Science.gov

Sample records for distributed family life

  1. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  2. Family Life Education: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccaro, Mary; And Others

    Designed to serve as a model and resource for teachers setting up family life education programs at the secondary level, this family life education curriculum guide presents a specific ten-session model for programs at both the high school and junior high school levels. While both programs attempt to provide a broad overview of the areas commonly…

  3. The Family & Life Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Mellie R.

    The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

  4. Family Medicine: Bridge to Life.

    PubMed

    Luz, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the suicide of a close friend, this essay explores what comprises, and inspires a will to live, and how those in Family Medicine can address suicide risk even in the face of debilitating or terminal illness. Research indicates that the will to live is a measurable indicator of general well-being, distinct from depression, and an important predictor of a person's motivation to "hold on to life". As such, understanding what is at the heart of a desire to live should alter clinical practice. This essay offers ideas for ways in which to create bridges for patients that could help sustain life.

  5. Conceptualizing and Measuring Family Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, J. A.; Poston, D. J.; Turnbull, A. P.; Marquis, J.; Hoffman, L.; Mannan, H.; Wang, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Increasing emphasis on family-centred approaches to services and supports for families of children with disabilities has surfaced the issue of accountability for family outcomes. We present a review of literature about the impacts of children with disabilities on families as a backdrop to proposing family quality of life as a concept…

  6. Marriage and Family Life. Vocational Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Donna

    These course materials, designed to be used with students in the 11th and 12th grades and for adult students, are intended to provide basic knowledge of family life and adult living. The one-semester home economics course focuses on basic marriage and family skills, life choices, parenthood, and family changes. The guide contains 4 sections and 10…

  7. Changes in American Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Arthur J.; Glick, Paul C.

    1976-01-01

    This article attempts to provide a factual, historical perspective on the current family situation of American children. Demographic statistics from recent decades are given which show trends toward small family size, nuclear families, one-parent families, and a higher level of education among parents. (MS)

  8. Nonverbal Poetry: Family Life-Space Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardill, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines life-space diagrams as a form of nonverbal poetry which taps personal feelings, tells a story, and characterizes a particular life situation, forming a useful therapy technique that provides a family the opportunity to examine its internal family relationships. Offers two case studies, discusses five levels of knowing and awareness, and…

  9. A Family Life Program Accountability Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Gebeke, Deb

    1994-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension Program Evaluation Survey tests seven variables: behavioral change, tax dollars, support, family coping, quality of life, self-esteem, and stress and depression. Tests in family life programs in two states with 244 participants demonstrated its usefulness. (SK)

  10. Changes in American Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saluter, Arlene F.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides a graphic overview of recent trends in the lifestyles of Americans which suggest a movement away from "traditional" family living. The charts in this report with their limited commentary, summarize major trends and focus on families with children present. Data are also presented on other types of families, households, and…

  11. Family Mentoring: A Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Brenda; Perrin, Kathy Riske; Knudson-Buresh, Alana

    2002-01-01

    Pre/posttest data from 84 nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and social work students who were mentored by families of children with special needs indicated an increase in family-centered attitudes, understanding, and respect among these future service providers. (SK)

  12. Family Quality of Life Empowered by Family-Oriented Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schippers, Alice; van Boheemen, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Professional services for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have begun to attach more importance to their environment. The concept of (family-related) quality of life proved to link very well with this idea and lent itself to constructing and evaluating services. One outcome was the emergence of equal partnerships between families,…

  13. Family Life in Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Joseph, Ed.; Jackson, James S., Ed.; Chatters, Linda M., Ed.

    This volume draws on data from the National Survey of Black Americans (NSBA) to explore the condition of the black family in America. The first chapter provides a general introduction, and each of the other chapters presents additional information about the NSBA as it pertains to specific subsamples of NSBA respondents. The following chapters are…

  14. End of life: a family narrative.

    PubMed

    Black, Helen K; Moss, Miriam S; Rubinstein, Robert L; Moss, Sidney Z

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on ethnographic research that examines family reaction to an elderly husband and father's end of life. From a group of 30 families in our study (family defined as a widow aged 70 and over and two adult biological children between the ages of 40 and 60), we offer an extreme case example of family bereavement. We report our findings through the open-ended responses of a widow and two children who were interviewed ten months after the death of the husband and father. Three general themes emerged: (1) how the family imputes meaning to the end of life, (2) changes in the roles of family members, and (3) the family's ways of coping with the death, particularly through their belief system. A key finding is that the meaning family members find in their loved one's death is tied to the context of his death (how and where he died), their perception of his quality of life as a whole, and their philosophical, religious, and spiritual beliefs about life, death, and the afterlife that are already in place. PMID:21629740

  15. End of Life: A Family Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; Moss, Miriam S.; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on ethnographic research that examines family reaction to an elderly husband and father's end of life. From a group of 30 families in our study (family defined as a widow aged 70 and over and two adult biological children between the ages of 40 and 60), we offer an extreme case example of family bereavement. We report our findings through the open-ended responses of a widow and two children who were interviewed ten months after the death of the husband and father. Three general themes emerged: (1) how the family imputes meaning to the end of life, (2) changes in the roles of family members, and (3) the family's ways of coping with the death, particularly through their belief system. A key finding is that the meaning family members find in their loved one's death is tied to the context of his death (how and where he died), their perception of his quality of life as a whole, and their philosophical, religious, and spiritual beliefs about life, death, and the afterlife that are already in place. PMID:21629740

  16. Family medicine and the life course paradigm.

    PubMed

    Daaleman, Timothy P; Elder, Glen H

    2007-01-01

    A unique characteristic of family physicians is that they seek to understand individual patients within the context of their families and larger social environments. Unfortunately, the intellectual development of family medicine is hampered by the reliance on epidemiologic, health service, and biomedical paradigms that are limited in their contextual perspectives on patients' lives. However, another paradigm, that of the life course, represents an interdisciplinary framework that views persons in context over time. It provides an ecological understanding of individual people by examining phenomena at the nexus of social pathways, developmental or health trajectories, and social change. A life course paradigm provides a way of thinking about patients in both proximal (eg, lived lives and family) and distal (eg, health care system) contexts over a life span. Five core principles define the life course as a paradigmatic framework: (1) human development and aging as lifelong processes, (2) human agency, (3) historical time and place, (4) the timing of events in a life, and (5) linked lives. At the individual level, the life course orients physicians to the opportunities and constraints that frame the health care choices, plans, and initiatives of people who maintain health and also face illness. At the organizational level, the life course offers an intellectual infrastructure for the New Model of Family Medicine by depicting an idealized delivery system that may be longitudinally integrated. It also emphasizes health and illness trajectories by linking health and other service organizations that assist individuals at different stages of their lives.

  17. The Quality of Life over the Family Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan; And Others

    Studies conducted in the 1960s (Aldous and Hill, 1969) examining the quality of life in families based on their affective and financial resources identified the childbearing stage and the stage when adolescents were present as especially stressful periods. Findings from the 1978 Quality of American Life survey (Campbell and Converse, 1980) were…

  18. Families as Life Span Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Professionals dealing with challenging behavior frequently operate detached from the other relationships in the child's life. This narrow approach has been called the unilateral strategy based on the belief that the child's outside world can be ignored and behavior can be changed by administering specific corrective interventions. In contrast,…

  19. National Convention on Family Life Education.

    PubMed

    1973-12-01

    This secretarial report gives brief comments on some discussion of topics at the National Convention on Family Life Education. Discussion included: 1) legalized prostitution as a means to reduce venereal disease; 2) family life education promotion by government and civic groups; 3) more authority for the Population Council; 4) more liberal abortion legislation than previously; 5) statutory notification of veneral disease by medical practitioners; 6) compensatory measures for working women with young children, and 7) the need for modernization of legislation pertaining to child health, adoption, paternity, the Persons Act, infant life preservation, drugs, age of consent, and the age of minority.

