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Sample records for distinguish monocyte-derived fibrocytes

  1. Role of neoplastic monocyte-derived fibrocytes in primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Newberry, Kate J.; Knez, Liza; Post, Sean M.; Ahn, Jihae; Levine, Ross L.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a fatal neoplastic disease characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and progressive bone marrow (BM) fibrosis thought to be induced by mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated by overproduced growth factors. However, tissue fibrosis in other diseases is associated with monocyte-derived fibrocytes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether fibrocytes play a role in the induction of BM fibrosis in PMF. In this study, we show that BM from patients with PMF harbors an abundance of clonal, neoplastic collagen- and fibronectin-producing fibrocytes. Immunodeficient mice transplanted with myelofibrosis patients’ BM cells developed a lethal myelofibrosis-like phenotype. Treatment of the xenograft mice with the fibrocyte inhibitor serum amyloid P (SAP; pentraxin-2) significantly prolonged survival and slowed the development of BM fibrosis. Collectively, our data suggest that neoplastic fibrocytes contribute to the induction of BM fibrosis in PMF, and inhibiting fibrocyte differentiation with SAP may interfere with this process. PMID:27481130

  2. TNF-α–stimulated fibroblasts secrete lumican to promote fibrocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pilling, Darrell; Vakil, Varsha; Cox, Nehemiah; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In healing wounds and fibrotic lesions, fibroblasts and monocyte-derived fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes help to form scar tissue. Although fibrocytes promote collagen production by fibroblasts, little is known about signaling from fibroblasts to fibrocytes. In this report, we show that fibroblasts stimulated with the fibrocyte-secreted inflammatory signal tumor necrosis factor-α secrete the small leucine-rich proteoglycan lumican, and that lumican, but not the related proteoglycan decorin, promotes human fibrocyte differentiation. Lumican competes with the serum fibrocyte differentiation inhibitor serum amyloid P, but dominates over the fibroblast-secreted fibrocyte inhibitor Slit2. Lumican acts directly on monocytes, and unlike other factors that affect fibrocyte differentiation, lumican has no detectable effect on macrophage differentiation or polarization. α2β1, αMβ2, and αXβ2 integrins are needed for lumican-induced fibrocyte differentiation. In lung tissue from pulmonary fibrosis patients with relatively normal lung function, lumican is present at low levels throughout the tissue, whereas patients with advanced disease have pronounced lumican expression in the fibrotic lesions. These data may explain why fibrocytes are increased in fibrotic tissues, suggest that the levels of lumican in tissues may have a significant effect on the decision of monocytes to differentiate into fibrocytes, and indicate that modulating lumican signaling may be useful as a therapeutic for fibrosis. PMID:26351669

  3. Monocyte-Derived Suppressor Cells in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ochando, Jordi; Conde, Patricia; Bronte, Vincenzo

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are cells of myeloid origin with enhanced suppressive function. They are negative regulators of the immune responses and comprise a heterogeneous mixture of immunosuppressive cells of monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (G-MDSC) origin. A more recent nomenclature proposes the term "suppressive monocyte derived cells" (suppressive MCs) to define CSF1/CSF2-dependent mouse suppressor cells that develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) after birth. Here, we review the literature about monocytic-derived cells with demonstrated suppressor function in vitro and in vivo within the context of solid organ transplantation.

  4. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation for Human Monocyte Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wooden, Jessica; Ciborowski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology has grown exponentially along with an increased interest in epigenetic regulation. The correlation of transcription factors with histone marks is now well established as the center of epigenetic studies; therefore, precise knowledge about histone marks is critical to unravel their molecular function and to understand their role in biological systems. This knowledge constantly accumulates and is provided openly in the expanding hubs of information such as the USCS Genome Browser. Nevertheless, as we gain more knowledge, we realize that the DNA-protein interactions are not driven by a “one size fits all” rule. Also, the diversity of interactions between DNA, histones, and transcriptional regulators is much bigger than previously considered. Besides a detailed protocol of sample preparation for the ChIP assay from primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM)a, we show that differences between various types of cells exist. Furthermore, we can postulate that such variations exist between transformed macrophage-like cell lines and primary macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers. We found that the most efficient fixation time for MDM is 10 minutes. Finally, to perform multiple analytical assays, we showed that even with thorough methodology, the yield of material obtained from primary cells is the major challenge. PMID:25220915

  5. Bone marrow fibrosis with fibrocytic and immunoregulatory responses induced by β-catenin activation in osteoprogenitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Hanjun; Liu, Pei; Xu, Shuqin; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2016-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been reported to contribute to the development of bone fibrous dysplasia. However, it remains unclear whether fibrocytes and immune cells are involved in this β-catenin-mediated bone marrow fibrosis. In this study, we showed that constitutive activation of β-catenin by Col1a1-Cre (3.6-kb) exhibited bone marrow fibrosis, featured with expanded populations of fibrocytes, myofibroblasts and osteoprogenitors. Lineage tracing and IHC examinations showed that Col3.6-Cre display Cre recombinase activity not only in osteoprogenitors, but also in monocyte-derived fibrocytes in the endosteal niches of bones. Additionally, β-catenin stimulated the secretion of cytokines and pro-fibrotic signals in bone marrow, including GM-CSF, TGFβ1 and VEGF. Consequently, the frequency of differentiated immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells and naïve T cells was markedly increased in the mutant bone marrow. These phenotypes were quite different from those following β-catenin activation in mature osteoblasts driven by Col1a1-Cre (2.3-kb). Our findings suggested that a conserved pro-fibrotic signal cascade might underlie β-catenin-mediated bone marrow fibrosis, involving TGFβ1-enhanced fibrocyte activation and immunoregulatory responses. This study might shed new light on the understanding and development of a therapeutic strategy for bone fibrous dysplasia.

  6. Data for proteomic analysis of Human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eligini, S; Brioschi, M; Fiorelli, S; Tremoli, E; Colli, S; Banfi, C

    2015-09-01

    This data article is referred to the research article entitled Human monocyte-derived macrophages are heterogeneous: proteomic profile of different phenotypes by Eligini et al. Eligini S., Brioschi M., Fiorelli S., Tremoli E., Banfi C., Colli S. Human monocyte-derived macrophages are heterogeneous: proteomic profile of different phenotypes. J. Proteomics 124, 2015, 112-123. Macrophages obtained in vitro from blood monocytes are largely used as surrogate model of tissue macrophages that are heterogeneous and not easy to obtain and handle. Under spontaneous differentiation in vitro, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) display two dominant subsets (round and spindle) that show different transcriptional, antigenic, and functional profiles mimicking, at least in part, the heterogeneity of tissue macrophages. This article reports the nano-LC-MS(E) analysis of the proteome of round and spindle MDMs allowing a deeper comprehension of macrophage heterogeneity.

  7. Monocyte Heterogeneity: Consequences for Monocyte-Derived Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Sara; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Blood monocytes are precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. They are a heterogeneous cell population with differences in size, phenotype, and function. Although monocytes maintain several tissue-specific populations of immune cells in homeostasis, their contribution to populations of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts is significantly increased in inflammation. Identification of a growing number of functionally different subsets of cells within populations of monocyte-derived immune cells has recently put monocyte heterogeneity into sharp focus. Here, we summarize recent findings in monocyte heterogeneity and their differentiation into dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. We also discuss these advances in the context of the formation of functionally different monocyte-derived subsets of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts.

  8. Fibrocytes Differ from Macrophages but Can Be Infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michihiro; Nasser, Hesham; Bhuyan, Farzana; Kuse, Nozomi; Satou, Yorifumi; Harada, Shigeyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Sakuragi, Jun-ichi; Monde, Kazuaki; Maeda, Yosuke; Welbourn, Sarah; Strebel, Klaus; Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Miyazaki, Mitsue; Hattori, Shinichiro; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Hiyoshi, Masateru; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Suzu, Shinya

    2015-11-01

    Fibrocytes (fibroblastic leukocytes) are recently identified as unique hematopoietic cells with features of both macrophages and fibroblasts. Fibrocytes are known to contribute to the remodeling or fibrosis of various injured tissues. However, their role in viral infection is not fully understood. In this study, we show that differentiated fibrocytes are phenotypically distinguishable from macrophages but can be infected with HIV-1. Importantly, fibrocytes exhibited persistently infected cell-like phenotypes, the degree of which was more apparent than macrophages. The infected fibrocytes produced replication-competent HIV-1, but expressed HIV-1 mRNA at low levels and strongly resisted HIV-1-induced cell death, which enabled them to support an extremely long-term HIV-1 production at low but steady levels. More importantly, our results suggested that fibrocytes were susceptible to HIV-1 regardless of their differentiation state, in contrast to the fact that monocytes become susceptible to HIV-1 after the differentiation into macrophages. Our findings indicate that fibrocytes are the previously unreported HIV-1 host cells, and they suggest the importance of considering fibrocytes as one of the long-lived persistently infected cells for curing HIV-1. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Antigen presentation by monocytes and monocyte-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Jakubzick, Claudia; Qu, Chunfeng

    2008-02-01

    Monocytes are circulating mononuclear phagocytes with a fundamental capacity to differentiate into macrophages. This differentiation can, in the presence of the right environmental cues, be re-directed instead to dendritic cells (DCs). Recent advances have been made in understanding the role of monocytes and their derivatives in presenting antigen to drive immune responses, and we review this topic herein. We briefly discuss the heterogeneity of monocytes in the blood and subsequently raise the possibility that one of the major monocyte phenotypes in the blood corresponds with a population of 'blood DCs' previously proposed to drive T-independent antibody reactions in the spleen. Then we evaluate the role of monocytes in T-dependent immunity, considering their role in acquiring antigens for presentation before exiting the bloodstream and their ability to differentiate into macrophages versus antigen-presenting DCs. Finally, we review recent literature on the role of monocyte-derived cells in cross-presentation and discuss the possibility that monocyte-derived cells participate critically in processing antigen for cross-priming, even if they do not present that antigen to T cells themselves.

  10. Bovine monocyte-derived macrophage function in induced copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cerone, S; Sansinanea, A; Streitenberger, S; García, C; Auza, N

    2000-03-01

    The effect of molybdenum-induced copper deficiency on monocyte-derived macrophage function was examined. Five female calves were given molybdenum (30 ppm) and sulphate (225 ppm) to induce experimental secondary copper deficiency. Oxidant production by bovine macrophages was measured after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan (OpZ). Lipoperoxidative effects inside of macrophage, superoxide dismutase activity, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation were determined. Copper deficiency was confirmed from decreased serum copper levels, and animals with values less than 5.9 micromol/l were considered deficient. The content of intracellular copper decreased about 40% in deficient cells compared with the controls. The respiratory burst activity determined by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction was significantly impaired with both stimulants used. Superoxide anion formation was less affected than hydrogen peroxide generation. In addition, increased lipid peroxidation was observed. It could be concluded that the effect of these changes may impair the monocyte-derived macrophage function in the immune system.

  11. Phenotype and Function of CD209+ Bovine Blood Dendritic Cells, Monocyte-Derived-Dendritic Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bannantine, John P.; Mack, Victoria; Fry, Lindsay M.; Davis, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and monocyte derived DC (MoDC). DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants) can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC). Because of the high volume of blood collections required to study DC, cattle offer the best opportunity to further our understanding of bDC and MoDC function in an outbred large animal species. As reported here, phenotyping DC using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD209 revealed CD209 is expressed on the major myeloid population of DC present in blood and MoDC, providing a phenotypic link between these two subsets. Additionally, the present study demonstrates that CD209 is also expressed on monocyte derived macrophages (MoΦ). Functional analysis revealed each of these populations can take up and process antigens (Ags), present them to CD4 and CD8 T cells, and elicit a T-cell recall response. Thus, bDC, MoDC, and MoΦ pulsed with pathogens or candidate vaccine antigens can be used to study factors that modulate DC-driven T-cell priming and differentiation ex vivo. PMID:27764236

  12. Lipid profiling of polarized human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Burke, J Rafael; Sutton, Jessica A; Rogers, Lisa M; Milne, Ginger L; McLean, John A; Aronoff, David M

    2016-12-01

    The highly orchestrated transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming during activation drastically transforms the main functions and physiology of human macrophages across the polarization spectrum. Lipids, for example, can modify protein function by acting remotely as signaling molecules but also locally by altering the physical properties of cellular membranes. These changes play key roles in the functions of highly plastic immune cells due to their involvement in inflammation, immune responses, phagocytosis and wound healing processes. We report an analysis of major membrane lipids of distinct phenotypes of resting (M0), classically activated (M1), alternatively activated (M2a) and deactivated (M2c) human monocyte derived macrophages from different donors. Samples were subjected to supercritical fluid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry analysis, which allowed separations based on lipid class, facilitating the profiling of their fatty acid composition. Different levels of arachidonic acid mobilization as well as other fatty acid changes were observed for different lipid classes in the distinct polarization phenotypes, suggesting the activation of highly orchestrated and specific enzymatic processes in the biosynthesis of lipid signaling molecules and cell membrane remodeling. Thromboxane A2 production appeared to be a specific marker of M1 polarization. These alterations to the global composition of lipid bi-layer membranes in the cell provide a potential methodology for the definition and determination of cellular and tissue activation states.

  13. Differential expression of distinct surface markers in early endothelial progenitor cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Meng; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Shing; Lin, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Cheng-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a fundamental role in postnatal angiogenesis. Currently, EPCs are defined as early and late EPCs based on their biological properties and their time of appearance during in vitro culture. Reports have shown that early EPCs share common properties and surface markers with adherent blood cells, especially CD14+ monocytes. Distinguishing early EPCs from circulating monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) is therefore crucial to obtaining pure endothelial populations before they can be applied as part of clinical therapies. We compared the gene expression profiles of early EPCs, blood cells (including peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, and MDMs), and various endothelial lineage cells (including mature endothelial cells, late EPCs, and CD133+ stem cells). We found that early EPCs expressed an mRNA profile that showed the greatest similarity to MDMs than any other cell type tested. The functional significance of this molecular profiling data was explored by Gene Ontology database search. Novel plasma membrane genes that might potentially be novel isolation biomarkers were also pinpointed. Specifically, expression of CLEC5A was high in MDMs, whereas early EPCs expressed abundant SIGLEC8 and KCNE1. These detailed mRNA expression profiles and the identified functional modules will help to develop novel cell isolation approaches that will allow EPCs to be purified; these can then be used to target cardiovascular disease, tumor angiogenesis, and various ischemia-related diseases.

  14. Functional heterogeneity of colony-stimulating factor-induced human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Kiyoko S

    2002-07-01

    Macrophages have various functions and play a critical role in host defense and the maintenance of homeostasis. However, macrophages are heterogeneous and exhibit a wide range of phenotypes with regard to their morphology, cell surface antigen expression, and function. When blood monocytes are cultured in medium alone in vitro, monocytes die, and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) such as macrophage (M)-CSF or granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF are necessary for their survival and differentiation into macrophages. However, M-CSF-induced monocyte-derived macrophages (M-Mphi) and GM-CSF-induced monocyte-derived macrophages (GM-Mphi) are distinct in their morphology, cell surface antigen expression, and functions, including Fcgamma receptor mediated-phagocytosis, H2O2 production, H2O2 sensitivity, catalase activity, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and suppressor activity. The characteristics of GM-Mphi resemble those of human alveolar macrophages.

  15. PU.1 is essential for CD11c expression in CD8(+)/CD8(-) lymphoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells during GM-CSF or FLT3L-induced differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Jun; Yang, Zhong-Fa; Chen, Yaoyu; Wang, Junling; Rosmarin, Alan G

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional properties. The leukocyte integrin, CD11c, is considered a specific marker for DCs and it is expressed by all DC subsets. We created a strain of mice in which DCs and their progenitors could be lineage traced based on activity of the CD11c proximal promoter. Surprisingly, we observed levels of CD11c promoter activity that were similar in DCs and in other mature leukocytes, including monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. We sought to identify DNA elements and transcription factors that regulate DC-associated expression of CD11c. The ets transcription factor, PU.1, is a key regulator of DC development, and expression of PU.1 varies in different DC subsets. GM-CSF increased monocyte-derived DCs in mice and from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro, but it did not increase CD8(+) lymphoid-derived DCs or B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs. FLT3L increased both monocyte-derived DCs and lymphoid-derived DCs from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro. GM-CSF increased the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter activity in monocyte-derived DCs and CD8(+) lymphoid-derived DCs, but not in B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, FLT3L increased the CD11c proximal promoter activity in both monocyte-derived DCs and B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs. We used shRNA gene knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that PU.1 is required for the effects of GM-CSF or FLT3L on monocyte-derived DCs. We conclude that both GM-CSF and FLT3L act through PU.1 to activate the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter in DCs and to induce differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs. We also confirm that the CD11c proximal promoter is not sufficient to direct lineage specificity of CD11c expression, and that additional DNA elements are required for lineage

  16. PU.1 Is Essential for CD11c Expression in CD8+/CD8− Lymphoid and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells during GM-CSF or FLT3L-Induced Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoyu; Wang, Junling; Rosmarin, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional properties. The leukocyte integrin, CD11c, is considered a specific marker for DCs and it is expressed by all DC subsets. We created a strain of mice in which DCs and their progenitors could be lineage traced based on activity of the CD11c proximal promoter. Surprisingly, we observed levels of CD11c promoter activity that were similar in DCs and in other mature leukocytes, including monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. We sought to identify DNA elements and transcription factors that regulate DC-associated expression of CD11c. The ets transcription factor, PU.1, is a key regulator of DC development, and expression of PU.1 varies in different DC subsets. GM-CSF increased monocyte-derived DCs in mice and from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro, but it did not increase CD8+ lymphoid-derived DCs or B220+ plasmacytoid DCs. FLT3L increased both monocyte-derived DCs and lymphoid-derived DCs from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro. GM-CSF increased the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter activity in monocyte-derived DCs and CD8+ lymphoid-derived DCs, but not in B220+ plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, FLT3L increased the CD11c proximal promoter activity in both monocyte-derived DCs and B220+ plasmacytoid DCs. We used shRNA gene knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that PU.1 is required for the effects of GM-CSF or FLT3L on monocyte-derived DCs. We conclude that both GM-CSF and FLT3L act through PU.1 to activate the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter in DCs and to induce differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs. We also confirm that the CD11c proximal promoter is not sufficient to direct lineage specificity of CD11c expression, and that additional DNA elements are required for lineage-specific CD11c

  17. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells identified as booster of T follicular helper cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fillatreau, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvants play an essential role in the induction of acquired immunity upon vaccination with protein antigen. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, a classical type of adjuvant made of DNA oligonucleotide containing CpG motifs, which has already been used in humans, is shown to boost humoral immunity primarily by acting on monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This study provides novel insight on the mode of action of adjuvant targeting Toll-like receptors. PMID:24803394

  18. Interaction of Salmonella typhi strains with cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Sizemore, D R; Elsinghorst, E A; Eck, L C; Branstrom, A A; Hoover, D L; Warren, R L; Rubin, F A

    1997-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) provided this laboratory with a tool to develop a primary-cell assay for evaluating the relative virulence of newly constructed Salmonella typhi carrier strains. In this study, the interaction with and survival within MDM were compared for delta aroA143-attenuated strains, wild-type virulent strains, and the current oral-vaccine strain, Ty21a. PMID:8975929

  19. Differential activation of infiltrating monocyte-derived cells after mild and severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Trahanas, Diane M.; Cuda, Carla M.; Perlman, Harris; Schwulst, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the brain. Although embryologically and functionally distinct, they are morphologically similar to peripheral monocyte-derived cells resulting in a poor ability to discriminate between the two cell types. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable method to simultaneously characterize, quantify, and discriminate between whole populations of myeloid cells from the brain in a murine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male C57BL/6 mice underwent TBI (n=16) or sham injury (n=14). Brains were harvested at 24 hours post injury. Multiparameter flow cytometry and sequential gating analysis was performed allowing for discrimination between microglia and infiltrating leukocytes as well as for the characterization and quantification of individual subtypes within the infiltrating population. The proportion of infiltrating leukocytes within the brain increased with the severity of injury and the predominate cell types within the infiltrating population were monocyte-derived (p=0.01). Additionally, the severity of injury altered the overall makeup of the infiltrating monocyte-derived cells. In conclusion, we describe a flow cytometry based technique for gross discrimination between infiltrating leukocytes and microglia as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize and quantify individual myeloid subtypes and their maturation states within these populations. PMID:26091024

  20. Differential Activation of Infiltrating Monocyte-Derived Cells After Mild and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Trahanas, Diane M; Cuda, Carla M; Perlman, Harris; Schwulst, Steven J

    2015-03-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the brain. Although embryologically and functionally distinct, they are morphologically similar to peripheral monocyte-derived cells, resulting in a poor ability to discriminate between the two cell types. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable method to simultaneously characterize, quantify, and discriminate between whole populations of myeloid cells from the brain in a murine model of traumatic brain injury. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent traumatic brain injury (n = 16) or sham injury (n = 14). Brains were harvested at 24 h after injury. Multiparameter flow cytometry and sequential gating analysis were performed, allowing for discrimination between microglia and infiltrating leukocytes as well as for the characterization and quantification of individual subtypes within the infiltrating population. The proportion of infiltrating leukocytes within the brain increased with the severity of injury, and the predominant cell types within the infiltrating population were monocyte derived (P = 0.01). In addition, the severity of injury altered the overall makeup of the infiltrating monocyte-derived cells. In conclusion, we describe a flow cytometry-based technique for gross discrimination between infiltrating leukocytes and microglia as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize and quantify individual myeloid subtypes and their maturation states within these populations.

  1. Functional heterogeneity of colony-stimulating factor-induced human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Kiyoko S; Komuro, Iwao; Kanazawa, Hiroko; Yamazaki, Toshio; Mochida, Keiko; Kishi, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Macrophages (Mphis) have various functions and play a critical role in host defense and the maintenance of homeostasis. Mphis exist in every tissue in the body, but Mphis from different tissues exhibit a wide range of phenotypes with regard to their morphology, cell surface antigen expression and function, and are called by different names. However, the precise mechanism of the generation of macrophage heterogeneity is not known. In the present study, the authors examined the functional heterogeneity of Mphis generated from human monocytes under the influence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage-CSF (M-CSF). CD14 positive human monocytes (Mos) were incubated with M-CSF and GM-CSF for 6-7 days to stimulate the generation of M-CSF-induced monocyte-derived Mphis (M-Mphis) and GM-CSF-induced monocyte-derived Mphis (GM-Mphis), respectively. The expression of cell surface antigens and several functions such as antigen presenting cell activity, susceptibility to oxidant stress, and the susceptibility to HIV-1 and mycobacterium tuberculosis infection were examined. GM-Mphis and M-Mphis are distinct in their morphology, cell surface antigen expression, and functions examined. The phenotype of GM-Mphis closely resembles that of human Alveolar-Mphis (A-Mphis), indicating that CSF-induced human monocyte-derived Mphis are useful to clarify the molecular mechanism of heterogeneity of human Mphis, and GM-Mphis will become a model of human A-Mphis.

  2. Vitamin C suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced procoagulant response of human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Parahuleva, M S; Jung, J; Burgazli, M; Erdogan, A; Parviz, B; Hölschermann, H

    2016-05-01

    Although vitamin C is a strong antioxidant, the epidemiologic evidence to support its role in lowering risk of cardiovascular disease is inconsistent. In order to define the role of vitamin C in vascular pathophysiology, we have investigated the effect of vitamin C on the tissue factor (TF) and Factor VII Activating Protease (FSAP) expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Vitamin C at clinically relevant doses was tested to its ability to influence the LPS- and reactive oxygen species (ROS) - generating system of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) NF-kB activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Vitamin C-treatment prevents LPS- and ROS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-kB in a concentration-dependent fashion. Vitamin C also inhibited the phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation of the inhibitor protein IkBa. In parallel to regulate NF-kB activity, vitamin C reduced the expression of TF and FSAP, genes known to be induced by bacterial LPS and triggered the extrinsic coagulation cascade and linked thrombosis with inflammation. Vitamin C alters pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory processes via inhibition of NF-kB activation and exerts beneficial antiatherogenic effects on human monocyte-derived macrophages in addition to its anti-oxidant properties.

  3. Fibrocytes are associated with the fibrosis of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pu-Ping; Qu, Yong-Qiang; Shuai, Qun; Tao, Si-Ming; Bao, Yu-Xia; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shang-Wen; Wang, Dian-Hua

    2013-01-15

    Fibrocytes contribute significantly to fibrosis in many cardiac diseases. However, it is not clear whether fibrocytes are associated with the fibrosis in coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to determine whether fibrocytes are involved in cardiac fibrosis in CHD. We identified the presence of fibrocytes in CHD heart by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, examined the collagen volume fraction by Masson's Trichrome staining, and evaluated the correlation between fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis. In conjunction, we examined the location of CXCL12, a homing factor and specific ligand for CXCR4, by immunohistochemistry. Fibrocytes were identified in 26 out of 27 CHD hearts and in 10 out of 11 normal hearts. Combinations, including CD34/αSMA, CD34/procollagen-I, CD45/αSMA, CXCR4/procollagen-I and CXCR4/αSMA, stained significantly more fibrocytes in CHD hearts as compared with those in normal hearts (p<0.05). There were positive correlations between the collagen volume fraction and the amount of fibrocytes (r=0.558; p=0.003<0.01) and between the number of CXCR4(+) fibrocytes and the CXCL12(+) cells (r=0.741; p=0.000<0.01) in CHD hearts. Based upon these findings, we conclude that fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, may contribute to the increase in the fibroblast population in CHD heart.

  4. Dysfunctional HDL from HIV+ individuals promotes monocyte-derived foam cell formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Angelovich, Thomas A; Hearps, Anna C; Oda, Michael N; Borja, Mark S; Huynh, Diana; Homann, Stefanie; Jaworowski, Anthony; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2017-09-18

    The role of HDL function in HIV-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. HDLs isolated from HIV+ [HIV(+)HDL] and HIV-uninfected individuals (HDL) were assessed for HDL function and ability to promote monocyte-derived foam cell formation (MDFCF) (a key event in HIV-related CVD) ex vivo. Using an established in vitro model of atherogenesis and plasma samples from an established cross-sectional study of virologically-suppressed HIV+ males on stable effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and with low CVD risk (median age: 42 years; n = 10), we explored the impact of native HDL [HIV(+)HDL] on MDFCF. In this exploratory study we selected HIV-HDL known to be dysfunctional based on two independent measures of impaired HDL function: a) antioxidant (high HDLox) b) ability of HDL to release apoA-I [low HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE %)]. Five healthy males matched by age and race to the HIV+ group were included. Given that oxidation of HDL leads to abnormal HDL function, we also compared proatherogenic effects of HIV-HDL versus chemically-derived HDLox. The ex vivo atherogenesis assay was performed using lipoproteins (purchased or isolated from plasma using ultracentrifugation) and monocytes purified via negative selection from healthy donors. HIV(+)HDL known to have reduced antioxidant function and rate of HDL/ApoAI exchange promoted MDFCF to a greater extent than HDL (33.0% vs 26.2% foam cells; p = 0.015). HDL oxidized in vitro also enhanced foam cell formation as compared to non-oxidized HDL (p < 0.01). Dysfunctional HDL in virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals may potentiate atherosclerosis in HIV infection by promoting monocyte-derived foam cell formation.The role of HDL function in HIV-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is unclear. HDL isolated from HIV+ [HIV(+)HDL] and HIV-uninfected individuals [HIV(-)HDL] were assessed for HDL function and ability to promote foam cell formation ex vivo. HIV(+)HDL known to have reduced

  5. Human Monocyte-Derived Osteoclasts Are Targeted by Staphylococcal Pore-Forming Toxins and Superantigens

    PubMed Central

    Flammier, Sacha; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Badiou, Cédric; Henry, Thomas; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frédéric; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bone and joint infections (BJIs). Staphylococcal pathogenesis involves numerous virulence factors including secreted toxins such as pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and superantigens. The role of these toxins on BJI outcome is largely unknown. In particular, few studies have examined how osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, respond to exposure to staphylococcal PFTs and superantigens. We investigated the direct impact of recombinant staphylococcal toxins on human primary mature monocyte-derived osteoclasts, in terms of cytotoxicity and cell activation with cell death and bone resorption assays, using macrophages of the corresponding donors as a reference. Monocyte-derived osteoclasts displayed similar toxin susceptibility profiles compared to macrophages. Specifically, we demonstrated that the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, known as one of the most powerful PFT which lyses myeloid cells after binding to the C5a receptor, was able to induce the death of osteoclasts. The archetypal superantigen TSST-1 was not cytotoxic but enhanced the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which superantigen-producing S. aureus can accelerate the destruction of bone tissue during BJI. Altogether, our data indicate that the diverse clinical presentations of BJIs could be related, at least partly, to the toxin profiles of S. aureus isolates involved in these severe infections. PMID:26934588

  6. Phenotypic dynamics of microglial and monocyte-derived cells in glioblastoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Clément; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Luche, Hervé; Grenot, Pierre; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Rougon, Geneviève; Malissen, Marie; Debarbieux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells, an integral component of tumor evolution, are present in Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). To address the cellular basis and dynamics of the inflammatory microenvironment in GBM, we established an orthotopic syngenic model by grafting GL261-DsRed cells in immunocompetent transgenic LysM-EGFP//CD11c-EYFP reporter mice. We combined dynamic spectral two-photon imaging with multiparametric cytometry and multicolor immunostaining to characterize spatio-temporal distribution, morphology and activity of microglia and blood-derived infiltrating myeloid cells in live mice. Early stages of tumor development were dominated by microglial EYFP+ cells invading the tumor, followed by massive recruitment of circulating LysM-EGFP+ cells. Fluorescent invading cells were conventional XCR1+ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells distributed in subpopulations of different maturation stages, located in different areas relative to the tumor core. The lethal stage of the disease was characterized by the progressive accumulation of EGFP+/EYFP+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This local phenotypic regulation of monocyte subtypes marked a transition in the immune response. PMID:27193333

  7. Mycobacterium leprae upregulates IRGM expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Degang; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Linglin; Cha, Zhanshan; Han, Song; Shi, Weiwei; Ding, Ru; Ma, Lan; Xiao, Hong; Shi, Chao; Jing, Zhichun; Song, Ningjing

    2014-08-01

    Leprosy is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium leprae, which evokes a strong inflammatory response and leads to nerve damage. Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM) plays critical roles in controlling inflammation. The objective of the study was to investigate whether IRGM is involved in the infection of M. leprae. Levels of IRGM were assessed in M. leprae-infected CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Data revealed that both protein and mRNA levels of IRGM were increased in monocytes after M. leprae infection. Interestingly, monocyte-derived macrophages showed more prominent IRGM expression with M. leprae infection, whereas the bacteria did not affect IRGM in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we assessed levels of IRGM in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes from 78 leprosy patients and 40 healthy controls, and observed upregulated protein level of IRGM in the monocytes from leprosy patients. Also, IRGM expression was inversely correlated with the severity of the disease. These findings suggested a close involvement of IRGM in M. leprae infection and indicated a potential mechanism of defending M. leprae infection.

  8. Identification of Genes Responsive to Solar Simulated UV Radiation in Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Hortensia; Lamana, Amalia; Mittelbrunn, María; Perez-Gala, Silvia; Gonzalez, Salvador; García-Diez, Amaro; Vega, Miguel; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has profound effects on the skin and the systemic immune system. Several effects of UV radiation on Dendritic cells (DCs) functions have been described. However, gene expression changes induced by UV radiation in DCs have not been addressed before. In this report, we irradiated human monocyte-derived DCs with solar-simulated UVA/UVB and analyzed regulated genes on human whole genome arrays. Results were validated by RT-PCR and further analyzed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Solar-simulated UV radiation up-regulated expression of genes involved in cellular stress and inflammation, and down-regulated genes involved in chemotaxis, vesicular transport and RNA processing. Twenty four genes were selected for comparison by RT-PCR with similarly treated human primary keratinocytes and human melanocytes. Several genes involved in the regulation of the immune response were differentially regulated in UVA/UVB irradiated human monocyte-derived DCs, such as protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type E (PTPRE), thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL), galectins, Src-like adapter protein (SLA), IL-10 and CCR7. These results indicate that UV-exposure triggers the regulation of a complex gene repertoire involved in human-DC–mediated immune responses. PMID:19707549

  9. Investigating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type One-Infected Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Ciborowski, Pawel; Kadiu, Irena; Rozek, Wojciech; Smith, Lynette; Bernhardt, Kristen; Fladseth, Melissa; Ricardo-Dukelow, Mary; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2007-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages, alveolar macrophages, perivascular macrophages, and microglia) are reservoirs and vehicles of dissemination for the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). How virus alters mononuclear phagocyte immunoregulatory activities to complete its life cycle and influence disease is incompletely understood. In attempts to better understanding the influence of virus on macrophage functions, we used one-dimensional electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the secretome of HIV-1 infected human monocyte-derived macrophages. We identified 111 proteins in culture supernatants of control (uninfected) and virus-infected cells. Differentially expressed cytoskeletal, enzymes, redox, and immunoregulatory protein classes were discovered and validated by Western-blot tests. These included, but were not limited to, cystatin C, cystatin B, chitinase 3-like 1 protein, cofilin-1, L-plastin, superoxide dismutase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase, and α-enolase. This study, through the use of a unique proteomics platform, provides novel insights into virus-host cell interactions that affect the functional role of macrophages in HIV disease. PMID:17320137

  10. Microbicidal activity of monocyte derived macrophages in AIDS and related disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Eales, L J; Moshtael, O; Pinching, A J

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the ability of monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with AIDS and other HIV-related disorders to kill the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. We have also examined the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these patients to produce macrophage-activating and other lymphokines. The capacity to produce interleukin 2 and gamma interferon decreases from controls through asymptomatic seropositive subjects and lymphadenopathy groups A (benign) and B (prodromal) to AIDS. The decrease did not correlate precisely with the decrease in CD4+ cells in these patients. Monocyte-derived macrophages from asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects and lymphadenopathy patients showed a decreased ability to kill T. gondii after activation with recombinant gamma interferon; paradoxically, this was most striking for PGL group A. The defect was largely overcome by using Concanavalin A stimulated autologous supernatants. It was notable that macrophages from AIDS patients showed normal killing with recombinant gamma interferon, but that the supernatants from AIDS patients had reduced activity with normal macrophages. These studies confirm that functional defects of both lymphocytes and macrophages are found in HIV-infected subjects; they serve to emphasize the heterogeneity of the clinical and biological responses to this retrovirus, responses which have important implications in the pathogenesis and treatment of the immunodeficiency. PMID:3111759

  11. Monocyte-derived inflammatory Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells mediate psoriasis-like inflammation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tej Pratap; Zhang, Howard H; Borek, Izabela; Wolf, Peter; Hedrick, Michael N; Singh, Satya P; Kelsall, Brian L; Clausen, Bjorn E; Farber, Joshua M

    2016-12-16

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis but the roles for specific DC subsets are not well defined. Here we show that DCs are required for psoriasis-like changes in mouse skin induced by the local injection of IL-23. However, Flt3L-dependent DCs and resident Langerhans cells are dispensable for the inflammation. In epidermis and dermis, the critical DCs are TNF-producing and IL-1β-producing monocyte-derived DCs, including a population of inflammatory Langerhans cells. Depleting Ly6C(hi) blood monocytes reduces DC accumulation and the skin changes induced either by injecting IL-23 or by application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Moreover, we find that IL-23-induced inflammation requires expression of CCR6 by DCs or their precursors, and that CCR6 mediates monocyte trafficking into inflamed skin. Collectively, our results imply that monocyte-derived cells are critical contributors to psoriasis through production of inflammatory cytokines that augment the activation of skin T cells.

  12. Monocyte-derived inflammatory Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells mediate psoriasis-like inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tej Pratap; Zhang, Howard H.; Borek, Izabela; Wolf, Peter; Hedrick, Michael N.; Singh, Satya P.; Kelsall, Brian L.; Clausen, Bjorn E.; Farber, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis but the roles for specific DC subsets are not well defined. Here we show that DCs are required for psoriasis-like changes in mouse skin induced by the local injection of IL-23. However, Flt3L-dependent DCs and resident Langerhans cells are dispensable for the inflammation. In epidermis and dermis, the critical DCs are TNF-producing and IL-1β-producing monocyte-derived DCs, including a population of inflammatory Langerhans cells. Depleting Ly6Chi blood monocytes reduces DC accumulation and the skin changes induced either by injecting IL-23 or by application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Moreover, we find that IL-23-induced inflammation requires expression of CCR6 by DCs or their precursors, and that CCR6 mediates monocyte trafficking into inflamed skin. Collectively, our results imply that monocyte-derived cells are critical contributors to psoriasis through production of inflammatory cytokines that augment the activation of skin T cells. PMID:27982014

  13. Monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt-dependent biosynthesis of NAD(+) protects the heart against pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masamichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Toru; Yabumoto, Chizuru; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Kamo, Takehiro; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Komuro, Issei

    2015-11-02

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, and thereby regulates the deacetylase activity of sirtuins. Here we show accommodative regulation of myocardial NAD(+) by monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt (eNampt), which is essential for hemodynamic compensation to pressure overload. Although intracellular Nampt (iNampt) expression was decreased in pressure-overloaded hearts, myocardial NAD(+) concentration and Sirt1 activity were preserved. In contrast, iNampt was up-regulated in spleen and monocytes, and circulating eNampt protein and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key precursor of NAD(+), were significantly increased. Pharmacological inhibition of Nampt by FK866 or depletion of monocytes/macrophages by clodronate liposomes disrupted the homeostatic mechanism of myocardial NAD(+) levels and NAD(+)-dependent Sirt1 activity, leading to susceptibility to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac decompensation in pressure-overloaded mice. These biochemical and hemodynamic defects were prevented by systemic administration of NMN. Our studies uncover a crucial role of monocyte-derived eNampt in myocardial adaptation to pressure overload, and highlight a potential intervention controlling myocardial NAD(+) against heart failure.

  14. Circulating Fibrocytes Are Increased in Neonates with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Li, Xiaoyu; Deng, Chun; Guo, Chunbao

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by the aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma, resulting from accumulation of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. Circulating fibrocytes are implied in pulmonary fibrosis, but whether these cells are associated with the development of BPD or the progressive fibrosis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of fibrocytes in peripheral venous blood and explore whether these cells might be associated with severity of BPD. Methods We investigated circulating fibrocytes in 66 patients with BPD, 23 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) and 11 normal subjects. Circulating fibrocytes were defined and quantified as cells positive for CD45 andcollagen-1 by flow cytometry. Furthermore, serum SDF-1/CXCL12 and TGF-β1 were evaluated using ELISA methods. We also investigated the clinical value of fibrocyte counts by comparison with standard clinical parameters. Results The patients with BPD had significantly increased numbers of fibrocytes compared to the controls (p < 0.01). Patients with ARDS were not different from healthy control subjects. There was a correlation between the number of fibrocytes and pulmonary hypertension or oxygen saturation (p < 0.05). Fibrocyte numbers were not correlated with other clinical or functional variables or radiologic severity scores. The fibrocyte attractant chemokine CXCL12 increased in plasma (p < 0.05) and was detectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 40% of the patients but not in controls. Conclusion These findings indicate that circulating fibrocytes are increased in patients with BPD and may contribute to pulmonary fibrosis in BPD. Circulating fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, might contribute to the production of TGF-β1 for the expansion of fibroblast/myofibroblast population in BPD. PMID:27309347

  15. Contribution of bone marrow-derived fibrocytes to liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Cong, Min; Park, Tae Jun; Scholten, David; Brenner, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, these bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I producing CD45+ cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Despite recent reports on the emerging contribution of fibrocytes to fibrosis of parenchymal and non-parenchymal organs and tissues, fibrocytes remain the most understudied pro-fibrogenic cellular population. In the past years fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis by giving rise to collagen type I producing cells/myofibroblasts. Hence, the role of fibrocytes in fibrosis is not well defined since different studies often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury versus the number of fibrocyte-derived myofibroblasts in the same fibrotic organ. Furthermore, many studies were based on the in vitro characterization of fibrocytes formed after outgrowth of BM and/or peripheral blood cultures. Therefore, the fibrocyte function(s) still remain(s) lack of understanding, mostly due to (I) the lack of mouse models that can provide complimentary in vivo real-time and cell fate mapping studies of the dynamic differentiation of fibrocytes and their progeny into collagen type I producing cells (and/or possibly, other cell types of the hematopoietic system); (II) the complexity of hematopoietic cell differentiation pathways in response to various stimuli; (III) the high plasticity of hematopoietic cells. Here we summarize the current understanding of the role of CD45+ collagen type I+ BM-derived cells in the pathogenesis of liver injury. Based on data obtained from various organs undergoing fibrogenesis or other type of chronic injury, here we also discuss the most recent evidence supporting the critical role of fibrocytes in the mediation of pro-fibrogenic and/or pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25713803

  16. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes contribute to liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver injury often leads to hepatic fibrosis, a condition associated with increased levels of circulating TGF-β1 and lipopolysaccharide, activation of myofibroblasts, and extensive deposition of extracellular matrix, mostly collagen Type I. Hepatic stellate cells are considered to be the major1 but not the only source of myofibroblasts in the injured liver.2 Hepatic myofibroblasts may also originate from portal fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, and fibrocytes.3 Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, this bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I-producing CD45+ cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Due to the ability to differentiate into collagen Type I producing cells/myofibroblasts, fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis. However, studies of different organs often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury and their biological function. Furthermore, fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and were shown to possess antimicrobial activity. Finally, in response to specific stimuli, fibrocytes can give rise to fully differentiated macrophages, suggesting that in concurrence with the high plasticity of hematopoietic cells, fibrocytes exhibit progenitor properties. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the role of CD45+Collagen Type I+ BM-derived cells in response to fibrogenic liver injury and septicemia and discuss the most recent evidence supporting the critical role of fibrocytes in the mediation of pro-fibrogenic and/or pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25966982

  17. Increased CD40+ fibrocytes in patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Brian J; Atkins, Stephen; Ginter, Anna; Elner, Victor M; Nelson, Christine C; Douglas, Raymond S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phenotypic and functional characteristics of peripheral and tissue-infiltrating stem cells, called fibrocytes in patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI). Methods Seven patients with IOI were studied. In the three patients requiring orbital biopsy, fibrocytes were identified in orbital tissue from patients with IOI compared to healthy controls using immunohistochemistry. Fibrocytes from the peripheral blood of all seven patients and controls were quantified and phenotyped by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence for expression of CD34, alpha smooth muscle actin, CD40 and Collagen 1. Quantitation of CD40-mediated IL-6 production was measured using ELISA. Results Orbital biopsy specimens from patients with IOI demonstrate tissue infiltration by fibrocytes (n=3). Fibrocytes are present in the peripheral blood of IOI patients (n= 7) but are scarce in healthy donors (n=19). Fibrocytes from IOI patients express substantial levels of CD40 and ligation of CD40 increases IL-6 expression. Conclusions Fibrocytes are present in the peripheral blood and orbital tissues of patients with IOI and constitutively express CD40 and express IL-6 in response to ligation. This site-specific predilection of CD34+ fibrocytes to sites of orbital inflammation and fibrosis may suggest a role in IOI. Moreover CD40-mediated activation cytokine production may contribute to the proinflammatory and profibrotic features of IOI and may provide a mechanism for future targeted therapy. PMID:25098443

  18. Alcohol Enhances HIV Infection of Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Peña, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV+ women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361

  19. HCMV Displays a Unique Transcriptome of Immunomodulatory Genes in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Ellen; Thys, Kim; Tuefferd, Marianne; Van Hove, Carl; Aerssens, Jeroen; Van Loock, Marnix

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Consequently, it has been suggested that macrophages and dendritic cells contribute to viral spread in vivo. Thus far only limited knowledge is available on the expression of HCMV genes in terminally differentiated myeloid primary cells and whether or not the virus exhibits a different set of lytic genes in primary cells compared with lytic infection in NHDF fibroblasts. To address these questions, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to determine the HCMV transcriptome in macrophages and dendritic cells during lytic infection and compared it to the transcriptome in NHDF fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate unique expression profiles in macrophages and dendritic cells which significantly differ from the transcriptome in fibroblasts mainly by modulating the expression of viral transcripts involved in immune modulation, cell tropism and viral spread. In a head to head comparison between macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that factors involved in viral spread and virion composition are differentially regulated suggesting that the plasticity of the virion facilitates the infection of surrounding cells. Taken together, this study provides the full transcript expression analysis of lytic HCMV genes in monocyte-derived type 1 and type 2 macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thereby underlining the potential

  20. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Lee, Boris P.; Fischer, Nicolas; Fish, Richard J.; Kwak, Brenda; Fisher, Edward A.; Imhof, Beat A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, caused in part by monocytes in plaques, continues to be a disease that afflicts the modern world. Whilst significant steps have been made in treating this chronic inflammatory disease, questions remain on how to prevent monocyte and macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C) expressed by vascular endothelium directs monocyte transendothelial migration in a unidirectional manner leading to increased inflammation. Here we show that interfering with JAM-C allows reverse-transendothelial migration of monocyte-derived cells, opening the way back out of the inflamed environment. To study the role of JAM-C in plaque regression we used a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and tested the impact of vascular JAM-C expression levels on monocyte reverse transendothelial migration using human cells. Studies in-vitro under inflammatory conditions revealed that overexpression or gene silencing of JAM-C in human endothelium exposed to flow resulted in higher rates of monocyte reverse-transendothelial migration, similar to antibody blockade. We then transplanted atherosclerotic, plaque-containing aortic arches from hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice into wild-type normolipidemic recipient mice. JAM-C blockade in the recipients induced greater emigration of monocyte-derived cells and further diminished the size of atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings have shown that JAM-C forms a one-way vascular barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration only when present at homeostatic copy numbers. We have also shown that blocking JAM-C can reduce the number of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages in plaques by emigration, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27442505

  1. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Bradfield, Paul F; Menon, Arjun; Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Lee, Boris P; Fischer, Nicolas; Fish, Richard J; Kwak, Brenda; Fisher, Edward A; Imhof, Beat A

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, caused in part by monocytes in plaques, continues to be a disease that afflicts the modern world. Whilst significant steps have been made in treating this chronic inflammatory disease, questions remain on how to prevent monocyte and macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C) expressed by vascular endothelium directs monocyte transendothelial migration in a unidirectional manner leading to increased inflammation. Here we show that interfering with JAM-C allows reverse-transendothelial migration of monocyte-derived cells, opening the way back out of the inflamed environment. To study the role of JAM-C in plaque regression we used a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and tested the impact of vascular JAM-C expression levels on monocyte reverse transendothelial migration using human cells. Studies in-vitro under inflammatory conditions revealed that overexpression or gene silencing of JAM-C in human endothelium exposed to flow resulted in higher rates of monocyte reverse-transendothelial migration, similar to antibody blockade. We then transplanted atherosclerotic, plaque-containing aortic arches from hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice into wild-type normolipidemic recipient mice. JAM-C blockade in the recipients induced greater emigration of monocyte-derived cells and further diminished the size of atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings have shown that JAM-C forms a one-way vascular barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration only when present at homeostatic copy numbers. We have also shown that blocking JAM-C can reduce the number of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages in plaques by emigration, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory pathologies.

  2. Characterization of canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells with phenotypic and functional differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Shan; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Chi; Cheng, Chiao-Lei; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chu, Rea-Min

    2007-01-01

    For therapeutic purposes, large numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) are essential. In this study, we used 2% autologous canine plasma, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in generating monocyte-derived DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs. The plasma enriched the population of CD14-positive monocytes by greatly enhancing the efficiency of monocyte adherence, the proportion of adherent cells increasing from 6.6% with 10% fetal bovine serum to 15.3% with 2% autologous canine plasma. Culturing the adherent monocytes for 6 d with human GM-CSF, canine IL-4, and human Flt3L significantly increased the yield of DCs, more than 90% of which were CD14-negative. Because, in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), monocytes that were CD14-positive expressed tumor necrosis factor α much more than DCs with low levels of CD14, it is important to decrease the numbers of CD14-positive cells in generating monocyte-derived DCs. With flow cytometry and real-time reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction assays, we found that in canine immature DCs (iDCs) the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, and CD86 was high and the expression of CD80, CD83, and CD14 either low or negative. During maturation (stimulated by LPS), the expression of CD1a, CD40, CD83, and CD80 was upregulated. However, the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD11c, and CD86 was not increased in mature DCs. Incubating the iDCs with LPS decreased antigen uptake and increased the cells’ immunostimulatory capacity (assessed by the allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction), indicating that LPS accelerates the functional maturation of DCs. This protocol may facilitate the use of DCs in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:17695590

  3. Characterization of canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells with phenotypic and functional differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Shan; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Chi; Cheng, Chiao-Lei; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chu, Rea-Min

    2007-07-01

    For therapeutic purposes, large numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) are essential. In this study, we used 2% autologous canine plasma, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in generating monocyte-derived DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs. The plasma enriched the population of CD14-positive monocytes by greatly enhancing the efficiency of monocyte adherence, the proportion of adherent cells increasing from 6.6% with 10% fetal bovine serum to 15.3% with 2% autologous canine plasma. Culturing the adherent monocytes for 6 d with human GM-CSF, canine IL-4, and human Flt3L significantly increased the yield of DCs, more than 90% of which were CD14-negative. Because, in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), monocytes that were CD14-positive expressed tumor necrosis factor ac much more than DCs with low levels of CD14, it is important to decrease the numbers of CD14-positive cells in generating monocyte-derived DCs. With flow cytometry and real-time reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction assays, we found that in canine immature DCs (iDCs) the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, and CD86 was high and the expression of CD80, CD83, and CD14 either low or negative. During maturation (stimulated by LPS), the expression of CDla, CD40, CD83, and CD80 was upregulated. However, the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD11c, and CD86 was not increased in mature DCs. Incubating the iDCs with LPS decreased antigen uptake and increased the cells' immunostimulatory capacity (assessed by the allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction), indicating that LPS accelerates the functional maturation of DCs. This protocol may facilitate the use of DCs in cellular immunotherapy.

  4. CTLA-4 is expressed by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and regulates their functions.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stefania; Carrega, Paolo; Saverino, Daniele; Piccioli, Patrizia; Camoriano, Marta; Morabito, Anna; Dozin, Beatrice; Fontana, Vincenzo; Simone, Rita; Mortara, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Ferlazzo, Guido; Pistillo, Maria Pia

    2010-10-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is the major negative regulator of T-cell responses, although growing evidence supports its wider role as an immune attenuator that may also act in other cell lineages. Here, we have analyzed the expression of CTLA-4 in human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and the effect of its engagement on cytokine production and T-cell stimulatory activity by mature DCs. CTLA-4 was highly expressed on freshly isolated monocytes, then down-modulated upon differentiation toward immature DCs (iDCs) and it was markedly upregulated on mature DCs obtained with different stimulations (lipopolysaccharides [LPS], Poly:IC, cytokines). In line with the functional role of CTLA-4 in T cells, treatment of mDCs with an agonistic anti-CTLA-4 mAb significantly enhanced secretion of regulatory interleukin (IL)-10 but reduced secretion of IL-8/IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as autologous CD4+ T-cell proliferation in response to stimulation with recall antigen purified protein derivative (PPD) loaded-DCs. Neutralization of IL-10 with an anti-IL-10 antibody during the mDCs-CD4+ T-cell co-culture partially restored the ability of anti-CTLA-4-treated mDCs to stimulate T-cell proliferation in response to PPD. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that CTLA-4 receptor is expressed by human monocyte-derived mDCs upon their full activation and that it exerts immune modulatory effects.

  5. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived cells at differential activation statuses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells are critically important for antiviral immunity. Devastating viruses like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are capable of directly infecting these cells, subverting host immunity. Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) are major target cells in ...

  6. Moderate restriction of macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Taya, Kahoru; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains are able to grow to high titers in human monocyte-derived macrophages. However, it was recently reported that cellular protein SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in human cells of the myeloid lineage, including monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we show that degradation of SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with moderately enhanced growth of the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. SAMHD1 degradation was induced by treating target macrophages with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) particles containing viral protein X. For undifferentiated monocytes, HIV-2 particle treatment allowed undifferentiated monocytes to be fully permissive for productive infection by the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. In contrast, untreated monocytes were totally resistant to HIV-1 replication. These results indicated that SAMHD1 moderately restricts even a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain in monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas the protein potently restricts HIV-1 replication in undifferentiated monocytes.

  7. Paracrine Functions of Fibrocytes to Promote Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kleaveland, Kathryn R.; Moore, Bethany B.; Kim, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrocytes derive from the bone marrow and are found in the circulation. They can be recruited to sites of injury and contribute to repair/remodeling. In vitro evidence suggests that fibrocytes may differentiate into fibroblasts to promote lung fibrosis. However, in vivo evidence for this is sparse. This review summarizes recent literature which may suggest that fibrocytes function to promote fibrosis via paracrine actions. In this way, secretion of growth factors, proteases and matricellular proteins may strongly influence the actions of resident epithelial and mesenchymal cells to promote repair and resolution or to tip the scale towards pathologic remodeling. PMID:24451025

  8. Tissue-resident versus monocyte-derived macrophages in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Qods; Keirsse, Jiri; Laoui, Damya; Movahedi, Kiavash; Van Overmeire, Eva; Van Ginderachter, Jo A

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-promoting role of macrophages has been firmly established in most cancer types. However, macrophage identity has been a matter of debate, since several levels of complexity result in considerable macrophage heterogeneity. Ontogenically, tissue-resident macrophages derive from yolk sac progenitors which either directly or via a fetal liver monocyte intermediate differentiate into distinct macrophage types during embryogenesis and are maintained throughout life, while a disruption of the steady state mobilizes monocytes and instructs the formation of monocyte-derived macrophages. Histologically, the macrophage phenotype is heavily influenced by the tissue microenvironment resulting in molecularly and functionally distinct macrophages in distinct organs. Finally, a change in the tissue microenvironment as a result of infectious or sterile inflammation instructs different modes of macrophage activation. These considerations are relevant in the context of tumors, which can be considered as sites of chronic sterile inflammation encompassing subregions with distinct environmental conditions (for example, hypoxic versus normoxic). Here, we discuss existing evidence on the role of macrophage subpopulations in steady state tissue and primary tumors of the breast, lung, pancreas, brain and liver.

  9. Measurement of reactive oxygen metabolites produced by human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to mineral dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, P.; Klockars, M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop an in-vitro model for studying mineral dust-induced production of reactive oxygen metabolites by human macrophages. Monocytes isolated from human buffy coats were cultured in vitro for 1-6 days. Quartz particles induced both luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) by the adherent cells. However, the luminol response decreased form day to day, obviously due to a decrease in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the cells, whereas the lucigenin response showed no such MPO dependence. The luminol response was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and the MPO-inhibitor azide, while the lucigenin response was inhibited by SOD and catalase but stimulated by azide. There was a positive correlation between the lucigenin responses and the results obtained with the established cytochrome c assay for superoxide, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant. The effects of quartz, titanium dioxide, chrysotile asbestos, and wollastonite particles were investigated with the lucigenin assay. Quartz and chrysotile caused prominent light emission by 6-day-old macrophages, whereas titanium dioxide and wollastonite caused weak responses. We conclude that mineral dusts induce production of reactive oxygen metabolites by human monocyte-derived macrophages, and that the quantitative responses depend on both physical and physicochemical dust properties, the nature of which are still to be defined. PMID:2169299

  10. Intracranial transplantation of monocyte-derived multipotential cells enhances recovery after ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hidenori; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Okazaki, Yuka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwana, Masataka

    2012-02-01

    Cell transplantation has emerged as a potential therapy to reduce the neurological deficits caused by ischemic stroke. We previously reported a primitive cell population, monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs), which can differentiate into mesenchymal, neuronal, and endothelial lineages. In this study, MOMCs and macrophages were prepared from rat peripheral blood and transplanted intracranially into the ischemic core of syngeneic rats that had undergone a left middle cerebral artery occlusion procedure. Neurological deficits, as evaluated by the corner test, were less severe in the MOMC-transplanted rats than in macrophage-transplanted or mock-treated rats. Histological evaluations revealed that the number of microvessels that had formed in the ischemic boundary area by 4 weeks after transplantation was significantly greater in the MOMC-transplanted rats than in the control groups. The blood vessel formation was preceded by the appearance of round CD31(+) cells, which we confirmed were derived from the transplanted MOMCs. Small numbers of bloodvessels incorporating MOMC-derived endothelial cells expressing a mature endothelial marker RECA-1 were detected at 4 weeks after transplantation. In addition, MOMCs expressed a series of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoetin-1, and placenta growth factor (PlGF). These findings provide evidence that the intracranial delivery of MOMCs enhances functional recovery by promoting neovascularization in a rat model for ischemic stroke.

  11. PGE2 confers survivin-dependent apoptosis resistance in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Baratelli, Felicita; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Heuzé-Vourc'h, Nathalie; Zhu, Li; Escuadro, Brian; Sharma, Sherven; Reckamp, Karen; Dohadwala, Mariam; Dubinett, Steven M

    2005-08-01

    Control of apoptosis is fundamental for dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis. Numerous factors maintain DC viability throughout their lifespan, including inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. Among them, survivin is overexpressed in many human malignancies, but its physiological function in normal cells has not been fully delineated. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), also overproduced in several malignancies, has shown to induce proapoptotic and antiapoptotic effects in different cell types, including immune cells. In DC, PGE2 predominantly affects maturation and modulates immune functions. Here, we show that exposure of monocyte-derived DC to PGE2 (10(-5) M) for 72 h significantly increased DC survivin mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, DC, matured with lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor alpha, did not reveal survivin induction in response to PGE2. Following exposure to apoptotic stimuli, DC treated with PGE2 exhibited an overall increased viability compared with control DC, and this effect was correlated inversely with caspase-3 activation. Moreover, PGE2-treated, survivin-deficient DC demonstrated reduced viability in response to apoptotic stimuli. Further analysis indicated that PGE2 induced DC survivin expression in an E prostanoid (EP)2/EP4 receptor and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent manner. These findings suggest that PGE2-dependent regulation of survivin is important in modulating apoptosis resistance in human DC.

  12. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells: a potential target for therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    Duddy, M E; Dickson, G; Hawkins, S A; Armstrong, M A

    2001-01-01

    Monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells (DC), cells with a pivotal role in both protective immunity and tolerance. Defects in the maturation or function of DC may be important in the development of autoimmune disease. We sought to establish if there were differences in the cytokine (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-4)-driven maturation of monocytes to DC in patients with MS and whether drugs used to treat MS affected this process in vitro. We have demonstrated that there is no defect in the ability of magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS)-purified monocytes from patients with MS to differentiate to DC, but equally they show no tendency to acquire a DC phenotype without exogenous cytokines. Interferon-beta1a prevents the acquisition of a full DC phenotype as determined by light and electron microscopy and by flow cytometry. Methylprednisolone not only prevents the development of monocyte-derived DC but totally redirects monocyte differentiation towards a macrophage phenotype. Evidence is evolving for a role for DC in central nervous system immunity, either within the brain or in cervical lymph nodes. The demonstrated effect of both drugs on monocyte differentiation may represent an important site for immune therapy in MS. PMID:11207659

  13. Environmentally relevant dose of arsenic interferes in functions of human monocytes derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Abbas; Salmani, Vahid

    2017-06-05

    Arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and highly hazardous toxin to human health, which well established as carcinogen and immune deregulatory properties. Dendritic cells (DCs) have a pivotal role in cell-mediated immunity for T-cell activation and antigen presentation. In this study, T cell activation, some key functional genes expression, cell stability and phagocytosis capacity of human monocytes derived DCs (MDDCs) were analyzed after in vitro exposure to very low dose of arsenic for 12 and 24h. Arsenic decreased continually phagocytosis capacity of MDDCs. Furthermore, down-regulation of the cell-surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 after 24h post treatment with arsenic, confirmed arsenic interferers in the phagocytosis process. Pro inflammatory cytokines, IL1β and TNFα were more expressed in arsenic-treated MDDCs while IL6 transiently was down regulated. In general, our novel findings here strongly suggest that low level of arsenic dysregulates four fundamental immune processes of DCs. Mechanistically; this could explain the observed immunodeficiency activity of Arsenic, and give direction for comprehension the pathogenesis of Arsenic-induced diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. CD86 molecule is a specific marker for canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bonnefont-Rebeix, Catherine; de Carvalho, Camila Miranda; Bernaud, Janine; Chabanne, Luc; Marchal, Thierry; Rigal, Dominique

    2006-01-15

    In this study, canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (cMo-DC) were produced in presence of canine GM-CSF (cGM-CSF) and canine IL-4 (cIL-4), and they were characterized by their dendritic morphology, MLR functionality and phenotype. We noticed that cMo-DC were labelled with three anti-human CD86 (FUN-1, BU63 and IT2.2 clones), whereas resting and activated lymphocytes or monocytes were not stained. CD86 expression was induced by cIL-4 and was up-regulated during the differentiation of the cMo-DC, with a maximum at day 7. Furthermore, cMo-DC were very potent even in low numbers as stimulator cells in allogeneic MLR, and BU63 mAb was able to completely block the cMo-DC-induced proliferation in MLR. We also observed that cMo-DC highly expressed MHC Class II and CD32, but we failed to determine their maturation state since the lack of commercially available canine markers. Moreover, cMo-DC contained cytoplasmic periodic microstructures, potentially new ultrastructural markers of canine DC recently described. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that the CD86 costimulatory marker is now usable for a better characterization of in vitro canine DC.

