanks to the invention of various computational algorithms, computer simulations can now provide an atomic view of hydration. Here, we describe the apparent patterns of DNA hydration calculated by using two different computational methods: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory. Both methods are promising for obtaining hydration properties, but until now there have been no thorough comparisons of the calculated three-dimensional distributions of hydrating water. This rigorous comparison showed that MD and 3D-RISM provide essentially similar hydration patterns when there is sufficient sampling time for MD and a sufficient number of conformations to describe molecular flexibility for 3D-RISM. This suggests that these two computational methods can be used to complement one another when evaluating the reliability of the calculated hydration patterns.

  7. Comprehending text versus reading words in young readers with varying reading ability: distinct patterns of functional connectivity from common processing hubs.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Katherine S; Bailey, Stephen K; Petrill, Stephen A; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-07-01

    Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation (word-level processing; WL) and extracting meaning from text (discourse-level processing; DL); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as unique regions for DL processing; however, less is known about how WL and DL processes interact. Here we examined functional connectivity from seed regions derived from where BOLD signal overlapped during word and passage reading in 38 adolescents ranging in reading ability, hypothesizing that even though certain regions support word- and higher-level language, connectivity patterns from overlapping regions would be task modulated. Results indeed revealed that the left-lateralized semantic and working memory (WM) seed regions showed task-dependent functional connectivity patterns: during DL processes, semantic and WM nodes all correlated with the left angular gyrus, a region implicated in semantic memory/coherence building. In contrast, during WL, these nodes coordinated with a traditional WL area (left occipitotemporal region). In addition, these WL and DL findings were modulated by decoding and comprehension abilities, respectively, with poorer abilities correlating with decreased connectivity. Findings indicate that key regions may uniquely contribute to multiple levels of reading; we speculate that these connectivity patterns may be especially salient for reading outcomes and intervention response.

  8. Impact of Cardiac Arrhythmia on Velocity Quantification by ECG gated Phase Contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Markl, Michael; Fluckiger, Jacob; Lee, Daniel C.; Ng, Jason; Goldberger, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically investigate the impact of beat-to-beat variations on ECG gated multi-beat flow imaging with phase contrast (PC) MRI based on real time in-vivo TEE data in patients with known arrhythmia. Methods Real-time 2D Doppler transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed in five patients with atrial fibrillation (4 male, age=64±8.7 years). TEE data provided real-time left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) flow velocities in consecutive cardiac cycles with different RR-interval durations. PC-MRI acquisitions were simulated from the TEE velocity measures by constructing time-resolved k-space data for segmented sampling schemes typically used for ECG gated 2D PC MRI. Each simulation was repeated 100 times to minimize effects from data that may be weighted to a particular beat in the center of k-space. The resulting LA and LV velocities were compared to the average TEE velocities and data from individual cardiac cycles. Results Despite beat-to-beat variations velocities in TEE data, ECG gated flow imaging with MRI could reproduce persistent average LA and LV mean velocities within 7.0–7.4% compared to TEE. Conclusions PC-MRI velocity measurements in patients with varying R-R interval durations are not significantly different from time-averaged real-time velocity data for a typical segmented k-space data acquisition schemes. Though beat-to-beat variations in atrial velocities that were observed with TEE cannot be detected with ECG gated multi-beat PC MRI, it can reliably assess average flow patterns across multiple beats PMID:25978593

  9. ECG patch monitors for assessment of cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lobodzinski, S Suave

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of long-term monitoring is the improvement of diagnostic yield. Despite the clear utility of Holter monitoring in clinical cardiology, issues of relatively low diagnostic yield, cost and inconvenience have motivated the development of ultra-portable devices referred to as ECG patch monitors. Although the "gold standard" for assessing cardiac rhythm abnormalities remains a 12-lead Holter, there is an increasing interest in portable monitoring devices that provide the opportunity for evaluating cardiac rhythm in real-world environments such as the workplace or home. To facilitate patient acceptance these monitors underwent a radical miniaturization and redesign to include wireless communication, water proofing and a patch carrier for attaching devices directly to the skin. We review recent developments in the field of "patch" devices primarily designed for very long-term monitoring of cardiac arrhythmic events. As the body of supporting clinical validation data grows, these devices hold promise for a variety of cardiac monitoring applications. From a clinical and research standpoint, the capacity to obtain longitudinal cardiac activity data by patch devices may have significant implications for device selection, monitoring duration, and care pathways for arrhythmia evaluation and atrial fibrillation surveillance. From a research standpoint, the new devices may allow for the development of novel diagnostic algorithms with the goal of finding patterns and correlations with exercise and drug regimens.

  10. A Differential ECG Amplifier with Single-Ended Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katchis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Three-stage amplifier is used for ECG measurements which require conversion of differential input to single-ended output. Circuit may be useful in biological telemetry for amplification of signals from specimen-implanted sensors.

  11. A Harmonic Linear Dynamical System for Prominent ECG Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Thi, Ngoc Anh; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, SunHee; Do, Luu Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Unsupervised mining of electrocardiography (ECG) time series is a crucial task in biomedical applications. To have efficiency of the clustering results, the prominent features extracted from preprocessing analysis on multiple ECG time series need to be investigated. In this paper, a Harmonic Linear Dynamical System is applied to discover vital prominent features via mining the evolving hidden dynamics and correlations in ECG time series. The discovery of the comprehensible and interpretable features of the proposed feature extraction methodology effectively represents the accuracy and the reliability of clustering results. Particularly, the empirical evaluation results of the proposed method demonstrate the improved performance of clustering compared to the previous main stream feature extraction approaches for ECG time series clustering tasks. Furthermore, the experimental results on real-world datasets show scalability with linear computation time to the duration of the time series. PMID:24719648

  12. A harmonic linear dynamical system for prominent ECG feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Thi, Ngoc Anh Nguyen; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, SunHee; Do, Luu Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Unsupervised mining of electrocardiography (ECG) time series is a crucial task in biomedical applications. To have efficiency of the clustering results, the prominent features extracted from preprocessing analysis on multiple ECG time series need to be investigated. In this paper, a Harmonic Linear Dynamical System is applied to discover vital prominent features via mining the evolving hidden dynamics and correlations in ECG time series. The discovery of the comprehensible and interpretable features of the proposed feature extraction methodology effectively represents the accuracy and the reliability of clustering results. Particularly, the empirical evaluation results of the proposed method demonstrate the improved performance of clustering compared to the previous main stream feature extraction approaches for ECG time series clustering tasks. Furthermore, the experimental results on real-world datasets show scalability with linear computation time to the duration of the time series.

  13. Extensive characterization of the immunophenotype and pattern of cytokine production by distinct subpopulations of normal human peripheral blood MHC II+/lineage− cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, J; Bueno, C; Alguero, M C; Sanchez, M L; Cañizo, M C; Fernandez, M E; Vaquero, J M; Laso, F J; Escribano, L; San Miguel, J F; Orfao, A

    1999-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent the most powerful professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. The aim of the present study was to analyse, on a single-cell basis by multiparametric flow cytometry with simultaneous four-colour staining and a two-step acquisition procedure, the immunophenotypic profile and cytokine production of DC from 67 normal whole peripheral blood (PB) samples. Two clearly different subsets of HLA-II+/lineage− were identified on the basis of their distinct phenotypic characteristics: one DC subset was CD33strong+ and CD123dim+ (0.16 ± 0.06% of the PB nucleated cells and 55.9 ± 11.9% of all PB DC) and the other, CD33dim+ and CD123strong+ (0.12 ± 0.04% of PB nucleated cells and 44.53 ± 11.5% of all PB DC). Moreover, the former DC subpopulation clearly showed higher expression of the CD13 myeloid-associated antigen, the CD29 and CD58 adhesion molecules, the CD2, CD5 and CD86 costimulatory molecules, the CD32 IgG receptor and the CD11c complement receptor. In addition, these cells showed stronger HLA-DR and HLA-DQ expression and a higher reactivity for the IL-6 receptor α-chain (CD126) and for CD38. In contrast, the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC showed a stronger reactivity for the CD4 and CD45RA molecules, whereas they did not express the CD58, CD5, CD11c and CD13 antigens. Regarding cytokine production, our results show that while the CD33strong+/CD123dim+ DC are able to produce significant amounts of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β (97 ± 5% of positive cells), IL-6 (96 ± 1.1% of positive cells), IL-12 (81.5 ± 15.5% of positive cells) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (84 ± 22.1% of positive cells) as well as chemokines such as IL-8 (99 ± 1% of positive cells), the functional ability of the CD123strong+/CD33dim+ DC subset to produce cytokines under the same conditions was almost null. Our results therefore clearly show the presence of two distinct subsets of DC in normal human PB, which differ not only in

  14. Distinct transcriptome profiles reveal gene expression patterns during fruit development and maturation in five main cultivated species of pear (Pyrus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Xue, Cheng; Xu, Linlin; Sun, Honghe; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, 'Hosui' (P. pyrifolia), 'Yali' (P. bretschneideri), 'Kuerlexiangli' (P. sinkiangensis), 'Nanguoli' (P. ussuriensis), and 'Starkrimson' (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species. PMID:27305967

  15. Distinct transcriptome profiles reveal gene expression patterns during fruit development and maturation in five main cultivated species of pear (Pyrus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Xue, Cheng; Xu, Linlin; Sun, Honghe; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, ‘Hosui’ (P. pyrifolia), ‘Yali’ (P. bretschneideri), ‘Kuerlexiangli’ (P. sinkiangensis), ‘Nanguoli’ (P. ussuriensis), and ‘Starkrimson’ (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species. PMID:27305967

  16. Distinct transcriptome profiles reveal gene expression patterns during fruit development and maturation in five main cultivated species of pear (Pyrus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Xue, Cheng; Xu, Linlin; Sun, Honghe; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, 'Hosui' (P. pyrifolia), 'Yali' (P. bretschneideri), 'Kuerlexiangli' (P. sinkiangensis), 'Nanguoli' (P. ussuriensis), and 'Starkrimson' (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species.

  17. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    PubMed

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  18. Different responses of epidermal and hair follicular cells to radiation correlate with distinct patterns of p53 and p21 induction.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Lambert, P F

    1999-10-01

    Different parts of the skin respond to ionizing radiation with different sensitivities. To examine the mechanisms underlying these different responses, we investigated various cellular parameters in the skin after exposure of mice to 5 Gy of ionizing radiation. Epidermal cells responded to radiation by undergoing growth arrest, whereas the cells in the matrix of hair follicles underwent apoptosis but not growth arrest. These distinct responses correlated with differential increases in p53 and p21 proteins in these two populations of cells; whereas an increase in p53 protein levels was observed in both epidermis and hair follicular matrix, especially in the latter, the induction of p21 was strong in the epidermis but absent in the follicular matrical cells. Studies using p53-null and p21-null mice demonstrated that the radiation-induced apoptosis in the hair follicles was fully dependent on p53, and growth arrest in the epidermis was only partially dependent on p53 but fully dependent on p21. These results indicate that two epithelial cell types respond to radiation by different pathways that are governed in part by the differential p53- and p21-dependent responses of these cells; high-level induction of p53 in the absence of p21 induction led to apoptosis, whereas intermediate induction of both p53 and p21 led to growth arrest.

  19. The segmented-beat modulation method for ECG estimation.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, A; Giuliani, C; Fioretti, S; Di Nardo, F; Burattini, L

    2015-08-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) tracings corrupted by noise with frequency components in the ECG frequency band, may result useless unless appropriately processed. The estimation of the clean ECG from such recordings, however, is quite challenging; being linear filtering inappropriate. In the common situations in which the R peaks are detectable, template-based techniques have been proposed to estimate the ECG by a template-beat concatenation. However, such techniques have the major limit of not being able to reproduce physiological heart-rate and morphological variability. Thus, the aim of the present study was to propose the segmented-beat modulation method (SBMM) as the technique that overcomes such limit. The SBMM is an improved template-based technique that provides good-quality estimations of ECG tracings characterized by some heart-rate and morphological variability. It segments the template ECG beat into QRS and TUP segments and then, before concatenation, it applies a modulation/demodulation process to the TUP-segment so that the estimated-beat duration and morphology adjust to those of the corresponding original-beat. To test its performance, the SBMM was applied to 19 ECG tracings from normal subjects. There were no errors in estimating the R peak location, and the errors in the QRS and TUP segments were low (≤65 μV and ≤30 μV, respectively), with the former ones being significantly higher than the latter ones. Eventually, TUP errors tended to increase with increasing heart-rate variability (correlation coefficient: 0.59, P<;10(-2)). In conclusion, the new SBMM proved to be a useful tool for providing good-quality ECG estimations of tracings characterized by heart-rate and morphological variability.

  20. Human ECG signal parameters estimation during controlled physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    ECG signal parameters are commonly used indicators of human health condition. In most cases the patient should remain stationary during the examination to decrease the influence of muscle artifacts. During physical activity, the noise level increases significantly. The ECG signals were acquired during controlled physical activity on a stationary bicycle and during rest. Afterwards, the signals were processed using a method based on Pan-Tompkins algorithms to estimate their parameters and to test the method.

  1. A method for the determination of ECG gate signal delays

    SciTech Connect

    Wery, R.; Hill, J.; Dworkin, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    A simple device using a rotating radioactive source was developed to monitor the presence of a delay between the patient's R wave and the gate signal being sent to the computer. Three commercial ECG gates were tested and significant delays were found in two of them. Identical patient data evaluated using ECG gates with and without significant delays produced calculated left-ventricular ejection fractions of 0.05 and 0.64, respectively.

  2. Microprocessor-based simulator of surface ECG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, A. E.; Rossi, E.; Siri, L. Nicola

    2007-11-01

    In this work, a simulator of surface electrocardiogram recorded signals (ECG) is presented. The device, based on a microcontroller and commanded by a personal computer, produces an analog signal resembling actual ECGs, not only in time course and voltage levels, but also in source impedance. The simulator is a useful tool for electrocardiograph calibration and monitoring, to incorporate as well in educational tasks and in clinical environments for early detection of faulty behaviour.

  3. Live ECG readings using Google Glass in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Roger; Salamin, Fanny; Jimenez Del Toro, Oscar Alfonso; Atzori, Manfredo; Muller, Henning; Widmer, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Most sudden cardiac problems require rapid treatment to preserve life. In this regard, electrocardiograms (ECG) shown on vital parameter monitoring systems help medical staff to detect problems. In some situations, such monitoring systems may display information in a less than convenient way for medical staff. For example, vital parameters are displayed on large screens outside the field of view of a surgeon during cardiac surgery. This may lead to losing time and to mistakes when problems occur during cardiac operations. In this paper we present a novel approach to display vital parameters such as the second derivative of the ECG rhythm and heart rate close to the field of view of a surgeon using Google Glass. As a preliminary assessment, we run an experimental study to verify the possibility for medical staff to identify abnormal ECG rhythms from Google Glass. This study compares 6 ECG rhythms readings from a 13.3 inch laptop screen and from the prism of Google Glass. Seven medical residents in internal medicine participated in the study. The preliminary results show that there is no difference between identifying these 6 ECG rhythms from the laptop screen versus Google Glass. Both allow close to perfect identification of the 6 common ECG rhythms. This shows the potential of connected glasses such as Google Glass to be useful in selected medical applications.

  4. Variability in surface ECG morphology: signal or noise?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Rosenbaum, D. S.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Using data collected from canine models of acute myocardial ischemia, we investigated two issues of major relevance to electrocardiographic signal averaging: ECG epoch alignment, and the spectral characteristics of the beat-to-beat variability in ECG morphology. With initial digitization rates of 1 kHz, an iterative a posteriori matched filtering alignment scheme, and linear interpolation, we demonstrated that there is sufficient information in the body surface ECG to merit alignment to a precision of 0.1 msecs. Applying this technique to align QRS complexes and atrial pacing artifacts independently, we demonstrated that the conduction delay from atrial stimulus to ventricular activation may be so variable as to preclude using atrial pacing as an alignment mechanism, and that this variability in conduction time be modulated at the frequency of respiration and at a much lower frequency (0.02-0.03Hz). Using a multidimensional spectral technique, we investigated the beat-to-beat variability in ECG morphology, demonstrating that the frequency spectrum of ECG morphological variation reveals a readily discernable modulation at the frequency of respiration. In addition, this technique detects a subtle beat-to-beat alternation in surface ECG morphology which accompanies transient coronary artery occlusion. We conclude that physiologically important information may be stored in the variability in the surface electrocardiogram, and that this information is lost by conventional averaging techniques.

  5. Rationale and objectives for ECG screening in infancy.

    PubMed

    Saul, J Philip; Schwartz, Peter J; Ackerman, Michael J; Triedman, John K

    2014-12-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) screening in infants and children who may be at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is controversial, and both rational and emotional arguments have often been given equal weight. We all have direct experience in this field, but have different backgrounds and have expressed divergent views on this topic. We attempted to build consensus among ourselves on the basis of the available facts, in the hope of providing an unbiased review of the relevant science and policy issues in favor of or against ECG screening in infants and children. This report presents our shared view on this medically and societally important topic. Long QT syndrome (LQTS) satisfies several criteria that may make ECG screening worthwhile: it is not rare (~1 in 2000 births); ECG diagnosis is feasible and can be used to trigger appropriate genetic testing; it causes approximately 10% of cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as well as deaths in childhood and later in life, and effective treatments are available. By stimulating cascade screening in family members, diagnosis of affected infants may also prompt identification of asymptomatic but affected individuals. Neonatal screening is cost-effective by conventional criteria, and with a corrected QT (QTc) cutoff of 460 ms in 2 different ECGs, the number of false positives is estimated to be low (~1 in 1000 births). It is our conclusion that parents of newborn children should be informed about LQTS, a life-threatening but treatable disease of significant prevalence that may be diagnosed by a simple ECG. PMID:25239430

  6. Distinct clinical patterns and immune infiltrates are observed at time of progression on targeted therapy versus immune checkpoint blockade for melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Zachary A.; Reuben, Alexandre; Spencer, Christine N.; Prieto, Peter A.; Austin-Breneman, Jacob L.; Jiang, Hong; Haymaker, Cara; Gopalakrishnan, Vancheswaran; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Frederick, Dennie T.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Amaria, Rodabe N.; Patel, Sapna P.; Hwu, Patrick; Woodman, Scott E.; Glitza, Isabella C.; Diab, Adi; Vence, Luis M.; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Parra, Edwin R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Coussens, Lisa M.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Chin, Lynda; Davies, Michael A.; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Allison, James P.; Sharma, Padmanee; Wargo, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have made major advances in the treatment of melanoma through the use of targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade; however, clinicians are posed with therapeutic dilemmas regarding timing and sequence of therapy. There is a growing appreciation of the impact of antitumor immune responses to these therapies, and we performed studies to test the hypothesis that clinical patterns and immune infiltrates differ at progression on these treatments. We observed rapid clinical progression kinetics in patients on targeted therapy compared to immune checkpoint blockade. To gain insight into possible immune mechanisms behind these differences, we performed deep immune profiling in tumors of patients on therapy. We demonstrated low CD8+ T-cell infiltrate on targeted therapy and high CD8+ T-cell infiltrate on immune checkpoint blockade at clinical progression. These data have important implications, and suggest that antitumor immune responses should be assessed when considering therapeutic options for patients with melanoma. PMID:27141370

  7. Distinct molecular structures and hydrogen bond patterns of α,α-diethyl-substituted cyclic imide, lactam, and acetamide derivatives in the crystalline phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoshein, Arcadius V.; Ordonez, Carlos; Khrustalev, Victor N.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2016-10-01

    α,α-Dialkyl- and α-alkyl-α-aryl-substituted cyclic imides, lactams, and acetamides show promising anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and anesthetic activities. While a number of crystal structures of various α-substituted cyclic imides, lactams, and acetamides were reported, no in-depth comparison of crystal structures and solid-state properties of structurally matched compounds have been carried out so far. In this paper, we report molecular structure and intermolecular interactions of three α,α-diethyl-substituted compounds - 3,3-diethylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione, 3,3-diethylpyrrolidin-2-one, and 2,2-diethylacetamide - in the crystalline phase, as studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. We found considerable differences in the patterns of H-bonding and packing of the molecules in crystals. These differences correlate with the compounds' melting points and are of significance to physical pharmacy and formulation development of neuroactive drugs.