  20. Family, money, and health: regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2013-06-01

    We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions.

  1. Families Reading Together: Connecting Literature and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Connie R.; Lilly, Elizabeth; Barrett, Theresa M.

    2002-01-01

    Used qualitative methods to investigate ways children's books were shared in context of daily family life and how 12 young children responded to books. Found that multiple books were shared regularly on a daily basis, particularly at naptime and bedtime, to entertain, explain events, and extend enjoyment. Children's response categories included…

  2. Rural School Children Picturing Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Olivier, Tilla; Geldenhuys, Johanna; Mitchell, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there is a dearth of…

  3. Work, family and life-course fit

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from “work-family” to a multi-dimensional “life-course fit” construct (employees’ cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2) whether control over work time predicted and mediated life-course fit outcomes. Using cluster analysis of survey data on a sample of 917 white-collar employees from Best Buy headquarters, we identified four job ecologies (corresponding to the job demands-job control model) and five home ecologies (theorizing an analogous home demands-home control model). Job and home ecologies predicted fit dimensions in an additive, not interactive, fashion. Employees’ work-time control predicted every life-course fit dimension and partially mediated effects of job ecologies, organizational tenure, and job category. PMID:19430546

  4. Called home: The creation of family life.

    PubMed

    Hutch, R A

    1992-09-01

    Engendering family life is a spiritual process (theosis) based on human ethological constants of gender difference and generational turnover. Recent studies on ethnicity suggest that such a process retrieves a primordial sense of the human species as a whole, "humankind." Families, especially in this broad sense, link together the living and the dead and, at their best, morally empower individuals who link their destinies to such a vision of creation and human health. Reference is made to work on human strengths and speciation by Erik Erikson and to that on maternal thinking by Sara Ruddick. A political program by which an ideology of "familism" can be made is offered.

  5. Called home: The creation of family life.

    PubMed

    Hutch, R A

    1992-09-01

    Engendering family life is a spiritual process (theosis) based on human ethological constants of gender difference and generational turnover. Recent studies on ethnicity suggest that such a process retrieves a primordial sense of the human species as a whole, "humankind." Families, especially in this broad sense, link together the living and the dead and, at their best, morally empower individuals who link their destinies to such a vision of creation and human health. Reference is made to work on human strengths and speciation by Erik Erikson and to that on maternal thinking by Sara Ruddick. A political program by which an ideology of "familism" can be made is offered. PMID:24271052

  6. Reconceptualizing the Domain and Boundaries of Family Life Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers-Walls, Judith A.; Ballard, Sharon M.; Darling, Carol Anderson; Myers-Bowman, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    Many scholars have defined family life education (FLE), and some have differentiated it from other family-related fields. For example, Doherty (1995) provided a definition of the boundaries between FLE and family therapy; however, we believe those criteria can be improved. We explore the professions of family life education, family therapy, and…

  7. 78 FR 38413 - American Family Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... COMMISSION American Family Life Insurance Company, et al. June 20, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...''). Applicants: American Family Life Insurance Company (the ``Company''), American Family Variable Account I (the... Insurance Products Fund (``Fidelity Fund''), currently held by the Life Account and the Annuity...

  8. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  9. Governing multicultural populations and family life.

    PubMed

    Ali, Suki

    2014-03-01

    Shortly after coming to power in Britain, the Conservative-Liberal Democratic alliance placed family life at the heart of their political agenda, and set out their plans to reform adoption. The paper draws upon debates about the reforms and considers them in articulation with concerns about health of the nation expressed in political pronouncements on 'broken Britain' and the failures of 'state multiculturalism'. The paper considers the debates about domestic (transracial) and intercountry adoption, and uses feminist postcolonial perspectives to argue that we can only understand what are expressed as national issues within a transnational and postcolonial framework which illuminate the processes of state and institutional race-making. The paper analyses three key instances of biopower and governmentality in the adoption debates: the population, the normalizing family and the individual. The paper argues that we need to understand the reforms as part of a wider concern with the 'problem' of multicultural belonging, and that the interlocking discourses of nation, family and identities are crucial to the constitution and regulation of gendered, racialized subjects. PMID:24588788

  10. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  11. Professionalization of Family Life Education: Defining the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Carol A.; Fleming, Wm. Michael; Cassidy, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    An online professional practice analysis of family life educators was conducted resulting in responses from 522 Certified Family Life Educators (CFLEs) and a comparison group of 369 noncertified family practitioners. This survey included questions about the characteristics of CFLEs, their work environments, and practice-related tasks within 10…

  12. 76 FR 17720 - American Family Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... COMMISSION American Family Life Insurance Company, et al. March 24, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940, as amended (the ``1940 Act''). Applicants: American Family Life Insurance Company..., the ``Accounts'') to support variable life insurance and annuity contracts issued by the...

  13. The Family Life Education Needs of Midlife and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Morris Michael Lane

    2003-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, reports the findings from a needs assessment for midlife and older adults regarding family life education. A sample of 264 adults aged 50 and older indicated interest in 29 family life education topics. The highest rated topics were nutrition and health, fitness and exercise, and positive aspects of aging.…

  14. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  15. Family Life in the Slave Quarters: Survival Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Marie Jenkins

    2001-01-01

    Explores the family life of slaves from the perspective of the enslaved family who developed strategies to help them endure bondage. Addresses the experience of these families, focusing on topics such as the economic activities slaves participated in to improve their material conditions and the role of children within the family. (CMK)

  16. [A study of family life cycle of Korean women].

    PubMed

    Cho, A J

    1998-01-01

    "The aim of this study is to review the change of life cycle of [South] Korean women during the past three decades, to identify the change of family life and their welfare needs, and finally to provide family welfare policy directions by life cycle stages.... The family formation period and extension period grew gradually shorter, while the completed extension period grew longer. Further, the family contraction period grew shorter, while the family completed contraction period grew longer, which is found especially among the young group. The family dissolution period, the last step of the family life cycle has grown longer in the past, but has started to grow shorter recently." Data are from the 1997 National Fertility and Family Health Survey. (EXCERPT)

  17. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  18. Graphical Models via Univariate Exponential Family Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunho; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Allen, Genevera I.; Liu, Zhandong

    2016-01-01

    Undirected graphical models, or Markov networks, are a popular class of statistical models, used in a wide variety of applications. Popular instances of this class include Gaussian graphical models and Ising models. In many settings, however, it might not be clear which subclass of graphical models to use, particularly for non-Gaussian and non-categorical data. In this paper, we consider a general sub-class of graphical models where the node-wise conditional distributions arise from exponential families. This allows us to derive multivariate graphical model distributions from univariate exponential family distributions, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and exponential distributions. Our key contributions include a class of M-estimators to fit these graphical model distributions; and rigorous statistical analysis showing that these M-estimators recover the true graphical model structure exactly, with high probability. We provide examples of genomic and proteomic networks learned via instances of our class of graphical models derived from Poisson and exponential distributions. PMID:27570498

  19. Family Quality of Life: Adaptation to Spanish Population of Several Family Support Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcells-Balcells, A.; Gine, C.; Guardia-Olmos, J.; Summers, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The concept of family quality of life has emerged as a decisive construct in the last decades to improve the capabilities of families and to assess the outcomes of the services and supports they get. The goal of this research is to adapt three instruments to the Spanish population: the "Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale", the…

  20. A Family Quality of Life Study of Families with Children with Disabilities in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranges, Phaedra E.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that families of children with disabilities are at risk for a lower quality of life than families of typically developing children, as the impact that a child with a disability has on a family's quality of life (FQOL) is both substantial and complex (Zuna, Selig, Summers, & Turnbull, 2009b; Zuna, Summers, Turnbull, Hu & Xu,…

  1. Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender…

  2. Family Life Education Needs of Mentally Disabled Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jerelyn B.; Adams, Donna U.