  15. Transcriptional analysis of diverse strains Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Tu, Zheng J; Coussens, Paul M; Kapur, Vivek; Janagama, Harish; Naser, Saleh; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2008-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the macrophage-induced gene expression of three diverse genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) on three genotypically diverse MAP isolates from cattle, human, and sheep exposed to primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages for 48 h and 120 h we created and sequenced six cDNA libraries. Sequence annotations revealed that the cattle isolate up-regulated 27 and 241 genes; the human isolate up-regulated 22 and 53 genes, and the sheep isolate up-regulated 35 and 358 genes, at the two time points respectively. Thirteen to thirty-three percent of the genes identified did not have any annotated function. Despite variations in the genes identified, the patterns of expression fell into overlapping cellular functions as inferred by pathway analysis. For example, 10-12% of the genes expressed by all three strains at each time point were associated with cell-wall biosynthesis. All three strains of MAP studied up-regulated genes in pathways that combat oxidative stress, metabolic and nutritional starvation, and cell survival. Taken together, this comparative transcriptional analysis suggests that diverse MAP genotypes respond with similar modus operandi for survival in the host.

  16. Isolation of IL-12p70-competent human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Jonas N; Brix, Susanne

    2012-12-14

    Diverse methodologies ranging from experimental immunological studies to immunotherapy involve the application of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Considerable donor-dependent variations in the moDC production of IL-12p70 affect the outcome of these methodologies. It has been shown that moDCs generated under standard conditions develop into two subsets based on CD1a-expression with the CD1a+ moDCs being the main IL-12p70 producers. This has however not been generally accepted, which we show here because the subset described as CD1a-negative does express CD1a, but at a lower level than the other subset. We further characterize the phenotype of these two subsets, showing that the CD1a-hi subset has a greater immunogenic phenotype, making this subset more suitable for immunotherapy. The two subsets have previously been separated by cell sorting, but as this technique is not available to many laboratories and has incompatibility with clinical settings, a more widely useable technique is warranted. Therefore we tested if magnetic-activated cell sorting is useful for the purpose, and show that it is possible to isolate IL-12p70-competent CD1a-hi moDCs to a <92% purity, irrespective of the starting purity.

  17. Characterization of the Kynurenine Pathway in CD8(+) Human Primary Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Braidy, Nady; Rossez, Helene; Lim, Chai K; Jugder, Bat-Erdene; Brew, Bruce J; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-11-01

    The kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) is a major degradative pathway of the amino acid, L-tryptophan (TRP), that ultimately leads to the anabolism of the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. TRP catabolism results in the production of several important metabolites, including the major immune tolerance-inducing metabolite KYN, and the neurotoxin and excitotoxin quinolinic acid. Dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to mediate immunoregulatory roles that mediated by TRP catabolism. However, characterization of the KP in human DCs has so far only been partly delineated. It is critical to understand which KP enzymes are expressed and which KP metabolites are produced to be able to understand their regulatory effects on the immune response. In this study, we characterized the KP in human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) in comparison with the human primary macrophages using RT-PCR, high-pressure gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the KP is entirely expressed in human MDDC. Following activation of the KP using interferon gamma, MDDCs can mediate apoptosis of T h cells in vitro. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating KP metabolism in MDDCs may provide renewed insight for the development of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating immunological effects and peripheral tolerance.

  18. Metabolic profiling during HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbaugh, Joseph A.; Montero, Catherine; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Munger, Joshua; Kim, Baek

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated cellular metabolism profiles of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). First, HIV-2 GL-AN displays faster production kinetics and greater amounts of virus as compared to HIV-1s: YU-2, 89.6 and JR-CSF. Second, quantitative LC–MS/MS metabolomics analysis demonstrates very similar metabolic profiles in glycolysis and TCA cycle metabolic intermediates between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected macrophages, with a few notable exceptions. The most striking metabolic change in MDMs infected with HIV-2 relative to HIV-1-infected MDMs was the increased levels of quinolinate, a metabolite in the tryptophan catabolism pathway that has been linked to HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. Third, both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected MDMs showed elevated levels of ribose-5-phosphate, a key metabolic component in nucleotide biosynthesis. Finally, HIV-2 infected MDMs display increased dNTP concentrations as predicted by Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation. Collectively, these data show differential metabolic changes during HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection of macrophages. PMID:26895248

  19. Monocyte-derived macrophage microparticles impart tissue factor activity to biomaterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Patchipulusu, Sirisha; Turturro, Michael; Hall, Connie L

    2010-02-01

    The initiation of coagulation on biomaterials is attributed to the contact pathway of coagulation. However, recent discoveries of blood-borne tissue factor (TF) activity suggest that the TF pathway of coagulation may contribute to thrombosis on biomaterials. To evaluate the role of TF bearing microparticles to biomaterial thrombogenicity, the adhesion of monocyte-derived macrophage microparticles (MMPs) to bare, bovine serum albumin (BSA) blocked, and plasma-coated materials was examined. MMP suspensions consisted of 20-37% TF positive particles that exhibited TF activity. Data from static experiments with polyethylene (PE), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS), and glass knitted and woven Dacron(R) grafts showed that MMPs adhered to uncoated, and plasma coated surfaces supported TF activity, whereas surfaces blocked with BSA supported less activity. Flow studies were performed on plasma-coated glass and tissue culture-treated polystyrene (TCPS) as a model system to demonstrate deposition and firm adhesion of microparticles under physiologic flow conditions. MMPs deposited and imparted TF activity to plasma-coated glass at wall shear rates of 100, 400, and 1200 sec(-1). Deposition on TCPS was comparable to glass at 100 sec(-1), but virtually nonexistent at the two higher shear rates after a 1 h perfusion, implying material and shear dependent adhesion. The localization of procoagulant MMPs to biomaterial surfaces could lead to an increased risk of thrombosis on cardiovascular implants beyond that anticipated by the contact pathway alone. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Resolution of experimental lung injury by Monocyte-derived inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Tsushima, Kenji; Aggarwal, Neil R.; Mock, Jason R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Files, Daniel C.; Avalos, Claudia R.; Rodriguez, Jackie V.; Waickman, Adam T.; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Pearse, David B.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Crow, Michael T.; King, Landon S.

    2012-01-01

    While early events in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) have been defined, little is known about mechanisms mediating resolution. To search for determinants of resolution, we exposed wild type (WT) mice to intratracheal lipopolysacaccharide (i.t. LPS) and assessed the response at intervals to day 10, when injury had resolved. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly upregulated in the lung at day 4 after LPS. When iNOS−/− mice were exposed to i.t. LPS, early lung injury was attenuated, however recovery was markedly impaired compared to wild type (WT) mice. iNOS−/− mice had increased mortality and sustained increases in markers of lung injury. Adoptive transfer of WT (iNOS+/+) bone marrow-derived monocytes or direct adenoviral gene delivery of iNOS into injured iNOS−/− mice restored resolution of ALI. Irradiated bone marrow chimeras confirmed the protective effects of myeloid-derived iNOS, but not of epithelial iNOS. Alveolar macrophages exhibited sustained expression of co-signalling molecule CD86 in iNOS−/− mice compared to WT mice. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD86 in iNOS−/− mice improved survival and enhanced resolution of lung inflammation. Our findings show that monocyte-derived iNOS plays a pivotal role in mediating resolution of ALI by modulating lung immune responses, thus facilitating clearance of alveolar inflammation and promoting lung repair. PMID:22844117

  1. Expression of ESE-3 Isoforms in Immunogenic and Tolerogenic Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sprater, Florian; Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Appel, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the only hematopoietic cells expressing the epithelial specific Ets transcription factor ESE-3. Here we analyzed presence and quantity of isoforms ESE-3a, ESE-3b and ESE-3j in various immunogenic and tolerogenic human monocyte-derived DC (moDC) and blood DC populations using quantitative real time PCR and immunoblot analyses. ESE-3a and ESE-3b were detectable in all moDC populations with ESE-3b being the main transcript. ESE-3b expression was upregulated in immunogenic moDC and downregulated in tolerogenic moDC compared to immature moDC. ESE-3a had similar transcript levels in immature and immunogenic moDC and had very low levels in tolerogenic moDC. In blood DC populations only splice variant ESE-3b was detectable. ESE-3j was not detectable in any of the DC populations. These findings suggest that ESE-3b is the functionally most important ESE-3 isoform in DC. PMID:23185370

  2. Expression of ESE-3 isoforms in immunogenic and tolerogenic human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Sprater, Florian; Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Appel, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the only hematopoietic cells expressing the epithelial specific Ets transcription factor ESE-3. Here we analyzed presence and quantity of isoforms ESE-3a, ESE-3b and ESE-3j in various immunogenic and tolerogenic human monocyte-derived DC (moDC) and blood DC populations using quantitative real time PCR and immunoblot analyses. ESE-3a and ESE-3b were detectable in all moDC populations with ESE-3b being the main transcript. ESE-3b expression was upregulated in immunogenic moDC and downregulated in tolerogenic moDC compared to immature moDC. ESE-3a had similar transcript levels in immature and immunogenic moDC and had very low levels in tolerogenic moDC. In blood DC populations only splice variant ESE-3b was detectable. ESE-3j was not detectable in any of the DC populations. These findings suggest that ESE-3b is the functionally most important ESE-3 isoform in DC.

  3. A synergistic role for IL-1beta and TNFalpha in monocyte-derived IFNgamma inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Raices, Raquel M; Kannan, Yashaswini; Sarkar, Anasuya; Bellamkonda-Athmaram, Vedavathi; Wewers, Mark D

    2008-11-01

    Although much is known about classic IFNgamma inducers, little is known about the IFNgamma inducing capability of inflammasome-activated monocytes. In this study, supernatants from LPS/ATP-stimulated human monocytes were analyzed for their ability to induce IFNgamma production by KG-1 cells. Unexpectedly, monocyte-derived IFN inducing activity was detected, but it was completely inhibited by IL-1beta, not IL-18 blockade. Moreover, size-fractionation of the monocyte conditioned media dramatically reduced the IFNgamma inducing activity of IL-1beta, suggesting that IL-1beta requires a cofactor to induce IFNgamma production in KG-1 cells. Because TNFalpha is known to synergize with IL-1beta for various gene products, it was studied as the putative IL-1beta synergizing factor. Although recombinant TNFalpha (rTNFalpha) alone had no IFNgamma inducing activity, neutralization of TNFalpha in the monocyte conditioned media inhibited the IFNgamma inducing activity. Furthermore, rTNFalpha restored the IFNgamma inducing activity of the size-fractionated IL-1beta. Finally, rTNFalpha synergized with rIL-1beta, as well as with rIL-1alpha and rIL-18, for KG-1 IFNgamma release. These studies demonstrate a synergistic role between TNFalpha and IL-1 family members in the induction of IFNgamma production and give caution to interpretations of KG-1 functional assays designed to detect functional IL-18.

  4. A Synergistic Role for IL-1β and TNFα in Monocyte Derived IFNγ Inducing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Raices, Raquel M.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Sarkar, Anasuya; Bellamkonda-Athmaram, Vedavathi; Wewers, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Although much is known about classic IFNγ inducers, little is known about the IFNγ inducing capability of inflammasome-activated monocytes. In this study, supernatants from LPS/ATP-stimulated human monocytes were analyzed for their ability to induce IFNγ production by KG-1 cells. Unexpectedly, monocyte-derived IFNγ inducing activity was detected, but it was completely inhibited by IL-1β, not IL-18 blockade. Moreover, size-fractionation of the monocyte conditioned media dramatically reduced the IFNγ inducing activity of IL-1β, suggesting that IL-1β requires a cofactor to induce IFNγ production in KG-1 cells. Because TNFα is known to synergize with IL-1β for various gene products, it was studied as the putative IL-1β synergizing factor. Although recombinant TNFα (rTNFα) alone had no IFNγ inducing activity, neutralization of TNFα in the monocyte conditioned media inhibited the IFNγ inducing activity. Furthermore, rTNFα restored the IFNγ inducing activity of the size-fractionated IL-1β. Finally, rTNFα synergized with rIL-1β, as well as with rIL-1α and rIL-18, for KG-1 IFNγ release. These studies demonstrate a synergistic role between TNFα and IL-1 family members in the induction of IFNγ production and give caution to interpretations of KG-1 functional assays designed to detect functional IL-18. PMID:18805021

  5. cGAS Senses Human Cytomegalovirus and Induces Type I Interferon Responses in Human Monocyte-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paijo, Jennifer; Döring, Marius; Spanier, Julia; Grabski, Elena; Nooruzzaman, Mohammed; Schmidt, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Messerle, Martin; Hornung, Veit; Kaever, Volkhard; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections of healthy individuals are mostly unnoticed and result in viral latency. However, HCMV can also cause devastating disease, e.g., upon reactivation in immunocompromised patients. Yet, little is known about human immune cell sensing of DNA-encoded HCMV. Recent studies indicated that during viral infection the cyclic GMP/AMP synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyzes formation of the cyclic di-nucleotide cGAMP, which triggers stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and thus induces antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. We found that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) as well as monocyte-derived DC and macrophages constitutively expressed cGAS and STING. HCMV infection further induced cGAS, whereas STING expression was only moderately affected. Although pDC expressed particularly high levels of cGAS, and the cGAS/STING axis was functional down-stream of STING, as indicated by IFN-I induction upon synthetic cGAMP treatment, pDC were not susceptible to HCMV infection and mounted IFN-I responses in a TLR9-dependent manner. Conversely, HCMV infected monocyte-derived cells synthesized abundant cGAMP levels that preceded IFN-I production and that correlated with the extent of infection. CRISPR/Cas9- or siRNA-mediated cGAS ablation in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary monocyte-derived cells, respectively, impeded induction of IFN-I responses following HCMV infection. Thus, cGAS is a key sensor of HCMV for IFN-I induction in primary human monocyte-derived DC and macrophages. PMID:27058035

  6. Is mannan-binding lectin (MBL) detectable on monocytes and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shirley L; Downing, Ian; Turner, Marc; Kilpatrick, David C

    2008-12-01

    MBL (mannan-binding lectin; also called mannose-binding lectin) is a circulating C-type lectin with a collagen-like region synthesized mainly by the liver. MBL may influence susceptibility to infection in recipients of stem cell transplants, and it has even been suggested that the MBL status of a donor can influence the recipient's susceptibility to post-transplant infections. We have previously reported that MBL can be detected on human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, based on detection using biotinylated anti-MBL, suggesting that those cells could synthesize MBL. If true, permanent MBL replacement therapy could be achieved by stem cell infusions. However, two other groups independently failed to find mbl-2-derived mRNA in monocytes. Therefore, to confirm or refute our previous observations, we used an alternative experimental strategy. Instead of using biotinylated antibody and labelled streptavidin, detection of surface MBL was attempted using MBL-specific primary antibodies (131-1, 131-10 and 131-11) followed by fluorescein-labelled anti-IgG, and controlled by the use of non-specific IgG as primary antibody. Monocytes were counterstained with anti-CD14-PE before FACS analysis. Adherent monocytes were also cultured for 48 h in serum-free medium or converted into immature dendritic cells by culture with IL-4 (interleukin-4) and GM-CSF (granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor). During FACS analysis, the dendritic cells were gated after counter-staining with anti-CD1a-PE. MBL was readily detected on the surface of fresh monocytes using all three specific anti-MBL monoclonal antibodies, but specific anti-MBL binding was greatly diminished after monocytes had been cultured for 2 days in serum-free medium. Moreover, we could not detect any MBL present on the surface of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. We therefore conclude that MBL is indeed present on the surface of fresh human monocytes. However, in view of the mRNA findings of others and our

  7. Efficient monocyte-derived dendritic cell generation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia after chemotherapy treatment: application to active immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Bougras, Gwenola; Ebstein, Frederic; Leveque, Lucie; Tanguy-Royer, Severine; Simon, Thomas; Juge-Morineau, Nadine; Chevallier, Patrice; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Gregoire, Marc

    2008-03-01

    While complete remission in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be achieved after chemotherapy (CT), relapses occur for the majority of patients, underlying the need to eliminate residual disease. Based on dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, the triggering of an immune response against residual leukemia cells after CT could maintain patients in remission. The aim of our study was to assess, for vaccine preparation, generation of monocyte-derived DCs in AML patients after CT. We evaluated efficiency of the production, yields, maturation, and functional properties of DCs from 22 AML patients at different CT stages compared to those from 15 healthy donors. We demonstrated that monocyte-derived DC production is successful later than 3 weeks after the last CT cycle, whatever the CT was. Immature DCs demonstrated functional phagocytic activity. Mature DCs displayed migratory, T-cell stimulatory and Th1-activation capacities. Our results also suggest a favorable period from 20 to 60 days after CT for potent monocyte-derived DC production and immune activation. In defining patient-sampling conditions, this preclinical study has direct implications for AML DC-based immunotherapy.

  8. HIV infection of monocytes-derived dendritic cells inhibits Vγ9Vδ2 T cells functions.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Tumino, Nicola; Casetti, Rita; Agrati, Chiara; Turchi, Federica; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Martini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    DCs act as sentinel cells against incoming pathogens and represent the most potent antigen presenting cells, having the unique capability to prime naïve T cells. In addition to their role in induction of adaptive immune responses, DC are also able to activate innate cells as γδ T cells; in particular, a reciprocal crosstalk between DC and γδ T cells was demonstrated. However, whether HIV infection may alter DC-Vγ9Vδ2 T cells cross-talk was not yet described. To clarify this issue, we cultured activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with HIV infected monocyte derived DC (MoDC). After 5 days we evaluated MoDC phenotype, and Vγ9Vδ2 T cells activation and proliferation. In our model, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were not able to proliferate in response to HIV-infected MoDC, although an up-regulation of CD69 was observed. Upon phosphoantigens stimulation, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells proliferation and cytokine production were inhibited when cultured with HIV-infected MoDC in a cell-contact dependent way. Moreover, HIV-infected MoDC are not able to up-regulate CD86 molecules when cultured with activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, compared with uninfected MoDC. Further, activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are not able to induce HLA DR up-regulation and CCR5 down-regulation on HIV-infected MoDC. These data indicate that HIV-infected DC alter the capacity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to respond to their antigens, pointing out a new mechanisms of induction of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells anergy carried out by HIV, that could contribute to immune evasion.

  9. HIV Infection of Monocytes-Derived Dendritic Cells Inhibits Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Tumino, Nicola; Casetti, Rita; Agrati, Chiara; Turchi, Federica; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Martini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    DCs act as sentinel cells against incoming pathogens and represent the most potent antigen presenting cells, having the unique capability to prime naïve T cells. In addition to their role in induction of adaptive immune responses, DC are also able to activate innate cells as γδ T cells; in particular, a reciprocal crosstalk between DC and γδ T cells was demonstrated. However, whether HIV infection may alter DC-Vγ9Vδ2 T cells cross-talk was not yet described. To clarify this issue, we cultured activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with HIV infected monocyte derived DC (MoDC). After 5 days we evaluated MoDC phenotype, and Vγ9Vδ2 T cells activation and proliferation. In our model, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were not able to proliferate in response to HIV-infected MoDC, although an up-regulation of CD69 was observed. Upon phosphoantigens stimulation, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells proliferation and cytokine production were inhibited when cultured with HIV-infected MoDC in a cell-contact dependent way. Moreover, HIV-infected MoDC are not able to up-regulate CD86 molecules when cultured with activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, compared with uninfected MoDC. Further, activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are not able to induce HLA DR up-regulation and CCR5 down-regulation on HIV-infected MoDC. These data indicate that HIV-infected DC alter the capacity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to respond to their antigens, pointing out a new mechanisms of induction of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells anergy carried out by HIV, that could contribute to immune evasion. PMID:25340508

  10. In vivo tracking and immunological properties of pulsed porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Novellas, Rosa; Espada, Yvonne; Cabezón, Raquel; Martínez, Jorge; Cordoba, Lorena; Bárcena, Juan; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Montoya, María

    2015-02-01

    Cellular therapies using immune cells and in particular dendritic cells (DCs) are being increasingly applied in clinical trials and vaccines. Their success partially depends on accurate delivery of cells to target organs or migration to lymph nodes. Delivery and subsequent migration of cells to regional lymph nodes is essential for effective stimulation of the immune system. Thus, the design of an optimal DC therapy would be improved by optimizing technologies for monitoring DC trafficking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a powerful tool for non-invasive imaging of DC migration in vivo. Domestic pigs share similarities with humans and represent an excellent animal model for immunological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility using pigs as models for DC tracking in vivo. Porcine monocyte derived DC (MoDC) culture with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles was standardized on the basis of SPIO concentration and culture viability. Phenotype, cytokine production and mixed lymphocyte reaction assay confirmed that porcine SPIO-MoDC culture were similar to mock MoDCs and fully functional in vivo. Alike, similar patterns were obtained in human MoDCs. After subcutaneous inoculation in pigs, porcine SPIO-MoDC migration to regional lymph nodes was detected by MRI and confirmed by Perls staining of draining lymph nodes. Moreover, after one dose of virus-like particles-pulsed MoDCs specific local and systemic responses were confirmed using ELISPOT IFN-γ in pigs. In summary, the results in this work showed that after one single subcutaneous dose of pulsed MoDCs, pigs were able to elicit specific local and systemic immune responses. Additionally, the dynamic imaging of MRI-based DC tracking was shown using SPIO particles. This proof-of-principle study shows the potential of using pigs as a suitable animal model to test DC trafficking with the aim of improving cellular therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of a receptor for human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8

    SciTech Connect

    Grob, P.M.; David, E.; Warren, T.C.; DeLeon, R.P.; Farina, P.R.; Homon, C.A. )

    1990-05-15

    Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 (MDNCF/IL-8) is an 8,000-dalton protein produced by monocytes which exhibits activity as a chemoattractant for neutrophils with maximal activity achieved at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This polypeptide has been iodinated by chloramine-T methodology (350 Ci/mM), and specific receptors for MDNCF/IL-8 have been detected on human neutrophils, U937 cells, THP-1 cells, and dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells. The binding of MDNCF/IL-8 to human neutrophils is not inhibited by interleukin-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. In addition, chemoattractants such as C5a, fMet-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor fail to inhibit binding, suggesting that MDNCF/IL-8 utilizes a unique receptor. The receptor for MDNCF/IL-8 is apparently glycosylated since ligand binding is inhibited by the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin with a binding specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid. Steady state binding experiments indicate Kd values of 4 and 0.5 nM and receptor numbers of 75,000 and 7,400 for human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells, respectively. 125I-MDNCF/IL-8 bound to human neutrophils is rapidly internalized and subsequently released from cells as trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity. Affinity labeling experiments suggest that the human neutrophil MDNCF/IL-8 receptor exhibits a mass of approximately 58,000 daltons.

  12. Human monocyte-derived macrophages spontaneously differentiated in vitro show distinct phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Eligini, Sonia; Crisci, Mauro; Bono, Elisa; Songia, Paola; Tremoli, Elena; Colombo, Gualtiero I; Colli, Susanna

    2013-07-01

    Tissue macrophages are resident phagocytes that acquire specific phenotypes according to the microenvironment. Morphological and functional heterogeneity has been evidenced in different homeostatic and pathological conditions. Indeed, the nature of macrophage subsets may have either harmful or beneficial functions in disease progression/resolution. Therefore the possibility to pharmacologically manipulate heterogeneity represents a relevant challenge. Since human tissue macrophages are not easily obtained, various in vitro models are currently used that do not adequately reflect the heterogeneity and plasticity of tissue macrophages. We had previously reported that two dominant and distinct macrophage morphotypes co-exist in the same culture of human monocytes spontaneously differentiated for 7 days in autologous serum. The present study was aimed to the phenotypic characterization of these morphotypes, that is, round- and spindle-shaped. We observed that, besides substantial differences in cytoskeleton architecture, round monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) showed higher lipid content, increased macropinocytosis/efferocytosis capacity, and overexpression of CD163, interleukin (IL)-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF) β2. Conversely, spindle MDMs exhibited enhanced respiratory burst and higher expression of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 18 and 24 (CCL18 and CCL24). Overall, round MDMs show functional traits reminiscent of the non-inflammatory and reparative M2 phenotype, whereas spindle MDMs exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile and express genes driving lymphocyte activation and eosinophil recruitment. MDMs obtained in the culture condition herein described represent a valuable model to disentangle and manipulate the functional heterogeneity of tissue macrophages that has been disclosed in scenarios spanning from inflammatory and wounding responses to atherosclerotic lesions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. HIV-2 infects resting CD4+ T cells but not monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Lise; Puigdomenech, Isabel; Ayinde, Diana; Roesch, Ferdinand; Porrot, Françoise; Bruni, Daniela; Visseaux, Benoit; Descamps, Diane; Schwartz, Olivier

    2015-01-13

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 2 (HIV-2) encodes Vpx that degrades SAMHD1, a cellular restriction factor active in non-dividing cells. HIV-2 replicates in lymphocytes but the susceptibility of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) to in vitro infection remains partly characterized. Here, we investigated HIV-2 replication in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes, both activated and non-activated, as well as in MDDCs. We focused on the requirement of Vpx for productive HIV-2 infection, using the reference HIV-2 ROD strain, the proviral clone GL-AN, as well as two primary HIV-2 isolates. All HIV-2 strains tested replicated in activated CD4+ T cells. Unstimulated CD4+ T cells were not productively infected by HIV-2, but viral replication was triggered upon lymphocyte activation in a Vpx-dependent manner. In contrast, MDDCs were poorly infected when exposed to HIV-2. HIV-2 particles did not potently fuse with MDDCs and did not lead to efficient viral DNA synthesis, even in the presence of Vpx. Moreover, the HIV-2 strains tested were not efficiently sensed by MDDCs, as evidenced by a lack of MxA induction upon viral exposure. Virion pseudotyping with VSV-G rescued fusion, productive infection and HIV-2 sensing by MDDCs. Vpx allows the non-productive infection of resting CD4+ T cells, but does not confer HIV-2 with the ability to efficiently infect MDDCs. In these cells, an entry defect prevents viral fusion and reverse transcription independently of SAMHD1. We propose that HIV-2, like HIV-1, does not productively infect MDDCs, possibly to avoid triggering an immune response mediated by these cells.

  14. Salvianolic acid B suppresses maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by activating PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Aijun; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Shijun; Shi, Dazhuo; Xu, Lei; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Keqiang; Chen, Keji; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a water-soluble antioxidant derived from a Chinese medicinal herb, is known to be effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-atherosclerotic effect of Sal B might be mediated by suppressing maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (h-monDC). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH h-monDC were derived by incubating purified human monocytes with GM-CSF and IL-4. h-monDC were pre-incubated with or without Sal B and stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in the presence or absence of PPARγ siRNA. Expression of h-monDC membrane molecules (CD40, CD86, CD1a, HLA-DR) were analysed by FACS, cytokines were measured by elisa and the TLR4-associated signalling pathway was determined by Western blotting. KEY RESULTS Ox-LDL promoted h-monDC maturation, stimulated CD40, CD86, CD1a, HLA-DR expression and IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α production; and up-regulated TLR4 signalling. These effects were inhibited by Sal B. Sal B also triggered PPARγ activation and promoted PPARγ nuclear translocation, attenuated ox-LDL-induced up-regulation of TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 and inhibited the downstream p38-MAPK signalling cascade. Knocking down PPARγ with the corresponding siRNA blocked these effects of Sal B. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data suggested that Sal B effectively suppressed maturation of h-monDC induced by ox-LDL through PPARγ activation. PMID:21649636

  15. PU/PTFE-stimulated monocyte-derived soluble factors induced inflammatory activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yang; Liu, Xin; Sun, Jiao

    2010-03-01

    Polyurethane (PU) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are two commonly used blood-contacting biomaterials. In the present study, we used a noncontact coculture model to evaluate the thrombosis-causing potential of monocyte-mediated PU and PTFE. We used human endothelial cells from umbilical cord (HUVECs) and human monocytes (THP1 cells). The THP1 cells were directly exposed to PU/PTFE, and the resultant cell-free supernatants were harvested for stimulating HUVECs. The treated HUVECs constituted the test group. HUVECs treated with supernatants of LPS-stimulated THP1 cells were used as the positive controls. To investigate the effects of the supernatant treatment on HUVECs, we measured the expression of the leukocyte-endothelial-cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) CD54 (ICAM-1), CD106 (VCAM-1), and CD62E (E-selectin) and evaluated the release of tissue factor (TF). The results demonstrated that both PU and PTFE induced the expressions of CD62E and TF. These activation effects were accompanied by activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor. To further investigate the monocyte-derived soluble factors that might contribute to these effects, we evaluated the effects of the PU/PTFE stimulation on the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in monocyte monocultures. In comparison with the results for the negative control, both PU and PTFE significantly induced ROS release after 0.5h, while the expressions of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were variably increased after 24h. Our results suggest that the biomaterial induces monocytic activation and subsequently causes the release of soluble factors, which contribute to the inflammatory activation in HUVECs.

  16. Foal Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Become Activated upon Rhodococcus equi Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Flaminio, M. Julia B. F.; Nydam, Daryl V.; Marquis, Hélène; Matychak, Mary Beth; Giguère, Steeve

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility of foals to Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is exclusive to the first few months of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate immunologic response of foal and adult horse antigen-presenting cells (APCs) upon infection with R. equi. We measured the activation of the antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the transcriptional factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in monocyte-derived macrophages (mMOs) and dendritic cells (mDCs) of adult horses and foals of different ages (from birth to 3 months of age) infected with virulent R. equi or its avirulent, plasmid-cured derivative. Infection with virulent or avirulent R. equi induced (P ≤ 0.01) the expression of IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNAs in foal mMOs and mDCs at different ages. This response was likely mediated by the higher (P = 0.008) expression of IRF-1 in foal mDCs at birth than in adult horse mDCs. R. equi infection promoted comparable expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40 in foal and adult horse cells. The cytokine and costimulatory response by foal mDCs was not accompanied by robust MHC class II molecule expression. These data suggest that foal APCs detect the presence of R. equi and respond with the expression of the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12. Nevertheless, there seems to be a limitation to MHC class II molecule expression which we hypothesize may compromise the efficient priming of naïve effector cells in early life. PMID:19109450

  17. Proteomic alteration of equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Du, Cheng; Liu, Hai-Fang; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; Li, Yi-Jing; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Similar to the well-studied viruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another member of the Lentivirus genus in the family Retroviridae. Previous studies revealed that interactions between EIAV and the host resulted in viral evolution in pathogenicity and immunogenicity, as well as adaptation to the host. Proteomic analysis has been performed to examine changes in protein expression and/or modification in host cells infected with viruses and has revealed useful information for virus-host interactions. In this study, altered protein expression in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs, the principle target cell of EIAV in vivo) infected with the EIAV pathogenic strain EIAV(DLV34) (DLV34) was examined using 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled with the iTRAQ labeling technique. The expression levels of 210 cellular proteins were identified to be significantly upregulated or downregulated by infection with DLV34. Alterations in protein expression were confirmed by examining the mRNA levels of eight selected proteins using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR, and by verifying the levels of ten selected proteins using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Further analysis of GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)-Pathway enrichment demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are primarily related to the biological processes of oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding, RNA splicing, and ubiquitylation. Our results can facilitate a better understanding of the host response to EIAV infection and the cellular processes required for EIAV replication and pathogenesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Heterogeneity of Ly6C(hi) Monocytes Controls Their Differentiation into iNOS(+) Macrophages or Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Shinelle; Melandri, Daisy; Anselmi, Giorgio; Perchet, Thibaut; Loschko, Jakob; Dubrot, Juan; Patel, Rajen; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Hugues, Stéphanie; Longhi, M Paula; Henry, Jake Y; Quezada, Sergio A; Lauvau, Grégoire; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enrique; Bessis, Alain; Gomez-Perdiguero, Elisa; Jacome-Galarza, Christian E; Garner, Hannah; Geissmann, Frederic; Golub, Rachel; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Guermonprez, Pierre

    2016-12-20

    Inflammation triggers the differentiation of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into microbicidal macrophages or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Yet, it is unclear whether environmental inflammatory cues control the polarization of monocytes toward each of these fates or whether specialized monocyte progenitor subsets exist before inflammation. Here, we have shown that naive monocytes are phenotypically heterogeneous and contain an NR4A1- and Flt3L-independent, CCR2-dependent, Flt3(+)CD11c(-)MHCII(+)PU.1(hi) subset. This subset acted as a precursor for FcγRIII(+)PD-L2(+)CD209a(+), GM-CSF-dependent moDCs but was distal from the DC lineage, as shown by fate-mapping experiments using Zbtb46. By contrast, Flt3(-)CD11c(-)MHCII(-)PU.1(lo) monocytes differentiated into FcγRIII(+)PD-L2(-)CD209a(-)iNOS(+) macrophages upon microbial stimulation. Importantly, Sfpi1 haploinsufficiency genetically distinguished the precursor activities of monocytes toward moDCs or microbicidal macrophages. Indeed, Sfpi1(+/-) mice had reduced Flt3(+)CD11c(-)MHCII(+) monocytes and GM-CSF-dependent FcγRIII(+)PD-L2(+)CD209a(+) moDCs but generated iNOS(+) macrophages more efficiently. Therefore, intercellular disparities of PU.1 expression within naive monocytes segregate progenitor activity for inflammatory iNOS(+) macrophages or moDCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous labeling of lipoprotein intracellular trafficking in pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N. L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophage foam cell formation resulting from the accumulation of cholesterol and cholesterol esters derived from plasma lipoproteins is important for progression of atherosclerosis. Hypothetically, intracellular processing of lipoproteins that stimulate foam cell formation differs from processing of lipoproteins that do not. To test this, we examined simultaneous subcellular trafficking of lipoproteins in pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages. Pigeon beta-very-low-density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL), differentially labeled with colloidal gold, were added in pairs to cells at 4 degrees C for 2 hours before uptake at 18 degrees C, 22 degrees C, or 37 degrees C for either 30 minutes or 2 hours. The colloidal gold distribution and percent co-labeling as observed by transmission electron microscopy were determined for organelles of the endocytic pathway. Incubations at 18 degrees C and 22 degrees C blocked lipoprotein trafficking to lysosomes. Incubation at 18 degrees C increased the percent distribution of lipoproteins in the endocytic pathway up to the early cisternal endosomes. Incubations at 22 degrees C resulted in a greater distribution of lipoproteins in the spherical late endosomes and late endosomal-prelysosomal tubular reticular compartment. The distribution in the endocytic pathway was a factor of time and temperature rather than lipoprotein type. The percentage of co-labeling of organelles for the three pairs of lipoproteins examined, Ac-LDL plus beta-VLDL, LDL plus beta-VLDL, and LDL plus Ac-LDL, was similar. Fewer noncoated and clathrin-coated pits and vesicles were co-labeled (average of 6%, maximum of 17%) than the rest of the endocytic pathway, early cisternal endosomes, spherical late endosomes, late endosomal-prelysosomal tubuloreticular compartment, and spherical lysosomes (average of 36%, maximum of 47%). The 36% of co-labeled later endocytic organelles contained an average

  20. [Induction of monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation by asthmatic serum in a transendothelial trafficking model].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin-fu; Wang, Wen-lu; Li, Hong-yan; Zhang, Ming-shun; Ji, Xiao-hui; He, Shao-heng; Huang, Mao; Yin, Kai-sheng

    2011-03-01

    To explore the effect of asthmatic and healthy serum on differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) in a transendothelial trafficking model. The sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from 12 asthmatic patients and 12 healthy volunteers, and monocytes were selected from PBMC using magnetic beads. The trypsin-digested human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) at passage 2 from 5 healthy lying-in women were used to construct the transendothelial trafficking model under asthmatic or healthy serum, wherein MDDC were identified by silver nitrate staining and scanning electron microscopy. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Flow cytometry, ELISA and mixed leukocyte reaction were relevantly utilized to detect the phenotype, cytokine and T cell proliferation. (1) Monocytes traversed through HUVEC monolayer after 2 h, and reverse-transmigrated to develop into DC 48 h later. (2) The healthy serum stimulated monocytes into immature MDDC with lower CD(14) [(20 ± 5)%] (F = 49.01, P < 0.05), and higher HLA-DR, CD(80), CD(86) and CD(83) [(43 ± 4)%, (17.9 ± 3.5)%, (43 ± 11)% and (6.7 ± 1.8)%, respectively] (F = 10.35 - 40.17, all P < 0.05) than monocytes did before transmigration at 0 h [CD(14) (81 ± 6)%, HLA-DR (24 ± 5)%, CD(80) (2.8 ± 2.0)%, CD(86) (14 ± 4)% and CD(83) (0.9 ± 0.8)%, respectively]. (3) The asthmatic serum stimulated monocytes into mature MDDC, characteristic of dendrites, with similar HLA-DR and CD(86) [(55 ± 6)% and (59 ± 12)%] (F = 15.29 and 35.97, all P > 0.05), higher CD(80) and CD(83) [(49.7 ± 10.2)% and (30.2 ± 6.8)%] (F = 4.01 and 20.68, all P < 0.05), accompanied by increased levels of NF-κB activity, IL-12 p70 and T cell proliferation [(100 ± 11)%, (568 ± 43) ng/L and (2033 ± 198) cpm, respectively] (F = 49.23 - 350.84, all P < 0.05) relative to the healthy serum-stimulated immature MDDC [(12 ± 3)%, (220 ± 35) ng/L and

  1. Modulation of the development of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Yang, Yi-Yuan; Shih, Neng-Yao; Ho, Chia-Chen; Wu, Yu-Chen; Huang, Tze-Sing; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Shen, Winston W; Leu, Sy-Jye

    2011-02-01

    Lithium has been used or explored to treat psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases that are frequently associated with an abnormal immune status. It is likely that lithium may work through modulation of immune responses in these patients. Because dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in regulating immune responses, this study investigated the influence of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the development and function of DC. Exposure to LiCl during the differentiation of human monocyte-derived immature DCs (iDC) enhances CD86 and CD83 expression and increases the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α. However, the presence of LiCl during LPS-induced maturation of iDC has the opposite effect. During iDC differentiation, LiCl suppresses the activity of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, and activates PI3K and MEK. In addition, LiCl activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) during iDC differentiation, a pathway not described before. Each of these signaling pathways appears to have distinct impact on the differentiating iDC. The enhanced CD86 expression by LiCl involves the PI3K/AKT and GSK-3β pathway. LiCl modulates the expression of CD83 in iDC mainly through MEK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and PPARγ pathways, while the increased production of IL-1β and TNF-α mainly involves the MEK/ERK pathway. The effect of LiCl on IL-6/IL-8/IL-10 secretion in iDC is mediated through inhibition of GSK-3β. We have also demonstrated that PPARγ is downstream of GSK-3β and is responsible for the LiCl-mediated modulation of CD86/83 and CD1 expression, but not IL-6/8/10 secretion. The combined influence of these molecular signaling pathways may account for certain clinical effect of lithium.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 gene regulation by a PPAR alpha agonist in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Souissi, Imen Jguirim; Billiet, Ludivine; Cuaz-Perolin, Clarisse; Rouis, Mustapha

    2008-11-01

    MMP-12, a macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase with large substrate specificity, has been reported to be highly expressed in mice, rabbits and human atherosclerotic lesions. Increased MMP-12 from inflammatory macrophages is associated with several degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we show that IL-1{beta}, a proinflammatory cytokine found in atherosclerotic plaques, increases both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-12 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), such as PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, are expressed in macrophages and because PPAR activation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular cells, we have investigated the effect of PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} isoforms on MMP-12 regulation in HMDM. Our results show that MMP-12 expression (mRNA and protein) is down regulated in IL-1{beta}-treated macrophages only in the presence of a specific PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, this inhibitory effect was abolished in IL-1{beta}-stimulated peritoneal macrophages isolated from PPAR{alpha}{sup -/-} mice and treated with the PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647. Moreover, reporter gene transfection experiments using different MMP-12 promoter constructs showed a reduction of the promoter activities by {approx} 50% in IL-1{beta}-stimulated PPAR{alpha}-pre-treated cells. However, MMP-12 promoter analysis did not reveal the presence of a PPRE response element. The IL-1{beta} effect is known to be mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Mutation of the AP-1 site, located at - 81 in the MMP-12 promoter region relative to the transcription start site, followed by transfection analysis, gel shift and ChIP experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect was the consequence of the protein-protein interaction between GW 647-activated PPAR{alpha} and c-Fos or c-Jun transcription factors, leading to inhibition of their binding to the AP-1 motif. These studies

  3. Tracking the elusive fibrocyte: identification and characterization of collagen-producing hematopoietic lineage cells during murine wound healing.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hirotaka; Rennert, Robert C; Rodrigues, Melanie; Sorkin, Michael; Glotzbach, Jason P; Januszyk, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Longaker, Michael T; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Fibrocytes are a unique population of circulating cells reported to exhibit characteristics of both hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, and play an important role in wound healing. However, putative fibrocytes have been found to lose expression of hematopoietic surface markers such as CD45 during differentiation, making it difficult to track these cells in vivo with conventional methodologies. In this study, to distinguish hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells without surface markers, we took advantage of the gene vav 1, which is expressed solely on hematopoietic cells but not on other cell types, and established a novel transgenic mouse, in which hematopoietic cells are irreversibly labeled with green fluorescent protein and nonhematopoietic cells with red fluorescent protein. Use of single-cell transcriptional analysis in this mouse model revealed two discrete types of collagen I (Col I) expressing cells of hematopoietic lineage recruited into excisional skin wounds. We confirmed this finding on a protein level, with one subset of these Col I synthesizing cells being CD45+ and CD11b+, consistent with the traditional definition of a fibrocyte, while another was CD45- and Cd11b-, representing a previously unidentified population. Both cell types were found to initially peak, then reduce posthealing, consistent with a disappearance from the wound site and not a loss of identifying surface marker expression. Taken together, we have unambiguously identified two cells of hematopoietic origin that are recruited to the wound site and deposit collagen, definitively confirming the existence and natural time course of fibrocytes in cutaneous healing. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Tracking the elusive fibrocyte: Identification and characterization of collagen producing hematopoietic lineage cells during murine wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Hirotaka; Rennert, Robert C.; Rodrigues, Melanie; Sorkin, Michael; Glotzbach, Jason P.; Januszyk, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrocytes are a unique population of circulating cells reported to exhibit characteristics of both hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, and play an important role in wound healing. However putative fibrocytes have been found to lose expression of hematopoietic surface markers such as CD45 during differentiation, making it difficult to track these cells in vivo with conventional methodologies. In this study, to distinguish hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells without surface markers, we took advantage of the gene vav 1, which is expressed solely on hematopoietic cells but not on other cell types, and established a novel transgenic mouse, in which hematopoietic cells are irreversibly labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and non-hematopoietic cells with red fluorescent protein (RFP). Use of single-cell transcriptional analysis in this mouse model revealed two discrete types of collagen I (Col I) expressing cells of hematopoietic lineage recruited into excisional skin wounds. We confirmed this finding on a protein level, with one subset of these Col I synthesizing cells being CD45+ and CD11b+, consistent with the traditional definition of a fibrocyte, while another was CD45− and Cd11b−, representing a previously unidentified population. Both cell types were found to initially peak, then reduce post-healing, consistent with a disappearance from the wound site and not a loss of identifying surface marker expression. Taken together we have unambiguously identified two cells of hematopoietic origin that are recruited to the wound site and deposit collagen, definitively confirming the existence and natural time-course of fibrocytes in cutaneous healing. PMID:24446236

  5. Human macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), a novel chemoattractant for monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Godiska, R; Chantry, D; Raport, C J; Sozzani, S; Allavena, P; Leviten, D; Mantovani, A; Gray, P W

    1997-05-05

    A cDNA encoding a novel human chemokine was isolated by random sequencing of cDNA clones from human monocyte-derived macrophages. This protein has been termed macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) because it appears to be synthesized specifically by cells of the macrophage lineage. MDC has the four-cysteine motif and other highly conserved residues characteristic of CC chemokines, but it shares <35% identity with any of the known chemokines. Recombinant MDC was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. NH2-terminal sequencing and mass spectrophotometry were used to verify the NH2 terminus and molecular mass of recombinant MDC (8,081 dalton). In microchamber migration assays, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and IL-2-activated natural killer cells migrated to MDC in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal chemotactic response at 1 ng/ml. Freshly isolated monocytes also migrated toward MDC, but with a peak response at 100 ng/ml MDC. Northern analyses indicated MDC is highly expressed in macrophages and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not in monocytes, natural killer cells, or several cell lines of epithelial, endothelial, or fibroblast origin. High expression was also detected in normal thymus and less expression in lung and spleen. Unlike most other CC chemokines, MDC is encoded on human chromosome 16. MDC is thus a unique member of the CC chemokine family that may play a fundamental role in the function of dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes.

  6. Infection and maturation of monocyte-derived human dendritic cells by human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and human parainfluenza virus type 3.

    PubMed

    Le Nouën, Cyril; Munir, Shirin; Losq, Stéphanie; Winter, Christine C; McCarty, Thomas; Stephany, David A; Holmes, Kevin L; Bukreyev, Alexander; Rabin, Ronald L; Collins, Peter L; Buchholz, Ursula J

    2009-03-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are common, important respiratory pathogens, but HRSV has a substantially greater impact with regard to acute disease, long-term effects on airway function, and frequency of re-infection. It has been reported to strongly interfere with the functioning of dendritic cells (DC). We compared HRSV to HMPV and HPIV3 with regard to their effects on human monocyte-derived immature DC (IDC). Side-by-side analysis distinguished between common effects versus those specific to individual viruses. The use of GFP-expressing viruses yielded clear identification of robustly infected cells and provided the means to distinguish between direct effects of robust viral gene expression versus bystander effects. All three viruses infected inefficiently based on GFP expression, with considerable donor-to donor-variability. The GFP-negative cells exhibited low, abortive levels of viral RNA synthesis. The three viruses induced low-to-moderate levels of DC maturation and cytokine/chemokine responses, increasing slightly in the order HRSV, HMPV, and HPIV3. Infection at the individual cell level was relatively benign, such that in general GFP-positive cells were neither more nor less able to mature compared to GFP-negative bystanders, and cells were responsive to a secondary treatment with lipopolysaccharide, indicating that the ability to mature was not impaired. However, there was a single exception, namely that HPIV3 down-regulated CD38 expression at the RNA level. Maturation by these viruses was anti-apoptotic. Inefficient infection of IDC and sub-optimal maturation might result in reduced immune responses, but these effects would be common to all three viruses rather than specific to HRSV.

  7. Oral contraceptives modify DNA methylation and monocyte-derived macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fertile women may be encouraged to use contraception during clinical trials to avoid potential drug effects on fetuses. However, hormonal contraception interferes with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and modifies internal milieus. Macrophages depend on the milieu to which they are exposed. Therefore, we assessed whether macrophage function would be affected by the use of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) and if this influence depended on the androgenic or non-androgenic properties of progestin. Methods Healthy adult women were enrolled and stratified into two groups: women who did not use OCs (Fs) and women treated with OCs (FOCs). FOCs were further stratified as a function of androgenic (FOCA+) and non-androgenic (FOCA-) properties of progestins. Routine hematological, biochemical, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction parameters were measured. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were evaluated for the expression and activity of estrogen receptors and androgen receptors, and release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was measured from unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Results As is already known, the use of OCs changed numerous parameters: the number of lymphocytes, iron levels, total iron-binding capacity of transferrin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein increased, while prothrombin time and alkaline phosphatase decreased. Hormonal levels also varied: cortisol was higher in FOCs, while luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone were lower in FOCs. Asymmetric dimethylarginine, an index of endothelial function, was lower in FOC than in Fs, as were cysteine and bilirubin. The androgenic properties of progestins affected the activity of OCs: in particular, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein and calcium were higher in FOCA- than in FOCA+, whereas percentage oxygen saturation and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were lower in FOCA

  8. iNKT Cell Emigration out of the Lung Vasculature Requires Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thanabalasuriar, A; Neupane, A.S; Wang, J; Krummel, M.F; Kubes, P

    2017-01-01

    iNKT cells are a subset of innate T cells that recognize glycolipids presented on CD1d molecules and protect against a variety of bacterial infections including S. pneumoniae. Using lung intravital imaging, we examined the behavior and mechanism of pulmonary iNKT cell activation in response to the potent iNKT cell ligand α-galactosylceramide or during S. pneumoniae infection. In untreated mice the major fraction of iNKT cells resided in the vasculature, but a small critical population resided in the extravascular space in proximity to monocyte-derived DCs. Administration of either α-GalCer or S. pneumoniae, induced CD1d dependent rapid recruitment of neutrophils out of the vasculature. This neutrophil exodus paved the way for extravasation of iNKT cells from the lung vasculature via CCL17. Depletion of monocyte-derived DCs abrogated both the neutrophil and subsequent iNKT cell extravasation. Moreover, impairing iNKT cell migration out of the lung vasculature by blocking CCL17 greatly increased susceptibility to S. pneumoniae infection, suggesting a critical role for the secondary wave of iNKT cells in host defense. PMID:27653688

  9. Activation and measurement of NLRP3 inflammasome activity using IL-1β in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Melissa V; Miller, Elizabeth A; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2014-05-22

    Inflammatory processes resulting from the secretion of Interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines by immune cells lead to local or systemic inflammation, tissue remodeling and repair, and virologic control(1) (,) (2) . Interleukin-1β is an essential element of the innate immune response and contributes to eliminate invading pathogens while preventing the establishment of persistent infection(1-5). Inflammasomes are the key signaling platform for the activation of interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE or Caspase-1). The NLRP3 inflammasome requires at least two signals in DCs to cause IL-1β secretion(6). Pro-IL-1β protein expression is limited in resting cells; therefore a priming signal is required for IL-1β transcription and protein expression. A second signal sensed by NLRP3 results in the formation of the multi-protein NLRP3 inflammasome. The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin. Monocyte derived DCs are easily produced in culture and provide significantly more cells than purified human myeloid DCs. The method presented here differs from other inflammasome assays in that it uses in vitro human, instead of mouse derived, DCs thus allowing for the study of the inflammasome in human disease and infection.

  10. Biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of. beta. -VLDL and AC-LDL metabolism by pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that monocyte-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions of White Carneau pigeons become lipid-filled through the uptake of lipoproteins including ..beta..-migrating very low density lipoproteins (..beta..-VLDL) and acetylated low density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL). Using iodinated forms of the above lipoproteins, specific and saturable receptors for both ..beta..-VLDL and Ac-LDL were detected on the surface of White Carneau pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture. Competition studies demonstrated the high degree of binding specificity for /sup 125/I-Ac-LDL. Likewise, binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-VLDL to its receptor was significantly inhibited by excess ..beta..-VLDL, however LDL from both hyper- and normocholesterolemic pigeons were also recognized by the receptor. Upon binding of ..beta..-VLDL and Ac-LDL to their respective receptors, the lipoproteins were rapidly internalized and delivered to intracellular sites of degradation. As measured by the amount of /sup 14/C-oleate incorporated into cholesteryl /sup 14/C-oleate, the cholesterole liberated from the degradation of both ..beta..-VLDL and Ac-LDL stimulated cholesteryl ester synthesis in the pigeon cells. Using lipoproteins conjugated to colloidal gold of visualization with transmission electron microscopy, a major difference in the binding and uptake properties of ..beta..-VLDL-Gold and Ac-LDL-Gold was documented.

  11. TLR8 agonists stimulate newly recruited monocyte-derived cells into potent APCs that enhance HBsAg immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun; Wu, Zhiyuan; Ren, Shurong; Wei, Yong; Gao, Meihua; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Qu, Chunfeng

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that synthetic or natural Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists present within dead cells enhanced cell-associated antigen presentation both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated the immunopotency of different chemically synthesized TLR7/8 agonists, Resiquimod, Gardiquimod, CL075, and CL097, on HBsAg immunogenicity. These agonists stimulated inflammatory monocyte-derived cells to become potent antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs), which augmented HBsAg specific T cell proliferation after they were conditioned with HBsAg. The TLR8 agonist CL075 and the TLR7/8 dual agonist CL097 showed more potent effects than the TLR7 agonist. Compared with alum adjuvant, when HBsAg mixed with CL075 was injected intramuscularly into mice, more monocyte-derived DCs carried antigens into draining lymph nodes and spleens. Specific Abs, particularly IgG2a, were significantly increased, and more IL-5 and IFN-γ were produced by splenocytes and intrahepatic immunocytes in mice that received HBsAg mixed with CL075 and CL097. These results suggest that TLR8 agonists are good candidates to enhance recombinant HBsAg immunogenicity to induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:20637759

  12. Gene expression profiling of the host response to HIV-1 B, C, or A/E infection in monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, Mayra; Wilkinson, Peter; Romieu, Raphaelle; Hernandez, Eduardo; Wainberg, Mark A.; Hiscott, John . E-mail: john.hiscott@mcgill.ca

    2006-08-15

    Dendritic cells (DC) are among the first targets of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and in turn play a crucial role in viral transmission to T cells and in the regulation of the immune response. The major group of HIV-1 has diversified genetically based on variation in env sequences and comprise at least 11 subtypes. Because little is known about the host response elicited against different HIV-1 clade isolates in vivo, we sought to use gene expression profiling to identify genes regulated by HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E upon de novo infection of primary immature monocyte-derived DC (iMDDCs). A total of 3700 immune-related genes were subjected to a significance analysis of microarrays (SAM); 656 genes were selected as significant and were further divided into 8 functional categories. Regardless of the time of infection, 20% of the genes affected by HIV-1 were involved in signal transduction, followed by 14% of the genes identified as transcription-related genes, and 7% were classified as playing a role in cell proliferation and cell cycle. Furthermore, 7% of the genes were immune response genes. By 72 h postinfection, genes upregulated by subtype B included the inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinase TIMP2 and the heat shock protein 40 homolog (Hsp40) DNAJB1, whereas the IFN inducible gene STAT1, the MAPK1/ERK2 kinase regulator ST5, and the chemokine CXCL3 and SHC1 genes were induced by subtypes C and A/E. These analyses distinguish a temporally regulated host response to de novo HIV-1 infection in primary dendritic cells.

  13. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; dos Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; de Carvalho, Jorge José; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24626303

  14. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira dos; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; Carvalho, Jorge José de; Guerra, Camila; Côrte-Real, Suzana

    2014-02-01

    Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of peripheral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis.

  15. Circulating fibrocytes are involved in inflammation and leukocyte trafficking in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Qingjuan, Shang; Gao, Zongwei; Deng, Chun; Wang, Yan; Guo, Chunbao

    2017-06-01

    Fibrocytes, ahematopoietic stem cell source of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, were previously implicated to infiltrate into the intestinal and enhance inflammation.The aims of the present study were to elucidate the role of fibrocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) pathogenesis and to explore the mechanisms by which fibrocytes contributed to the inflammatory responses.We investigated circulating and intestinal local fibrocytes from 32 patients with NEC, 8 patients with noninflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and 12 normal subjects.Significantly higher numbers of circulating fibrocytes were found in the peripheral blood from NEC patients than the controls (P < .01). Numerous fibrocytes were found infiltrating the NEC intestinal mucous membranes. The percentage of fibrocytes to total leukocytes in the NEC inflammatory lesions was significantly increased compared with the percentage in the noninflammatory gastrointestinal tract. The fibrocyte attractant chemokine C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) was significantly increased in the plasma and was detectable in 80% of the peritoneal lavage fluid from NEC patients but not the controls. Furthermore, chemokine expression was increased in fibrocytes infiltrating and trafficking to leukocyte sites. In culture, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a significant increase in the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR4) signal, with the upregulation of p38 in both the isolated fibrocytes and macrophages. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1β induced increased the upregulation of the IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNAs but downregulated ColI in fibrocytes isolated from NEC patients compared with the controls.These findings indicate that circulating fibrocytes are increased in NEC patients and may be recruited to the inflammatory intestinal track, most likely through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis. These cells may contribute to intestinal inflammation through TLR4

  16. Effect of cytokines on Siglec-1 and HIV-1 entry in monocyte-derived macrophages: the importance of HIV-1 envelope V1V2 region.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Ousman; Trinh, Hung V; Kim, Jiae; Alsalmi, Wadad; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Peachman, Kristina K; Gao, Guofen; Thomas, Rasmi; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Venigalla B; Rao, Mangala

    2016-06-01

    Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages express relatively low levels of CD4. Despite this, macrophages can be effectively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Macrophages have a critical role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission; however, the mechanism or mechanisms of virus infection are poorly understood. We report that growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage colony-stimulating factor affect the phenotypic profile and permissiveness of macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages derived from granulocyte macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors was predominantly facilitated by the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-1. The number of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin receptors on macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly greater than on granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages, and correspondingly, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection was greater in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Single-genome analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the differences in infectivity was not due to differences in viral fitness or in viral variants with differential infectivity but was due to reduced viral entry into the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin, trimeric glycoprotein 145, and scaffolded V1V2 proteins were bound to sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin and significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry and infection. Furthermore, sialic acid residues present in the V1V2 region of the envelope protein mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  17. Laboratory investigations for the morphologic, pharmacokinetic, and anti-retroviral properties of indinavir nanoparticles in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dou, Huanyu; Morehead, Justin; Destache, Christopher J; Kingsley, Jeffrey D; Shlyakhtenko, Lyudmila; Zhou, You; Chaubal, Mahesh; Werling, Jane; Kipp, James; Rabinow, Barrett E; Gendelman, Howard E

    2007-02-05

    The effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapies (ART) depends on its ultimate ability to clear reservoirs of continuous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We reasoned that a principal vehicle for viral dissemination, the mononuclear phagocytes could also serve as an ART transporter and as such improve therapeutic indices. A nanoparticle-indinavir (NP-IDV) formulation was made and taken up into and released from vacuoles of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Following a single NP-IDV dose, drug levels within and outside MDM remained constant for 6 days without cytotoxicity. Administration of NP-IDV when compared to equal drug levels of free soluble IDV significantly blocked induction of multinucleated giant cells, production of reverse transcriptase activity in culture fluids and cell-associated HIV-1p24 antigens after HIV-1 infection. These data provide "proof of concept" for the use of macrophage-based NP delivery systems for human HIV-1 infections.

  18. Nanoparticle Based Galectin-1 Gene Silencing, Implications in Methamphetamine Regulation of HIV-1 Infection in Monocyte Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Law, Wing Cheung; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hui, Rui; Prasad, Paras N.; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-1, an adhesion molecule, is expressed in macrophages and implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) viral adsorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 production in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) and the role of galectin-1 in methamphetamine potentiation of HIV-1 infection. Herein we show that levels of galectin-1 gene and protein expression are significantly increased by meth-amphetamine. Furthermore, concomitant incubation of MDM with galectin-1 and methamphetamine facilitates HIV-1 infection compared to galectin-1 alone or methamphetamine alone. We utilized a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod (GNR)-galectin-1 siRNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. Nanoplexes significantly silenced gene expression for galectin-1 and reversed the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 gene expression. Moreover, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 infection were attenuated in the presence of the nanoplex in MDM. PMID:22689223

  19. Establishing Porcine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Systems for Studying the Interaction with PRRSV-1.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Helen; Graham, Simon P; Bodman-Smith, Katherine B; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Steinbach, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) are two model systems well established in human and rodent systems that can be used to study the interaction of pathogens with host cells. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to infect myeloid cells, such as macrophages (MØ) and dendritic cells (DC). Therefore, this study aimed to establish systems for the differentiation and characterization of MoMØ and MoDC for subsequent infection with PRRSV-1. M-CSF differentiated MoMØ were stimulated with activators for classical (M1) or alternative (M2) activation. GM-CSF and IL-4 generated MoDC were activated with the well established maturation cocktail containing PAMPs and cytokines. In addition, MoMØ and MoDC were treated with dexamethasone and IL-10, which are known immuno-suppressive reagents. Cells were characterized by morphology, phenotype, and function and porcine MØ subsets highlighted some divergence from described human counterparts, while MoDC, appeared more similar to mouse and human DCs. The infection with PRRSV-1 strain Lena demonstrated different replication kinetics between MoMØ and MoDC and within subsets of each cell type. While MoMØ susceptibility was significantly increased by dexamethasone and IL-10 with an accompanying increase in CD163/CD169 expression, MoDC supported only a minimal replication of PRRSV These findings underline the high variability in the susceptibility of porcine myeloid cells toward PRRSV-1 infection.

  20. Establishing Porcine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Systems for Studying the Interaction with PRRSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Helen; Graham, Simon P.; Bodman-Smith, Katherine B.; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Steinbach, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) are two model systems well established in human and rodent systems that can be used to study the interaction of pathogens with host cells. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to infect myeloid cells, such as macrophages (MØ) and dendritic cells (DC). Therefore, this study aimed to establish systems for the differentiation and characterization of MoMØ and MoDC for subsequent infection with PRRSV-1. M-CSF differentiated MoMØ were stimulated with activators for classical (M1) or alternative (M2) activation. GM-CSF and IL-4 generated MoDC were activated with the well established maturation cocktail containing PAMPs and cytokines. In addition, MoMØ and MoDC were treated with dexamethasone and IL-10, which are known immuno-suppressive reagents. Cells were characterized by morphology, phenotype, and function and porcine MØ subsets highlighted some divergence from described human counterparts, while MoDC, appeared more similar to mouse and human DCs. The infection with PRRSV-1 strain Lena demonstrated different replication kinetics between MoMØ and MoDC and within subsets of each cell type. While MoMØ susceptibility was significantly increased by dexamethasone and IL-10 with an accompanying increase in CD163/CD169 expression, MoDC supported only a minimal replication of PRRSV These findings underline the high variability in the susceptibility of porcine myeloid cells toward PRRSV-1 infection. PMID:27313573

  1. Increased numbers of monocyte-derived dendritic cells during successful tumor immunotherapy with immune-activating agents.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Sabine; Hyde, Evelyn J; Yang, Jianping; Rich, Fenella J; Harper, Jacquie L; Kirman, Joanna R; Ronchese, Franca

    2013-08-15

    Local treatment with selected TLR ligands or bacteria such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin increases antitumor immune responses and delays tumor growth. It is thought that these treatments may act by activating tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs), thereby supporting the induction of antitumor immune responses. However, common parameters of successful immune activation have not been identified. We used mouse models to compare treatments with different immune-activating agents for the ability to delay tumor growth, improve priming of tumor-specific T cells, and induce early cytokine production and DC activation. Treatment with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or a combination of monosodium urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis was effective at delaying the growth of s.c. B16 melanomas, orthotopic 4T1 mammary carcinomas, and reducing 4T1 lung metastases. In contrast, LPS, monosodium urate crystals, or M. smegmatis alone had no activity. Effective treatments required both NK1.1(+) and CD8(+) cells, and resulted in increased T cell priming and the infiltration of NK cells and CD8(+) T cells in tumors. Unexpectedly, both effective and ineffective treatments increased DC numbers and the expression of costimulatory molecules in the tumor-draining lymph node. However, only effective treatments induced the rapid appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DCs in the draining lymph node, early release of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ, and low IL-10 in the serum. These results suggest that the activation of existing DC subsets is not sufficient for the induction of antitumor immune responses, whereas early induction of Th1 cytokines and monocyte-derived DCs are features of successful activation of antitumor immunity.