  8. Profiling of microRNA in human and mouse ES and iPS cells reveals overlapping but distinct microRNA expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Razak, Siti Razila Abdul; Ueno, Kazuko; Takayama, Naoya; Nariai, Naoki; Nagasaki, Masao; Saito, Rika; Koso, Hideto; Lai, Chen-Yi; Murakami, Miyako; Tsuji, Koichiro; Michiue, Tatsuo; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Otsu, Makoto; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Using quantitative PCR-based miRNA arrays, we comprehensively analyzed the expression profiles of miRNAs in human and mouse embryonic stem (ES), induced pluripotent stem (iPS), and somatic cells. Immature pluripotent cells were purified using SSEA-1 or SSEA-4 and were used for miRNA profiling. Hierarchical clustering and consensus clustering by nonnegative matrix factorization showed two major clusters, human ES/iPS cells and other cell groups, as previously reported. Principal components analysis (PCA) to identify miRNAs that segregate in these two groups identified miR-187, 299-3p, 499-5p, 628-5p, and 888 as new miRNAs that specifically characterize human ES/iPS cells. Detailed direct comparisons of miRNA expression levels in human ES and iPS cells showed that several miRNAs included in the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster were more strongly expressed in iPS cells than in ES cells. Similar analysis was conducted with mouse ES/iPS cells and somatic cells, and several miRNAs that had not been reported to be expressed in mouse ES/iPS cells were suggested to be ES/iPS cell-specific miRNAs by PCA. Comparison of the average expression levels of miRNAs in ES/iPS cells in humans and mice showed quite similar expression patterns of human/mouse miRNAs. However, several mouse- or human-specific miRNAs are ranked as high expressers. Time course tracing of miRNA levels during embryoid body formation revealed drastic and different patterns of changes in their levels. In summary, our miRNA expression profiling encompassing human and mouse ES and iPS cells gave various perspectives in understanding the miRNA core regulatory networks regulating pluripotent cells characteristics.

  9. Phylogenetic classification at generic level in the absence of distinct phylogenetic patterns of phenotypical variation: a case study in graphidaceae (ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new

  10. Phylogenetic Classification at Generic Level in the Absence of Distinct Phylogenetic Patterns of Phenotypical Variation: A Case Study in Graphidaceae (Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new

  11. Distinct firing patterns of identified basket and dendrite-targeting interneurons in the prefrontal cortex during hippocampal theta and local spindle oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hartwich, Katja; Pollak, Thomas; Klausberger, Thomas

    2009-07-29

    The medial prefrontal cortex is involved in working memory and executive control. However, the collective spatiotemporal organization of the cellular network has not been possible to explain during different brain states. We show that pyramidal cells in the prelimbic cortex fire synchronized to hippocampal theta and local spindle oscillations in anesthetized rats. To identify which types of interneurons contribute to the synchronized activity, we recorded and juxtacellularly labeled parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing (PV+/CB+) basket cells and CB-expressing, PV-negative (CB+/PV-) dendrite-targeting interneurons during both network oscillations. All CB+/PV- dendrite-targeting cells strongly decreased their firing rate during hippocampal theta oscillations. Most PV+/CB+ basket cells fired at the peak of dorsal CA1 theta cycles, similar to prefrontal pyramidal cells. We show that pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus also fire around the peak of dorsal CA1 theta cycles, in contrast to previously reported dorsal hippocampal pyramidal cells. Therefore, prefrontal neurons might be driven by monosynaptic connections from the ventral hippocampus during theta oscillations. During prefrontal spindle oscillations, the majority of pyramidal cells and PV+/CB+ basket cells fired preferentially at the trough and early ascending phase, but CB+/PV- dendrite-targeting cells fired uniformly at all phases. We conclude that PV+/CB+ basket cells contribute to rhythmic responses of prefrontal pyramidal cells in relation to hippocampal and thalamic inputs and CB+/PV- dendrite-targeting cells modulate the excitability of dendrites and spines regardless of these field rhythms. Distinct classes of GABAergic interneuron in the prefrontal cortex contribute differentially to the synchronization of pyramidal cells during network oscillations. PMID:19641119

  12. The introduction of fox rabies into Italy (2008-2011) was due to two viral genetic groups with distinct phylogeographic patterns.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Alice; Monne, Isabella; Salomoni, Angela; Angot, Angélique; Trolese, Matteo; Ferrè, Nicola; Mutinelli, Franco; Holmes, Edward C; Capua, Ilaria; Lemey, Philippe; Cattoli, Giovanni; De Benedictis, Paola

    2013-07-01

    Fox rabies re-emerged in north-eastern Italy at the end of 2008 and circulated until early 2011. As with previous rabies epidemics, the Italian cases were linked to the epidemiological situation in adjacent regions. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the dynamics of the recent Italian epidemic, we performed a detailed evolutionary analysis of RABVs circulating in north-eastern Italy. Sequences were obtained for the hyper-variable region of the nucleoprotein gene, the complete glycoprotein gene, and the intergenic region G-L from 113 selected fox rabies cases. We identified two viral genetic groups, here referred to as Italy-1 and Italy-2. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that both groups had been circulating in the Western Balkans and Slovenia in previous years and were only later introduced into Italy (into the Friuli Venezia Giulia region-FVG), occupying different areas of the Italian territories. Notably, viruses belonging to the Italy-1 group remained confined to the region of introduction and their spread was minimised by the implementation of oral fox vaccination campaigns. In contrast, Italy-2 viruses spread westward over a territory of 100 km from their first identification in FVG, likely crossing the northern territories where surveillance was inadequate. A genetic sub-group (Italy-2A), characterised by a unique amino acid mutation (D106A) in the N gene, was also observed to occupy a distinct geographic cluster. This molecular epidemiological analysis of the 2008-2011 fox rabies epidemic will contribute to future control programmes both at national and regional levels. In particular, our findings highlight the weaknesses of the national surveillance strategy in the period preceding rabies re-emergence, and of control plans implemented immediately after rabies notification, and underline the need of a coordinated approach at the regional level for both the surveillance and control of wildlife rabies.

  13. Distinctive patterns of BCL6 molecular alterations and their functional consequences in different subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, J; Greiner, TC; Patel, K; Dave, BJ; Smith, L; Ji, J; Wright, G; Sanger, WG; Pickering, DL; Jain, S; Horsman, DE; Shen, Y; Fu, K; Weisenburger, DD; Hans, CP; Campo, E; Gascoyne, RD; Rosenwald, A; Jaffe, ES; Delabie, J; Rimsza, L; Ott, G; Müller-Hermelink, HK; Connors, JM; Vose, JM; McKeithan, T; Staudt, LM; Chan, WC

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has revealed biologically and prognostically distinct subgroups: germinal center B-cell-like (GCB), activated B-cell-like (ABC) and primary mediastinal (PM) DLBCL. The BCL6 gene is often translocated and/or mutated in DLBCL. Therefore, we examined the BCL6 molecular alterations in these DLBCL subgroups, and their impact on BCL6 expression and BCL6 target gene repression. BCL6 translocations at the major breakpoint region (MBR) were detected in 25 (18.8%) of 133 DLBCL cases, with a higher frequency in the PM (33%) and ABC (24%) subgroups than in the GCB (10%) subgroup. Translocations at the alternative breakpoint region (ABR) were detected in five (6.4%) of 78 DLBCL cases, with three cases in ABC and one case each in the GCB and the unclassifiable subgroups. The translocated cases involved IgH and non-IgH partners in about equal frequency and were not associated with different levels of BCL6 mRNA and protein expression. BCL6 mutations were detected in 61% of DLBCL cases, with a significantly higher frequency in the GCB and PM subgroups (> 70%) than in the ABC subgroup (44%). Exon-1 mutations were mostly observed in the GCB subgroup. The repression of known BCL6 target genes correlated with the level of BCL6 mRNA and protein expression in GCB and ABC subgroups but not with BCL6 translocation and intronic mutations. No clear inverse correlation between BCL6 expression and p53 expression was observed. Patients with higher BCL6 mRNA or protein expression had a significantly better overall survival. The biological role of BCL6 in translocated cases where repression of known target genes is not demonstrated is intriguing and warrants further investigation. PMID:17625604

  14. ECG manifestations of left ventricular electrical remodeling.

    PubMed

    Estes, E Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Research and thinking about the electrocardiographic manifestations of left ventricular hypertrophy has been constrained by a limited conceptual model of the process: heart disease produces chamber enlargement (increased mass), which in turn produces an altered electrocardiogram. The process is much more complex than can be represented in this simple model. A more robust and intricate model is proposed, in which heart (and vascular) disease causes structural changes, electrical changes, biochemical changes, and others, all of which interact to produce electrical remodeling of ventricular myocardium. This electrical remodeling results in a variety of ECG changes. All of these changes interact, leading to an altered clinical course, and to premature death. It is suggested that research, based on this model, can provide new clues to the processes involved, and improve the prediction of clinical outcomes. New directions in research, in recording equipment, and in organizational activities are suggested to test this new model, and to improve the usefulness of the electrocardiogram as a research and diagnostic tool.

  15. Adaptive wavelet Wiener filtering of ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Smital, Lukáš; Vítek, Martin; Kozumplík, Jiří; Provazník, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we focused on the reduction of broadband myopotentials (EMG) in ECG signals using the wavelet Wiener filtering with noise-free signal estimation. We used the dyadic stationary wavelet transform (SWT) in the Wiener filter as well as in estimating the noise-free signal. Our goal was to find a suitable filter bank and to choose other parameters of the Wiener filter with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained. Testing was performed on artificially noised signals from the standard CSE database sampled at 500 Hz. When creating an artificial interference, we started from the generated white Gaussian noise, whose power spectrum was modified according to a model of the power spectrum of an EMG signal. To improve the filtering performance, we used adaptive setting parameters of filtering according to the level of interference in the input signal. We were able to increase the average SNR of the whole test database by about 10.6 dB. The proposed algorithm provides better results than the classic wavelet Wiener filter.

  16. A micropower dry-electrode ECG preamplifier.

    PubMed

    Burke, M J; Gleeson, D T

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a very low-power preamplifier intended for use in pasteless-electrode recording of the human electrocardiogram. The expected input signal range is 100 microV-10 mV from a lead-II electrode configuration. The amplifier provides a gain of 43 dB in a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.05 Hz-2 kHz with a defined high input impedance of 75 M omega. It uses a driven common electrode to enhance rejection of common-mode interfering signals, including low-frequency motion artifact, achieving a common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of better than 80 dB over its entire bandwidth. The gain and phase characteristics meet the recommendations of the American Heart Association, ensuring low distortion of the output ECG signal and making it suitable for clinical monitoring. The amplifier has a power consumption of 30 microW operating from a 3.3-V battery and is intended for use in small, lightweight, portable electrocardiographic equipment and heart-rate monitoring instrumentation.

  17. Adaptive wavelet Wiener filtering of ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Smital, Lukáš; Vítek, Martin; Kozumplík, Jiří; Provazník, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we focused on the reduction of broadband myopotentials (EMG) in ECG signals using the wavelet Wiener filtering with noise-free signal estimation. We used the dyadic stationary wavelet transform (SWT) in the Wiener filter as well as in estimating the noise-free signal. Our goal was to find a suitable filter bank and to choose other parameters of the Wiener filter with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained. Testing was performed on artificially noised signals from the standard CSE database sampled at 500 Hz. When creating an artificial interference, we started from the generated white Gaussian noise, whose power spectrum was modified according to a model of the power spectrum of an EMG signal. To improve the filtering performance, we used adaptive setting parameters of filtering according to the level of interference in the input signal. We were able to increase the average SNR of the whole test database by about 10.6 dB. The proposed algorithm provides better results than the classic wavelet Wiener filter. PMID:23192472

  18. Qualitative Distinction of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Processes at the Leaf Level by Means of Triple Stable Isotope (C-O-H) Patterns.

    PubMed

    Kimak, Adam; Kern, Zoltan; Leuenberger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Foliar samples were harvested from two oaks, a beech, and a yew at the same site in order to trace the development of the leaves over an entire vegetation season. Cellulose yield and stable isotopic compositions (δ(13)C, δ(18)O, and δD) were analyzed on leaf cellulose. All parameters unequivocally define a juvenile and a mature period in the foliar expansion of each species. The accompanying shifts of the δ(13)C-values are in agreement with the transition from remobilized carbohydrates (juvenile period), to current photosynthates (mature phase). While the opponent seasonal trends of δ(18)O of blade and vein cellulose are in perfect agreement with the state-of-art mechanistic understanding, the lack of this discrepancy for δD, documented for the first time, is unexpected. For example, the offset range of 18 permil (oak veins) to 57 permil (oak blades) in δD may represent a process driven shift from autotrophic to heterotrophic processes. The shared pattern between blade and vein found for both oak and beech suggests an overwhelming metabolic isotope effect on δD that might be accompanied by proton transfer linked to the Calvin-cycle. These results provide strong evidence that hydrogen and oxygen are under different biochemical controls even at the leaf level. PMID:26635835

  19. Qualitative Distinction of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Processes at the Leaf Level by Means of Triple Stable Isotope (C–O–H) Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kimak, Adam; Kern, Zoltan; Leuenberger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Foliar samples were harvested from two oaks, a beech, and a yew at the same site in order to trace the development of the leaves over an entire vegetation season. Cellulose yield and stable isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ18O, and δD) were analyzed on leaf cellulose. All parameters unequivocally define a juvenile and a mature period in the foliar expansion of each species. The accompanying shifts of the δ13C-values are in agreement with the transition from remobilized carbohydrates (juvenile period), to current photosynthates (mature phase). While the opponent seasonal trends of δ18O of blade and vein cellulose are in perfect agreement with the state-of-art mechanistic understanding, the lack of this discrepancy for δD, documented for the first time, is unexpected. For example, the offset range of 18 permil (oak veins) to 57 permil (oak blades) in δD may represent a process driven shift from autotrophic to heterotrophic processes. The shared pattern between blade and vein found for both oak and beech suggests an overwhelming metabolic isotope effect on δD that might be accompanied by proton transfer linked to the Calvin-cycle. These results provide strong evidence that hydrogen and oxygen are under different biochemical controls even at the leaf level. PMID:26635835

  20. The attack of the phytopathogens and the trumpet solo: Identification of a novel plant antifungal peptide with distinct fold and disulfide bond pattern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Porto, William F; Dey, Prabuddha; Maiti, Mrinal K; Ghosh, Ananta K; Franco, Octavio L

    2013-10-01

    Phytopathogens cause economic losses in agribusiness. Plant-derived compounds have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This paper reports the identification of Ps-AFP1, a novel AMP isolated from the Pisum sativum radicle. Ps-AFP1 was purified and evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi, showing clear effectiveness. In silico analyses were performed, suggesting an unusual fold and disulfide bond pattern. A novel fold and a novel AMP class were here proposed, the αβ-trumpet fold and αβ-trumpet peptides, respectively. The name αβ-trumpet was created due to the peptide's fold, which resembles the musical instrument. The Ps-AFP1 mechanism of action was also proposed. Microscopic analyses revealed that Ps-AFP1 could affect the fungus during the hyphal elongation from spore germination. Furthermore, confocal microscopy performed with Ps-AFP1 labeled with FITC shows that the peptide was localized at high concentration along the fungal cell surface. Due to low cellular disruption rates, it seems that the main target is the fungal cell wall. The binding thermogram and isothermal titration, molecular dynamics and docking analyses were also performed, showing that Ps-AFP1 could bind to chitin producing a stable complex. Data here reported provided novel structural-functional insights into the αβ-trumpet peptide fold.

  1. Standard-compliant real-time transmission of ECGs: harmonization of ISO/IEEE 11073-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2009-01-01

    Ambient assisted living and integrated care in an aging society is based on the vision of the lifelong Electronic Health Record calling for HealthCare Information Systems and medical device interoperability. For medical devices this aim can be achieved by the consistent implementation of harmonized international interoperability standards. The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference standard for medical device interoperability. In its Personal Health Device (PHD) version several devices have been included, but an ECG device specialization is not yet available. On the other hand, the SCP-ECG standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064) has been recently approved as an international standard ISO/IEEE 11073-91064:2009. In this paper, the relationships between a proposed x73-PHD model for an ECG device and the fields of the SCP-ECG standard are investigated. A proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed x73-PHD ECG model is also presented, identifying open issues to be addressed by standards development for the wider interoperability adoption of x73-PHD standards.

  2. High ploidy diversity and distinct patterns of cytotype distribution in a widespread species of Oxalis in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Krejčíková, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Lučanová, Magdalena; Trávníček, Pavel; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bożena; Oberlander, Kenneth; Dreyer, Leanne L.; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome duplication is widely acknowledged as a major force in the evolution of angiosperms, although the incidence of polyploidy in different floras may differ dramatically. The Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and is considered depauperate in polyploids. To test this assumption, ploidy variation was assessed in a widespread member of the largest geophytic genus in the Cape flora: Oxalis obtusa. Methods DNA flow cytometry complemented by confirmatory chromosome counts was used to determine ploidy levels in 355 populations of O. obtusa (1014 individuals) across its entire distribution range. Ecological differentiation among cytotypes was tested by comparing sets of vegetation and climatic variables extracted for each locality. Key Results Three majority (2x, 4x, 6x) and three minority (3x, 5x, 8x) cytotypes were detected in situ, in addition to a heptaploid individual originating from a botanical garden. While single-cytotype populations predominate, 12 mixed-ploidy populations were also found. The overall pattern of ploidy level distribution is quite complex, but some ecological segregation was observed. Hexaploids are the most common cytotype and prevail in the Fynbos biome. In contrast, tetraploids dominate in the Succulent Karoo biome. Precipitation parameters were identified as the most important climatic variables associated with cytotype distribution. Conclusions Although it would be premature to make generalizations regarding the role of genome duplication in the genesis of hyperdiversity of the Cape flora, the substantial and unexpected ploidy diversity in Oxalis obtusa is unparalleled in comparison with any other cytologically known native Cape plant species. The results suggest that ploidy variation in the Greater Cape Floristic Region may be much greater than currently assumed, which, given the documented role of polyploidy in speciation, has direct implications for radiation

  3. Monoclonal antibodies toward different Tn-amino acid backbones display distinct recognition patterns on human cancer cells. Implications for effective immuno-targeting of cancer.

    PubMed

    Mazal, Daniel; Lo-Man, Richard; Bay, Sylvie; Pritsch, Otto; Dériaud, Edith; Ganneau, Christelle; Medeiros, Andrea; Ubillos, Luis; Obal, Gonzalo; Berois, Nora; Bollati-Fogolin, Mariela; Leclerc, Claude; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The Tn antigen (GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr) is a well-established tumor-associated marker which represents a good target for the design of anti-tumor vaccines. Several studies have established that the binding of some anti-Tn antibodies could be affected by the density of Tn determinant or/and by the amino acid residues neighboring O-glycosylation sites. In the present study, using synthetic Tn-based vaccines, we have generated a panel of anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of their binding to various synthetic glycopeptides, modifying the amino acid carrier of the GalNAc(*) (Ser* vs Thr*), showed subtle differences in their fine specificities. We found that the recognition of these glycopeptides by some of these MAbs was strongly affected by the Tn backbone, such as a S*S*S* specific MAb (15G9) which failed to recognize a S*T*T* or a T*T*T* structure. Different binding patterns of these antibodies were also observed in FACS and Western blot analysis using three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, LS174T and Jurkat). Importantly, an immunohistochemical analysis of human tumors (72 breast cancer and 44 colon cancer) showed the existence of different recognition profiles among the five antibodies evaluated, demonstrating that the aglyconic part of the Tn structure (Ser vs Thr) plays a key role in the anti-Tn specificity for breast and colon cancer detection. This new structural feature of the Tn antigen could be of important clinical value, notably due to the increasing interest of this antigen in anticancer vaccine design as well as for the development of anti-Tn antibodies for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes.