    1987-01-01

    Administered 50 needs statements to 134 minimally and mildly mentally disabled adolescent students to identify their family life education needs as a basis for curriculum development. Identified six clusters or groups of family life education needs: Basic Nutrition, Teenage Pregnancy, Sex Education, Developmental Tasks of Adolescents, Marriage and…

  3. Using Peer Health Education to Enhance Family Life Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, William J.; Wassel, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes an intervention known as the Peer Family Life Education Project that was designed as an alternate delivery method of an established family life education curriculum in an urban middle school setting. The factors contributing to sexual risk behaviors by urban adolescent populations are identified. A review of previous efforts…

  4. Establishing Order. Small Girls Write about Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallden, Gunilla

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes children's own descriptions and interpretations of what family life is like or could be like. The research was designed to determine the children's perspective on childhood and parenthood. The article focuses on four girls and discusses their narratives using concepts from literary theory. The woman in control of family life is the…

  5. Family Life Program Accountability Norms: How Do Your Results Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Participants in cooperative extension family life programs (N=916) identified family strains, coping, quality of life, self-esteem, stress, and willingness to support extension services with tax dollars. The resulting normative data can be used to measure the impact of cooperative extension programs. (SK)

  6. Validity of the Family Quality of Life Survey-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Isaacs, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Family Quality of Life (FQOL) is an important construct in the Intellectual Disabilities field. Several measures exist, including one developed by an international group, the Family Quality of Life Survey-2006 (FQOLS-2006; Brown et al.2006). However, the psychometric properties of this measure have yet to be fully investigated. This…

  7. County-Wide Direction to Family Life Education. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James C.; And Others

    This study evaluated five Family Life Education Workshops designed to prepare elementary and secondary school teachers in Contra Costa County, California, to offer instruction in family life education, with an emphasis on healthy sexuality. The 30-hour workshops were offered in spring and summer 1968, winter and summer 1969, and fall 1970.…

  8. Military Families under Stress: Implications for Family Life Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummet, Amy Reinkober; Coleman, Marilyn; Cable, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Provides a summary of the limited research on three uniquely stressful experiences of military families: relocation, separation, and reunion. Using the insights derived from this literature, identifies and discusses interventions to assist and guide military families through these unique events. (Contains 64 references.) (GCP)

  9. Levity and Learning: Lessons from Life in a Family and Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    2002-01-01

    In humorous moments, family counselors and families often learn a lot about themselves and their relationships. This article focuses on the importance of levity and learning within family life and family counseling through the use of a series of vignettes drawn from the author's own experiences. (Author)

  10. Global Family Concerns and the Role of Family Life Education: An Ecosystemic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Carol A.; Turkki, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed colleagues from 4 international professional organizations involved with families in order to examine global family concerns and the role of family life education from an ecosystemic perspective. Our sample represented 6 continents and 50 countries. Survey results indicated that family education and related coursework were available in…

  11. The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

    2007-01-01

    A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

  12. The Center for Family Life and the Sunset Park Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Ethel

    The Center of Family Life (CFL) is a private nonprofit agency. Since its creation in 1978 CFL has offered a wide range of services to children and families in Sunset Park, a low-income multi-echnic Brooklyn, New York neighborhood. All families with children under age 18 and pregnant women living in the neighborhood are eligible for services free…

  13. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  14. Late-Life Divorce: Its Impact on Family Rituals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined perceived changes in specific family celebrations, traditions, important life cycle events, and day-to-day family contact that occurred for 115 adult children whose parents had divorced after long-term marriage. Found strong positive correlation between perceived disruptiveness of parental divorce and changes in family rituals,…

  15. Research Needs of a Family Life Educator and Marriage Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Robert O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, a family life educator, reviews the research literature on marriage and family indicating the neglected areas and stressing the need for cause and effect studies. He proposes a number of research approaches to achieve the latter. Speech presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Family Relations, Salt Lake City, Utah,…

  16. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  17. Preparation for Family Life. The CCC's Project No. 1: "Preparation for Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Klaus

    Part of the Council of Europe's Project Number 1, "Preparation for Life," this report analyzes developments in Austria, Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, and England in the area of preparation for family life. Specifically, the report (1) explains the growing concern in the above countries for the preparation for family life; (2)…

  18. Teenagers' perception of agreement over family expenditures, employment, and family life.

    PubMed

    Williams, F L; Prohofsky, S S

    1986-06-01

    Teenagers' perspective of disagreement over family finances and related factors were investigated. Involvement of teenagers in employment and percentage of earnings kept for personal use were examined. Reasons for employment affected disagreement over finances, whereas family income had no important effect on disagreement over finances in multivariate analysis. Disagreement over finances was important in explaining variation in satisfaction with money management in the family and in satisfaction with family life. Results have implication for reducing stress in family life and for contributing to theory on family resource management and adolescent development. PMID:24301700

  19. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600

  20. The retirement transition and the later life family unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, S D

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent family worldview and problem-solving communication style influence individual and family unit adaptation during retirement. A cross-sectional correlational survey design utilized Pearson correlations and stepwise multiple regressions. The sample consisted of 368 individuals representing 184 later life family units. Operationalized as family unit data, family worldview and family problem-solving communication style were examined in two series: (1) with outcome variable of family unit adaptation and (2) with outcome variable of individual adaptation. Scoring of family unit data was conceptually, procedurally, and analytically congruent. The investigation extended McCubbins' work into the later life family unit giving empirical support for two propositions of the Resiliency Model (M.A. McCubbin & H.I. McCubbin, 1993). This investigation also extended A. Antonovsky's (1987) work as the second study to apply the Antonovsky Sense of Coherence Scale to a family measurement. Conclusions are that although the way the family views the world is important during retirement, being affirmed by family members is more important. The investigation highlights the importance of a positive problem-solving communication style for a positive level of family adaptation. Individual adaptation during retirement was more influenced by family worldview.