  2. Detection of Alveolar Fibrocytes in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Phin, Sophie; Debray, Marie-Pierre; Marchal-Somme, Joelle; Tiev, Kiet; Bonay, Marcel; Fabre, Aurélie; Soler, Paul; Dehoux, Monique; Crestani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibrocytes are circulating precursors for fibroblasts. Blood fibrocytes are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to determine whether alveolar fibrocytes are detected in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), to identify their prognostic value, and their potential association with culture of fibroblasts from BAL. Methods We quantified fibrocytes in BAL from 26 patients with IPF, 9 patients with Systemic Sclerosis(SSc)-interstitial lung disease (ILD), and 11 controls. BAL cells were cultured to isolate alveolar fibroblasts. Results Fibrocytes were detected in BAL in 14/26 IPF (54%) and 5/9 SSc patients (55%), and never in controls. Fibrocytes were in median 2.5% [0.4–19.7] and 3.0% [2.7–3.7] of BAL cells in IPF and SSc-ILD patients respectively. In IPF patients, the number of alveolar fibrocytes was correlated with the number of alveolar macrophages and was associated with a less severe disease but not with a better outcome. Fibroblasts were cultured from BAL in 12/26 IPF (46%), 5/9 SSc-ILD (65%) and never in controls. The detection of BAL fibrocytes did not predict a positive culture of fibroblasts. Conclusion Fibrocytes were detected in BAL fluid in about half of the patients with IPF and SSc-ILD. Their number was associated with less severe disease in IPF patients and did not associate with the capacity to grow fibroblasts from BAL fluid. PMID:23341987

  3. [Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes and thyroid-associated opthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Tang, D R; Sun, F Y

    2017-06-11

    Thyroid-associated opthalmopathy(TAO) is a common autoimmune syndrome affecting the thyroid and orbit, which can result in the fibrosis of extraoular muscles and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. Advanced TAO patients could even lose vision caused by cornea ulcer and congestion of optic nerve from expansion of the extraocular muscles and orbit fat. Currently, there are no therapies shown to prevent it, because its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Some studies have recently implicated bone marrow-derived fibroblast-like, called fibrocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of TAO. We reviewed and summarized the research advances of TAO and also the relationship between the fibrocytes and pathogenesis of TAO in the paper. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 470-473).

  4. Peripheral blood fibrocytes: enhancement of wound healing by cell proliferation, re-epithelialization, contraction, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Chen, Bin; Murphy, George F; Li, Qin; Orgill, Dennis P; Guo, Lifei

    2011-12-01

    To identify the in vitro characteristics and functional properties of fibrocytes and investigate the in vivo mechanism of action of fibrocytes injection in accelerating the cutaneous healing process in diabetic mice. Fibrocytes are hematopoietic derived stem cells that may have a role in tissue repair, perhaps as the precursors of fibroblast- or myofibroblast-like cells. In vitro, the time-dependent phenotypic expression of peripheral blood (PB) fibrocytes was stained with anti-CD11b, anti-CD45, anti-Col-I, and anti-α-SMA antibodies. The functional properties of fibrocytes and dermal fibroblasts were tested by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In vivo, full thickness wounds in diabetic mice were treated either with fibrocytes, dermal fibroblasts, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) through tail vein injection. Wound healing kinetics, including wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and microscopic metrics such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and granulation growth were investigated. Expression of proinflammatory factors, profibrotic factors, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components were measured in wound tissues. Fibrocytes gradually lose their hematopoietic cell markers and increase mesenchymal cell markers during differentiation in vitro. Fibrocytes stimulate wound healing by dermal cell proliferation, keratinocyte proliferation with re-epithelialization, and angiogenesis compared with dermal fibroblast and PBS treated wounds. Expression of angiogenesis markers (VEGF and b-FGF), growth factors (TGF-β, PDGF-A, and FGF-7), chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-1α), and extracellular matrix (collagen-I and α-SMA) were upregulated in fibrocyte-treated wounds. Peripheral blood fibrocytes can accelerate wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation, re-epithelialization, and angiogenesis in a diabetic mice experimental model. The application of fibrocytes may represent a potential clinical solution for the treatment of chronic wounds

  5. Expression of thyrotropin receptor, thyroglobulin, sodium-iodide symporter, and thyroperoxidase by fibrocytes depends on AIRE.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Roshini; Lu, Ying; Atkins, Stephen J; Mester, Tunde; Branham, Kari; Smith, Terry J

    2014-07-01

    CD34(+) fibrocytes, bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, infiltrate orbital connective tissue in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, a manifestation of Graves' disease. In the orbit, they become CD34(+) fibroblasts and coexist with native CD34(-) fibroblasts. Fibrocytes have been shown to express TSH receptor and thyroglobulin. The objective of the study was to determine whether a broader repertoire of thyroid protein expression can be detected in fibrocytes and whether a common factor is responsible. Fibrocytes and fibroblasts were collected and analyzed from healthy individuals and those with Graves' disease in an academic clinical practice. Real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, gene promoter analysis, cell transfections, and flow cytometric cell sorting were performed. We detect two additional thyroid proteins expressed by fibrocytes, namely sodium-iodide symporter and thyroperoxidase. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein appears necessary for this expression. AIRE expression in fibrocytes results from an active AIRE gene promoter and stable AIRE mRNA. Knocking down AIRE with a targeting small interfering RNA reduces the expression of these thyroid proteins in fibrocytes as well as the transcription factors paired box-8 and thyroid transcription factor-1. When compared with an unaffected first-degree relative, levels of these proteins are substantially reduced in fibrocytes from an individual with an inactivating AIRE mutation. Levels of AIRE and the thyroid proteins are lower in orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy than in fibrocytes. However, when mixed fibroblast populations are sorted into pure CD34(+) and CD34(-) subsets, the levels of these proteins are dramatically increased selectively in CD34(+) fibroblasts. Fibrocytes express four proteins, the aggregate expression of which was previously thought to be restricted to thyroid epithelium. These proteins represent the necessary molecular biosynthetic machinery

  6. Fibrocytes contribute to inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis through paracrine effects.

    PubMed

    García de Alba, Carolina; Buendia-Roldán, Ivette; Salgado, Alfonso; Becerril, Carina; Ramírez, Remedios; González, Yolanda; Checa, Marco; Navarro, Carmen; Ruiz, Victor; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2015-02-15

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) represents a lung inflammation provoked by exposure to a variety of antigens. Chronic HP may evolve to lung fibrosis. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes migrate to injured tissues and contribute to fibrogenesis, but their role in HP is unknown. To assess the possible participation of fibrocytes in chronic HP. CD45(+)/CXCR4(+)/Col-I(+) circulating fibrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the presence of fibrocytes in HP and normal lungs by confocal microscopy. The concentration of CXCL12 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids was quantified by ELISA. The effect of fibrocytes on lung fibroblasts and T lymphocytes was examined in co-cultures. The percentage of circulating fibrocytes was significantly increased in patients with HP compared with healthy individuals (5.3 ± 3.4% vs. 0.8 ± 0.7%; P = 0.00004). Numerous fibrocytes were found infiltrating the HP lungs near fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Plasma CXCL12 concentration was significantly increased in patients with HP (2,303.3 ± 813.7 vs. 1,385.6 ± 318.5 pg/ml; P = 0.00003), and similar results were found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. The chemokine was primarily expressed by epithelial cells. In co-cultures, fibrocytes induced on lung fibroblasts a significant increase in the expression of α1 type I collagen, matrix metalloprotease-1, and platelet-derived growth factor-β. Likewise, fibrocytes induced the up-regulation of CCL2 in HP lymphocytes and fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that high levels of fibrocytes are present in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic HP and that these cells infiltrate the HP lungs. Fibrocytes may participate in the pathogenesis of HP, amplifying the inflammatory and fibrotic response by paracrine signaling inducing the secretion of a variety of proinflammatory and profibrotic molecules.

  7. Fibrocyte measurement in peripheral blood correlates with number of cultured mature fibrocytes in vitro and is a potential biomarker for interstitial lung disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Just, Søren Andreas; Lindegaard, Hanne; Hejbøl, Eva Kildall; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Bjerring, Niels; Hansen, Søren Werner Karlskov; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Hansen, Inger Marie Jensen; Barington, Torben; Nielsen, Christian

    2017-07-18

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can be a severe extra-articular disease manifestation in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). A potential role of fibrocytes in RA associated ILD (RA-ILD) has not previously been described. We present a modified faster method for measuring circulating fibrocytes, without intracellular staining. The results are compared to the traditional culture method, where the number of monocytes that differentiate into mature fibrocytes in vitro are counted. The results are following compared to disease activity in patients with severe asthma, ILD, RA (without diagnosed ILD) and RA with verified ILD (RA-ILD). CD45(+) CD34(+) CD11b(+) (7-AAD(-) CD3(-) CD19(-) CD294(-)) cells were isolated by cell sorting and stained for pro-collagen type 1. Thirty-nine patients (10 RA, 9 ILD and 10 with severe asthma, 10 with RA-ILD) and 10 healthy controls (HC) were included. Current medication, disease activity, pulmonary function test and radiographic data were collected. Circulating fibrocytes were quantified by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured for 5 days and the numbers of mature fibrocytes were counted. 90.2% (mean, SD = 1.5%) of the sorted cells were pro-collagen type 1 positive and thereby fulfilled the criteria for being circulating fibrocytes. The ILD and RA-ILD groups had increased levels of circulating fibrocytes compared to HC (p < 0.05). Levels of circulating fibrocytes correlated overall to number of monocytes that subsequently in vitro differentiated to mature fibrocytes (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). RA patients with pathologically reduced diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide adjusted for hemoglobin (DLCOc) in both the RA and in the combined RA + RA-ILD group, had significantly higher levels of both circulating and number of cultured mature fibrocytes (both p < 0.05). In both groups, the level of circulating fibrocytes and number of mature fibrocytes in culture also correlated to a reduction in DLCOc (r

  8. Bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a role for CX₃CR1 in maintenance of the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Jana; Blomster, Linda V; Chinnery, Holly R; Weninger, Wolfgang; Jung, Steffen; McMenamin, Paul G; Ruitenberg, Marc J

    2010-10-01

    Macrophages in the olfactory neuroepithelium are thought to play major roles in tissue homeostasis and repair. However, little information is available at present about possible heterogeneity of these monocyte-derived cells, their turnover rates, and the role of chemokine receptors in this process. To start addressing these issues, this study used Cx₃cr1(gfp) mice, in which the gene sequence for eGFP was knocked into the CX₃CR1 gene locus in the mutant allele. Using neuroepithelial whole-mounts from Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) mice, we show that eGFP(+) cells of monocytic origin are distributed in a loose network throughout this tissue and can be subdivided further into two immunophenotypically distinct subsets based on MHC-II glycoprotein expression. BM chimeric mice were created using Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) donors to investigate turnover of macrophages (and other monocyte-derived cells) in the olfactory neuroepithelium. Our data indicate that the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium is actively replenished by circulating monocytes and under the experimental conditions, completely turned over within 6 months. Transplantation of Cx₃cr1(gfp/gfp) (i.e., CX₃CR1-deficient) BM partially impaired the replenishment process and resulted in an overall decline of the total monocyte-derived cell number in the olfactory epithelium. Interestingly, replenishment of the CD68(low)MHC-II(+) subset appeared minimally affected by CX₃CR1 deficiency. Taken together, the established baseline data about heterogeneity of monocyte-derived cells, their replenishment rates, and the role of CX₃CR1 provide a solid basis to further examine the importance of different monocyte subsets for neuroregeneration at this unique frontier with the external environment.

  9. IRF5 risk polymorphisms contribute to interindividual variance in pattern recognition receptor-mediated cytokine secretion in human monocyte-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Hedl, Matija; Abraham, Clara

    2012-06-01

    Monocyte-derived cells display highly variable cytokine secretion upon pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation across individuals; such variability likely affects interindividual inflammatory/autoimmune disease susceptibility. To define mechanisms for this heterogeneity, we examined PRR-induced monocyte-derived cell cytokine secretion from a large cohort of healthy individuals. Although cytokine secretion ranged widely among individuals, the magnitude of cytokine induction after individual nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) and TLR2 stimulation (a cohort of 86 individuals) or stimulation of multiple TLRs (a cohort of 77 individuals), either alone or in combination with Nod2, was consistent intraindividually across these stimuli. Nod2 and TLRs signal through IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), and common IRF5 polymorphisms confer risk for autoimmunity. We find that cells from rs2004640 IRF5 risk-associated allele carriers secrete increased cytokines upon individual or synergistic PRR stimulation in a gene dose- and ligand dose-dependent manner in both monocyte-derived dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. IRF5 expression knockdown in IRF5 risk allele carrier cells significantly decreases PRR-induced cytokines. Moreover, we find that IRF5 knockdown profoundly decreases Nod2-mediated MAPK and NF-κB pathway activation, whereas the PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways are not impaired. Finally, the IRF5 rs2004640 polymorphism is a major determinant of the variance (r(2) = 0.53) in Nod2-induced cytokine secretion by monocyte-derived cells from different individuals. We therefore show a profound contribution of a single gene to the variance in interindividual PRR-induced cytokines. The hyperresponsiveness of IRF5 disease-associated polymorphisms to a wide spectrum of microbial triggers has broad implications on global immunological responses, host defenses against pathogens, and inflammatory/autoimmune disease susceptibility.

  10. Circulating Fibrocytes as Biomarker of Prognosis in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Aaron; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Markello, Thomas C.; Fischer, Roxanne; Gahl, William A.; Lee, Jae K.; Kim, Youngchul; Burdick, Marie D.; Strieter, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: The rate of progression of most interstitial lung diseases (ILD) is unpredictable. Fibrocytes are circulating bone marrow–derived cells that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a genetic cause of ILD in early adulthood, allows for study of biomarkers of ILD in a homogeneous population at near-certain risk of developing fibrotic lung disease. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that, in subjects with HPS, the number or phenotype of circulating fibrocytes predicts progression and outcome of ILD. Methods: We measured circulating fibrocyte counts and chemokine levels in a cohort of subjects with HPS and healthy control subjects and correlated the results to disease outcome. Measurements and Main Results: In a cross-sectional analysis, peripheral blood fibrocyte concentrations were markedly elevated in a subset of subjects with HPS who had ILD but not subjects without lung disease or normal control subjects. The blood concentration of fibrocytes expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR4 correlated significantly with the plasma concentration of the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12. In a longitudinal study, we found marked episodic elevations in circulating fibrocyte counts over a median follow-up period of 614 days. Elevations in both maximal values and final values of peripheral blood CXCR4+ fibrocyte concentration were strongly associated with death from ILD. Conclusions: CXCR4+ fibrocyte concentration may be useful as a biomarker for outcome of ILD in subjects with HPS. PMID:25347450

  11. Human monocyte-derived macrophages are heterogenous: Proteomic profile of different phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Eligini, S; Brioschi, M; Fiorelli, S; Tremoli, E; Banfi, C; Colli, S

    2015-06-21

    Tissue macrophages play a key role in many aspects of human physiology and pathology. These cells are heterogeneous both in term of morphology and function. As an example, heterogeneity has been reported within the atherosclerotic lesions where distinct populations exert opposite functions driving plaque progression or stability. Tissue macrophages are not easily obtained and differentiated blood-derived monocytes are largely used as surrogate model. We previously reported that human macrophages spontaneously differentiated from adherent monocytes show two dominant subsets, distinct for morphology (spindle and round) and functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intracellular proteome of these two macrophage subsets by means of a microproteomic workflow properly set up to simultaneously identify and quantify proteins from a minimal number of morphotypically heterogeneous cells in culture. We report two distinct proteomic profiles that distinguish round from spindle macrophages. In particular, differential abundances were observed for proteins involved in membrane traffic regulation, lipid handling, efferocytosis, and protection against stress conditions. Results reinforce and extend previous data on the functional and antigenic profile of these macrophage phenotypes strengthening the suitability of our model to focus on macrophage heterogeneity. Tissue macrophages patrol homeostatic functions, immune surveillance, and resolution of inflammation. The spectrum of macrophage activation states is, therefore, wide and gives ground for the heterogeneity of these cells, documented in health and disease. This study provides knowledge of the distinct proteome that characterises the two dominant morphotypes (round and spindle) of human macrophages that, in our culture condition, are generated by spontaneous differentiation from blood-derived monocytes. Results extend previous data about the different antigenic, transcriptional, and functional profiles of these

  12. Killing of Escherichia coli by Crohn's Disease Monocyte-derived Macrophages and Its Enhancement by Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Paul K.; Chiewchengchol, Direkrit; Wright, Helen L.; Edwards, Steven W.; Alswied, Abdullah; Satsangi, Jack; Subramanian, Sreedhar; Rhodes, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with defective innate immunity, including impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, and mucosal invasion by bacteria, particularly adherent and invasive Escherichia coli that replicate inside macrophage phagolysosomes. We compared CD and healthy control (HC) macrophages for their abilities to kill E. coli and generate neutrophil chemoattractants and also assessed the effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and vitamin D on killing of phagocytosed E. coli. Methods: Peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from CD and HC were compared for bacterial killing and generation of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to CD-derived E. coli. Escherichia coli replication was also assessed in the presence and absence of HCQ, alone and with antibiotics, and vitamin D. Results: Monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with CD were similar to HC in allowing replication of phagocytosed CD-derived E. coli: HM605 {CD: N = 10, mean fold replication in 3 hr = 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–1.78); HC: N = 9, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.02–1.97); P = 0.15} and also in generation of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to E. coli (mean fold chemotaxis relative to control: CD = 2.55 [95% CI, 2.31–2.80]; HC = 2.65 [95% CI, 2.46–2.85], P = 0.42). HCQ and 1,25 OH2-vitamin D3 both caused dose-dependent inhibition of intramacrophage E. coli replication 3-hour postinfection; HCQ: 73.9% inhibition (P < 0.001) at 1 μg/mL, accompanied by raised intraphagosomal pH, and 1,25 OH2-vitamin D3: 80.7% inhibition (P < 0.05) at 80 nM. HCQ had synergistic effects with doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: CD and HC macrophages perform similarly in allowing replication of phagocytosed E. coli and generating neutrophil chemoattractants. Replication of phagocytosed E. coli was substantially decreased by HCQ and vitamin D. These warrant further therapeutic trials in CD in combination with relevant antibiotics. PMID:25839777

  13. Killing of Escherichia coli by Crohn's Disease Monocyte-derived Macrophages and Its Enhancement by Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Paul K; Chiewchengchol, Direkrit; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Alswied, Abdullah; Satsangi, Jack; Subramanian, Sreedhar; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

    2015-07-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with defective innate immunity, including impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, and mucosal invasion by bacteria, particularly adherent and invasive Escherichia coli that replicate inside macrophage phagolysosomes. We compared CD and healthy control (HC) macrophages for their abilities to kill E. coli and generate neutrophil chemoattractants and also assessed the effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and vitamin D on killing of phagocytosed E. coli. Peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from CD and HC were compared for bacterial killing and generation of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to CD-derived E. coli. Escherichia coli replication was also assessed in the presence and absence of HCQ, alone and with antibiotics, and vitamin D. Monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with CD were similar to HC in allowing replication of phagocytosed CD-derived E. coli: HM605 {CD: N = 10, mean fold replication in 3 hr = 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.78); HC: N = 9, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.02-1.97); P = 0.15} and also in generation of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to E. coli (mean fold chemotaxis relative to control: CD = 2.55 [95% CI, 2.31-2.80]; HC = 2.65 [95% CI, 2.46-2.85], P = 0.42). HCQ and 1,25 OH2-vitamin D3 both caused dose-dependent inhibition of intramacrophage E. coli replication 3-hour postinfection; HCQ: 73.9% inhibition (P < 0.001) at 1 μg/mL, accompanied by raised intraphagosomal pH, and 1,25 OH2-vitamin D3: 80.7% inhibition (P < 0.05) at 80 nM. HCQ had synergistic effects with doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. CD and HC macrophages perform similarly in allowing replication of phagocytosed E. coli and generating neutrophil chemoattractants. Replication of phagocytosed E. coli was substantially decreased by HCQ and vitamin D. These warrant further therapeutic trials in CD in combination with relevant antibiotics.

  14. Pirfenidone inhibits fibrocyte accumulation in the lungs in bleomycin-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Minoru; Kamio, Koichiro; Azuma, Arata; Matsuda, Kuniko; Kokuho, Nariaki; Miura, Yukiko; Hayashi, Hiroki; Nei, Takahito; Fujita, Kazue; Saito, Yoshinobu; Gemma, Akihiko

    2014-02-08

    Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes reportedly play important roles in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent; however, its effects on fibrocytes have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pirfenidone inhibits fibrocyte pool size in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice. Bleomycin (100 mg/kg) was infused with osmotic pumps into C57BL/6 mice, and pirfenidone (300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered daily for 2 wk. The lungs were removed, and single-cell suspensions were subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis to detect fibrocytes, which were defined as CD45 and collagen-I double-positive cells. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the lung specimens to quantify fibrocytes. Chemokines in the lung digests were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of pirfenidone on alveolar macrophages was evaluated with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In a therapeutic setting, pirfenidone administration was initiated 10 days after bleomycin treatment. For chemotaxis assay, lung fibrocytes were isolated with immunomagnetic selection (CD45-positive mesenchymal cells) after culture and allowed to migrate toward chemokines in the presence or absence of pirfenidone. Moreover, the effect of pirfenidone on the expression of chemokine receptors on fibrocytes was evaluated. Pirfenidone significantly ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis as assessed with quantitative histology and collagen measurement. Fibrocyte pool size in bleomycin-treated mice lungs was attenuated from 26.5% to 13.7% by pirfenidone on FACS analysis. This outcome was also observed in a therapeutic setting. Immunohistochemistry revealed that fibrocytes were significantly decreased by pirfenidone administration compared with those in bleomycin-treated mice (P = 0.0097). Increased chemokine (CC motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) and CCL12 production in bleomycin-treated mouse lungs was significantly

  15. Detection of iron deposition in dermal fibrocytes is a useful tool for histologic diagnosis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Julia; Tanikawa, Akiko; Igarashi, Atsuyuki; Hataya, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ken; Ikegami, Masahiro; Sotome, Akihiro; Nagai, Yayoi; Kameyama, Kaori; Ishiko, Akira

    2011-05-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a fibrotic disease that presents with a history of renal dysfunction. The differential diagnosis generally includes scleromyxedema, systemic sclerosis, and morphea. Especially, scleromyxedema can be extremely difficult to distinguish microscopically. Although the fibrocytes in NSF are often positive for CD34 and procollagen-I, this is not specific for NSF. We identified positive iron staining in the skin of a patient with NSF and investigated whether this was a specific feature among 9 patients with NSF reported in Japan. We found that 6 of 9 patients showed positive iron staining in the dermal fibrocytes. The amount of iron deposition seemed to have no correlation with the degree of fibrosis or duration of the skin lesions but correlated with apparent history of the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents. As controls, skin biopsies from patients with scleromyxedema, morphea, and systemic sclerosis were evaluated by iron staining. None of these control patients showed iron deposition, indicating that positive iron staining may be specific to NSF and can be a useful tool for NSF diagnosis.

  16. The effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on the functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Li; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Wu, Wen-Mein; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2009-01-01

    Background Propolis, an ancient herbal medicine, has been reported the beneficial effect both in asthma patients and murine model of asthma, but the mechanism was not clearly understood. In this study, the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), the most extensively studied components in propolis, on the functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) was investigated. Results CAPE significantly inhibited IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-10 protein expression in mature healthy human MoDCs stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and IL-12 p40, IL-10, IP-10 stimulated by crude mite extract. CAPE significantly inhibited IL-10 and IP-10 but not IL-12 expression in allergic patients' MoDCs stimulated by crude mite extract. In contrast, the upregulation of costimulatory molecules in mature MoDCs was not suppressed by CAPE. Further, the antigen presenting ability of DCs was not inhibited by CAPE. CAPE inhibited IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activation but not mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation in human MoDCs. Conclusion These results indicated that CAPE inhibited cytokine and chemokine production by MoDCs which might be related to the NF-κB signaling pathway. This study provided a new insight into the mechanism of CAPE in immune response and the rationale for propolis in the treatment of asthma and other allergic disorders. PMID:19604415

  17. Varying Effects of Different β-Glucans on the Maturation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sonck, Eva; Devriendt, Bert; Goddeeris, Bruno; Cox, Eric

    2011-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for their immunomodulatory capacities in humans and mice. For this reason, together with the European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics, β-glucans are intensively used in pig feed. However, as shown in the present study, there is much variation in the stimulatory capacities of β-glucans from different sources. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are the first cells that are encountered after an antigen is taken up by the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, we decided to investigate the effect of two concentrations (5 and 10 μg/ml) of five commercial β-glucan preparations, differing in structure and source, on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Although all β-glucans gave rise to a significant reduction of the phagocytic activity of DCs, only Macrogard induced a significant phenotypic maturation. In addition to Macrogard, zymosan, another β-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and curdlan also significantly improved the T-cell-stimulatory capacity of MoDCs. Most interesting, however, is the cytokine secretion profile of curdlan-stimulated MoDCs, since only curdlan induced significant higher expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12/IL-23p40. Since the cytokine profile of DCs influences the outcome of the ensuing immune response and thus may prove valuable in intestinal immunity, a careful choice is necessary when β-glucans are used as dietary supplement. PMID:21752950

  18. Lipooligosaccharide from Bordetella pertussis induces mature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drives a Th2 biased response.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Giorgio; Celestino, Ignacio; Spensieri, Fabiana; Frasca, Loredana; Nasso, Maria; Watanabe, Mineo; Remoli, Maria Elena; Coccia, Eliana Marina; Altieri, Fabio; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2007-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis has a distinctive cell wall lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is released from the bacterium during bacterial division and killing. LOS directly participates in host-bacterial interactions, in particular influencing the dendritic cells' (DC) immune regulatory ability. We analyze LOS mediated toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and dissect the role played by LOS on human monocyte-derived (MD)DC functions and polarization of the host T cell response. LOS activates TLR4-dependent signaling and induces mature MDDC able to secrete IL-10. LOS-matured MDDC enhance allogeneic presentation and skew T helper (Th) cell polarization towards a Th2 phenotype. LOS protects MDDC from undergoing apoptosis, prolonging their longevity and their functions. Compared to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the classical DC maturation stimulus, LOS was a less efficient inducer of TLR4 signaling, MDDC maturation, IL-10 secretion and allogeneic T cell proliferation and it was not able to induce IL-12p70 production in MDDC. However, the MDDC apoptosis protection exerted by LOS and LPS were comparable. In conclusion, LOS treated MDDC are able to perform antigen presentation in a context that promotes licensing of Th2 effectors. Considering these properties, the use of LOS in the formulation of acellular pertussis vaccines to potentiate protective and adjuvant capacity should be taken into consideration.

  19. Effect of size of man-made and natural mineral fibers on chemiluminescent response in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, M; Otake, T; Morinaga, K

    2001-10-01

    Fiber size is an important factor in the tumorigenicity of various mineral fibers and asbestos fibers in animal experiments. We examined the time course of the ability to induce lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) from human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to Japan Fibrous Material standard reference samples (glass wool, rock wool, micro glass fiber, two types of refractory ceramic fiber, refractory mullite fiber, potassium titanium whisker, silicon carbide whisker, titanium oxide whisker, and wollastonite). We determined how fiber length or width might modify the response of cells. We found that the patterns of time-dependent increase of CL (sigmoid type) were similar for each sample except wollastonite. We observed a strong correlation between geometric-mean length and ability to induce CL in seven samples > 6 microm in length over the time course (largest r(2) = 0.9760). Although we also observed a close positive correlation between geometric-mean width and the ability to induce CL in eight samples < 1.8 microm in width at 15 min (r(2) = 0.8760), a sample of 2.4 microm in width had a low ability to induce CL. Moreover, the relationship between width and the rate of increase in ability to induce CL had a negative correlation at 30-60 min (largest r(2) = 0.7473). Our findings suggest that the release of superoxide from macrophages occurs nonspecifically for various types of mineral fibers depending on fiber length.

  20. Indoor pollutant hexabromocyclododecane enhances house dust mite-induced activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Canbaz, Derya; Lebre, M Cristina; Logiantara, Adrian; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2016-11-01

    The indoor pollutant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been added as flame retardant to many consumer products but detaches and accumulates in house dust. Inhalation of house dust leads to exposure to house dust mite (HDM) allergens in the presence of HBCD. Activation of dendritic cells is crucial in the sensitization to HDM allergens. The current study examined whether exposure to HBCD affected activation/maturation of HDM-exposed human dendritic cells (DC). Human monocyte-derived DC (moDC) were exposed simultaneously to HDM and a concentration range of HBCD (0.1-20 μM) in vitro. HDM exposure of moDC induced expression of co-stimulatory molecule CD80 and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, simultaneous exposure of moDC to HBCD and HDM enhanced the expression of antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR, co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 depending on the dose of HBCD. Our results indicate that simultaneous exposure of HDM and HBCD can enhance the antigen presentation and maturation/activation of DC.

  1. Microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages: functionally distinct populations that act in concert in CNS plasticity and repair

    PubMed Central

    London, Anat; Cohen, Merav; Schwartz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Functional macrophage heterogeneity is recognized outside the central nervous system (CNS), where alternatively activated macrophages can perform immune-resolving functions. Such functional heterogeneity was largely ignored in the CNS, with respect to the resident microglia and the myeloid-derived cells recruited from the blood following injury or disease, previously defined as blood-derived microglia; both were indistinguishably perceived detrimental. Our studies have led us to view the myeloid-derived infiltrating cells as functionally distinct from the resident microglia, and accordingly, to name them monocyte-derived macrophages (mo-MΦ). Although microglia perform various maintenance and protective roles, under certain conditions when they can no longer provide protection, mo-MΦ are recruited to the damaged CNS; there, they act not as microglial replacements but rather assistant cells, providing activities that cannot be timely performed by the resident cells. Here, we focus on the functional heterogeneity of microglia/mo-MΦ, emphasizing that, as opposed to the mo-MΦ, microglia often fail to timely acquire the phenotype essential for CNS repair. PMID:23596391

  2. Monocyte-derived interferon-alpha primed dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis: new pieces in the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Arpád; Kemény, Lajos

    2012-06-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder with serious clinical, psychosocial, and economic consequences. There is much evidence that different dendritic cell (DC) subsets, various proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. One of the early events in psoriatic inflammation is the secretion of interferon (IFN)-α by activated plasmacytoid DCs, a special DC subset present in symptomless psoriatic skin. Secreted IFN-α along with other proinflammatory cytokines can lead to monocyte-derived DC (moDC) development, which might contribute to T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 lymphocyte differentiation/activation and to keratinocyte proliferation. Recently it was proven that interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 play a critical role in this process. Additionally in psoriatic lesions, Th1 and Th17 lympocytes can interact with monocytes and instruct these cells to differentiate into Th1- and Th17-promoting moDCs, further governing the formation and function of specialized moDC subsets. The concept we present here focuses on the initial and central role of IFN-α, on the importance of other proinflammatory cytokines, on TLR stimulation and on the effect of T lymphocytes in priming moDCs, which may play an important role in initiating and maintaining psoriasis.

  3. Production of canine soluble CD40 ligand to induce maturation of monocyte derived dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wijewardana, Viskam; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yahata, Mana; Akazawa, Takashi; Wijesekera, Daluthgamage Patsy H; Imamoto, Shigeki; Hatoya, Shingo; Inoue, Norimitsu; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-11-15

    CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed by activated T cells is shown to induce maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and this maturation is a vital part in DC based tumor immunotherapy. We constructed an expression vector by cloning the extracellular domain of canine CD40L fused to the signal sequence of canine IL-12p40. When PBMCs were incubated with canine granulocyte-macrophage (GM) -CSF and IL-4, expression of CD86 was significantly elevated, but the majority of cells displayed the morphology of immature DCs. Following addition of the expressed canine soluble CD40L (csCD40L) to the DC-inducing culture, the cell morphology shifted to that of mature DCs, and expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II and CD1a was significantly enhanced. This morphological change and enhancement of expression was observed even when the csCD40L was present only in the second half period of the culture. Furthermore, the csCD40L caused a significant increase in IL-12 production from DCs. These results show that the csCD40L significantly promotes the maturation and activation of canine monocyte derived DCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages: functionally distinct populations that act in concert in CNS plasticity and repair.

    PubMed

    London, Anat; Cohen, Merav; Schwartz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Functional macrophage heterogeneity is recognized outside the central nervous system (CNS), where alternatively activated macrophages can perform immune-resolving functions. Such functional heterogeneity was largely ignored in the CNS, with respect to the resident microglia and the myeloid-derived cells recruited from the blood following injury or disease, previously defined as blood-derived microglia; both were indistinguishably perceived detrimental. Our studies have led us to view the myeloid-derived infiltrating cells as functionally distinct from the resident microglia, and accordingly, to name them monocyte-derived macrophages (mo-MΦ). Although microglia perform various maintenance and protective roles, under certain conditions when they can no longer provide protection, mo-MΦ are recruited to the damaged CNS; there, they act not as microglial replacements but rather assistant cells, providing activities that cannot be timely performed by the resident cells. Here, we focus on the functional heterogeneity of microglia/mo-MΦ, emphasizing that, as opposed to the mo-MΦ, microglia often fail to timely acquire the phenotype essential for CNS repair.

  5. Collagen Induces Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Signaling through Osteoclast-Associated Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Heidi S.; Nitze, Louise M.; Zeuthen, Louise H.; Keller, Pernille; Gruhler, Albrecht; Pass, Jesper; Chen, Jianhe; Guo, Li; Fleetwood, Andrew J.; Hamilton, John A.; Berchtold, Martin W.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is widely expressed on human myeloid cells. Collagen types (Col)I, II, and III have been described as OSCAR ligands, and ColII peptides can induce costimulatory signaling in receptor activator for NF-κB–dependent osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we isolated collagen as an OSCAR-interacting protein from the membranes of murine osteoblasts. We have investigated a functional outcome of the OSCAR–collagen interaction in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). OSCAR engagement by ColI/II-induced activation/maturation of DCs is characterized by upregulation of cell surface markers and secretion of cytokines. These collagen-matured DCs (Col-DCs) were efficient drivers of allogeneic and autologous naive T cell proliferation. The T cells expanded by Col-DCs secreted cytokines with no clear T cell polarization pattern. Global RNA profiling revealed that multiple proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, components of the stable immune synapse (namely CD40, CD86, CD80, and ICAM-1), as well as components of TNF and TLR signaling, are transcriptional targets of OSCAR in DCs. Our findings indicate the existence of a novel pathway by which extracellular matrix proteins locally drive maturation of DCs during inflammatory conditions, for example, within synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients, where collagens become exposed during tissue remodeling and are thus accessible for interaction with infiltrating precursors of DCs. PMID:25725106

  6. Equine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and their applications for infectivity and neutralization studies of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Raabe, M R; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    1998-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been shown to infect cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. These primary cells are intrinsically difficult to obtain, to purify and to culture in vitro for extended periods of time. As a result, most in vitro studies concerning this lentivirus make use of primary equine fibroblasts or transformed canine or feline cell lines. We describe methods that yield reproducibly pure cultures of equine blood monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The in vitro differentiation of these cells into mature equine macrophage was verified using various cytochemical staining methods. The equine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) cultures were found to replicate cell-adapted and field strains of EIAV more efficiently than cultures of fully differentiated equine splenic macrophage. Having established reproducible and fully differentiated cultures of equine macrophage, in vitro assays of virus infectivity and serum neutralization were developed using the in vivo target cell of EIAV. These procedures, while developed for the EIAV system, should be equally useful for in vitro cultures of other macrophage-tropic pathogens of horses.

  7. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived cells to different stimuli.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura C; Fleming, Damarius S; Li, Xiangdong; Bayles, Darrell O; Blecha, Frank; Sang, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) are major target cells in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) pathogenesis; however, the plasticity of mDCs in response to activation stimuli and PRRSV infection remains unstudied. In this study, we polarized mDCs, and applied genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and predicted protein-protein interaction networks to compare signature genes involved in mDCs activation and response to PRRSV infection. Porcine mDCs were polarized with mediators for 30 hours, then mock-infected, infected with PRRSV strain VR2332, or a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (rJXwn06), for 5 h. Total RNA was extracted and used to construct sequencing libraries for RNA-Seq. Comparisons were made between each polarized and unpolarized group (i.e. mediator vs. PBS), and between PRRSV-infected and uninfected cells stimulated with the same mediator. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) from the comparisons were used for prediction of interaction networks affected by the viruses and mediators. The results showed that PRRSV infection inhibited M1-prone immune activity, downregulated genes, predicted network interactions related to cellular integrity, and inflammatory signaling in favor of M2 activity. Additionally, the number of DEG and predicted network interactions stimulated in HP-PRRSV infected mDCs was superior to the VR-2332 infected mDCs and conformed with HP-PRRSV pathogenicity.

  8. Comparative nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages from Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; Waters, W R; Rudolph, K M; Drew, M L

    2006-01-01

    Bighorn sheep are more susceptible to respiratory infection by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep. In response to bacterial challenge, macrophages produce a number of molecules that play key roles in the inflammatory response, including highly reactive nitrogen intermediates such as nitric oxide (NO). Supernatants from monocyte-derived macrophages cultured with M. haemolytica LPS were assayed for nitric oxide activity via measurement of the NO metabolite, nitrite. In response to LPS stimulation, bighorn sheep macrophages secreted significantly higher levels of NO compared to levels for non-stimulated macrophages. In contrast, levels of NO produced by domestic sheep macrophages in response to M. haemolytica LPS did not differ from levels detected in non-stimulated cell cultures. Nitrite levels detected in supernatants of LPS-stimulated bighorn macrophage cultures treated with an inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, were similar to that observed in non-stimulated cultures indicating a role for the iNOS pathway.

  9. Methamphetamine and HIV-1 gp120 effects on lipopolysaccharide stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 production by human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jessica L; Mahajan, Supriya D; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E; Schwartz, Stanley A

    2011-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are a primary source of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Macrophages infected with HIV-1 produce a plethora of factors, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) that may contribute to the development of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). MMP-9 plays a pivotal role in the turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and functions to remodel cellular architecture. We have investigated the role of methamphetamine and HIV-1 gp120 in the regulation of lipopolysaccaride (LPS) induced-MMP-9 production in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Here, we show that LPS-induced MMP-9 gene expression and protein secretion are potentiated by incubation with methamphetamine alone and gp120 alone. Further, concomitant incubation with gp120 and methamphetamine potentiated LPS-induced MMP-9 expression and biological activity in MDM. Collectively methamphetamine and gp120 effects on MMPs may modulate remodeling of the extracellular environment enhancing migration of monocytes/macrophages to the CNS.

  10. Methamphetamine and HIV-1 gp120 Effects on Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Production by Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Jessica L.; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are a primary source of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Macrophages infected with HIV-1 produce a plethora of factors, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) that may contribute to the development of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). MMP-9 plays a pivotal role in the turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and functions to remodel cellular architecture. We have investigated the role of methamphetamine and HIV-1 gp120 in the regulation of lipopolysaccaride (LPS) induced-MMP-9 production in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Here, we show that LPS-induced MMP-9 gene expression and protein secretion are potentiated by incubation with methamphetamine alone and gp120 alone. Further, concomitant incubation with gp120 and methamphetamine potentiated LPS-induced MMP-9 expression and biological activity in MDM. Collectively methamphetamine and gp120 effects on MMPs may modulate remodeling of the extracellular environment enhancing migration of monocytes/macrophages to the CNS. PMID:21425912

  11. Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Are Essential for CD8+ T Cell Activation and Antitumor Responses After Local Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Sabine; Yang, Jianping; Ronchese, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells (DCs) with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate antitumor immune responses and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node (dLN). Here, we use depletion of DCs or monocytes and monocyte transfer to show that these moDCs are critical to the activation of antitumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents monosodium urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the dLN, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα, and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of moDCs, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and antitumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c+ cells were sufficient to rescue CD8+ T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus, monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and antitumor immunity. PMID:26635798

  12. Fibrocytes contribute to the myofibroblast population in wounded skin and originate from the bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Luca; Bellini, Alberto; Stacey, Martin A.; Schmidt, Matthias; Mattoli, Sabrina . E-mail: smattoli@avail-research.com

    2005-03-10

    Myofibroblasts play a key role in wound closure but their origin is poorly understood. To investigate whether fibrocytes contribute to myofibroblast population, we examined the phenotype of fibrocytes and myofibroblasts present in the wounded skin of BALB/c mice. During wound healing, there was a marked increase in the number of cells expressing the myofibroblast marker {alpha}-smooth muscle actin in the granulation tissue. Between 4 and 7 days post-wounding, more than 50% of these cells also expressed the CD13 antigen. CD13{sup +}/collagen I{sup +} fibrocytes could be isolated at an early stage of the healing process from digested fragments of wounded tissue by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Like authentic fibrocytes, these cells were also CD45{sup +}/CD34{sup +}/CD14{sup -}. Between 4 and 7 days post-injury, 61.4% of the isolated fibrocytes were found to express {alpha}-smooth muscle actin gene and protein. We repeated similar experiments in female mice that had received a male whole bone marrow transplant after total body irradiation. By in situ hybridization, we identified the Y chromosome in the nuclei of the majority of fibrocytes isolated from the wounded tissue of these animals. Our data indicate that circulating fibrocytes contribute to the myofibroblast population in the wounded skin and that they originate from the bone marrow.

  13. Possible involvement of fibrocytes in atrial fibrosis in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xudong; Liu, Yanrong; Gao, Shilong; Wu, Bifeng; Hu, Xiaosheng; Chen, Junzhu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by a remodeling process with prominent atrial fibrosis. Fibrocytes, a bone marrow-derived population of fibroblast-like cells, have been placed at the center of a number of fibrosing conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of fibrocytes to atrial fibrosis in patients with chronic AF and the possible mechanisms.  We enrolled 22 consecutive valvular heart disease patients with chronic AF (>6 months: CAF group) and 15 valvular heart disease patients in sinus rhythm served as controls (SR group). Left atrial tissue samples were obtained during cardiac surgery. The infiltration of fibrocytes into the atrial interstitium was observed by confocal microscopy. The number of atrial fibrocytes was approximately three-fold higher in the CAF group compared with the SR controls, and positively correlated with both the atrial collagen volume fraction (r=0.713; P=0.0002) and the left atrial volume index (r=0.631; P=0.002). In the peripheral blood samples collected before the operation, approximately 2.5-fold higher percentage of circulating fibrocytes was identified in the CAF group. These fibrocytes showed a stronger proliferative capacity (≍2.5-fold) and higher level expression of collagen I and α-SMA (≍2-fold and 4-fold, respectively) compared with the SR controls. The results suggested that fibrocytes may be involved in atrial fibrosis in chronic AF through enhanced profibrotic characteristics.  

  14. Circulating fibrocytes--biology and mechanisms in wound healing and scar formation.

    PubMed

    Grieb, Gerrit; Steffens, Guy; Pallua, Norbert; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Bucala, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Fibrocytes were first described in 1994 as fibroblast-like, peripheral blood cells. These bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells migrate into regions of tissue injury. They are unique in their expression of hematopoietic and monocyte lineage markers and extracellular matrix proteins. Several studies have focused on the specific role of fibrocytes in the process of wound repair and tissue regeneration. We discuss herein the biology and mechanistic action of fibrocytes in wound healing, scar formation, and maintenance of tissue integrity. Fibrocytes synthesize and secrete different cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, providing a wound milieu that supports tissue repair. They further promote angiogenesis and contribute to wound closure via pathways involving specific cytokines, leukocyte-specific protein-1, serum amyloid P, and adenosine A(2A) receptors. Fibrocytes are involved in inflammatory fibrotic processes in such diseases as systemic fibrosis, atherosclerosis, asthma, hypertrophic scarring, and keloid formation. Accumulating literature has emphasized the important role of fibrocytes in wound healing and fibrosis. Detailed mechanisms nevertheless remain to be investigated to elucidate the full therapeutic potential of fibrocytes in the treatment of fibrosing disorders and the enhancement of tissue repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of fibrocytes in allergen-induced T cell responses and rhinovirus infections in asthma.

    PubMed

    Isgrò, Mirko; Bianchetti, Lorenza; Marini, Maurizio A; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2013-08-02

    Allergen exposure and rhinovirus infections that propagate from the upper to the lower airways are the most frequent causes of asthma exacerbation. In patients at increased risk of disease exacerbations, chronic airway inflammation is associated with the airway recruitment of circulating fibrocytes, bone marrow-derived CD34(+)CD45RO(+)CD11b(+)CD13(+)HLA-DR(+) progenitors that have antigen-presenting function and fibroblast-like properties. This study demonstrates that allergen-pulsed circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergic asthma are potent inducer of the predominant release of the T helper type (Th)2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 from autologous naïve and memory CD4(+) T cells. This study also provides evidence that circulating fibrocytes from allergic asthmatics are susceptible to rhinovirus infection. Infected cells release high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines with minimal production of IFN-α/β. Moreover, allergen-pulsed fibrocytes support prolonged rhinovirus replication and release larger quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon rhinovirus infection than unpulsed fibrocytes. Thus, fibrocytes may amplify allergen-induced, Th2 cell-driven inflammatory responses and promote further inflammation by functioning as a reservoir for rhinovirus replication in asthmatic airways. Through these mechanisms, fibrocytes may play an important role in the provocation of disease exacerbations.

  16. Upregulation of chicken TLR4, TLR15 and MyD88 in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Eimeria tenella in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zuoyong; Wang, Zhiying; Cao, Liting; Hu, Shijun; Zhang, Ze; Qin, Bo; Guo, Zhili; Nie, Kui

    2013-04-01

    Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria parasites, is a major parasitic disease responsible for great economic losses in the poultry industry. Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is one of the most important innate immune receptors, which involved in pathogen detection by initiating host responses, and it plays important roles in the reduction and clearance of pathogens. Very little information is available about the roles of chicken TLRs (ChTLRs) during Eimeria tenella infection. In the current study, mRNA expression of ChTLRs and associated signal adaptors in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with E. tenella in vitro were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ChTLR4 and ChTLR15 expression were increased significantly in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages following live E. tenella sporozoites stimulation. The heat-killed E. tenella sporozoites stimulated higher expression of ChTLRs and signal adaptors than live sporozoites, the expression of ChTLR4, ChTLR15 and MyD88 in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with heat-killed E. tenella sporozoites were up-regulated significantly than unstimulated cells. The results suggest that ChTLR4 and ChTLR15 are involved in response to E. tenella infection, and may operate in a MyD88-dependent manner for host defense.

  17. Expression and regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family members in primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells

    PubMed Central

    Puck, Alexander; Aigner, Regina; Modak, Madhura; Cejka, Petra; Blaas, Dieter; Stöckl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Schlafen (SLFN/Slfn) family members have been investigated for their involvement in fundamental cellular processes including growth regulation, differentiation and control of viral replication. However, most research has been focused on the characterization of Slfns within the murine system or in human cell lines. Since little is known about SLFNs in primary human immune cells, we set out to analyze the expression and regulation of the six human SLFN genes in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and T cells. Comparison of SLFN gene expression across these three cell types showed high mRNA expression of SLFN11 in monocytes and moDCs and high SLFN5 expression in T cells, indicating functional importance within these cell types. Differentiation of monocytes to moDCs leads to the gradual upregulation of SLFN12L and SLFN13 while SLFN12 levels were decreased by differentiation stimuli. Stimulation of moDCs via human rhinovirus, lipopolysaccharide, or IFN-α lead to strong upregulation of SLFN gene expression, while peptidoglycan poorly stimulated regulation of both SLFNs and the classical interferon-stimulated gene MxA. T cell activation was found to downregulate the expression of SLFN5, SLFN12 and SLFN12L, which was reversible upon addition of exogenous IFN-α. In conclusion, we demonstrate, that SLFN gene upregulation is mainly dependent on autocrine type I interferon signaling in primary human immune cells. Rapid decrease of SLFN expression levels following T cell receptor stimulation indicates a role of SLFNs in the regulation of human T cell quiescence. PMID:26623250

  18. Expression and regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family members in primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells.

    PubMed

    Puck, Alexander; Aigner, Regina; Modak, Madhura; Cejka, Petra; Blaas, Dieter; Stöckl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Schlafen (SLFN/Slfn) family members have been investigated for their involvement in fundamental cellular processes including growth regulation, differentiation and control of viral replication. However, most research has been focused on the characterization of Slfns within the murine system or in human cell lines. Since little is known about SLFNs in primary human immune cells, we set out to analyze the expression and regulation of the six human SLFN genes in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and T cells. Comparison of SLFN gene expression across these three cell types showed high mRNA expression of SLFN11 in monocytes and moDCs and high SLFN5 expression in T cells, indicating functional importance within these cell types. Differentiation of monocytes to moDCs leads to the gradual upregulation of SLFN12L and SLFN13 while SLFN12 levels were decreased by differentiation stimuli. Stimulation of moDCs via human rhinovirus, lipopolysaccharide, or IFN-α lead to strong upregulation of SLFN gene expression, while peptidoglycan poorly stimulated regulation of both SLFNs and the classical interferon-stimulated gene MxA. T cell activation was found to downregulate the expression of SLFN5, SLFN12 and SLFN12L, which was reversible upon addition of exogenous IFN-α. In conclusion, we demonstrate, that SLFN gene upregulation is mainly dependent on autocrine type I interferon signaling in primary human immune cells. Rapid decrease of SLFN expression levels following T cell receptor stimulation indicates a role of SLFNs in the regulation of human T cell quiescence.

  19. Analysis of the Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Response to Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Maura E.; Meade, Kieran G.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Taraktsoglou, Maria; Browne, John A.; Killick, Kate E.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Gormley, Eamonn; Hokamp, Karsten; Magee, David A.; MacHugh, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Johne’s disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, (MAP), is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminants with serious economic consequences for cattle production in the United States and elsewhere. During infection, MAP bacilli are phagocytosed and subvert host macrophage processes, resulting in subclinical infections that can lead to immunopathology and dissemination of disease. Analysis of the host macrophage transcriptome during infection can therefore shed light on the molecular mechanisms and host-pathogen interplay associated with Johne’s disease. Here, we describe results of an in vitro study of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) transcriptome response during MAP infection using RNA-seq. MDM were obtained from seven age- and sex-matched Holstein-Friesian cattle and were infected with MAP across a 6-h infection time course with non-infected controls. We observed 245 and 574 differentially expressed (DE) genes in MAP-infected versus non-infected control samples (adjusted P value ≤0.05) at 2 and 6 h post-infection, respectively. Functional analyses of these DE genes, including biological pathway enrichment, highlighted potential functional roles for genes that have not been previously described in the host response to infection with MAP bacilli. In addition, differential expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as those associated with the IL-10 signaling pathway, and other immune-related genes that encode proteins involved in the bovine macrophage response to MAP infection emphasize the balance between protective host immunity and bacilli survival and proliferation. Systematic comparisons of RNA-seq gene expression results with Affymetrix® microarray data generated from the same experimental samples also demonstrated that RNA-seq represents a superior technology for studying host transcriptional responses to intracellular infection. PMID:25699042

  20. Successful Isolation of Infectious and High Titer Human Monocyte-Derived HIV-1 from Two Subjects with Discontinued Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiying; Andrus, Thomas; Ivanov, Sergei B.; Pan, Charlotte; Dolores, Jazel; Dann, Gregory C.; Zhou, Michael; Forte, Dominic; Yang, Zihuan; Holte, Sarah; Corey, Lawrence; Zhu, Tuofu

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 DNA in blood monocytes is considered a viral source of various HIV-1 infected tissue macrophages, which is also known as “Trojan horse” hypothesis. However, whether these DNA can produce virions has been an open question for years, due to the inability of isolating high titer and infectious HIV-1 directly from monocytes. Results In this study, we demonstrated successful isolation of two strains of M-HIV-1 (1690 M and 1175 M) from two out of four study subjects, together with their in vivo controls, HIV-1 isolated from CD4+ T-cells (T-HIV-1), 1690 T and 1175 T. All M- and T- HIV-1 isolates were detected CCR5-tropic. Both M- HIV-1 exhibited higher levels of replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) than the two T- HIV-1. Consistent with our previous reports on the subject 1175 with late infection, compartmentalized env C2-V3-C3 sequences were identified between 1175 M and 1175 T. In contrast, 1690 M and 1690 T, which were isolated from subject 1690 with relatively earlier infection, showed homogenous env C2-V3-C3 sequences. However, multiple reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor resistance-associated variations were detected in the Gag-Pol region of 1690 M, but not of 1690 T. By further measuring HIV DNA intracellular copy numbers post-MDM infection, 1690 M was found to have significantly higher DNA synthesis efficiency than 1690 T in macrophages, indicating a higher RT activity, which was confirmed by AZT inhibitory assays. Conclusions These results suggested that the M- and T- HIV-1 are compartmentalized in the two study subjects, respectively. Therefore, we demonstrated that under in vitro conditions, HIV-1 infected human monocytes can productively release live viruses while differentiating into macrophages. PMID:23741458

  1. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 induces innate immune responses in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Cao, Weisheng; Tan, Yan; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause lifelong infection and can escape from the host immune defenses in chickens. Since macrophages act as the important defense line against invading pathogens in host innate immunity, we investigated the function and innate immune responses of chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after ALV-J infection in this study. Our results indicated that ALV-J was stably maintained in MDM cells but that the viral growth rate was significantly lower than that in DF-1 cells. We also found that ALV-J infection significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production, but had no effect on MDM phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, infection with ALV-J rapidly promoted the expression levels of Myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx) (3 h, 6 h), ISG12 (6 h), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (3 h, 12 h) at an early infection stage, whereas it sharply decreased the expression of Mx (24 h, 36 h), ISG12 (36 h), and made little change on IL-1β (24 h, 36 h) production at a late infection stage in MDM cells. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon-β (IFN-β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) had sharply increased in infected MDM cells from 3 to 36 h post infection (hpi) of ALV-J. And, the protein level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was dramatically decreased at 36 hpi in MDM cells infected with ALV-J. These results demonstrate that ALV-J can induce host innate immune responses and we hypothesize that macrophages play an important role in host innate immune attack and ALV-J immune escape.

  2. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tissue factor in human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julie C; Klein, Thomas W; Goldberger, Bruce A; Sleasman, John W; Mackman, Nigel; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects in humans of Δ(9-)Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana are controversial. Tissue factor (TF), the activator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, is increased on circulating activated monocytes and is expressed on microvesicles released from activated monocytes during inflammatory conditions, which perpetuate coagulopathies in a number of diseases. In view of the increased medicinal use of marijuana, effects of THC on human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated. Peak levels of TF procoagulant activity developed in monocytes or microvesicles 6 h following LPS treatment and were unaltered by THC. After 24 h of LPS stimulation, TF activity declined in control-treated or untreated cells and microvesicles, but persisted with THC treatment. Peak TF protein occurred within 6 h of LPS treatment independent of THC; by 24 h, TF protein declined to almost undetectable levels without THC, but was about 4-fold greater with THC. Steady-state TF mRNA levels were similar up to 2 h in the presence of LPS with or without THC, while 10-fold greater TF mRNA levels persisted over 3-24 h with THC treatment. Activation of MAPK or NF-κB pathways was unaltered by THC treatment and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels were unchanged. In contrast, TNF and IL-8 levels were enhanced by 20-50 %. THC enhances TF expression in activated monocytes resulting in elevated procoagulant activity. Marijuana use could potentiate coagulopathies in individuals with chronic immune activation such as HIV-1 infection or inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by Hochu-ekki-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Shigeki; Murata, Masayuki; Hamada, Maki; Chong, Yong; Yamaji, Kouzaburo; Hayashi, Jun

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the immunological effect of the traditional Japanese herbal medicine (kampo), Hochu-ekki-to (HOT), on dendritic cells (DC), we examined in vitro if HOT would stimulate the maturation process of human monocyte-derived DC as do TNF-alpha and LPS. Monocytes from a healthy volunteer were cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF, and the generated immature DC were stimulated with HOT, TNF-alpha, or LPS (HOT-DC, TNF-DC, and LPS-DC, respectively) for 2 days. Flow cytometric analysis showed that HOT stimulated DC to express the surface maturation markers CD80, CD83, and CD86 dose-dependently and that the up-regulation level was identical to TNF-alpha and LPS. The antigen-uptake capacity of HOT-DC was determined by FITC-labeled albumin uptake. HOT-DC lost albumin uptake capacity comparable to LPS-DC, indicating DC maturity. IL-12 (p70) production by HOT-DC and TNF-DC was not increased in comparison with LPS-DC. The antigen-presenting capacity of HOT-DC as analyzed by allogeneic T cell proliferation was significantly increased in comparison with immature DC and was identical to LPS-DC. These results demonstrate that HOT stimulates DC maturation as well as the other known maturation factors, despite low IL-12 production, and suggests the possibility that DC maturation by HOT can play an important role in the improvement of the immunoregulatory function in patients with impaired host defense.

  4. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells turn into foamy dendritic cells with IL-17A1[S

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Giulia; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Bissay, Nathalie; Debard, Cyrille; Daira, Patricia; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Proamer, Fabienne; Hanau, Daniel; Vidal, Hubert; Aricò, Maurizio; Delprat, Christine; Mahtouk, Karène

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. In the field of immunometabolism, we have studied the impact of IL-17A on the lipid metabolism of human in vitro-generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Microarrays and lipidomic analysis revealed an intense remodeling of lipid metabolism induced by IL-17A in DCs. IL-17A increased 2–12 times the amounts of phospholipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters in DCs. Palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and oleic (18:ln-9c) acid were the main fatty acid chains present in DCs. They were strongly increased in response to IL-17A while their relative proportion remained unchanged. Capture of extracellular lipids was the major mechanism of lipid droplet accumulation, visualized by electron microscopy and Oil Red O staining. Besides this foamy phenotype, IL-17A induced a mixed macrophage-DC phenotype and expression of the nuclear receptor NR1H3/liver X receptor-α, previously identified in the context of atherosclerosis as the master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages. These IL-17A-treated DCs were as competent as untreated DCs to stimulate allogeneic naive T-cell proliferation. Following this first characterization of lipid-rich DCs, we propose to call these IL-17A-dependent cells “foamy DCs” and discuss the possible existence of foamy DCs in atherosclerosis, a metabolic and inflammatory disorder involving IL-17A. PMID:25833686

  5. Cooperation between Monocyte-Derived Cells and Lymphoid Cells in the Acute Response to a Bacterial Lung Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew S.; Yang, Chao; Fung, Ka Yee; Bachem, Annabell; Bourges, Dorothée; Bedoui, Sammy; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; van Driel, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. Alveolar macrophages support intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, however the contributions of other immune cell types to bacterial killing during infection are unclear. Here, we used recently described methods to characterise the major inflammatory cells in lung after acute respiratory infection of mice with L. pneumophila. We observed that the numbers of alveolar macrophages rapidly decreased after infection coincident with a rapid infiltration of the lung by monocyte-derived cells (MC), which, together with neutrophils, became the dominant inflammatory cells associated with the bacteria. Using mice in which the ability of MC to infiltrate tissues is impaired it was found that MC were required for bacterial clearance and were the major source of IL12. IL12 was needed to induce IFNγ production by lymphoid cells including NK cells, memory T cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Memory T cells that produced IFNγ appeared to be circulating effector/memory T cells that infiltrated the lung after infection. IFNγ production by memory T cells was stimulated in an antigen-independent fashion and could effectively clear bacteria from the lung indicating that memory T cells are an important contributor to innate bacterial defence. We also determined that a major function of IFNγ was to stimulate bactericidal activity of MC. On the other hand, neutrophils did not require IFNγ to kill bacteria and alveolar macrophages remained poorly bactericidal even in the presence of IFNγ. This work has revealed a cooperative innate immune circuit between lymphoid cells and MC that combats acute L. pneumophila infection and defines a specific role for IFNγ in anti-bacterial immunity. PMID:27300652

  6. Cooperation between Monocyte-Derived Cells and Lymphoid Cells in the Acute Response to a Bacterial Lung Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew S; Yang, Chao; Fung, Ka Yee; Bachem, Annabell; Bourges, Dorothée; Bedoui, Sammy; Hartland, Elizabeth L; van Driel, Ian R

    2016-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. Alveolar macrophages support intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, however the contributions of other immune cell types to bacterial killing during infection are unclear. Here, we used recently described methods to characterise the major inflammatory cells in lung after acute respiratory infection of mice with L. pneumophila. We observed that the numbers of alveolar macrophages rapidly decreased after infection coincident with a rapid infiltration of the lung by monocyte-derived cells (MC), which, together with neutrophils, became the dominant inflammatory cells associated with the bacteria. Using mice in which the ability of MC to infiltrate tissues is impaired it was found that MC were required for bacterial clearance and were the major source of IL12. IL12 was needed to induce IFNγ production by lymphoid cells including NK cells, memory T cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Memory T cells that produced IFNγ appeared to be circulating effector/memory T cells that infiltrated the lung after infection. IFNγ production by memory T cells was stimulated in an antigen-independent fashion and could effectively clear bacteria from the lung indicating that memory T cells are an important contributor to innate bacterial defence. We also determined that a major function of IFNγ was to stimulate bactericidal activity of MC. On the other hand, neutrophils did not require IFNγ to kill bacteria and alveolar macrophages remained poorly bactericidal even in the presence of IFNγ. This work has revealed a cooperative innate immune circuit between lymphoid cells and MC that combats acute L. pneumophila infection and defines a specific role for IFNγ in anti-bacterial immunity.