  5. CBP/p300 and associated transcriptional co-activators exhibit distinct expression patterns during murine craniofacial and neural tube development

    PubMed Central

    BHATTACHERJEE, VASKER; HORN, KRISTIN H.; SINGH, SAURABH; WEBB, CYNTHIA L.; PISANO, M. MICHELE; GREENE, ROBERT M.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in each of the transcriptional co-activator genes - CBP, p300, Cited2, Cart1 and Carm1 - result in neural tube defects in mice. The present study thus furnishes a complete and comparative temporal and spatial expression map of CBP/p300 and associated transcriptional co-activators, Cited2, Cart1 and Carm1 during the period of murine neural tube development (embryonic days 8.5 to 10.5). Each co-activator except Cart1 was expressed in the dorsal neural folds on E8.5. Although CBP and p300 are functionally interchangeable in vitro, their respective expression patterns diverge during embryogenesis before neural fold fusion is complete. CBP gene expression was lost from the neural folds by E8.75 and was thereafter weakly expressed in the maxillary region and limb buds, while p300 exhibited strong expression in the first branchial arch, limb bud and telencephalic regions on E9.5. Cart1 exhibited strong expression in the forebrain mesenchyme from E9.0 through E10.5. Although CBP, p300, Carm1 and Cited2 share temporal expression on E8.5, these co-activators have different spatial expression in mesenchyme and/or the neuroepithelium. Nevertheless, co-localization to the dorsal neural folds on E8.5 suggests a functional role in elevation and/or fusion of the neural folds. Target genes, and pathways that promote cranial neural tube fusion that are activated by CBP/p300/Carm1/Cited2/Cart1-containing transcriptional complexes await elucidation. PMID:19598128

  6. Comparative Analyses of Three Chlorella Species in Response to Light and Sugar Reveal Distinctive Lipid Accumulation Patterns in the Microalga C. sorokiniana

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Austin; Noel, Eric A.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Oyler, George A.

    2014-01-01

    While photosynthetic microalgae, such as Chlorella, serve as feedstocks for nutritional oils and biofuels, heterotrophic cultivation can augment growth rates, support high cell densities, and increase triacylglycerol (TAG) lipid content. However, these species differ significantly in their photoautotrophic and heterotrophic characteristics. In this study, the phylogeny of thirty Chlorella strains was determined in order to inform bioprospecting efforts and detailed physiological assessment of three species. The growth kinetics and lipid biochemistry of C. protothecoides UTEX 411, C. vulgaris UTEX 265, and C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 were quantified during photoautotrophy in Bold's basal medium (BBM) and heterotrophy in BBM supplemented with glucose (10 g L−1). Heterotrophic growth rates of UTEX 411, 265, and 1230 were found to be 1.5-, 3.7-, and 5-fold higher than their respective autotrophic rates. With a rapid nine-hour heterotrophic doubling time, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 maximally accumulated 39% total lipids by dry weight during heterotrophy compared to 18% autotrophically. Furthermore, the discrete fatty acid composition of each strain was examined in order to elucidate lipid accumulation patterns under the two trophic conditions. In both modes of growth, UTEX 411 and 265 produced 18∶1 as the principal fatty acid while UTEX 1230 exhibited a 2.5-fold enrichment in 18∶2 relative to 18∶1. Although the total lipid content was highest in UTEX 411 during heterotrophy, UTEX 1230 demonstrated a two-fold increase in its heterotrophic TAG fraction at a rate of 28.9 mg L−1 d−1 to reach 22% of the biomass, corresponding to as much as 90% of its total lipids. Interestingly, UTEX 1230 growth was restricted during mixotrophy and its TAG production rate was suppressed to 18.2 mg L−1 d−1. This constraint on carbon flow raises intriguing questions about the impact of sugar and light on the metabolic regulation of microalgal lipid biosynthesis. PMID:24699196

  7. Distinct expression pattern of the full set of secreted phospholipases A2 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas: sPLA2-III as a biomarker candidate

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, C M; Wendum, D; Greenspan, E; Fléjou, J-F; Rosenberg, D W; Lambeau, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) represent attractive potential tumour biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various cancers. As a first step to address this issue in human colorectal cancer, we examined the expression of the full set of sPLA2s in sporadic adenocarcinomas and normal matched mucosa from 21 patients by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. In normal colon, PLA2G2A and PLA2G12A were expressed at high levels, PLA2G2D, PLA2G5, PLA2G10 and PLA2G12B at moderate levels, and PLA2G1B, PLA2G2F and PLA2G3 at low levels. In adenocarcinomas from left and right colon, the expression of PLA2G3 was increased by up to 40-fold, while that of PLA2G2D and PLA2G5 was decreased by up to 23- and 14-fold. The variations of expression for sPLA2-IID, sPLA2-III and sPLA2-V were confirmed at the protein level. The expression pattern of these sPLA2s appeared to be linked respectively to the overexpression of interleukin-8, defensin α6, survivin and matrilysin, and downregulation of SFRP-1 and RLPA-1, all these genes being associated to colon cancer. This original sPLA2 profile observed in adenocarcinomas highlights the potential role of certain sPLA2s in colon cancer and suggests that sPLA2-III might be a good candidate as a novel biomarker for both left and right colon cancers. PMID:18212756

  8. Distinctive Patterns of Transthyretin Amyloid in Salivary Tissue: A Clinicopathologic Study of 92 Patients With Amyloid-containing Minor Salivary Gland Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Marie-Pierre; Gnemmi, Viviane; Hachulla, Éric; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Bouchindhomme, Brigitte; Delattre, Claire; Glowacki, François; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Lacour, Arnaud; Lamblin, Nicolas; Launay, David; Leleu, Xavier; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Valleix, Sophie; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Copin, Marie-Christine; Buob, David

    2015-08-01

    Accurate typing of amyloidosis is still a major issue for pathologists and clinicians. Besides clinical data and immunohistochemistry, the histologic distribution of amyloid could represent a useful tool to prevent typing errors, such as the misdiagnosis of hereditary and senile amyloidosis as light chain-related amyloidosis (AL). Minor salivary gland biopsy (MSGB) is a widely performed procedure for amyloidosis diagnosis and typing. In the largest clinicopathologic series of amyloid-containing MSGB specimens to date, we investigated for the first time whether amyloidosis subtypes can be distinguished according to their pattern of salivary amyloid deposition. The histologic distribution and semiquantification of amyloid within salivary tissue were thoroughly reassessed for each case using Congo red-fluorescence. Clinical data were retrospectively collected. The cohort included 92 patients with amyloid-containing minor salivary gland biopsies. The type of amyloidosis was AL in 51 patients (55.4%), non-V30M mutant ATTR in 10 (10.9%), V30M mutant ATTR in 8 (8.7%), serum amyloid A-derived amyloidosis (AA) in 6 (6.5%), wild-type ATTR in 4 (4.3%), gelsolin in 3 (3.3%), and unclassified in 10 (10.9%). Amyloid was more abundant in AL and AA compared with ATTR amyloidosis, because of more extensive basement membranes and vascular deposits. Conversely, non-V30M mutant ATTR and wt-ATTR were strongly associated with peculiar amyloid nodules located in close contact with salivary excretory ducts, with a specificity of 91.7%. In conclusion, our study suggests for the first time that MSGB, in addition to its high sensitivity for amyloidosis diagnosis, is a simple and effective tool for the recognition of ATTR amyloidosis.

  9. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. PMID:26839128

  10. Marangoni patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagu, N. Nirmal; Strombom, Evelyn; Palumbo, Daniel; Caicedo, Carlos; Shinbrot, Troy

    2010-11-01

    We study Marangoni patterns that emerge when common food dye is dropped into a dish of shallow water. These patterns consist of tendrils and spots that sharpen over time before eventually fading. We demonstrate that the patterns can be modeled using coupled reaction-diffusion equations, where the "reaction" terms appear due to a nonlinear dependence of surface tension on dye concentration. We show using a spatio-temporal metric that these patterns are distinct from previously described Turing patterns.

  11. Detecting motion artifact ECG noise during sleeping by means of a tri-axis accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yoshifumi; Kutsuna, Yasunari; Oguri, Koji

    2007-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring has become a helpful tool for detecting a number of heart diseases. High quality ECG is utilized by the physicians for interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. ECG recordings, however, are often corrupted by motion artifacts even when patient is sleeping due to his or her positional change. In this paper, we proposed a new method of detecting motion artifact ECG noise during sleeping based on acceleration data. The experimental recordings of ECG and acceleration signal were collected from 8 subjects. The result in this study demonstrated that the proposed approach is effective for detecting corruption of ECG signal.

  12. A controlled study of a new ECG electrode system.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, L T; Roitman, D I; Kansal, S

    1978-07-01

    A newly marketed resting ECG electrode system was compared with conventional metal suction and plate electrodes, electrode cream and patient cable. Two experienced technicians were given special training in the use of the new electrode, electrolyte and patient cable system and alternated daily in using new and conventional equipment. Nearly equal numbers of perfect-scoring ECGs were recorded with each system, attesting to the impartiality of the technicians. A total of 1,062 ECGs were evaluated, 554 with the new system and 508 with the conventional one. ECG tracings were evaluated by electrocardiographers unaware of which system was used for each. A quantitative scoring system was used to measure the technical quality of each tracing in terms of baseline drift, powerline artifact and myographic plus miscellaneous artifacts. The new system received mean scores of 2.33, 3.08, and 2.72, respectively, while the conventional electrodes received scores of 2.56, 3.03 and 2.79. We concluded that the two types of electrodes produced ECGs of essentially equal quality.

  13. Human Authentication Based on ECG Waves Using Radon Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Chetana; Prabhu, H. Rahul; Sagar, D. S.; Shenoy, P. Deepa; Venugopal, K. R.; Patnaik, L. M.

    Automated security is one of the major concerns of modern times. Secure and reliable authentication systems are in great demand. A biometric trait like electrocardiogram (ECG) of a person is unique and secure. In this paper, we propose a human authentication system based on ECG waves considering a plotted ECG wave signal as an image. The Radon Transform is applied on the preprocessed ECG image to get a radon image consisting of projections for θ varying from 0 o to 180 o . The pairwise distance between the columns of Radon image is computed to get a feature vector. Correlation Coefficient between feature vector stored in the database and that of input image is computed to check the authenticity of a person. Then the confusion matrix is generated to find False Acceptance Ratio (FAR) and False Rejection Ratio (FRR). This methodology of authentication is tested on ECG wave data set of 105 individuals taken from Physionet QT Database. The proposed authentication system is found to have FAR of about 3.19% and FRR of about 0.128%. The overall accuracy of the system is found to be 99.85%.

  14. Fast multi-scale feature fusion for ECG heartbeat classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Wang, Zeyu; Fan, Jingfan; Ai, Changbin; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is conducted to monitor the electrical activity of the heart by presenting small amplitude and duration signals; as a result, hidden information present in ECG data is difficult to determine. However, this concealed information can be used to detect abnormalities. In our study, a fast feature-fusion method of ECG heartbeat classification based on multi-linear subspace learning is proposed. The method consists of four stages. First, baseline and high frequencies are removed to segment heartbeat. Second, as an extension of wavelets, wavelet-packet decomposition is conducted to extract features. With wavelet-packet decomposition, good time and frequency resolutions can be provided simultaneously. Third, decomposed confidences are arranged as a two-way tensor, in which feature fusion is directly implemented with generalized N dimensional ICA (GND-ICA). In this method, co-relationship among different data information is considered, and disadvantages of dimensionality are prevented; this method can also be used to reduce computing compared with linear subspace-learning methods (PCA). Finally, support vector machine (SVM) is considered as a classifier in heartbeat classification. In this study, ECG records are obtained from the MIT-BIT arrhythmia database. Four main heartbeat classes are used to examine the proposed algorithm. Based on the results of five measurements, sensitivity, positive predictivity, accuracy, average accuracy, and t-test, our conclusion is that a GND-ICA-based strategy can be used to provide enhanced ECG heartbeat classification. Furthermore, large redundant features are eliminated, and classification time is reduced.

  15. Exploiting prior knowledge in compressed sensing wireless ECG systems.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

    2015-03-01

    Recent results in telecardiology show that compressed sensing (CS) is a promising tool to lower energy consumption in wireless body area networks for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, the performance of current CS-based algorithms, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality of the ECG, still falls short of the performance attained by state-of-the-art wavelet-based algorithms. In this paper, we propose to exploit the structure of the wavelet representation of the ECG signal to boost the performance of CS-based methods for compression and reconstruction of ECG signals. More precisely, we incorporate prior information about the wavelet dependencies across scales into the reconstruction algorithms and exploit the high fraction of common support of the wavelet coefficients of consecutive ECG segments. Experimental results utilizing the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show that significant performance gains, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality, can be obtained by the proposed algorithms compared to current CS-based methods. PMID:24846672

  16. A system for intelligent home care ECG upload and priorisation.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Lorenzo T; Tarita, Eugeniu; Zywietz, Tosja K; Lueth, Tim C

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, a system for internet based, automated home care ECG upload and priorisation is presented for the first time. It unifies the advantages of existing telemonitoring ECG systems adding functionalities such as automated priorisation and usability for home care. Chronic cardiac diseases are a big group in the geriatric field. Most of them can be easily diagnosed with help of an electrocardiogram. A frequent or long-term ECG analysis allows early diagnosis of e.g. a cardiac infarction. Nevertheless, patients often aren't willing to visit a doctor for prophylactic purposes. Possible solutions of this problem are home care devices, which are used to investigate patients at home without the presence of a doctor on site. As the diffusion of such systems leads to a huge amount of data which has to be managed and evaluated, the presented approach focuses on an easy to use software for ECG upload from home, a web based management application and an algorithm for ECG preanalysis and priorisation.

  17. SLOPE--a real-time ECG data compressor.

    PubMed

    Tai, S C

    1991-03-01

    An ECG sampled at a rate of 250 samples s-1 or more produces a large amount of redundant data that are difficult to store and transmit. In the paper, a real-time ECG data compressor, SLOPE, is presented. SLOPE considers some adjacent samples as a vector, and this vector is extended if the coming sample falls in a fan spanned by this vector and a threshold angle; otherwise, it is delimited as a linear segment. By this means SLOPE repeatedly delimits linear segments of different lengths and different slopes. The Huffman codes for the parameters to describe this linear segment are transmitted for that linear segment. SLOPEa, which is a slightly modified version of SLOPE, is used to compress ambulatory ECG data. All the operations used by SLOPE and SLOPEa are simple integer operations, both SLOPE and SLOPEa being real-time compressors. Experimental results show that an average of 192 bits per channel per second (bpcs) for each ECG signal is obtained by SLOPE and an average of 148 bpcs for each ECG signal is obtained by SLOPEa.

  18. The role of the ECG in diagnosis, risk estimation, and catheterization laboratory activation in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Yochai; Nikus, Kjell; Kligfield, Paul; Fiol, Miguel; Barrabés, Jose Antonio; Sionis, Alessandro; Pahlm, Olle; Niebla, J Garcia; de Luna, Antonio Bayès

    2014-09-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most widely used imaging tool helping in diagnosis and initial management of patients presenting with symptoms compatible with acute coronary syndrome. Acute ischemia affects the configuration of the QRS complexes, the ST segments and the T waves. The ECG should be read along with the clinical assessment of the patient. ST segment elevation (and ST depression in leads V1 -V3 ) in patients with active symptoms usually indicates acute occlusion of an epicardial artery with ongoing transmural ischemia. These patients should be triaged for emergent reperfusion therapy per current guidelines. However, many patients have ST segment elevation secondary to nonischemic causes. ST depression in leads other than V1 -V3 usually are indicative of subendocardial ischemia secondary to subocclusion of the epicardial artery, distal embolization to small arteries or spasm supply/demand mismatch. ST depression may also be secondary to nonischemic etiologies, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathies, etc. Knowing the clinical scenario, comparison to previous ECG and subsequent ECGs (in cases that there are changes in the quality or severity of symptoms) may add in the diagnosis and interpretation in difficult cases. This review addresses the different ECG patterns, typically seen in patients with active symptoms, after resolution of symptoms and the significance of such changes when seen in asymptomatic patients.

  19. Panencephalopathic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with distinct pattern of prion protein deposition in a patient with D178N mutation and homozygosity for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein Gene.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Gabriella; Indaco, Antonio; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Suardi, Silvia; Finato, Nicoletta; Moretti, Valentino; Micoli, Sandro; Fociani, Paolo; Zerbi, Pietro; Pincherle, Alessandro; Redaelli, Veronica; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    Prion diseases include sporadic, acquired and genetic forms linked to mutations of the prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). In subjects carrying the D178N PRNP mutation, distinct phenotypes can be observed, depending on the methionine/valine codon 129 polymorphism. We present here a 53-year-old woman with D178N mutation in the PRNP gene and homozygosity for valine at codon 129. The disease started at age 47 with memory deficits, progressive cognitive impairment and ataxia. The clinical picture slowly worsened to a state of akinetic mutism in about 2 years and the disease course was 6 years. The neuropathologic examination demonstrated severe diffuse cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss, spongiosis and marked myelin loss and tissue rarefaction in the hemispheric white matter, configuring panencephalopathic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PrP deposition was present in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum with diffuse synaptic-type pattern of immunoreactivity and clusters of countless, small PrP deposits, particularly evident in the lower cortical layers, in the striatum and in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 1 PrP(Sc) (Parchi classification). These findings underline the clear-cut distinction between the neuropathological features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with D178N PRNP mutation and those of fatal familial insomnia.

  20. Design intelligent wheelchair with ECG measurement and wireless transmission function.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Chiang; Wang, Yi-Ming; Chang, Huai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of aging populations has produced widespread health awareness and magnified the need for improved medical quality and technologies. Statistics show that ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death for older people and people with reduced mobility; therefore, wheelchairs have become their primary means of transport. Hence, an arrhythmia-detecting smart wheelchair was proposed in this study to provide real-time electrocardiography (ECG)-monitoring to patients with heart disease and reduced mobility. A self-developed, handheld ECG-sensing instrument was integrated with a wheelchair and a lab-written, arrhythmia-detecting program. The measured ECG data were transmitted through a Wi-Fi module and analyzed and diagnosed using the human-machine interface.

  1. Chaos control applied to cardiac rhythms represented by ECG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borem Ferreira, Bianca; Amorim Savi, Marcelo; Souza de Paula, Aline

    2014-10-01

    The control of irregular or chaotic heartbeats is a key issue in cardiology. In this regard, chaos control techniques represent a good alternative since they suggest treatments different from those traditionally used. This paper deals with the application of the extended time-delayed feedback control method to stabilize pathological chaotic heart rhythms. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are employed to represent the cardiovascular behavior. A mathematical model is employed to generate ECG signals using three modified Van der Pol oscillators connected with time delay couplings. This model provides results that qualitatively capture the general behavior of the heart. Controlled ECG signals show the ability of the strategy either to control or to suppress the chaotic heart dynamics generating less-critical behaviors.