  1. Quality of Life in Food Allergy Patients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Madeline; Warren, Christopher; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric food allergy is a growing health problem in the United States that has been found to adversely impact the quality of life of both affected children and their caregivers. This article provides a review of how food allergy affects the quality of life of patients and their families within the domains of school, social activities, relationships, and daily life. Efforts to improve food allergy-related quality of life among caregivers are also discussed. PMID:26456443

  2. Family Quality of Life of Chinese Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, X.; Wang, M.; Fei, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The concepts of quality of life and family quality of life (FQOL) are increasingly being studied in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) in China as important frameworks for: (1) assessing families' need for supports and services; (2) guiding organisational and service delivery system changes; and (3) evaluating quality family…

  3. Family boundary characteristics, work-family conflict and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinyan

    2015-10-01

    Although work-family border and boundary theory suggest individuals' boundary characteristics influence their work-family relationship, it is largely unknown how boundary flexibility and permeability mutually influence work-family conflict and subsequent employee outcomes. Moreover, the existing work-family conflict research has been mainly conducted in the United States and other Western countries. To address these gaps in the work-family literature, the present study examines a moderated mediation model regarding how family boundary characteristics may influence individuals' work-family conflict and life satisfaction with a sample of 278 Chinese full-time employees. Results showed that employees' family flexibility negatively related to their perceived work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), and both these two relationships were augmented by individuals' family permeability. In addition, WIF mediated the relationship between family flexibility and life satisfaction; the indirect effect of family flexibility on life satisfaction via WIF was stronger for individuals with higher family permeability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Family boundary characteristics, work-family conflict and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinyan

    2015-10-01

    Although work-family border and boundary theory suggest individuals' boundary characteristics influence their work-family relationship, it is largely unknown how boundary flexibility and permeability mutually influence work-family conflict and subsequent employee outcomes. Moreover, the existing work-family conflict research has been mainly conducted in the United States and other Western countries. To address these gaps in the work-family literature, the present study examines a moderated mediation model regarding how family boundary characteristics may influence individuals' work-family conflict and life satisfaction with a sample of 278 Chinese full-time employees. Results showed that employees' family flexibility negatively related to their perceived work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), and both these two relationships were augmented by individuals' family permeability. In addition, WIF mediated the relationship between family flexibility and life satisfaction; the indirect effect of family flexibility on life satisfaction via WIF was stronger for individuals with higher family permeability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331584

  5. Family Quality of Life of Turkish Families Who Have Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meral, Bekir Fatih; Cavkaytar, Atilla; Turnbull, Ann P.; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined family quality of life (FQOL) of Turkish families who have children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism. To research the perceptions of FQOL and relevant predictive relationships, data were gathered from 3,009 families who have children with ID and autism. The data were collected by using a Socio-demographic Family…

  6. The family and work connect: A case for relationship-focused family life education

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Jane; Parthasarathy, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the premises for the need to develop a relationship-focused family life education program for young adult employees. The article explores the changing trends in the Indian family unit and their impact on the workforce. The author also presents the findings from interviews with family-intervention experts and their recommendations for the contents of such a program. PMID:20808662

  7. Family Quality of Life of Australian Families with a Member with an Intellectual/Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillotta, F.; Kirby, N.; Shearer, J.; Nettelbeck, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Family quality of life (FQOL) is a recent concept in intellectual/developmental disability research. Outcomes for the family are important to the provision of services because families, rather than institutions, are increasingly considered the primary support unit. This article presents Australian findings using the international…

  8. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  9. Family functioning in late late life.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C L; Troll, L

    1992-03-01

    This study of 150 individuals, 85 years and older, focused on their families and social networks. Using both structured and open-ended questions, we explored the extent to which the family functions as a source of support for the oldest old. The findings indicate that those with children are significantly more active with all relatives, most likely because children link them to grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and their relatives by marriage. For the 30 percent who are childless and unmarried, other relatives are not usually active providers of support, a finding which suggests that the principle of substitution does not operate effectively for this age group. Case studies illustrate the variations in family functioning in the support of their oldest members. PMID:1538077

  10. Family Needs and Family Quality of Life for Taiwanese Families of Children with Intellectual Disability and Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chun-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four related chapters including an introductory overview of all four chapters, a report on family needs, a report on family quality of life, and a summary of implications for the conceptual framework. Chapter 1, the introductory overview, presents background information of Taiwan and describes the family quality of…

  11. Gaming and Territorial Negotiations in Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarsand, Pal Andre; Aronsson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines territorial negotiations concerning gaming, drawing on video recordings of gaming practices in middle-class families. It explores how private vs public gaming space was co-construed by children and parents in front of the screen as well as through conversations about games. Game equipment was generally located in public…

  12. Family Life Education through Teen Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdyshaw, Cynthia; Fowler, Marilyn

    This paper describes how to create a teenage theatre project and explains why such a project is effective in educating teenagers. New Image Teen Theatre is a project which has combined peer education and improvisational theater since 1981 to reach teenagers with accurate family planning information, encourage communication, and promote responsible…

  13. Individual and Family Life. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical course for grades 10-12 focuses on personal development, interpersonal relationships, effective individual and family functioning, and career preparation. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and a section on…

  14. Family LIfe Education Curriculum: Grade 7 through Grade 9 Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Schools, Fayetteville, NC.

    This document presents a curriculum unit in family life education for students in grades 7 through 9 that encompasses learning about human sexuality, interpersonal relationships, and roles within the family. The unit is designed to attain the following goals: (1) to help students gain a detailed knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and uniqueness…

  15. Professional Support for Families in Difficult Life Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Gaysina, Guzel I.; Raykova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the problem stated in the article is determined by the presence of a significant number of families in difficult life situations who need in professional support and socio-psychological assistance. The article aims to substantiate the effectiveness of the structural-functional model of professional supporting for families in difficult…

  16. Accommodating family life: mentoring future female faculty members.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-03-01

    The demands of family life are crucial factors in successfully retaining women in science. Retention efforts should focus on creating a family-friendly environment within the laboratory and the institute. Based on my own experiences, I suggest ways to attract top young scientists and support their development into leading researchers.

  17. Family Life, Literature and Films: An Annotated Bibliography. 1974 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Council on Family Relations, Minneapolis.

    As a supplement to the 1972 edition of the Family Life Bibliography, this selected bibliography contains descriptive annotations of literature, films, records, tapes, and other teaching aids related to marriage, parenthood, family and individual relationships, and kindered topics. The materials are divided into the following general areas: (1)…

  18. Life Journey through Autism: A Guide for Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Katie C.; Clemens, Erin M.; Gilbert, Marilyn; McBreen, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Autism presents parents and families with many challenges under normal circumstances. Autism in a military family magnifies many of those challenges and adds a few more that are unique to the demands of military life and service, further complicating an already complex neurobiological disorder. Military sources indicate that more than 13,000…

  19. Rural Family Life Style and Sons' School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, B. Jeanne

    This study was designed: (1) to examine in depth family-related variables in 30 rural working-class families in order to determine whether there are certain life-style differences between those whose sons achieve at or above grade level and those whose sons' achievements fall below grade level; and (2) to gather information on how early boys begin…

  20. Homework for Parents and Teens. Family Life Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey-Harris, Nancy

    This document presents techniques for family counselors to use in their existing family life education programs to incorporate parent-children communication into those programs. Twenty-four assignments, divided into junior and senior high age levels, are included as an adjunct to classroom programs which provide structured, at-home activities to…

  1. Life Skills Literacy: An Intervention Model to Alleviate Family Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lee N.; Carswell, Andrew T.; Palmer, Lance; Sweaney, Annie L.; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Leonas, Karen K.; Moss, Joan Koonce; Mauldin, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Life Skills Literacy (LSL) is a multidisciplinary intervention model that helps families living with limited resources (including poverty) achieve sustainable well-being. This model, based on ecological theory and a readiness for change framework, prepares people to learn from the program and teaches necessary life skills. The LSL project…

  2. Family Life Quality and Emotional Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Lee, T. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 2758) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting quality and parent-child relational quality) and emotional quality of life (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Parenting quality included different aspects of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge,…

  3. Family Voices: Life for Family Carers of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Mannan, Hasheem; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne; McConkey, Roy; O'Brien, Patricia; Finlay, Frieda; Lawlor, Anne; Harrington, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Families in Ireland remain the main providers of support for people with Intellectual disabilities, and the aim of this study was to map their life experiences whilst involving their family members as co-researchers. Materials and Method: This qualitative, participatory study involved 10 focus groups attended by 70 parents and siblings…

  4. Re-visioning the Family Life Cycle Theory and Paradigm in Marriage and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some of the specific problems associated with the adoption of the family life-cycles (FLC) theory and paradigm in marriage and family therapy (MFT). Four ideas are offered as ways to "re-vision" the FLC paradigm in MFT in the areas of theory, research, and therapy. (Author/MKA)

  5. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  6. Using peer health education to enhance family life education.