  7. Distinct inflammatory phenotypes of microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages in Alzheimer's disease models: effects of aging and amyloid pathology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elodie; Boucher, Céline; Fontaine, Bertrand; Delarasse, Cécile

    2017-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, activated microglia, and neuronal cell death leading to progressive dementia. Recent data indicate that microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) are key players in the initiation and progression of AD, yet their respective roles remain to be clarified. As AD occurs mostly in the elderly and aging impairs myeloid functions, we addressed the inflammatory profile of microglia and MDM during aging in TgAPP/PS1 and TgAPP/PS1dE9, two transgenic AD mouse models, compared to WT littermates. We only found MDM infiltration in very aged mice. We determined that MDM highly expressed activation markers at basal state. In contrast, microglia exhibited an activated phenotype only with normal aging and Aβ pathology. Our study showed that CD14 and CD36, two receptors involved in phagocytosis, were upregulated during Aβ pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed, at the protein levels in AD models, higher production of pro-inflammatory mediators: IL-1β, p40, iNOS, CCL-3, CCL-4, and CXCL-1. Taken together, our data indicate that microglia and MDM display distinct phenotypes in AD models and highlight the specific effects of normal aging vs Aβ peptides on inflammatory processes that occur during the disease progression. These precise phenotypes of different subpopulations of myeloid cells in normal and pathologic conditions may allow the design of pertinent therapeutic strategy for AD. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differential Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by West Nile Virus Generated in Different Host Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Carlan; Guerrero-Plata, Antonieta; Gilfoy, Felicia D.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Mason, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in innate immunity and antiviral responses. In this study, we investigated the production of alpha interferon (IFN-α) and inducible chemokines by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) infected with West Nile virus (WNV), an emergent pathogen whose infection can lead to severe cases of encephalitis in the elderly, children, and immunocompromised individuals. Our experiments demonstrated that WNV grown in mammalian cells (WNVVero) was a potent inducer of IFN-α secretion in pDCs and, to a lesser degree, in mDCs. The ability of WNVVero to induce IFN-α in pDCs did not require viral replication and was prevented by the treatment of cells with bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine, suggesting that it was dependent on endosomal Toll-like receptor recognition. On the other hand, IFN-α production in mDCs required viral replication and was associated with the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and viral antigen expression. Strikingly, pDCs failed to produce IFN-α when stimulated with WNV grown in mosquito cells (WNVC7/10), while mDCs responded similarly to WNVVero or WNVC7/10. Moreover, the IFN-dependent chemokine IP-10 was produced in substantial amounts by pDCs in response to WNVVero but not WNVC7/10, while interleukin-8 was produced in greater amounts by mDCs infected with WNVC7/10 than in those infected with WNVVero. These findings suggest that cell-specific mechanisms of WNV recognition leading to the production of type I IFN and inflammatory chemokines by DCs may contribute to both the innate immune response and disease pathogenesis in human infections. PMID:17913823

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CPF10 Induce Adenosine Deaminase 2 mRNA Expression in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Mi Jung; Ryu, Suyeon; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Cha, Seung Ick

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed hypersensitivity plays a large role in the pathogenesis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) increase the levels of adenosine deaminase2 (ADA2) in the pleural fluid of TPE patients. However, it is as yet unclear whether ADA2 can be produced by macrophages when challenged with MTB antigens alone. This study therefore evaluated the levels of ADA2 mRNA expression, using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) stimulated with MTB antigens. Methods Purified monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were differentiated into macrophages using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The MDMs were stimulated with early secretory antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10). The mRNA expression levels for the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene encoding ADA2 were then measured. Results CECR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in MDMs stimulated with ESAT6 and CFP10, than in the unstimulated MDMs. When stimulated with ESAT6, M-CSF-treated MDMs showed more pronounced CECR1 mRNA expression than GM-CSF-treated MDMs. Interferon-γ decreased the ESAT6- and CFP10-induced CECR1 mRNA expression in MDMs. CECR1 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10, respectively. Conclusion ADA2 mRNA expression increased when MDMs were stimulated with MTB antigens alone. This partly indicates that pleural fluid ADA levels could increase in patients with culture-negative TPE. Our results may be helpful in improving the understanding of TPE pathogenesis. PMID:28119750

  10. c-Maf-dependent growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a CD14(hi) subpopulation of monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Rohan; Bandaru, Anuradha; Barnes, Peter F; Saha, Sudipto; Tvinnereim, Amy; Nayak, Ramesh C; Paidipally, Padmaja; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Rao, L Vijaya Mohan; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2011-02-01

    Macrophages are a major component of the innate immune response, comprising the first line of defense against various intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this report, we studied the factors that regulate growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in subpopulations of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). In healthy donors, M. tuberculosis H37Rv grew 5.6-fold more rapidly in CD14(hi) MDMs compared with that in CD14(lo)CD16(+) MDMs. Compared with CD14(lo)CD16(+) cells, M. tuberculosis H37Rv-stimulated CD14(hi) monocytes produced more IL-10 and had increased mRNA expression for c-Maf, a transcription factor that upregulates IL-10 gene expression. c-Maf small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited IL-10 production and growth of M. tuberculosis in CD14(hi) cells. Compared with CD14(lo)CD16(+) monocytes, M. tuberculosis H37Rv-stimulated CD14(hi) cells had increased expression of 22 genes whose promoters contained a c-Maf binding site, including hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). c-Maf siRNA inhibited HAS1 expression in M. tuberculosis-stimulated CD14(hi) monocytes, and HAS1 siRNA inhibited growth of M. tuberculosis in CD14(hi) MDMs. M. tuberculosis H37Rv upregulated expression of HAS1 protein and its product, hyaluronan, in CD14(hi) MDMs. We conclude that M. tuberculosis grows more rapidly in CD14(hi) than in CD14(lo)CD16(+) MDMs because CD14(hi) cells have increased expression of c-Maf, which increases production of two key factors (hyaluronan and IL-10) that promote growth of M. tuberculosis.

  11. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of organic dust components on THP1 monocytes-derived macrophages using high content analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramery, Eve; O'Brien, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    Organic dust contains pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) which can induce significant airway diseases following chronic exposure. Mononuclear phagocytes are key protecting cells of the respiratory tract. Several studies have investigated the effects of PAMPs and mainly endotoxins, on cytokine production. However the sublethal cytotoxicity of organic dust components on macrophages has not been tested yet. The novel technology of high content analysis (HCA) is already used to assess subclinical drug-induced toxicity. It combines the capabilities of flow cytometry, intracellular fluorescence probes, and image analysis and enables rapid multiple analyses in large numbers of samples. In this study, HCA was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the three major PAMPs contained in organic dust, i.e., endotoxin (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and β-glucans (zymosan) on THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. LPS was used at concentrations of 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 μg/mL; PGN and zymosan were used at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg/mL. Cells were exposed to PAMPs for 24 h. In addition, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capabilities of the cells were tested. An overlap between PGN intrinsic fluorescence and red/far-red fluorescent dyes occurred, rendering the evaluation of some parameters impossible for PGN. LPS induced sublethal cytotoxicity at the lowest dose (from 50 ng/mL). However, the greatest cytotoxic changes occurred with zymosan. In addition, zymosan, but not LPS, induced phagosome maturation and oxidative burst. Given the fact that β-glucans can be up to 100-fold more concentrated in organic dust than LPS, these results suggest that β-glucans could play a major role in macrophage impairment following heavy dust exposure and will merit further investigation in the near future.

  12. Maturation and trafficking of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in monkeys: implications for dendritic cell-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barratt-Boyes, S M; Zimmer, M I; Harshyne, L A; Meyer, E M; Watkins, S C; Capuano, S; Murphey-Corb, M; Falo, L D; Donnenberg, A D

    2000-03-01

    Human dendritic cells (DC) have polarized responses to chemokines as a function of maturation state, but the effect of maturation on DC trafficking in vivo is not known. We have addressed this question in a highly relevant rhesus macaque model. We demonstrate that immature and CD40 ligand-matured monocyte-derived DC have characteristic phenotypic and functional differences in vitro. In particular, immature DC express CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and migrate in response to macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), whereas mature DC switch expression to CCR7 and respond exclusively to MIP-3beta and 6Ckine. Mature DC transduced to express a marker gene localized to lymph nodes after intradermal injection, constituting 1.5% of lymph node DC. In contrast, cutaneous DC transfected in situ via gene gun were detected in the draining lymph node at a 20-fold lower frequency. Unexpectedly, the state of maturation at the time of injection had no influence on the proportion of DC that localized to draining lymph nodes, as labeled immature and mature DC were detected in equal numbers. Immature DC that trafficked to lymph nodes underwent a significant up-regulation of CD86 expression indicative of spontaneous maturation. Moreover, immature DC exited completely from the dermis within 36 h of injection, whereas mature DC persisted in large numbers associated with a marked inflammatory infiltrate. We conclude that in vitro maturation is not a requirement for effective migration of DC in vivo and suggest that administration of Ag-loaded immature DC that undergo natural maturation following injection may be preferred for DC-based immunotherapy.

  13. Comparison of Ultrastructural Cytotoxic Effects of Carbon and Carbon/Iron Particulates on Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Long, John F.; Waldman, W. James; Kristovich, Robert; Williams, Marshall; Knight, Deborah; Dutta, Prabir K.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of iron in carbon particulates enhances ultrastructural perturbation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) after phagocytosis. We used 1-μm synthetic carbon-based particulates, designed to simulate environmental particulates of mass median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Cultures of human MDMs or T-lymphocytes (as a nonphagocytic control) were exposed to carbon or carbon/iron particulates for various time periods and examined by transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural changes. T-cells failed to internalize either of the particulates and showed no organelle or nuclear changes. Conversely, MDMs avidly phagocytized the particulates. MDMs treated with C particulates exhibited morphologic evidence of macrophage activation but no evidence of lysis of organelles. In contrast, MDMs treated with C/Fe particulates exhibited coalescence of particulate-containing lysosomes. This phenomenon was not observed in the case of C particulates. By 24 hr there was a tendency of the C/Fe particulates to agglomerate into loose or compact clusters. Surrounding the compact C/Fe agglomerates was a uniform zone of nearly total organelle lysis. The lytic changes diminished in proportion to the distance from the agglomerate. In such cells, the nucleus showed loss of chromatin. Although C particles induced no detectable oxidative burst on treated MDMs, C/Fe particles induced a nearly 5-fold increase in the extracellular oxidative burst by treated MDMs compared with untreated controls. Iron bound to C particles catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals. Results of these studies suggest that, among particulates of similar size, biologic activity can vary profoundly as a function of particulate physicochemical properties. PMID:15687054

  14. Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Exposed to Microorganisms Involved in Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Induce a Th1-Polarized Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Pallandre, Jean-René; Borg, Christophe; Loeffert, Sophie; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Millon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunoallergic disease characterized by a prominent interstitial infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytes secreting inflammatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a pivotal role in the lymphocytic response. However, their cross talk with microorganisms that cause HP has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the initial interactions between human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and four microorganisms that are different in nature (Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula [actinomycetes], Mycobacterium immunogenum [mycobacteria], and Wallemia sebi and Eurotium amstelodami [filamentous fungi]) and are involved in HP. Our objectives were to determine the cross talk between MoDCs and HP-causative agents and to determine whether the resulting immune response varied according to the microbial extract tested. The phenotypic activation of MoDCs was measured by the increased expression of costimulatory molecules and levels of cytokines in supernatants. The functional activation of MoDCs was measured by the ability of MoDCs to induce lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation in a mixed lymphocytic reaction (MLR). E. amstelodami-exposed (EA) MoDCs expressed higher percentages of costimulatory molecules than did W. sebi-exposed (WS), S. rectivirgula-exposed (SR), or M. immunogenum-exposed (MI) MoDCs (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). EA-MoDCs, WS-MoDCs, SR-MoDCs, and MI-MoDCs induced CD4+ T cell proliferation and a Th1-polarized immune response. The present study provides evidence that, although differences were initially observed between MoDCs exposed to filamentous fungi and MoDCs exposed to bacteria, a Th1 response was ultimately promoted by DCs regardless of the microbial extract tested. PMID:23720369

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators affect the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gosset, P; Charbonnier, A S; Delerive, P; Fontaine, J; Staels, B; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B; Trottein, F

    2001-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has recently been described as a modulator of macrophage functions and as an inhibitor of T cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of PPARgamma in dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells. We showed that PPARgamma is highly expressed in immature human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) and that it may affect the immunostimulatory function of MDDC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or via CD40 ligand (CD40L). We found that the synthetic PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone (as well as pioglitazone and troglitazone) significantly increases on LPS- and CD40L-activated MDDC, the surface expression of CD36 (by 184% and 104%, respectively) and CD86 (by 54% and 48%), whereas it reduces the synthesis of CD80 (by 42% and 42%). Moreover, activation of PPARgamma resulted in a dramatic decreased secretion of the Th1-promoting factor IL-12 in LPS- and CD40L-stimulated cells (by 47% and 62%), while the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 was unaffected. Finally, PPARgamma ligands down-modulate the synthesis of IFN-gamma -inducible protein-10 (recently termed as CXCL10) and RANTES (CCL5), both chemokines involved in the recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes (by 49% and 30%), but not the levels of the Th2 cell-attracting chemokines,macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (CCL17), in mature MDDC. Taken together, our data suggest that activation of PPARgamma in human DC may have an impact in the orientation of primary and secondary immune responses by favoring type 2 responses.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CPF10 Induce Adenosine Deaminase 2 mRNA Expression in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bae, Mi Jung; Ryu, Suyeon; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Lee, Jaehee

    2017-01-01

    Delayed hypersensitivity plays a large role in the pathogenesis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) increase the levels of adenosine deaminase2 (ADA2) in the pleural fluid of TPE patients. However, it is as yet unclear whether ADA2 can be produced by macrophages when challenged with MTB antigens alone. This study therefore evaluated the levels of ADA2 mRNA expression, using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) stimulated with MTB antigens. Purified monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were differentiated into macrophages using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The MDMs were stimulated with early secretory antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10). The mRNA expression levels for the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene encoding ADA2 were then measured. CECR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in MDMs stimulated with ESAT6 and CFP10, than in the unstimulated MDMs. When stimulated with ESAT6, M-CSF-treated MDMs showed more pronounced CECR1 mRNA expression than GM-CSF-treated MDMs. Interferon-γ decreased the ESAT6- and CFP10-induced CECR1 mRNA expression in MDMs. CECR1 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10, respectively. ADA2 mRNA expression increased when MDMs were stimulated with MTB antigens alone. This partly indicates that pleural fluid ADA levels could increase in patients with culture-negative TPE. Our results may be helpful in improving the understanding of TPE pathogenesis.

  17. Alcohol and Cannabinoids Differentially Affect HIV Infection and Function of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells (MDDC).

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Marisela; Figueroa, Gloria; Yndart, Adriana; Casteleiro, Gianna; Muñoz, Karla; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Atluri, Venkata; Nair, Madhavan P

    2015-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, alcohol has been known to induce inflammation while cannabinoids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role. For instance cannabinoids have been shown to reduce susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and attenuate HIV replication in macrophages. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol induces cannabinoid receptors and regulates cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). However, the ability of alcohol and cannabinoids to alter MDDC function during HIV infection has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to study the potential impact of alcohol and cannabinoids on differentiated MDDC infected with HIV, monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiated MDDC were infected with HIV-1Ba-L and treated with EtOH (0.1 and 0.2%), THC (5 and 10 μM), or JWH-015 (5 and 10 μM) for 4-7 days. HIV infection of MDDC was confirmed by p24 and Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) estimation. MDDC endocytosis assay and cytokine array profiles were measured to investigate the effects of HIV and substances of abuse on MDDC function. Our results show the HIV + EtOH treated MDDC had the highest levels of p24 production and expression when compared with the HIV positive controls and the cannabinoid treated cells. Although both cannabinoids, THC and JWH-015 had lower levels of p24 production and expression, the HIV + JWH-015 treated MDDC had the lowest levels of p24 when compared to the HIV + THC treated cells. In addition, MDDC endocytic function and cytokine production were also differentially altered after alcohol and cannabinoid treatments. Our results show a differential effect of alcohol and cannabinoids, which may provide insights into the divergent inflammatory role of alcohol and cannabinoids to modulate MDDC function in the context of HIV infection.

  18. Induction of suppressive phenotype in monocyte-derived dendritic cells by leukemic cell products and IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Motta, Juliana Maria; Sperandio, Aline; Castelo-Branco, Morgana Teixeira Lima; Rumjanek, Vivian Mary

    2014-07-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in controlling tumors. It is known that solid tumor cell products inhibit DC differentiation. Recently a similar effect produced by leukemic cell products has been demonstrated. In this case, leukemic cell products induced the secretion of IL-1β by monocytes undergoing differentiation. The aim of the present work was to characterize and to compare the development of monocyte-derived DCs under the influence of leukemic cell products (K562 supernatant) or exogenous IL-1β. It became clear that leukemic cell products and IL-1β differentially modulate some of the parameters studied on monocytes stimulated to differentiate into DCs. In the presence of K562 supernatant, the expression of the macrophage markers CD16 and CD68 were higher than in immature DCs control. Contrasting with IL-1β, leukemic cell products possibly favor the development of cells with macrophage markers. In addition, CD80 and CD83 expressions were also higher in the presence of tumor supernatant whereas HLA-DR was lower. In the presence of IL-1β, only CD80 was increased. Furthermore, it was observed that when monocytes were induced to differentiate into DCs in the presence of tumor supernatant and then activated, they expressed less CD80 and CD83 than activated DCs control. A reduced expression of CD83 following activation was also seen in cells differentiated with IL-1β. TGF-β and VEGF were found in the tumor supernatants. Moreover, the exposure to tumor supernatant or IL-1β stimulated IL-10 production while decreased IL-12 production by activated DCs. Finally, these results suggest that the addition of products released by leukemic cells or, more discreetly, the addition of IL-1β affects DC differentiation, inducing a suppressive phenotype.

  19. Candida albicans Induces Selective Development of Macrophages and Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells by a TLR2 Dependent Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, Alberto; Megías, Javier; O'Connor, José-Enrique; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, M. Luisa

    2011-01-01

    As TLRs are expressed by haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), these receptors may play a role in haematopoiesis in response to pathogens during infection. We have previously demonstrated that in in vitro defined conditions inactivated yeasts and hyphae of Candida albicans induce HSPCs proliferation and differentiation towards the myeloid lineage by a TLR2/MyD88 dependent pathway. In this work, we showed that C. albicans invasive infection with a low virulence strain results in a rapid expansion of HSPCs (identified as LKS cells: Lin− c-Kit+ Sca-1+ IL-7Rα−), that reach the maximum at day 3 post-infection. This in vivo expansion of LKS cells in TLR2−/− mice was delayed until day 7 post- infection. Candidiasis was, as expected, accompanied by an increase in granulopoiesis and decreased lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow. These changes were more pronounced in TLR2−/− mice correlating with their higher fungal burden. Accordingly, emigration of Ly6Chigh monocytes and neutrophils to spleen was increased in TLR2−/− mice, although the increase in macrophages and inflammatory macrophages was completely dependent on TLR2. Similarly, we detected for the first time, in the spleen of C. albicans infected control mice, a newly generated population of dendritic cells that have the phenotype of monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) that were not generated in TLR2−/− infected mice. In addition, C. albicans signalling through TLR2/MyD88 and Dectin-1 promotes in vitro the differentiation of Lin− cells towards moDCs that secrete TNF-α and are able to kill the microorganism. Therefore, our results indicate that during infection C. albicans can directly stimulate progenitor cells through TLR2 and Dectin-1 to generate newly formed inflammatory macrophages and moDCs that may fulfill an essential role in defense mechanisms against the pathogen. PMID:21935459

  20. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 induces innate immune responses in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Cao, Weisheng; Tan, Yan; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause lifelong infection and can escape from the host immune defenses in chickens. Since macrophages act as the important defense line against invading pathogens in host innate immunity, we investigated the function and innate immune responses of chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after ALV-J infection in this study. Our results indicated that ALV-J was stably maintained in MDM cells but that the viral growth rate was significantly lower than that in DF-1 cells. We also found that ALV-J infection significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production, but had no effect on MDM phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, infection with ALV-J rapidly promoted the expression levels of Myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx) (3 h, 6 h), ISG12 (6 h), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (3 h, 12 h) at an early infection stage, whereas it sharply decreased the expression of Mx (24 h, 36 h), ISG12 (36 h), and made little change on IL-1β (24 h, 36 h) production at a late infection stage in MDM cells. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon-β (IFN-β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) had sharply increased in infected MDM cells from 3 to 36 h post infection (hpi) of ALV-J. And, the protein level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was dramatically decreased at 36 hpi in MDM cells infected with ALV-J. These results demonstrate that ALV-J can induce host innate immune responses and we hypothesize that macrophages play an important role in host innate immune attack and ALV-J immune escape. PMID:27486255

  1. Leukoreduction system chambers are an efficient, valid, and economic source of functional monocyte-derived dendritic cells and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Isabell A; Zinser, Elisabeth; Strasser, Erwin; Stein, Marcello F; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Knippertz, Ilka

    2013-11-01

    The demand for human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), as well as for primary human B and T lymphocytes for immunological research purposes has been increased in recent years. Classically, these monocytes are isolated from blood, leukapheresis products or buffy coats of healthy donors by plastic adherence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), followed by stimulation with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, while lymphocytes are usually isolated from the non-adherent fraction (NAF) by magnetic cell sorting. However, donor-blood is a limited resource and not every blood bank offers leukapheresis products or buffy coats for laboratory use. Additionally, a leukapheresis is very expensive and also the generation/isolation of cells is time- and cost-intensive. To overcome some of these obstacles, we evaluated if low-cost leukoreduction system chambers (LRSCs), which arise after routine donor plateletpheresis procedures, and are usually discarded, would be an alternative and appropriate source of PBMCs to generate moDCs and to isolate lymphocytes. By analyzing the number and phenotype of immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs), as well as of B and T lymphocytes derived from LRSCs, we found all cells to be of high quantity and quality. Further investigations on DCs comprising transwell migration assays, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR), cytokine secretion assays, and cytotoxic T cell induction assays revealed high migratory, as well as stimulatory capacity of these cells. In addition, DCs and T cells were efficiently electroporated with mRNA and showed characteristic cytokine production after co-culture, demonstrating LRSCs as an efficient, valid, and economic source for generation of moDCs and lymphocytes for research purposes.

  2. Virulent Shigella flexneri causes damage to mitochondria and triggers necrosis in infected human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Koterski, James F; Nahvi, Massoumeh; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Haimovich, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium that causes bacillary dysentery in humans that is characterized by an acute inflammatory response of the colon. The fate of phagocytes that are infected in vitro with virulent Shigella has been the subject of some investigation and debate. In this study we found that virulent Shigella caused a rapid increase in the cell membrane permeability of infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) but not in the cell membrane permeability of monocytes, as demonstrated by the uptake of fluorescent vital dyes. Within 2 h of infection, 59% +/- 6% of the HMDM and

  3. Chemokines and other GPCR ligands synergize in receptor-mediated migration of monocyte-derived immature and mature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gouwy, Mieke; Struyf, Sofie; Leutenez, Lien; Pörtner, Noëmie; Sozzani, Silvano; Van Damme, Jo

    2014-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells, described as the initiators of adaptive immune responses. Immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC) showed decreased CD14 expression, increased cell surface markers DC-SIGN and CD1a and enhanced levels of receptors for the chemokines CCL3 (CCR1/CCR5) and CXCL8 (CXCR1/CXCR2) compared with human CD14⁺ monocytes. After further MDDC maturation by LPS, the markers CD80 and CD83 and the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were upregulated, whereas CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 expression was reduced. CCL3 dose-dependently synergized with CXCL8 or CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC. CXCL12 augmented the CCL3-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in immature MDDC, although the synergy between CCL3 and CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC was dependent on the Akt signaling pathway but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CCL2 also synergized with CXCL12 in immature MDDC migration. Moreover, two CXC chemokines not sharing receptors (CXCL12 and CXCL8) cooperated in immature MDDC chemotaxis, whereas two CC chemokines (CCL3 and CCL7) sharing CCR1 did not. Further, the non-chemokine G protein-coupled receptor ligands chemerin and fMLP synergized with respectively CCL7 and CCL3 in immature MDDC signaling and migration. Finally, CXCL12 and CCL3 did not cooperate, but CXCL12 synergized with CCL21 in mature MDDC chemotaxis. Thus, chemokine synergy in immature and mature MDDC migration is dose-dependently regulated by chemokines via alterations in their chemokine receptor expression pattern according to their role in immune responses.

  4. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx3cr1(+/gfp) blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells, fibrocytes, in promoting pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Strieter, Robert M; Keeley, Ellen C; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-01-01

    The resident fibroblast has been traditionally viewed as the primary cell involved in promoting pulmonary fibrosis. However, contemporary findings now support the concept of a circulating cell (fibrocyte) that also contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell surface markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells and fibroblasts. Fibrocytes are unique in that they are capable of differentiating into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, as well as adipocytes. In this review, we present data supporting the critical role these cells play in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Monocyte-derived hepatocyte-like cells for causality assessment of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Benesic, Andreas; Leitl, Alexandra; Gerbes, Alexander L

    2016-09-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) is a frequent cause of acute liver injury and a serious problem in late stage drug-development. Its diagnosis is one of the most challenging in hepatology, since it is done by exclusion and relies on expert opinion. Until now no reliable in vitro test exists to support the diagnosis of iDILI. In some instances it is impossible to determine the causative drug in polymedicated patients. To investigate if monocyte-derived hepatocyte-like (MH) cells might be a tool supporting clinical judgment for iDILI diagnosis and causality assessment. This prospective study included 54 patients with acute liver injury and intake of at least one drug. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with iDILI based on causality likelihood. MH cells were generated from every patient and in vitro toxicity of the respective drugs was assessed by lactate-dehydrogenase release. The results from MH cells and RUCAM, the most widely used scoring system as methods to support clinical judgement were compared. MH cells showed enhanced toxicity in 29 of the 31 patients with iDILI, similar to RUCAM score. MH cells exhibited negative results in the 23 non-DILI cases, whereas RUCAM indicated possible iDILI in six cases. Analysis of the comedications also showed superior specificity of MH cells. No MH cell toxicity of the drugs showing toxicity in patients with iDILI was observed in MH cells of healthy donors. In this pilot study in vitro testing using MH cells derived from patients with acute liver injury was able to identify patients with iDILI with an excellent sensitivity and a higher specificity than RUCAM, the most widely used current causality assessment score. Therefore, MH cells could be useful to identify the causative drugs even in polymedicated patients by adding objective data to causality assessment. NCT02353455. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. PGE2 differentially regulates monocyte-derived dendritic cell cytokine responses depending on receptor usage (EP2/EP4).

    PubMed

    Poloso, Neil J; Urquhart, Paula; Nicolaou, Anna; Wang, Jenny; Woodward, David F

    2013-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are central players in coordinating immune responses, both innate and adaptive. While the role of lipid mediators in the immune response has been the subject of many investigations, the precise role of prostaglandins has often been plagued by contradictory studies. In this study, we examined the role of PGE(2) on human DC function. Although studies have suggested that PGE(2) specifically plays a role in DC motility and cytokine release profile, the precise receptor usage and signaling pathways involved remain unclear. In this report we found that irrespective of the human donor, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) express three of the four PGE(2) receptor subtypes (EP(2-4)), although only EP(2) and EP(4) were active with respect to cytokine production. Using selective EP receptor antagonists and agonists, we demonstrate that PGE(2) coordinates control of IL-23 release (a promoter of Th17, an autoimmune associated T cell subset) in a dose-dependent manner by differential use of EP(2) and EP(4) receptors in LPS-activated MoDCs. This is in contrast to IL-12, which is dose dependently inhibited by PGE(2) through both receptor subtypes. Low concentrations (∼1-10nM) of PGE(2) promoted IL-23 production via EP(4) receptors, while at higher (>50 nM), but still physiologically relevant concentrations, IL-23 is suppressed by an EP(2) dependent mechanism. These results can be explained by differential regulation of the common subunit, IL-12p40, and IL-23p19, by EP(2) and EP(4). By these means, PGE(2) can act as a regulatory switch of immune responses depending on its concentration in the microenvironment. In addition, we believe these results may also explain why seemingly conflicting biological functions assigned to PGE(2) have been reported in the literature, as the concentration of ligand (PGE(2)) fundamentally alters the nature of the response. This finding also highlights the potential of designing therapeutics which differentially target

  8. HIV-1 gp120 activates the STAT3/interleukin-6 axis in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Del Cornò, Manuela; Donninelli, Gloria; Varano, Barbara; Da Sacco, Letizia; Masotti, Andrea; Gessani, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are fundamental for the initiation of immune responses and are important players in AIDS immunopathogenesis. The modulation of DC functional activities represents a strategic mechanism for HIV-1 to evade immune surveillance. Impairment of DC function may result from bystander effects of HIV-1 envelope proteins independently of direct HIV-1 infection. In this study, we report that exposure of immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) to HIV-1 R5 gp120 resulted in the CCR5-dependent production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/NF-κB pathways. IL-6 in turn activated STAT3 by an autocrine loop. Concomitantly, gp120 promoted an early activation of STAT3 that further contributed to IL-6 induction. This activation paralleled a concomitant upregulation of the STAT3 inhibitor PIAS3. Notably, STAT3/IL-6 pathway activation was not affected by the CCR5-specific ligand CCL4. These results identify STAT3 as a key signaling intermediate activated by gp120 in MDDCs and highlight the existence of a virus-induced dysregulation of the IL-6/STAT3 axis. HIV-1 gp120 signaling through STAT3 may provide an explanation for the impairment of DC function observed upon HIV exposure. This study provides new evidence for the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 gp120 in human DCs in the absence of productive infection, emphasizing a role of aberrant signaling in early virus-host interaction, contributing to viral pathogenesis. We identified STAT3 as a key component in the gp120-mediated signaling cascade involving MAPK and NF-κB components and ultimately leading to IL-6 secretion. STAT3 now is recognized as a key regulator of DC functions. Thus, the identification of this transcription factor as a signaling molecule mediating some of gp120's biological effects unveils a new mechanism by which HIV-1 may deregulate DC functions and contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology

  9. Effects of Filovirus Interferon Antagonists on Responses of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells to RNA Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are major targets of filovirus infection in vivo. Previous studies have shown that the filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) suppress DC maturation in vitro. Both viruses also encode innate immune evasion functions. The EBOV VP35 (eVP35) and the MARV VP35 (mVP35) proteins each can block RIG-I-like receptor signaling and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) production. The EBOV VP24 (eVP24) and MARV VP40 (mVP40) proteins each inhibit the production of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) by blocking Jak-STAT signaling; however, this occurs by different mechanisms, with eVP24 blocking nuclear import of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and mVP40 blocking Jak1 function. MARV VP24 (mVP24) has been demonstrated to modulate host cell antioxidant responses. Previous studies demonstrated that eVP35 is sufficient to strongly impair primary human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) responses upon stimulation induced through the RIG-I-like receptor pathways. We demonstrate that mVP35, like eVP35, suppresses not only IFN-α/β production but also proinflammatory responses after stimulation of MDDCs with RIG-I activators. In contrast, eVP24 and mVP40, despite suppressing ISG production upon RIG-I activation, failed to block upregulation of maturation markers or T cell activation. mVP24, although able to stimulate expression of antioxidant response genes, had no measurable impact of DC function. These data are consistent with a model where filoviral VP35 proteins are the major suppressors of DC maturation during filovirus infection, whereas the filoviral VP24 proteins and mVP40 are insufficient to prevent DC maturation. IMPORTANCE The ability to suppress the function of dendritic cells (DCs) likely contributes to the pathogenesis of disease caused by the filoviruses Ebola virus and Marburg virus. To clarify the basis for this DC suppression, we assessed the effect of filovirus proteins known to antagonize innate immune signaling pathways, including Ebola

  10. Pimecrolimus does not affect the differentiation, maturation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, in contrast to corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    KALTHOFF, F S; CHUNG, J; MUSSER, P; STUETZ, A

    2003-01-01

    Clinically, corticosteroids (CS) are among the first line drugs in the therapy of autoimmune and allergic diseases and potently inhibit the activation of immune cells. However, due to their pleiotropic mode of action, the prolonged use of CS is generally associated with a range of undesirable side-effects. In this study, we compared the activity of pimecrolimus, a novel immunomodulatory drug for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, and the CS dexamethasone (Dex) and beta-methasone-valerate (β-MSV) in different in vitro assays addressing the cytokine-induced differentiation and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (M-DC), the susceptibility of M-DC to drug-induced apoptosis and the potency of differentiated M-DC to induce primary T cell activation. In contrast to pimecrolimus, Dex and β-MSV strongly induced apoptosis of M-DC precursors if added at the start of the DC differentiation culture. Flow cytometric analysis of surviving cells on day 6 of culture showed that the expression of several DC-specific antigens such as CD1a, CD40 and CD80 was inhibited by 50% to 80% at concentrations between 1 nm and 10 nm of either Dex or β-MSV. Furthermore, the presence of CS during the final maturation of M-DC inhibited the synthesis of IL-12p70, the expression of critical DC costimulatory molecules, such as CD83 and CD86 and impaired their ability to activate primary CD4+ T cell proliferation. In contrast, pimecrolimus did not inhibit the LPS-induced secretion of IL-12, surface expression of costimulatory molecules or the maturation of M-DC into potent stimulators of T cells. Taken together, these data indicate that pimecrolimus does not interfere with the differentiation and viability of dendritic cells and their precursors or with the function of mature M-DC to prime naïve T lymphocytes, and thus may have a lower potential than CS to interfere with DC-mediated immunosurveillance. PMID:12930360

  11. Immunocytochemical traits of type IV fibrocytes and their possible relations to cochlear function and pathology.

    PubMed

    Adams, Joe C

    2009-09-01

    One of the more consistent and least understood changes in the aging human cochlea is the progressive loss of fibrocytes within the spiral ligament. This report presents an animal model for type IV fibrocyte loss, along with immunocytochemical evidence that noise-induced loss of these cells may account for previously unexplained hearing losses. The remarkably low threshold for noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes, approximately 24 dB less than the threshold for adjacent hair cell destruction, may account for the prevalence of missing fibrocytes in humans. In mice, changes in the spectrum of traumatizing noise had little effect upon the site of loss of the fibrocytes, suggesting that the primary site of damage that induced the loss was the basal-most cochlear turn, a site expected to be damaged by all three noise bands. Type IV fibrocytes were found to immunostain for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and for transforming growth factor beta receptor 3, a receptor that is known to activate CTGF expression. Type IV fibrocytes lack immunostaining for adenosine triphosphatase and connexins that are key players in potassium ion uptake and transmission, which suggests that they play little, if any, role in potassium recycling from perilymphatic space to the endolymphatic space. Consequently, their loss probably does not directly reduce this process. Immunostaining for a receptor for CTGF, low-density-lipoprotein-related protein 1, indicated that CTGF acts as an autocrine and a paracrine agent within the cochlea. The lack of CTGF paracrine effects following noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes may account for previously unexplained hearing losses.

  12. Adoptive transfer of fibrocytes enhances splenic T-cell numbers and survival in septic peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Nemzek, Jean A; Fry, Christopher; Moore, Bethany B

    2013-08-01

    Fibrocytes are unique, fibroblast-like cells with diverse functions and the potential for immunomodulation, which prompted investigation of their previously unexplored role in sepsis. Specifically, the study goals were to determine if adoptive transfer of fibrocytes would affect outcome in sepsis and to define relevant immunopathologic changes associated with the outcomes. Initial in vitro studies demonstrated that naive T-cell proliferation was significantly increased in cocultures with tissue-derived fibrocytes as compared with culture either alone or with fibroblasts. In vivo, the adoptive transfer of fibrocytes at the time of cecal ligation and puncture significantly improved survival of mice compared with transfer of fibroblasts or saline. Septic mice had lower blood levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and markers of organ injury after fibrocyte transfer as well as a reduced bacterial burden. Locally, peritoneal lavage fluid yielded lower bacterial counts, lower IL-6, and reduced inflammatory cell counts when fibrocyte transfer was compared with saline. This was also accompanied by significant increases in splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In vitro stimulation of the splenic T cells demonstrated that, after cecal ligation and puncture and adoptive transfer, the percentages of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with intracellular interferon γ were increased, whereas those with IL-4 remained similar between the groups. Therefore, it appears the adoptive transfer of fibrocytes improves sepsis survival, lowers bacterial burden, and promotes the proliferation of splenic T cells with a T(H)1 phenotype. These results confirm the immunomodulatory effects of exogenous, tissue-derived fibrocytes in sepsis and suggest their potential in cell therapy.

  13. Circulating fibrocytes traffic to the lungs in response to CXCL12 and mediate fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Roderick J; Burdick, Marie D; Hong, Kurt; Lutz, Marin A; Murray, Lynne A; Xue, Ying Ying; Belperio, John A; Keane, Michael P; Strieter, Robert M

    2004-08-01

    Previous reports have identified a circulating pool of CD45(+) collagen I(+) CXCR4(+) (CD45(+)Col I(+)CXCR4(+)) cells, termed fibrocytes, that traffic to areas of fibrosis. No studies have demonstrated that these cells actually contribute to fibrosis, however. Pulmonary fibrosis was originally thought to be mediated solely by resident lung fibroblasts. Here we show that a population of human CD45(+)Col I(+)CXCR4(+) circulating fibrocytes migrates in response to CXCL12 and traffics to the lungs in a murine model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Next, we demonstrated that murine CD45(+)Col I(+)CXCR4(+) fibrocytes also traffic to the lungs in response to a bleomycin challenge. Maximal intrapulmonary recruitment of CD45(+)Col I(+)CXCR4(+) fibrocytes directly correlated with increased collagen deposition in the lungs. Treatment of bleomycin-exposed animals with specific neutralizing anti-CXCL12 Ab's inhibited intrapulmonary recruitment of CD45(+)Col I(+)CXCR4(+) circulating fibrocytes and attenuated lung fibrosis. Thus, our results demonstrate, we believe for the first time, that circulating fibrocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. Fibrocyte CXCR4 regulation as a therapeutic target in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mehrad, Borna; Burdick, Marie D; Strieter, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases are characterized by progressive decline in lung function and premature death from respiratory failure. Fibrocytes are circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that traffic to the lungs and contribute to fibrosis and may represent novel therapeutic targets in these diseases. We have previously found the recruitment of fibrocytes to the lung to be dependent on the chemokine ligand CXCL12. Given that the expression of the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, can be modulated pharmacologically in other cell types, we tested the hypotheses that the regulation of CXCR4 expression on fibrocytes mediates their influx to the lung in the context of pulmonary fibrosis and that pharmacologic inhibition of this process results in attenuated disease severity. CXCR4 was the predominant chemokine receptor on human fibrocytes, and its expression on fibrocytes was enhanced by hypoxia and by growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor. Both hypoxia-induced and growth factor-induced CXCR4 expressions were attenuated by specific inhibition of PI3-kinase and mTOR. Finally, in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin resulted in reduced numbers of CXCR4-expressing fibrocytes in the peripheral blood and lung as well as reduced lung collagen deposition. Taken together, these experiments support the notion that pharmacologic inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 biological axis is achievable in human fibrocytes and reduces the magnitude of pulmonary fibrosis in an animal model. This approach may hold promise in human fibrotic lung diseases.

  15. Cross-linking of CD32 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via NF-kappa B signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bánki, Zoltán; Kacani, Laco; Müllauer, Brigitte; Wilflingseder, Doris; Obermoser, Gerlinde; Niederegger, Harald; Schennach, Harald; Sprinzl, Georg M; Sepp, Norbert; Erdei, Anna; Dierich, Manfred P; Stoiber, Heribert

    2003-04-15

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent a unique set of APCs that initiate immune responses through priming of naive T cells. Maturation of DC is a crucial step during Ag presentation and can be induced by triggering a broad spectrum of DC surface receptors. Although human DC express several receptors for the Fc portion of IgG which were described to play an important role in Ag internalization, little is known about the effects of IgG or immune complexes on DC maturation. In this study, we show that cross-linking of FcgammaR-type II (CD32) with immobilized IgG (imIgG) can induce maturation of human monocyte-derived DC via the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. IgG-mediated maturation was accompanied by a moderate increase of IL-10 secretion, whereas no IL-12 production was observed. Involvement of CD32 was further supported by experiments with the anti-CD32 mAb, which blocked IgG-triggered DC maturation and cytokine secretion significantly. Furthermore, DC cultivated in the presence of imIgG induced allogeneic T cell proliferation. Because this imIgG-induced maturation was considerably impaired in monocyte-derived DC from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, we suggest that DC, which matured in the presence of immune complexes, may contribute to prevention of pathological immune responses.

  16. Human plasma enhances the infectivity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S C; Spouge, J L; Conley, S R; Tsai, W P; Merges, M J; Nara, P L

    1995-01-01

    Physiological microenvironments such as blood, seminal plasma, mucosal secretions, or lymphatic fluids may influence the biology of the virus-host cell and immune interactions for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Relative to media, physiological levels of human plasma were found to enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 primary isolates in both phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Enhancement was observed only when plasma was present during the virus-cell incubation and resulted in a 3- to 30-fold increase in virus titers in all of the four primary isolates tested. Both infectivity and virion binding experiments demonstrated a slow, time-dependent process generally requiring between 1 and 10 h. Human plasma collected in anticoagulants CPDA-1 and heparin, but not EDTA, exhibited this effect at concentrations from 90 to 40%. Furthermore, heat-inactivated plasma resulted in a loss of enhancement in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not in monocyte-derived macrophages. Physiological concentrations of human plasma appear to recruit additional infectivity, thus increasing the infectious potential of the virus inoculum. PMID:7666510

  17. Losartan attenuates human monocyte-derived dendritic cell immune maturation via downregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Lu, Hao; Liu, Hongying; Yao, Kang; Sun, Aijun; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2012-08-01

    The angiotensin II receptor-1 blockers have generally been shown to have antiatherogenic effects, and dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen presenting cells that play an active role in the development of atherosclerosis through inflammatory-immune responses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the antiatherogenic effect of losartan, the first angiotensin II receptor-1 blockers, might partly be mediated by attenuating DCs maturation. In this study, we showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and angiotensin II (Ang II) could induce the maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs, stimulate CD83, HLA-DR expressions and IL-12, interferon-gamma secretions and increase the capacity of DCs to stimulate T-cell proliferation, which were suppressed by losartan. OxLDL could promote the autocrine secretion of Ang II by DCs and upregulate the expressions of 3 scavenger receptors SR-A, CD36, and LOX-1. Losartan reduced oxLDL-induced LOX-1 expression but not SR-A and CD36 expressions. Ang II could only upregulate the LOX-1 expression, which was reduced by losartan. OxLDL- and Ang II-induced upregulation of CD83 and secretion of IL-12 were all attenuated by LOX-1 neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, losartan could attenuate the oxLDL- and Ang II-induced immune maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs partly through downregulation of the LOX-1 expression.

  18. Treatment with Dexamethasone and Monophosphoryl Lipid A Removes Disease-Associated Transcriptional Signatures in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Confers Tolerogenic Features.

    PubMed

    García-González, Paulina A; Schinnerling, Katina; Sepúlveda-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Maggi, Jaxaira; Hoyos, Lorena; Morales, Rodrigo A; Mehdi, Ahmed M; Nel, Hendrik J; Soto, Lilian; Pesce, Bárbara; Molina, María Carmen; Cuchacovich, Miguel; Larrondo, Milton L; Neira, Óscar; Catalán, Diego Francisco; Hilkens, Catharien M; Thomas, Ranjeny; Verdugo, Ricardo A; Aguillón, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) are promising tools for therapy of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we characterize monocyte-derived TolDCs from RA patients modulated with dexamethasone and activated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), referred to as MPLA-tDCs, in terms of gene expression, phenotype, cytokine profile, migratory properties, and T cell-stimulatory capacity in order to explore their suitability for cellular therapy. MPLA-tDCs derived from RA patients displayed an anti-inflammatory profile with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and high IL-10/IL-12 ratio, but were capable of migrating toward the lymphoid chemokines CXCL12 and CCL19. These MPLA-tDCs induced hyporesponsiveness of autologous CD4+ T cells specific for synovial antigens in vitro. Global transcriptome analysis confirmed a unique transcriptional profile of MPLA-tDCs and revealed that RA-associated genes, which were upregulated in untreated DCs from RA patients, returned to expression levels of healthy donor-derived DCs after treatment with dexamethasone and MPLA. Thus, monocyte-derived DCs from RA patients have the capacity to develop tolerogenic features at transcriptional as well as at translational level, when modulated with dexamethasone and MPLA, overcoming disease-related effects. Furthermore, the ability of MPLA-tDCs to impair T cell responses to synovial antigens validates their potential as cellular treatment for RA.

  19. Treatment with Dexamethasone and Monophosphoryl Lipid A Removes Disease-Associated Transcriptional Signatures in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Confers Tolerogenic Features

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Paulina A.; Schinnerling, Katina; Sepúlveda-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Maggi, Jaxaira; Hoyos, Lorena; Morales, Rodrigo A.; Mehdi, Ahmed M.; Nel, Hendrik J.; Soto, Lilian; Pesce, Bárbara; Molina, María Carmen; Cuchacovich, Miguel; Larrondo, Milton L.; Neira, Óscar; Catalán, Diego Francisco; Hilkens, Catharien M.; Thomas, Ranjeny; Verdugo, Ricardo A.; Aguillón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) are promising tools for therapy of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we characterize monocyte-derived TolDCs from RA patients modulated with dexamethasone and activated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), referred to as MPLA-tDCs, in terms of gene expression, phenotype, cytokine profile, migratory properties, and T cell-stimulatory capacity in order to explore their suitability for cellular therapy. MPLA-tDCs derived from RA patients displayed an anti-inflammatory profile with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and high IL-10/IL-12 ratio, but were capable of migrating toward the lymphoid chemokines CXCL12 and CCL19. These MPLA-tDCs induced hyporesponsiveness of autologous CD4+ T cells specific for synovial antigens in vitro. Global transcriptome analysis confirmed a unique transcriptional profile of MPLA-tDCs and revealed that RA-associated genes, which were upregulated in untreated DCs from RA patients, returned to expression levels of healthy donor-derived DCs after treatment with dexamethasone and MPLA. Thus, monocyte-derived DCs from RA patients have the capacity to develop tolerogenic features at transcriptional as well as at translational level, when modulated with dexamethasone and MPLA, overcoming disease-related effects. Furthermore, the ability of MPLA-tDCs to impair T cell responses to synovial antigens validates their potential as cellular treatment for RA. PMID:27826300

  20. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents the following lists of distinguished books: "Best Books of 1998"; "Best Young Adult Books"; "Notable Children's Videos"; "Best Children's Books"; "Notable Recordings for Children"; "Notable Software and Web Sites for Children"; "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult…

  1. Functional interaction of cockroach allergens and mannose receptor (CD206) in human circulating fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Chang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Plunkett, Beverly; Huang, Shau-Ku; Gao, Pei-Song

    2013-01-01

    The innate pattern recognition C-type-lectin receptors (CLRs), including mannose receptor (MRC1; CD206), have been suggested to functionally interact with allergens and are critical in controlling immune response. Fibrocytes have been considered to play a role in allergic asthma. Here we sought to investigate the functional interaction of cockroach allergens with CD206 in fibrocytes. Profiling of N-linked glycans from natural purified cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was accomplished by MALDI-MS. The binding activity of cockroach allergens to CD206 was determined by solid-phase binding assays. Levels of CD206 expression on human fibrocytes and CD206 mediated signaling and cytokine production in Bla g 2 treated fibrocytes were determined. Profiling of N-linked glycans from Bla g 2 revealed a predominance of small, mannose-terminated glycans with and without fucose. Significant binding of Bla g 2 to CD206 was observed, which was inhibited by yeast mannan (a known CD206 ligand), free mannose, and a blocking antibody (anti-hMR). Flow cytometric analyses of human fibrocytes (CD45(+) and collagen-1(+)) showed selective expression of CD206 on fibrocytes. Functionally, a concentration-dependent uptake of FITC labeled Bla g 2 by fibrocytes was observed, but was significantly inhibited by anti-hMR. Bla g 2 can stimulate up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB/p65), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), ERK, and JNK in cultured fibrocytes. This increased secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK was significantly inhibited by the addition of either mannan or mannose. Furthermore, Bla g 2 induced increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was also inhibited by the use of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK inhibitors. These results provide evidence supporting the existence of a functional cockroach allergen-CD206 axis in human fibrocytes, suggesting a role for CD206 in regulating allergen

  2. Functional Interaction of Cockroach Allergens and Mannose Receptor (CD206) in Human Circulating Fibrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Chang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Plunkett, Beverly; Huang, Shau-Ku; Gao, Pei-Song

    2013-01-01

    Background The innate pattern recognition C-type-lectin receptors (CLRs), including mannose receptor (MRC1; CD206), have been suggested to functionally interact with allergens and are critical in controlling immune response. Fibrocytes have been considered to play a role in allergic asthma. Here we sought to investigate the functional interaction of cockroach allergens with CD206 in fibrocytes. Methods Profiling of N-linked glycans from natural purified cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was accomplished by MALDI-MS. The binding activity of cockroach allergens to CD206 was determined by solid-phase binding assays. Levels of CD206 expression on human fibrocytes and CD206 mediated signaling and cytokine production in Bla g 2 treated fibrocytes were determined. Results Profiling of N-linked glycans from Bla g 2 revealed a predominance of small, mannose-terminated glycans with and without fucose. Significant binding of Bla g 2 to CD206 was observed, which was inhibited by yeast mannan (a known CD206 ligand), free mannose, and a blocking antibody (anti-hMR). Flow cytometric analyses of human fibrocytes (CD45+ and collagen-1+) showed selective expression of CD206 on fibrocytes. Functionally, a concentration-dependent uptake of FITC labeled Bla g 2 by fibrocytes was observed, but was significantly inhibited by anti-hMR. Bla g 2 can stimulate up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB/p65), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), ERK, and JNK in cultured fibrocytes. This increased secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK was significantly inhibited by the addition of either mannan or mannose. Furthermore, Bla g 2 induced increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was also inhibited by the use of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK inhibitors. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the existence of a functional cockroach allergen-CD206 axis in human fibrocytes, suggesting a role

  3. Fibrocytes are a potential source of lung fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; de Alba, Carolina García; Nihlberg, Kristian; Becerril, Carina; Ramírez, Remedios; Pardo, Annie; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Selman, Moisés

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma. However, the sources of fibroblasts in IPF lungs are unclear. Fibrocytes are circulating progenitors of fibroblasts implicated in wound healing and fibrosis. In this study we evaluated evidence for the presence of fibrocytes in the lung of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Fibrocytes were identified in tissues in 8 out of 9 fibrotic lungs. Combinations including CXCR4 and a mesenchymal marker stained significantly more fibrocytes/mm(2) of tissue compared with combinations using CD34 or CD45RO with mesenchymal markers: CXCR4/procollagen-I (10.3+/-2.9fibrocytes/mm(2)) and CXCR4/prolyl-4-hydroxylase (4.1+/-3.1), versus CD34/procollagen-I (2.8+/-3.0), CD34/alphaSMA (2.2+/-1.6) and CD45RO/prolyl-4-hydroxylase (1.3+/-1.6); p<0.003. There was a positive correlation between the abundance of fibroblastic foci and the amount of lung fibrocytes (r=0.79; p<0.02). No fibrocytes were identified in normal lungs. The fibrocyte attractant chemokine CXCL12 increased in plasma [median: 2707.5pg/ml (648.1-4884.7) versus 1751.5pg/ml (192.9-2686.0) from healthy controls; p<0.003)] and was detectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 40% of the patients but not in controls. In the lung CXCL12 was strongly expressed by alveolar epithelial cells. A negative correlation between plasma levels of CXCL12 with lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r=-0.56; p<0.03) and oxygen saturation on exercise was found (r=-0.41; p<0.04). These findings indicate that circulating fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, may contribute to the expansion of the fibroblast/myofibroblast population in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Infection of monocyte-derived macrophages with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Monocyte-tropic and lymphocyte-tropic strains of HIV-1 show distinctive patterns of replication in a panel of cell types.

    PubMed

    Collman, R; Hassan, N F; Walker, R; Godfrey, B; Cutilli, J; Hastings, J C; Friedman, H; Douglas, S D; Nathanson, N

    1989-10-01

    To characterize the host range of different strains of HIV-1, we have used four types of cells, primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), primary PBL, a promonocyte cell line (U937), and a CD4+ T cell line (SUP-T1). These cells were infected with three prototype strains of HIV-1, a putative lymphocyte-tropic strain (IIIB), and two putative monocyte-tropic strains (SF162 and DV). Infections were monitored by assays for infectious virus, for cell-free and cell-associated viral antigen (p24), and for the proportion of cells infected by immunohistochemical staining. It was concluded that: (a) the use of four different cell types provides a useful biological matrix for distinguishing the tropism of different strains of HIV-1; this matrix yields more information than the infection of any single cell type. (b) A monocyte-tropic strain of HIV-1, such as strain SF162, shows a reciprocal host range when compared with a lymphocyte-tropic strain such as IIIB; strain SF162 replicates well in primary MDM but not in U937 or SUP-T1 cells, while strain IIIB replicates well in both U937 and SUP-T1 cells but not in MDM. (c) Both lymphocyte-tropic and monocyte-tropic strains of HIV-1 replicate well in PBL. (d) The promonocyte cell line, U937, and the T cell line, SUP-T1, differ markedly from primary cells, such as MDM and PBL, in their ability to support the replication of different strains of HIV-1; these cell lines cannot be used as surrogates for primary cells in host range studies of HIV-1 strains.

  5. The role of circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells (fibrocytes) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Strieter, Robert M; Keeley, Ellen C; Hughes, Molly A; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-11-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is associated with a number of disorders that affect the lung. Although there are several cellular types that are involved in the pathogenesis pulmonary fibrosis, the resident lung fibroblast has been viewed traditionally as the primary cell involved in promoting the deposition of ECM that culminates in pulmonary fibrosis. However, recent findings demonstrate that a circulating cell (i.e., the fibrocyte) can contribute to the evolution of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell-surface markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and fibroblasts. Fibrocytes are unique in that they are capable of differentiating into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, as well as adipocytes. In this review, we present data supporting the critical role these cells play in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Regulatory T cells reduce acute lung injury fibroproliferation by decreasing fibrocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Brian T; D'Alessio, Franco R; Mock, Jason R; Files, D Clark; Chau, Eric; Eto, Yoshiki; Drummond, M Bradley; Aggarwal, Neil R; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; King, Landon S

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Fibroproliferation in ALI results in worse outcomes, but the mechanisms governing fibroproliferation remain poorly understood. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in lung injury resolution. Their role in fibroproliferation is unknown. We sought to identify the role of Tregs in ALI fibroproliferation, using a murine model of lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and lymphocyte-deficient Rag-1(-/-) mice received intratracheal LPS. Fibroproliferation was characterized by histology and the measurement of lung collagen. Lung fibrocytes were measured by flow cytometry. To dissect the role of Tregs in fibroproliferation, Rag-1(-/-) mice received CD4(+)CD25(+) (Tregs) or CD4(+)CD25(-) Tcells (non-Tregs) at the time of LPS injury. To define the role of the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)-CXCR4 pathway in ALI fibroproliferation, Rag-1(-/-) mice were treated with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 to block fibrocyte recruitment. WT and Rag-1(-/-) mice demonstrated significant collagen deposition on Day 3 after LPS. WT mice exhibited the clearance of collagen, but Rag-1(-/-) mice developed persistent fibrosis. This fibrosis was mediated by the sustained epithelial expression of CXCL12 (or stromal cell-derived factor 1 [SDF-1]) that led to increased fibrocyte recruitment. The adoptive transfer of Tregs resolved fibroproliferation by decreasing CXCL12 expression and subsequent fibrocyte recruitment. Blockade of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis with AMD3100 also decreased lung fibrocytes and fibroproliferation. These results indicate a central role for Tregs in the resolution of ALI fibroproliferation by reducing fibrocyte recruitment along the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. A dissection of the role of Tregs in ALI fibroproliferation may inform the design of new therapeutic tools for patients with ALI.

  7. Role of platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor axis in the trafficking of circulating fibrocytes in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Aono, Yoshinori; Kishi, Masami; Yokota, Yuki; Azuma, Momoyo; Kinoshita, Katsuhiro; Takezaki, Akio; Sato, Seidai; Kawano, Hiroshi; Kishi, Jun; Goto, Hisatsugu; Uehara, Hisanori; Izumi, Keisuke; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Circulating fibrocytes have been reported to migrate into the injured lungs, and contribute to fibrogenesis via CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. In contrast, we report that imatinib mesylate prevented bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), even when it was administered only in the early phase. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) might directly contribute to the migration of fibrocytes to the injured lungs. PDGFR expression in fibrocytes was examined by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. The migration of fibrocytes was evaluated by using a chemotaxis assay for human fibrocytes isolated from peripheral blood. The numbers of fibrocytes triple-stained for CD45, collagen-1, and CXCR4 were also examined in lung digests of BLM-treated mice. PDGFR mRNA levels in fibrocytes isolated from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were investigated by real-time PCR. Fibrocytes expressed both PDGFR-α and -β, and migrated in response to PDGFs. PDGFR inhibitors (imatinib, PDGFR-blocking antibodies) suppressed fibrocyte migration in vitro, and reduced the number of fibrocytes in the lungs of BLM-treated mice. PDGF-BB was a stronger chemoattractant than the other PDGFs in vitro, and anti-PDGFR-β-blocking antibody decreased the numbers of fibrocytes in the lungs compared with anti-PDGFR-α antibody in vivo. Marked expression of PDGFR-β was observed in fibrocytes from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with healthy subjects. These results suggest that PDGF directly functions as a strong chemoattractant for fibrocytes. In particular, the PDGF-BB-PDGFR-β biological axis might play a critical role in fibrocyte migration into the fibrotic lungs.

  8. Splenic differentiation and emergence of CCR5+CXCL9+CXCL10+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the brain during cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Hirako, Isabella C.; Ataide, Marco A.; Faustino, Lucas; Assis, Patricia A.; Sorensen, Elizabeth W.; Ueta, Hisashi; Araújo, Natalia M.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Luster, Andrew D.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells have an important role in immune surveillance. After being exposed to microbial components, they migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and activate T lymphocytes. Here we show that during mouse malaria, splenic inflammatory monocytes differentiate into monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO-DCs), which are CD11b+F4/80+CD11c+MHCIIhighDC-SIGNhighLy6c+ and express high levels of CCR5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 (CCR5+CXCL9/10+ MO-DCs). We propose that malaria-induced splenic MO-DCs take a reverse migratory route. After differentiation in the spleen, CCR5+CXCL9/10+ MO-DCs traffic to the brain in a CCR2-independent, CCR5-dependent manner, where they amplify the influx of CD8+ T lymphocytes, leading to a lethal neuropathological syndrome. PMID:27808089

  9. Dynamic interplay among monocyte-derived, dermal, and resident lymph node dendritic cells during the generation of vaccine immunity to fungi.

    PubMed

    Ersland, Karen; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S

    2010-06-25

    Early innate events that enable priming of antifungal CD4 T cells are poorly understood. We engineered an attenuated fungal vaccine with a model epitope, EalphaRFP, to track vaccine immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis during yeast recognition, antigen presentation, and priming of naive T cells. After subcutaneous injection of the vaccine, monocyte-derived inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) are the earliest and largest population that associates with yeast, carrying them into the draining lymph nodes. Despite marked association with yeast, these DCs fail to display surface peptide:MHC complexes or prime naive T cells. Instead, the ability to display antigen and prime CD4 T cells resides with lymph node-resident DCs after antigen transfer from immigrant DCs and with skin migratory DCs. Our work reveals the dynamic interplay among distinct DC subsets that prime naive CD4 T cells after yeast are injected in the skin and discloses the cellular elements underlying vaccine-induced immunity to fungi.

  10. The tumor-associated antigen RHAMM (HMMR/CD168) is expressed by monocyte-derived dendritic cells and presented to T cells

    PubMed Central

    Willemen, Yannick; Van den Bergh, Johan M.J.; Bonte, Sarah M.; Anguille, Sébastien; Heirman, Carlo; Stein, Barbara M.H.; Goossens, Herman; Kerre, Tessa; Thielemans, Kris; Peeters, Marc; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F.I.