  2. Nonstationary harmonic modeling for ECG removal in surface EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Miroslav; González-Izal, Miriam

    2012-06-01

    We present a compact approach for mitigating the presence of electrocardiograms (ECG) in surface electromyographic (EMG) signals by means of time-variant harmonic modeling of the cardiac artifact. Heart rate and QRS complex variability, which often account for amplitude and frequency time variations of the ECG, are simultaneously captured by a set of third-order constant-coefficient polynomials modulating a stationary harmonic basis in the analysis window. Such a characterization allows us to significantly suppress ECG from the mixture by preserving most of the EMG signal content at low frequencies (less than 20 Hz). Moreover, the resulting model is linear in parameters and the least-squares solution to the corresponding linear system of equations efficiently provides model parameter estimates. The comparative results suggest that the proposed method outperforms two reference methods in terms of the EMG preservation at low frequencies. PMID:22453600

  3. [An improved wavelet threshold algorithm for ECG denoising].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuling; Qiao, Lei; Yang, Jianli; Dong, Bin; Wang, Hongrui

    2014-06-01

    Due to the characteristics and environmental factors, electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are usually interfered by noises in the course of signal acquisition, so it is crucial for ECG intelligent analysis to eliminate noises in ECG signals. On the basis of wavelet transform, threshold parameters were improved and a more appropriate threshold expression was proposed. The discrete wavelet coefficients were processed using the improved threshold parameters, the accurate wavelet coefficients without noises were gained through inverse discrete wavelet transform, and then more original signal coefficients could be preserved. MIT-BIH arrythmia database was used to validate the method. Simulation results showed that the improved method could achieve better denoising effect than the traditional ones. PMID:25219225

  4. ECG compression: evaluation of FFT, DCT, and WT performance.

    PubMed

    GholamHosseini, H; Nazeran, H; Moran, B

    1998-12-01

    This work investigates a set of ECG data compression schemes to compare their performances in compressing and preparing ECG signals for automatic cardiac arrhythmia classification. These schemes are based on transform methods such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), discrete cosine transform (DCT), wavelet transform (WT), and their combinations. Each specific transform is applied to a pre-selected data segment from the MIT-BIH database and then compression is performed in the new domain. These transformation methods are known as an important class of ECG compression techniques. The WT has been shown as the most efficient method for further improvement. A compression ratio of 7.98 to 1 has been achieved with a percent of root mean square difference (PRD) of 0.25%, indicating that the wavelet compression technique offers the best performance over the other evaluated methods.

  5. Design intelligent wheelchair with ECG measurement and wireless transmission function.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Chiang; Wang, Yi-Ming; Chang, Huai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of aging populations has produced widespread health awareness and magnified the need for improved medical quality and technologies. Statistics show that ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death for older people and people with reduced mobility; therefore, wheelchairs have become their primary means of transport. Hence, an arrhythmia-detecting smart wheelchair was proposed in this study to provide real-time electrocardiography (ECG)-monitoring to patients with heart disease and reduced mobility. A self-developed, handheld ECG-sensing instrument was integrated with a wheelchair and a lab-written, arrhythmia-detecting program. The measured ECG data were transmitted through a Wi-Fi module and analyzed and diagnosed using the human-machine interface. PMID:26444818

  6. ECG-synchronized DSA exposure control: improved cervicothoracic image quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, W.M.; Gould, R.; Norman, D.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Cox, L.

    1984-10-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG)-synchronized x-ray exposure sequence was used to acquire digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) images during 13 arterial injection studies of the aortic arch or carotid bifurcations. These gated images were compared with matched ungated DSA images acquired using the same technical factors, contrast material volume, and patient positioning. Subjective assessments by five experienced observers of edge definition, vessel conspicuousness, and overall diagnostic quality showed overall preference for one of the two acquisition methods in 69% of cases studied. Of these, the ECG-synchronized exposure series were rated superior in 76%. These results, as well as the relatively simple and inexpensive modifications required, suggest that routine use of ECG exposure control can facilitate improved arterial DSA evaluations of suspected cervicothoracic vascular disease.

  7. On ECG reconstruction using weighted-compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Zonoobi, Dornoosh; Kassim, Ashraf A

    2014-06-01

    The potential of the new weighted-compressive sensing approach for efficient reconstruction of electrocardiograph (ECG) signals is investigated. This is motivated by the observation that ECG signals are hugely sparse in the frequency domain and the sparsity changes slowly over time. The underlying idea of this approach is to extract an estimated probability model for the signal of interest, and then use this model to guide the reconstruction process. The authors show that the weighted-compressive sensing approach is able to achieve reconstruction performance comparable with the current state-of-the-art discrete wavelet transform-based method, but with substantially less computational cost to enable it to be considered for use in the next generation of miniaturised wearable ECG monitoring devices.

  8. On ECG reconstruction using weighted-compressive sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Ashraf A.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of the new weighted-compressive sensing approach for efficient reconstruction of electrocardiograph (ECG) signals is investigated. This is motivated by the observation that ECG signals are hugely sparse in the frequency domain and the sparsity changes slowly over time. The underlying idea of this approach is to extract an estimated probability model for the signal of interest, and then use this model to guide the reconstruction process. The authors show that the weighted-compressive sensing approach is able to achieve reconstruction performance comparable with the current state-of-the-art discrete wavelet transform-based method, but with substantially less computational cost to enable it to be considered for use in the next generation of miniaturised wearable ECG monitoring devices. PMID:26609381

  9. Adaptive filtering for ECG rejection from surface EMG recordings.

    PubMed

    Marque, C; Bisch, C; Dantas, R; Elayoubi, S; Brosse, V; Pérot, C

    2005-06-01

    Surface electromyograms (EMG) of back muscles are often corrupted by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. This noise in the EMG signals does not allow to appreciate correctly the spectral content of the EMG signals and to follow its evolution during, for example, a fatigue process. Several methods have been proposed to reject the ECG noise from EMG recordings, but seldom taking into account the eventual changes in ECG characteristics during the experiment. In this paper we propose an adaptive filtering algorithm specifically developed for the rejection of the electrocardiogram corrupting surface electromyograms (SEMG). The first step of the study was to choose the ECG electrode position in order to record the ECG with a shape similar to that found in the noised SEMGs. Then, the efficiency of different algorithms were tested on 28 erector spinae SEMG recordings. The best algorithm belongs to the fast recursive least square family (FRLS). More precisely, the best results were obtained with the simplified formulation of a FRLS algorithm. As an application of the adaptive filtering, the paper compares the evolutions of spectral parameters of noised or denoised (after adaptive filtering) surface EMGs recorded on erector spinae muscles during a trunk extension. The fatigue test was analyzed on 16 EMG recordings. After adaptive filtering, mean initial values of energy and of mean power frequency (MPF) were significantly lower and higher respectively. The differences corresponded to the removal of the ECG components. Furthermore, classical fatigue criteria (increase in energy and decrease in MPF values over time during the fatigue test) were better observed on the denoised EMGs. The mean values of the slopes of the energy-time and MPF-time linear relationships differed significantly when established before and after adaptive filtering. These results account for the efficacy of the adaptive filtering method proposed here to denoise electrophysiological signals.

  10. A computationally efficient QRS detection algorithm for wearable ECG sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Deepu, C J; Lian, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel Dual-Slope QRS detection algorithm with low computational complexity, suitable for wearable ECG devices. The Dual-Slope algorithm calculates the slopes on both sides of a peak in the ECG signal; And based on these slopes, three criterions are developed for simultaneously checking 1)Steepness 2)Shape and 3)Height of the signal, to locate the QRS complex. The algorithm, evaluated against MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database, achieves a very high detection rate of 99.45%, a sensitivity of 99.82% and a positive prediction of 99.63%. PMID:22255619

  11. Amplifier input impedance in dry electrode ECG recording.

    PubMed

    Assambo, Cedric; Burke, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for designing the front-end of instrumentation amplifiers for use in dry electrode recording of the human electrocardiogram (ECG). The method relies on information provided by the characterization of the skin-electrode interface and the analysis of low frequency ECG criteria defined by international standards. Marginal measurements of capacitive elements of the skin-electrode interface as small as 0.01 microF, suggest values of input impedance in the order of 1.3 GOmega. However, results in 99% of the data analyzed indicate that a recording amplifier providing an input impedance of 500 MOmega should ensure clear signal sensing without distortion.

  12. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Fortunati, Ilaria; Carnevali, Luca; Baruffi, Silvana; Mastorci, Francesca; Trombini, Mimosa; Sgoifo, Andrea; Corradi, Domenico; Callegari, Sergio; Miragoli, Michele; Macchi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.

  13. Distinction of bloodstain patterns from fly artifacts.

    PubMed

    Benecke, Mark; Barksdale, Larry

    2003-11-26

    Forensic scientists may encounter blood spatter at a scene which may be pure or a mixture of fly artifacts and human bloodstains. It is important to be able to make an informed identification, or at least advanced documentation of such stains since the mechanics of production of fly artifacts are not determinable to the crime scene reconstructionist from regular police forces. We describe three cases in which experiments and crime scene reconstruction led to additional information. Case 1: Above the position of a victim, numerous blood stains of the low-high-velocity type were found. Exclusion of these stains being caused by force (but instead caused by the activity of adult blow flies) by use of the following observations that were confirmed in experiments: (a) sperm-/tadpole-like structure with length > width, (b) random directionality, and (c) mixture of round symmetrical and teardrop shaped stains. Case 2: A reddish spatter field was found on a fan chain two rooms away from the place where a dead woman was found. Localization of the spatter on the bottom end of the surface hinted strongly towards fly activity. Case 3: Double homicide; submillimeter stains were found on a lamp between the two corpses. Activity of flies was less likely compared to alternative scenario of moving lampshade and violent stabbing. PMID:14609651

  14. [Electrocardiograph beat pattern recognition].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qunyi; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huiling

    2005-02-01

    It is very important to recognize arrhythmia in clinical electrocardiography (ECG) analysis. The fundamental of beat pattern recognition is presented in this paper. Various prevalent methods for arrhythmia recognitiion are categorized and summarized, based on which the advantages and disadvantages among the methods are compared, and the main problems are discussed in depth. At last, the development trend of arrhythmia recognition technology is pointed out.

  15. Antiequine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) antibodies generated in goats treated with eCG for the induction of ovulation modulate the luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone bioactivities of eCG differently.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Virginie; Roy, François; Bertin, Jean; Guillou, Florian; Maurel, Marie-Christine

    2004-01-01

    In dairy goats, treatments associating a progestogen and the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) are the easiest way to induce and synchronize estrus and ovulation and to permit artificial insemination (AI) and/or out of season breeding. From the first treatment, the injection of eCG induces, in some females, the production of anti-eCG antibodies (Abs) that will interfere with the effectiveness of subsequent treatments. These anti-eCG Abs delay the preovulatory LH surge and the ovulation time, leading to poor fertility of the treated females. In this study, by in vitro bioassays, we show that anti-eCG Abs can positively or negatively modulate the LH and/or FSH bioactivities of eCG. Moreover, the modulation level of eCG bioactivity does not depend on the anti-eCG Ab affinity for eCG, as shown by surface plasmon resonance technology. The specificity of anti-eCG Abs tested by competitive ELISA highlighted the importance of a glycan environment in the recognition mechanism, especially the sialic acids specific to eCG. The different effects of anti-eCG Abs on eCG bioactivities could be explained by two hypotheses. First, steric hindrance preventing the interaction of eCG with its receptors would explain the inhibitory effect of some anti-eCG Abs; second, a conformational change in eCG by anti-eCG Abs could induce inhibition or potentiation of eCG bioactivities. It is significant that these modulations of eCG bioactivities by anti-eCG Abs impact mainly on the FSH bioactivity of eCG, which is essential for ovarian stimulation and subsequent fertility after treatment and AI, and to a lesser extent on LH bioactivity.

  16. Accurate Interpretation of the 12-Lead ECG Electrode Placement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunti, Kirti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients require monitoring through ECGs; the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered to be the non-invasive gold standard. Examples of incorrect treatment because of inaccurate or poor ECG monitoring techniques have been reported in the literature. The findings that only 50% of nurses and less than…

  17. Robust and accurate anomaly detection in ECG artifacts using time series motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods.

  18. Measurement of ventricular function by ECG gating during atrial fibrillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Bonow, R.O.; Findley, S.L.; Ostrow, H.G.; Johnston, G.S.

    1981-03-01

    The assumptions necessary to perform ECG-gated cardiac studies are seemingly not valid for patients in atrial fibrillation (AF). To evaluate the effect of AF on equilibrium gated scintigraphy, beat-by-beat measurements of left-ventricular function were made on seven subjects in AF (mean heart rate 64 bpm), using a high-efficiency nonimaging detector. The parameters evaluated were ejection fraction (EF), time to end-systole (TES), peak rates of ejection and filling (PER,PFR), and their times of occurrence (TPER, TPFR). By averaging together single-beat values of EF, PER, etc., it was possible to determine the true mean values of these parameters. The single-beam mean values were compared with the corresponding parameters calculated from one ECG-gated time-activity curve (TAC) obtained by superimposing all the single-beat TACs irrespective of their length. For this population with slow heart rates, we find that the values for EF, etc., produced from ECG-gated time-activity curves, are very similar to those obtained from the single-beat data. Thus use of ECG gating at low heart rates may allow reliable estimation of average cardiac function even in subjects with AF.

  19. ECG-cryptography and authentication in body area networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Fang, Hua

    2012-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person's medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighboring nodes in BANs to share a common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement for the message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of serval performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs.

  20. ECG gated NMR-CT for cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, J.; Ohtake, T.; Machida, K.; Iio, M.; Yoshimoto, N.; Sugimoto, T.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have been applying ECG gated NMR-CT to mainly patients with myocardial infarction (MI), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Thirteen patients with MI, 8 with HCM and 5 without any heart diseases were studied by ECG gated NMR imaging (spin-echo technique, TR: depends on patient heart rate, TE: 35 and 70 msec.) with 0.35 T superconducting magnet. On NMR images (MRI), the authors examined the wall thickness, wall motion and T/sub 2/ relaxation time in the area of diseased myocardium. The lesions of old MI were depicted as the area of thin wall and T/sub 2/ relaxation time of those lesions were similar to the area of non-infarcted myocardium. The lesions of recent MI (up to 3.5 months from the recent attack) were shown as the same wall thickness as the non-infarcted myocardium and the area of prolonged T/sub 2/ relaxation time compared with that of non-infarcted myocardium. MRI demonstrated diffusely thick myocardium in all patients with HCM. T/sub 2/ relaxation time of the areas of HCM was almost the same as that of normal myocardium, and it's difference among each ventricular wall in patients with HCM was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that ECG gated NMR-CT offers 3-D morphological information of the heart without any contrast material nor radioisotopes. ECG gated MRI provides the useful informations to diagnose MI, especially in the differential diagnosis between old and recent MI.

  1. ECG Monitoring in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Is It Needed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Philip; Pomilla, Paul V.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring as a safety measure in cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs. Little evidence substantiates its value for all patients during exercise. In the absence of empirical evidence documenting the worth of this expensive procedure, it is recommended for use with high-risk…

  2. ECG-based heartbeat classification for arrhythmia detection: A survey.

    PubMed

    Luz, Eduardo José da S; Schwartz, William Robson; Cámara-Chávez, Guillermo; Menotti, David

    2016-04-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) measures the electric activity of the heart and has been widely used for detecting heart diseases due to its simplicity and non-invasive nature. By analyzing the electrical signal of each heartbeat, i.e., the combination of action impulse waveforms produced by different specialized cardiac tissues found in the heart, it is possible to detect some of its abnormalities. In the last decades, several works were developed to produce automatic ECG-based heartbeat classification methods. In this work, we survey the current state-of-the-art methods of ECG-based automated abnormalities heartbeat classification by presenting the ECG signal preprocessing, the heartbeat segmentation techniques, the feature description methods and the learning algorithms used. In addition, we describe some of the databases used for evaluation of methods indicated by a well-known standard developed by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and described in ANSI/AAMI EC57:1998/(R)2008 (ANSI/AAMI, 2008). Finally, we discuss limitations and drawbacks of the methods in the literature presenting concluding remarks and future challenges, and also we propose an evaluation process workflow to guide authors in future works.

  3. [Fetal ECG monitoring system based on MCU processing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Chen, Wei; Xie, Xicheng; Zhang, Hao

    2004-12-01

    In order to monitor the fetus in labor, the signal characteristic from fetal scalp electrode is researched, An adaptation algorithm and a peak to peak detecting technology are adopted in signal processing, and an adaptation gain control method is used to eliminate disturber from base-line shift. A fetal ECG monitoring system is designed on the basis of C8051F020 MCU.

  4. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  7. Some regularity on how to locate electrodes for higher fECG SNRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie-Min; Huang, Xiao-Lin; Guan, Qun; Liu, Tie-Bing; Li, Ping; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Hong-Xing

    2015-03-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded from the abdominal surface of a pregnant woman is a composite of maternal ECG, fetal ECG (fECG) and other noises, while only the fECG component is always needed by us. With different locations of electrode pairs on the maternal abdominal surface to measure fECGs, the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the recorded abdominal ECGs are also correspondingly different. Some regularity on how to locate electrodes to obtain higher fECG SNRs is needed practically. In this paper, 343 groups of abdominal ECG records were acquired from 78 pregnant women with different electrode pairs locating, and an appropriate extended research database is formed. Then the regularity on fECG SNRs corresponding to different electrode pairs locating was studied. Based on statistical analysis, it is shown that the fECG SNRs are significantly higher in certain locations than others. Reasonable explanation is also provided to the statistical result using the theories of the fetal cardiac electrical axis and the signal phase delay. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271079) and the Supporting Plan Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2010720).

  8. Mobile measurement system of ECG signal in vehicle environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kwang-seok; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Choon-Young; Kim, Myun-Hee

    2005-12-01

    This paper proposed a new method to measure the ECG signal from the driver. The ECG signal is often measured in the room. But it is mixed with many kinds of noise when it is measured during the vehicle moving. Noise occupied most many parts as the experimental among them was classified. And one suitable filter for each noise was designed. It used ALE(Adaptive Line Enhancement) to remove the noise occurred to electromagnetic wave in vehicle. To remove the noise occurred to steering or vibration of vehicle, the paper used Wavelet transformation after ALE(preprocessing filter). To realize unconscious measurement, this research used the stainless steel(not the electrode) fixed at steering wheel and designed the adaptive filter without using reference signal.

  9. Combining Wavelet Transform and Hidden Markov Models for ECG Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Boudy, Jérôme

    2006-12-01

    This work aims at providing new insights on the electrocardiogram (ECG) segmentation problem using wavelets. The wavelet transform has been originally combined with a hidden Markov models (HMMs) framework in order to carry out beat segmentation and classification. A group of five continuous wavelet functions commonly used in ECG analysis has been implemented and compared using the same framework. All experiments were realized on the QT database, which is composed of a representative number of ambulatory recordings of several individuals and is supplied with manual labels made by a physician. Our main contribution relies on the consistent set of experiments performed. Moreover, the results obtained in terms of beat segmentation and premature ventricular beat (PVC) detection are comparable to others works reported in the literature, independently of the type of the wavelet. Finally, through an original concept of combining two wavelet functions in the segmentation stage, we achieve our best performances.

  10. Use of electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    BIA is a safe, noninvasive, portable and relatively inexpensive method of estimating body composition that is practical and suitable for individual use and large-scale studies. However, the cost of the electrodes recommended by some BIA manufacturers is too high for developing countries; where very often the long and complicated process of importation reduces the time they can be used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of two types of ECG electrodes (2290 and 2228 by 3M®) in BIA measurements to decrease the costs of the test. The results showed that the 2228 ECG electrodes can be used in BIA measurements for adult's body composition assessment. These electrodes are available in the domestic market and their costs are 92% lower than the electrodes recommended by manufacturer. The results show a new cost-benefit relation for BIA method and make this a more accessible tool for individual tests, large-scale researches and studies in the community.

  11. The feasibility of bench tests for disposable ECG electrode adhesiveness.

    PubMed

    Baker, C D; Schoenberg, A A; Booth, H E

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of recommending one standard bench test that adequately qualifies electrode adhesives for clinical use was examined by UBTL. Small strips, cut from whole, commercially available disposable ECG electrodes, were attached to three types of surfaces, and samples of each type of electrode were peel tested at 15 minutes, 8 hours, and 48 hours after attachment. A program was developed to average, display, and calculate peel strength parameters. Analysis of the data showed that (a) the peel strength of electrodes varied by more than a factor of 10 when measured on human skin, and by more than a factor of 3 when measured on bench test surfaces, and (b) the peel strength of the electrode adhesive strips did not correlate with intact electrode loss on ambulatory subjects. Therefore, UBTL could not recommend one bench test that would measure adhesion performance for all electrode types appropriate for inclusion in an AAMI ECG electrode standard.