    PubMed

    Puentes, William J; Wassel, Melanie

    2003-12-01

    This article describes an intervention known as the Peer Family Life Education Project that was designed as an alternate delivery method of an established family life education curriculum in an urban middle school setting. The factors contributing to sexual risk behaviors by urban adolescent populations are identified. A review of previous efforts at peer health education is presented. Program development and implementation is described. The strengths and weaknesses of the program are discussed, and suggestions for improving future efforts at the incorporation of peer health education to reduce sexual risk behaviors by adolescent urban populations are presented.

  7. Family Life in an Anti-Family Setting: A Critique of Marriage and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldberg, Roslyn; Kohen, Janet

    1976-01-01

    The failure of family life is traced to its complex dependence on the capitalist corporate order and the particular sex-based division of labor that is a product of that order. Particular emphasis is given to the woman's special responsibility for the emotional life of her spouse and children. (Author)

  8. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS: We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS: We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS: Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior. PMID:22942772

  9. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior. PMID:22942772

  10. Perceived Marital Quality and Family Life-Cycle Categories: A Further Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explored questions about the power of family life-cycle categories to predict marital quality, the trend of marital quality over the family life-cycle, and relationships between perceived marital quality and family life-cycle categories. Results indicated family life-cycle and total number of children were significant predictors of marital…

  11. Beyond anticipatory guidance. Parenting and the family life cycle.

    PubMed

    Gellerstedt, M E; leRoux, P

    1995-02-01

    To review life cycle issues as well as the individual development of children and parents can be extremely constructive for long-term health care. An increased awareness of developmental patterns helps parents to take, provide, and pass on leadership. Conversations about the individual and family life cycles in primary care settings enrich primary health care and provides a forum for dealing with a variety of pediatric and health care issues.

  12. Impact of Deafness on Family Life: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jackson C.; Turnbull, A.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of deafness in a family has the potential to affect all areas of family life. An understanding of the impact on family life is critical to addressing all components of the family system in early intervention. This review synthesizes the literature on deafness as it relates to four domains of family quality of life, including family…

  13. Family Functions' Distribution in Men and Women Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimova, Ramilya Sh.; Biktagirova, Gulnara F.

    2016-01-01

    Creating a happy family with a favorable psychological climate is important both for the individual and the society as a whole. One of the factors, that influence the creation of a welfare family, is the content of the spouses' concepts of the family, its functions and their possible distribution. The main purpose of this article is to identify…

  14. The Years of Uncertainty: Eighth Grade Family Life Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    The family life sex education unit for eighth graders, "The Years of Uncertainty," consists of a series of daily lesson plans that span a 29-day period of one-hour class sessions. Topics covered are: problem solving, knowledge and attitudes, male and female reproductive systems, conception, pregnancy, birth, birth defects, venereal disease,…

  15. Family Life and Human Development: Grades 9-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    This resource curriculum outline for grades 9 through 12 contains a content outline; sample teaching strategies; illustrations for making transparencies and dittoes; print, non-print, and film resources for teaching family life and human development. The activities are adaptable to a variety of classroom situations and teaching styles. The…

  16. Family Life Education for Young Adolescents. A Quasi-Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Elicia J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The impact of the Family Life Education Program for disadvantaged inner-city minority students (grades seven and eight) was investigated. Compared to the control group, program participants displayed improved knowledge about contraception, reproductive physiology, and adolescent pregnancy outcomes. Implications for school-based sex education…

  17. Web-Based Family Life Education: Spotlight on User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Jennifer; Doty, Matthew; Dwrokin, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    Family Life Education (FLE) websites can benefit from the field of user experience, which makes technology easy to use. A heuristic evaluation of five FLE sites was performed using Neilson's heuristics, guidelines for making sites user friendly. Greater site complexity resulted in more potential user problems. Sites most frequently had problems…

  18. Family Life Education. Grade 7. An Optional Health Education Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    The Family Life Education optional unit of the Manitoba (Canada) Health Education curriculum reflects the current emphasis in health education on preventive medicine, total well-being, and the assumption of individual responsibility for health. The unit as a whole consists of four components: an overview and three grade level guides designed for…

  19. Work and Family Life. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified competency profile for work and family life courses. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  20. Family Life Education. Resource Units for Seventh and Eighth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckstuhl, Mary; Hulme, Marylin A., Ed.

    Designed for teachers and school districts wishing to include family life education in the curriculum, this teaching guide presents a program for seventh and eighth graders which includes material on biological development, emotional issues, values, and sex fairness. The guide begins with an introduction dealing with the need for such programs,…

  1. Family Quality of Life: Moving from Measurement to Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuna, Nina I.; Turnbull, Ann; Summers, Jean Ann

    2009-01-01

    Noting the absence of sound theoretical underpinnings for family quality of life (FQoL) research and work, the authors note that, to guide FQoL practice, research findings must be schematically organized so as to enable practitioners to implement empirical findings effectively. One way to meet this goal is to introduce a theoretical model that…

  2. Family Size and Mother-Child Relations in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlenberg, Peter; Cooney, Teresa M.

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of family size on mother-child relationships in later life. Subjects were taken from national probability sample which included adults aged 35-55 (n=3,083) who had a living mother and women aged 60-79 (n=1,101) with at least one living child. Found generally positive relationship between number of siblings and favorable…

  3. Marital Cohesiveness and Family Life Transitions: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatelli, Ronald M.; And Others

    This paper examines the impact of individual and family life transitions on marital relationships from a social exchange perspective. The first section of the paper reviews and integrates several social exchange perspectives, derived from both sociological and social psychological traditions, in particular the works of Thibaut and Kelly (1959),…

  4. Quality of Family Life and Mortality in Seventeenth Century Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry into the quality of family life in seventeenth century Dublin is an attempt to understand conditions in the second largest city in the British Isles; further, the era was one of convulsions in the body politic, social, and religious. The Scottish James I and VI (1556 1625) determined that the Irish province closest to Scotland, Ulster,…

  5. The Unwed Mother: Implications For Family Life Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkart, Joan; Whatley, Alice Elrod

    1973-01-01

    The family life educator is in a strategic position to assist in designing school and community programs for the unwed mother and the child. It appears important that the theories of causation be explored without bias; that prenatal and postnatal care be offered; that mental health consultation, therapy and crisis-therapy be promoted and the…

  6. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  7. Delimiting family in syntheses of research on childhood chronic conditions and family life.