    2016-01-01

    We formerly demonstrated that vaccination with Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1)-loaded autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) can be a well-tolerated effective treatment in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Here, we investigated whether we could introduce the receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR/CD168), another clinically relevant tumor-associated antigen, into these mo-DCs through mRNA electroporation and elicit RHAMM-specific immune responses. While RHAMM mRNA electroporation significantly increased RHAMM protein expression by mo-DCs, our data indicate that classical mo-DCs already express and present RHAMM at sufficient levels to activate RHAMM-specific T cells, regardless of electroporation. Moreover, we found that RHAMM-specific T cells are present at vaccination sites in AML patients. Our findings implicate that we and others who are using classical mo-DCs for cancer immunotherapy are already vaccinating against RHAMM. PMID:27659531

  11. Maturation of the viral core enhances the fusion of HIV-1 particles with primary human T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Jiyang; Aiken, Christopher . E-mail: chris.aiken@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-03-15

    HIV-1 infection requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes in a reaction catalyzed by the viral envelope proteins gp120 and gp41. We recently reported that efficient HIV-1 particle fusion with target cells is linked to maturation of the viral core by an activity of the gp41 cytoplasmic domain. Here, we show that maturation enhances the fusion of a variety of recombinant viruses bearing primary and laboratory-adapted Env proteins with primary human CD4{sup +} T cells. Overall, HIV-1 fusion was more dependent on maturation for viruses bearing X4-tropic envelope proteins than for R5-tropic viruses. Fusion of HIV-1 with monocyte-derived macrophages was also dependent on particle maturation. We conclude that the ability to couple fusion to particle maturation is a common feature of HIV-1 Env proteins and may play an important role during HIV-1 replication in vivo.

  12. In vitro evidence for the protective role of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjisinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate protective role of S. rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) leaf extract against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) induced macrophage apoptosis. Copper and cell-mediated LDL oxidation, Ox-LDL-induced peroxyl radical generation, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were assessed in presence of SR extract. Results clearly indicated that SR was capable of reducing LDL oxidation and formation of intermediary oxidation products. Also, SR successfully attenuated peroxyl radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear condensation, and apoptosis in Ox-LDL-exposed HMDMs. This scientific report is the first detailed investigation that establishes anti-atherosclerotic potential of SR extract.

  13. Surface modification of biomaterials based on high-molecular polylactic acid and their effect on inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages: perspective for personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Stankevich, Ksenia S; Gudima, Alexandru; Filimonov, Victor D; Klüter, Harald; Mamontova, Evgeniya M; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) based implants can cause inflammatory complications. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that control inflammation. To provide higher biocompatibility of PLA-based implants with local innate immune cells their surface properties have to be improved. In our study surface modification technique for high-molecular PLA (MW=1,646,600g/mol) based biomaterials was originally developed and successfully applied. Optimal modification conditions were determined. Treatment of PLA films with toluene/ethanol=3/7 mixture for 10min with subsequent exposure in 0.001M brilliant green dye (BGD) solution allows to entrap approximately 10(-9)mol/cm(2) model biomolecules. The modified PLA film surface was characterized by optical microscopy, SERS, FT-IR, UV and TG/DTA/DSC analysis. Tensile strain of modified films was determined as well. The effect of PLA films modified with BGD on the inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated. We developed in vitro test-system by differentiating primary monocyte-derived macrophages on a coating material. Type 1 and type 2 inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, CCL18) secretion and histological biomarkers (CD206, stabilin-1) expression were analyzed by ELISA and confocal microscopy respectively. BGD-modified materials have improved thermal stability and good mechanical properties. However, BGD modifications induced additional donor-specific inflammatory reactions and suppressed tolerogenic phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, our test-system successfully demonstrated specific immunomodulatory effects of original and modified PLA-based biomaterials, and can be further applied for the examination of improved coatings for implants and identification of patient-specific reactions to implants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Moraxella catarrhalis stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E from human respiratory epithelial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fink, Joshua; Mathaba, Leslie T; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Graham, Peter T; Steer, James H; Joyce, David A; McWilliam, Andrew S

    2006-03-01

    The outer membrane proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis, a bacterial pathogen which causes disease in both children and adults, play an important role in its phenotypic properties. However, their proinflammatory potential with regard to respiratory epithelium and macrophages is unclear. To this end, we examined the cytokine- and mediator-inducing capacity of a heat-killed wild-type M. catarrhalis strain and a nonautoagglutinating mutant as well as their outer membrane proteins and secretory/excretory products using the A549 respiratory epithelial cell line. The outer membrane proteins and secretory/excretory products from both isolates as well as the heat-killed bacteria all induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin E2, but not IL-1beta, from the A549 cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Heat-killed bacteria and secretory/excretory products stimulated the release of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin E2 from human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both heat-killed isolates also stimulated nuclear translocation and transactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB. The heat-killed wild-type autoagglutinating isolate induced significantly greater amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 from A549 cells than the nonautoagglutinating mutant compared with the monocyte-derived macrophages but no significant differences in the amounts induced by the two strains were observed. These differences were also evident when the respiratory cell line was stimulated with outer membrane proteins as well as in the degree of nuclear factor-kappaB transactivation. There was little difference in the stimulatory activity of the secretory/excretory products. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses revealed some differences in the outer membrane proteins and secretory excretory products between the two isolates. Combined, these data show that M. catarrhalis secretory excretory products and outer membrane proteins are associated with the induction of inflammatory

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on differentiation, maturation and endocytosis of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Mohsen; Masoud, Ahmad; Shakiba, Yadollah; Hadjati, Jamshid; Mohyeddin Bonab, Mandana; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Latifpour, Mostafa; Nikbin, Behrooz

    2013-03-01

    The Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord is believed to be a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can be therapeutically applied in degenerative diseases.In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of umbilical cord derived-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on differentiation, maturation, and endocytosis of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in a transwell culture system under laboratory conditions. Monocytes were differentiated into immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days and then differentiated into mature dendritic cells (mDCs) in the presence of TNF-α for 2 days. In every stage of differentiation, immature and mature dendritic cells were separately co-cultured with UC-MSCs and BM-MSCs. The findings showed that UC-MSCs and BM-MSCs inhibited strongly differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells at higher dilution ratios (1:1). The BM-MSCs and UC-MSCs showed more inhibitory effect on CD1a, CD83, CD86 expression, and dendritic cell endocytic activity, respectively. On the other hand, these cells severely up-regulated CD14 marker expression. We concluded that UC-MSCs and BM-MSCs could inhibit differentiation, maturation and endocytosis in monocyte-derived DCs through the secreted factors and free of any cell-cell contacts under laboratory conditions. As DCs are believed to be the main antigen presenting cells for naïve T cells in triggering immune responses, it would be logical that their inhibitory effect on differentiation, maturation and function can decrease or modulate immune and inflammatory responses.

  16. Monocytes-derived macrophages mediated stable expression of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroAIDS.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Buch, Shilpa; Yao, Honghong; Wu, Chengxiang; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Youwei; Lu, Yuanan

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 associated dementia remains a significant public health burden. Clinical and experimental research has shown that reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be a risk factor for neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection. We are actively testing genetically modified macrophages for their possible use as the cell-based gene delivery vehicle for the central nervous system (CNS). It can be an advantage to use the natural homing/migratory properties of monocyte-derived macrophages to deliver potentially neuroprotective BDNF into the CNS, as a non-invasive manner. Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer of human (h)BDNF plasmid was constructed and characterized. Defective lentiviral stocks were generated by transient transfection of 293T cells with lentiviral transfer plasmid together with packaging and envelope plasmids. High titer lentiviral vector stocks were harvested and used to transduce human neuronal cell lines, primary cultures of human peripheral mononocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM) and murine myeloid monocyte-derived macrophages (mMDM). These transduced cells were tested for hBDNF expression, stability, and neuroprotective activity. The GenomeLab GeXP Genetic Analysis System was used to evaluate transduced cells for any adverse effects by assessing gene profiles of 24 reference genes. High titer vectors were prepared for efficient transduction of neuronal cell lines, hMDM, and mMDM. Stable secretion of high levels of hBDNF was detected in supernatants of transduced cells using western blot and ELISA. The conditioned media containing hBDNF were shown to be protective to neuronal and monocytic cell lines from TNF-α and HIV-1 Tat mediated cytotoxicity. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transduction of hMDM and mMDM resulted in high-level, stable expression of the neuroprotective factorBDNF in vitro. These findings form the basis for future research on the potential use of BDNF as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.

  17. Infection Rate and Tissue Localization of Murine IL-12p40-Producing Monocyte-Derived CD103+ Lung Dendritic Cells during Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Leepiyasakulchai, Chaniya; Taher, Chato; Chuquimia, Olga D.; Mazurek, Jolanta; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Fernández, Carmen; Sköld, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Non-hematopoietic cells, including lung epithelial cells, influence host immune responses. By co-culturing primary alveolar epithelial cells and monocytes from naïve donor mice, we show that alveolar epithelial cells support monocyte survival and differentiation in vitro, suggesting a role for non-hematopoietic cells in monocyte differentiation during the steady state in vivo. CD103+ dendritic cells (αE-DC) are present at mucosal surfaces. Using a murine primary monocyte adoptive transfer model, we demonstrate that αE-DC in the lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes are monocyte-derived during pulmonary tuberculosis. The tissue localization may influence the functional potential of αE-DC that accumulate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lungs. Here, we confirm the localization of αE-DC in uninfected mice beneath the bronchial epithelial cell layer and near the vascular wall, and show that αE-DC have a similar distribution in the lungs during pulmonary tuberculosis and are detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from infected mice. Lung DC can be targeted by M. tuberculosis in vivo and play a role in bacterial dissemination to the draining lymph node. In contrast to other DC subsets, only a fraction of lung αE-DC are infected with the bacterium. We also show that virulent M. tuberculosis does not significantly alter cell surface expression levels of MHC class II on infected cells in vivo and that αE-DC contain the highest frequency of IL-12p40+ cells among the myeloid cell subsets in infected lungs. Our results support a model in which inflammatory monocytes are recruited into the M. tuberculosis-infected lung tissue and, depending on which non-hematopoietic cells they interact with, differentiate along different paths to give rise to multiple monocyte-derived cells, including DC with a distinctive αE-DC phenotype. PMID:23861965

  18. [Intervention of spiral ligament fibrocytes in the metabolic regulation of the inner ear].

    PubMed

    García Berrocal, José Ramón; Méndez-Benegassi, Iván; Martí, Cristina; Ramírez Camacho, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Maintenance of the K(+) gradient between endolymph and perilymph is essential for normal hearing and depends primarily on the activity of the stria vascularis. Abundant Na-K-ATPase in marginal strial cells provides a pumping mechanism for preserving the K(+) level of the endolymph and consequently, the endocochlear potential. Fibrocytes in the lateral wall of the cochlea supply K(+) to the strial pump, via gap junctions, by recycling back into the stria the ions that efflux from the scala media during auditory transduction. The lateral wall of the cochlea encloses five types of fibrocytes, differentiated by their location, structural features and content of enzymes mediating or energizing ion transport. The disruption of the gap junction bonds by connexin mutations and other pathologies leads to an interruption of K(+) recirculation pathways. The expression of cochlin and otoraplin, proteins that participate in structural or regulatory functions in the inner ear, suggests more diversity and complexity of the mesenchymal tissues than envisioned previously. The presence of otospiralin, a novel protein found in fibrocytes of spiral limbus, spiral ligament and subepithelial regions of the vestibule, represent a critical finding since that protein has been shown to be essential for the survival of the hair cells and supporting cells of the inner ear. A more profound knowledge and understanding of the function of inner ear fibrocytes will provide a new and promising aetiopathogenic approach to the treatment of inner ear disorders.

  19. The characterization of fibrocyte-like cells: a novel fibroblastic cell of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Riddell, M R; Winkler-Lowen, B; Chakrabarti, S; Dunk, C; Davidge, S T; Guilbert, L J

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is a highly vascularized organ thus angiogenesis is a key process in placental development. The contribution that different cells in the villous stroma play in placental angiogenesis is largely unknown. In this study we identified a novel stromal cell type in sections of term placenta which is morphologically fibroblastic and expressing the fibroblast marker TE-7 but also positive for the monocytic markers CD115 and CD14 and designated these cells as fibrocyte-like cells. Populations of fibrocyte-like cells from the placenta were isolated by two methods: culture of adherence-selected placental cells and, for higher purity, by CD45 fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Fibrocyte-like cell conditioned medium increased endothelial tubule-like structure formation 2-fold versus control medium. Both pro-angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and the anti-angiogenic factor soluble-Flt were found in the conditioned medium. Neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and b-FGF reduced endothelial cell tubule-like structures to control levels. These data suggests that fibrocyte-like cells, a previously unidentified cell of the villous stroma, may play an important role in the regulation of placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety, efficacy and pitfalls of fibrocyte application in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer.

    PubMed

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Hashemi, Mohammad; Shoarayenejati, Alireza; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2015-02-01

    Fibrocytes are unique bone marrow-derived cells with great potential in wound healing. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the applied circulating fibrocytes in the treatment of non healing diabetic foot ulcers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by centrifugation through Ficoll-Paque method. After 3 days, the non adherent cells were removed by a single, gentle aspiration. Adherent cells were cultured in the same medium for 10 days. The cells were characterised using mouse anti-human-CD45-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and mouse anti-human-collagen I, and also characterised by immunofluorescence microscopy using the above mentioned antibodies. Sterility measures were applied for clinical evaluation. Based on the literature review, cell transplantation generally requires at least 3 × 10(6) cells regarding efficacy measures. As fibrocytes are non proliferating cells, 350 ml patient's blood is required to prepare patient-specific serum before cell isolation and culture, and 85 ml patient's blood is needed for cell isolation and differentiation on cell transplantation applications. In our survey, no diabetic patient was inclined to be donor of such blood volume, mainly because of their pre-assumption that they are anaemic. It is concluded that fibrocytes do not seem to be candidate cells for cell therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers because of the rarity of this cell population in circulation.

  1. Fibrocyte-like cells mediate acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Atsushi; Goto, Hisatsugu; Saijo, Atsuro; Trung, Van The; Aono, Yoshinori; Ogino, Hirokazu; Kuramoto, Takuya; Tabata, Sho; Uehara, Hisanori; Izumi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hidefusa; Gotoh, Masashi; Kakiuchi, Soji; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yano, Seiji; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Sakiyama, Shoji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab exerts anti-angiogenic effects in cancer patients by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, its use is still limited due to the development of resistance to the treatment. Such resistance can be regulated by various factors, although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like cells, defined as alpha-1 type I collagen-positive and CXCR4-positive cells, contribute to the acquired resistance to bevacizumab. In mouse models of malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, fibrocyte-like cells mediate the resistance to bevacizumab as the main producer of fibroblast growth factor 2. In clinical specimens of lung cancer, the number of fibrocyte-like cells is significantly increased in bevacizumab-treated tumours, and correlates with the number of treatment cycles, as well as CD31-positive vessels. Our results identify fibrocyte-like cells as a promising cell biomarker and a potential therapeutic target to overcome resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26635184

  2. First Identification of Resident and Circulating Fibrocytes in Dupuytren’s Disease Shown to Be Inhibited by Serum Amyloid P and Xiapex

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Syed Amir; Hayton, Michael John; Watson, James Stewart; Szczypa, Piotr; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren’s disease (DD) is a common progressive fibroproliferative disorder causing permanent digital contracture. Proliferative myofibroblasts are thought to be the cells responsible for DD initiation and recurrence, although their source remains unknown. DD tissue has also been shown to harbor mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Fibrocytes are circulating cells that show characteristics of fibroblasts and they express surface markers for both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stromal cells. Fibrocytes differentiate from peripheral CD14+ mononuclear cells, which can be inhibited by serum amyloid P (SAP). In this study we have demonstrated the presence of fibrocytes in DD blood and tissue, moreover we have evaluated the effects of SAP and Xiapex (Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum) on fibrocytes derived from DD. H&E staining showed typical Spindle shaped morphology of fibrocytes. FACS analysis based on a unique combination of 3 markers, revealed the increased presence of fibrocytes in blood and tissue of DD patients. Additionally, immunohistology of DD nodule and cord tissue showed the presence of collagen 1+/CD34+ cells. No difference in plasma SAP levels was observed between DD and control. Higher concentrations of SAP significantly inhibited fibrocytes differentiated from DD derived monocytes compared to control. DD fascia derived fibrocytes showed resistance to growth inhibition by SAP, particularly nodule derived fibrocytes showed robust growth even at higher SAP concentrations compared to control. DD derived fibrocytes were positive for typical fibrocyte dual markers, i.e. Collagen 1/LSP-1 and collagen 1/CD34. Xiapex was more effective in inhibiting the growth of nodule derived cells compared to commercially available collagenase A. Our results show for the first time the increased presence of fibrocytes in DD patient’s blood and disease tissue compared to control tissue. Additionally, we evaluate the response of these fibrocytes to SAP and Xiapex

  3. Modern Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exhibit Lineage-Specific Patterns of Growth and Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rajesh; Lenders, Laura; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Nicol, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary in virulence. Strains that have caused outbreaks in the United States and United Kingdom have been shown to subvert the innate immune response as a potential immune evasion mechanism. There is, however, little information available as to whether these patterns of immune subversion are features of individual strains or characteristic of broad clonal lineages of M. tuberculosis. Methods Strains from two major modern lineages (lineage 2 [East-Asian] and lineage 4 [Euro-American]) circulating in the Western Cape in South Africa as well as a comparator modern lineage (lineage 3 [CAS/Delhi]) were identified. We assessed two virulence associated characteristics: mycobacterial growth (in liquid broth and monocyte derived macrophages) and early pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Results In liquid culture, Lineage 4 strains grew more rapidly and reached higher plateau levels than other strains (lineage 4 vs. lineage 2 p = 0.0024; lineage 4 vs. lineage 3 p = 0.0005). Lineage 3 strains were characterized by low and early plateau levels, while lineage 2 strains showed an intermediate growth phenotype. In monocyte-derived macrophages, lineage 2 strains grew faster than lineage 3 strains (p<0.01) with lineage 4 strains having an intermediate phenotype. Lineage 2 strains induced the lowest levels of pro-inflammatory TNF and IL-12p40 as compared to other lineages (lineage 2: median TNF 362 pg/ml, IL-12p40 91 pg/ml; lineage 3: median TNF 1818 pg/ml, IL-12p40 123 pg/ml; lineage 4: median TNF 1207 pg/ml, IL-12p40 205 pg/ml;). In contrast, lineage 4 strains induced high levels of IL-12p40 and intermediate level of TNF. Lineage 3 strains induced high levels of TNF and intermediate levels of IL-12p40. Conclusions Strains of M. tuberculosis from the three major modern strain lineages possess distinct patterns of growth and cytokine induction. Rapid growth and immune subversion may be key characteristics to the success of

  4. A novel method to generate monocyte-derived dendritic cells during coculture with HaCaT facilitates detection of weak contact allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Frombach, Janna; Sonnenburg, Anna; Krapohl, Björn-Dirk; Zuberbier, Torsten; Stahlmann, Ralf; Schreiner, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro sensitization assay LCSA (Loose-fit Coculture-based Sensitization Assay) has proved reliable for the detection of contact sensitizers in the past. However, the coculture of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) with primary human keratinocytes (KCs) in serum-free medium is relatively complex compared to other sensitization assays which use continuous cell lines. To facilitate high-throughput screening of chemicals, we replaced KCs with the HaCaT cell line under various culture conditions. Coculture of HaCaT with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in serum-supplemented medium leads to generation of CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs after addition of GM-CSF, IL-4, and TGF-β1 (as opposed to CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs which arise in the "classic" LCSA coculture). These cells resemble monocyte-derived DCs generated in monoculture, but, unlike those, they show a marked upregulation CD86 after treatment with contact allergens. All of the nine sensitizers in this study were correctly identified by CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs in coculture with HaCaT. Among the substances were weak contact allergens such as propylparaben (which is false negative in the local lymph node assay in mice) and resorcinol (which was not detected by CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs in the "classic" LCSA). The level of CD86 upregulation on CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs was higher for most allergens compared to CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs, thus improving the assay's discriminatory power. Three out of four non-sensitizers were also correctly assessed by the coculture assay. A false-positive reaction to caprylic (octanoic) acid confirms earlier results that some fatty acids are able to induce CD86 on DC in vitro. In conclusion, change of the LCSA protocol led to reduction of time and cost while even increasing the assay's sensitivity and discriminatory power.

  5. Fibrocyte-like cells recruited to the spleen support innate and adaptive immune responses to acute injury or infection

    PubMed Central

    von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Reichart, Donna; McGillvray, Shauna M.; Wingender, Gerhard; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Glass, Christopher K.; Nizet, Victor; Brenner, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived fibrocytes are a population of CD45+ and collagen Type I-expressing cells that migrate to the spleen and to target injured organs, such as skin, lungs, kidneys, and liver. While CD45+Col+ fibrocytes contribute to collagen deposition at the site of injury, the role of CD45+Col+ cells in spleen has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatotoxic injury (CCl4), TGF-β1, lipopolysaccharide, or infection with Listeria monocytogenes induce rapid recruitment of CD45+Col+ fibrocyte-like cells to the spleen. These cells have a gene expression pattern that includes antimicrobial factors (myleoperoxidase, cathelicidin, and defensins) and MHC II at higher levels than found on quiescent or activated macrophages. The immune functions of these splenic CD45+Col+ fibrocyte-like cells include entrapment of bacteria into extracellular DNA-based structures containing cathelicidin and presentation of antigens to naïve CD8+ T cells to induce their proliferation. Stimulation of these splenic fibrocyte-like cells with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor or macrophage-colony stimulating factor induces downregulation of collagen expression and terminal differentiation into the dendritic cells or macrophage. Thus, splenic CD45+Col+ cells are a population of rapidly mobilized BM-derived fibrocyte-like cells that respond to inflammation or infection to participate in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:21499735

  6. The peripheral blood fibrocyte is a potent antigen-presenting cell capable of priming naive T cells in situ.

    PubMed

    Chesney, J; Bacher, M; Bender, A; Bucala, R

    1997-06-10

    Recent studies have identified a novel population of blood-borne cells, termed fibrocytes, that have a distinct cell surface phenotype (collagen+/CD13(+)/CD34(+)/CD45(+)), rapidly enter sites of tissue injury, and synthesize connective tissue matrix molecules. We found by flow cytometry that purified human fibrocytes express each of the known surface components that are required for antigen presentation, including class II major histocompatability complex molecules (HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR), the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and the adhesion molecules CD11a, CD54, and CD58. Human fibrocytes induced antigen-presenting cell-dependent T cell proliferation when cultured with specific antigen and this proliferative activity was significantly higher than that induced by monocytes and nearly as high as that induced by purified dendritic cells. Mouse fibrocytes also were found to express the surface components required for antigen presentation and to function as potent APCs in vitro. Mouse fibrocytes pulsed in vitro with the HIV-proteins p24 or gp120 and delivered to a site of cutaneous injury were found to migrate to proximal lymph nodes and to specifically prime naive T cells. These data suggest that fibrocytes play an early and important role in the initiation of antigen-specific immunity.

  7. Cooperation between human fibrocytes and endothelial colony-forming cells increases angiogenesis via the CXCR4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Smadja, David M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Guerin, Coralie L; Bieche, Ivan; Badoual, Cécile; Boscolo, Elisa; Kambouchner, Marianne; Cazes, Aurélie; Mercier, Olaf; Humbert, Marc; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Israël-Biet, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Fibrotic diseases of the lung are associated with a vascular remodelling process. Fibrocytes (Fy) are a distinct population of blood-borne cells that co-express haematopoietic cell antigens and fibroblast markers, and have been shown to contribute to organ fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fibrocytes cooperate with endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) to induce angiogenesis. We isolated fibrocytes from blood of patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and characterised them by flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTQ-PCR), and confocal microscopy. We then investigated the angiogenic interaction between fibrocytes and cord-blood-derived ECFC, both in vitro and in an in vivo Matrigel implant model. Compared to fibroblast culture medium, fibrocyte culture medium increased ECFC proliferation and differentiation via the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. IPF-Fy co-implanted with human ECFC in Matrigel plugs in immunodeficient mice formed functional microvascular beds, whereas fibroblasts did not. Evaluation of implants after two weeks revealed an extensive network of erythrocyte-containing blood vessels. CXCR4 blockade significantly inhibited this blood vessel formation. The clinical relevance of these data was confirmed by strong CXCR4 expression in vessels close to fibrotic areas in biopsy specimens from patients with IPF, by comparison with control lungs. In conclusion, circulating fibrocytes might contribute to the intense remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus shows poor replication but significant induction of antiviral responses in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Westenius, Veera; Rönkkö, Esa; Munster, Vincent J.; Melén, Krister; Österlund, Pamela; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the ability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to replicate and induce innate immunity in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (MDDCs), and compared it with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Assessments of viral protein and RNA levels in infected cells showed that both viruses were impaired in their ability to replicate in these cells. Some induction of IFN-λ1, CXCL10 and MxA mRNAs in both macrophages and MDDCs was seen in response to MERS-CoV infection, but almost no such induction was observed in response to SARS-CoV infection. ELISA and Western blot assays showed clear production of CXCL10 and MxA in MERS-CoV-infected macrophages and MDDCs. Our data suggest that SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV replicate poorly in human macrophages and MDDCs, but MERS-CoV is nonetheless capable of inducing a readily detectable host innate immune response. Our results highlight a clear difference between the viruses in activating host innate immune responses in macrophages and MDDCs, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of infection. PMID:26602089

  9. Induction of Th17 Lymphocytes and Treg Cells by Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Capetillo, Lizbeth; Hernández-Castro, Berenice; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Alvarez-Quiroga, Crisol; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Baranda, Lourdes; Urzainqui, Ana; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have a key role in the regulation of immune response. We herein explored, in patients with inflammatory diseases, the role of monocyte derived DC's (mo-DCs) on the generation of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from thirty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and twenty healthy subjects. Mo-DCs were generated under standard (IL-4/GM-CSF) or tolerogenic (IL-4/GM-CSF plus recombinant P-selectin or PD-1 or IL-10) conditions, and their ability to induce Th17 and Treg lymphocytes was tested. We detected that mo-DCs from patients with RA showed an enhanced release of IL-6 and IL-23 as well as an increased capability to induce Th17 cells. Although mo-DCs from SLE patients also released high levels of IL-6/IL-23, it did not show an increased ability to induce Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, mo-DCs, from patients with RA and SLE generated under the engagement of PSGL-1, showed a defective capability to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells. A similar phenomenon was observed in SLE, when DC's cells were generated under PDL-1 engagement. Our data indicate that DCs from patients with rheumatic inflammatory disease show an aberrant function that may have an important role in the pathogenesis of these conditions. PMID:24288552

  10. MicroRNA-Mediated Down-Regulation of M-CSF Receptor Contributes to Maturation of Mouse Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Riepsaame, Joey; van Oudenaren, Adri; den Broeder, Berlinda J. H.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Pothof, Joris; Leenen, Pieter J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is a tightly regulated process that requires coordinated and timed developmental cues. Here we investigate whether microRNAs are involved in this process. We identify microRNAs in mouse GM-CSF-generated, monocyte-related DC (GM-DC) that are differentially expressed during both spontaneous and LPS-induced maturation and characterize M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR), encoded by the Csf1r gene, as a key target for microRNA-mediated regulation in the final step toward mature DC. MicroRNA-22, -34a, and -155 are up-regulated in mature MHCIIhi CD86hi DC and mediate Csf1r mRNA and protein down-regulation. Experimental inhibition of Csf1r-targeting microRNAs in vitro results not only in sustained high level M-CSFR protein expression but also in impaired DC maturation upon stimulation by LPS. Accordingly, over-expression of Csf1r in GM-DC inhibits terminal differentiation. Taken together, these results show that developmentally regulated microRNAs control Csf1r expression, supplementing previously identified mechanisms that regulate its transcription and protein surface expression. Furthermore, our data indicate a novel function for Csf1r in mouse monocyte-derived DC, showing that down-regulation of M-CSFR expression is essential for final DC maturation. PMID:24198819

  11. MicroRNA-Mediated Down-Regulation of M-CSF Receptor Contributes to Maturation of Mouse Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Riepsaame, Joey; van Oudenaren, Adri; den Broeder, Berlinda J H; van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Pothof, Joris; Leenen, Pieter J M

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is a tightly regulated process that requires coordinated and timed developmental cues. Here we investigate whether microRNAs are involved in this process. We identify microRNAs in mouse GM-CSF-generated, monocyte-related DC (GM-DC) that are differentially expressed during both spontaneous and LPS-induced maturation and characterize M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR), encoded by the Csf1r gene, as a key target for microRNA-mediated regulation in the final step toward mature DC. MicroRNA-22, -34a, and -155 are up-regulated in mature MHCII(hi) CD86(hi) DC and mediate Csf1r mRNA and protein down-regulation. Experimental inhibition of Csf1r-targeting microRNAs in vitro results not only in sustained high level M-CSFR protein expression but also in impaired DC maturation upon stimulation by LPS. Accordingly, over-expression of Csf1r in GM-DC inhibits terminal differentiation. Taken together, these results show that developmentally regulated microRNAs control Csf1r expression, supplementing previously identified mechanisms that regulate its transcription and protein surface expression. Furthermore, our data indicate a novel function for Csf1r in mouse monocyte-derived DC, showing that down-regulation of M-CSFR expression is essential for final DC maturation.

  12. Hexa-acylation and KDO(2)-glycosylation determine the specific immunostimulatory activity of Neisseria meningitidis lipid A for human monocyte derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Zughaier, Susu; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Stephens, David S; Pulendran, Bali

    2006-02-27

    To better understand immune modulation by endotoxin and facilitate the development of novel vaccine adjuvants, the structural requirements of Neisseria meningitidis lipopoly(oligo)saccharide (LOS) for activation of human monocyte derived dendritic cell (MDDC) was determined. Highly purified LOS from wild type and genetically-defined mutants of N. meningitidis serogroup B were used. Unglycosylated or penta-acylated meningococcal KDO(2)-lipid A failed to induce human MDDC maturation and activation. However, both wild type meningococcal LOS and KDO(2)-lipid A, significantly up-regulated CD80, CD83 and CD86 and released significantly higher amounts of IL-12p70, IL-6, IL-10, TNFalpha, MCP-1, IP-10 and RANTES. Further, DCs stimulated with wild type or KDO(2)-lipid A but not meningococcal lipid A or penta-acylated KDO(2)-lipid A stimulated naïve allogeneic CD4+ T cells to secrete enhanced levels of IFN-gamma, relative to T cells primed with immature DCs. In contrast to Escherichia coli LPS, IL-5 production was enhanced or maintained in CD4+ T-cells stimulated with MDDC exposed to wild-type meningococcal LOS and KDO(2)-lipid A. These data suggest that KDO linked to a fully acylated meningococcal lipid A is required for meningococcal endotoxin's immunostimulatory activity of human MDDC via TLR4/MD-2 and that different endotoxin structures influence Th responses mediated by MDDC.

  13. Wear particles from studded tires and granite pavement induce pro-inflammatory alterations in human monocyte-derived macrophages: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Helen; Lindbom, John; Ghafouri, Bijar; Lindahl, Mats; Tagesson, Christer; Gustafsson, Mats; Ljungman, Anders G

    2011-01-14

    Airborne particulate matter is considered to be one of the environmental contributors to the mortality in cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases. For future preventive actions, it is of major concern to investigate the toxicity of defined groups of airborne particles and to clarify their pathways in biological tissues. To expand the knowledge beyond general inflammatory markers, this study examined the toxicoproteomic effects on human monocyte derived macrophages after exposure to wear particles generated from the interface of studded tires and a granite-containing pavement. As comparison, the effect of endotoxin was also investigated. The macrophage proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Detected proteins were quantified, and selected proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Among analyzed proteins, seven were significantly decreased and three were increased by exposure to wear particles as compared to unexposed control cells. Endotoxin exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of six proteins: four decreased and two increased. For example, macrophage capping protein was significantly increased after wear particle exposure only, whereas calgizzarin and galectin-3 were increased by both wear particle and endotoxin exposure. Overall, proteins associated with inflammatory response were increased and proteins involved in cellular functions such as redox balance, anti-inflammatory response, and glycolysis were decreased. Investigating the effects of characterized wear particles on human macrophages with a toxicoproteomic approach has shown to be useful in the search for more detailed information about specific pathways and possible biological markers.

  14. Targeted NF-kappaB inhibition of asthmatic serum-mediated human monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation in a transendothelial trafficking model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Lin-Fu; Zhang, Ming-Shun; Dai, Wen-Jing; Chen, Sai-Ying; He, Shao-Heng; Ji, Xiao-Hui; Yin, Kai-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Transendothelial trafficking model mimics in vivo differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). The serum from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus promotes the differentiation of monocytes into mature DC. We have shown that selective inhibition of NF-kappaB by adenoviral gene transfer of a novel mutated IkappaBalpha (AdIkappaBalphaM) in DC contributes to T cell tolerance. Here we demonstrated for the first time that asthmatic serum facilitated human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) maturation associated with increased NF-kappaB activation in this model. Furthermore, selective blockade of NF-kappaB by AdIkappaBalphaM in MDDC led to increased apoptosis, and decreased levels of CD80, CD83, CD86, and IL-12 p70 but not IL-10 in asthmatic serum-stimulated MDDC, accompanied by reduced proliferation of T cells. These results suggest that AdIkappaBalphaM-transferred MDDC are at a more immature stage which is beneficial to augment the immune tolerance in asthma.

  15. Pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino Acids in Cell Culture Uncovers the Dynamic Interactions between HIV-1 and the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and the macrophage govern the tempo of viral dissemination and replication in its human host. HIV-1 affects macrophage phenotype, and the macrophage, in turn, can modulate the viral life cycle. While these processes are linked to host–cell function and survival, the precise intracellular pathways involved are incompletely understood. To elucidate such dynamic virus–cell events, we employed pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture. Alterations in de novo protein synthesis of HIV-1 infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were examined after 3, 5, and 7 days of viral infection. Synthesis rates of cellular metabolic, regulatory, and DNA packaging activities were decreased, whereas, those affecting antigen presentation (major histocompatibility complex I and II) and interferon-induced antiviral activities were increased. Interestingly, enrichment of proteins linked to chromatin assembly or disassembly, DNA packaging, and nucleosome assembly were identified that paralleled virus-induced cytopathology and replication. We conclude that HIV-1 regulates a range of host MDM proteins that affect its survival and abilities to contain infection. PMID:21500866

  16. High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cornely, Oliver A.; Hartmann, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used antifungal for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular concentration of posaconazole in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was greatly increased compared to the plasma concentration. As these professional phagocytes are crucial to combat fungal infections, we set out to investigate if and how, beneficial or deleterious, this high loading of intracellular posaconazole impacts the functional capacities of these cells. Here, we show that high intracellular concentrations of posaconazole do not significantly impact PMN and monocyte-derived macrophage function in vitro. In particular, killing capacity and cytoskeletal features of PMN, such as migration, are not affected, indicating that these cells serve as vehicles for posaconazole to the site of infection. Moreover, since posaconazole as such slowed the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, infected neutrophils released less reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these findings, we propose that the delivery of posaconazole by neutrophils to the site of Aspergillus species infection warrants control of the pathogen and preservation of tissue integrity at the same time. PMID:27021317

  17. Human monocyte-derived insulin-like growth factor-2 enhances the infection of human arterial endothelial cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lin, T M; Campbell, L A; Rosenfeld, M E; Kuo, C C

    2001-05-01

    It has been shown that infection of human endothelial cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae is enhanced by co-culturing endothelial cells with human monocytes and is mediated by monocyte-derived soluble factors. This study was conducted to identify the infectivity-enhancing factor. Serum-free conditioned medium of human monocytic cells was fractionated by ultrafiltration. The enhancing activity was found in the fraction in the molecular mass range between 5000 and 10,000 kDa. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 or -2, with a molecular mass of 7500 kDa, was added to the culture medium of human endothelial cells for growing C. pneumoniae. Only IGF-2 enhanced C. pneumoniae growth. Pretreatment of the conditioned medium with a monoclonal antibody against IGF-2 blocked the enhancing activity. This suggests that the infectivity-enhancing factor is IGF-2 and that paracrine interactions between monocytes and endothelial cells in vivo can induce secretory products and sustain infection with C. pneumoniae within atherosclerotic lesions.

  18. High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Farowski, Fedja; Cornely, Oliver A; Hartmann, Pia

    2016-06-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used antifungal for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular concentration of posaconazole in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was greatly increased compared to the plasma concentration. As these professional phagocytes are crucial to combat fungal infections, we set out to investigate if and how, beneficial or deleterious, this high loading of intracellular posaconazole impacts the functional capacities of these cells. Here, we show that high intracellular concentrations of posaconazole do not significantly impact PMN and monocyte-derived macrophage function in vitro In particular, killing capacity and cytoskeletal features of PMN, such as migration, are not affected, indicating that these cells serve as vehicles for posaconazole to the site of infection. Moreover, since posaconazole as such slowed the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, infected neutrophils released less reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these findings, we propose that the delivery of posaconazole by neutrophils to the site of Aspergillus species infection warrants control of the pathogen and preservation of tissue integrity at the same time.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Two Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cell Subpopulations with Different Functions in Dying Cell Clearance and Different Patterns of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Amir; Tabib, Adi; Atallah, Mizhir; Krispin, Alon; Mevorach, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs) are versatile cells that are used widely for research and experimental therapies. Although different culture conditions can affect their characteristics, there are no known subpopulations. Since monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) in a variety of tissues and contexts, we asked whether they can give rise to different subpopulations. In this work we set out to characterize two human mdDC subpopulations that we identified and termed small (DC-S) and large (DC-L). Morphologically, DC-L are larger, more granular and have a more complex cell membrane. Phenotypically, DC-L show higher expression of a wide panel of surface molecules and stronger responses to maturation stimuli. Transcriptomic analysis confirmed their separate identities and findings were consistent with the phenotypes observed. Although they show similar apoptotic cell uptake, DC-L have different capabilities for phagocytosis, demonstrate better antigen processing, and have significantly better necrotic cell uptake. These subpopulations also have different patterns of cell death, with DC-L presenting an inflammatory, “dangerous” phenotype while DC-S mostly downregulate their surface markers upon cell death. Apoptotic cells induce an immune-suppressed phenotype, which becomes more pronounced among DC-L, especially after the addition of lipopolysaccharide. We propose that these two subpopulations correspond to inflammatory (DC-L) and steady-state (DC-S) DC classes that have been previously described in mice and humans. PMID:27690130

  20. Conventional and monocyte-derived CD11b(+) dendritic cells initiate and maintain T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Maud; Guilliams, Martin; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; Deswarte, Kim; Branco-Madeira, Filipe; Toussaint, Wendy; Vanhoutte, Leen; Neyt, Katrijn; Killeen, Nigel; Malissen, Bernard; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-02-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for mounting allergic airway inflammation, but it is unclear which subset of DCs performs this task. By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house dust mite (HDM). Mainly CD11b(+) cDCs but not CD103(+) cDCs induced T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity in HDM-specific T cells in vitro and asthma in vivo. Studies in Flt3l(-/-) mice, lacking all cDCs, revealed that moDCs were also sufficient to induce Th2 cell-mediated immunity but only when high-dose HDM was given. The main function of moDCs was the production of proinflammatory chemokines and allergen presentation in the lung during challenge. Thus, we have identified migratory CD11b(+) cDCs as the principal subset inducing Th2 cell-mediated immunity in the LN, whereas moDCs orchestrate allergic inflammation in the lung.

  1. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bol, Kalijn F; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Pots, Jeanette M; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A M; van de Rakt, Mandy W M M; Scharenborg, Nicole M; de Boer, Annemiek J; van Oorschot, Tom G M; Croockewit, Sandra A J; Blokx, Willeke A M; Oyen, Wim J G; Boerman, Otto C; Mus, Roel D M; van Rossum, Michelle M; van der Graaf, Chantal A A; Punt, Cornelis J A; Adema, Gosse J; Figdor, Carl G; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim, Act-HIB) and prostaglandin E2 (VAC-DC). Stage III and IV melanoma patients were vaccinated via intranodal injection (12 patients) or combined intradermal/intravenous injection (16 patients) with VAC-DC loaded with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and mRNA encoding tumor antigens gp100 and tyrosinase. Tumor antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored in blood and skin-test infiltrating-lymphocyte cultures. Almost all patients mounted prophylactic vaccine- or KLH-specific immune responses. Both after intranodal injection and after intradermal/intravenous injection, tumor antigen-specific immune responses were detected, which coincide with longer overall survival in stage IV melanoma patients. VAC-DC induce local and systemic CTC grade 2 and 3 toxicity, which is most likely caused by BCG in the maturation cocktail. The side effects were self-limiting or resolved upon a short period of systemic steroid therapy. We conclude that VAC-DC can induce functional tumor-specific responses. Unfortunately, toxicity observed after vaccination precludes the general application of VAC-DC, since in DC maturated with prophylactic vaccines BCG appears to be essential in the maturation cocktail.

  2. IgG4 can induce an M2-like phenotype in human monocyte-derived macrophages through FcγRI.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Jennifer F A; Haddad, Devin A; McGrath, Anna G; Boekhoudt, Gunther H; Feldman, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies evoke cellular responses through the binding of their Fc region to Fc receptors, most of which contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif domains and are thus considered "activating." However, there is a growing appreciation of these receptors for their ability to deliver an inhibitory signal as well. We previously described one such phenomenon whereby interferon (IFN)γ signaling is inhibited by immune complex signaling through FcγRI. To understand the implications of this in the context of therapeutic antibodies, we assessed individual IgG subclasses to determine their ability to deliver this anti-inflammatory signal in monocyte-derived macrophages. Like IgG1, we found that IgG4 is fully capable of inhibiting IFNγ-mediated events. In addition, F(ab')2 fragments that interfere with FcγRI signaling reversed this effect. For mAbs developed with either an IgG1 or an IgG4 constant region for indications where inflammation is undesirable, further examination of a potential Fc-dependent contribution to their mechanism of action is warranted.

  3. Triterpenoids from the fruits and leaves of the blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) and their inhibitory activities on foam cell formation in human monocyte-derived macrophage.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Yasuda, Shin; Komatsu, Haruki; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takeya, Motohiro; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    From the methanol extract of the fruits of the blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis Port.), four triterpenoids - pomolic acid (1), tormentic acid (2), euscaphic acid (3) and 1β-hydroxyeuscaphic acid (4) - were isolated, while six triterpenoids - 2, 3, myrianthic acid (5), ziyu glycoside II (6), sericic acid (7) and 19-hydroxy-2,3-secours-12-ene-2,3,28-trioic acid 3-methyl ester (8) - were obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of this plant. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data. Compounds 1-8 were examined for their inhibitory activities on foam cell formation in human monocyte-derived macrophages induced by acetylated low-density lipoproteins at a 50 μM concentration. Among the tested compounds, 1 showed the strongest activity, with the inhibitory effect being 90%. The inhibitory activities of 2-8 were evaluated to be 30%, 32%, 33%, 4%, 48%, 4% and 24%, respectively. Further, the structure-activity relationship of these compounds was investigated.

  4. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3): a new marker of canine monocytes-derived dendritic cells (cMo-DC).

    PubMed

    Bonnefont-Rebeix, Catherine; Marchal, Thierry; Bernaud, Janine; Pin, Jean-Jacques; Leroux, Caroline; Lebecque, Serge; Chabanne, Luc; Rigal, Dominique

    2007-07-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of functionally important receptors for recognition of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) since they trigger the pro-inflammatory response and upregulation of costimulatory molecules, linking the rapid innate response to adaptative immunity. In human leukocytes, TLR3 has been found to be specifically expressed in dendritic cells (DC). This study examined the expression of TLR3 in canine monocytes-derived DC (cMo-DC) and PBMC using three new anti-TLR3 mAbs (619F7, 722E2 and 713E4 clones). The non-adherent cMo-DC generated after culture in canine IL-4 plus canine GM-CSF were labelled with the three anti-TLR3 clones by flow cytometry, with a strong expression shown for 619F7 and 722E2 clones. By contrast, TLR3 expression was low to moderate in canine monocytes and lymphocytes. These results were confirmed by Western blot using 619F7 and 722E2 clones and several polypeptide bands were observed, suggesting a possible cleavage of TLR3 molecule or different glycosylation states. In addition, TLR3 was detectable in immunocytochemistry by using 722E2 clone. In conclusion, this first approach to study canine TLR3 protein expression shows that three anti-TLR3 clones detect canine TLR3 and can be used to better characterize canine DC and the immune system of dogs.

  5. Pathogenic prion protein fragment (PrP106-126) promotes human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection in peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bacot, Silvia M; Feldman, Gerald M; Yamada, Kenneth M; Dhawan, Subhash

    2015-02-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood products contaminated with the pathogenic form of prion protein Prp(sc), thought to be the causative agent of variant a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), may result in serious consequences in recipients with a compromised immune system, for example, as seen in HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that treatment of peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with PrP106-126, a synthetic domain of PrP(sc) that has intrinsic functional activities related to the full-length protein, markedly increased their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, induced cytokine secretion, and enhanced their migratory behavior in response to N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLP). Live-cell imaging of MDM cultured in the presence of PrP106-126 showed large cell clusters indicative of cellular activation. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI-571, protein kinase C inhibitor K252B, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor olomoucine attenuated PrP106-126-induced altered MDM functions. These findings delineate a previously undefined functional role of PrP106-126-mediated host cell response in promoting HIV-1 pathogenesis.

  6. Differential expression of CD14, CD36 and the LDL receptor on human monocyte-derived macrophages. A novel cell culture system to study macrophage differentiation and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Wintergerst, E S; Jelk, J; Asmis, R

    1998-09-01

    Macrophages are key players in many aspects of human physiology and disease. It has been hypothesized that in a given microenvironment monocytes differentiate into specific subpopulations with distinct functions. In order to study the role of macrophage heterogeneity in atherogenesis, we established a novel isolation and culture technique for human monocyte-derived macrophages. The present technique does not select for monocyte subpopulations prior to the onset of differentiation. Monocytes were cultured for 2 weeks in the presence of autologous lymphocytes before being plated quantitatively. They differentiated into mature macrophages in terms of morphology, lipid composition, and biological activity. Based on phagocytic activity as well as on the expression of CD14, CD36, and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, we have identified macrophage subpopulations that may play distinct roles in atherogenesis. While virtually all adherence-purified monocytes expressed CD14, CD36, and the LDL-R, we characterized three subpopulations of macrophages based on the expression of these antigens: CD36+CD14-LDL-R-(58+/-12%), CD36+CD14+LDL-R+(18+/-5%), the remaining cells being CD36-CD14- LDL-R-. The first two subsets decreased in size during further differentiation (51+/-12% and 8+/-3%, respectively). Our culture technique may also serve as a good model for studying the implications of macrophage heterogeneity in diseases other than atherosclerosis.

  7. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells induce a house dust mite-specific Th2 allergic inflammation in the lung of humanized SCID mice: involvement of CCR7.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N; Pochard, Pierre; Gosset, Philippe; Marquillies, Philippe; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-08-01

    In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell-mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust mite (HDM)-allergic patients or healthy donors, we show that DCs pulsed with Der p 1, one of the major allergens of HDM, and injected intratracheally into naive animals migrated into the MLN. In the MLN, Der p 1-pulsed DCs from allergic patients induced the proliferation of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells, whereas those from healthy donors induced IFN-gamma-secreting cells. In reconstituted human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice primed with pulsed DCs from allergic patients, repeated exposure to aerosols of HDM induced 1) a strong pulmonary inflammatory reaction rich in T cells and eosinophils, 2) an increase in IL-4 and IL-5 production in the lung lavage fluid, and 3) increased IgE production compared with that in mice primed with unpulsed DCs. All these effects were reduced following in vivo neutralization of the CCR7 ligand secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine. These data in human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice show that monocyte-derived DCs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary allergic response by inducing Th2 effector function following migration to the MLN.

  8. Comparative analysis of the early transcriptome of Brucella abortus - infected monocyte-derived macrophages from cattle naturally resistant or susceptible to brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, C.A.; Galindo, C.L.; Everts, R.E.; Lewin, H.A.; Garner, H.R.; Adams, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease that has a significant economic impact on animal production and human public health. We characterized the gene expression profile of B. abortus-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from naïve cattle naturally resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to brucellosis using a cDNA microarray technology. Our data indicate that 1) B. abortus induced a slightly increased genome activation in R MDMs and a down-regulated transcriptome in S MDMs, during the onset of infection, 2) R MDMs had the ability to mount a type 1 immune response against B. abortus infection which was impaired in S cells, and 3) the host cell activity was not altered after 12h post-B. abortus infection in R MDMs while the cell cycle was largely arrested in infected S MDMs at 12h p.i. These results contribute to understand of how host responses may be manipulated to prevent infection by brucellae. PMID:20932540

  9. An extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates monocyte-derived dendritic cells to cytokine and chemokine production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Førland, D T; Johnson, E; Tryggestad, A M A; Lyberg, T; Hetland, G

    2010-03-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM), which has been used in traditional medicine against a range of diseases and possess immunomodulating properties, probably due to its high content of beta-glucans. Others and we have demonstrated stimulatory effects of extracts of this mushroom on different immune cells. Dendritic cells are major directors of immune function. We wanted to examine the effect of AbM stimulation on signal substance release from monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). After 6d incubation with IL-4 and GM-CSF, the cells were true MDDC. Then the cells were further incubated with up to 10% of the AbM-based extract, AndoSan, LPS (0.5 microg/ml) or PBS control. We found that the AbM extract promoted dose-dependent increased levels of IL-8, G-CSF, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and MIP-1beta, in that order. The synthesis of IL-2, IL-8 and IFNgamma were similar for the AbM extract and LPS. However, AndoSan induced a 10- to 2-fold higher production than did LPS of G-CSF, TNFalpha and IL-1beta, respectively. AbM did not induce increased synthesis of Th2 or anti-inflammatory cytokines or the Th1 cytokine IL-12. We conclude that stimulation of MDDC with an AbM-based extract resulted in increased production of proinflammatory, chemotactic and some Th1-type cytokines in vitro.

  10. Rapid Induction of Tumor-specific Type 1 T Helper Cells in Metastatic Melanoma Patients by Vaccination with Mature, Cryopreserved, Peptide-loaded Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Schultz, Erwin S.; Berger, Thomas G.; Weinlich, Georg; Ebner, Susanne; Woerl, Petra; Bender, Armin; Feuerstein, Bernadette; Fritsch, Peter O.; Romani, Nikolaus; Schuler, Gerold

    2002-01-01

    There is consensus that an optimized cancer vaccine will have to induce not only CD8+ cytotoxic but also CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, particularly interferon (IFN)-γ–producing, type 1 Th cells. The induction of strong, ex vivo detectable type 1 Th cell responses has not been reported to date. We demonstrate now that the subcutaneous injection of cryopreserved, mature, antigen-loaded, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) rapidly induces unequivocal Th1 responses (ex vivo detectable IFN-γ–producing effectors as well as proliferating precursors) both to the control antigen KLH and to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–restricted tumor peptides (melanoma-antigen [Mage]-3.DP4 and Mage-3.DR13) in the majority of 16 evaluable patients with metastatic melanoma. These Th1 cells recognized not only peptides, but also DCs loaded with Mage-3 protein, and in case of Mage-3DP4–specific Th1 cells IFN-γ was released even after direct recognition of viable, Mage-3–expressing HLA-DP4+ melanoma cells. The capacity of DCs to rapidly induce Th1 cells should be valuable to evaluate whether Th1 cells are instrumental in targeting human cancer and chronic infections. PMID:12021308

  11. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from patients with dermatophytosis restrict the growth of Trichophyton rubrum and induce CD4-T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Karla; Bomfim, Gisele Facholi; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Almeida, Sandro Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are the most common agents of superficial mycoses that are caused by mold fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis. The immunology of dermatophytosis is currently poorly understood. Recently, our group investigated the interaction of T. rubrum conidia with peritoneal mouse macrophages. We found that macrophages phagocytose T. rubrum conidia resulted in a down-modulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Furthermore, it induced the production of IL-10, and T. rubrum conidia differentiated into hyphae that grew and killed the macrophages after 8 hrs of culture. This work demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, from patients or normal individuals, avidly interact with pathogenic fungus T. rubrum. The dermatophyte has two major receptors on human monocyte-derived DC: DC-SIGN and mannose receptor. In contrast macrophage has only mannose receptor that participates in the phagocytosis or bound process. Another striking aspect of this study is that unlike macrophages that permit rapid growth of T. rubrum, human DC inhibited the growth and induces Th activation. The ability of DC from patients to interact and kill T. rubrum and to present Ags to T cells suggests that DC may play an important role in the host response to T. rubrum infection by coordinating the development of cellular immune response.

  12. Beta very low density lipoprotein and clathrin-coated vesicles co-localize to microvilli in pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Landers, S. C.; Jones, N. L.; Williams, A. S.; Lewis, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Macrophages derived from blood monocytes are key in the development of atherosclerosis, as monocyte migration into the intima and accumulation of cholesterol leads to foam cell formation. To investigate the relationship between lipoprotein binding and the distribution of clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles, monocyte-derived macrophages were exposed in vitro to beta very low density lipoprotein (beta VLDL), conjugated to colloidal gold, and later were processed for immuno-electron microscopy to localize clathrin-coated vesicles. The immunolocalization was done in conjunction with either cryosectioning or whole mount intermediate voltage electron microscopy. Preferential binding of beta VLDL on small membrane ruffles and microvilli was quantitatively verified. Clathrin-coated vesicles were distributed throughout the cell; however, clusters of microvilli were associated with both a high concentration of coated vesicles and lipoprotein. Small membrane ruffles were not associated with clathrin-coated vesicles. These data support our hypothesis that endocytosis of beta VLDL near microvilli involves coated vesicles, whereas endocytosis of beta VLDL near ruffles is not mediated by coated endocytic vesicles. Furthermore, the association of coated vesicles with microvilli but not membrane ruffles may be important in understanding ligand trafficking within the cell. Given the distribution of coated vesicles within the cell, it is possible that the site of lipoprotein binding may determine the mechanism of entry into the cell and the metabolic effects of the internalized ligand. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8494058

  13. Paradigm Shift in Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy: From in vitro Generated Monocyte-Derived DCs to Naturally Circulating DC Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Wimmers, Florian; Schreibelt, Gerty; Sköld, Annette E.; Figdor, Carl G.; De Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy employs the patients’ immune system to fight neoplastic lesions spread over the entire body. This makes it an important therapy option for patients suffering from metastatic melanoma, which is often resistant to chemotherapy. However, conventional cellular vaccination approaches, based on monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), only achieved modest response rates despite continued optimization of various vaccination parameters. In addition, the generation of moDCs requires extensive ex vivo culturing conceivably hampering the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Recent studies, thus, focused on vaccines that make use of primary DCs. Though rare in the blood, these naturally circulating DCs can be readily isolated and activated thereby circumventing lengthy ex vivo culture periods. The first clinical trials not only showed increased survival rates but also the induction of diversified anti-cancer immune responses. Upcoming treatment paradigms aim to include several primary DC subsets in a single vaccine as pre-clinical studies identified synergistic effects between various antigen-presenting cells. PMID:24782868

  14. The cellular and proteomic response of primary and immortalized murine Kupffer cells following immune stimulation diverges from that of monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tweedell, Rebecca; Tao, Dingyin; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2015-01-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) are the first line of defense in the liver against pathogens, yet several microbes successfully target the liver, bypass immune surveillance, and effectively develop in this tissue. Our current, albeit poor, understanding of KC-pathogen interactions has been largely achieved through the study of primary cells, requiring isolation from large numbers of animals. To facilitate the study of KC biology, an immortalized rat KC line 1, RKC1, was developed. We performed a comparative global proteomic analysis of RKC1 and primary rat KCs (PRKC) to characterize their respective responses to lipopolysaccharide-mediated immune stimulation. We identified patent differences in the proteomic response profile of RKC1 and PRKC to lipopolysaccharide. We observed that PRKC upregulated more immune function pathways and exhibited marked changes in cellular morphology following stimulation. We consequently analyzed the cytoskeletal signaling pathways of these cells in light of the fact that macrophages are known to induce cytoskeletal changes in response to pathogens. Our findings suggest that KCs respond differently to inflammatory stimulus than do monocyte-derived macrophages, and such data may provide insight into how pathogens, such as the malaria parasite, may have evolved mechanisms of liver entry through KCs without detection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Intersection of Chemokine and TSH Receptor Pathways in Human Fibrocytes: Emergence of CXCL-12/CXCR4 Cross Talk Potentially Relevant to Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Roshini; Atkins, Stephen J; Smith, Terry J

    2016-10-01

    Fibrocytes are monocyte progenitor cells that have been implicated in normal and pathological tissue remodeling. Among the prominent chemokine receptors expressed by these cells is CXC motif receptor 4 (CXCR4), which, with its cognate ligand CXCL motif ligand 12 (CXCL-12), directs fibrocytes to sites of fibrosis. Fibrocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, the ocular manifestation of Graves' disease (GD), by virtue of their unique accumulation as CD34(+) orbital fibroblasts (OFs). Fibrocytes also express high levels of functional TSH receptor (TSHR). Here, we determined CXCL-12 and CXCR4 expression in fibrocytes and GD-OF and whether that pathway interacts with TSHR. CXCL-12 is highly expressed in GD-OF, whereas CXCR4 levels are dramatically higher in fibrocytes. Levels of these proteins are differentially regulated by TSH in a cell type-specific manner. Further, CXCL-12 enhances the induction by TSH of IL-6 in fibrocytes but attenuates this induction in GD-OF. In contrast, in pure CD34(+) OF, the interplay between TSH and CXCL-12 reverts to that observed in fibrocytes. Our results indicate that CXCL-12 enhances TSH actions in fibrocytes but inhibits them in GD-OF, a dichotomy imposed by factors emanating from CD34(-) OF. They also suggest a potentially important modulatory role for CD34(-) OF in determining the factors that influence pathological TSHR signaling in the TAO orbit.

  16. Human fibrocyte-derived exosomes accelerate wound healing in genetically diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Adolf Walker, Audrey Nissen, Erwin

    2015-11-13

    Diabetic ulcers represent a substantial societal and healthcare burden worldwide and scarcely respond to current treatment strategies. This study was addressed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of exosomes secreted by human circulating fibrocytes, a population of mesenchymal progenitors involved in normal wound healing via paracrine signaling. The exosomes released from cells sequentially stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2, did not show potential immunogenicity. These exosomes exhibited in-vitro proangiogenic properties, activated diabetic dermal fibroblasts, induced the migration and proliferation of diabetic keratinocytes, and accelerated wound closure in diabetic mice in vivo. Important components of the exosomal cargo were heat shock protein-90α, total and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, proangiogenic (miR-126, miR-130a, miR-132) and anti-inflammatory (miR124a, miR-125b) microRNAs, and a microRNA regulating collagen deposition (miR-21). This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of the use of fibrocytes-derived exosomes for the treatment of diabetic ulcers. - Highlights: • Fibrocytes have shown potent wound healing properties in vitro and in vivo. • Their clinical use is precluded by low numbers and antigen-presenting function. • We isolated exosomes with no immunogenicity potential from human fibrocytes. • Their cargo included microRNAs and proteins that are known healing promoters. • They accelerated wound closure in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Class I HDACs Regulate Angiotensin II-Dependent Cardiac Fibrosis via Fibroblasts and Circulating Fibrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah M.; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Ferguson, Bradley S.; Douglas, Katherine B.; Cavasin, Maria A.; Demos-Davies, Kim; Yeager, Michael E.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis, which is defined as excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue, contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases involving diverse organ systems. Cardiac fibrosis predisposes individuals to myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death, and is commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors block cardiac fibrosis in pre-clinical models of heart failure. However, which HDAC isoforms govern cardiac fibrosis, and the mechanisms by which they do so, remains unclear. Here, we show that selective inhibition of class I HDACs potently suppresses angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis by targeting two key effector cell populations, cardiac fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Class I HDAC inhibition blocks cardiac fibroblast cell cycle progression through derepression of the genes encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, p15 and p57. In contrast, class I HDAC inhibitors block agonist-dependent differentiation of fibrocytes through a mechanism involving repression of ERK1/2 signaling. These findings define novel roles for class I HDACs in the control of pathological cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, since fibrocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including heart, lung and kidney failure, our results suggest broad utility for isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors as anti-fibrotic agents that function, in part, by targeting these circulating mesenchymal cells. PMID:24374140

  18. IL-33 promotes the migration and proliferation of circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchetti, Lorenza; Marini, Maurizio A.; Isgro, Mirko; Bellini, Alberto; Schmidt, Matthias; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 is considered a new therapeutic target for reducing inflammation in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study shows that IL-33 is a potent chemoattractant for fibrocytes in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 also promotes fibrocyte proliferation without reducing collagen production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study uncovers a novel non-inflammatory, profibrotic function of IL-33. -- Abstract: The release of IL-33 increases in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity and several studies have demonstrated that IL-33 may enhance airway inflammation in asthma. This study tested the hypothesis that IL-33 may also contribute to the development of irreversible structural changes in asthma by favoring the airway recruitment and profibrotic function of circulating fibrocytes during episodes of allergen-induced asthma exacerbation. The circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma (PwAA) showed increased expression of the specific IL-33 receptor component ST2L in comparison with the cells from non-asthmatic individuals (NAI). Recombinant IL-33 induced the migration of circulating fibrocytes from PwAA at clinically relevant concentrations and stimulated their proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, without affecting the constitutive release of type I collagen. The recombinant protein did not induce similar responses in circulating fibrocytes from NAI. This study uncovers an important mechanism through which fibrocytes may accumulate in the airways of allergic asthmatics when their disease is not adequately controlled by current treatment and provides novel information on the function of IL-33 in asthma.