  12. ECG contamination of EEG signals: effect on entropy.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Dhritiman; Bansal, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    Entropy™ is a proprietary algorithm which uses spectral entropy analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to produce indices which are used as a measure of depth of hypnosis. We describe a report of electrocardiographic (ECG) contamination of EEG signals leading to fluctuating erroneous Entropy values. An explanation is provided for mechanism behind this observation by describing the spread of ECG signals in head and neck and its influence on EEG/Entropy by correlating the observation with the published Entropy algorithm. While the Entropy algorithm has been well conceived, there are still instances in which it can produce erroneous values. Such erroneous values and their cause may be identified by close scrutiny of the EEG waveform if Entropy values seem out of sync with that expected at given anaesthetic levels.

  13. Patient ECG recording control for an automatic implantable defibrillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, Glen H. (Inventor); Lee, Jr., David G. (Inventor); Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An implantable automatic defibrillator includes sensors which are placed on or near the patient's heart to detect electrical signals indicative of the physiology of the heart. The signals are digitally converted and stored into a FIFO region of a RAM by operation of a direct memory access (DMA) controller. The DMA controller operates transparently with respect to the microprocessor which is part of the defibrillator. The implantable defibrillator includes a telemetry communications circuit for sending data outbound from the defibrillator to an external device (either a patient controller or a physician's console or other) and a receiver for sensing at least an externally generated patient ECG recording command signal. The patient recording command signal is generated by the hand held patient controller. Upon detection of the patient ECG recording command, DMA copies the contents of the FIFO into a specific region of the RAM.

  14. Diverse and composite features for ECG signals processing.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2008-01-01

    The automated diagnostic systems employing diverse and composite features for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were analyzed and their accuracies were determined. Because of the importance of making the right decision, classification procedures classifying the ECG signals with high accuracy were investigated. The classification accuracies of multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN), recurrent neural network (RNN), and mixture of experts (ME) trained on composite features and modified mixture of experts (MME) trained on diverse features were compared. The inputs of these automated diagnostic systems were composed of diverse or composite features (wavelet coefficients and power levels of the power spectral density estimates obtained by the eigenvector methods) and were chosen according to the network structures. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the MME trained on diverse features achieved accuracy rates which were higher than that of the other automated diagnostic systems trained on composite features. PMID:18408257

  15. Discussion of "Computational Electrocardiography: Revisiting Holter ECG Monitoring".

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christian; Caiani, Enrico G; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Kulikowski, Casimir A; Schiecke, Karin; van Bemmel, Jan H; Witte, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    This article is part of a For-Discussion-Section of Methods of Information in Medicine about the paper "Computational Electrocardiography: Revisiting Holter ECG Monitoring" written by Thomas M. Deserno and Nikolaus Marx. It is introduced by an editorial. This article contains the combined commentaries invited to independently comment on the paper of Deserno and Marx. In subsequent issues the discussion can continue through letters to the editor.

  16. Capacitive driven-right-leg grounding in Indirect-contact ECG measurement.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yong Gyu; Chung, Gih Sung; Park, Kwang Suk

    2010-01-01

    For the reduction of common-mode noise level in Indirect-contact ECG (IDC-ECG) measurement, a driven-right-leg grounding method was applied to the IDC-ECG. Because the IDC-ECG does not require any direct contact between the electrodes and the human skin, it is adequate for un-constraining long-term ECG measurement at home and its various applications are now under development. However, larger 60 Hz noise induced by power line appears in IDC-ECG than in conventional ECG, that is a restriction of IDC-ECG application. In this study, the driven-right-leg ground which has been used in conventional direct-contact ECG, was adapted to the IDC-ECG measurement, by feedback of the inversion of amplified common-mode noise to the body through the conductive textile laid on the chair seat. It was shown that the level of 60Hz power line noise was reduced to about -40 dB when the driven-right-leg gain was 1000.

  17. Extended Kalman smoother with differential evolution technique for denoising of ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, D; Sahu, P K

    2016-09-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal gives a lot of information on the physiology of heart. In reality, noise from various sources interfere with the ECG signal. To get the correct information on physiology of the heart, noise cancellation of the ECG signal is required. In this paper, the effectiveness of extended Kalman smoother (EKS) with the differential evolution (DE) technique for noise cancellation of the ECG signal is investigated. DE is used as an automatic parameter selection method for the selection of ten optimized components of the ECG signal, and those are used to create the ECG signal according to the real ECG signal. These parameters are used by the EKS for the development of the state equation and also for initialization of the parameters of EKS. EKS framework is used for denoising the ECG signal from the single channel. The effectiveness of proposed noise cancellation technique has been evaluated by adding white, colored Gaussian noise and real muscle artifact noise at different SNR to some visually clean ECG signals from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The proposed noise cancellation technique of ECG signal shows better signal to noise ratio (SNR) improvement, lesser mean square error (MSE) and percent of distortion (PRD) compared to other well-known methods. PMID:27542170

  18. Capacitive driven-right-leg grounding in Indirect-contact ECG measurement.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yong Gyu; Chung, Gih Sung; Park, Kwang Suk

    2010-01-01

    For the reduction of common-mode noise level in Indirect-contact ECG (IDC-ECG) measurement, a driven-right-leg grounding method was applied to the IDC-ECG. Because the IDC-ECG does not require any direct contact between the electrodes and the human skin, it is adequate for un-constraining long-term ECG measurement at home and its various applications are now under development. However, larger 60 Hz noise induced by power line appears in IDC-ECG than in conventional ECG, that is a restriction of IDC-ECG application. In this study, the driven-right-leg ground which has been used in conventional direct-contact ECG, was adapted to the IDC-ECG measurement, by feedback of the inversion of amplified common-mode noise to the body through the conductive textile laid on the chair seat. It was shown that the level of 60Hz power line noise was reduced to about -40 dB when the driven-right-leg gain was 1000. PMID:21095911

  19. Extended Kalman smoother with differential evolution technique for denoising of ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, D; Sahu, P K

    2016-09-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal gives a lot of information on the physiology of heart. In reality, noise from various sources interfere with the ECG signal. To get the correct information on physiology of the heart, noise cancellation of the ECG signal is required. In this paper, the effectiveness of extended Kalman smoother (EKS) with the differential evolution (DE) technique for noise cancellation of the ECG signal is investigated. DE is used as an automatic parameter selection method for the selection of ten optimized components of the ECG signal, and those are used to create the ECG signal according to the real ECG signal. These parameters are used by the EKS for the development of the state equation and also for initialization of the parameters of EKS. EKS framework is used for denoising the ECG signal from the single channel. The effectiveness of proposed noise cancellation technique has been evaluated by adding white, colored Gaussian noise and real muscle artifact noise at different SNR to some visually clean ECG signals from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The proposed noise cancellation technique of ECG signal shows better signal to noise ratio (SNR) improvement, lesser mean square error (MSE) and percent of distortion (PRD) compared to other well-known methods.

  20. An ECG analysis interactive training system for understanding arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Yvon; Sinteff, Jean-Paul; Siregar, Pridi; Julen, Nathalie; Hannouche, Frédéric; Rio, Stéphane; Le Beux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The ECG remains a daily diagnostic tool for the detection of numerous cardiovascular diseases. Our goal was to use a computerized qualitative model (QM) of heart in order to build cases of simple arrhythmias dedicated to initial and more advanced medical teaching. The original QM is able to generate videograms of many cardiac disturbances. A Flash player is used to view ECG, synchronous Lewis diagram and chromatic 2D cardiac animation of a specific case. OAAT is a standardized 18 yes/no answers questionnaire which allows the learner to diagnose five main types of arrhythmias that can be compared with normal sinus rhythm (NSR) analysis. This new tool has been recently used by medical students during practical sessions. Based on medical reasoning learning on NSR video and upon trying to recognize an abnormal cardiac rhythm, all users can reach the 100% winning score since they can perform as many attempts as they like. We believe that unlimited case review with questionnaire answering, ECG and Lewis diagram replay and step-by-step visualization of the abnormal propagation of the cardiac impulse on the 2D heart videos are a highly efficient means to help students understand even complex arrhythmic mechanisms.

  1. Real-time ECG transmission via Internet for nonclinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hernández, A I; Mora, F; Villegas, G; Passariello, G; Carrault, G

    2001-09-01

    Telemedicine is producing a great impact in the monitoring of patients located in remote nonclinical environments such as homes, elder communities, gymnasiums, schools, remote military bases, ships, and the like. A number of applications, ranging from data collection, to chronic patient surveillance, and even to the control of therapeutic procedures, are being implemented in many parts of the world. As part of this growing trend, this paper discusses the problems in electrocardiogram (ECG) real-time data acquisition, transmission, and visualization over the Internet. ECG signals are transmitted in real time from a patient in a remote nonclinical environment to the specialist in a hospital or clinic using the current capabilities and availability of the Internet. A prototype system is composed of a portable data acquisition and preprocessing module connected to the computer in the remote site via its RS-232 port, a Java-based client-server platform, and software modules to handle communication protocols between data acquisition module and the patient's personal computer, and to handle client-server communication. The purpose of the system is the provision of extended monitoring for patients under drug therapy after infarction, data collection in some particular cases, remote consultation, and low-cost ECG monitoring for the elderly.

  2. An ECG analysis interactive training system for understanding arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Yvon; Sinteff, Jean-Paul; Siregar, Pridi; Julen, Nathalie; Hannouche, Frédéric; Rio, Stéphane; Le Beux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The ECG remains a daily diagnostic tool for the detection of numerous cardiovascular diseases. Our goal was to use a computerized qualitative model (QM) of heart in order to build cases of simple arrhythmias dedicated to initial and more advanced medical teaching. The original QM is able to generate videograms of many cardiac disturbances. A Flash player is used to view ECG, synchronous Lewis diagram and chromatic 2D cardiac animation of a specific case. OAAT is a standardized 18 yes/no answers questionnaire which allows the learner to diagnose five main types of arrhythmias that can be compared with normal sinus rhythm (NSR) analysis. This new tool has been recently used by medical students during practical sessions. Based on medical reasoning learning on NSR video and upon trying to recognize an abnormal cardiac rhythm, all users can reach the 100% winning score since they can perform as many attempts as they like. We believe that unlimited case review with questionnaire answering, ECG and Lewis diagram replay and step-by-step visualization of the abnormal propagation of the cardiac impulse on the 2D heart videos are a highly efficient means to help students understand even complex arrhythmic mechanisms. PMID:19745450

  3. A constrained two-layer compression technique for ECG waves.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyungguen; Song, Eunwoo; Shim, Hwan; Lim, Hyungjoon; Kang, Hong-Goo

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a constrained two-layer compression technique for electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, of which encoded parameters can be directly used for the diagnosis of arrhythmia. In the first layer, a single ECG beat is represented by one of the registered templates in the codebook. Since the required coding parameter in this layer is only the codebook index of the selected template, its compression ratio (CR) is very high. Note that the distribution of registered templates is also related to the characteristics of ECG waves, thus it can be used as a metric to detect various types of arrhythmias. The residual error between the input and the selected template is encoded by a wavelet-based transform coding in the second layer. The number of wavelet coefficients is constrained by pre-defined maximum distortion to be allowed. The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm shows around 7.18 CR when the reference value of percentage root mean square difference (PRD) is set to ten. PMID:26737691

  4. Unsupervised feature relevance analysis applied to improve ECG heartbeat clustering.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sotelo, J L; Peluffo-Ordoñez, D; Cuesta-Frau, D; Castellanos-Domínguez, G

    2012-10-01

    The computer-assisted analysis of biomedical records has become an essential tool in clinical settings. However, current devices provide a growing amount of data that often exceeds the processing capacity of normal computers. As this amount of information rises, new demands for more efficient data extracting methods appear. This paper addresses the task of data mining in physiological records using a feature selection scheme. An unsupervised method based on relevance analysis is described. This scheme uses a least-squares optimization of the input feature matrix in a single iteration. The output of the algorithm is a feature weighting vector. The performance of the method was assessed using a heartbeat clustering test on real ECG records. The quantitative cluster validity measures yielded a correctly classified heartbeat rate of 98.69% (specificity), 85.88% (sensitivity) and 95.04% (general clustering performance), which is even higher than the performance achieved by other similar ECG clustering studies. The number of features was reduced on average from 100 to 18, and the temporal cost was a 43% lower than in previous ECG clustering schemes. PMID:22672933

  5. Compressive sensing exploiting wavelet-domain dependencies for ECG compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polania, Luisa F.; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging signal processing paradigm that enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse signals. Extensive previous work has exploited the sparse representation of ECG signals in compression applications. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelet domain dependencies to further reduce the number of samples in compressive sensing-based ECG compression while decreasing the computational complexity. R wave events manifest themselves as chains of large coefficients propagating across scales to form a connected subtree of the wavelet coefficient tree. We show that the incorporation of this connectedness as additional prior information into a modified version of the CoSaMP algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of samples to achieve good quality in the reconstruction. This approach also allows more control over the ECG signal reconstruction, in particular, the QRS complex, which is typically distorted when prior information is not included in the recovery. The compression algorithm was tested upon records selected from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm leads to high compression ratios associated with low distortion levels relative to state-of-the-art compression algorithms.

  6. Unsupervised feature relevance analysis applied to improve ECG heartbeat clustering.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sotelo, J L; Peluffo-Ordoñez, D; Cuesta-Frau, D; Castellanos-Domínguez, G

    2012-10-01

    The computer-assisted analysis of biomedical records has become an essential tool in clinical settings. However, current devices provide a growing amount of data that often exceeds the processing capacity of normal computers. As this amount of information rises, new demands for more efficient data extracting methods appear. This paper addresses the task of data mining in physiological records using a feature selection scheme. An unsupervised method based on relevance analysis is described. This scheme uses a least-squares optimization of the input feature matrix in a single iteration. The output of the algorithm is a feature weighting vector. The performance of the method was assessed using a heartbeat clustering test on real ECG records. The quantitative cluster validity measures yielded a correctly classified heartbeat rate of 98.69% (specificity), 85.88% (sensitivity) and 95.04% (general clustering performance), which is even higher than the performance achieved by other similar ECG clustering studies. The number of features was reduced on average from 100 to 18, and the temporal cost was a 43% lower than in previous ECG clustering schemes.

  7. A Comparison of IIR and Wavelet Filtering for Noise Reduction of the ECG

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, JS; Johannesen, L; Grove, USL; Lundhus, K; Couderc, J-P; Graff, C

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the ability to preserve information and reduce noise contaminants on the ECG for five wavelet filters and three IIR filters. Two 3-lead Holter ECGs were used. White Gaussian Noise was added to the first ECG in increments of 10% coverage. The second ECG contained alternating muscle transients and noise-free segments. Computation times and SNR improvements for different noise coverages were calculated and compared. RMS errors were calculated from noise-free segments on the ECG with transient muscle noise. Wavelet filters improved SNR more than IIR filters when the signal coverage was more than 50% noise. In contrast, the computation times were shorter for IIR filters (6 s) than for wavelet filters (88 s). On the ECG with transient muscle noise there was a trade-off in performance between wavelet and IIR filtering. In a clinical setting where the amount of noise is unknown, using IIR filters appears to be preferred for consistent performance. PMID:22068831

  8. [Design of the Mobile ECG Monitoring System Based on Android 4.3].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun; Lian, Yuxi; Qin, Yajie; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2015-07-01

    To monitor and record Electrocardiograph (ECG) signals for 24 hours, a mobile ECG monitoring system is designed based on Android 4.3. In this system, domestic indigenous E9622A is used to acquire ECG signals and TI CC2541 is adopted to communicate with mobile phones. The program is implemented on the Android platform to display and process ECG signals. The whole system is integrated on a 2 cm x 2 cm PCB. From experiments, it is shown that ECG signals can be obtained effectively when this system is worn, and clear ECG waveforms and parameters can be shown on the phones. With this system, arrhythmia can be diagnosed preliminarily. It is also shown that the system is low-power, low-cost, flexible and portable.

  9. [Methods for the detection of ventricular late potentials. High amplification ECG, signal averaging technic, frequency analysis and intracardiac mapping].

    PubMed

    Hombach, V; Eggeling, T; Höher, M; Höpp, H W; Kochs, M; Giel, I; Emsermann, P; Hirche, H; Hilger, H H

    1988-06-01

    Circumscribed areas of injured myocardium which lead to late ventricular depolarization represent the pathologic-anatomic substrate for reentry mechanisms potentially capable of propagating ventricular tachycardia at the ventricular level. If the myocardial area from which delayed ventricular depolarization and, consequently, late potentials eminate, exceeds a critical minimal size, documentation of such signals can not only be achieved with direct endocardial mapping or catheter mapping but also by means of special high-resolution ECG techniques from the body surface. Since high amplification of the conventional ECG results in registration of noise signals in amplitude of up to 50 microV, late potentials with their amplitudes at the body surface ranging from 5 to a maximum of 20 microV, can only be discriminated after substantial enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio. The noise arises from no less than three sources: physiologic noise, for example, from muscle activity; electronic noise from amplifiers and background noise of 50 or 60 Hz, respectively. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, currently three methods are employed: sequential or temporal signal averaging, spatial signal averaging and fast Fourier transformation analysis of the frequency spectrum of the highly-amplified ECG. Temporal signal averaging has the purpose of smoothing randomly-occurring background noise and, at a specified point in time of the ECG cycle, to sum the signal incurred. The effectivity of this technique, however, is subject to certain conditions: the signal to be registered and the background noise must be independent from each other, the noise must be stationary and show normal random distribution, the signal of interest must be periodic and/or coupled with a fixed interval to a point in the ECG cycle which can be used as a trigger. The quality of the averaged signal is dependent on trigger stability. There are three approaches to trigger processing: voltage threshold

  10. Development of a portable wireless system for bipolar concentric ECG recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats-Boluda, G.; Ye-Lin, Y.; Bueno Barrachina, J. M.; Senent, E.; Rodriguez de Sanabria, R.; Garcia-Casado, J.

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. ECG monitoring is a key tool for early diagnosis of CVDs. Conventional monitors use monopolar electrodes resulting in poor spatial resolution surface recordings and requiring extensive wiring. High-spatial resolution surface electrocardiographic recordings provide valuable information for the diagnosis of a wide range of cardiac abnormalities, including infarction and arrhythmia. The aim of this work was to develop and test a wireless recording system for acquiring high spatial resolution ECG signals, based on a flexible tripolar concentric electrode (TCE) without cable wiring or external reference electrode which would make more comnfortable its use in clinical practice. For this, a portable, wireless sensor node for analogue conditioning, digitalization and transmission of a bipolar concentric ECG signal (BC-ECG) using a TCE and a Mason-likar Lead-I ECG (ML-Lead-I ECG) signal was developed. Experimental results from a total of 32 healthy volunteers showed that the ECG fiducial points in the BC-ECG signals, recorded with external and internal reference electrode, are consistent with those of simultaneous ML-Lead-I ECG. No statistically significant difference was found in either signal amplitude or morphology, regardless of the reference electrode used, being the signal-to-noise similar to that of ML-Lead-I ECG. Furthermore, it has been observed that BC-ECG signals contain information that could not available in conventional records, specially related to atria activity. The proposed wireless sensor node provides non-invasive high-local resolution ECG signals using only a TCE without additional wiring, which would have great potential in medical diagnosis of diseases such as atrial or ventricular fibrillations or arrhythmias that currently require invasive diagnostic procedures (catheterization).