    PubMed

    Knafl, Kathleen; Leeman, Jennifer; Havill, Nancy; Crandell, Jamie; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of family research presents unique challenges to investigators who must delimit what will be included as a family study in the proposed review. In this paper, the authors discuss the conceptual and pragmatic challenges of conducting systematic reviews of the literature on the intersection between family life and childhood chronic conditions. A proposed framework for delimiting the family domain of interest is presented. The framework addresses both topical salience and level of relevance and provides direction to future researchers, with the goal of supporting the overall quality of family research synthesis efforts. For users of synthesis studies, knowledge of how investigators conceptualize the boundaries of family research is important contextual information for understanding the limits and applicability of the results.

  8. Allowing Family to be Family: End-of-Life Care in Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Homes.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Chelsea E; Haverhals, Leah M; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari R

    2016-01-01

    The Medical Foster Home program is a unique long-term care program coordinated by the Veterans Health Administration. The program pairs Veterans with private, 24-hour a day community-based caregivers who often care for Veterans until the end of life. This qualitative study explored the experiences of care coordination for Medical Foster Home Veterans at the end of life with eight Veterans' family members, five Medical Foster Home caregivers, and seven Veterans Health Administration Home-Based Primary Care team members. A case study, qualitative content analysis identified these themes addressing care coordination and impact of the Medical Foster Home model on those involved: (a) Medical Foster Home program supports Veterans' families; (b) Medical Foster Home program supports the caregiver as family; (c) Veterans' needs are met socially and culturally at the end of life; and (d) the changing needs of Veterans, families, and caregivers at Veterans' end of life are addressed. Insights into how to best support Medical Foster Home caregivers caring for Veterans at the end of life were gained including the need for more and better respite options and how caregivers are compensated in the month of the Veteran's death, as well as suggestions to navigate end-of-life care coordination with multiple stakeholders involved.

  9. Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

  10. Family life clinics for Gulf state: Bahrain FPA helps bring a family planning breakthrough.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain.

  11. Relationships between quality of life and family function in caregiver

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL) impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain). Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q) and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q) perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p < 0.05). Using the CCA, we found that the physical and mental well-being dimensions are the ones which present a closer relationship with family functionality, while social support is the quality dimension that is least influenced by the Family APGAR-Q. Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions. PMID:21496270

  12. RECRUITING LOW-INCOME FAMILIES FOR FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION PROGRAMS, FOUR REPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANNON, DOLLY N.

    THE FIRST OF THE FOUR REPORTS IN THIS PUBLICATION IS A DISCUSSION OF THE METHODS USED BY THE CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION TO RECRUIT LOW-INCOME PARENTS FOR ITS FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THE SECOND REPORT IS A DESCRIPTION OF TWO PARENT EDUCATION CLASSES OPERATED BY THE LOS ANGELES PUBLIC SCHOOLS. ONE OF THESE CLASSES IS AN EVENING CLASS FOR…

  13. Family quality of life among families of children with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hae Ji; Hwang, Seonyeong; Ahn, Youngmee; Lim, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) may cause emotional distress and impairs the quality of life (QoL) in children and their families. Objective We examined family QoL of children with AD and explored associated factors such as disease severity and psychosocial factors among parents of children with AD. Methods Study participants were 78 children (1 month to 16 years old) diagnosed with AD and their parents visiting an outpatient clinic of the Department of Pediatrics in Inha University Hospital. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and medical record review. Parents completed the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire (DFI), the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Korean Parenting Stress Index. For children aged below 6-year-old, parents were asked to complete the Infants' Dermatologic Quality of Life. SCOring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 Generic Core Scale were also completed. Results The mean age of parents and children were 37.4 ± 5.3 years and 65.1 ± 45.7 months, respectively. Among them, 87.2% of parents were mothers and 60.3% of children were boys. The mean score of DFI was 11.2 ± 6.0. The mean SCORAD score was 28.3 ± 16.1. Family who experienced strong negative emotionality had a 3.8 times higher probability of experiencing a lower QoL than parents who did not (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; p = 0.041). Family of children with higher severity of AD had a 6.6 times (OR, 6.55; p = 0.018) higher probability of experiencing a low family QoL than their less-severe counterparts. Families of girls with AD had a lower QoL (OR, 8.40; p = 0.003) than families of boys. Conclusion Family QoL among parents of children with AD was low and associated with parent’s psychosocial characteristics as well as disease severity of the children. Considering parental involvement in AD management for children, emotional

  14. The Relationship of Perceptions of Service and Support Adequacy to Family Quality of Life for Families of Children with Deafblindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between families' perceptions of supports and services and family quality of life (FQOL) for families of children with deafblindness, and the potential of satisfaction with family-professional partnerships and child age as moderators of this relationship. The study was guided by the Unified Theory of Family…

  15. Parents' struggles to rebuild family life after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Coffman, S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of parents' everyday experiences after a major natural disaster. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 parents who lived in the hurricane-damaged area. The essence of being a parent emerged as "struggling to rebuild family life." The struggles were superimposed on top of ongoing issues such as divorce and job responsibilities. Parents described feelings of being thankful to be alive, being overwhelmed, being limited by environmental aftereffects, being responsible for children, balancing needs and roles, constantly changing amidst uncertainty, and finding meaning in the disaster. Study findings support the need for nursing interventions that address family needs, support strengths, and involve parents as active decision makers.

  16. Quality of life for families with spina bifida in Kenya.

    PubMed

    van't Veer, Toos; Meester, Hanneke; Poenaru, Dan; Kogei, Agnes; Augenstein, Kimberly; Bransford, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Spina bifida (SB) affects children worldwide. Studies from developed nations have explored the impact of SB on the quality of life of children and their parents. However, there are no such studies available from developing countries. We have therefore undertaken to document the impact of the disability on the families of affected children in Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to 40 mothers and their children, who were receiving treatment for SB at our institution. The results of this study should indicate where community and governmental resources and educational efforts for the disabled should be directed.

  17. Family Life League v. Illinois Department of Public Aid.

    PubMed

    1985-04-10

    Two family life groups and their officers were denied access by the Illinois Appellate Court to records relating to the use of public funds paid to doctors and medical providers for publicly-assisted abortions and abortion-related services. In the court's opinion, compelling disclosure of physicians and providers who perform abortion services for welfare recipients would restrict the ability of welfare recipients to effectuate their decisions to obtain abortions, and thereby would violate the women's constitutional right to privacy. Thus, a statutory requirement of complete disclosure of governmental affairs must yield to constitutional considerations.

  18. Maternal Differential Treatment in Later Life Families and Within-Family Variations in Adult Sibling Closeness

    PubMed Central

    Suitor, J. Jill; Nam, Sangbo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In this article, we explore within-family differences in the closeness of sibling ties in adulthood. Specifically, we consider the sibship as a network and investigate the ways in which perceptions of mothers’ differential treatment play a role in within-family variations in sibling closeness in midlife. Method. Data were analyzed from 2,067 adult sibling dyads nested within 216 later life families, collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study-II. Results. Respondents reported the greatest closeness to siblings whom they perceived as favored by their mothers when they were not favored themselves, whereas respondents were less likely to choose siblings whom they perceived as disfavored by their mothers when they did not perceive themselves as disfavored. Discussion. Variability in the strength of sibling ties within families suggests that some individuals receive greater benefits from this relationship than do their brothers and sisters. These findings shed new light on such within-family variations in sibling closeness by identifying how specific patterns of maternal differential treatment draw offspring toward some siblings and away from others. PMID:25324293

  19. The life-cycle squeeze: The interaction of men's occupational and family life cycles.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, V K

    1974-05-01

    This paper is concerned with analyzing one structural source of pressure for wives to contribute to family income. This is the "life-cycle squeeze"-the situation where a man's resources are inadequate to meet the needs engendered by the number and ages of his children. Studies of how economic needs vary by family life-cycle stage indicate that one high point of need occurs when men are in their forties and early fifties. However, 1960 Census data on earnings patterns by age indicate that in only relatively high-level professional, managerial and sales occupations do average earnings peak at the same time family income needs are peaking. For most blue-collar and many medium- and low-level white collar occupations, median earnings are highest for younger men, and men at an age when family costs are at their maximum are earning somewhat less, on the average. As a consequence, the families of such men run the risk of a deterioration in their level of living unless an additional income is brought into the household.