  19. Bovine WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes modify monocyte-derived macrophage responses during early Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Monica M; Plattner, Brandon L

    2016-02-01

    Following Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection, some calves are apparently able to successfully clear the pathogen whereas others become persistently infected; however the reasons for this remain unknown. The importance of innate immunity, and in particular the role of γδ T lymphocytes, during early anti-mycobacterial immune response is recognized but specific mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate how bovine WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes mediate macrophage function during early Map infection. To achieve this objective, Map-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were co-cultured either in direct contact with, or separated by a semi-permeable membrane from, autologous WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes. Nitrites, IL-17A, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 from cell culture supernatants were measured. Expression of CD25 on WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes, expression of MHC-I and MHC-II on MDMs and the viability of Map recovered from MDM cultures 72h after Map infection were also assessed. Map viability was significantly reduced when WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes were co-cultured in direct contact with Map-infected MDMs. Both MDMs and WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes generated increased concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4 in our system, and MDM/WC1(+) γδ T lymphocyte synergism was identified for IFN-γ production. MDMs but not WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes were a significant source of IL-17A. The presence of WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes was associated with higher expression of MHC-I on MDMs and increased concentration of nitrites in supernatants 72h after Map infection. In conclusion, this study showed that WC1(+) γδ lymphocytes had differential effects on Map-infected macrophages in vitro.

  20. Engineering monocyte-derived dendritic cells to secrete interferon-α enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immune effector functions.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Yannick; Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Lion, Eva; Anguille, Sébastien; Roelandts, Vicky A E; Van Acker, Heleen H; Heynderickx, Steven D I; Stein, Barbara M H; Peeters, Marc; Figdor, Carl G; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; de Vries, I Jolanda; Adema, Gosse J; Berneman, Zwi N; Smits, Evelien L J

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination has demonstrated potential in clinical trials as a new effective cancer treatment, but objective and durable clinical responses are confined to a minority of patients. Interferon (IFN)-α, a type-I IFN, can bolster anti-tumor immunity by restoring or increasing the function of DCs, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, type-I IFN signaling on DCs was found to be essential in mice for tumor rejection by the innate and adaptive immune system. Targeted delivery of IFN-α by DCs to immune cells could boost the generation of anti-tumor immunity, while avoiding the side effects frequently associated with systemic administration. Naturally circulating plasmacytoid DCs, major producers of type-I IFN, were already shown capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients without severe toxicity, but their limited number complicates their use in cancer vaccination. In the present work, we hypothesized that engineering easily generated human monocyte-derived mature DCs to secrete IFN-α using mRNA electroporation enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity. Our results show that IFN-α mRNA electroporation of DCs significantly increases the stimulation of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell as well as anti-tumor NK cell effector functions in vitro through high levels of IFN-α secretion. Altogether, our findings mark IFN-α mRNA-electroporated DCs as potent inducers of both adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity and pave the way for clinical trial evaluation in cancer patients.

  1. Comparative DNA microarray analysis of human monocyte derived dendritic cells and MUTZ-3 cells exposed to the moderate skin sensitizer cinnamaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Python, Francois; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre

    2009-09-15

    The number of studies involved in the development of in vitro skin sensitization tests has increased since the adoption of the EU 7th amendment to the cosmetics directive proposing to ban animal testing for cosmetic ingredients by 2013. Several studies have recently demonstrated that sensitizers induce a relevant up-regulation of activation markers such as CD86, CD54, IL-8 or IL-1{beta} in human myeloid cell lines (e.g., U937, MUTZ-3, THP-1) or in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs). The present study aimed at the identification of new dendritic cell activation markers in order to further improve the in vitro evaluation of the sensitizing potential of chemicals. We have compared the gene expression profiles of PBMDCs and the human cell line MUTZ-3 after a 24-h exposure to the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde. A list of 80 genes modulated in both cell types was obtained and a set of candidate marker genes was selected for further analysis. Cells were exposed to selected sensitizers and non-sensitizers for 24 h and gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that PIR, TRIM16 and two Nrf2-regulated genes, CES1 and NQO1, are modulated by most sensitizers. Up-regulation of these genes could also be observed in our recently published DC-activation test with U937 cells. Due to their role in DC activation, these new genes may help to further refine the in vitro approaches for the screening of the sensitizing properties of a chemical.

  2. Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Arner, Erik; Daub, Carsten; De Hoon, Michiel; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Wells, Christine A; Rehli, Michael; Pavli, Paul; Summers, Kim M; Hume, David A

    2017-03-01

    The FANTOM5 consortium utilised cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to provide an unprecedented insight into transcriptional regulation in human cells and tissues. In the current study, we have used CAGE-based transcriptional profiling on an extended dense time course of the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages grown in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We propose that this system provides a model for the differentiation and adaptation of monocytes entering the intestinal lamina propria. The response to LPS is shown to be a cascade of successive waves of transient gene expression extending over at least 48 hours, with hundreds of positive and negative regulatory loops. Promoter analysis using motif activity response analysis (MARA) identified some of the transcription factors likely to be responsible for the temporal profile of transcriptional activation. Each LPS-inducible locus was associated with multiple inducible enhancers, and in each case, transient eRNA transcription at multiple sites detected by CAGE preceded the appearance of promoter-associated transcripts. LPS-inducible long non-coding RNAs were commonly associated with clusters of inducible enhancers. We used these data to re-examine the hundreds of loci associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genome-wide association studies. Loci associated with IBD were strongly and specifically (relative to rheumatoid arthritis and unrelated traits) enriched for promoters that were regulated in monocyte differentiation or activation. Amongst previously-identified IBD susceptibility loci, the vast majority contained at least one promoter that was regulated in CSF1-dependent monocyte-macrophage transitions and/or in response to LPS. On this basis, we concluded that IBD loci are strongly-enriched for monocyte-specific genes, and identified at least 134 additional candidate genes associated with IBD susceptibility from reanalysis

  3. Analysis of Mitochondrial Transfer in Direct Co-cultures of Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages (MDM) and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Megan V; Krasnodembskaya, Anna D

    2017-05-05

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are adult stem cells which have been shown to improve survival, enhance bacterial clearance and alleviate inflammation in pre-clinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. These diseases are characterised by uncontrolled inflammation often underpinned by bacterial infection. The mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory effects are not fully understood yet. We sought to investigate MSC cell contact-dependent communication with alveolar macrophages (AM), professional phagocytes which play an important role in the lung inflammatory responses and anti-bacterial defence. With the use of a basic direct co-culture system, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we visualised and effectively quantified MSC mitochondrial transfer to AM through tunnelling nanotubes (TNT). To model the human AM, primary monocytes were isolated from human donor blood and differentiated into macrophages (monocyte derived macrophages, MDM) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), thus allowing adaptation of an AM-like phenotype (de Almeida et al., 2000; Guilliams et al., 2013). Human bone-marrow derived MSC, were labelled with mitochondria-specific fluorescent stain, washed extensively, seeded into the tissue culture plate with MDMs at the ratio of 1:20 (MSC/MDM) and co-cultured for 24 h. TNT formation and mitochondrial transfer were visualised by confocal microscopy and semi-quantified by flow cytometry. By using the method we described here we established that MSC use TNTs as the means to transfer mitochondria to macrophages. Further studies demonstrated that mitochondrial transfer enhances macrophage oxidative phosphorylation and phagocytosis. When TNT formation was blocked by cytochalasin B, MSC effect on macrophage phagocytosis was completely abrogated. This is the first study to demonstrate TNT-mediated mitochondrial transfer from MSC to innate immune cells.

  4. Impact of in vitro treatments of physiological levels of estradiol and progesterone observed in pregnancy on bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation and maturation.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-12-01

    The specific factors which regulate differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells in bovine pregnancy remain unclear. We evaluated the influence of physiologically relevant in vitro treatments of progesterone (PG) and estradiol (E2) observed in late pregnancy on the differentiation and maturation of CD14+ monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) from non-pregnant, lactating dairy cows (n=7). We found that moDC differentiated in the presence of both E2 and PG had impaired E. coli-induced phenotypic maturation, specifically a significant reduction in CD80 and MHC II expression. Contrary to our previous work characterizing moDC from late gestating dairy cattle, we did not observe an increase in CD14 expression relative to the untreated control; this increase was only observed in the current data in the dexamethasone-treated moDC. The moDC treated with a combination of both E2 and PG had significantly greater upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 relative to the untreated control, but TNFα production was not suppressed; only dexamethasone-treated moDC showed abrogated TNFα production. These data suggest moDC may be regulated by E2 and PG to hinder phenotypic maturation and regulate inflammatory responses. Pregnancy-associated hormone profiles appear to be involved in the generation of maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. These hormone-facilitated changes to moDC in pregnancy may also impede optimal immune responses to both invading pathogens and routine vaccinations administered in late gestation through limited antigen presentation and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine production. These results provide insight into maternal immune modulation and elucidate potential immune changes necessary to facilitate bovine pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of efficient high-throughput plasmid and siRNA transfection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells without cell maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Robert; Patil, Sonali; Pincas, Hanna; Sealfon, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    Transfection of primary immune cells is difficult to achieve at high efficiency and without cell activation and maturation. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a key link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Delineating the signaling pathways involved in the activation of human primary DCs and reverse engineering cellular inflammatory pathways have been challenging tasks. We optimized and validated an effective high-throughput transfection protocol, allowing us to transiently express DNA in naïve primary DCs, as well as investigate the effect of gene silencing by RNA interference. Using a high-throughput nucleofection system, monocyte-derived DCs were nucleoporated with a plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and transfection efficiency was determined by flow cytometry, based on GFP expression. To evaluate the effect of nucleoporation on DC maturation, the expression of cell surface markers CD86 and MHCII in GFP-positive cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. We established optimal assay conditions with a cell viability reaching 70%, a transfection efficiency of over 50%, and unchanged CD86 and MHCII expression. We examined the impact of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of RIG-I, a key viral recognition receptor, on the induction of the interferon (IFN) response in DCs infected with Newcastle disease virus. RIG-I protein was undetectable by Western blot in siRNA-treated cells. RIG-I knockdown caused a 75% reduction in the induction of IFN-β mRNA compared with the negative control siRNA. This protocol should be a valuable tool for probing the immune response pathways activated in human DCs. PMID:20875421

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus induces cytokine dysregulation with suppressed maturation of chicken monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Kumar, Manoj; Senthil Kumar, Dhanapal; Bhatia, Sandeep; Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Bhat, Sushant; Khetan, Rohit K; Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-10-01

    One of the major causes of death in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chickens is acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm), which leads to severe pathology and acute mortality. DCs and respiratory tract macrophages are the major antigen presenting cells that are exposed to mucosal pathogens. We hypothesized that chicken DCs are a major target for induction of cytokine dysregulation by H5N1 HPAIV. It was found that infection of chicken peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (chMoDCs) with H5N1 HPAIV produces high titers of progeny virus with more rounding and cytotoxicity than with H9N2 LPAIV. Expression of maturation markers (CD40, CD80 and CD83) was weaker in both H5N1 and H9N2 groups than in a LPS control group. INF-α, -β and -γ were significantly upregulated in the H5N1 group. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-18) were highly upregulated in early mid (IL-1), and late (IL-6) phases of H5N1 virus infection. IL-8 (CXCLi2) mRNA expression was significantly stronger in the H5N1 group from 6 hr of infection. TLR3, 7, 15 and 21 were upregulated 24 hr after infection by H5N1 virus compared with H9N2 virus, with maximum expression of TLR 3 mRNA. Similarly, greater H5N1 virus-induced apoptotic cell death and cytotoxicity, as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively, were found. Thus, both H5N1 and H9N2 viruses evade the host immune system by inducing impairment of chMoDCs maturation and enhancing cytokine dysregulation in H5N1 HPAIV-infected cells.

  7. Human monocyte-derived suppressor cells control graft-versus-host disease by inducing regulatory forkhead box protein 3-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Janikashvili, Nona; Trad, Malika; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Samson, Maxime; Lamarthée, Baptiste; Bonnefoy, Francis; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Ciudad, Marion; Rekhviashvili, Khatuna; Seaphanh, Famky; Gaugler, Béatrice; Perruche, Sylvain; Bateman, Andrew; Martin, Laurent; Audia, Sylvain; Saas, Philippe; Larmonier, Nicolas; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    Adoptive transfer of immunosuppressive cells has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, only a limited number of such cells can be isolated from in vivo specimens. Therefore efficient ex vivo differentiation and expansion procedures are critically needed to produce a clinically relevant amount of these suppressive cells. We sought to develop a novel, clinically relevant, and feasible approach to generate ex vivo a subpopulation of human suppressor cells of monocytic origin, referred to as human monocyte-derived suppressive cells (HuMoSCs), which can be used as an efficient therapeutic tool to treat inflammatory disorders. HuMoSCs were generated from human monocytes cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-6. The immune-regulatory properties of HuMoSCs were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of HuMoSCs was evaluated by using a graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) model of humanized mice (NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc(-/-) [NSG] mice). CD33+ HuMoSCs are highly potent at inhibiting the proliferation and activation of autologous and allogeneic effector T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. The suppressive activity of these cells depends on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation. Of therapeutic relevance, HuMoSCs induce long-lasting memory forkhead box protein 3-positive CD8+ regulatory T lymphocytes and significantly reduce GvHD induced with human PBMCs in NSG mice. Ex vivo-generated HuMoSCs inhibit effector T lymphocytes, promote the expansion of immunosuppressive forkhead box protein 3-positive CD8+ regulatory T cells, and can be used as an efficient therapeutic tool to prevent GvHD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Research Resource: Transcriptome Profiling of Genes Regulated by RXR and Its Permissive and Nonpermissive Partners in Differentiating Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Széles, Lajos; Póliska, Szilárd; Nagy, Gergely; Szatmari, Istvan; Szanto, Attila; Pap, Attila; Lindstedt, Malin; Santegoets, Saskia J.A.M.; Rühl, Ralph; Dezsö, Balázs; Nagy, László

    2010-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are heterodimerization partners for many nuclear receptors and also act as homodimers. Heterodimers formed by RXR and a nonpermissive partner, e.g. retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR), can be activated only by the agonist of the partner receptor. In contrast, heterodimers that contain permissive partners, e.g. liver X receptor (LXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), can be activated by agonists for either the partner receptor or RXR, raising the possibility of pleiotropic RXR signaling. However, it is not known to what extent the receptor’s activation results in triggering mechanisms dependent or independent of permissive heterodimers. In this study, we systematically and quantitatively characterized all probable RXR-signaling pathways in differentiating human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs). Using pharmacological, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR techniques, we identified and characterized gene sets regulated by RXR agonists (LG100268 and 9-cis retinoic acid) and agonists for LXRs, PPARs, RARα, and VDR. Our results demonstrated that permissiveness was partially impaired in Mo-DCs, because a large number of genes regulated by PPAR or LXR agonists was not affected by RXR-specific agonists or was regulated to a lesser extent. As expected, we found that RXR agonists regulated only small portions of RARα or VDR targets. Importantly, we could identify and characterize PPAR- and LXR-independent pathways in Mo-DCs most likely mediated by RXR homodimers. These data suggested that RXR signaling in Mo-DCs was mediated via multiple permissive heterodimers and also by mechanism(s) independent of permissive heterodimers, and it was controlled in a cell-type and gene-specific manner. PMID:20861222

  9. Comparative DNA microarray analysis of human monocyte derived dendritic cells and MUTZ-3 cells exposed to the moderate skin sensitizer cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Python, François; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre

    2009-09-15

    The number of studies involved in the development of in vitro skin sensitization tests has increased since the adoption of the EU 7th amendment to the cosmetics directive proposing to ban animal testing for cosmetic ingredients by 2013. Several studies have recently demonstrated that sensitizers induce a relevant up-regulation of activation markers such as CD86, CD54, IL-8 or IL-1beta in human myeloid cell lines (e.g., U937, MUTZ-3, THP-1) or in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs). The present study aimed at the identification of new dendritic cell activation markers in order to further improve the in vitro evaluation of the sensitizing potential of chemicals. We have compared the gene expression profiles of PBMDCs and the human cell line MUTZ-3 after a 24-h exposure to the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde. A list of 80 genes modulated in both cell types was obtained and a set of candidate marker genes was selected for further analysis. Cells were exposed to selected sensitizers and non-sensitizers for 24 h and gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that PIR, TRIM16 and two Nrf2-regulated genes, CES1 and NQO1, are modulated by most sensitizers. Up-regulation of these genes could also be observed in our recently published DC-activation test with U937 cells. Due to their role in DC activation, these new genes may help to further refine the in vitro approaches for the screening of the sensitizing properties of a chemical.

  10. Enterovirus-71 virus-like particles induce the activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells through TLR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate naïve T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (IκBα) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-κB) activation.

  11. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response.

    PubMed

    Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia; Nosi, Daniele; Masini, Emanuela; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Ballerini, Clara

    2016-07-08

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1-4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance.

  12. Phase II Study of Autologous Monocyte-Derived mRNA Electroporated Dendritic Cells (TriMixDC-MEL) Plus Ipilimumab in Patients With Pretreated Advanced Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wilgenhof, Sofie; Corthals, Jurgen; Heirman, Carlo; van Baren, Nicolas; Lucas, Sophie; Kvistborg, Pia; Thielemans, Kris; Neyns, Bart

    2016-04-20

    Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) electroporated with synthetic mRNA (TriMixDC-MEL) are immunogenic and have antitumor activity as a monotherapy in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. Ipilimumab, an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody directed against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 receptor that counteracts physiologic suppression of T-cell function, improves the overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma. This phase II study investigated the combination of TriMixDC-MEL and ipilimumab in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. Thirty-nine patients were treated with TriMixDC-MEL (4 × 10(6) cells administered intradermally and 20 × 10(6) cells administered intravenously) plus ipilimumab (10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for a total of four administrations, followed by maintenance therapy every 12 weeks in patients who remained progression free). Six-month disease control rate according to the immune-related response criteria served as the primary end point. The 6-month disease control rate was 51% (95% CI, 36% to 67%), and the overall tumor response rate was 38% (including eight complete and seven partial responses). Seven complete responses and one partial tumor response are ongoing after a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 22 to 43 months). The most common treatment-related adverse events (all grades) consisted of local DC injection site skin reactions (100%), transient post-DC infusion chills (38%) and flu-like symptoms (84%), dermatitis (64%), hepatitis (13%), hypophysitis (15%), and diarrhea/colitis (15%). Grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 36% of patients. There was no grade 5 adverse event. The combination of TriMixDC-MEL and ipilimumab is tolerable and results in an encouraging rate of highly durable tumor responses in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Morphine-treatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages induces differential miRNA and protein expression: Impact on inflammation and oxidative stress in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Rajnish S.; Khalili, Kamel

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1-infected opiate abusers often exhibit an accelerated form of HIV-1 associated dementia and enhanced neurological dysfunction. Productive HIV-1 infection of microglia and perivascular macrophages and the resultant secretion of neurotoxic molecules by these cells contribute to this phenomenon. In order to understand the role of morphine in this process, we performed a genome-wide association study at the microRNA (miRNA) and protein levels in human monocyte-derived macrophages (h-mdms). A total of 26 differentially expressed miRNA were identified (p < 0.01), of which hsa-miR-15b and hsa-miR-181b had the greatest increase and decrease in expression levels, respectively. Computational analysis predicted fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as the strongest target gene for hsa-miR15b. Of note, we observed a decrease in FGF-2 protein expression in response to morphine. Both hsa-miR-15b and hsa-miR-181b have several predicted gene targets involved in inflammation and T-cell activation pathways. In this context, we observed induction of MCP-2 and IL-6 by morphine. Moreover, proteomic analysis revealed the induction of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in response to morphine treatment. HIV-1 infection did not induce mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that morphine induces inflammation and oxidative stress in h-mdms thereby contributing to expansion of HIV-1 CNS reservoir expansion and disease progression. Of note, differentially expressed miRNAs (hsa-miR-15b and 181-b) may have a potential role in regulating these processes. PMID:20564181

  14. HIV-1 gp120 influences the expression of microRNAs in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Masotti, Andrea; Donninelli, Gloria; Da Sacco, Letizia; Varano, Barbara; Del Cornò, Manuela; Gessani, Sandra

    2015-06-27

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs (~22 nt) that reprogram gene expression by targeting mRNA degradation and translational disruption. An emerging concept implicates miR coupling with transcription factors in myeloid cell development and function, thus contributing to host defense and inflammation. The important role that these molecules play in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 is only now emerging. We provide evidence that exposure of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) to recombinant HIV-1 R5 gp120, but not to CCR5 natural ligand CCL4, influences the expression of a panel of miRs (i.e., miR-21, miR-155 and miR-181b) regulated by STAT3 and potentially targeting genes belonging to the STAT3 signaling pathway. The blockage of gp120-induced STAT3 activation impairs gp120 capacity to modulate the expression level of above mentioned miRs. Predictive analysis of miR putative targets emphasizes that these miRs share common target genes. Furthermore, gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis outline that these genes mainly belong to biological processes related to regulation of transcription, in a complex network of interactions involving pathways relevant to HIV-DC interaction. Overall, these results point to gp120-triggered modulation of miR expression via STAT3 activation as a novel molecular mechanism exploited by HIV-1 to affect DC biology and thus modulate the immune response through complex regulatory loops involving, at the same time, miRs and transcription factors.

  15. Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate naïve T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (IκBα) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-κB) activation. PMID:25360749

  16. Th2 polarization by Der p 1--pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells is due to the allergic status of the donors.

    PubMed

    Hammad, H; Charbonnier, A S; Duez, C; Jacquet, A; Stewart, G A; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J

    2001-08-15

    The polarization of the immune response toward a Th2 or a Th1 profile can be mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) following antigen presentation and interaction with T cells. Costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 expressed by DCs, the polarizing cytokine environment during DC--T-cell interaction, and also the nature of the antigen are critical in the orientation of the immune response. In this study, the effect of the cysteine protease Der p 1, one of the major allergens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, on these different parameters was evaluated comparatively on monocyte-derived DCs obtained from healthy donors, from pollen-sensitive patients, or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Results showed that Der p 1 induced an increase in CD86 expression only on DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients. This was also associated with a higher capacity to induce T-cell proliferation, a rapid increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor--alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and the type 2 cytokine IL-10. No changes in the release of IL-12 p70 were induced by Der p 1. Finally, purified T cells from house dust mite-sensitive patients stimulated by autologous Der p 1--pulsed DCs preferentially produced IL-4 rather than interferon-gamma. These effects were abolished in the presence of the inactive precursor of Der p 1 (ProDer p 1). Taken together, these data suggest that DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients, in contrast to DCs from healthy donors and from pollen-sensitive patients, exposed to Der p 1 play a pivotal role in the enhancement of the Th2 response associated with the allergic reaction developed in response to house dust mite exposure. (Blood. 2001;98:1135-1141)

  17. Low-dose azithromycin improves phagocytosis of bacteria by both alveolar and monocyte-derived macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Sandra; Reynolds, Paul N

    2012-07-01

    Chronic inflammation and reduced airways integrity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) potentially results from secondary necrosis as a result of impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic material by airway macrophages, and increased bacterial colonization. We have previously shown that administration of low-dose azithromycin to subjects with COPD improved macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic airway epithelial cells, reduced inflammation and increased expression of macrophage mannose receptor. We firstly investigated whether there were defects in the ability of both alveolar (AM) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) to phagocytose bacteria in COPD, as we have previously reported for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. We then assessed the effects of administration of low-dose azithromycin to COPD patients on the ability of AM and MDM to phagocytose bacteria. Azithromycin (250 mg orally daily for 5 days then 2× weekly (total 12 weeks)) was administered to 11 COPD subjects and phagocytosis of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Escherichia coli assessed by flow cytometry. COPD subjects had a significant defect in the ability of both AM and MDM to phagocytose bacteria that was significantly improved by administration of low-dose azithromycin The data provide further support for the long-term use of low dose azithromycin as an attractive adjunct treatment option for COPD. Improved clearance of both apoptotic cells and bacteria in the airway may have a dual effect; reducing the risk of secondary necrosis and release of toxic cell contents that perpetuate inflammation as well as contributing to a reduction in the rate of exacerbations in COPD. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Human XCR1+ Dendritic Cells Derived In Vitro from CD34+ Progenitors Closely Resemble Blood Dendritic Cells, Including Their Adjuvant Responsiveness, Contrary to Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Sreekumar; Ollion, Vincent; Colletti, Nicholas; Chelbi, Rabie; Montanana-Sanchis, Frédéric; Liu, Hong; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Sanchez, Cindy; Savoret, Juliette; Perrot, Ivan; Doffin, Anne-Claire; Fossum, Even; Bechlian, Didier; Chabannon, Christian; Bogen, Bjarne; Asselin-Paturel, Carine; Shaw, Michael; Soos, Timothy; Caux, Christophe; Valladeau-Guilemond, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) have been used in the clinic with moderately encouraging results. Mouse XCR1+ DC excel at cross-presentation, can be targeted in vivo to induce protective immunity, and share characteristics with XCR1+ human DC. Assessment of the immunoactivation potential of XCR1+ human DC is hindered by their paucity in vivo and by their lack of a well-defined in vitro counterpart. We report in this study a protocol generating both XCR1+ and XCR1− human DC in CD34+ progenitor cultures (CD34-DC). Gene expression profiling, phenotypic characterization, and functional studies demonstrated that XCR1− CD34-DC are similar to canonical MoDC, whereas XCR1+ CD34-DC resemble XCR1+ blood DC (bDC). XCR1+ DC were strongly activated by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid but not LPS, and conversely for MoDC. XCR1+ DC and MoDC expressed strikingly different patterns of molecules involved in inflammation and in cross-talk with NK or T cells. XCR1+ CD34-DC but not MoDC efficiently cross-presented a cell-associated Ag upon stimulation by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or R848, likewise to what was reported for XCR1+ bDC. Hence, it is feasible to generate high numbers of bona fide XCR1+ human DC in vitro as a model to decipher the functions of XCR1+ bDC and as a potential source of XCR1+ DC for clinical use. PMID:25009205

  19. Alloantigen specific deletion of primary human T cells by Fas ligand (CD95L)-transduced monocyte-derived killer-dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Christian; Hoves, Sabine; Halbritter, Dagmar; Zhang, Huang-Ge; Mountz, John D; Fleck, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have been performed in vitro and in various animal models to modulate the interaction of dendritic cells (DC) and T cells by Fas (CD95/Apo-1) signalling to delete activated T cells via induction of activation-induced cell death (AICD). Previously, we could demonstrate that Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L)-expressing ‘killer-antigen-presenting cells’ can be generated from human monocyte-derived mature DC (mDC) using adenoviral gene transfer. To evaluate whether these FasL-expressing mDC (mDC-FasL) could eliminate alloreactive primary human T cells in vitro, co-culture experiments were performed. Proliferation of human T cells was markedly reduced in primary co-cultures with allogeneic mDC-FasL, whereas a strong proliferative T-cell response could be observed in co-cultures with enhanced green fluorescent protein-transduced mDC. Inhibition of T-cell proliferation was related to the transduction efficiency, and the numbers of mDC-FasL present in co-cultures. In addition, proliferation of pre-activated alloreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells could be almost completely inhibited in secondary co-cultures using mDC-FasL as stimulatory cells, which was the result of induction of apoptosis in the majority of preactivated T cells. The specific deletion of alloreactive T cells by mDC-FasL was confirmed by an unaffected proliferative response of surviving T cells towards allogeneic ‘third-party’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a third stimulation, or upon unspecific stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 beads. The results of this study demonstrate that allospecifically activated T cells are efficiently eliminated by mDC-FasL, supporting further investigations to apply FasL-expressing ‘killer-DC’ as a novel strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:21342185

  20. Dasatinib enhances migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by reducing phosphorylation of inhibitory immune receptors Siglec-9 and Siglec-3.

    PubMed

    Nerreter, Thomas; Köchel, Christoph; Jesper, Daniel; Eichelbrönner, Irina; Putz, Evelyn; Einsele, Hermann; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, Ruth

    2014-09-01

    The SRC family of kinases (SFKs) is crucial to malignant growth, but also important for signaling in immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). These specialized antigen-presenting cells are essential for inducing and boosting specific T-cell responses against pathogens and malignancies. Targeted therapy with SFK inhibitors holds great promise as a direct anti-cancer treatment, but potentially also as an indirect treatment via immunomodulation. Here, we investigated whether the BCR-ABL/SRC inhibitor dasatinib would modulate the major effector functions of DCs, especially their migration, a prerequisite to interaction with lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs. We report for the first time that dasatinib more than doubled the number of mature human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) migrating toward a CCL19 gradient despite unchanged CCR7 expression when used for pretreatment. These effects were caused by dephosphorylation of SFKs, as confirmed by the specific SFK inhibitor SRC inhibitor 1, leading to dephosphorylation of the inhibitory immunoreceptors Siglec-9 and Siglec-3. The specific blocking of the latter also enhanced migration and underlined the importance of these SFK-dependent receptor systems for migration of moDCs. Dasatinib hampered the secretion of interleukin-12 by moDCs at clinically relevant concentrations. In contrast, endocytosis or boosting of cytomegalovirus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses remained unaltered when applying dasatinib-pretreated moDCs, in line with minor effects on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules essential for DC-T cell interaction. The induction of enhanced migration of moDCs may potentially be useful in chemo-immunotherapeutic applications. Thus, the use of dasatinib or blocking Siglec antibodies as adjuvants in this setting to induce stronger immune responses is worthy of further study.

  1. Monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophage secretion of MCP-1 in co-culture with autologous malignant and benign control fragment spheroids.

    PubMed

    Heimdal, J H; Olsnes, C; Olofsson, J; Aarstad, H J

    2001-08-01

    This study was performed in order to determine how monocytes and macrophages in co-culture with autologous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumor tissue regulate the secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). The levels of MCP-1 were measured when autologous monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were co-cultured in vitro with autologous fragment (F)-spheroids established from HNSCC tumors or benign mucosa serving as control. MCP-1 secretion from co-culture stimulated monocytes and MDMs was increased compared to spontaneous MCP-1 secretion. With prolonged co-culture, MDMs showed a steady-state MCP-1 secretion above background levels for up to 96 h, even with change of co-culture media every 24 h. Addition of an anti-MCP-1 antibody to the medium decreased co-culture-induced monocyte IL-6 secretion. Addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 [microg/ml) reduced MCP-1 secretion compared to spontaneous secretion in monocyte cultures. F-spheroids also secrete MCP-1, but at insignificant levels compared to the MCP-1 secretion from monocytes and MDMs. MCP-1 secretion from monocytes/MDMs is regulated differently when co-culture stimulation is compared to LPS-stimulation. Monocytes and MDMs expressed MCP-1 mRNA at a high level in all tested conditions: stimulated in co-culture, not stimulated or stimulated with LPS, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of MCP-1 secretion. The secretion of MCP-1 from tumor-derived F-spheroids, and the maintenance of co-culture MCP-1 secretion from MDMs in vitro, suggests that tumor-associated macrophages are a source of MCP-1 in HNSCC tumors.

  2. Human epidermal Langerhans cells differ from monocyte-derived Langerhans cells in CD80 expression and in secretion of IL-12 after CD40 cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Peiser, Matthias; Wanner, Reinhard; Kolde, Gerhard

    2004-09-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) represent an immature population of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). As a result of their unique Birbeck granules (BGs), langerin expression, and heterogeneous maturation process, they differ from other immature DCs. Monocyte-derived LCs (MoLCs) mimic epidermal LCs. MoLCs with characteristic BGs are generated by culturing blood-derived monocytes with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-4, and transforming growth factor-beta1. Here, we compare maturation-induced antigen expression and cytokine release of LCs with MoLCs. To achieve comparable cell populations, LCs and MoLCs were isolated by CD1c cell sorting, resulting in high purity. In unstimulated cells, CD40 was expressed at equal levels. After stimulation with CD40 ligand (CD40L), LCs and MoLCs acquired CD83 and increased CD86. High CD80 expression was exclusively detected in CD1c-sorted MoLCs. Human leukocyte antigen-DR and CD54 expression was found in all cell populations, however, at different intensities. CD40 triggering increased the potency of LCs and MoLCs to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation. Activated MoLCs released IL-12p70 and simultaneously, anti-inflammatory IL-10. The application of the Toll-like receptor ligands peptidoglycan, flagellin, and in particular, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the corelease of these cytokines. LCs secreted IL-10 at a comparable level with MoLCs but failed to produce high amounts of IL-12p70 after application of danger signals. These data indicate that MoLCs as well as LCs display no maturation arrest concerning CD83 and CD86 expression. In difference to MoLCs, LCs resisted activation by CD40L and LPS in terms of IL-12 production. This shows that natural and generated LCs share similar features but differ in relevant functions.

  3. The effects of CX3CR1 deficiency and irradiation on the homing of monocyte-derived cell populations in the mouse eye.

    PubMed

    Kezic, Jelena M; McMenamin, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether CX3CR1 deficiency altered monocytic cell replenishment dynamics in ocular tissues in the context of radiation chimeras. Long-term effects of irradiation and effects of sublethal irradiation on ocular macrophages were also assessed. Bone marrow from BALB/c Cx 3 cr1 (+/gfp) or Cx 3 cr1 (gfp/gfp) mice was used to reconstitute full body irradiated WT mice and donor cell densities in the uveal tract were compared at 4 and 8 weeks post-transplantation. BALB/c and C57BL/6J chimeric mice were examined at 6 months of age to determine strain-related differences in microglial replenishment and radiation sensitivity. A separate cohort of mice were sublethally irradiated (5.5 Gy) and retinal tissue assessed 8 and 12 weeks later. CX3CR1 deficiency altered the early replenishment of monocytes in the posterior iris but not in the iris stroma, choroid or retina. In six month old chimeric mice, there were significantly higher GFP(+) cell densities in the uveal tract when compared to non-irradiated 8-12 week old Cx 3 cr1 (+/gfp) mice. Additionally, MHC Class II expression was upregulated on hyalocytes and GFP(+) cells in the peripheral retina and the repopulation of microglia appeared to be more rapid in C57BL/6J mice compared to BALB/c mice. Transient expression of MHC Class II was observed on retinal vasculature in sublethally irradiated mice. These data indicate CX3CR1-deficiency only slightly alters monocyte-derived cell replenishment in the murine uveal tract. Lethal irradiation leads to long-term increase in monocytic cell density in the uveal tract and retinal microglial activation, possibly as a sequelae to local irradiation induced injury. Microglial replenishment in this model appears to be strain dependent.

  4. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression is not induced or required for bacterial clearance during salmonella enterica infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Kristi L; Richards, Susan M; Gunn, John S

    2012-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is able to resist antimicrobial peptide killing by induction of the PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB two-component systems and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modifications they mediate. Murine cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) has been reported to inhibit S. Typhimurium growth in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesize that infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. Typhimurium will induce human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) production, and exposure to LL-37 (processed, active form of CAMP/hCAP18) will lead to upregulation of PmrAB-mediated LPS modifications and increased survival in vivo. Unlike in mouse macrophages, in which CRAMP is upregulated during infection, camp gene expression was not induced in human MDMs infected with S. Typhi or S. Typhimurium. Upon infection, intracellular levels of ΔphoPQ, ΔpmrAB, and PhoP(c) S. Typhi decreased over time but were not further inhibited by the vitamin D(3)-induced increase in camp expression. MDMs infected with wild-type (WT) S. Typhi or S. Typhimurium released similar levels of proinflammatory cytokines; however, the LPS modification mutant strains dramatically differed in MDM-elicited cytokine levels. Overall, these findings indicate that camp is not induced during Salmonella infection of MDMs nor is key to Salmonella intracellular clearance. However, the cytokine responses from MDMs infected with WT or LPS modification mutant strains differ significantly, indicating a role for LPS modifications in altering the host inflammatory response. Our findings also suggest that S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium elicit different proinflammatory responses from MDMs, despite being capable of adding similar modifications to their LPS structures.

  5. Differential capacity of human interleukin-4 and interferon-α monocyte-derived dendritic cells for cross-presentation of free versus cell-associated antigen.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Jurjen M; Bontkes, Hetty J; Westers, Theresia M; Hooijberg, Erik; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) vaccination is a potent therapeutic approach for inducing tumor-directed immunity, but challenges remain. One of the particular interest is the induction of an immune response targeting multiple (unknown) tumor-associated antigens (TAA), which requires a polyvalent source of TAA. Previously, we described the preferred use of apoptotic cell-derived blebs over the larger apoptotic cell remnants, as a source of TAA for both in situ loading of skin-resident DC and in vitro loading of monocyte-derived DC (MoDC). Recent reports suggest that MoDC cultured in the presence of GM-CSF supplemented with IFNα (IFNα MoDC), as compared to IL-4 (IL-4 MoDC), have an increased capacity to cross-present antigen to CD8(+) T cells. As culture conditions, maturation methods and antigen sources differ between the conducted studies, we analyzed the functional differences between IL-4 MoDC and IFNα MoDC, loaded with blebs, in a head-to-head comparison using commonly used protocols. Our data show that both MoDC types are potent (cross-) primers of CD8(+) T cells. Whereas IFNα MoDC were more potent in their capacity to cross-present a 25-mer MART-1 synthetic long peptide (SLP) to a MART-1aa26-35 recognizing CD8(+) T cell line, IL-4 MoDC proved more potent cross-primers of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells when loaded with blebs. The latter is likely due to the observed greater capacity of IL-4 MoDC to ingest apoptotic blebs. In conclusion, our data indicate the use of IFNα MoDC over IL-4 MoDC in the context of DC vaccination with SLP, whereas IL-4 MoDC are preferred for vaccination with bleb-derived antigens.

  6. Fusion of Ubiquitin to HIV Gag Impairs Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cell Maturation and Reduces Ability to Induce Gag T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Shanthi; Benlahrech, Adel; Papagatsias, Timos; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Bouzeboudjen, Zineb; Hervouet, Catherine; Klavinskis, Linda; Meiser, Andrea; Kelleher, Peter; Dickson, George; Patterson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The efficient induction of CD8 T cell immunity is dependent on the processing and presentation of antigen on MHC class I molecules by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). To develop an improved T cell vaccine for HIV we investigated whether fusing the ubiquitin gene to the N terminus of the HIV gag gene enhanced targeting to the proteasome resulting in better CD8 T cell responses. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDC), transduced with adenovirus vectors carrying either ubiquitinated or non-ubiquitinated gag transgene constructs, were co-cultured with autologous naïve T cells and T cell responses were measured after several weekly cycles of stimulation. Despite targeting of the ubiquitin gag transgene protein to the proteasome, ubiquitination did not increase CD8 T cell immune responses and in some cases diminished responses to gag peptides. There were no marked differences in cytokines produced from ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated gag stimulated cultures or in the expression of inhibitory molecules on expanded T cells. However, the ability of moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag gene to upregulate co-stimulatory molecules was reduced, whilst no difference in moDC maturation was observed with a control ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated MART gene. Furthermore moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag produced more IL-10 than transduction with unmodified gag. Thus failure of gag ubiquitination to enhance CD8 responses may be caused by suppression of moDC maturation. These results indicate that when designing a successful vaccine strategy to target a particular cell population, attention must also be given to the effect of the vaccine on APCs. PMID:24505475

  7. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from HLA-B27+ axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients display altered functional capacity and deregulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Talpin, Alice; Costantino, Félicie; Bonilla, Nelly; Leboime, Ariane; Letourneur, Franck; Jacques, Sébastien; Dumont, Florent; Amraoui, Sonia; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Breban, Maxime; Chiocchia, Gilles

    2014-08-21

    This study aimed to compare the functional capacity and gene expression profile of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) in HLA-B27+ axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients and healthy controls. MD-DCs were differentiated with interleukin 4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for seven days, starting from purified CD14+ monocytes and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for six and twenty four hours. Their capacity to stimulate allogeneic CD4+ T cells from unrelated healthy donor was tested. Transcriptomic study was performed with Affymetrix HuGene 1.0 ST microarrays. Gene expression levels were compared between patients and controls using a multivariate design under a linear model (LIMMA). Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for validation of the most striking gene expression differences. The stimulatory capacity of allogeneic CD4+ T cells by MD-DCs from SpA patients was decreased. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 81 genes differentially expressed in MD-DCs between SpA patients and controls (P <0.01 and fold-change <0.66 or >1.5). Four selected genes were validated by q ADAMTS15, CITED2, F13A1 and SELL. Expression levels of ADAMTS15 and CITED2, encoding a metallopeptidase and a transcription factor, respectively, were inversely correlated with each other (R = 0.75, P = 0.0003). Furthermore, in silico analysis identified several genes of the Wnt signaling pathway having expression co-regulated with CITED2. This study revealed altered function and gene expression pattern in MD-DCs from HLA-B27+ axial SpA. Co-expression study showed an inverse correlation between ADAMTS15 and CITED2. Moreover, the Wnt signaling pathway appeared as deregulated in SpA MD-DCs, a finding which may be connected to Th17-driven inflammatory responses.

  8. Efficacy of Tat-Conjugated Ritonavir-Loaded Nanoparticles in Reducing HIV-1 Replication in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Cytocompatibility with Macrophages and Human Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Borgmann, Kathleen; Rao, Kavitha S.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 targets mononuclear phagocytes (MP), which disseminate infection to organs such as brain, spleen and lymph. Thus MP, which include microglia, tissue macrophages and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), are important target of anti-HIV-1 drug therapy. Most of the currently used antiretroviral drugs are effective in reducing viral loadin the periphery but cannot effectively eradicate infection from tissue reservoirs such as brain MP. HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system can lead to a wide variety of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. In this study, we demonstrate that ritonavir-loaded nanoparticles (RNPs) are effective in inhibiting HIV-1 infection of MDM. Reduced infection is observed in multiple read-out systems including reduction of cytopathic effects, HIV-1 p24 protein secretion and production of progeny virions. Furthermore, the RNPs retained antiretroviral efficacy after being removed from MDM cultures. As HIV-1-infected cells in the brain are likely to survive for a long period of time, both acute and chronic infection paradigms were evaluated. Tat-peptide-conjugated RNPs (Tat-RNP) were effective in both short-term and long-term HIV-1-infected MDM. Importantly, we confirm that delivery of RNPs, both with and without Tat-peptide conjugation, is toxic neither to MDM nor to neural cells, which may be bystander targets of the nanoformulations. In conclusion, Tat-NPs could be a safe and effective way of delivering anti-HIV-1 drugs for controlling viral replication occurring within brain MP. PMID:21175357

  9. Simian Virus 40-Based Replication of Catalytically Inactive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase Mutants in Nonpermissive T Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Richard; Nakajima, Noriko; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Benkirane, Monsef; Teh-Jeang, Kuan; Sodroski, Joseph; Engelman, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Integrase function is required for retroviral replication in most instances. Although certain permissive T-cell lines support human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in the absence of functional integrase, most cell lines and primary human cells are nonpermissive for integrase mutant growth. Since unintegrated retroviral DNA is lost from cells following cell division, we investigated whether incorporating a functional origin of DNA replication into integrase mutant HIV-1 might overcome the block to efficient gene expression and replication in nonpermissive T-cell lines and primary cells. Whereas the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) origin (oriP) did little to augment expression from an integrase mutant reporter virus in EBV nuclear antigen 1-expressing cells, simian virus 40 (SV40) oriT dramatically enhanced integrase mutant infectivity in T-antigen (Tag)-expressing cells. Incorporating oriT into the nef position of a full-length, integrase-defective virus strain yielded efficient replication in Tag-expressing nonpermissive Jurkat T cells without reversion to an integration-competent genotype. Adding Tag to integrase mutant-oriT viruses yielded 11.3-kb SV40-HIV chimeras that replicated in Jurkat cells and primary monocyte-derived macrophages. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Jurkat cell infections revealed that amplified copies of unintegrated DNA likely contributed to SV40-HIV integrase mutant replication. SV40-based HIV-1 integrase mutant replication in otherwise nonpermissive cells suggests alternative approaches to standard integrase-mediated retroviral gene transfer strategies. PMID:14694097

  10. Infection of equine monocyte-derived macrophages with an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) strain induces a strong resistance to the infection by a virulent EIAV strain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Wang, Shan-Shan; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Liu, Hai-Fang; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Hua-Mian; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Du, Cheng; Kong, Xian-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-08-09

    The Chinese attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine has successfully protected millions of equine animals from EIA disease in China. Given that the induction of immune protection results from the interactions between viruses and hosts, a better understanding of the characteristics of vaccine strain infection and host responses would be useful for elucidating the mechanism of the induction of immune protection by the Chinese attenuated EIAV strain. In this study, we demonstrate in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDM) that EIAVFDDV13, a Chinese attenuated EIAV strain, induced a strong resistance to subsequent infection by a pathogenic strain, EIAVUK3. Further experiments indicate that the expression of the soluble EIAV receptor sELR1, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and interferon β (IFNβ) was up-regulated in eMDM infected with EIAVFDDV13 compared with eMDM infected with EIAVUK3. Stimulating eMDM with poly I:C resulted in similar resistance to EIAV infection as induced by EIAVFDDV13 and was correlated with enhanced TLR3, sELR1 and IFNβ expression. The knock down of TLR3 mRNA significantly impaired poly I:C-stimulated resistance to EIAV, greatly reducing the expression of sELR1 and IFNβ and lowered the level of infection resistance induced by EIAVFDDV13. These results indicate that the induction of restraining infection by EIAVFDDV13 in macrophages is partially mediated through the up-regulated expression of the soluble viral receptor and IFNβ, and that the TLR3 pathway activation plays an important role in the development of an EIAV-resistant intracellular environment.

  11. The presence of interleukin-27 during monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation promotes improved antigen processing and stimulation of T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo-Yong; Roberts, Lawton L; Robinson, Cory M

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells necessary to establish effective adaptive immune responses. The cytokine environment that exists at the time of DC differentiation may be an important but often ignored determinant in the phenotypic and functional properties of DCs. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a unique cytokine that has both inflammatory and immune suppressive activities. Although it can both promote and oppose activity of different T-cell subsets, mostly anti-inflammatory activity has been described toward macrophages and DCs. However, the specific effect of IL-27 during DC differentiation and how that may change the nature of the antigen-presenting cell has not been investigated. In this report, we show that IL-27 treatment during monocyte-derived DC differentiation enhanced the ability to process antigens and stimulate T-cell activity. DCs differentiated in the presence of IL-27 showed enhanced acidification of latex bead-containing phagosomes that was consistent with elevated expression of vacuolar-ATPases. This resulted in inhibition of intracellular growth of Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the levels of MHC class II surface expression were higher in DCs differentiated in the presence of IL-27. Production of IL-12 was also significantly increased during S. aureus infection of IL-27-differentiated DCs. The net effect of these activities was enhanced CD4+ T-cell proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine production. These findings are important to a wide number of immunological contexts and should be considered in the development of future vaccines. PMID:25346485

  12. The presence of interleukin-27 during monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation promotes improved antigen processing and stimulation of T cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Yong; Roberts, Lawton L; Robinson, Cory M

    2015-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells necessary to establish effective adaptive immune responses. The cytokine environment that exists at the time of DC differentiation may be an important but often ignored determinant in the phenotypic and functional properties of DCs. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a unique cytokine that has both inflammatory and immune suppressive activities. Although it can both promote and oppose activity of different T-cell subsets, mostly anti-inflammatory activity has been described toward macrophages and DCs. However, the specific effect of IL-27 during DC differentiation and how that may change the nature of the antigen-presenting cell has not been investigated. In this report, we show that IL-27 treatment during monocyte-derived DC differentiation enhanced the ability to process antigens and stimulate T-cell activity. DCs differentiated in the presence of IL-27 showed enhanced acidification of latex bead-containing phagosomes that was consistent with elevated expression of vacuolar-ATPases. This resulted in inhibition of intracellular growth of Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the levels of MHC class II surface expression were higher in DCs differentiated in the presence of IL-27. Production of IL-12 was also significantly increased during S. aureus infection of IL-27-differentiated DCs. The net effect of these activities was enhanced CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine production. These findings are important to a wide number of immunological contexts and should be considered in the development of future vaccines.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Capacity of Elite Suppressor CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells To Inhibit HIV-1 Replication in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E. K.; Buckheit, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elite controllers or suppressors (ESs) are HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain viral loads below the limit of detection of clinical assays without antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms of virologic control are not fully understood, but ESs have been shown to have a more effective CD8+ T cell response to infected CD4+ T cells than chronic progressors (CPs). While macrophages are another cell type productively infected by HIV-1, few studies have examined the ability of primary effector T cells to suppress HIV-1 replication in these target cells. Here, we compared the ability of unstimulated primary CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells to suppress viral replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in ESs and CPs. While CD4+ effector T cells were capable of inhibiting viral replication in MDMs, the magnitude of this response was not significantly different between ESs and CPs. In contrast, the CD8+ T cells from ESs were significantly more effective than those from CPs at inhibiting viral replication in MDMs. The CD4+ T cell response was partially mediated by soluble factors, while the CD8+ T cell response required cell-to-cell interaction. Our results suggest that the individual contributions of various effector cells should be considered in rational vaccine design and in ongoing eradication efforts. IMPORTANCE Elite suppressors are individuals capable of maintaining low-level viremia in HIV-1 infection without antiretroviral drugs. Their T cell responses have been implicated in eliminating infected CD4+ T cells, and as such, elite suppressors may represent a model of a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. Here, we sought to determine whether the suppressive T cell responses against infected CD4+ T cells also apply to infected macrophages by comparing the responses of elite suppressors and HIV-1-positive individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our results show that the CD8+ cells but not CD4+ T cells from elite suppressors

  14. Comparative analysis of the capacity of elite suppressor CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to inhibit HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E K; Buckheit, Robert W; Blankson, Joel N

    2014-09-01

    Elite controllers or suppressors (ESs) are HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain viral loads below the limit of detection of clinical assays without antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms of virologic control are not fully understood, but ESs have been shown to have a more effective CD8+ T cell response to infected CD4+ T cells than chronic progressors (CPs). While macrophages are another cell type productively infected by HIV-1, few studies have examined the ability of primary effector T cells to suppress HIV-1 replication in these target cells. Here, we compared the ability of unstimulated primary CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells to suppress viral replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in ESs and CPs. While CD4+ effector T cells were capable of inhibiting viral replication in MDMs, the magnitude of this response was not significantly different between ESs and CPs. In contrast, the CD8+ T cells from ESs were significantly more effective than those from CPs at inhibiting viral replication in MDMs. The CD4+ T cell response was partially mediated by soluble factors, while the CD8+ T cell response required cell-to-cell interaction. Our results suggest that the individual contributions of various effector cells should be considered in rational vaccine design and in ongoing eradication efforts. Elite suppressors are individuals capable of maintaining low-level viremia in HIV-1 infection without antiretroviral drugs. Their T cell responses have been implicated in eliminating infected CD4+ T cells, and as such, elite suppressors may represent a model of a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. Here, we sought to determine whether the suppressive T cell responses against infected CD4+ T cells also apply to infected macrophages by comparing the responses of elite suppressors and HIV-1-positive individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our results show that the CD8+ cells but not CD4+ T cells from elite suppressors have a response

  15. Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Erik; De Hoon, Michiel; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Pavli, Paul; Summers, Kim M.; Hume, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The FANTOM5 consortium utilised cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to provide an unprecedented insight into transcriptional regulation in human cells and tissues. In the current study, we have used CAGE-based transcriptional profiling on an extended dense time course of the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages grown in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We propose that this system provides a model for the differentiation and adaptation of monocytes entering the intestinal lamina propria. The response to LPS is shown to be a cascade of successive waves of transient gene expression extending over at least 48 hours, with hundreds of positive and negative regulatory loops. Promoter analysis using motif activity response analysis (MARA) identified some of the transcription factors likely to be responsible for the temporal profile of transcriptional activation. Each LPS-inducible locus was associated with multiple inducible enhancers, and in each case, transient eRNA transcription at multiple sites detected by CAGE preceded the appearance of promoter-associated transcripts. LPS-inducible long non-coding RNAs were commonly associated with clusters of inducible enhancers. We used these data to re-examine the hundreds of loci associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genome-wide association studies. Loci associated with IBD were strongly and specifically (relative to rheumatoid arthritis and unrelated traits) enriched for promoters that were regulated in monocyte differentiation or activation. Amongst previously-identified IBD susceptibility loci, the vast majority contained at least one promoter that was regulated in CSF1-dependent monocyte-macrophage transitions and/or in response to LPS. On this basis, we concluded that IBD loci are strongly-enriched for monocyte-specific genes, and identified at least 134 additional candidate genes associated with IBD susceptibility from reanalysis

  16. Elevated ARG1 expression in primary monocytes-derived macrophages as a predictor of radiation-induced acute skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Karen; Sabri, Siham; Hanson, John; Xu, Yaoxian; Wang, Ying Wayne; Lai, Raymond; Abdulkarim, Bassam S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) the front-line treatment after surgery for early breast cancer patients is associated with acute skin toxicities in at least 40% of treated patients. Monocyte-derived macrophages are polarized into functionally distinct (M1 or M2) activated phenotypes at injury sites by specific systemic cytokines known to play a key role in the transition between damage and repair in irradiated tissues. The role of M1 and M2 macrophages in RT-induced acute skin toxicities remains to be defined. We investigated the potential value of M1 and M2 macrophages as predictive factors of RT-induced skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT after lumpectomy. Blood samples collected from patients enrolled in a prospective clinical study (n = 49) were analyzed at baseline and after the first delivered 2Gy RT dose. We designed an ex vivo culture system to differentiate patient blood monocytes into macrophages and treated them with M1 or M2-inducing cytokines before quantitative analysis of their “M1/M2” activation markers, iNOS, Arg1, and TGFß1. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate experimental data to clinical assessment of acute skin toxicity using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade for objective evaluation of skin reactions. Increased ARG1 mRNA significantly correlated with higher grades of erythema, moist desquamation, and CTC grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased ARG1 expression in macrophages after a single RT dose was an independent prognostic factor of erythema (p = 0 .032), moist desquamation (p = 0 .027), and CTC grade (p = 0 .056). Interestingly, multivariate analysis of ARG1 mRNA expression in macrophages stimulated with IL-4 also revealed independent prognostic value for predicting acute RT-induced toxicity factors, erythema (p = 0 .069), moist desquamation (p = 0 .037), and CTC grade (p = 0 .046). To conclude, our findings underline for the first time the biological significance of increased

  17. Elevated ARG1 expression in primary monocytes-derived macrophages as a predictor of radiation-induced acute skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Karen; Sabri, Siham; Hanson, John; Xu, Yaoxian; Wang, Ying Wayne; Lai, Raymond; Abdulkarim, Bassam S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) the front-line treatment after surgery for early breast cancer patients is associated with acute skin toxicities in at least 40% of treated patients. Monocyte-derived macrophages are polarized into functionally distinct (M1 or M2) activated phenotypes at injury sites by specific systemic cytokines known to play a key role in the transition between damage and repair in irradiated tissues. The role of M1 and M2 macrophages in RT-induced acute skin toxicities remains to be defined. We investigated the potential value of M1 and M2 macrophages as predictive factors of RT-induced skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT after lumpectomy. Blood samples collected from patients enrolled in a prospective clinical study (n = 49) were analyzed at baseline and after the first delivered 2Gy RT dose. We designed an ex vivo culture system to differentiate patient blood monocytes into macrophages and treated them with M1 or M2-inducing cytokines before quantitative analysis of their "M1/M2" activation markers, iNOS, Arg1, and TGFß1. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate experimental data to clinical assessment of acute skin toxicity using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade for objective evaluation of skin reactions. Increased ARG1 mRNA significantly correlated with higher grades of erythema, moist desquamation, and CTC grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased ARG1 expression in macrophages after a single RT dose was an independent prognostic factor of erythema (p = 0 .032), moist desquamation (p = 0 .027), and CTC grade (p = 0 .056). Interestingly, multivariate analysis of ARG1 mRNA expression in macrophages stimulated with IL-4 also revealed independent prognostic value for predicting acute RT-induced toxicity factors, erythema (p = 0 .069), moist desquamation (p = 0 .037), and CTC grade (p = 0 .046). To conclude, our findings underline for the first time the biological significance of increased ARG1 m

  18. PD-L1 expression is increased in monocyte derived dendritic cells in response to porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infections.

    PubMed

    Richmond, O; Cecere, T E; Erdogan, E; Meng, X J; Piñeyro, P; Subramaniam, S; Todd, S M; LeRoith, T

    2015-11-15

    Host immune system suppression is thought to be crucial in the development of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Many immune suppressive mechanisms have been studied in cases of PCVAD, however, the role of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) during porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection and PCVAD development has yet to be determined. PD-L1 has become an important research target because of its ability to interfere with effective T-cell activity and proliferation during the course of an immune response. In this study, porcine monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were infected with different combinations of PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and evaluated for expression levels of PD-L1, as well as the expression levels of swine major histocompatibility complexes 1 and 2 (SLA-1 and SLA-2) as a measure of MoDC stimulatory capacity. PD-L1 expression levels were also tested in MoDCs after treatment with interferon alpha (IFN-α) and beta (IFN-β). The results showed that the expression levels of PD-L1 were increased in PCV2-infected MoDCs, as well as in PCV2 and PRRSV co-infected MoDCs. The MoDCs infected with PRRSV only also showed a strain-dependent increase in PD-L1 expression. Both IFN-α and IFN-β treatment also increased the expression levels of PD-L1 in MoDCs. SLA-1 and 2 expression levels were increased by PCV2 infection, and altered in the PRRSV, and PCV2+PRRSV co-infected MoDCs in a strain-dependent manner. These results indicate a potential immuno-suppressive role for dendritic cells during PCV2 infection and the development of PCVAD and will be helpful in more fully elucidating the underlying mechanisms leading to clinical PCVAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells from leukoreduction system chambers after plateletpheresis are functional in an in vitro co-culture assay with intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tiscornia, Inés; Sánchez-Martins, Viviana; Hernández, Ana; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

    2012-10-31

    PP as an alternative source of PBMC, to be used in co-culture systems with IEC. The novelty of this protocol is the combination of the blood monocyte source with a simple and fast differentiation method to obtain DC, and their use in a combined culture with IEC and LAB to model microbial-host interaction. Since the initial PP volume is ten times lower than that of BC, the use of PP minimizes biological residue generation and reagent consumption. In addition, monocyte-derived DC from PP were suitable for use in co-culture assays as a first screening step to study the immunomodulatory properties of LAB.

  20. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells from HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma patients significantly enhance specific T cell responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, M; Qian, S; Chen, W-W; Zhang, H; Zhang, B; Tang, Z-R; Zhang, Z; Wang, F-S

    2007-02-01

    To investigate whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) could mount a T cell response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients associated with chronic HBV infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 36 HBV-associated HCC patients were induced into MoDC and pulsed with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), alone and in combination. Co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86 and CD40, as well as human leucocyte antigens D-related (HLA-DR) were found to express at the highest level on MoDC pulsed with HBcAg or HBsAg + HBcAg, at a median level on MoDC pulsed with HBcAg or HBsAg alone, and at the lowest level on non-antigen-pulsed MoDC. Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 cytokines were released by antigen-pulsed MoDC at increased levels in the order: no-antigen < HBsAg < HBcAg < HBcAg + HBsAg. MoDC pulsed with HBcAg or HBsAg + HBcAg also had the strongest ability to stimulate autologous T cell proliferation and intracellular interferon (IFN)-gamma production. HBcAg- or HBsAg + HBcAg-pulsed MoDC could also induce HBV core peptide-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation determined by tetramer staining. In addition, the antigen-pulsed MoDC were found to have a stronger capacity to produce IL-12 and induce T cell response in vitro for patients with higher alanine transaminase (ALT) levels than those with lower ALT levels, indicating that antigen pulse could substantially reverse the impaired function of MoDC in primary HCC patients with active chronic hepatitis B. In conclusion, HBV antigen-pulsed MoDC from HCC patients with chronic hepatitis B could induce HBV-specific T cell response in vitro.