  11. Type 1 electrocardiographic Brugada pattern in a woman with Chagas disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brito, Mitermayer R; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo S; Rabelo, Walter; Marino, Roberto L

    2010-09-01

    A 56-year-old woman with well-documented Chagas disease was found to have a spontaneous type 1 electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of Brugada syndrome. It is most likely that this characteristic ST-segment elevation is an unusual manifestation of the pathological changes in Chagas disease. This ECG pattern has been found with other cardiac pathology and has been reported to be induced in patients with Chagas disease.

  12. ECG De-noising: A comparison between EEMD-BLMS and DWT-NN algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kærgaard, Kevin; Jensen, Søren Hjøllund; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2015-08-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used non-invasive method to study the rhythmic activity of the heart and thereby to detect the abnormalities. However, these signals are often obscured by artifacts from various sources and minimization of these artifacts are of paramount important. This paper proposes two adaptive techniques, namely the EEMD-BLMS (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition in conjunction with the Block Least Mean Square algorithm) and DWT-NN (Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by Neural Network) methods in minimizing the artifacts from recorded ECG signals, and compares their performance. These methods were first compared on two types of simulated noise corrupted ECG signals: Type-I (desired ECG+noise frequencies outside the ECG frequency band) and Type-II (ECG+noise frequencies both inside and outside the ECG frequency band). Subsequently, they were tested on real ECG recordings. Results clearly show that both the methods works equally well when used on Type-I signals. However, on Type-II signals the DWT-NN performed better. In the case of real ECG data, though both methods performed similar, the DWT-NN method was a slightly better in terms of minimizing the high frequency artifacts. PMID:26737124

  13. The Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW): the first three years of development and research.

    PubMed

    Couderc, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW) hosts more than 3700 digital 24-Holter ECG recordings from 13 independent studies. In addition to the ECGs, the repository includes patient information in separate clinical database with content varying according to the study focus. In its third year of activities, the THEW database has been accessed by researchers from 37 universities and 16 corporations located in 16 countries worldwide. Twenty publications were released primarily focusing on the development and validation of ECG-based technologies. This communication describes the content of the databases of the repository with brief summary of the research and development projects completed using these data.

  14. ECG De-noising: A comparison between EEMD-BLMS and DWT-NN algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kærgaard, Kevin; Jensen, Søren Hjøllund; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2015-08-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used non-invasive method to study the rhythmic activity of the heart and thereby to detect the abnormalities. However, these signals are often obscured by artifacts from various sources and minimization of these artifacts are of paramount important. This paper proposes two adaptive techniques, namely the EEMD-BLMS (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition in conjunction with the Block Least Mean Square algorithm) and DWT-NN (Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by Neural Network) methods in minimizing the artifacts from recorded ECG signals, and compares their performance. These methods were first compared on two types of simulated noise corrupted ECG signals: Type-I (desired ECG+noise frequencies outside the ECG frequency band) and Type-II (ECG+noise frequencies both inside and outside the ECG frequency band). Subsequently, they were tested on real ECG recordings. Results clearly show that both the methods works equally well when used on Type-I signals. However, on Type-II signals the DWT-NN performed better. In the case of real ECG data, though both methods performed similar, the DWT-NN method was a slightly better in terms of minimizing the high frequency artifacts.

  15. Clinical evaluation of a wireless ECG sensor system for arrhythmia diagnostic purposes.

    PubMed

    Fensli, Rune; Gundersen, Torstein; Snaprud, Tormod; Hejlesen, Ole

    2013-06-01

    In a clinical study, a novel wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) recorder has been evaluated with regard to its ability to perform arrhythmia diagnostics. As the ECG recorder will detect a "non-standard" ECG signal, it has been necessary to compare those signals to "standard" ECG recording signals in order to evaluate the arrhythmia detection ability of the new system. Simultaneous recording of ECG signals from both the new wireless ECG recorder and a conventional Holter recorder was compared by two independent cardiology specialists with regard to signal quality for performing arrhythmia diagnosis. In addition, calculated R-R intervals from the two systems were correlated. A total number of 16 patients participated in the study. It can be considered that recorded ECG signals obtained from the wireless ECG system had an acceptable quality for arrhythmia diagnosis. Some of the patients used the wireless sensor while doing physical sport activities, and the quality of the recorded ECG signals made it possible to perform arrhythmia diagnostics even under such conditions. Consequently, this makes possible improvements in correlating arrhythmias to physical activities.

  16. A novel approach to ECG classification based upon two-layered HMMs in body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yinlong; Tan, Jindong; Li, Yang

    2014-03-27

    This paper presents a novel approach to ECG signal filtering and classification. Unlike the traditional techniques which aim at collecting and processing the ECG signals with the patient being still, lying in bed in hospitals, our proposed algorithm is intentionally designed for monitoring and classifying the patient's ECG signals in the free-living environment. The patients are equipped with wearable ambulatory devices the whole day, which facilitates the real-time heart attack detection. In ECG preprocessing, an integral-coefficient-band-stop (ICBS) filter is applied, which omits time-consuming floating-point computations. In addition, two-layered Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are applied to achieve ECG feature extraction and classification. The periodic ECG waveforms are segmented into ISO intervals, P subwave, QRS complex and T subwave respectively in the first HMM layer where expert-annotation assisted Baum-Welch algorithm is utilized in HMM modeling. Then the corresponding interval features are selected and applied to categorize the ECG into normal type or abnormal type (PVC, APC) in the second HMM layer. For verifying the effectiveness of our algorithm on abnormal signal detection, we have developed an ECG body sensor network (BSN) platform, whereby real-time ECG signals are collected, transmitted, displayed and the corresponding classification outcomes are deduced and shown on the BSN screen.

  17. Embedding patients confidential data in ECG signal for healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Ibaida, Ayman; Khalil, Ibrahim; Al-Shammary, Dhiah

    2010-01-01

    In Wireless tele-cardiology applications, ECG signal is widely used to monitor cardiac activities of patients. Accordingly, in most e-health applications, ECG signals need to be combined with patient confidential information. Data hiding and watermarking techniques can play a crucial role in ECG wireless tele-monitoring systems by combining the confidential information with the ECG signal since digital ECG data is huge enough to act as host to carry tiny amount of additional secret data. In this paper, a new steganography technique is proposed that helps embed confidential information of patients into specific locations (called special range numbers) of digital ECG host signal that will cause minimal distortion to ECG, and at the same time, any secret information embedded is completely extractable. We show that there are 2.1475 × 10(9) possible special range numbers making it extremely difficult for intruders to identify locations of secret bits. Experiments show that percentage residual difference (PRD) of watermarked ECGs can be as low as 0.0247% and 0.0678% for normal and abnormal ECG segments (taken from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database) respectively.

  18. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice.

  19. A Study on the Optimal Positions of ECG Electrodes in a Garment for the Design of ECG-Monitoring Clothing for Male.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hakyung; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2015-09-01

    Smart clothing is a sort of wearable device used for ubiquitous health monitoring. It provides comfort and efficiency in vital sign measurements and has been studied and developed in various types of monitoring platforms such as T-shirt and sports bra. However, despite these previous approaches, smart clothing for electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring has encountered a serious shortcoming relevant to motion artifacts caused by wearer movement. In effect, motion artifacts are one of the major problems in practical implementation of most wearable health-monitoring devices. In the ECG measurements collected by a garment, motion artifacts are usually caused by improper location of the electrode, leading to lack of contact between the electrode and skin with body motion. The aim of this study was to suggest a design for ECG-monitoring clothing contributing to reduction of motion artifacts. Based on the clothing science theory, it was assumed in this study that the stability of the electrode in a dynamic state differed depending on the electrode location in an ECG-monitoring garment. Founded on this assumption, effects of 56 electrode positions were determined by sectioning the surface of the garment into grids with 6 cm intervals in the front and back of the bodice. In order to determine the optimal locations of the ECG electrodes from the 56 positions, ECG measurements were collected from 10 participants at every electrode position in the garment while the wearer was in motion. The electrode locations indicating both an ECG measurement rate higher than 80.0 % and a large amplitude during motion were selected as the optimal electrode locations. The results of this analysis show four electrode locations with consistently higher ECG measurement rates and larger amplitudes amongst the 56 locations. These four locations were abstracted to be least affected by wearer movement in this research. Based on this result, a design of the garment-formed ECG monitoring platform

  20. Binary optimization for source localization in the inverse problem of ECG.

    PubMed

    Potyagaylo, Danila; Cortés, Elisenda Gil; Schulze, Walther H W; Dössel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    The goal of ECG-imaging (ECGI) is to reconstruct heart electrical activity from body surface potential maps. The problem is ill-posed, which means that it is extremely sensitive to measurement and modeling errors. The most commonly used method to tackle this obstacle is Tikhonov regularization, which consists in converting the original problem into a well-posed one by adding a penalty term. The method, despite all its practical advantages, has however a serious drawback: The obtained solution is often over-smoothed, which can hinder precise clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. In this paper, we apply a binary optimization approach to the transmembrane voltage (TMV)-based problem. For this, we assume the TMV to take two possible values according to a heart abnormality under consideration. In this work, we investigate the localization of simulated ischemic areas and ectopic foci and one clinical infarction case. This affects only the choice of the binary values, while the core of the algorithms remains the same, making the approximation easily adjustable to the application needs. Two methods, a hybrid metaheuristic approach and the difference of convex functions (DC), algorithm were tested. For this purpose, we performed realistic heart simulations for a complex thorax model and applied the proposed techniques to the obtained ECG signals. Both methods enabled localization of the areas of interest, hence showing their potential for application in ECGI. For the metaheuristic algorithm, it was necessary to subdivide the heart into regions in order to obtain a stable solution unsusceptible to the errors, while the analytical DC scheme can be efficiently applied for higher dimensional problems. With the DC method, we also successfully reconstructed the activation pattern and origin of a simulated extrasystole. In addition, the DC algorithm enables iterative adjustment of binary values ensuring robust performance.

  1. ECG-gated HYPR reconstruction for undersampled CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, Michael A.; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Reeder, Scott B.; Supanich, Mark; Nett, Brian E.; Zambelli, Joseph; Chang, Su Min; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2007-03-01

    In this study we develop a novel ECG-gated method of HYPR (HighlY constrained backPRojection) CT reconstruction for low-dose myocardial perfusion imaging and present its first application in a porcine model. HYPR is a method of reconstructing time-resolved images from view-undersampled projection data. Scanning and reconstruction techniques were explored using x-ray projections from a 50 sec contrast-enhanced axial scan of a 47 kg swine on a 64-slice MDCT system. Scans were generated with view undersampling factors from 2 to 10. A HYPR reconstruction algorithm was developed in which a fully-sampled composite image is generated from views collected from multiple cardiac cycles within a diastolic window. A time frame image for a heartbeat was produced by modifying the composite with projections from the cycle of interest. Heart rate variations were handled by automatically selecting cardiac window size and number of cycles per composite within defined limits. Cardiac window size averaged 35% of the R-R interval for 2x undersampling and increased to 64% R-R using 10x undersampling. The selected window size and cycles per composite was sensitive to synchrony between heart rate, gantry rate, and the view undersampling pattern. Temporal dynamics and perfusion metrics measured in conventional short-scan (FBP) images were well-reproduced in the undersampled HYPR time series. Mean transit times determined from HYPR myocardial time-density curves agreed to within 8% with the FBP results. The results indicate potential for an order of magnitude reduction in dose requirement per image in cardiac perfusion CT via undersampled scanning and ECG-gated HYPR reconstruction.

  2. Quantification of motion artifact in ECG electrode design.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Kenneth; Thomas, Chris; McAdams, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a more accurate and reproducible method of quantifying motion artifact in ECG (electrocardiogram) electrodes to assist in electrode assessment and design. It uses an algorithm developed by Sensor Technology & Devices Ltd. to reliably overcome the variation in results due to differing skin types and other causes of spurious readings such as reproducibility of movements used. The method combines a clear, concise experimental protocol with a software package and DSP algorithm to produce a transferable result for one pair of electrodes that can be used for comparison.

  3. ECG in stress testing: child of a lesser diagnostic god?

    PubMed

    Longo, S; Del Negro, B; Picano, E

    1997-01-01

    When new technologies are added to the previously existing ones, the latter can be prematurely discarded and judged obsolete not only on the basis of rational scientific facts, but also on irrational trends. Old techniques, like electrocardiography, suffer from diagnostic ambiguities that can be solved by combination with a cardiac imaging technique, like stress echocardiography. ECG monitoring during all forms of stress testing can still offer surprising dividends for a better understanding of the complex physiology of coronary artery disease, a better clinical characterization of patients with microvascular angina, and may serve as an important adjunct marker to cardiac imaging techniques. PMID:9350596

  4. Real-time ECG algorithms for ambulatory patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Wiechmann, Eduardo; Curtis, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Brigham & Women's Hospital is designing a wireless monitoring system for patients on the waiting area of the Emergency Department. A real-time ECG algorithm is required to monitor and alert changes in patients that have not yet been admitted to the Emergency Room. For this purpose, three simple algorithms are compared in terms of processing time, beat detection accuracy and heart rate (HR) estimation. Varying amounts of noise were added to records from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database [1] to mimic expected waiting room conditions. Some recommendations regarding selection of an algorithm and further processing of HR series are presented.

  5. The study and design of a wireless ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongli; Chai, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research project on wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring systems. A detection and measurement processor designed by a MSP430 microcontroller accomplishes the analog-to-digital conversion, digital filtering, QRS wave detection, and heart rate calculation. The data of detection can be sent to the central controller and personal computer (PC) by wireless on-chip MG2455 through a ZigBee network. This design can be used widely in home healthcare, community healthcare, and sports training, as well as in healthcare facilities, due to its characteristics of low power consumption, small size, and reliability. PMID:23039742

  6. Advanced ECG in 2016: is there more than just a tracing?

    PubMed

    Reichlin, Tobias; Abächerli, Roger; Twerenbold, Raphael; Kühne, Michael; Schaer, Beat; Müller, Christian; Sticherling, Christian; Osswald, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most frequently used technology in clinical cardiology. It is critical for evidence-based management of patients with most cardiovascular conditions, including patients with acute myocardial infarction, suspected chronic cardiac ischaemia, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and implantable cardiac devices. In contrast to many other techniques in cardiology, the ECG is simple, small, mobile, universally available and cheap, and therefore particularly attractive. Standard ECG interpretation mainly relies on direct visual assessment. The progress in biomedical computing and signal processing, and the available computational power offer fascinating new options for ECG analysis relevant to all fields of cardiology. Several digital ECG markers and advanced ECG technologies have shown promise in preliminary studies. This article reviews promising novel surface ECG technologies in three different fields. (1) For the detection of myocardial ischaemia and infarction, QRS morphology feature analysis, the analysis of high frequency QRS components (HF-QRS) and methods using vectorcardiography as well as ECG imaging are discussed. (2) For the identification and management of patients with cardiac arrhythmias, methods of advanced P-wave analysis are discussed and the concept of ECG imaging for noninvasive localisation of cardiac arrhythmias is presented. (3) For risk stratification of sudden cardiac death and the selection of patients for medical device therapy, several novel markers including an automated QRS-score for scar quantification, the QRS-T angle or the T-wave peak-to-end-interval are discussed. Despite the existing preliminary data, none of the advanced ECG markers and technologies has yet accomplished the transition into clinical practice. Further refinement of these technologies and broader validation in large unselected patient cohorts are the critical next step needed to facilitate translation of advanced ECG technologies

  7. Advanced ECG in 2016: is there more than just a tracing?

    PubMed

    Reichlin, Tobias; Abächerli, Roger; Twerenbold, Raphael; Kühne, Michael; Schaer, Beat; Müller, Christian; Sticherling, Christian; Osswald, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most frequently used technology in clinical cardiology. It is critical for evidence-based management of patients with most cardiovascular conditions, including patients with acute myocardial infarction, suspected chronic cardiac ischaemia, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and implantable cardiac devices. In contrast to many other techniques in cardiology, the ECG is simple, small, mobile, universally available and cheap, and therefore particularly attractive. Standard ECG interpretation mainly relies on direct visual assessment. The progress in biomedical computing and signal processing, and the available computational power offer fascinating new options for ECG analysis relevant to all fields of cardiology. Several digital ECG markers and advanced ECG technologies have shown promise in preliminary studies. This article reviews promising novel surface ECG technologies in three different fields. (1) For the detection of myocardial ischaemia and infarction, QRS morphology feature analysis, the analysis of high frequency QRS components (HF-QRS) and methods using vectorcardiography as well as ECG imaging are discussed. (2) For the identification and management of patients with cardiac arrhythmias, methods of advanced P-wave analysis are discussed and the concept of ECG imaging for noninvasive localisation of cardiac arrhythmias is presented. (3) For risk stratification of sudden cardiac death and the selection of patients for medical device therapy, several novel markers including an automated QRS-score for scar quantification, the QRS-T angle or the T-wave peak-to-end-interval are discussed. Despite the existing preliminary data, none of the advanced ECG markers and technologies has yet accomplished the transition into clinical practice. Further refinement of these technologies and broader validation in large unselected patient cohorts are the critical next step needed to facilitate translation of advanced ECG technologies

  8. ECG of the Month: Subtle ECG Change in a 31 Year-Old Man with Recent Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Glancy, D Luke

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old man had an hour of pain across the upper portion of his chest anteriorly, and it radiated down the inner aspects of both arms. The pain came while he was walking and gradually disappeared as he sat quietly. Six Rolaid tablets did not seem to alter the pain. The pain was unaccompanied by dyspnea, sweating, nausea or vomiting. The night before the patient had had similar pain relieved by Rolaids and belching. After the second episode of pain, he went to the emergency department of a local hospital where an ECG was recorded. PMID:27598900

  9. The development of wireless sensor network for ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-Liang; Liu, Hsien-Chieh; Tai, Yu-Ting; Wu, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Shuo-Jen; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chen, You-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The main problem we want to solve contains two subjects: The first one is the patient's pressure due to wired physiological signal estimation. With wireless sensor network technique, patients only need to carry a few small nodes, and then the physiological signal can be transmitted in the air. The other subject of the vital problem is that some protocols, like Bluetooth, provide a peer to peer wireless communication technique, but such peer to peer network may need a complex algorithm to find the best data transmission path. In this study, we use the hierarchy routing as network topology that three-layer architecture contains PAN coordinator, router and device. The study focuses on implementation of a prototype electrocardiography (ECG) system which replaces wired connections between sensor points and a central node with wireless links. Successful implementation of the final system would be of benefit to all involved in the use of ECG as access to and movement of the patient would not be impeded by the physical constraints imposed by the cables. Most aspects of the design would also be portable to other sensor applications, making the work relevant to a vast range of systems where movement of sensors is desirable and constrained by hard-wired links. PMID:17946570

  10. Ubiquitous wireless ECG recording: a powerful tool physicians should embrace.

    PubMed

    Saxon, Leslie A

    2013-04-01

    The use of smart phones has increased dramatically and there are nearly a billion users on 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Nearly 60% of the U.S. population uses smart phones to access the internet, and smart phone sales now surpass those of desktop and laptop computers. The speed of wireless communication technology on 3G and 4G networks and the widespread adoption and use of iOS equipped smart phones (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) provide infrastructure for the transmission of wireless biomedical data, including ECG data. These technologies provide an unprecedented opportunity for physicians to continually access data that can be used to detect issues before symptoms occur or to have definitive data when symptoms are present. The technology also greatly empowers and enables the possibility for unprecedented patient participation in their own medical education and health status as well as that of their social network. As patient advocates, physicians and particularly cardiac electrophysiologists should embrace the future and promise of wireless ECG recording, a technology solution that can truly scale across the global population.