  20. Whose Job Is It? Everyday Routines and Quality of Life in Latino and Non-Latino Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Domínguez-Pareto, Irenka; Cohen, Shana R.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that families construct daily routines that enable the household to function smoothly and promote family quality of life. However, we know little about how activities are distributed between parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability (ID), particularly in Latino families. To address this gap, we…

  1. Starting family life & sex education programs: a health agency's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wagman, E; Bignell, S

    1981-04-01

    Focus is on the ways school districts can develop sex education programs with minimal funds, utilizing existing teachers and building on existing support among students, parents, faculty and administrators. In 1978, Planned Parenthood, funded by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, implemented the Family Life Education Program Development Project. This was a statewide research and demonstration project that worked with 13 diverse California school districts to develop programs. Within each district, an administrator and a designated district trainer were initially trained. After community and administrative involvement and support were ensured, teacher training was conducted, and programs were successfully implemented in 12 of 13 selected districts. Preliminary evaluation findings based on observation and interviews with participating district staff identified 4 key factors critical to program success: 1) community involvement and support; 2) administrative involvement and support; 3) effective and acceptable curriculum; and 4) teacher training with impact. These factors are reviewed in detail, and suggestions are presented related to each. In most communities there is existing support for family life and sex education. What is needed is to involve the community in the creation of the local program, for this ensures support. Mechanisms to ensure involvement include advisory and specialized committees, broad community input, and community orientation workshop, school boards, and parent preview sessions. Unless the school administration is solidly behind a program, its chances for successful and continued implementation will remain low. PMID:6908934

  2. The Impact of Family Life Events and Changes on the Health of a Chronically Ill Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between family stress and changes in health of a child with cystic fibrosis. Data from parents (N=100) and clinic records revealed that a decline in pulmonary functioning was associated with family life changes, especially in family development and relationships, family management and decisions, and family finances.…

  3. Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales: Under and over 18 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gine, Climent; Vilaseca, Rosa; Gracia, Marta; Mora, Joaquin; Orcasitas, Jose Ramon; Simon, Cecilia; Torrecillas, Ana Maria; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Pro, Maria Teresa; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Mas, Joana Maria; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simo-Pinatella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers, professionals, and families have shown increasing concern with the family quality of life (FQoL) of people with intellectual disability (ID) and their families. The goals of this research were (a) to explore how Spanish families understand FQoL by developing 2 different measurement tools for families with a member with ID…

  4. Families and Futures 2000. A Resource for Planning Comprehensive Home and Family Life Education Programs. Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This curriculum guide is the first step in a total home and family life curriculum revision in the state of Washington aimed at helping students solve problems and study issues that have an impact on home and family life. The guide contains two model, nonsequential, comprehensive courses that may be adopted or adapted by school districts. The…

  5. A Freirean Approach to Family Life Education: Teaching a Graduate Institute in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy; Humble, Aine M.; Norris, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an international, intensive 10-day graduate institute called "A Freirean Approach to Family Life Education," conducted in Jamaica. Details on the coordination of the programme and administration of the course are given, and then a brief overview of Jamaican families is provided. Emancipatory family life education is described,…

  6. The teaching of population and family life education.

    PubMed

    Ukaegbu, A

    1985-06-01

    The experience of many countries in Asia, Latin America, the Arab Region, and Africa South of Sahara has shown that the inquiry and discovery learning method is more effective in teaching population and family life education than other traditional methods. The inquiry or inductive method 1) defines the problem, 2) formulates hypotheses, 3) collects relevant data, 4) tests the hypothesis and analyzes the data, 5) draws conclusions, and 6) generalizes or applies the conclusion. The values clarification level of teaching has the objective of enabling the learners to explore the connection between the subject matter and their own feelings, attitudes, and behavior. The Rath clarification model consists of 7 steps that students need to follow before it can be claimed that learners have clarified or derived their values. Using group discussion technics, students outline and choose from conflicting values for large versus small family size. Role-playing is the spontaneous practice of roles--assuming them in order to practice the behavior required in various cultural situations. Guidelines for role-playing include 1) setting a climate, 2) selecting role-players, 3) preparing the audience, 4) the enactment, 5) discussing and evaluating the role-playing, 6) the re-enactment, and 7) sharing experiences and generalizing. Tables included are 1) population size of some African Countries in 1982 and 2) socioeconomic indicators of those same countries.

  7. Adult Roles & Responsibilities. Home Economics Family Life Course. Grades 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for developing a home economics family life course to assist students in improving the quality of individual and family life. The course contains 12 units that cover the following topics: self-awareness, wheel of life, dating, mate selection, engagement, marriage, money management, parenting, crisis…

  8. Video home training as a method of supporting family life control.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Friis, Leila; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe video home training as a method of early support in problems of family life control. Answers were sought to the following questions: how does a family counsellor use video home training to support families' own resources and family life control, and what are the uses and benefits of video home training from parents' perspective? The data consisted of the videotaped counselling sessions and family service plans for five families, and were analysed using the general method of analysing photographs and video material developed by anthropologist-photographers. Video home training as a method in supporting family life control consisted of goal-orientated reflection by parents on videotaped episodes of their everyday family life under the guidance of a family counsellor. The process of videotaping family life, in-depth analysis of the videotapes, recognition of instances of successful interaction, and search for new alternatives gave participants a feeling that it would be possible for them to make their everyday life fluent and functional. The findings show that video home training helped the families to gain better control over their family life. PMID:12519255

  9. The Quantitative Measurement of Family Quality of Life: A Review of Available Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, X.; Summers, J. A.; Turnbull, A.; Zuna, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Family quality of life (FQOL) has emerged as an important outcome of service delivery for individuals with disabilities and their families. The purpose of this review was to explore the disparity of scale development approaches between families with children with disabilities and families from other populations and identify strengths…

  10. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  11. Empowering family members in end-of-life care decision making in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Browning, Annette M

    2009-01-01

    Critical care nurses are often faced with working with families during the end-of-life care of a loved one. Often there is indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients when faced with making these difficult decisions. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe origins of indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients who are faced with end-of-life care decisions. Strategies to empower family members during this crucial time are also discussed. PMID:19104247

  12. Parents' and partners' life course and family experiences: links with parent-child relationships in different family settings.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J; Davies, L C; O'Connor, T G; Sturgess, W

    2000-11-01

    Life course and current family factors associated with individual differences in parent-child relationships were investigated in a sample of 467 children from 192 families, including stepfather, single-parent, stepmother, and complex stepfamilies; informants were fathers, mothers, and children. Both positive and negative dimensions of father-child and mother-child relationships were linked to earlier life course experiences of parent and of partner, to current family factors, and to the quality of partner's relationship with the child. The pattern of associations between the adults' life course experiences meant that children were at risk for a "double dose" of less affectionate relationships in families in which parents had experienced early adversities. The significance of biological relatedness, family setting, and child partner relationships was highlighted.