  1. Stimulation of PBMC and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages via Toll-Like Receptor Activates Innate Immune Pathways in HIV-Infected Patients on Virally Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, Esther; Tincati, Camilla; Biasin, Mara; Saulle, Irma; Cazzaniga, Federico Angelo; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Cappione, Amedeo J.; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer; Clerici, Mario; Marchetti, Giulia Carla

    2016-01-01

    In HIV-infected, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated patients, immune activation and microbial translocation persist and associate with inadequate CD4 recovery and morbidity/mortality. We analyzed whether alterations in the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway could be responsible for the immune hyperactivation seen in these patients. PBMC/monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of 28 HIV+ untreated and 35 cART-treated patients with HIV-RNA < 40 cp/mL [20 Full Responders (FRs): CD4 ≥ 350; 15 Immunological Non-Responders (INRs): CD4 < 350], as well as of 16 healthy controls were stimulated with a panel of TLR agonists. We measured: CD4/CD8/CD14/CD38/HLA-DR/Ki67/AnnexinV/CD69/TLR4/8 (Flow Cytometry); PBMC expression of 84 TLR pathway genes (qPCR); PBMC/MDM cytokine release (Multiplex); and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/sCD14 (LAL/ELISA). PBMC/MDM from cART patients responded weakly to LPS stimulation but released high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. MDM from these patients were characterized by a reduced expression of HLA-DR+ MDM and failed to expand activated HLA-DR+ CD38+ T-lymphocytes. PBMC/MDM from cART patients responded more robustly to ssRNA stimulation; this resulted in a significant expansion of activated CD38 + CD8 and the release of amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines comparable to those seen in untreated viremic patients. Despite greater constitutive TLR pathway gene expression, PBMC from INRs seemed to upregulate only type I IFN genes following TLR stimulation, whereas PBMC from full responders showed a broader response. Systemic exposure to microbial antigens drives immune activation during cART by triggering TLRs. Bacterial stimulation modifies MDM function/pro-inflammatory profile in cART patients without affecting T-lymphocytes; this suggests translocating bacteria as selective stimulus to chronic innate activation during cART. High constitutive TLR activation is seen in patients lacking CD4 recovery, suggesting

  2. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Flagstad, Frederikke Bjergvang; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders; Summerfield, Artur; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene) differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3). However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation with LPS resulted

  3. Fibrocytes Regulate Wilms’ Tumor 1-Positive Cell Accumulation in Severe Fibrotic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sontake, Vishwaraj; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K.; DiPasquale, Betsy A.; Reddy, Geereddy B.; Medvedovic, Mario; Hardie, William D.; White, Eric S.; Madala, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-producing myofibroblast transdifferentiation is considered a crucial determinant in the formation of scar tissue in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Multiple resident pulmonary cell types and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been implicated as contributors to fibrotic lesions due to the transdifferentiation potential of these cells into myofibroblasts. In this study, we assessed the expression of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1), a known marker of mesothelial cells, in various cell types in normal and fibrotic lungs. We demonstrate that WT1 is expressed by both mesothelial and mesenchymal cells in IPF lungs, but has limited or no expression in normal human lungs. We also demonstrate that WT1-positive cells accumulate in fibrotic lung lesions, using two different mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and WT1 promoter-driven fluorescent reporter mice. Reconstitution of bone-marrow cells into a transforming growth factor-α transgenic-mouse model demonstrated that fibrocytes do not transform into WT1-positive mesenchymal cells, but do augment accumulation of WT1-positive cells in severe fibrotic lung disease. Importantly, the number of WT1-positive cells in fibrotic lesions were correlated with severity of lung disease as assessed by changes in lung function, histology, and hydroxyproline levels in mice. Finally, inhibition of WT1 expression was sufficient to attenuate collagen and other extracellular-matrix gene production by mesenchymal cells from both murine and human fibrotic lungs. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate a novel association between fibrocyte-driven WT1-positive cell accumulation and severe fibrotic lung disease. PMID:26371248

  4. Fibrocytes Regulate Wilms Tumor 1-Positive Cell Accumulation in Severe Fibrotic Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Sontake, Vishwaraj; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K; DiPasquale, Betsy A; Reddy, Geereddy B; Medvedovic, Mario; Hardie, William D; White, Eric S; Madala, Satish K

    2015-10-15

    Collagen-producing myofibroblast transdifferentiation is considered a crucial determinant in the formation of scar tissue in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Multiple resident pulmonary cell types and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been implicated as contributors to fibrotic lesions because of the transdifferentiation potential of these cells into myofibroblasts. In this study, we assessed the expression of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), a known marker of mesothelial cells, in various cell types in normal and fibrotic lungs. We demonstrate that WT1 is expressed by both mesothelial and mesenchymal cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lungs but has limited or no expression in normal human lungs. We also demonstrate that WT1(+) cells accumulate in fibrotic lung lesions, using two different mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and WT1 promoter-driven fluorescent reporter mice. Reconstitution of bone marrow cells into a TGF-α transgenic mouse model demonstrated that fibrocytes do not transform into WT1(+) mesenchymal cells, but they do augment accumulation of WT1(+) cells in severe fibrotic lung disease. Importantly, the number of WT1(+) cells in fibrotic lesions was correlated with severity of lung disease as assessed by changes in lung function, histology, and hydroxyproline levels in mice. Finally, inhibition of WT1 expression was sufficient to attenuate collagen and other extracellular matrix gene production by mesenchymal cells from both murine and human fibrotic lungs. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate a novel association between fibrocyte-driven WT1(+) cell accumulation and severe fibrotic lung disease. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Distinct Fcγ receptors mediate the effect of Serum Amyloid P on neutrophil adhesion and fibrocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP) reduces neutrophil adhesion, inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, and promotes phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages. Together, these effects of SAP reduce key aspects of inflammation and fibrosis, and SAP injections improve lung function in pulmonary fibrosis patients. SAP functions are mediated in part by Fcγ receptors, but the contribution of each Fcγ receptor is not fully understood. We found that amino acids Q55 and E126 in human SAP affect human fibrocyte differentiation and SAP binding to FcγRI. E126, K130 and Q128 affect neutrophil adhesion and SAP affinity for FcγRIIa. Q128 also affects phagocytosis by macrophages and SAP affinity for FcγRI. All the identified functionally significant amino acids in SAP form a binding site that is distinct from the previously described SAP-FcγRIIa binding site. Blocking FcγRI with an IgG blocking antibody reduces the SAP effect on fibrocyte differentiation, and ligating FcγRIIa with antibodies reduces neutrophil adhesion. Together, these results suggest that SAP binds to FcγRI on monocytes to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation, and binds to FcγRIIa on neutrophils to reduce neutrophil adhesion. PMID:25024390

  6. Human fibrocyte-derived exosomes accelerate wound healing in genetically diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Adolf; Walker, Audrey; Nissen, Erwin

    2015-11-13

    Diabetic ulcers represent a substantial societal and healthcare burden worldwide and scarcely respond to current treatment strategies. This study was addressed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of exosomes secreted by human circulating fibrocytes, a population of mesenchymal progenitors involved in normal wound healing via paracrine signaling. The exosomes released from cells sequentially stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2, did not show potential immunogenicity. These exosomes exhibited in-vitro proangiogenic properties, activated diabetic dermal fibroblasts, induced the migration and proliferation of diabetic keratinocytes, and accelerated wound closure in diabetic mice in vivo. Important components of the exosomal cargo were heat shock protein-90α, total and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, proangiogenic (miR-126, miR-130a, miR-132) and anti-inflammatory (miR124a, miR-125b) microRNAs, and a microRNA regulating collagen deposition (miR-21). This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of the use of fibrocytes-derived exosomes for the treatment of diabetic ulcers.

  7. Central Nervous System Fibrosis Is Associated with Fibrocyte-Like Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Fibrotic wall formation is essential for limiting pathogen dissemination during brain abscess development. However, little is known about the regulation of fibrotic processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS injury responses are associated with hypertrophy of resident astrocytes, a process termed reactive gliosis. Studies of fibrosis outside the CNS have identified two bone marrow–derived cell types, fibrocytes and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, as key mediators of fibrosis. The current study used bone marrow chimeras generated from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to evaluate the appearance of these cell types and whether bone marrow–derived cells were capable of acquiring fibrotic characteristics during brain abscess development. Immunofluorescence staining revealed partial overlap between green fluorescent protein, α-smooth muscle actin, and procollagen, suggesting that a population of cells forming the brain abscess capsule originate from a bone marrow precursor. In addition, the influx of fibrocyte-like cells into brain abscesses immediately preceded the onset of fibrotic encapsulation. Fibrotic wall formation was also associated with increased numbers of alternatively activated M2 microglia and macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that bone marrow–derived infiltrates are capable of expressing fibrotic molecules during CNS inflammation. PMID:22015460

  8. In vivo effects of adding singular or combined anti-oxidative vitamins and/or minerals to diets on the immune system of tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids) peripheral blood monocyte-derived, anterior kidney-derived, and spleen-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shao-Wen; Tu, Ching-Yu; Wang, Way-Shyan

    2007-01-15

    Macrophage function is an important factor for resistance to infection and anti-oxidative vitamins and minerals can affect how macrophages function in fish. We report the in vivo effect of adding singular or combined vitamins (A, C, and E) and/or minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) in diets on the immune system of tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids) peripheral blood monocyte-derived, anterior kidney-derived, and spleen-derived macrophages. An optimal dose of vitamins and/or minerals in diets increased macrophage proliferation and protective activity, maintained macrophage viability, increased body weight and length, and increased lysozyme activity, however, at improper doses and combinations of vitamins or minerals a decrease was observed. Furthermore, vitamins and/or minerals at any doses and combinations in diets decreased superoxide and nitric oxide production. Therefore, appropriate doses and combinations of vitamins and/or minerals in diets may increase tilapia macrophages immunity.

  9. Bromelain treatment leads to maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells but cannot replace PGE2 in a cocktail of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, M; Hovden, A-O; Vogelsang, P; Tysnes, B B; Appel, S

    2011-08-01

    Immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) has shown promising results. However, the use of an appropriate DC population is critical for the outcome of this treatment, and the search for an optimal DC subset is still ongoing. The DC used in immunotherapy today are usually matured with a cytokine cocktail consisting of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE(2). These cells have deficits in their cytokine production, particularly IL-12p70, mainly because of the presence of PGE(2). Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract containing a mixture of proteases that has been used clinically in adjuvant cancer treatment. In this study, we analysed the effect of bromelain on human monocyte-derived DC. We added bromelain to the cytokine cocktail and modified cytokine cocktails with either no PGE(2) or reduced amounts of PGE(2), respectively. Combining bromelain with the cytokine cocktails containing PGE(2) resulted in an increased surface expression of CD83, CD80 and CD86. The chemokine receptor CCR7 was also considerably upregulated in these DC populations compared with DC treated with the cytokine cocktail alone. Removal or reduction of PGE(2) from the cytokine cocktail did not increase the IL-12p70 secretion from stimulated DC, and addition of bromelain to the different cytokine cocktails resulted in only a minor increase in IL-12p70 production. Moreover, combining bromelain with the cytokine cocktails did not improve the T cell stimulatory capacity of the generated DC populations. In conclusion, bromelain treatment of monocyte-derived DC does not improve the functional quality compared with the standard cytokine cocktail.

  10. Accelerated wound healing in leukocyte-specific, protein 1-deficient mouse is associated with increased infiltration of leukocytes and fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianFei; Jiao, Haiyan; Stewart, Tara L; Lyons, Megan V H; Shankowsky, Heather A; Scott, Paul G; Tredget, Edward E

    2007-12-01

    Wound healing is a complex process involving the integrated actions of numerous cell types, soluble mediators, and ECM. Recently, a newly identified cell type, the fibrocyte, has been reported to contribute to wound healing and fibrotic conditions such as hypertrophic scarring. We previously established leukocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1) as a marker for fibrocytes. LSP1 is an F-actin binding protein and substrate of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C, and has been reported to be important in leukocyte chemotaxis. We examine the biological roles of LSP1 in skin wound healing using Lsp1(-/-) null mice. These animals showed accelerated healing of full-thickness skin wounds, with increased re-epithelialization rates, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis. Healing wounds in Lsp1(-/-) mice had higher densities of neutrophiles, macrophages, and fibrocytes. Along with increased leukocyte infiltration, levels of macrophage-derived chemokine expression, TGF-beta1, and VEGF were all up-regulated. These results demonstrate that the absence of LSP1 promotes healing of skin wounds. The primary mechanism seems to be an increase in leukocyte infiltration, leading to locally elevated synthesis and release of chemokines and growth factors. Further analysis of Lsp1(-/-) mice may suggest ways to improve wound healing and/or treat fibrotic conditions of skin and other tissue.

  11. Gene expression profiling of human fibrocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (f-MDSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Zoso, Alessia; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo; Serafini, Paolo; Inverardi, Luca; Bicciato, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been shown to control self-reactive and anti-graft effector T-cells in autoimmunity and transplantation, but their therapeutic use is limited by their scarce availability in the peripheral blood of tumor-free donors. We isolated and characterized a novel population of myeloid suppressor cells, named fibrocytic MDSC (f-MDSC), which are differentiated from umbilical cord blood (UCB) precursors (Zoso et al., 2014). This MDSC subset promotes regulatory T-cell expansion and induces normoglycemia in a xenogeneic model of type 1 diabetes. Here we describe in details the experimental design and the bioinformatics analyses of the gene expression dataset used to investigate the molecular mechanisms at the base of MDSC tolerogenic and suppressive properties. We also provide an R code to easily access the data and perform the quality controls and basic analyses relevant to this dataset. Raw and pre-processed data are available at Gene Expression Omnibus under accession GSE52376. PMID:26484135

  12. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages through p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB pathways: impairment in T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-li; Lin, Yue-hao; Xiao, Han; Xing, Shan; Chen, Hao; Chi, Pei-dong; Zhang, Ge

    2014-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been observed in tumor-infiltrated macrophages, but its infection effects on macrophage immune functions are poorly understood. Here, we showed that some macrophages in the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue expressed the immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) more strongly than did tumor cells. EBV infection induced mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of IDO in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Infection increased the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas the neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IL-6 inhibited IDO induction. EBV infection also activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and NF-κB, and the inhibition of these two pathways with SB202190 and SN50 almost abrogated TNF-α and IL-6 production and inhibited IDO production. Moreover, the activation of IDO in response to EBV infection of MDMs suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells, whereas the inhibition of IDO activity with 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT) did not affect T cell proliferation and function. These findings indicate that EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-α-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-κB pathways, suggesting that a possible role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC may be to create a microenvironment of suppressed T cell immune responses. CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the control of viral infections and destroy tumor cells. Activation of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cancer tissues facilitates immune escape by the impairment of CTL functions. IDO expression was observed in some macrophages of the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue, and IDO could be induced in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human monocyte-derived

  13. Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Braga, André Flores; Moretto, Daniela Ferraz; Gigliotti, Patrícia; Peruchi, Mariela; Vilani-Moreno, Fátima Regina; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Latini, Ana Carla Pereira; Iyer, Anand; Das, Pranab Kumar; de Souza, Vânia Nieto Brito

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs) using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. The production of different cytokines by the MO-DCs appeared similar in all of the studied groups under similar conditions. However, the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70 by MO-DCs from lepromatous (LL) leprosy patients after in vitro stimulation with M. leprae was lower than tuberculoid leprosy patients and healthy individuals, even after CD40 ligation with CD40 ligand-transfected cells. The present cumulative findings suggest that the MO-DCs of LL patients are generally a weak producer of IL-12p70 despite the moderate activating properties ofM. leprae. These results may explain the poor M. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in the LL type of leprosy. PMID:26222022

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces cellular polarization, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 redistribution, and multinucleated giant cell generation in human primary monocytes but not in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fais, S; Borghi, P; Gherardi, G; Logozzi, M; Belardelli, F; Gessani, S

    1996-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on some morphologic and functional changes in cultured human monocytes/macrophages at different stages of differentiation. Freshly isolated monocytes infected with HIV-1 24 hours after seeding exhibited marked morphologic changes such as uropod formation, polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the cytoplasmic projection, the redistribution of alpha-actinin on cell-membrane dots, and an increased release of soluble ICAM-1. These changes preceded the increase in monocyte-monocyte fusion and the formation of multinucleated giant cells. In contrast, HIV-1 infection did not affect monocyte-derived macrophages in terms of either cellular polarization or multinucleated giant cell formation. Immunocytochemistry showed that HIV-1 matrix protein was present mostly in bi- and trinucleated cells, which suggests that multinucleated giant cells may represent a long-lived and highly productive cellular source of HIV. The treatment of the HIV-1-infected monocytes with azidodeoxythymidine virtually abolished all viral-induced morphofunctional changes. On the whole, these results indicate that blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages may be affected differently by HIV infection, as monocytes seem to be much more prone to polarize, undergo homotypic fusion, and form multinucleated giant cells. These changes may confer to HIV-infected monocytes an increased ability to transmigrate through endothelia into tissues, whereas differentiated macrophages may have a predominant role as a widespread reservoir of HIV.

  15. Plasma visfatin levels and mRNA expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from normal weight females with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JING; ZHOU, LINGLING; TANG, LIULIN; XU, LIANGZHI

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease, however, an explicit etiology is not known. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be central to the pathogenesis of PCOS and inflammation may be significant in the pathogenesis of IR in PCOS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the plasma visfatin level and the gene expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMMs) from PCOS patients, in addition to investigating the association between PCOS and IR. A total of 21 PCOS patients and 21 control subjects were enrolled in the study; the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was considered to be a stratified method for establishing the subgroups. Fasting blood samples were collected and the levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, blood lipids and visfatin were measured. In addition, visfatin gene expression levels in PBMCs and PBMMs were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The plasma visfatin and gene expression levels of visfatin in PBMCs and PBMMs were not observed to increase in the normal weight PCOS and normal weight IR patients. Furthermore, plasma visfatin levels did not correlate with the normal weight PCOS patients or the normal weight IR patients per se. Further investigation into the role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of PCOS or IR should examine macrophages in the tissues, rather than macrophages in the peripheral blood. PMID:24940414

  16. Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed

    Braga, André Flores; Moretto, Daniela Ferraz; Gigliotti, Patrícia; Peruchi, Mariela; Vilani-Moreno, Fátima Regina; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Latini, Ana Carla Pereira; Iyer, Anand; Das, Pranab Kumar; Souza, Vânia Nieto Brito de

    2015-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs) using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. The production of different cytokines by the MO-DCs appeared similar in all of the studied groups under similar conditions. However, the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70 by MO-DCs from lepromatous (LL) leprosy patients after in vitro stimulation with M. leprae was lower than tuberculoid leprosy patients and healthy individuals, even after CD40 ligation with CD40 ligand-transfected cells. The present cumulative findings suggest that the MO-DCs of LL patients are generally a weak producer of IL-12p70 despite the moderate activating properties ofM. leprae. These results may explain the poor M. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in the LL type of leprosy.

  17. Differential regulatory activities of viral protein X for anti-viral efficacy of nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in monocyte-derived macrophages and activated CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbaugh, Joseph A.; Schader, Susan M.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Kim, Baek

    2015-01-01

    Vpx encoded by HIV-2 and SIVsm enhances retroviral reverse transcription in macrophages in vitro by mediating the degradation of the host SAMHD1 protein that hydrolyzes dNTPs and by elevating cellular dNTP levels. Here we employed RT-SHIV constructs (SIV encoding HIV-1 RT) to investigate the contribution of Vpx to the potency of NRTIs, which compete against dNTPs, in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and activated CD4+ T cells. Relative to HIV-1, both SIV and RT-SHIV exhibited reduced sensitivities to AZT, 3TC and TDF in MDMs but not in activated CD4+ T cells. However, when SIV and RT-SHIV constructs not coding for Vpx were utilized, we observed greater sensitivities to all NRTIs tested using activated CD4+ T cells relative to the Vpx-coding counterparts. This latter phenomenon was observed for AZT only when using MDMs. Our data suggest that Vpx in RT-SHIVs may underestimate the antiviral efficacy of NRTIs in a cell type dependent manner. PMID:26319213

  18. Interferon. beta. /sub 2//B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gauldie, J.; Richards, C.; Harnish, D.; Lansdorp, P.; Baumann, H.

    1987-10-01

    One of the oldest and most preserved of the homeostatic responses of the body to injury is the acute phase protein response associated with inflammation. The liver responds to hormone-like mediators by the increased synthesis of a series of plasma proteins called acute phase reactants. In these studies, the authors examined the relationship of hepatocyte-stimulating factor derived from peripheral blood monocytes to interferon ..beta../sub 2/ (IFN-..beta../sub 2/), which has been cloned. Antibodies raised against fibroblast-derived IFN-..beta.. having neutralizing activity against both IFN-..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/ inhibited the major hepatocyte-stimulating activity derived from monocytes. Fibroblast-derived mediator elicited the identical stimulated response in human HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes as the monocyte cytokine. Finally, recombinant-derived human B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 (IFN-..beta../sub 2/) from Escherichia coli induced the synthesis of all major acute phase proteins studied in human hepatoma HepG2 and primary rat hepatocyte cultures. These data demonstrate that monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and IFN-..beta../sub 2/ share immunological and functional identity and that IFN-..beta../sub 2/, also known as B-cell stimulatory factor and hybridoma plasmacytoma growth factor, has the hepatocyte as a major physiologic target and thereby is essential in controlling the hepatic acute phase response.

  19. Differential regulatory activities of viral protein X for anti-viral efficacy of nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in monocyte-derived macrophages and activated CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Schader, Susan M; Schinazi, Raymond F; Kim, Baek

    2015-11-01

    Vpx encoded by HIV-2 and SIVsm enhances retroviral reverse transcription in macrophages in vitro by mediating the degradation of the host SAMHD1 protein that hydrolyzes dNTPs and by elevating cellular dNTP levels. Here we employed RT-SHIV constructs (SIV encoding HIV-1 RT) to investigate the contribution of Vpx to the potency of NRTIs, which compete against dNTPs, in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and activated CD4(+) T cells. Relative to HIV-1, both SIV and RT-SHIV exhibited reduced sensitivities to AZT, 3TC and TDF in MDMs but not in activated CD4(+) T cells. However, when SIV and RT-SHIV constructs not coding for Vpx were utilized, we observed greater sensitivities to all NRTIs tested using activated CD4(+) T cells relative to the Vpx-coding counterparts. This latter phenomenon was observed for AZT only when using MDMs. Our data suggest that Vpx in RT-SHIVs may underestimate the antiviral efficacy of NRTIs in a cell type dependent manner.

  20. Further Increase in the Expression of Activation Markers on Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Ectasia Compared to Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Alone

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Nesligul; Tekin, Ishak Ozel; Arasli, Mehmet; Aydin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Background. Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is defined as localized or diffuse dilation of the coronary arteries. There are scarce data about the role of dendritic cells in CAE development. In this study we investigated the activation markers on the surface of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with or without CAE. Method. The study consisted of 6 patients who had obstructive CAD with CAE, 6 CAD patients without CAE and 6 subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries. mDCs were cultivated from peripheral blood monocytes. Surface activation markers were detected by flow cytometry. Results. CAD patients with CAE were detected to have significantly higher mean fluorescence intensities of CD11b, CD11c, CD54 , CD83, CD86 and MHC Class II molecules on mDCs in comparison to CAD patients without CAE and normal controls (P < .001 for all). A significant positive correlation was found between the number of vessels with CAE and the levels of CD11c, CD86, and MHC Class II molecules. Conclusion. mDCs display an increased cell surface concentration of activation molecules in CAD patients with CAE compared to patients with CAD alone. DC activation may play an important role for CAE development in patients with CAD. PMID:20628522

  1. Stochastic Local Distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roy, Anirban; Walgate, Jonathan

    2007-03-01

    We pose the question, ``when is globally available information is also locally available?'', formally as the problem of local state discrimination, and show that the deep qualitative link between local distinguishability and entanglement lies at the level of stochastic rather than deterministic local protocols. We restrict our attention to sets of mutually orthogonal pure quantum states. We define a set of states |ψi> as beingstochastically locally distinguishable if and only if there is a LOCC protocol whereby the parties can conclusively identify a member of the set with some nonzero probability. If a set is stochastically locally distinguishable, then the complete global information is potentially locally available. If not, the physical information encoded by the system can never be completely locally exposed. Our results are proved true for all orthogonal quantum states regardless of their dimensionality or multipartiality. First, we prove that entanglement is a necessary property of any system whose total global information can never be locally accessed. Second, entangled states that form part of an orthogonal basis can never be locally singled out. Completely entangled bases are, always stochastically locally indistinguishable. Third, we prove that any set of three orthogonal states, is stochastically locally distinguishable.

  2. Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago State Univ., IL.

    The Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program at Chicago State University was developed to train cooperating teachers to supervise student teachers. The program departs from traditional practice by changing the roles of the classroom teacher and the university field supervisor. The supervisor's role becomes that of coordinator while the teacher…

  3. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from late gestation cows have an impaired ability to mature in response to E. coli stimulation in a receptor and cytokine-mediated fashion.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Brianna; Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2015-09-15

    During late gestation the bovine immune system is less capable of eliciting inflammatory responses and eliminating invading pathogens. The maternal immune system is directed toward tolerance in order to prevent fetal rejection due to recognition of paternal antigens. In humans and mice, dendritic cell (DC) populations maintain a tolerogenic phenotype essential in the generation and preservation of maternal immune tolerance throughout pregnancy. However, the primary mechanisms which facilitate maternal immune tolerance involved in bovine gestation remain poorly understood. In order to determine if DC phenotype and function were regulated toward tolerance during bovine gestation, we compared in vitro generated monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) from monocytes isolated from cows in late gestation (LG) to those from non-pregnant (NP) cows in their ability to mature following stimulation with UV irradiated Escherichia coli. Our results show mo-DC from LG cows have an impaired ability to mature in response to E. coli stimulation in a receptor and cytokine-mediated fashion in comparison to those from NP cows. Specifically, mo-DC from LG cows were unable to upregulate MHC II and maintained high expression of CD14, both indicative of an immature phenotype following E. coli-stimulation. Only mo-DC from LG showed significant increase in IL-10 production and had a significantly lower ratio of production of the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 to regulatory cytokine IL-10 following E. coli stimulation compared to mo-DC from NP cows. Our findings demonstrate mo-DC from LG cows have a stifled capacity to develop a mature phenotype and drive pro-inflammatory Th1-type responses to E. coli stimulation. Results from this study provide insight into DC immune modulation in bovine pregnancy and elucidate host factors which may contribute to the heightened susceptibility to infection in late gestation.

  4. Psychedelic N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and 5-Methoxy-N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Modulate Innate and Adaptive Inflammatory Responses through the Sigma-1 Receptor of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Attila; Kovacs, Attila

    2014-01-01

    The orphan receptor sigma-1 (sigmar-1) is a transmembrane chaperone protein expressed in both the central nervous system and in immune cells. It has been shown to regulate neuronal differentiation and cell survival, and mediates anti-inflammatory responses and immunosuppression in murine in vivo models. Since the details of these findings have not been elucidated so far, we studied the effects of the endogenous sigmar-1 ligands N,N-dimethyltryptamine (NN-DMT), its derivative 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and the synthetic high affinity sigmar-1 agonist PRE-084 hydrochloride on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDCs) activation provoked by LPS, polyI:C or pathogen-derived stimuli to induce inflammatory responses. Co-treatment of moDC with these activators and sigma-1 receptor ligands inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and the chemokine IL-8, while increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The T-cell activating capacity of moDCs was also inhibited, and dimethyltryptamines used in combination with E. coli or influenza virus as stimulators decreased the differentiation of moDC-induced Th1 and Th17 inflammatory effector T-cells in a sigmar-1 specific manner as confirmed by gene silencing. Here we demonstrate for the first time the immunomodulatory potential of NN-DMT and 5-MeO-DMT on human moDC functions via sigmar-1 that could be harnessed for the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions of the CNS or peripheral tissues. Our findings also point out a new biological role for dimethyltryptamines, which may act as systemic endogenous regulators of inflammation and immune homeostasis through the sigma-1 receptor. PMID:25171370

  5. Tumour-cytolytic human monocyte-derived macrophages: a simple and efficient method for the generation and long-term cultivation as non-adherent cells in a serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Streck, R J; Hurley, E L; Epstein, D A; Pauly, J L

    1992-01-01

    We report a simple and efficient culture procedure for the generation of tumour-cytolytic human monocyte-derived macrophages (MAC). In this method, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, isolated using a conventional Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient procedure, are cultured as a heterogenous leukocyte population in Teflon or other hydrophobic cultureware, in a commercially available serum-free culture medium (M-SFM) that has been formulated specifically for the cultivation and ex vivo stimulation of human monocytes and MAC, and in the absence of exogenous mitogens, antigens, cytokines or other stimulants. This procedure features a negative-selection technique that takes advantage of the differential survival of blood leukocytes. Using the prescribed in vitro conditions, lymphocytes survived relatively poorly, whereas monocytes differentiated in the absence of exogenous stimulants into mature tumour-cytolytic MAC. The MAC were present as non-adherent, single cells that expressed good viability (greater than 95%) for a prolonged period (greater than 60 days). When compared to conventional procedures for generating MAC, the prescribed technique is thought to offer several important advantages in that it: (a) eliminates the tedious and cumbersome monocyte isolation procedures, thus providing a significant savings not only in time and money but also in eliminating repetitive cell manipulations that have often been associated with damage to monocyte morphology and/or function; (b) reduces the loss of monocyte subsets that are not recovered during specific isolation procedures; (c) facilitates harvesting a single cell, non-adherent suspension of immunocompetent MAC suitable for various examinations including analyses defining MAC morphology, cytochemistry, phenotype and function; and (d) eliminates variability and artifacts associated with different sera that are utilised frequently as medium supplements. The utility of the prescribed method is illustrated by the

  6. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W.; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  7. Inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β by Pretreatment of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages with Menaquinone-7 and Cell Activation with TLR Agonists In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Maresz, Katarzyna; Lee, Pei-Sheng; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Popko, Janusz; Mehta, Dilip S; Stohs, Sidney J; Badmaev, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Circulatory markers of low-grade inflammation such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) positively correlate with endothelial damage, atheroma formation, cardiovascular disease, and aging. The natural vitamin K2-menaquinone-7 (MK-7) added to the cell culture of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) at the same time as toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists did not influence the production of TNF-α. When the cells were pretreated up to 6 h with MK-7 before treatment with TLR agonists, MK-7 did not inhibit significantly the production of TNF-α after the TLR activation. However, 30 h pretreatment of hMDMs with at least 10 μM of MK-7 effectively and dose dependently inhibited the proinflammatory function of hMDMs. Pretreatment of hMDMs with 10 μM of MK-7 for 30 h resulted in 20% inhibition of TNF-α production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation (P < .05) and 43% inhibition after macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP) activation (P < .001). Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PMPP) activation was inhibited by 20% with MK-7 pretreatment; however, this inhibition was not statistically significant. The 30 h pretreatment of a THP-1-differentiated monocyte cell line with MK-7 resulted in a dose-dependent downregulation of TNFα, IL-1α, and IL-1β gene expression as evaluated by RNA semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MK-7 is able to modulate immune and inflammatory reactions in the dose-response inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β gene expression and protein production by the healthy hMDMs in vitro.

  8. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to Der p 1 allergen enhance the recruitment of Th2 cells: major involvement of the chemokines TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Smits, Hermelijn H; Ratajczak, Céline; Nithiananthan, Asokananthan; Wierenga, Eddy A; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Jacquet, Alain; Tonnel, Andre-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen - presenting cells that can orientate the immune response towards a Th1 or a Th2 type. DC produce chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of either Th1 cells, such as IP10 (CXCL10), Th2 cells such as TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22), or non-polarized T cells such as RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-lalpha (CCL3). We investigated whether monocyte-derived DC (MD-DC) generated from healthy donors or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) and exposed to the cysteine-protease Der p 1(allergen of Dpt), could upregulate the expression of chemokines involved in type 1 or type 2 T cell recruitment. MD-DC were pulsed with either Der p 1 or with LPS as the control and the chemokines produced were evaluated using ELISA and chemotaxis assays. Der p 1-pulsed DC from allergic patients showed increased TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22) production without modifying IP-10 (CXCL10) release. Der p 1-pulsed DC from healthy donors showed only increased IP-10 (CXCL10) secretion. RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-lalpha (CCL3) production were similarly increased when DC were from healthy or allergic donors. The selective Th2 clone recruitment activity of supernatants from Der p 1-pulsed DC of allergic patients was inhibited by anti-TARC (CCL17) and anti-MDC (CCL22) neutralizing Abs. By using anti-IP10 (CXCL10) blocking Abs, supernatants of Der p 1-pulsed DC from healthy donors were shown to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells. These results suggest that in allergic patients exposed to house dust mites, DC may favour the exacerbation of the Th2 response via the increase in type 2 chemokine production. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  9. Phenotypic and functional activation of hyporesponsive KIRnegNKG2Aneg human NK-cell precursors requires IL12p70 provided by Poly(I:C)-matured monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Curran, Shane A; Romano, Emanuela; Kennedy, Michael G; Hsu, Katharine C; Young, James W

    2014-10-01

    A functionally responsive natural killer (NK)-cell repertoire requires the acquisition of inhibitory NKG2A and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) through pathways that remain undefined. Functional donor NK cells expressing KIRs for non-self class I MHC ligands contribute to a positive outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) by targeting HLA-matched recipient leukemic cells. Insofar as circulating donor conventional dendritic cells (DC) reconstitute with comparable kinetics with donor NK cells after alloHSCT, we used hyporesponsive KIRnegNKG2Aneg precursor cells to evaluate how specific DC subtypes generate a functionally active NK-cell repertoire. Both monocyte-derived DCs (moDC) and Langerhans-type DCs (LC) induce KIRnegNKG2Aneg precursor cells to express the inhibitory receptors NKG2A and KIR, without requiring cell proliferation. Poly(I:C)-matured moDCs significantly augmented the expression of NKG2A, but not KIR, in an IL12p70-dependent manner. Although all DC-stimulated KIRnegNKG2Aneg cells were able to acquire cytolytic activity against class I MHC-negative targets, the ability to secrete IFNγ was restricted to cells that were stimulated by IL12p70-producing, poly(I:C)-matured moDCs. This critical ability of poly(I:C)-matured moDCs to provide IL12p70 to developing KIRnegNKG2Aneg precursors results in a dom4inant, multifunctional, NKG2Apos NK-cell population that is capable of both cytolysis and IFNγ production. Poly(I:C)-matured moDCs are, therefore, the most effective conventional DC subtype for generating a functionally competent NK-cell repertoire by an IL12p70-dependent mechanism.

  10. In vitro effects of singular or combined anti-oxidative vitamins and/or minerals on tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids) peripheral blood monocyte-derived, anterior kidney-derived, and spleen-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shao-Wen; Tu, Ching-Yu; Wang, Way-Shyan

    2007-07-01

    The present study was to determine the in vitro effects of singular or combined anti-oxidative vitamins (A, C, and E) and/or minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) on the immune functions of tilapia, Oreochromis hybrids, peripheral blood monocyte-derived, anterior kidney-derived, and spleen-derived macrophages. An optimal dose of vitamins and minerals increased cell viability and lysozyme activity. On the other hand, the above activities decreased at the high doses of combined vitamins (A+C+E group, each 300 microg mL(-1)) or single mineral (Se, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe groups, each 200, 800 or 1000 microg mL(-1)). Combining two of the aforementioned vitamins (A+C, A+E, and C+E groups, each 100 microg mL(-1)) was able to prolong cell viable time up to 72 h compared with singular vitamin addition. Before or after adding vitamins or minerals during infection, addition of vitamins decreased the percentage of dead cells and a greater effect was observed for mineral (each 40 or 80 microg mL(-1)) and vitamin (each 100 microg mL(-1)) combinations. A low dose of vitamins increased nitric oxide production and decreased superoxide production, but high dose of vitamins decreased superoxide and nitric oxide productions. Furthermore, minerals also decreased nitric oxide production at concentrations of 40, 80, 200, 800 or 1000 microg mL(-1). The threshold concentrations for cell death by necrosis and/or apoptosis were >1000 and >800 microg mL(-1) for vitamins and minerals, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate concentration of vitamins or minerals can increase tilapia macrophage immunity; nevertheless, extreme concentrations of vitamins or minerals are lethal to cells.

  11. Single point mutations in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein enhance dengue virus replicative capacity in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and circumvent the type I interferon response.

    PubMed

    Silveira, G F; Strottmann, D M; de Borba, L; Mansur, D S; Zanchin, N I T; Bordignon, J; dos Santos, C N Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide. The outcome of the infection is determined by the interplay of viral and host factors. In the present study, we evaluated the cellular response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mdDCs) infected with recombinant dengue virus type 1 (DV1) strains carrying a single point mutation in the NS3hel protein (L435S or L480S). Both mutated viruses infect and replicate more efficiently and produce more viral progeny in infected mdDCs compared with the parental, non-mutated virus (vBACDV1). Additionally, global gene expression analysis using cDNA microarrays revealed that the mutated DVs induce the up-regulation of the interferon (IFN) signalling and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) canonical pathways in mdDCs. Pronounced production of type I IFN were detected specifically in mdDCs infected with DV1-NS3hel-mutated virus compared with mdDCs infected with the parental virus. In addition, we showed that the type I IFN produced by mdDCs is able to reduce DV1 infection rates, suggesting that cytokine function is effective but not sufficient to mediate viral clearance of DV1-NS3hel-mutated strains. Our results demonstrate that single point mutations in subdomain 2 have important implications for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of DV1-NS3hel. Although a direct functional connection between the increased ATPase activity and viral replication still requires further studies, these mutations speed up viral RNA replication and are sufficient to enhance viral replicative capacity in human primary cell infection and circumvent type I IFN activity. This information may have particular relevance for attenuated vaccine protocols designed for DV.

  12. PRRSV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells express high levels of SLA-DR and CD80/86 but do not stimulate PRRSV-naïve regulatory T cells to proliferate.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M; Käser, Tobias; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Lamp, Benjamin; Sinn, Leonie; Rümenapf, Till; Carrasco, Librado; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2015-05-20

    In vitro generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) have frequently been used to study the influence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on antigen presenting cells. However, obtained results have often been conflicting in regard to expression of co-stimulatory molecules and interaction with T cells. In this study we performed a detailed phenotypic characterisation of PRRSV-infected moDCs and non-infected moDCs. For CD163 and CD169, which are involved in PRRSV-entry into host cells, our results show that prior to infection porcine moDCs express high levels of CD163 but only very low levels for CD169. Following infection with either PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 strains after 24 h, PRRSV-nucleoprotein (N-protein)(+) and N-protein(-) moDCs derived from the same microculture were analyzed for expression of swine leukocyte antigen-DR (SLA-DR) and CD80/86. N-protein(+) moDCs consistently expressed higher levels of SLA-DR and CD80/86 compared to N-protein(-) moDCs. We also investigated the influence of PRRSV-infected moDCs on proliferation and frequency of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells present within CD4(+) T cells in in vitro co-cultures. Neither CD3-stimulated nor unstimulated CD4(+) T cells showed differences in regard to proliferation and frequency of Foxp3(+) T cells following co-cultivation with either PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 infected moDCs. Our results suggest that a more detailed characterisation of PRRSV-infected moDCs will lead to more consistent results across different laboratories and PRRSV strains as indicated by the major differences in SLA-DR and CD80/86 expression between PRRSV-infected and non-infected moDCs present in the same microculture.

  13. DC-SIGN, C1q, and gC1qR form a trimolecular receptor complex on the surface of monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Vinayagasundaram, Uma; Vinayagasundaram, Rama; Joyce, M. Gordon; Ji, Yan; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

    2012-01-01

    C1q modulates the differentiation and function of cells committed to the monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) lineage. Because the 2 C1q receptors found on the DC surface—gC1qR and cC1qR—lack a direct conduit into intracellular elements, we postulated that the receptors must form complexes with transmembrane partners. In the present study, we show that DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, binds directly to C1q, as assessed by ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation experiments. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the interaction was specific, and both intact C1q and the globular portion of C1q bound to DC-SIGN. Whereas IgG reduced this binding significantly, the Arg residues (162-163) of the C1q-A chain, which are thought to contribute to the C1q-IgG interaction, were not required for C1q binding to DC-SIGN. Binding was reduced significantly in the absence of Ca2+ and by preincubation of DC-SIGN with mannan, suggesting that C1q binds to DC-SIGN at its principal Ca2+-binding pocket, which has increased affinity for mannose residues. Antigen-capture ELISA and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that C1q and gC1qR associate with DC-SIGN on blood DC precursors and immature DCs. The results of the present study suggest that C1q/gC1qR may regulate DC differentiation and function through the DC-SIGN–mediated induction of cell-signaling pathways. PMID:22700724

  14. The PI3 kinase, p38 SAP kinase, and NF-kappaB signal transduction pathways are involved in the survival and maturation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ardeshna, K M; Pizzey, A R; Devereux, S; Khwaja, A

    2000-08-01

    As a dendritic cell (DC) matures, it becomes more potent as an antigen-presenting cell. This functional change is accompanied by a change in DC immunophenotype. The signal transduction events underlying this process are poorly characterized. In this study, we have investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in vitro. We show that exposure of immature MoDCs to LPS activates the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (p38SAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3 kinase)/Akt, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathways. Studies using inhibitors demonstrate that PI3 kinase/Akt but not the other pathways are important in maintaining survival of LPS-stimulated MoDCs. Inhibiting p38SAPK prevented activation of the transcription factors ATF-2 and CREB and significantly reduced the LPS-induced up-regulation of CD80, CD83, and CD86, but did not have any significant effect on the LPS-induced changes in macropinocytosis or HLA-DR, CD40, and CD1a expression. Inhibiting the NF-kappaB pathway significantly reduced the LPS-induced up-regulation of HLA-DR as well as CD80, CD83, and CD86. Inhibiting the p38SAPK and NF-kappaB pathways simultaneously had variable effects depending on the cell surface marker studied. It thus appears that different aspects of LPS-induced MoDC maturation are regulated by different and sometimes overlapping pathways.

  15. Effect of in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Karin; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Kristinsson, Hordur; Freysdottir, Jona; Undeland, Ingrid; Jamnik, Polona

    2015-12-01

    Upon oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, either before ingestion or, as recently shown, during the gastro-intestinal passage, a cascade of potentially cytotoxic peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, can form. In this study, we digested fresh and oxidised cod liver oils in vitro, monitored the levels of lipid peroxidation products and evaluated oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses to the two types of digests in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Digests of cod liver oil with 22-53 µmol L(-1) malondialdehyde and 0.26-3.7 µmol L(-1) 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal increased intracellular oxidation and cell energy metabolic activity compared to a digested blank in yeast cells and the influence of digests on mitochondrial protein expression was more pronounced for oxidised cod liver oil than fresh cod liver oil. The four differentially expressed and identified proteins were related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress response. Maturation of dendritic cells was affected in the presence of digested fresh cod liver oil compared to the digested blank, measured as lower CD86 expression. The ratio of secreted cytokines, IL-12p40/IL-10, suggested a pro-inflammatory effect of the digested oils in relation to the blank (1.47-1.67 vs. 1.07). Gastro-intestinal digestion of cod liver oil increases the amount of oxidation products and resulting digests affect oxidation in yeast and immunomodulation of dendritic cells. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Auricelio A.; Silva, Ana P. C.; Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Luciana F.; Garcia, Luize N. N.; Araújo, Marcio S.; Martins Filho, Olindo A.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2015-01-01

    Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi). In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment. PMID:26366863

  17. Complexity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-receptor usage: roles of CCR3 and CCR5 in HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages and brain microglia.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Lokesh; Maxwell, Christina R; Peters, Paul J; Clapham, Paul R; Liu, Sue M; Mackay, Charles R; Strayer, David S

    2009-03-01

    CCR3 has been implicated as a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), particularly in brain microglia cells. We sought to clarify the comparative roles of CCR3 and CCR5 in the central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection and the potential utility of CCR3 as a target for manipulation via gene transfer. To target CCR3, we developed a single-chain antibody (SFv) and an interfering RNA (RNAi), R3-526. Coding sequences for both were cloned into Tag-deleted SV40-dervied vectors, as these vectors transduce brain microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) highly efficiently. These anti-CCR3 transgenes were compared to SFv-CCR5, an SFv against CCR5, and RNAi-R5, an RNAi that targets CCR5, for the ability to protect primary human brain microglia and MDM from infection with peripheral and neurotropic strains of HIV-1. Downregulation of CCR3 and CCR5 by these transgenes was independent from one another. Confocal microscopy showed that CCR3 and CCR5 co-localized at the plasma membrane with each other and with CD4. Targeting either CCR5 or CCR3 largely protected both microglia and MDM from infection by many strains of HIV-1. That is, some HIV-1 strains, isolated from either the CNS or periphery, required both CCR3 and CCR5 for optimal productive infection of microglia and MDM. Some HIV-1 strains were relatively purely CCR5-tropic. None was purely CCR3-tropic. Thus, some CNS-tropic strains of HIV-1 utilize CCR5 as a co-receptor but do not need CCR3, while for other isolates both CCR3 and CCR5 may be required.

  18. Psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine modulate innate and adaptive inflammatory responses through the sigma-1 receptor of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Kovacs, Attila; Frecska, Ede; Rajnavolgyi, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The orphan receptor sigma-1 (sigmar-1) is a transmembrane chaperone protein expressed in both the central nervous system and in immune cells. It has been shown to regulate neuronal differentiation and cell survival, and mediates anti-inflammatory responses and immunosuppression in murine in vivo models. Since the details of these findings have not been elucidated so far, we studied the effects of the endogenous sigmar-1 ligands N,N-dimethyltryptamine (NN-DMT), its derivative 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and the synthetic high affinity sigmar-1 agonist PRE-084 hydrochloride on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDCs) activation provoked by LPS, polyI:C or pathogen-derived stimuli to induce inflammatory responses. Co-treatment of moDC with these activators and sigma-1 receptor ligands inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and the chemokine IL-8, while increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The T-cell activating capacity of moDCs was also inhibited, and dimethyltryptamines used in combination with E. coli or influenza virus as stimulators decreased the differentiation of moDC-induced Th1 and Th17 inflammatory effector T-cells in a sigmar-1 specific manner as confirmed by gene silencing. Here we demonstrate for the first time the immunomodulatory potential of NN-DMT and 5-MeO-DMT on human moDC functions via sigmar-1 that could be harnessed for the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions of the CNS or peripheral tissues. Our findings also point out a new biological role for dimethyltryptamines, which may act as systemic endogenous regulators of inflammation and immune homeostasis through the sigma-1 receptor.

  19. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mattana, Antonella; Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W; Henriquez, Fiona L; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016 Mattana et al.

  20. Distinguishing Radiculopathies from Mononeuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Robblee, Jennifer; Katzberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Identifying “where is the lesion” is particularly important in the approach to the patient with focal dysfunction where a peripheral localization is suspected. This article outlines a methodical approach to the neuromuscular patient in distinguishing focal neuropathies versus radiculopathies, both of which are common presentations to the neurology clinic. This approach begins with evaluation of the sensory examination to determine whether there are irritative or negative sensory signs in a peripheral nerve or dermatomal distribution. This is followed by evaluation of deep tendon reflexes to evaluate if differential hyporeflexia can assist in the two localizations. Finally, identification of weak muscle groups unique to a nerve or myotomal pattern in the proximal and distal extremities can most reliably assist in a precise localization. The article concludes with an application of the described method to the common scenario of distinguishing radial neuropathy versus C7 radiculopathy in the setting of a wrist drop and provides additional examples for self-evaluation and reference. PMID:27468275

  1. Distinguishability of black hole microstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ning; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2017-09-01

    We use the Holevo information to estimate distinguishability of microstates of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space by measurements one can perform on a subregion of a Cauchy surface of the dual conformal field theory. We find that microstates are not distinguishable at all until the subregion reaches a certain size and that perfect distinguishability can be achieved before the subregion covers the entire Cauchy surface. We will compare our results with expectations from the entanglement wedge reconstruction, tensor network models, and the bit threads interpretation of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula.

  2. Entanglement of distinguishable quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittorini, G.; Hucul, D.; Inlek, I. V.; Crocker, C.; Monroe, C.

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved photon detection can be used to generate entanglement between distinguishable photons. This technique can be extended to entangle quantum memories that emit photons with different frequencies and identical temporal profiles without the loss of entanglement rate or fidelity. We experimentally realize this process using remotely trapped 171Yb+ ions where heralded entanglement is generated by interfering distinguishable photons. This technique may be necessary for future modular quantum systems and networks that are composed of heterogeneous qubits.

  3. IL-10/HMOX1 signaling modulates cochlear inflammation via negative regulation of MCP-1/CCL2 expression in cochlear fibrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jeong-Im; Kil, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sejo; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Park, Raekil; Lim, David J.; Moon, Sung K.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear inflammatory diseases such as tympanogenic labyrinthitis are associated with acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Although otitis media is extremely frequent in children, tympanogenic labyrinthitis is not commonly observed, which suggests the existence of a potent anti-inflammatory mechanism modulating cochlear inflammation. In this study, we aim to determine the molecular mechanism involved in cochlear protection from inflammation-mediated tissue damage, focusing on interleukin-10 (IL-10) and hemoxygenase-1 (HMOX1) signaling. We demonstrated that IL-10 receptors (IL-10Rs) are expressed in the cochlear lateral wall of mice and rats, particularly in the spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs). The rat SLF cell line (RSL) was found to inhibit nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi)-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in response to IL-10. This inhibition was suppressed by silencing IL-10R1 and was mimicked by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2). In addition, IL-10 appeared to suppress monocyte recruitment through reduction of NTHi-induced RSL-derived chemoattractants. Silencing of HMOX1 was found to attenuate the inhibitory effect of IL-10 on NTHi-induced MCP-1/CCL2 up-regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that IL-10 inhibits NTHi-induced binding of p65 NF-κB to the distal motif in the promoter region of MCP-1/CCL2, resulting in suppression of NTHi-induced NF-κB activation. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency appeared to significantly affect cochlear inflammation induced by intratympanic injections of NTHi. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-10/HMOX1 signaling is involved in modulation of cochlear inflammation through inhibition of MCP-1/CCL2 regulation in SLFs, implying therapeutic potential of a carbon monoxide (CO)-based approach for inflammation-associated cochlear diseases. PMID:25780042

  4. Distinguishing cellulitis from its mimics.

    PubMed

    Keller, Emily C; Tomecki, Kenneth J; Alraies, M Chadi

    2012-08-01

    Distinguishing true cellulitis from its many imitators is challenging but critical if we are to avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics and delays in treatment. Common imitators of cellulitis are stasis dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, contact dermatitis, lymphedema, eosinophilic cellulitis, and papular urticaria. Specific criteria do not exist for the diagnosis of cellulitis, but the alert physician can find clues in the history and physical examination that point toward cellulitis.

  5. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in Association With Pancreatic Recruitment of M2-Like Macrophages, Mesenchymal Cells, and Fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Husseini, Mahmoud; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Patrick, Christopher; Crookshank, Jennifer A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Noel, J Ariana; Strom, Alexander; Scott, Fraser W

    2015-11-01

    Immunoregulatory and regenerative processes are activated in the pancreas during the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) but are insufficient to prevent the disease. We hypothesized that the induction of cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by cobalt protophoryrin (CoPP) would prevent T1D by promoting anti-inflammatory and pro-repair processes. Diabetes-prone BioBreeding rats received ip CoPP or saline twice per week for 3 weeks, starting at 30 days and were monitored for T1D. Immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and microarrays were used to evaluate postinjection pancreatic changes at 51 days, when islet inflammation is first visible. T1D was prevented in CoPP-treated rats (29% vs 73%). Pancreatic Hmox1 was up-regulated along with islet-associated CD68(+)HO-1(+) cells, which were also observed in a striking peri-lobular interstitial infiltrate. Most interstitial cells expressed the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the hematopoietic marker CD34. Spindle-shaped, CD34(+)vimentin(+) cells coexpressed collagen V, characteristic of fibrocytes. M2 macrophage factors Krüppel-like factor 4, CD163, and CD206 were expressed by interstitial cells, consistent with pancreatic upregulation of several M2-associated genes. CoPP upregulated islet-regenerating REG genes and increased neogenic REG3β(+) and insulin(+) clusters. Thus, short-term induction of HO-1 promoted a protective M2-like milieu in the pancreas and recruited mesenchymal cells, M2 macrophages, and fibrocytes that imparted immunoregulatory and pro-repair effects, preventing T1D.

  6. Apoptosis of the fibrocytes type 1 in the spiral ligament and blood labyrinth barrier disturbance cause hearing impairment in murine cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental murine malaria has been shown to result in significant hearing impairment. Microscopic evaluation of the temporal bones of these animals has revealed regular morphology of the cochlea duct. Furthermore, the known vascular pathologic changes being associated with malaria could not be found. Immunohistochemistry for ICAM1 showed a strong marking in the stria vascularis, indicating a disturbance of the endocochlear potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of apoptosis and the disturbance of the blood labyrinth barrier in the murine malaria associated hearing impairment. Methods The temporal bones of seven mice with cerebral malaria-four with hearing impairment, three without hearing impairment-were evaluated with immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3 to detect apoptosis and connexin 26, a gap junction protein being a cornerstone in the endocochlear potassium recirculation. Furthermore five animals with cerebral malaria were treated with Evans blue prior to sacrification to detect disturbances of the blood labyrinth barrier. Results Cleaved caspase 3 could clearly be detected by immunohistochemistry in the fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, more intensively in animals with hearing impairment, less intensively in those without. Apoptosis signal was equally distributed in the spiral ligament as was the connexin 26 gap junction protein. The Evans blue testing revealed a strong signal in the malaria animals and no signal in the healthy control animals. Conclusion Malfunction of the fibrocytes type 1 in the spiral ligament and disruption of the blood labyrinth barrier, resulting in a breakdown of the endocochlear potential, are major causes for hearing impairment in murine cerebral malaria. PMID:22297132

  7. Partial polarization by quantum distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Mayukh; Hochrainer, Armin; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-03-01

    We establish that a connection exists between wave-particle duality of photons and partial polarization of a light beam. We perform a two-path lowest-order (single photon) interference experiment and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the degree of polarization of the light beam emerging from an output of the interferometer depends on path distinguishability. In our experiment, we are able to change the quantum state of the emerging photon from a pure state to a fully mixed state without any direct interaction with the photon. Although most lowest-order interference experiments can be explained by classical theory, our experiment has no genuine classical analog. Our results show that a case exists where the cause of partial polarization is beyond the scope of classical theory.

  8. Distinguishing ordinal and disordinal interactions.

    PubMed

    Widaman, Keith F; Helm, Jonathan L; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Pluess, Michael; Stallings, Michael C; Belsky, Jay

    2012-12-01

    Re-parameterized regression models may enable tests of crucial theoretical predictions involving interactive effects of predictors that cannot be tested directly using standard approaches. First, we present a re-parameterized regression model for the Linear × Linear interaction of 2 quantitative predictors that yields point and interval estimates of 1 key parameter-the crossover point of predicted values-and leaves certain other parameters unchanged. We explain how resulting parameter estimates provide direct evidence for distinguishing ordinal from disordinal interactions. We generalize the re-parameterized model to Linear × Qualitative interactions, where the qualitative variable may have 2 or 3 categories, and then describe how to modify the re-parameterized model to test moderating effects. To illustrate our new approach, we fit alternate models to social skills data on 438 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. The re-parameterized regression model had point and interval estimates of the crossover point that fell near the mean on the continuous environment measure. The disordinal form of the interaction supported 1 theoretical model-differential-susceptibility-over a competing model that predicted an ordinal interaction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  10. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  11. CD34+ stromal cells/fibroblasts/fibrocytes/telocytes as a tissue reserve and a principal source of mesenchymal cells. Location, morphology, function and role in pathology.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, L; Gutiérrez, R; García, M P; Sáez, F J; Díaz-Flores, L; Valladares, F; Madrid, J F

    2014-07-01

    We review the morphofunctional characteristics of CD34+ stromal fibroblastic/fibrocytic cells (CD34+ SFCs) and report our observations. We consider the following aspects of CD34+ SFCs: A) The confusing terms applied to this cell type, often combining the prefix CD34 with numerous names, including fibroblasts, fibrocytes, dendrocytes, keratocytes, telocytes and stromal, dendritic, adventitial, supraadventitial, perivascular, paravascular and delimiting cells; B) Changes in their immunophenotype, e.g., loss of CD34 expression and gain of other markers, such as those defining mesenchymal and derivate cells (myofibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes); C) Morphology (elongated or triangular cell body and thin, moniliform, bipolar or multipolar cytoplasmic processes), immunohistochemistry (co-expression of and changes in molecular expression) and structure (characteristics of nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, and points of contact and junctions in quiescent and activated stages by light and electron microscopy); D) Location and distribution in the vessels (adventitia or external layer), in the tissues (connective, adipose, blood, muscle and nervous) and in the organs and systems (skin, oral cavity and oropharynx, respiratory, digestive, urinary, male, female, endocrine and lymphoid systems, serosal and synovial membranes, heart, eye and meninges); E) Origin from the mesoderm and cranial neural crest in the embryo, and from stem cells (themselves or other cells) and/or peripheral blood pluripotent stem cells (circulating progenitor cells) in post-natal life; F) Functions, such as synthesis of different molecules, progenitor of mesenchymal cells, immunomodulation, parenchymal regulation (growth, maturation and differentiation of adjacent cells), induction of angiogenesis, scaffolding support of other cells and phagocytic properties. Since CD34+ SFCs are the main reservoir of tissue mesenchymal cells (great mesenchymal potential, probably higher than that

  12. Distinguishing quantum operations: LOCC versus separable operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Indrani; Sarkar, Debasis

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issue of distinguishing a pair of quantum operation in general. We use Krause theorem for representing the operations in unitary form. This supports the existence of pair of quantum operations that are not locally distinguishable, but distinguishable in asymptotic sense in some higher dimensional system. The process can even be successful without any use of the entangled initial state.

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulation of monocyte derived macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  14. Transforming growth factor β3 attenuates the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by decreasing fibrocyte recruitment and regulating IFN-γ/IL-4 balance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Xiong, Shanshan; Guo, Renfeng; Yang, Zhihua; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Wang, Haibao; Pan, Xiujie; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2014-11-01

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a frequently occurred complication from radiotherapy of thoracic tumors. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily plays a key regulatory role in pulmonary fibrosis. As TGF-β3 showed the potential anti-fibrotic properties especially in scar-less wound healing as opposed to the fibrotic function of TGF-β1, we sought to explore the role of TGF-β3 in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A single thoracic irradiation of 20 Gy was applied in mice to establish the model of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the mice were treated by intraperitoneal injections of recombinant TGF-β3 weekly after irradiation. We found that TGF-β3 decelerated the progress of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hindered the recruitment of fibrocytes to lung. In addition, Th1 response was suppressed as shown by diminished IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after irradiation, and enhancement of Th2 response was marked by increased IL-4 in BALF. TGF-β3 administration significantly attenuated these effects and increased the percentage of Tregs in lung during the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Taken together, these data suggest that TGF-β3 might be involved in the regulatory mechanism for attenuation of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotype and function of CD209+ bovine blood dendritic cells, monocyte-derived-dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny a...

  16. The wealth of distinguished doctors: retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C

    2005-12-24

    To assess changes in the wealth of distinguished doctors in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2001. Retrospective survey. The UK. 980 doctors of sufficient distinction to be included in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and who died between 1860 and 2001. Wealth at death, based on probate records and adjusted relative to average earnings in 2002. The wealth of distinguished doctors declined substantially between 1860 and 2001, and paralleled a decline in the relative income of doctors in general. The wealth of distinguished doctors also declined relative to other groups of distinguished individuals. In the 19th century, distinction in doctors was accompanied by substantial wealth, whereas by the end of the 20th century, the most distinguished doctors were less wealthy than their contemporaries who had achieved national distinction in other areas.

  17. The wealth of distinguished doctors: retrospective survey

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I C

    2005-01-01

    Objective To assess changes in the wealth of distinguished doctors in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2001. Design Retrospective survey. Setting The UK. Participants 980 doctors of sufficient distinction to be included in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and who died between 1860 and 2001. Main outcome measures Wealth at death, based on probate records and adjusted relative to average earnings in 2002. Results The wealth of distinguished doctors declined substantially between 1860 and 2001, and paralleled a decline in the relative income of doctors in general. The wealth of distinguished doctors also declined relative to other groups of distinguished individuals. Conclusions In the 19th century, distinction in doctors was accompanied by substantial wealth, whereas by the end of the 20th century, the most distinguished doctors were less wealthy than their contemporaries who had achieved national distinction in other areas. PMID:16373738

  18. Wootters' distance revisited: a new distinguishability criterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majtey, A.; Lamberti, P. W.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.

    2005-03-01

    The notion of distinguishability between quantum states has shown to be fundamental in the frame of quantum information theory. In this paper we present a new distinguishability criterium by using a information theoretic quantity: the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD). This quantity has several interesting properties, both from a conceptual and a formal point of view. Previous to define this distinguishability criterium, we review some of the most frequently used distances defined over quantum mechanics’ Hilbert space. In this point our main claim is that the JSD can be taken as a unifying distance between quantum states.

  19. Expanding the principle of local distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The principle of local distinguishability states that an arbitrary physical state of a bipartite system can be determined by the combined statistics of local measurements performed on the subsystems. A necessary and sufficient requirement for the local measurements is that each one must be able to distinguish between all pairs of states of the respective subsystems. We show that, if the task is changed into the determination of an arbitrary bipartite pure state, then at least in certain cases it is possible to restrict to local measurements which can distinguish all pure states but not all states. Moreover, we show that, if the local measurements are such that the purity of the bipartite state can be verified from the statistics without any prior assumption, then in these special cases also this property is carried over to the composite measurement. These surprising facts give evidence that the principle of local distinguishability may be expanded beyond its usual applicability.

  20. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Dedre Gentner.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2016 award winners is Dedre Gentner, who received this award for her "achievements in research and theory in cognitive psychology and cognitive development, especially for developing the structure-mapping theory of analogy and similarity." Her award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Distinguishing Marks of Simply-Connected Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebouças, M. J.; Dolgov, A.

    A statistical quantity suitable for distinguishing simply-connected Robertson-Walker (RW) universes is introduced, and its explicit expressions for the three possible classes of simply-connected RW universes with an uniform distribution of matter are determined. Graphs of the distinguishing mark for each class of RW universes are presented and analyzed. There sprout from our results an improvement on the procedure to extract the topological signature of multiply-connected RW universes, and a refined understanding of that topological signature of these universes studied in previous works.

  2. Beyond Benford's Law: Distinguishing Noise from Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglei; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming

    2015-01-01

    Determinism and randomness are two inherent aspects of all physical processes. Time series from chaotic systems share several features identical with those generated from stochastic processes, which makes them almost undistinguishable. In this paper, a new method based on Benford's law is designed in order to distinguish noise from chaos by only information from the first digit of considered series. By applying this method to discrete data, we confirm that chaotic data indeed can be distinguished from noise data, quantitatively and clearly. PMID:26030809

  3. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  4. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  5. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  6. Distinguishing Features of Critical Thinking Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, M. Neil; Freeman, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Proposes that classrooms that encourage critical thinking possess distinguishing features that can assess whether critical thinking is a regular occurrence. Suggests that a critical thinking classroom commonly reflects the following attributes: frequent questions, developmental tension, fascination with the contingency of conclusions, and active…

  7. Can Values Be Distinguished from Prejudices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoyte, Robert L.; Sikula, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Using case studies, the authors demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing an act influenced by a person's prejudice from an act influenced by a person's values. Social studies teachers are urged to deal with controversial topics to help students clarify their feelings about issues such as abortion, drug use, religion, and politics. (AV)

  8. Career Patterns of Distinguished Male Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    Seventy-four male eminent social scientists provided career stage data by which adult development theory was tested. All were born between 1893 and 1903 and met the criteria of a distinguished (and for several still active) scholarly career. The subjects were separated into four groups on the basis of their degree of productivity as of age 60.…

  9. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  10. Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes

    PubMed Central

    Eller, C. Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

    2007-01-01

    Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, were used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes. PMID:17141428

  11. The Humanity of English. 1972 Distinguished Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    This is a collection of lectures by distinguished members of the English profession who were invited to lecture to schools located far from large urban and cultural centers. Included are papers by: John H. Fisher, "Truth Versus Beauty: An Inquiry into the Function of Language and Literature in an Articulate Society"; Walter Loban, "The Green…

  12. Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished…

  13. Distinguishing Recent Admixture from Ancestral Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2017-01-01

    We develop and test two methods for distinguishing between recent admixture and ancestral population structure as explanations for greater similarity of one of two populations to an outgroup population. This problem arose when Neanderthals were found to be slightly more similar to nonAfrican than to African populations. The excess similarity is consistent with both recent admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of nonAfricans and subdivision in the ancestral population. Although later studies showed that there had been recent admixture, distinguishing between these two classes of models will be important in other situations, particularly when high-coverage genomes cannot be obtained for all populations. One of our two methods is based on the properties of the doubly conditioned frequency spectrum combined with the unconditional frequency spectrum. This method does not require a linkage map and can be used when there is relatively low coverage. The second method uses the extent of linkage disequilibrium among closely linked markers. PMID:28186554

  14. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  15. The ambiguity of "distinguishability" in statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert H.