  11. A low computational complexity algorithm for ECG signal compression.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; López-Ferreras, Francisco; Bravo-Santos, Angel; Martínez-Muñoz, Damián

    2004-09-01

    In this work, a filter bank-based algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals compression is proposed. The new coder consists of three different stages. In the first one--the subband decomposition stage--we compare the performance of a nearly perfect reconstruction (N-PR) cosine-modulated filter bank with the wavelet packet (WP) technique. Both schemes use the same coding algorithm, thus permitting an effective comparison. The target of the comparison is the quality of the reconstructed signal, which must remain within predetermined accuracy limits. We employ the most widely used quality criterion for the compressed ECG: the percentage root-mean-square difference (PRD). It is complemented by means of the maximum amplitude error (MAX). The tests have been done for the 12 principal cardiac leads, and the amount of compression is evaluated by means of the mean number of bits per sample (MBPS) and the compression ratio (CR). The implementation cost for both the filter bank and the WP technique has also been studied. The results show that the N-PR cosine-modulated filter bank method outperforms the WP technique in both quality and efficiency. PMID:15271283

  12. An Adaptive Framework for Real-Time ECG Transmission in Mobile Environments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring involves the measurement of ECG signals and their timely transmission over wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals. However, fluctuations in wireless channel conditions pose quality-of-service challenges for real-time ECG monitoring services in a mobile environment. We present an adaptive framework for layered coding and transmission of ECG data that can cope with a time-varying wireless channel. The ECG is segmented into layers with differing importance with respect to the quality of the reconstructed signal. According to this observation, we have devised a simple and efficient real-time scheduling algorithm based on the earliest deadline first (EDF) policy, which decides the order of transmitting or retransmitting packets that contain ECG data at any given time for the delivery of scalable ECG data over a lossy channel. The algorithm takes into account the differing priorities of packets in each layer, which prevents the perceived quality of the reconstructed ECG signal from degrading abruptly as channel conditions worsen, while using the available bandwidth efficiently. Extensive simulations demonstrate this improvement in perceived quality. PMID:25097886

  13. A novel approach for an ECG electrode integrated into a transcutaneous sensor.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, U

    1987-01-01

    The integration of an ECG-electrode into a common transcutaneous sensor allows simple handling and leads to a reduction of the physiological stress of pre-term infants. Furthermore it may allow future replacement of an invasive method to measure the ECG under labour by a non-invasive one.

  14. Interactive Videoconference Supported Teaching in Undergraduate Nursing: A Case Study for ECG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkan, Ufuk; Senuzun, Fisun; Sari, Dilek; Sahin, Yasar Guneri

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how interactive videoconference can benefit the Electrocardiography (ECG) skills of undergraduate nursing students. We have implemented a learning system that interactively transfers the visual and practical aspects of ECG from a nursing skills lab into a classroom where the theoretical part of the course is taught. The…

  15. Effects of electrocardiography contamination and comparison of ECG removal methods on upper trapezius electromyography recordings.

    PubMed

    Marker, Ryan J; Maluf, Katrina S

    2014-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) recordings from the trapezius are often contaminated by the electrocardiography (ECG) signal, making it difficult to distinguish low-level muscle activity from muscular rest. This study investigates the influence of ECG contamination on EMG amplitude and frequency estimations in the upper trapezius during muscular rest and low-level contractions. A new method of ECG contamination removal, filtered template subtraction (FTS), is described and compared to 30 Hz high-pass filter (HPF) and averaged template subtraction (ATS) methods. FTS creates a unique template of each ECG artifact using a low-pass filtered copy of the contaminated signal, which is subtracted from contaminated periods in the original signal. ECG contamination results in an over-estimation of EMG amplitude during rest in the upper trapezius, with negligible effects on amplitude and frequency estimations during low-intensity isometric contractions. FTS and HPF successfully removed ECG contamination from periods of muscular rest, yet introduced errors during muscle contraction. Conversely, ATS failed to fully remove ECG contamination during muscular rest, yet did not introduce errors during muscle contraction. The relative advantages and disadvantages of different ECG contamination removal methods should be considered in the context of the specific motor tasks that require analysis.

  16. Interoperability in digital electrocardiography: harmonization of ISO/IEEE x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2010-11-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

  17. Simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liuh-Chii; Yeh, Yun-Chi; Ho, Kuei-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly. It can transmit ECG signals of patient around his/her house through Bluetooth to computers in house. ECG signals are analyzed by the computer. If abnormal case of heartbeat is found, the emergency call is automatically dialed. Meanwhile, the determined heartbeat case of ECG signals will be forwarded to patient's MD through internet. Therefore, the patient can do whatever he/she wants around his/her house with our proposed simple cardiac arrhythmias signal analyzer. The proposed consists of five major processing stages: (i) preprocessing stage for enlarging ECG signals' amplitude and eliminating noises; (ii) ECG signal transmitter/receiver stage, ECG signals are transmitted through Bluetooth to the signal receiver in patient's house; (iii) QRS extraction stage for detecting QRS waveform using the Difference Operation Method (DOM) method; (iv) qualitative features stage for qualitative feature selection on ECG signals; and (v) classification stage for determining patient's heartbeat cases using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. In the experiment, the total classification accuracy (TCA) was approximately 93.19% in average.

  18. Simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liuh-Chii; Yeh, Yun-Chi; Ho, Kuei-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly. It can transmit ECG signals of patient around his/her house through Bluetooth to computers in house. ECG signals are analyzed by the computer. If abnormal case of heartbeat is found, the emergency call is automatically dialed. Meanwhile, the determined heartbeat case of ECG signals will be forwarded to patient's MD through internet. Therefore, the patient can do whatever he/she wants around his/her house with our proposed simple cardiac arrhythmias signal analyzer. The proposed consists of five major processing stages: (i) preprocessing stage for enlarging ECG signals' amplitude and eliminating noises; (ii) ECG signal transmitter/receiver stage, ECG signals are transmitted through Bluetooth to the signal receiver in patient's house; (iii) QRS extraction stage for detecting QRS waveform using the Difference Operation Method (DOM) method; (iv) qualitative features stage for qualitative feature selection on ECG signals; and (v) classification stage for determining patient's heartbeat cases using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. In the experiment, the total classification accuracy (TCA) was approximately 93.19% in average. PMID:26684565

  19. A review on digital ECG formats and the relationships between them.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2012-05-01

    A plethora of digital ECG formats have been proposed and implemented. This heterogeneity hinders the design and development of interoperable systems and entails critical integration issues for the healthcare information systems. This paper aims at performing a comprehensive overview on the current state of affairs of the interoperable exchange of digital ECG signals. This includes 1) a review on existing digital ECG formats, 2) a collection of applications and cardiology settings using such formats, 3) a compilation of the relationships between such formats, and 4) a reflection on the current situation and foreseeable future of the interoperable exchange of digital ECG signals. The objectives have been approached by completing and updating previous reviews on the topic through appropriate database mining. 39 digital ECG formats, 56 applications, tools or implantation experiences, 47 mappings/converters, and 6 relationships between such formats have been found in the literature. The creation and generalization of a single standardized ECG format is a desirable goal. However, this unification requires political commitment and international cooperation among different standardization bodies. Ongoing ontology-based approaches covering ECG domain have recently emerged as a promising alternative for reaching fully fledged ECG interoperability in the near future.

  20. Mechanisms of exercise-recovery hysteresis in the ECG: ISCE 2015 paper.

    PubMed

    Swenne, Cees A

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of multiple factors, like the mechanisms governing rate adaptation of ventricular action potentials and autonomic mechanisms, which play a role in the genesis of exercise-recovery hysteresis in the ECG. It also discusses the possible association between exercise-recovery ECG hysteresis and arrhythmogeneity.

  1. [Computer assisted long-term ECG analysis: method and clinical importance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Joskowicz, G; Glogar, D; Steinbach, K

    1982-01-01

    The basic principle of computer assisted analysis of Holter recordings is to store the whole ECG after data reduction and AD conversion in digitized form on random access medium like magnetic disks. In "Multipass Scanning" the linear segmentation techniques leads to highly reproducible ECG-data, which were analysed during multiple passes under continuous operator control. The field of clinical applications of such a highly sophisticated method reaches from supraventricular over ventricular to symptomatic arrhythmias. In combination with ECG-telefon-telemetry computer assisted LT-ECG analysis could be used in more than 75% of the patients successfully. The clinical expectations during routine could be fulfilled in more than 75%. Commonly a detailed numerical or graphical description of clinical relevant arrhythmias were necessary in the demand of the routine. So computer assisted LT-ECG analysis is not only a tool for research, but also valuable in the clinical routine.

  2. Removal of baseline wandering in ECG signal by improved detrending method.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung-Won; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Song, Chul-Gyu; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jeung, Gyeo-Wun

    2015-01-01

    The very first step to process electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is to eliminate baseline wandering interference that is usually caused by electrode-skin impedance mismatch, motion artifacts due to a patient's body moment or respiratory breathing. A new method is thus suggested to remove baseline wandering in ECG by improving the detrending method that was originally proposed for eliminating slow non-stationary trends from heart rate variability (HRV). In our proposed method, a global trend is estimated in terms of baseline wandering by merging the local trend based on an ECG segment that represents a part of the ECG signal. The experimental results show that the improved detrending method can efficiently resolve baseline wandering without distorting any morphological characteristic embedded in the ECG signal in no time delay manner.

  3. Capacitive ECG recording and beat-to-beat interval estimation after major cardiac event.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Lennart; Skobel, Erik; Mathissen, Marcel; Leonhardt, Steffen; Weyer, Soren; Wartzek, Tobias; Reith, Sebastian; Mohler, Werner; Teichmann, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Today, heart diseases are the most common cause of death in the U.S.. Due to improved healthcare, more and more patients survive a major cardiac event, e.g. a heart attack. However, participation in everyday activity (e.g. driving a car) can be impaired afterwards. Patients might benefit from heart activity monitoring while driving using a capacitive ECG (cECG). However, it is unknown whether cECG is an appropriate monitoring tool for such patients. In this work, first results from a study including 10 patients having survived at least one major cardiac event are presented. It is shown that cECG can be used to diagnose heart rhythm deviations and estimate beat-to-beat intervals similar to conventional ECG. PMID:26738055

  4. The Abnormal vs. Normal ECG Classification Based on Key Features and Statistical Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; Tong, Jia-Fei; Liu, Xia

    As cardiovascular diseases appear frequently in modern society, the medicine and health system should be adjusted to meet the new requirements. Chinese government has planned to establish basic community medical insurance system (BCMIS) before 2020, where remote medical service is one of core issues. Therefore, we have developed the "remote network hospital system" which includes data server and diagnosis terminal by the aid of wireless detector to sample ECG. To improve the efficiency of ECG processing, in this paper, abnormal vs. normal ECG classification approach based on key features and statistical learning is presented, and the results are analyzed. Large amount of normal ECG could be filtered by computer automatically and abnormal ECG is left to be diagnosed specially by physicians.

  5. Enhancement of low sampling frequency recordings for ECG biometric matching using interpolation.

    PubMed

    Sidek, Khairul Azami; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) based biometric matching suffers from high misclassification error with lower sampling frequency data. This situation may lead to an unreliable and vulnerable identity authentication process in high security applications. In this paper, quality enhancement techniques for ECG data with low sampling frequency has been proposed for person identification based on piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation (PCHIP) and piecewise cubic spline interpolation (SPLINE). A total of 70 ECG recordings from 4 different public ECG databases with 2 different sampling frequencies were applied for development and performance comparison purposes. An analytical method was used for feature extraction. The ECG recordings were segmented into two parts: the enrolment and recognition datasets. Three biometric matching methods, namely, Cross Correlation (CC), Percent Root-Mean-Square Deviation (PRD) and Wavelet Distance Measurement (WDM) were used for performance evaluation before and after applying interpolation techniques. Results of the experiments suggest that biometric matching with interpolated ECG data on average achieved higher matching percentage value of up to 4% for CC, 3% for PRD and 94% for WDM. These results are compared with the existing method when using ECG recordings with lower sampling frequency. Moreover, increasing the sample size from 56 to 70 subjects improves the results of the experiment by 4% for CC, 14.6% for PRD and 0.3% for WDM. Furthermore, higher classification accuracy of up to 99.1% for PCHIP and 99.2% for SPLINE with interpolated ECG data as compared of up to 97.2% without interpolation ECG data verifies the study claim that applying interpolation techniques enhances the quality of the ECG data. PMID:23062461

  6. P and T wave detection on multichannel ECG using FRI.

    PubMed

    Nair, Amrish; Marziliano, Pina

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for detecting P and T waves in multilead ECG based on the Finite Rate of Innovation(FRI) technique [8]. A simple QRS detection scheme will be presented followed by a novel P and T wave detection algorithm. The novelty here is the modelling of the P and T wave using a Gaussian kernel. Using a 2D wavelet decomposition, the approximation coefficients are windowed based on the QRS locations. The FRI method is then used to identify the Gaussian distribution present in the window which will in turn provide the locations of the P and T wave. This method was tested on more than an hour of clean and noisy data and shows good performance in the noisy case. PMID:25570440

  7. Personalized USB Biosensor Module for Effective ECG Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sladojević, Srdjan; Arsenović, Marko; Lončar-Turukalo, Tatjana; Sladojević, Miroslava; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2016-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease and associated disability present a major threat to financial sustainability of healthcare delivery systems. The need for cost-effective early diagnosis and disease prevention is evident driving the development of personalized home health solutions. The proposed solution presents an easy to use ECG monitoring system. The core hardware component is a biosensor dongle with sensing probes at one end, and micro USB interface at the other end, offering reliable and unobtrusive sensing, preprocessing and storage. An additional component is a smart phone, providing both the biosensor's power supply and an intuitive user application for the real-time data reading. The system usage is simplified, with innovative solutions offering plug and play functionality avoiding additional driver installation. Personalized needs could be met with different sensor combinations enabling adequate monitoring in chronic disease, during physical activity and in the rehabilitation process. PMID:27225580

  8. Microcontroller-based underwater acoustic ECG telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Istepanian, R S; Woodward, B

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a microcontroller-based underwater acoustic telemetry system for digital transmission of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The system is designed for the real time, through-water transmission of data representing any parameter, and it was used initially for transmitting in multiplexed format the heart rate, breathing rate and depth of a diver using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Here, it is used to monitor cardiovascular reflexes during diving and swimming. The programmable capability of the system provides an effective solution to the problem of transmitting data in the presence of multipath interference. An important feature of the paper is a comparative performance analysis of two encoding methods, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM).

  9. [ECG indices in dogs after inhalation of 239Pu].

    PubMed

    Karpova, V N

    1985-11-01

    Dogs of both sexes aged 2 to 4 were subjected to inhalation inoculation with polymer 239Pu or submicron 239PuO2 aerosols in amounts close to acute, subacute and chronically effective ones. ECG was recorded in standard, amplified and single leads (V3). All calculations were done by lead II. Signs of the right heart overburdening were noted in the presence of the P-pulmonale complex, deep S1 wave or cardiac electrical axis of SI-SII-SIII type. Signs of the right heart overburdening were revealed after inhalation of polimer 239Pu (70%). The absence of similar changes in damage caused by 239Pu could be attributed to its fast resorption from the lungs resulting in more moderate lesion of the respiratory organs.

  10. ECG findings after myocardial infarction in children after Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, T.; Takao, A.; Kondoh, C.; Nakazawa, M.; Hiroe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated in 17 children with myocardial infarction and 78 children without myocardial infarction after Kawasaki disease; sensitivity and specificity of the ECG infarction criteria were determined. The presence or absence of myocardial infarction was determined from either clinical examination results (coronary angiography, ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial imaging) or autopsy findings. Of seven patients with inferior infarction, abnormally deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF were observed in six, but the duration was greater than 0.04 second in only one (14%). The sensitivity and specificity of inferior infarction criteria based on Q wave amplitude were 86% and 97%, respectively. Of eight patients with anterior infarction, seven (88%) had abnormally deep and wide (greater than or equal to 0.04 second) Q waves in anterior chest leads. The sensitivity and specificity of the infarction criteria based on the amplitude and duration of the Q wave were 75% and 99%, respectively. Of seven patients with lateral infarction, Q waves were observed in lead I, aVL, or both in four patients, and in all of these patients Q waves were wider than 0.04 second. In two patients with both inferior and anterior infarction, Q waves were observed only in leads II, III, and aVF; in only one patient were the Q waves wider than 0.04 second. Thus deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF that are not wider than 0.04 second may indicate inferior infarction in children. Q waves in lead I, aVL, and chest leads associated with anterolateral infarction are in most instances deep and wide.

  11. A Review of Fetal ECG Signal Processing; Issues and Promising Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sameni, Reza; Clifford, Gari D.

    2010-01-01

    The field of electrocardiography has been in existence for over a century, yet despite significant advances in adult clinical electrocardiography, signal processing techniques and fast digital processors, the analysis of fetal ECGs is still in its infancy. This is, partly due to a lack of availability of gold standard databases, partly due to the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of the fetal ECG compared to the maternal ECG (caused by the various media between the fetal heart and the measuring electrodes, and the fact that the fetal heart is simply smaller), and in part, due to the less complete clinical knowledge concerning fetal cardiac function and development. In this paper we review a range of promising recording and signal processing techniques for fetal ECG analysis that have been developed over the last forty years, and discuss both their shortcomings and advantages. Before doing so, however, we review fetal cardiac development, and the etiology of the fetal ECG. A selection of relevant models for the fetal/maternal ECG mixture is also discussed. In light of current understanding of the fetal ECG, we then attempt to justify recommendations for promising future directions in signal processing, and database creation. PMID:21614148

  12. Compressed ECG biometric: a fast, secured and efficient method for identification of CVD patient.

    PubMed

    Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Mahmood, Abdun

    2011-12-01

    Adoption of compression technology is often required for wireless cardiovascular monitoring, due to the enormous size of Electrocardiography (ECG) signal and limited bandwidth of Internet. However, compressed ECG must be decompressed before performing human identification using present research on ECG based biometric techniques. This additional step of decompression creates a significant processing delay for identification task. This becomes an obvious burden on a system, if this needs to be done for a trillion of compressed ECG per hour by the hospital. Even though the hospital might be able to come up with an expensive infrastructure to tame the exuberant processing, for small intermediate nodes in a multihop network identification preceded by decompression is confronting. In this paper, we report a technique by which a person can be identified directly from his / her compressed ECG. This technique completely obviates the step of decompression and therefore upholds biometric identification less intimidating for the smaller nodes in a multihop network. The biometric template created by this new technique is lower in size compared to the existing ECG based biometrics as well as other forms of biometrics like face, finger, retina etc. (up to 8302 times lower than face template and 9 times lower than existing ECG based biometric template). Lower size of the template substantially reduces the one-to-many matching time for biometric recognition, resulting in a faster biometric authentication mechanism. PMID:20703779

  13. A Hygroscopic Sensor Electrode for Fast Stabilized Non-Contact ECG Signal Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ee-May; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-08-05

    A capacitive electrocardiography (cECG) technique using a non-invasive ECG measuring technology that does not require direct contact between the sensor and the skin has attracted much interest. The system encounters several challenges when the sensor electrode and subject's skin are weakly coupled. Because there is no direct physical contact between the subject and any grounding point, there is no discharge path for the built-up electrostatic charge. Subsequently, the electrostatic charge build-up can temporarily contaminate the ECG signal from being clearly visible; a stabilization period (3-15 min) is required for the measurement of a clean, stable ECG signal at low humidity levels (below 55% relative humidity). Therefore, to obtain a clear ECG signal without noise and to reduce the ECG signal stabilization time to within 2 min in a dry ambient environment, we have developed a fabric electrode with embedded polymer (FEEP). The designed hygroscopic FEEP has an embedded superabsorbent polymer layer. The principle of FEEP as a conductive electrode is to provide humidity to the capacitive coupling to ensure strong coupling and to allow for the measurement of a stable, clear biomedical signal. The evaluation results show that hygroscopic FEEP is capable of rapidly measuring high-accuracy ECG signals with a higher SNR ratio.