    2015-06-01

    Differences of opinion concerning fundamental issues in statistical mechanics directly related to the thermodynamic entropy have persisted through more than a century of debate. One reason is the lack of consensus on the definitions of key terms, especially the terms "distinguishable," "indistinguishable," and "identical." Several definitions occur in the literature, but are not always made explicit. The multiplicity of definitions has created confusion about the basic conditions under which entropy is to be defined. In this paper, I present an overview of definitions in current use for terms associated with distinguishability and relate them to various definitions that have been suggested for entropy. My hope is that consensus will be achievable if the definitions are clarified and agreed upon.

  16. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  17. Distinguishing juvenile homicide from violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    DiCataldo, Frank; Everett, Meghan

    2008-04-01

    Juvenile homicide is a social problem that has remained a central focus within juvenile justice research in recent years. The term juvenile murderer describes a legal category, but it is purported to have significant scientific meaning. Research has attempted to conceptualize adolescent murderers as a clinical category that can be reliably distinguished from their nonhomicidal counterparts. This study examined 33 adolescents adjudicated delinquent or awaiting trial for murder and 38 adolescents who committed violent, nonhomicidal offenses to determine whether the two groups differed significantly on family history, early development, delinquency history, mental health, and weapon possession variables. The nonhomicide group proved more problematic on many of these measures. Two key factors did distinguish the homicide group: These adolescents endorsed the greater availability of guns and substance abuse at the time of their commitment offenses. The significance of this finding is discussed, and the implications for risk management and policy are reviewed.

  18. Kinetically Distinguishable Populations of Phytochrome 1

    PubMed Central

    Purves, William K.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1968-01-01

    Two or more kinetically distinguishable populations of phytochrome molecules were observed in living tissues of oat, pea, maize, and cauliflower, as well as in extracts of oat. At least 3 different populations occurred in cauliflower florets, while 2 were observed in each of the other species. In extracted oat phytochrome, the relative proportions of the 2 forms remained constant during successive stages of purification. The physiological significance of this multiplicity of forms remains unclear. PMID:16656909

  19. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S

    2012-02-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  20. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  1. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  2. Neuroendocrine factors distinguish juvenile psychopathy variants.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Goulter, Natalie; Hawes, David J; Wilbur, Rhonda R; Groer, Maureen W

    2017-03-01

    The characteristic pattern of emotional hypo-reactivity observed in primary psychopathy is not evident in secondary psychopathy, which is thought to originate from childhood adversity and co-occurring anxiety. The main aim of this study was to test whether salivary afternoon cortisol, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol-to-DHEA concentrations, which at high levels indicate risk for chronic stress and poor mental health, distinguished secondary from primary variants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits-the affective component of psychopathy. This aim was achieved by first identifying psychopathy variants using latent profile analysis of CU, anxiety, and aggression scores among 232 incarcerated adolescent boys (M age = 16.75). Based on a subset with neuroendocrine data (n = 201), aggressive secondary CU variants had lower afternoon DHEA concentrations and higher cortisol-to-DHEA ratios and comorbid psychopathology compared with all other groups. In contrast, two primary CU variants (aggressive and non-aggressive types) emerged with profiles characterized by low to average psychopathology and high DHEA levels. Findings contribute to a growing literature base suggesting that biomarkers may distinguish youth on separable developmental pathways to psychopathy.

  3. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  4. Distinguishing treatment from research: a functional approach

    PubMed Central

    Lewens, T

    2006-01-01

    The best way to distinguish treatment from research is by their functions. This mode of distinction fits well with the basic ethical work that needs to be carried out. The distinction needs to serve as an ethical flag, highlighting areas in which the goals of doctors and patients are more likely than usual to diverge. The distinction also allows us to illuminate and understand some otherwise puzzling elements of debates on research ethics: it shows the peculiarity of exclusive conceptions of the distinction between research and treatment; it allows us to frame questions about therapeutic obligations in the research context, and it allows us to consider whether there may be research obligations in the therapeutic context. PMID:16816045

  5. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  6. Restricted connections among distinguished players support cooperation.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation within the spatial prisoner's dilemma game on a square lattice where a fraction of players mu can spread their strategy more easily than the rest due to a predetermined larger teaching capability. In addition, players characterized by the larger teaching capability are allowed to temporarily link with distant opponents of the same kind with probability p , thus introducing shortcut connections among the distinguished players. We show that these additional temporary connections are able to sustain cooperation throughout the whole range of the temptation to defect. Remarkably, we observe that, as the temptation to defect increases the optimal mu decreases, and moreover only minute values of p warrant the best promotion of cooperation. Our study thus indicates that influential individuals must be few and sparsely connected in order for cooperation to thrive in a defection-prone environment.

  7. Distinguishing Susac's syndrome from multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Buzzard, Katherine A; Reddel, Stephen W; Yiannikas, Con; Sean Riminton, D; Barnett, Michael H; Hardy, Todd A

    2015-07-01

    Susac's syndrome is considered a rare differential diagnosis in the work-up of suspected multiple sclerosis. Over the last decade or so, significant advances in our understanding of Susac's syndrome mean that it can now be readily distinguished from multiple sclerosis in the majority of cases with a careful history and close attention to MR imaging. Supporting investigations such as CSF examination, fluorescein angiogram, visual field perimetry and audiology often yield important clues. In milder cases, however, diagnostic uncertainty can exist, and forme frustes of the disease are recognised. In this article, we discuss the clinical features of Susac's syndrome with emphasis on the findings and investigations that help to differentiate it from MS.

  8. Defining disruptive coloration and distinguishing its functions

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Disruptive coloration breaks up the shape and destroys the outline of an object, hindering detection. The principle was first suggested approximately a century ago, but, although research has significantly increased, the field remains conceptually unstructured and no unambiguous definition exists. This has resulted in variable use of the term, making it difficult to formulate testable hypotheses that are comparable between studies, slowing down advancement in this field. Related to this, a range of studies do not effectively distinguish between disruption and other forms of camouflage. Here, we give a formal definition of disruptive coloration, reorganize a range of sub-principles involved in camouflage and argue that five in particular are specifically related to disruption: differential blending; maximum disruptive contrast; disruption of surface through false edges; disruptive marginal patterns; and coincident disruptive coloration. We discuss how disruptive coloration can be optimized, how it can relate to other forms of camouflage markings and where future work is particularly needed. PMID:18990673

  9. Distinguishing causal interactions in neural populations.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anil K; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-04-01

    We describe a theoretical network analysis that can distinguish statistically causal interactions in population neural activity leading to a specific output. We introduce the concept of a causal core to refer to the set of neuronal interactions that are causally significant for the output, as assessed by Granger causality. Because our approach requires extensive knowledge of neuronal connectivity and dynamics, an illustrative example is provided by analysis of Darwin X, a brain-based device that allows precise recording of the activity of neuronal units during behavior. In Darwin X, a simulated neuronal model of the hippocampus and surrounding cortical areas supports learning of a spatial navigation task in a real environment. Analysis of Darwin X reveals that large repertoires of neuronal interactions contain comparatively small causal cores and that these causal cores become smaller during learning, a finding that may reflect the selection of specific causal pathways from diverse neuronal repertoires.

  10. Restricted connections among distinguished players support cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation within the spatial prisoner’s dilemma game on a square lattice where a fraction of players μ can spread their strategy more easily than the rest due to a predetermined larger teaching capability. In addition, players characterized by the larger teaching capability are allowed to temporarily link with distant opponents of the same kind with probability p , thus introducing shortcut connections among the distinguished players. We show that these additional temporary connections are able to sustain cooperation throughout the whole range of the temptation to defect. Remarkably, we observe that, as the temptation to defect increases the optimal μ decreases, and moreover only minute values of p warrant the best promotion of cooperation. Our study thus indicates that influential individuals must be few and sparsely connected in order for cooperation to thrive in a defection-prone environment.

  11. Do open clusters have distinguishable chemical signatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.

    2014-07-01

    Past studies have already shown that stars in open clusters are chemically homogeneous (e.g. De Silva et al. 2006, 2007 and 2009). These results support the idea that stars born from the same giant molecular cloud should have the same chemical composition. In this context, the chemical tagging technique was proposed by Freeman et al. (2002). The principle is to recover disrupted stellar clusters by looking only to the stellar chemical composition. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, it is necessary to test if we can distinguish between stars born from different molecular clouds. For this purpose, we studied the chemical composition of stars in 32 old and intermediate-age open clusters, and we applied machine learning algorithms to recover the original cluster by only considering the chemical signatures.

  12. Distinguishing XY from Ising electron nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, S.; Carlson, E. W.

    2017-08-01

    At low temperatures in ultraclean GaAs-AlGaAs heterojunctions, high Landau levels near half-integral filling break rotational symmetry, leading to increasingly anisotropic transport properties as temperature is lowered below ˜150 mK . While the onset of transport anisotropy is well described by an XY model of an electron nematic in the presence of a weak uniform symmetry-breaking term, the low-temperature behavior deviates significantly from this model. We find that inclusion of interactions between the electron nematic and the underlying crystalline lattice in the form of a fourfold symmetry-breaking term is sufficient to describe the entire temperature dependence of the transport anisotropy at ν =9 /2 . This implies that this electron nematic is in the Ising universality class. We propose new experimental tests that can distinguish whether any two-dimensional electron nematic is in the XY or Ising universality class.

  13. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22... Department auditoriums, official presentation rooms, hearing rooms, lobbies, public document rooms, and...

  14. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  15. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  16. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  17. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  18. Distinguishing psychological characteristics of expert cricket batsmen.

    PubMed

    Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian; Gross, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the psychological characteristics and skills that are fundamental to batting success in the sport of cricket. Following on from the findings of an earlier qualitative investigation which suggested that a favourable mix of psychological attributes and skills are critical to high performance in batting (Weissensteiner et al.(10)), adult-aged batsmen of two different skill levels (highly skilled n=11; lesser skilled n=10) completed a battery of psychological tests that included measures of mental toughness (Mental Toughness Inventory), perfectionism (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), coping ability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28), and optimism (Attributional Styles Questionnaire). Contrary to the research hypothesis, it was found that the highly skilled batsmen were only distinguishable from batsmen of lesser skill by their higher degree of global mental toughness. The skilled batsmen scored significantly higher on mental toughness dimensions relating to motivation (Personal Bests, Task Value and Commitment), coping skill (Perseverance) and self-belief (Potential). If mental toughness can be reliably predicted at an earlier age, it may be an attribute worthy of inclusion in future talent identification and development programs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  20. How do recovery definitions distinguish recovering individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Grella, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Six percent of American adults say they are “in recovery” from an alcohol or drug problem yet only a scant emergent literature has begun to ask how they define “recovery” or explored whether there is heterogeneity among their definitions. Methods Secondary analysis of the What Is Recovery? online survey employed Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify typologies of study participants based on their actual endorsement of 39 recovery elements and to compare the composition of these typologies in terms of distinguishing personal characteristics. Results A 5-class solution provided the best fit and conceptual representation for the recovery definitions. Classes were labeled 12-Step Traditionalist (n=4912); 12-Step Enthusiast (n=2014); Secular (n=980); Self-Reliant (n=1040); and Atypical (n=382) based on patterns of endorsement of the recovery elements. Abstinence, spiritual, and social interaction elements differentiated the classes most (as did age and recovery duration but to a lesser extent). Although levels and patterns of endorsement to the elements varied by class, a rank-ordering of the top 10 elements indicated that four elements were endorsed by all five classes: being honest with myself, handling negative feelings without using, being able to enjoy life, and process of growth and development. Conclusions The results of the LCA demonstrate the diversity of meanings, and varying degrees of identification with, specific elements of recovery. As others have found, multiple constituents are invested in how recovery is defined and this has ramifications for professional, personal, and cultural processes related to how strategies to promote recovery are implemented. PMID:25630961

  1. The local distinguishability of any three generalized Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Mao-Sheng; Fei, Shao-Ming; Zheng, Zhu-Jun

    2017-05-01

    We study the problem of distinguishing maximally entangled quantum states by using local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A question of fundamental interest is whether any three maximally entangled states in C^d⊗ C^d (d≥4) are distinguishable by LOCC. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to consider the generalized Bell states. And we prove that any three generalized Bell states in C^d⊗ C^d (d≥4) are locally distinguishable.

  2. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated to... under civilian workmen's compensation laws in that hospitalization is usually completed prior to...

  3. 32 CFR 22.215 - Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Appropriate Instrument § 22.215 Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements. (a) Once a grants officer... appropriate instrument, the grants officer shall distinguish between the two instruments as follows: (1... solely to obtain the stricter controls typical of a contract. (b) In judging whether...

  4. 32 CFR 22.215 - Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Appropriate Instrument § 22.215 Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements. (a) Once a grants officer... appropriate instrument, the grants officer shall distinguish between the two instruments as follows: (1... solely to obtain the stricter controls typical of a contract. (b) In judging whether...

  5. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  6. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  7. Distinguishing between Knowledge and Beliefs: Students' Epistemic Criteria for Differentiating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldrin, Angela; Mason, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    "I believe that he/she is telling the truth", "I know about the solar system": what epistemic criteria do students use to distinguish between knowledge and beliefs? If knowing and believing are conceptually distinguishable, do students of different grade levels use the same criteria to differentiate the two constructs? How do students understand…

  8. Excellence in Teacher Education. 1973 Distinguished Achievement Awards Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    The State University of New York College of Cortland received the 1973 Distinguished Achievement Award for its Project Change, a performance-based early childhood teacher education program. Also cited for distinguished achievement were a) Teachers College of Ball State University, Indiana for an experimental program designed to include…

  9. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.318 Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated...

  10. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.318 Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated...

  11. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  12. Astronaut Alan Shepard receives MASA Distinguished Service award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard recieves the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy in May 1961, days after his history making MR-3 flight (31387); Alan Shepard and his wife wave to the crowd after Shepard received the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy (31388).

  13. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22... Instrument § 22.205 Distinguishing assistance from procurement. Before using a grant or cooperative agreement... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The grants...

  14. Distinguishing between Knowledge and Beliefs: Students' Epistemic Criteria for Differentiating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldrin, Angela; Mason, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    "I believe that he/she is telling the truth", "I know about the solar system": what epistemic criteria do students use to distinguish between knowledge and beliefs? If knowing and believing are conceptually distinguishable, do students of different grade levels use the same criteria to differentiate the two constructs? How do students understand…

  15. Liberating the Publications of a Distinguished Scholar: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many distinguished scholars published the primary corpus of their work before the advent of online journals, which makes it more challenging to access. Upon being approached by a distinguished Emeritus Professor seeking advice about getting his work posted online, librarians at the University of Minnesota worked to gain copyright permissions to…

  16. Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training and Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training awards are given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education…

  17. Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    drug deterrence program were raised from 300 ng/ml to 4000 ng/ml for morphine and 2000 ng/ml for codeine in an attempt to distinguish between poppy seed ...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6512 Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use r- I- FCTE DAVID...Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kidwell. D.A. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 113b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year

  18. The Gibbs paradox and the distinguishability of identical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Dieks, Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Identical classical particles are distinguishable. This distinguishability affects the number of ways W a macrostate can be realized on the microlevel, and from the relation S =k ln W leads to a nonextensive expression for the entropy. This result is usually considered incorrect because of its inconsistency with thermodynamics. It is sometimes concluded from this inconsistency that identical particles are fundamentally indistinguishable and that quantum mechanics is indispensable for making sense of this inconsistency. In contrast, we argue that the classical statistics of distinguishable particles and the resulting nonextensive entropy function are perfectly acceptable from both a theoretical and an experimental perspective. The inconsistency with thermodynamics can be removed by taking into account that the entropy concept in statistical mechanics is not completely identical to the thermodynamical one. We observe that even identical quantum particles are in some cases distinguishable, and conclude that quantum mechanics is irrelevant to the Gibbs paradox.

  19. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  20. Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164087.html Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia A screen is still in development stages ... difficult for doctors to tell the difference between depression and schizophrenia, especially early on. Now, researchers say ...

  1. Development of children's ability to distinguish sarcasm and verbal irony.

    PubMed

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M

    2010-03-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand the non-literal meanings of sarcastic speakers and ironic speakers but did not distinguish ironic and sarcastic speakers' intentions. Nine- to ten-year-olds were more accurate at understanding sarcastic and ironic speakers and they distinguished these speakers' intentions, rating sarcastic criticisms as more 'mean' than ironic criticisms. These results show that children can determine the non-literal meanings of sarcasm and irony by six years of age but do not distinguish the pragmatic purposes of these speech acts until later in middle childhood.

  2. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    lipids in test controls. Key Metabolomics Research Accomplishments 1) Developed unbiased mass spectrometry methods to profile 500 lipids . 2) Completed...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  3. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    test controls. Key Metabolomics Research Accomplishments 1) Developed unbiased mass spectrometry methods to profile 500 lipids . 2) Completed...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0169 PC110361P1 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0169 5c. PROGRAM

  4. Carol A. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Carol A. Barnes, who received this award for her "groundbreaking work on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory changes in normal aging." Barnes' award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  5. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  6. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-26

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  7. DNA-based assays to distinguish date palm (Arecaceae) gender.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahmoud, Maryam E; Al-Dous, Eman K; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Malek, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is critical to the development of arid land. The date palm is a dioecious monocot with separate male and female trees. This presents a challenge in development as it is impossible to distinguish trees until they flower approximately five to eight years after planting. We have developed PCR-based assays capable of sex differentiation in multiple date palm cultivars. The primers are designed across gender-specific polymorphisms and demonstrated greater than 90% accuracy in distinguishing date palm gender across multiple varieties. These results indicate that the primers should be helpful in rapidly distinguishing date palm gender from the earliest stages that DNA can safely be collected. This is a vast savings in time over present approaches.

  8. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  9. Distinguishability and cloning of entangled states by LOCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Guruprasad

    2006-11-01

    There exist sets of multipartite orthogonal states which can not be distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC). The simplest example is the set of four Bell states. The problem of characterizing a set in terms of distinguishability is a hard problem in general. For maximally entangled states, some results are known. Local cloning of entangled states by supplying necessary entanglement in the blank state is another idea that was introduced very recently. Interestingly there are sets of orthogonal entangled states which can be distinguished locally but can not be copied by local operation (even if necessary entanglement is supplied in the blank state) contrary to the fact that happens in the case of global operation.

  10. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  11. The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism.

    PubMed

    Kats, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction.

  12. Accurate thermochemistry from explicitly correlated distinguishable cluster approximation.

    PubMed

    Kats, Daniel; Kreplin, David; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Manby, Frederick R

    2015-02-14

    An explicitly correlated version of the distinguishable-cluster approximation is presented and extensively benchmarked. It is shown that the usual F12-type explicitly correlated approaches are applicable to distinguishable-cluster theory with single and double excitations, and the results show a significant improvement compared to coupled-cluster theory with singles and doubles for closed and open-shell systems. The resulting method can be applied in a black-box manner to systems with single- and multireference character. Most noticeably, optimized geometries are of coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples quality or even better.

  13. G. Terence Wilson: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made distinguished theoretical or empirical advances leading to the understanding or amelioration of important practical problems. The 2014 recipient is G. Terence Wilson, who received the award for "his outstanding contributions to the nature and theory of behavior therapy." Wilson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  15. Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups on the surface of particles and inside their pores were obtained by means of sol-gel synthesis with postsynthetic vapor-phase treatment in vacuum. It was found that the synthesized materials have the hexagonally ordered porous structure typical of MCM-41 type silica.

  16. Development of Children's Ability to Distinguish Sarcasm and Verbal Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand…

  17. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  18. Recent Detrimental and Distinguished Books about Hispanic People and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1981-01-01

    The article discusses nine detrimental and six distinguished books about Hispanic people and cultures, published since 1979 for young readers. It is suggested that many recent books that depict Hispanic people and cultures repeat the same stereotypes, misconceptions and insensibilities that were prevalent in books published in the 1960s and early…

  19. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  20. Richard M. Shiffrin: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Provides the biography of Richard M. Shiffrin and announces that he has received the APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2004) for his brilliant development of formal models of memory and forgetting; for his ingenious empirical investigations into the nature of memory and attention; and for his unified accounts of attention and…

  1. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  2. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Instrument § 22.205 Distinguishing assistance from procurement. Before using a grant or cooperative agreement... instrument, in accordance with 31 U.S.C. chapter 63 (“Using Procurement Contracts and Grant and Cooperative... research and development, the appropriate use of grants and cooperative agreements therefore is...

  3. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography are presented here.

  4. The Hues of English. NCTE Distinguished Lectures 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.

    The third volume in the NCTE Distinguished Lectures Series, this collection of papers includes (1) William Stafford on poetry and the language of everyday life, (2) Fred Stocking linking Shakespeare to his time and all time by analysing "temperance" in Sonnet 18, (3) Alan Downer discussing the nature of comedy in drama and the universal…

  5. Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

  6. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  7. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  8. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  9. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  10. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  12. Marcia K. Johnson: 2006 award for distinguished scientific contributions.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation to Marcia K. Johnson, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions "for raising and illuminating fundamental questions about the cognitive and neural processes that constitute the subjective experience of mental life." A brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Johnson's award address, entitled Memory and Reality, accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  14. Putting science first: distinguishing visualizations from pretty pictures.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    How do we tell whether a proposed visualization is a valid pictorial representation of the truth or just an accidental but appealing image? Art and science can work brilliantly together in visualization science, but we must know when, and how, to distinguish them.

  15. Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

  16. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  17. A Tribute to My Ag Teacher: 2011 AAAE Distinguished Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The author is a product of school-based agricultural education. In a way, this distinguished lecture could also be called a tribute to his high school ag teacher, John Stimpert. Mr. Stimpert was a true professional and an excellent teacher. He changed and he changed the program with the changing school and community. The more the author became…

  18. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  19. John P. Campbell: award for distinguished scientific applications of psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for John P. Campbell who received Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology "for his many different contributions to the field of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  1. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  2. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  3. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.6 Unprotected activities distinguished. (a) Actions... Manufacturing, 302 F. 2d 152 (5th Cir., 1962). Ultimately, the issue as to whether a discharge was because of...

  4. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.6 Unprotected activities distinguished. (a) Actions... Manufacturing, 302 F. 2d 152 (5th Cir., 1962). Ultimately, the issue as to whether a discharge was because of...

  5. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  6. Distinguishing Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined proactive and reactive aggression and their relation to psychosocial adjustment in three samples (N = 767, 368 girls, M age = 10.03) of Chinese school age children. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor model which distinguished both proactive and reactive aggression fit the data reasonably well, and also fit…

  7. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  8. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  9. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  10. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  11. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  12. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  13. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  14. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  15. Recent Detrimental and Distinguished Books about Hispanic People and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1981-01-01

    The article discusses nine detrimental and six distinguished books about Hispanic people and cultures, published since 1979 for young readers. It is suggested that many recent books that depict Hispanic people and cultures repeat the same stereotypes, misconceptions and insensibilities that were prevalent in books published in the 1960s and early…

  16. Astronaut Alan Shepard recieves NASA Distinguished Service Award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-07

    S67-19572 (8 May 1961) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. receives the NASA Distinguished Service Award from United States President John F. Kennedy May 8, 1961, days after his history making MR-3 flight. Shepard's wife and mother on left and the other six Mercury astronauts are in background. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  17. Development of Children's Ability to Distinguish Sarcasm and Verbal Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand…

  18. 5 CFR 838.612 - Distinguishing between annuities and contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distinguishing between annuities and contributions. 838.612 Section 838.612 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Terminology Used in...

  19. Distinguishing Schemes and Tasks in Children's Development of Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Ron; Johnson, Heather L.; McClintock, Evan; Kenney, Rachael H.; Xin, Yan P.; Si, Luo; Woordward, Jerry; Hord, Casey; Jin, Xianyan

    2013-01-01

    We present a synthesis of findings from constructivist teaching experiments regarding six schemes children construct for reasoning multiplicatively and tasks to promote them. We provide a task-generating platform game, depictions of each scheme, and supporting tasks. Tasks must be distinguished from children's thinking, and learning situations…

  20. Using DNA Markers to Distinguish Among Chestnut Species and Hybrids

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1999-01-01

    Identification of American chestnut trees in the wild for inclusion in breeding programs is currently done using morphological traits. Distinguishing traits include leafshape, stipule size, presence or absence of leaf and stem trichomes, and stem color. Application of these traits is reasonably clear if the trees are pure American chestnut, but identitication of...

  1. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  2. On the distinguishability of HRF models in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paulo N.; Figueiredo, Patricia; Silvestre, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) is a critical step in fMRI studies of brain activity, and it is often desirable to estimate HRF parameters with physiological interpretability. A biophysically informed model of the HRF can be described by a non-linear time-invariant dynamic system. However, the identification of this dynamic system may leave much uncertainty on the exact values of the parameters. Moreover, the high noise levels in the data may hinder the model estimation task. In this context, the estimation of the HRF may be seen as a problem of model falsification or invalidation, where we are interested in distinguishing among a set of eligible models of dynamic systems. Here, we propose a systematic tool to determine the distinguishability among a set of physiologically plausible HRF models. The concept of absolutely input-distinguishable systems is introduced and applied to a biophysically informed HRF model, by exploiting the structure of the underlying non-linear dynamic system. A strategy to model uncertainty in the input time-delay and magnitude is developed and its impact on the distinguishability of two physiologically plausible HRF models is assessed, in terms of the maximum noise amplitude above which it is not possible to guarantee the falsification of one model in relation to another. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the choice of the input sequence, or experimental paradigm, that maximizes the distinguishability of the HRF models under investigation. The proposed approach may be used to evaluate the performance of HRF model estimation techniques from fMRI data. PMID:26106322

  3. Monocyte-derived microparticles and exosomes induce procoagulant and apoptotic effects on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aharon, Anat; Tamari, Tal; Brenner, Benjamin

    2008-11-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) which include microparticles (MPs) and exosomes are found in blood circulation in normal physiologic conditions and are increased in a variety of diseases. This study evaluated the effects of MVs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by morphologic changes, apoptosis, and thrombogenicty, in vitro. Stimulation of monocyte cell line (THP-1) by starvation or by endotoxin and calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in the release of MVs which express exosome marker Tsg 101, negative phospholipids in their leaflets, monocyte markers (CD18, CD14) and active tissue factor (TF). MVs were found to disrupt EC integrity and rapidly induce membrane blebbing. Brief exposure (2-4 hours) to MVs resulted in EC membrane phospholipids "flip-flop" while longer stimulation (20 hours) led to two contradicting outcomes - tube formation as well as apoptosis, as assessed by nuclear fragmentation. Additionally, MVs exposure resulted in increased cell surface thrombogenicity and perturbation of the endothelial haemostatic balance, which were enhanced during longer exposure time. Activity, antigen level and mRNA expression of the coagulation initiator TF were elevated due to (i) adherence of MVs derived TF to the EC membrane, and (ii) an increase in endothelial TF expression. Furthermore, levels of the anticoagulant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and thrombomodulin (TM) were decreased. These findings demonstrate that monocyte MVs increase endothelial thrombogenicity and apoptosis. In addition, they induce tube formation which may indicate their angiogenic effect. These findings may clarify, in part, the role of MVs in EC dysfunction associated with inflammatory diseases and hypercoagulable states.

  4. Changes of peripheral TGF-β1 depend on monocytes-derived macrophages in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Huntington Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein (Htt). Mutant HTT (mHtt) leads to progressive impairment of several molecular pathways that have been linked to disease pathogenesis. Defects in the production of a number of neurotrophic factors have been described as important determinants contributing to the development of HD. We have previously demonstrated that production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is also deregulated in HD. Peripheral levels of TGF-β1 were markedly reduced early in the disease and returned to normal levels with disease severity. However, the cause and the biochemical origin of such abnormalities are still unclear. Results We report here that the abnormal production of peripheral TGF-β1 depends on the changes in the percentage of TGF-β1-producing macrophages along disease course. Variation in the number of TGF-β1-producing macrophages resulted from differential activation state of the same cells, which displayed phenotypic and functional heterogeneity throughout the clinical course of HD. We further demonstrated that, similar to the periphery, the number of TGF-β1-immunoreactive cells in human post-mortem brain with HD, varied with neuropathological changes. Conclusions Our data indicate that reduced bioavailability of TGF-β1 in the serum of HD subjects is attributable to the variation of the number of TGF-β1-producing macrophages. Macrophages display a differential ability to produce TGF-β1, which reflects diversity in cells polarization throughout the disease course. Besides elucidating the biochemical origin of TGF-β1 fluctuations in HD, our study highlights an interesting parallelism between periphery and central compartment and underlines the potential of TGF-β1 as a possible indicator suitable for prediction of disease onset in HD. PMID:24330808

  5. Peripheral blood monocyte-derived chemokine blockade prevents murine transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Christopher G J; Kim, Michael; Singh, Tarandeep K; Milev, Youli; Freedman, John; Semple, John W

    2014-05-29

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality and can occur with any type of transfusion. TRALI is thought to be primarily mediated by donor antibodies activating recipient neutrophils resulting in pulmonary endothelial damage. Nonetheless, details regarding the interactions between donor antibodies and recipient factors are unknown. A murine antibody-mediated TRALI model was used to elucidate the roles of the F(ab')2 and Fc regions of a TRALI-inducing immunoglobulin G anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antibody (34.1.2s). Compared with intact antibody, F(ab')2 fragments significantly increased serum levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2); however, pulmonary neutrophil levels were only moderately increased, and no pulmonary edema or mortality occurred. Fc fragments did not modulate any of these parameters. TRALI induction by intact antibody was completely abrogated by in vivo peripheral blood monocyte depletion by gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or chemokine blockade with a MIP-2 receptor antagonist but was restored upon repletion with purified monocytes. The results suggest a two-step process for antibody-mediated TRALI induction: the first step involves antibody binding its cognate antigen on blood monocytes, which generates MIP-2 chemokine production that is correlated with pulmonary neutrophil recruitment; the second step occurs when antibody-coated monocytes increase Fc-dependent lung damage.

  6. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Amici, Stephanie A.; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Webb, Lindsay M.; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show two distinct populations of AAMϕs, based on the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 molecules, resulting upon T. crassiceps infection. Adoptive transfer of Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to PD-L1+/PD-L2+, but not PD-L1+/PD-L2− cells in T. crassiceps-infected mice, demonstrating that the PD-L1+/PD-L2+ subpopulation of AAMϕs originates from blood monocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of PD-L1+/PD-L2+ AAMϕs into EAE induced mice reduced disease incidence, delayed disease onset, and diminished the clinical disability, indicating the critical role of these cells in the regulation of autoimmune disorders. PMID:28094319

  7. Activation and genetic modification of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Michael, Agnieszka; John, Justin; Meyer, Brendan; Pandha, Hardev

    2010-03-05

    Live attenuated bacterial vectors, such as Salmonella typhimurium, have shown promise as delivery vehicles for DNA. We have examined two new strains of S. typhimurium and their impact on dendritic cell maturation (CD12-sifA/aroC mutant and WT05-ssaV/aroC, both in TML background). Strain WT05 matured dendritic cells in a more efficient way; caused higher release of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-1beta; and was efficient for gene transfer. These findings suggest that the genetic background of the attenuation can influence the pattern of inflammatory immune response to Salmonella infection.

  8. Substrate elasticity regulates the behavior of human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Adlerz, Katrina M; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Hayenga, Heather N

    2016-05-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerosis, cancer, and in the response to implanted medical devices. In each of these situations, the mechanical environment of a macrophage can vary from soft to stiff. However, how stiffness affects macrophage behavior remains uncertain. Using substrates of varying stiffness, we show macrophage phenotype and function depends on substrate stiffness. Notably, the cell area increases slightly from a sphere after 18 h on substrates mimicking healthy arterial stiffness (1-5 kPa), whereas macrophages on stiffer substrates (280 kPa-70 GPa) increased in area by nearly eight-fold. Macrophage migration is random regardless of substrate stiffness. The total average track speed was 7.8 ± 0.5 μm/h, with macrophages traveling fastest on the 280-kPa substrate (12.0 ± 0.5 μm/h) and slowest on the 3-kPa substrate (5.0 ± 0.4 μm/h). In addition F-actin organization in macrophages depends on substrate stiffness. On soft substrates, F-actin is spread uniformly throughout the cytoplasm, whereas on stiff substrates F-actin is functionalized into stress fibers. The proliferation rate of macrophages was faster on stiff substrates. Cells plated on the 280-kPa gel had a significantly shorter doubling time than those plated on the softer substrate. However, the ability of macrophages to phagocytose 1-μm particles did not depend on substrate stiffness. In conclusion, the results herein show macrophages are mechanosensitive; they respond to changes in stiffness by modifying their area, migration speed, actin organization, and proliferation rate. These results are important to understanding how macrophages respond in complex mechanical environments such as an atherosclerotic plaque.

  9. Rift Valley Fever Virus Growth Curve Kinetics in Cattle and Sheep Peripheral Blood Monocyte Derived Macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen within genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae that typically causes outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa and recently spread to the Arabian Peninsula. In ruminants, RVFV infections cause mass abortion and high mortality rates in neona...

  10. Complex evaluation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vopenkova, Katerina; Mollova, Klara; Buresova, Ivana; Michalek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy is capable of generating tumour-specific immune responses. Different maturation strategies were previously tested to obtain DC capable of anti-cancer responses in vitro, usually with limited clinical benefit. Mutual comparison of currently used maturation strategies and subsequent complex evaluation of DC functions and their stimulatory capacity on T cells was performed in this study to optimize the DC vaccination strategy for further clinical application. DC were generated from monocytes using granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, pulsed with whole tumour cell lysate and then matured with one of five selected maturation strategies or cultured without additional maturation stimulus. DC were characterized with regard to their surface marker expression, cytokine profiles, migratory capacity, allogeneic and autologous T cell stimulatory capacity as well as their specific cytotoxicity against tumour antigens. We were able to demonstrate extensive variability among different maturation strategies currently used in DC immunotherapeutic protocols that may at least partially explain limited clinical benefit of some clinical trials with such DC. We identified DC matured with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide as the most attractive candidate for future clinical trials in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22882679

  11. Monocyte-Derived Interleukin 1: Effects on Aortic Contraction and Phosphatidylinositol Turnover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-29

    TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 2c. OFFICE SYMBOL Regina E. Hunt, Command Editor (202) 295-0198 NSB/ADMIN/NMRI DD FORM 1473, 84 MAR 83 APR edition may be...REPORT NUMBER(S) S MONITORING ORGANIZAflON REPORT NUMBER(S) K"Val 88-96 6a. NJAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZAr;ON 6o OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NJAME OF MONITORING...SPONSORING 8b, OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT iNSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Naval Medical- (if applicable) Research & Development CommiandI 8C

  12. Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives.

    PubMed

    Migdal, C; Tailhardat, M; Courtellemont, P; Haftek, M; Serres, M

    2010-07-01

    Several cases of skin sensitization have been reported following the application of thimerosal, which is composed of ethyl mercury and thiosalicylic acid (TSA). However, few in vitro studies have been carried out on human dendritic cells (DCs) which play an essential role in the initiation of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of thimerosal and other mercury compounds on human DCs. To address this purpose, DCs derived from monocytes (mono-DCs) were used. Data show that thimerosal and mercury derivatives induced DC activation, as monitored by CD86 and HLA-DR overexpression associated with the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 8, similarly to lipopolysaccharide and the sensitizers, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) and nickel sulfate, which were used as positive controls. In contrast, TSA, the non-mercury part of thimerosal, as well as dichloronitrobenzene, a DNCB negative control, and the irritant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, had no effect. Moreover, oxidative stress, monitored by ROS induction and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, was induced by thimerosal and mercury compounds, as well as DNCB, in comparison with hydrogen peroxide, used as a positive control. The role of thiol oxidation in the initiation of mono-DC activation was confirmed by a pre-treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine which strongly decreased chemical-induced CD86 overexpression. These data are in agreement with several clinical observations of the high relevance of thimerosal in patch-test reactions and prove that human mono-DCs are useful in vitro tools for determining the allergenic potency of chemicals.

  13. Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Migdal, C.; Tailhardat, M.; Courtellemont, P.; Haftek, M.; Serres, M.

    2010-07-15

    Several cases of skin sensitization have been reported following the application of thimerosal, which is composed of ethyl mercury and thiosalicylic acid (TSA). However, few in vitro studies have been carried out on human dendritic cells (DCs) which play an essential role in the initiation of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of thimerosal and other mercury compounds on human DCs. To address this purpose, DCs derived from monocytes (mono-DCs) were used. Data show that thimerosal and mercury derivatives induced DC activation, as monitored by CD86 and HLA-DR overexpression associated with the secretion of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} and interleukin 8, similarly to lipopolysaccharide and the sensitizers, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) and nickel sulfate, which were used as positive controls. In contrast, TSA, the non-mercury part of thimerosal, as well as dichloronitrobenzene, a DNCB negative control, and the irritant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, had no effect. Moreover, oxidative stress, monitored by ROS induction and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, was induced by thimerosal and mercury compounds, as well as DNCB, in comparison with hydrogen peroxide, used as a positive control. The role of thiol oxidation in the initiation of mono-DC activation was confirmed by a pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine which strongly decreased chemical-induced CD86 overexpression. These data are in agreement with several clinical observations of the high relevance of thimerosal in patch-test reactions and prove that human mono-DCs are useful in vitro tools for determining the allergenic potency of chemicals.

  14. Development and characterization of two porcine monocyte-derived macrophage cell lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell lines Cdelta2+ and Cdelta2- were developed from monocytes obtained from a 10-month-old, crossbred, female pig. These cells morphologically resembled macrophages, stained positively for a-naphthyl esterase and negatively for peroxidase. The cell lines were bactericidal and highly phagocytic. ...

  15. Radiation effects on cultured human monocytes and on monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Buescher, E.S.; Gallin, J.I.

    1984-06-01

    Prior to administration, leukocyte transfusions are commonly irradiated with up to 5,000 R to eliminate lymphocytes and thereby prevent graft-versus-host disease in the recipient. It has been widely believed that phagocytes are resistant to this irradiation. In a recent report, it was noted that phagocyte oxidative metabolism was compromised during preparation of white cells for transfusion. As part of the effort to examine the basis for this inhibition of phagocyte function during white cell preparation, an assessment was made of the effects of irradiation on the long-lived monocytes that have been shown to persist at inflammatory foci posttransfusion. Human monocytes were irradiated for up to 3 min, receiving 2,500-5,000 R. This irradiation damaged human monocytes, significantly decreasing their in vitro survival for the first 3 wk of culture, and growth as assessed by two-dimensional cell size measurements during the first 2 wk of culture. Despite smaller cell size, total cell protein was significantly increased over time in irradiated cultures. Extracellular release of lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase per cell was not affected by irradiation, but extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was significantly increased after irradiation. Irradiated monocytes killed Listeria monocytogenes at a slower rate than the nonirradiated controls. Thus, the data indicate that irradiation in doses used to prevent graft-versus-host disease in leukocyte transfusion recipients has a deleterious effect on in vitro human monocyte survival and function.

  16. Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Monocytes Derived from Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Chaqmaqchi, Heevy Abdulkareem Musa; Moshfegh, Ali; Dadfar, Elham; Paulsson, Josefin; Hassan, Moustapha; Jacobson, Stefan H.; Lundahl, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from infections and cardiovascular diseases. Since monocytes play an essential role in host immunity, this study was directed to explore the gene expression profile in order to identify differences in activated pathways in monocytes relevant to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and increased susceptibility to infections. Monocytes from CKD patients (stages 4 and 5, estimated GFR <20 ml/min/1.73 m2) and healthy donors were collected from peripheral blood. Microarray gene expression profile was performed and data were interpreted by GeneSpring software and by PANTHER tool. Western blot was done to validate the pathway members. The results demonstrated that 600 and 272 genes were differentially up- and down regulated respectively in the patient group. Pathways involved in the inflammatory response were highly expressed and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was the most significant pathway expressed in the patient group. Since this pathway has been attributed to a variety of inflammatory manifestations, the current findings may contribute to dysfunctional monocytes in CKD patients. Strategies to interfere with this pathway may improve host immunity and prevent cardiovascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:23935909

  17. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from horses differ from dendritic cells of humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Mauel, Susanne; Steinbach, Falko; Ludwig, Hanns

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the initiators of immune responses and are present in most tissues in vivo. To generate myeloid DC from monocytes (MoDC) in vitro the necessary cytokines are granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Using degenerated primers delineated from other species and rapid amplification of cDNA ends reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RACE RT-PCR), the cDNA of equine (eq.) GM-CSF was cloned and found to have a point deletion at the 3′-end of eq.GM-CSF, resulting in a 24-nucleotide extended open reading frame not described in any species thus far. For differentiating eq.MoDC, monocytes were stimulated with eq.GM-CSF and eq.IL-4. The eq.MoDC was analysed by both light and electron microscopy and by flow cytometry and mixed lymphocyte reaction. The eq.MoDC obtained had the typical morphology and function of DC, including the ability to stimulate allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In contrast to the human system, however, monocytes had to be differentiated for 6–7 days before immature DC were obtained. Our data also indicate that lipopolysaccharide or poly(I:C) alone are not sufficient to confer the full phenotypic transition into mature DC. Thus our study contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of immunity and adds important information on the equine immune system, which is clearly distinct from those of mice or man. PMID:16556260

  18. Changes of peripheral TGF-β1 depend on monocytes-derived macrophages in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Di Pardo, Alba; Alberti, Silvia; Maglione, Vittorio; Amico, Enrico; Cortes, Etty P; Elifani, Francesca; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Busceti, Carla L; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-12-13

    Huntington Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein (Htt). Mutant HTT (mHtt) leads to progressive impairment of several molecular pathways that have been linked to disease pathogenesis. Defects in the production of a number of neurotrophic factors have been described as important determinants contributing to the development of HD. We have previously demonstrated that production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is also deregulated in HD. Peripheral levels of TGF-β1 were markedly reduced early in the disease and returned to normal levels with disease severity. However, the cause and the biochemical origin of such abnormalities are still unclear. We report here that the abnormal production of peripheral TGF-β1 depends on the changes in the percentage of TGF-β1-producing macrophages along disease course. Variation in the number of TGF-β1-producing macrophages resulted from differential activation state of the same cells, which displayed phenotypic and functional heterogeneity throughout the clinical course of HD. We further demonstrated that, similar to the periphery, the number of TGF-β1-immunoreactive cells in human post-mortem brain with HD, varied with neuropathological changes. Our data indicate that reduced bioavailability of TGF-β1 in the serum of HD subjects is attributable to the variation of the number of TGF-β1-producing macrophages. Macrophages display a differential ability to produce TGF-β1, which reflects diversity in cells polarization throughout the disease course. Besides elucidating the biochemical origin of TGF-β1 fluctuations in HD, our study highlights an interesting parallelism between periphery and central compartment and underlines the potential of TGF-β1 as a possible indicator suitable for prediction of disease onset in HD.

  19. Development and Functional Differentiation of Tissue-Resident Versus Monocyte-Derived Macrophages in Inflammatory Reactions.

    PubMed

    Italiani, Paola; Boraschi, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes are key cells in tissue integrity and defense. Tissue-resident macrophages are abundantly present in all tissues of the body and have a complex role in ensuring tissue functions and homeostatic balance. Circulating blood monocytes can enter tissue both in steady-state conditions, for helping in replenishing the tissue-resident macrophage pool and, in particular, for acting as potent effector cells during inflammatory events such as infections, traumas, and diseases. The heterogeneity of monocytes and macrophages depends on their ontogeny, their tissue location, and their functional programming, with both monocytes and macrophages able to exert distinct or similar functions depending on the tissue-specific and stimulus-specific microenvironment. In this short review, we will review the current hypotheses on tissue-resident macrophage ontogeny and functions, as compared to blood-derived monocytes, with a particular focus on inflammatory conditions.

  20. Inhibition of nitric oxide enhances ovine lentivirus replication in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Keane, Kevin A; Mason, Gary L; DeMartini, James C

    2002-12-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) also known as maedi-visna virus, infects and replicates primarily in macrophages. This investigation examined the role of nitric oxide in the replication of OvLV in cultured macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from OvLV-free sheep and cultured in Teflon coated flasks at a high concentration of lamb serum. The cells were subsequently infected with OvLV strain 85/34. OvLV replication was assessed under different experimental treatments by comparison of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in culture supernatant. Cultures that were treated with exogenous nitric oxide via S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine did not have altered levels of RT activity compared to cultures treated with the inactive control compound, acetylpenicillamine. However, blockage of nitric oxide production by treatment with aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), led to a significant rise in RT activity. This rise in RT activity was partially reversed in aminoguanidine treated cultures by L-arginine, the normal substrate for iNOS. Finally, the number of viral antigen producing cells was also quantified after aminoguanidine treatment and found to be significantly higher than untreated cultures. Collectively, these results indicate that nitric oxide is a negative regulator of OvLV replication in macrophages.

  1. CXCL4 induces a unique transcriptome in monocyte-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gleissner, Christian A.; Shaked, Iftach; Little, Kristina M.; Ley, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerotic arteries, blood monocytes differentiate to macrophages in the presence of growth factors like macrophage colony-stimulation factor (MCSF) and chemokines like platelet factor 4 (CXCL4). To compare the gene expression signature of CXCL4-induced macrophages with MCSF-induced macrophages or macrophages polarized with IFN-γ/LPS (M1) or IL-4 (M2), we cultured primary human peripheral blood monocytes for six days. mRNA expression was measured by Affymetrix gene chips and differences were analyzed by Local Pooled Error test, Profile of Complex Functionality and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. 375 genes were differentially expressed between MCSF- and CXCL4-induced macrophages, 206 of them overexpressed in CXCL4 macrophages coding for genes implicated in the inflammatory/immune response, antigen processing/presentation, and lipid metabolism. CXCL4-induced macrophages overexpressed some M1 and M2 genes and the corresponding cytokines at the protein level, however, their transcriptome clustered with neither M1 nor M2 transcriptomes. They almost completely lost the ability to phagocytose zymosan beads. Genes linked to atherosclerosis were not consistently up- or downregulated. Scavenger receptors showed lower and cholesterol efflux transporters higher expression in CXCL4- than MCSF-induced macrophages, resulting in lower LDL content. We conclude that CXCL4 induces a unique macrophage transcriptome distinct from known macrophage types, defining a new macrophage differentiation that we propose to call M4. PMID:20335529

  2. Development and characterization of a bovine monocyte-derived macrophage cell line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monocytes circulate in the blood, and later differentiate into macrophages in the tissues. They are components of the innate arm of the immune response and are one of the first lines of defense again invading pathogens. However, they also serve as host cells for intracellular pathogens such as Mycob...

  3. Increased monocyte-derived reactive oxygen species in type 2 diabetes: role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Restaino, Robert M; Deo, Shekhar H; Parrish, Alan R; Fadel, Paul J; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit increased oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including monocytes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? The main finding of this study is that factors contained within the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes can contribute to increased oxidative stress in monocytes, making them more adherent to endothelial cells. We show that these effects are largely mediated by the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum stress and NADPH oxidase activity. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of human monocytes to glucolipotoxic media to mimic the composition of plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) results in the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The extent to which these findings translate to patients with T2D remains unclear. Thus, we first measured ROS (dihydroethidium fluorescence) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from whole blood of T2D patients (n = 8) and compared the values with age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 8). The T2D patients exhibited greater basal intracellular ROS (mean ± SD, +3.4 ± 1.4-fold; P < 0.05) compared with control subjects. Next, the increase in ROS in PBMCs isolated from T2D patients was partly recapitulated in cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cells) exposed to plasma from T2D patients for 36 h (+1.3 ± 0.08-fold versus plasma from control subjects; P < 0.05). In addition, we found that increased ROS formation in THP-1 cells treated with T2D plasma was NADPH oxidase derived and led to increased endothelial cell adhesion (+1.8 ± 0.5-fold; P < 0.05) and lipid uptake (+1.3 ± 0.3-fold; P < 0.05). Notably, we found that T2D plasma-induced monocyte ROS and downstream functional effects were abolished by treating cells with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a chemical chaperone known to inhibit ER stress. Collectively, these data indicate that monocyte ROS production with T2D can be attributed, in part, to signals from the circulating environment. Furthermore, an interplay between ER stress and NADPH oxidase activity contributes to ROS production and may be a mechanism mediating endothelial cell adhesion and foam cell formation in T2D. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  4. Characterization of the porcine monocyte-derived cell lines Cdelta2- and Cdelta2+

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell lines Cdelta2- and Cdelta2+ were developed from monocytes obtained from a 10-month-old, crossbred, female pig at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE. These cells have macrophage morphology, stain positively for alpha-naphthyl esterase and negatively for peroxidase. Additiona...

  5. Monocyte derived microvesicles deliver a cell death message via encapsulated caspase-1.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anasuya; Mitra, Srabani; Mehta, Sonya; Raices, Raquel; Wewers, Mark D

    2009-09-25

    Apoptosis depends upon the activation of intracellular caspases which are classically induced by either an intrinsic (mitochondrial based) or extrinsic (cytokine) pathway. However, in the process of explaining how endotoxin activated monocytes are able to induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells when co-cultured, we uncovered a transcellular apoptosis inducing pathway that utilizes caspase-1 containing microvesicles. Endotoxin stimulated monocytes induce the cell death of VSMCs but this activity is found in 100,000 g pellets of cell free supernatants of these monocytes. This activity is not a direct effect of endotoxin, and is inhibited by the caspase-1 inhibitor YVADcmk but not by inhibitors of Fas-L, IL-1beta and IL-18. Importantly, the apoptosis inducing activity co-purifies with 100 nm sized microvesicles as determined by TEM of the pellets. These microvesicles contain caspase-1 and caspase-1 encapsulation is required since disruption of microvesicular integrity destroys the apoptotic activity but not the caspase-1 enzymatic activity. Thus, monocytes are capable of delivering a cell death message which depends upon the release of microvesicles containing functional caspase-1. This transcellular apoptosis induction pathway describes a novel pathway for inflammation induced programmed cell death.

  6. Monocyte Derived Microvesicles Deliver a Cell Death Message via Encapsulated Caspase-1

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anasuya; Mitra, Srabani; Mehta, Sonya; Raices, Raquel; Wewers, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis depends upon the activation of intracellular caspases which are classically induced by either an intrinsic (mitochondrial based) or extrinsic (cytokine) pathway. However, in the process of explaining how endotoxin activated monocytes are able to induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells when co-cultured, we uncovered a transcellular apoptosis inducing pathway that utilizes caspase-1 containing microvesicles. Endotoxin stimulated monocytes induce the cell death of VSMCs but this activity is found in 100,000 g pellets of cell free supernatants of these monocytes. This activity is not a direct effect of endotoxin, and is inhibited by the caspase-1 inhibitor YVADcmk but not by inhibitors of Fas-L, IL-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the apoptosis inducing activity co-purifies with 100 nm sized microvesicles as determined by TEM of the pellets. These microvesicles contain caspase-1 and caspase-1 encapsulation is required since disruption of microvesicular integrity destroys the apoptotic activity but not the caspase-1 enzymatic activity. Thus, monocytes are capable of delivering a cell death message which depends upon the release of microvesicles containing functional caspase-1. This transcellular apoptosis induction pathway describes a novel pathway for inflammation induced programmed cell death. PMID:19779610

  7. Monocyte-Derived Interleukin 1: Effects on Norepinephrine-Simulated Aortic Contraction and Phosphoinositide Turnover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    reverse if necessary and identify by block number4 FIELD { GROUP SUB-GROUP sepsis , polyvalent antibody, vascular contraction, phorbol 19. ABSTRACT...P~ Key words: sepsis , polyvalent antibody, vascular contraction, phorbol INTRODUCTION Septic or endotoxin-treated rats exhibit diminished vascular...contractile hyporesponsiveness in sepsis or after endotoxin treatment, in terms of’ proximate disorders of’ intracellular Submitted for publication

  8. Trevor W. Robbins: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Trevor W. Robbins, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions."For distinguished theoretical and empirical contributions to basic research in experimental psychology and neuroscience. Trevor W. Robbins has made innovative and landmark contributions to understanding monoaminergic and glutamatergic regulation of cortico-striatal-limbic function and its involvement in psychological processes and pathological states such as addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. His pioneering accomplishments have included the development of methodologies for parallel sophisticated behavioral assessments in humans, rodents, and monkeys combined with psychopharmacological and imaging studies across species. His vigor and dedication to research, exemplary leadership, scholarship, and stellar productivity have advanced our knowledge of brain function and inspired several generations of cognitive neuroscientists." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  10. Mastomys (rodentia: muridae) species distinguished by hemoglobin pattern differences.

    PubMed

    Robbins, C B; Krebs, J W; Johnson, K M

    1983-05-01

    Hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were found to be reliable markers for distinguishing two species of Mastomys in Sierra Leone having 32 and 38 chromosomes. All 32-chromosome animals exhibited a single hemoglobin pattern, whereas those with 38-chromosomes had four distinguishable patterns. Both karyotypes were present throughout Sierra Leone. The 38-chromosome species was more prevalent in the Guinea savanna zone to the north, while the 32-chromosome species was most dominant in human-modified high forest areas of the eastern and southern parts of the country. In almost all situations the 32-chromosome species was more common in houses than in bush habitats; the reverse was true for Mastomys having 38 chromosomes. Analysis of hemoglobin patterns thus becomes useful for species identification, and is necessary to understand the roles of the different Mastomys forms as reservoirs of human diseases, such as Lassa fever in West Africa.

  11. Hand stereotypies distinguish Rett syndrome from autism disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Sylvie; Temudo, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) and autism disorder (AD) are 2 neurodevelopmental disorders of early life that share phenotypic features, one being hand stereotypies. Distinguishing RTT from AD often represents a challenge, and given their distinct long-term prognoses, this issue may have far-reaching implications. With the advances in genetic testing, the contribution of clinical manifestations in distinguishing RTT from AD has been overlooked. A comparison of hand stereotypies in 20 children with RTT and 20 with AD was performed using detailed analyses of videotaped standardized observations. Striking differences are observed between RTT and AD children. In RTT, hand stereotypies are predominantly complex, continuous, localized to the body midline, and involving mouthing. Conversely, in AD children, hand stereotypies are simple, bilateral, intermittent, and often involving objects. These results provide important clinical signs useful to the differential diagnosis of RTT versus AD, especially when genetic testing for RTT is not an option. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Quantum scheme for secret sharing based on local distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite entangled states under restricted local operation and classical communication. Based on this local distinguishability analysis, we propose a quantum secret sharing scheme (which we call LOCC-QSS). Our LOCC-QSS scheme is quite general and cost efficient compared to other schemes. In our scheme, no joint quantum operation is needed to reconstruct the secret. We also present an interesting (2 ,n ) -threshold LOCC-QSS scheme, where any two cooperating players, one from each of two disjoint groups of players, can always reconstruct the secret. This LOCC-QSS scheme is quite uncommon, as most (k ,n ) -threshold quantum secret sharing schemes have the restriction k ≥⌈n/2 ⌉ .

  13. Visibility bound caused by a distinguishable noise particle

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, Miroslav; Celechovska, Lucie; Dusek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim; Soubusta, Jan

    2011-04-15

    We investigate how the distinguishability of a 'noise' particle degrades interference of the 'signal' particle. The signal, represented by an equatorial state of a photonic qubit, is mixed with noise, represented by another photonic qubit, via linear coupling on a beam splitter. We report on the degradation of the signal photon interference depending on the degree of indistinguishability between the signal and noise photons. When the photons are completely distinguishable in principle but technically indistinguishable, the visibility drops to the value 1/{radical}(2). As the photons become more indistinguishable, the maximal visibility increases and reaches the unit value for completely indistinguishable photons. We have examined this effect experimentally using a setup with a fiber-optics two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  14. Distinguishing different fictional worlds during sentence comprehension: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Xue, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanism of distinguishing reality from fiction has been explored recently. While people only represent one real world, they are likely to have representations for multiple fictional worlds. This study used event-related potentials to investigate how different fictional events were distinguished during sentence comprehension. Participants read fictional events involving real people (e.g., President Bush) or unreal characters (e.g., Lord Voldemort). Inconsistency of reality was created by introducing real people into the events involving unreal characters or introducing unreal characters into the events involving real people. The results indicated that inconsistency in reality in both types of fictional events elicited a late positive effect, and an interaction between event type and consistency effect was found in medial sites. These results suggested that reality information is important for the construction and updating of situation models. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Distinguishing Indirect Signatures Arising From New Physics at the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    1999-07-14

    Many sources of new physics can lead to shifts in the Standard Model predictions for cross sections and asymmetries at the NLC below their direct production thresholds. In this talk we discuss some of the tools that are useful for distinguishing amongst these new physics scenarios. R-parity violation and extensions of the Standard Model gauge structure are two typical non-minimal realizations of supersymmetry which provide us with an important test case to examine.

  16. Astronaut Alan Shepard receives MASA Distinguished Service award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-07

    S88-31387 (8 May 1961) --- President John F. Kennedy (left) congratulates NASA's Distinguished Service Medal Award recipient astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. in a Rose Garden ceremony on May 8, 1961, at the White House. Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson, NASA Administrator James E. Webb and several NASA astronauts are in the background. Three days earlier, Shepard made history with a 15-minute suborbital space mission in the Freedom 7, Mercury-Redstone 3 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Distinguishing quasiperiodic dynamics from chaos in short-time series.

    PubMed

    Zou, Y; Pazó, D; Romano, M C; Thiel, M; Kurths, J

    2007-07-01

    We propose a procedure to distinguish quasiperiodic from chaotic orbits in short-time series, which is based on the recurrence properties in phase space. The histogram of the return times in a recurrence plot is introduced to disclose the recurrence property consisting of only three peaks imposed by Slater's theorem. Noise effects on the statistics are studied. Our approach is demonstrated to be efficient in recognizing regular and chaotic trajectories of a Hamiltonian system with mixed phase space.

  18. Distinguishing cancer-associated missense mutations from common polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kaminker, Joshua S; Zhang, Yan; Waugh, Allison; Haverty, Peter M; Peters, Brock; Sebisanovic, Dragan; Stinson, Jeremy; Forrest, William F; Bazan, J Fernando; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Zhang, Zemin

    2007-01-15

    Missense variants are commonly identified in genomic sequence but only a small fraction directly contribute to oncogenesis. The ability to distinguish those missense changes that contribute to cancer progression from those that do not is a difficult problem usually only accomplished through functional in vivo analyses. Using two computational algorithms, Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) and the Pfam-based LogR.E-value method, we have identified features that distinguish cancer-associated missense mutations from other classes of missense change. Our data reveal that cancer mutants behave similarly to Mendelian disease mutations, but are clearly distinct from either complex disease mutations or common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that both activating and inactivating oncogenic mutations are predicted to be deleterious, although activating changes are likely to increase protein activity. Using the Gene Ontology and data from the SIFT and LogR.E-value metrics, a classifier was built that predicts cancer-associated missense mutations with a very low false-positive rate. The classifier does remarkably well in a number of different experiments designed to distinguish polymorphisms from true cancer-associated mutations. We also show that recurrently observed mutations are much more likely to be predicted to be cancer-associated than rare mutations, suggesting that our classifier will be useful in distinguishing causal from passenger mutations. In addition, from an expressed sequence tag-based screen, we identified a previously unknown germ line change (P1104A) in tumor tissues that is predicted to disrupt the function of the TYK2 protein. The data presented here show that this novel bioinformatics approach to classifying cancer-associated variants is robust and can be used for large-scale analyses.

  19. Complementarity and path distinguishability: Some recent results concerning photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimony, Abner; Jaeger, Gregg

    1994-01-01

    Two results concerning photon pairs, one previously reported and one new, are summarized. It was previously shown that if the two photons are prepared in a quantum state formed from bar-A and bar-A' for photon 1 and bar-B and bar-B' for photon 2, then both one- and two-particle interferometry can be studied. If upsilon(sub i) is the visibility of one-photon interference fringes (i = 1,2) and upsilon(sub 12) is the visibility of two-photon fringes (a concept which we explicitly define), then upsilon(sub i) squared + upsilon(sub 12) squared is less than or equal to 1. The second result concerns the distinguishability of the paths of photon 2, using the known 2-photon state. A proposed measure E for path distinguishability is based upon finding an optimum strategy for betting on the outcome of a path measurement. Mandel has also proposed a measure of distinguishability P(sub D), defined in terms of the density operator rho of photon 2. We show that E is greater than or equal to P(sub D) and that upsilon(sub 2) = (1 - E(exp 2))exp 1/2.

  20. Distinguishing between poor/dysfunctional parenting and child emotional maltreatment.