  14. A Hygroscopic Sensor Electrode for Fast Stabilized Non-Contact ECG Signal Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ee-May; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    A capacitive electrocardiography (cECG) technique using a non-invasive ECG measuring technology that does not require direct contact between the sensor and the skin has attracted much interest. The system encounters several challenges when the sensor electrode and subject’s skin are weakly coupled. Because there is no direct physical contact between the subject and any grounding point, there is no discharge path for the built-up electrostatic charge. Subsequently, the electrostatic charge build-up can temporarily contaminate the ECG signal from being clearly visible; a stabilization period (3–15 min) is required for the measurement of a clean, stable ECG signal at low humidity levels (below 55% relative humidity). Therefore, to obtain a clear ECG signal without noise and to reduce the ECG signal stabilization time to within 2 min in a dry ambient environment, we have developed a fabric electrode with embedded polymer (FEEP). The designed hygroscopic FEEP has an embedded superabsorbent polymer layer. The principle of FEEP as a conductive electrode is to provide humidity to the capacitive coupling to ensure strong coupling and to allow for the measurement of a stable, clear biomedical signal. The evaluation results show that hygroscopic FEEP is capable of rapidly measuring high-accuracy ECG signals with a higher SNR ratio. PMID:26251913

  15. A low-power portable ECG sensor interface with dry electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofei, Pu; Lei, Wan; Hui, Zhang; Yajie, Qin; Zhiliang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a low-power portable sensor interface dedicated to sensing and processing electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Dry electrodes were employed in this ECG sensor, which eliminates the need of conductive gel and avoids complicated and mandatory skin preparation before electrode attachment. This ECG sensor system consists of two ICs, an analog front-end (AFE) and a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) containing a relaxation oscillator. This proposed design was fabricated in a 0.18 μm 1P6M standard CMOS process. The AFE for extracting the biopotential signals is essential in this ECG sensor. In measurements, the AFE obtains a mid-band gain of 45 dB, a bandwidth from 0.6 to 160 Hz, and a total input referred noise of 2.8 μV rms while consuming 1 μW from the 1.8 V supply. The noise efficiency factor (NEF) of our design is 3.4. After conditioning, the amplified ECG signal is digitized by a 12-bit SAR ADC with 61.8 dB SNDR and 220 fJ/conversion-step. Finally, a complete ECG sensor interface with three dry copper electrodes is demonstrated in real-word setting, showing successful recordings of a capture ECG waveform.

  16. Synthetic ECG Generation and Bayesian Filtering Using a Gaussian Wave-Based Dynamical Model

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Omid; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B.; Clifford, Gari D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Gaussian wave-based state space to model the temporal dynamics of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. It is shown that this model may be effectively used for generating synthetic ECGs as well as separate characteristic waves (CWs) such as the atrial and ventricular complexes. The model uses separate state variables for each CW, i.e. P, QRS and T, and hence is capable of generating individual synthetic CWs as well as realistic ECG signals. The model is therefore useful for generating arrhythmias. Simulations of sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, ventricular flutter, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia are presented. In addition, discrete versions of the equations are presented for a model-based Bayesian framework for denoising. This framework, together with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and extended Kalman smoother (EKS), were used for denoising the ECG for both normal rhythms and arrhythmias. For evaluating the denoising performance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of the filter outputs and clinical parameter stability were studied. The results demonstrate superiority over a wide range of input SNRs, achieving a maximum 12.7 dB improvement. Results indicate that preventing clinically relevant distortion of the ECG is sensitive to the number of model parameters. Models are presented which do not exhibit such distortions. The approach presented in this paper may therefore serve as an effective framework for synthetic ECG generation and model-based filtering of noisy ECG recordings. PMID:20720288

  17. Risk stratifying asymptomatic aortic stenosis: role of the resting 12-lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Greve, Anders M

    2014-02-01

    Despite being routinely performed in the clinical follow-up of asymptomatic AS patients, little or no evidence describes the prognostic value of ECG findings in asymptomatic AS populations. This PhD thesis examined the correlates of resting 12-lead ECG variables with echocardiographic measures of AS severity and cardiovascular outcomes in the till date largest cohort (n=1,563) of asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate AS. Most importantly, this PhD thesis demonstrated that QRS-duration adds independent predictive value of sudden cardiac death and that the additional presence of ECG LVH/strain for fixed AS severity represents a lethal risk attribute. Finally, ECG abnormalities displayed low/moderate concordance with echocardiographic parameters. This argues that the ECG should be regarded as a separate tool for obtaining prognostically important information. Treatment was not randomized by ECG findings, future studies should therefore examine if and which ECG variables should elicit closer follow-up and/or earlier intervention to improve prognosis in asymptomatic AS populations. PMID:24495893

  18. Detection of Cardiac Abnormalities from Multilead ECG using Multiscale Phase Alternation Features.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, R K; Dandapat, S

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac activities such as the depolarization and the relaxation of atria and ventricles are observed in electrocardiogram (ECG). The changes in the morphological features of ECG are the symptoms of particular heart pathology. It is a cumbersome task for medical experts to visually identify any subtle changes in the morphological features during 24 hours of ECG recording. Therefore, the automated analysis of ECG signal is a need for accurate detection of cardiac abnormalities. In this paper, a novel method for automated detection of cardiac abnormalities from multilead ECG is proposed. The method uses multiscale phase alternation (PA) features of multilead ECG and two classifiers, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and fuzzy KNN for classification of bundle branch block (BBB), myocardial infarction (MI), heart muscle defect (HMD) and healthy control (HC). The dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is used to decompose the ECG signal of each lead into complex wavelet coefficients at different scales. The phase of the complex wavelet coefficients is computed and the PA values at each wavelet scale are used as features for detection and classification of cardiac abnormalities. A publicly available multilead ECG database (PTB database) is used for testing of the proposed method. The experimental results show that, the proposed multiscale PA features and the fuzzy KNN classifier have better performance for detection of cardiac abnormalities with sensitivity values of 78.12 %, 80.90 % and 94.31 % for BBB, HMD and MI classes. The sensitivity value of proposed method for MI class is compared with the state-of-art techniques from multilead ECG. PMID:27118009

  19. Association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    SUN, GUO-ZHE; LI, YANG; ZHOU, XING-HU; GUO, XIAO-FAN; ZHANG, XIN-GANG; ZHENG, LI-QIANG; LI, YUAN; JIAO, YUN-DI; SUN, YING-XIAN

    2013-01-01

    Obesity exhibits a wide variety of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in adults, which often lead to cardiovascular events. However, there is currently no evidence of an association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to explore the associations between obesity and ECG intervals and axes in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional observational study of 5,556 students aged 5–18 years was performed. Anthropometric data, blood pressure and standard 12-lead ECGs were collected for each participant. ECG variables were measured manually based on the temporal alignment of simultaneous 12 leads using a CV200 ECG Work Station. Overweight and obese groups demonstrated significantly longer PR intervals, wider QRS durations and leftward shifts of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, while the obese group also demonstrated significantly higher heart rates, compared with normal weight groups within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Abdominal obesity was also associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal ECG axes compared with normal waist circumference (WC) within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Gender was a possible factor affecting the ECG variables. Furthermore, the ECG variables, including PR interval, QRS duration and frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, were significantly linearly correlated with body mass index, WC and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. However, there was no significant association between obesity and the corrected QT interval (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicate that in children and adolescents, general and abdominal obesity is associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, independent of age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. PMID:24255675

  20. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  1. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  2. Diagnostic quality of time-averaged ECG-gated CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Almar; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Renema, W. Klaas Jan

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated CTA allows visualization of the aneurysm and stentgraft during the different phases of the cardiac cycle, although with a lower SNR per cardiac phase than without ECG gating using the same dose. In our institution, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is evaluated using non-ECG-gated CTA. Some common CT scanners cannot reconstruct a non-gated volume from ECG-gated acquired data. In order to obtain the same diagnostic image quality, we propose offline temporal averaging of the ECG-gated data. This process, though straightforward, is fundamentally different from taking a non-gated scan, and its result will certainly differ as well. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively investigate how good off-line averaging approximates a non-gated scan. Method: Non-gated and ECG-gated CT scans have been performed on a phantom (Catphan 500). Afterwards the phases of the ECG-gated CTA data were averaged to create a third dataset. The three sets are compared with respect to noise properties (NPS) and frequency response (MTF). To study motion artifacts identical scans were acquired on a programmable dynamic phantom. Results and Conclusions: The experiments show that the spatial frequency content is not affected by the averaging process. The minor differences observed for the noise properties and motion artifacts are in favor of the averaged data. Therefore the averaged ECG-gated phases can be used for diagnosis. This enables the use of ECG-gating for research on stentgrafts in AAA, without impairing clinical patient care.

  3. An MLP neural network for ECG noise removal based on Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Moein, Sara

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal noise removal has been investigated. First, 100 number of ECG signals are selected from Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database and Kalman filter is applied to remove their low pass noise. Then a suitable dataset based on denoised ECG signal is configured and used to a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network to be trained. Finally, results and experiences are discussed and the effect of changing different parameters for MLP training is shown.

  4. Real-time ECG emulation: a multiple dipole model for electrocardiography simulation.

    PubMed

    Abkai, Ciamak; Hesser, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    A new model for describing electrocardiography (ECG) is presented, which is based on multiple dipoles compared to standard single dipole approaches in vector electrocardiography. The multiple dipole parameters are derived from real data (e.g. four dipoles from 12-channel ECG) by solving the backward problem of ECG numerically. Results are transformed to a waveform description based on Gaussian mixture for every dimension of each dipole. These compact parameterized descriptors are used for a very realistic real-time simulation applying the forward solution of the proposed model.

  5. Evaluation of novel ECG signal processing on quantification of transient ischemia and baseline wander suppression.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Marko N; Fakhar, Sina; Foxall, Tom; Drakulic, Budimir S; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2007-01-01

    The performance assessment of a novel ECG signal processing technology in Fidelity 100 (test) and four modern ECG systems (controls) was conducted. A quantitative evaluation for one control and a test system was done by simultaneous recordings on 54 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and on a biological reference signal from an ECG simulator. A qualitative performance of baseline wander suppression was done on all five systems. The results showed that the Fidelity 100 system provided excellent detection and quantification of transient ischemia and baseline wander suppression.

  6. A low-power asynchronous ECG acquisition system in CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungkil; Trakimas, Michael; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    An asynchronous electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition system is presented for wearable ambulatory monitoring. The proposed system consists of a low noise front-end amplifier (AFE) with tunable bandwidth, an asynchronous analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and digital signal processing (DSP). Data compression is achieved by the inherent signal dependent sampling rate of the asynchronous architecture. This makes the system attractive for compact wearable ECG monitoring applications. The AFE and ADC were fabricated in a 0.18 microm CMOS technology and consume a total of 79 microW. Measured results demonstrating ECG monitoring are presented. PMID:21096052

  7. Respiratory Motion Detection and Correction in ECG-Gated SPECT: a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan, Ahmad; Rajabi, Hossein; Gruy, Bernhard; Rustgou, Feridoon; Sharafi, Ali Akbar; Firoozabady, Hasan; Yaghoobi, Nahid; Malek, Hadi; Pirich, Christian; Langesteger, Werner

    2008-01-01

    .001 versus y = 0.8046x + 5.1704; r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Nineteen (19/26) patients (73.1%) showed abnormal myocardial perfusion scans with reversible regional myocardial defects; of the 19 patients, 14 (14/26) patients underwent coronary angiography. Conclusion Respiratory induced motion can be successfully corrected simultaneously with the use of ECG-gated SPECT in MPI studies using this proposed technique. Moreover, the use of ECG-gated SPECT improved image quality, especially in the inferior and septal regions that are mostly affected by diaphragmatic attenuation. However, the effect of respiratory correction depends mainly on the patient respiratory pattern and may be clinically relevant in certain cases. PMID:19039264

  8. ECG Artifact Removal from Surface EMG Signal Using an Automated Method Based on Wavelet-ICA.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Sara; Lindén, Maria; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at proposing an efficient method for automated electrocardiography (ECG) artifact removal from surface electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from upper trunk muscles. Wavelet transform is applied to the simulated data set of corrupted surface EMG signals to create multidimensional signal. Afterward, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to separate ECG artifact components from the original EMG signal. Components that correspond to the ECG artifact are then identified by an automated detection algorithm and are subsequently removed using a conventional high pass filter. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with wavelet transform, ICA, adaptive filter and empirical mode decomposition-ICA methods. The automated artifact removal method proposed in this study successfully removes the ECG artifacts from EMG signals with a signal to noise ratio value of 9.38 while keeping the distortion of original EMG to a minimum. PMID:25980853

  9. Removing movement artifacts from equine ECG recordings acquired with textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Antonio; Guidi, Andrea; Baragli, Paolo; Paradiso, Rita; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on the implementation of a novel system to detect and reduce movement artifact (MA) contribution in electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings acquired from horses in free movement conditions. The system comprises both integrated textile electrodes for ECG acquisition and one triaxial accelerometer for movement monitoring. Here, ECG and physical activity are continuously acquired from seven horses through the wearable system and a model that integrates cardiovascular and movement information to estimate the MA contribution is implemented. Moreover, in this study we propose a new algorithm where the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) decomposition algorithm is employed to identify and remove movement artifacts from ECG recodigns. Achieved results showed a reduction of MA percentage greater than 40% between before- and after- the application of the proposed algorithm to seven hours of recordings. PMID:26736667

  10. A Primary Study of Indirect ECG Monitor Embedded in a Bed for Home Health Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Akinori; Shiogai, Yuuki; Ishiyama, Yoji

    A system for monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG) through clothes inserted between the measuring electrodes and the body surface of a subject when lying on a mattress has been proposed. The principle of the system is based on capacitive coupling involving the electrode, the clothes, and the skin. Validation of the system revealed the following: (1) In spite of the gain attenuation in the pass band of the system, distortion of the detected signal was subtle even when clothes thicker than 1mm were inserted, (2) The system was able to yield a stable ECG from a subject particularly during sound sleep, (3) The system succeeded in detecting ECG after changing the posture into any of supine, right lateral, or left lateral positions by adopting a newly devised electrode configuration. Therefore, the proposed system appears promising for application to bedding as a non-invasive and awareness-free system for ECG monitoring during sleep.

  11. Check your biosignals here: a new dataset for off-the-person ECG biometrics.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Hugo Plácido; Lourenço, André; Fred, Ana; Raposo, Nuno; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2014-02-01

    The Check Your Biosignals Here initiative (CYBHi) was developed as a way of creating a dataset and consistently repeatable acquisition framework, to further extend research in electrocardiographic (ECG) biometrics. In particular, our work targets the novel trend towards off-the-person data acquisition, which opens a broad new set of challenges and opportunities both for research and industry. While datasets with ECG signals collected using medical grade equipment at the chest can be easily found, for off-the-person ECG data the solution is generally for each team to collect their own corpus at considerable expense of resources. In this paper we describe the context, experimental considerations, methods, and preliminary findings of two public datasets created by our team, one for short-term and another for long-term assessment, with ECG data collected at the hand palms and fingers.

  12. A Human ECG Identification System Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhidong; Yang, Lei; Chen, Diandian; Luo, Yi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a human electrocardiogram (ECG) identification system based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is designed. A robust preprocessing method comprising noise elimination, heartbeat normalization and quality measurement is proposed to eliminate the effects of noise and heart rate variability. The system is independent of the heart rate. The ECG signal is decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and Welch spectral analysis is used to extract the significant heartbeat signal features. Principal component analysis is used reduce the dimensionality of the feature space, and the K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) method is applied as the classifier tool. The proposed human ECG identification system was tested on standard MIT-BIH ECG databases: the ST change database, the long-term ST database, and the PTB database. The system achieved an identification accuracy of 95% for 90 subjects, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and robustness. PMID:23698274

  13. CinC Challenge 2013: comparing three algorithms to extract fetal ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loja, Juan; Velecela, Esteban; Palacio-Baus, Kenneth; Astudillo, Darwin; Medina, Rubén.; Wong, Sara

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a comparison between three fetal ECG (fECG) detectors developed during the CinC 2013 challenge for fECG detection. Algorithm A1 is based on Independent Component Analysis, A2 is based on fECG detection of RS Slope and A3 is based on Expectation-Weighted Estimation of Fiducial Points. The proposed methodology was validated using the annotated database available for the challenge. Each detector was characterized in terms of its performance by using measures of sensitivity, (Se), positive predictive value (P+) and delay time (td). Additionally, the database was contaminated with white noise for two SNR conditions. Decision fusion was tested considering the most common types of combination of detectors. Results show that the decision fusion of A1 and A2 improves fQRS detection, maintaining high Se and P+ even under low SNR conditions without a significant td increase.

  14. Compression and Encryption of ECG Signal Using Wavelet and Chaotically Huffman Code in Telemedicine Application.

    PubMed

    Raeiatibanadkooki, Mahsa; Quchani, Saeed Rahati; KhalilZade, MohammadMahdi; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2016-03-01

    In mobile health care monitoring, compression is an essential tool for solving storage and transmission problems. The important issue is able to recover the original signal from the compressed signal. The main purpose of this paper is compressing the ECG signal with no loss of essential data and also encrypting the signal to keep it confidential from everyone, except for physicians. In this paper, mobile processors are used and there is no need for any computers to serve this purpose. After initial preprocessing such as removal of the baseline noise, Gaussian noise, peak detection and determination of heart rate, the ECG signal is compressed. In compression stage, after 3 steps of wavelet transform (db04), thresholding techniques are used. Then, Huffman coding with chaos for compression and encryption of the ECG signal are used. The compression rates of proposed algorithm is 97.72 %. Then, the ECG signals are sent to a telemedicine center to acquire specialist diagnosis by TCP/IP protocol.

  15. A PD control-based QRS detection algorithm for wearable ECG applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Changmok; Kim, Younho; Shin, Kunsoo

    2012-01-01

    We present a QRS detection algorithm for wearable ECG applications using a proportional-derivative (PD) control. ECG data of arrhythmia have irregular intervals and magnitudes of QRS waves that impede correct QRS detection. To resolve the problem, PD control is applied to avoid missing a small QRS wave followed from a large QRS wave and to avoid falsely detecting noise as QRS waves when an interval between two adjacent QRS waves is large (e.g. bradycardia, pause, and arioventricular block). ECG data was obtained from 78 patients with various cardiovascular diseases and tested for the performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm. The overall sensitivity and positive predictive value were 99.28% and 99.26%, respectively. The proposed algorithm has low computational complexity, so that it can be suitable to apply mobile ECG monitoring system in real time. PMID:23367208

  16. Removing movement artifacts from equine ECG recordings acquired with textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Antonio; Guidi, Andrea; Baragli, Paolo; Paradiso, Rita; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the implementation of a novel system to detect and reduce movement artifact (MA) contribution in electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings acquired from horses in free movement conditions. The system comprises both integrated textile electrodes for ECG acquisition and one triaxial accelerometer for movement monitoring. Here, ECG and physical activity are continuously acquired from seven horses through the wearable system and a model that integrates cardiovascular and movement information to estimate the MA contribution is implemented. Moreover, in this study we propose a new algorithm where the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) decomposition algorithm is employed to identify and remove movement artifacts from ECG recodigns. Achieved results showed a reduction of MA percentage greater than 40% between before- and after- the application of the proposed algorithm to seven hours of recordings.

  17. Unobtrusive monitoring of ECG-derived features during daily smartphone use.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sungjun; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Youngki; Yoo, Chungkuk; Park, Kwangsuk

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is known to be one of the representative ECG-derived features that are useful for diverse pervasive healthcare applications. The advancement in daily physiological monitoring technology is enabling monitoring of HRV in people's everyday lives. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of measuring ECG-derived features such as HRV, only using the smartphone-integrated ECG sensors system named Sinabro. We conducted the evaluation with 13 subjects in five predetermined smartphone use cases. The result shows the potential that the smartphone-based sensing system can support daily monitoring of ECG-derived features; The average errors of HRV over all participants ranged from 1.65% to 5.83% (SD: 2.54~10.87) for five use cases. Also, all of individual HRV parameters showed less than 5% of aver