  13. A new family of distribution functions for spherical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin E.

    1991-06-01

    The present study describes a new family of anisotropic distribution functions for stellar systems designed to keep control of the orbit distribution at fixed energy. These are quasi-separable functions of energy and angular momentum, and they are specified in terms of a circularity function h(x) which fixes the distribution of orbits on the potential's energy surfaces outside some anisotropy radius. Detailed results are presented for a particular set of radially anisotropic circularity functions h-alpha(x). In the scale-free logarithmic potential, exact analytic solutions are shown to exist for all scale-free circularity functions. Intrinsic and projected velocity dispersions are calculated and the expected properties are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Several applications of the quasi-separable distribution functions are discussed. They include the effects of anisotropy or a dark halo on line-broadening functions, the radial orbit instability in anisotropic spherical systems, and violent relaxation in spherical collapse.

  14. Work and Family Life. Phase 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Laura; And Others

    This is the first of a series of working papers and reports on aspects of modern American families. It investigates the issues and problems facing families with preschool children, when both of the parents are employed. The composite portrait of family styles within a sample of 14 young families begins with a project history. The literature is…

  15. La Familia: Curriculum Unit. Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This teaching guide comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Student objectives include the following: (1) define family; (2) describe similarities and differences among Latino…

  16. Immigrant Families over the Life Course: Research Directions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca L.; Glick, Jennifer E.; Bures, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Family researchers and policy makers are giving increasing attention to the consequences of immigration for families. Immigration affects the lives of family members who migrate as well as those who remain behind and has important consequences for family formation, kinship ties, living arrangements, and children's outcomes. We present a selective…

  17. Families as Nurturing Systems: Support across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Donald G., Ed.; Powell, Douglas R., Ed.

    This volume seeks to refine and extend knowledge about approaches to supporting the caregiving roles of families. The chapters in the volume describe and appraise new directions in family support. After an introduction, the two parts of the volume address "New Directions for Family Resource and Support Programs" (six chapters) and "Family Support…

  18. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    PubMed

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). PMID:24329410

  19. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    PubMed

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393).

  20. Parametric and nonparametric analysis of life courses: an application to family formation patterns.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Marco; Piccarreta, Raffaella; Salford, Gaia

    2013-06-01

    We discuss a unified approach to the description and explanation of life course patterns represented as sequences of states observed in discrete time. In particular, we study life course data collected as part of the Dutch Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS) to learn about the family formation behavior of 1,897 women born between 1953 and 1962. Retrospective monthly data were available on each 18- to 30-year-old woman living either with or without children as single, married, or cohabiting. We first study via a nonparametric approach which factors explain the pairwise dissimilarities observed between life courses. Permutation distribution inference allows for the study of the statistical significance of the effect of a set of covariates of interest. We then develop a parametric model for the sequence-generating process that can be used to describe state transitions and durations conditional on covariates and conditional on having observed an initial segment of the trajectory. Fitting of the proposed model and the corresponding model selection process are based on the observed data likelihood. We discuss the application of the methods to the FFS.

  1. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.

  2. The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

  3. Familia Ludens: Reinforcing the Leisure Component in Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthner, Dennis K.

    1975-01-01

    Leisure is examined as a normal and potentially vital component in the contemporary family. Consideration is given to the interplay between work and leisure and the means by which leisure facilitates companionship and family interaction. (Author)

  4. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. PMID:22845631

  5. From "Work-Family" to "Work-Life": Broadening Our Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Jessica; Boyd, Elizabeth M.; Sinha, Ruchi; Westring, Alyssa F.; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    Despite frequent reference to "work-life" issues in the organizational literature, little theoretical or empirical attention has been paid to nonwork areas beyond family. The purpose of the research described here is to move beyond work-family conflict to a broader conceptualization and measurement of work interference with life. A measure of work…

  6. Work, Family and Life-Course Fit: Does Control over Work Time Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from "work-family" to a multi-dimensional "life-course fit" construct (employees' cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2)…

  7. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  8. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  9. Family Quality of Life: Adult School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svraka, E.; Loga, S.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study endeavours to provide initial data on quality of life for families with adult children who have intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Canton of Sarajevo. Methods: The principal measure used was the "Family Quality of life Survey 2006-main caregivers of people with intellectual or developmental disabilities." The sample consisted…

  10. A COMMUNITY WIDE PROGRAM OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION FOR PARENTS OF ADOLESCENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GAMBLE, BETTY ROBERTS

    A STUDY WAS MADE IN THE KINGS MOUNTAIN AREA OF NORTH CAROLINA TO DETERMINE THE NEEDS FOR FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION FOR PARENTS OF ADOLESCENTS, TO PROMOTE A SUITABLE PROGRAM, TO EVALUATE POSSIBLE OUTCOMES, AND TO DEVELOP IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION. ENROLLED IN THE FOUR WEEK PROGRAM, WHICH MET ONCE A WEEK IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL,…

  11. Family Life: Literature and Films. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Council on Family Relations, Minneapolis.

    This annotated bibliography was prepared by the Minnesota Council on Family Relations and provides useful past as well as current and innovative materials about marriage and family living. The numerous books, pamphlets, periodical articles, and audio-visual materials are organized under three major sections: (1) The American Family: Theoretical,…

  12. La Familia: Student Workbook. Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This workbook comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Each lesson begins with an illustration that reflects the content of the lesson and an introductory page. Each introductory page…

  13. Family Quality of Life among Families with a Member Who Has an Intellectual Disability: An Exploratory Examination of Key Domains and Dimensions of the Revised FQOL Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, S.; Edwards, M.; Baum, N.; Brown, I.; Brown, R. I.; Isaacs, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Family Quality of Life Survey (FQOLS-2006) was developed as the result of increased interest in family quality of life (FQOL) among families with a member who has an intellectual disability (ID). The instrument includes nine life domains and six dimensions reflecting the main areas and characteristics of FQOL. The aim of the…

  14. Timing Preferences for Women's Family-Life Transitions: Intergenerational Transmission among Migrants and Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Valk, Helga A. G.; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the transmission of preferences regarding the timing of family-life transitions of women among migrant and native Dutch families. We study how and to what extent parental preferences, migrant origin, and family characteristics affect the child's timing preferences. We use parent and child data (N = 1,290) from the Netherlands…

  15. Family Life and Child Development: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography Cumulative Through June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewish Board of Family and Children's Services, New York, NY.

    This annotated bibliography includes a list of 362 books and pamphlets which relate to seven areas of child development and family life. These areas are marriage and the family, human development, sex education, disabilities, schools and learning, mental health education, and social problems and the family. Within these areas, entries are…

  16. The Future of Family Life. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Catherine

    This fact sheet presents an overview of current and projected changes in American family life, along with implications of those changes for home economics educators. Topics which are covered include: (1) changing family structures; (2) working women and homemakers; (3) family problems such as divorce, adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, violence…

  17. Depression and the Family Life Cycle: Adjusting the System at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shean, Glenn

    This document uses family systems constructs to explain the onset and maintenance of clinical symptoms such as depression and their relation to life cycle issues among the elderly. The basic assumptions of family systems thinking about structure and function are summarized. Figures and tables are used to illustrate changing family circumstances…

  18. Quality of Life from the Point of View of Latin American Families: A Participative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, A. S.; Castanon, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To date, little research has focused on what factors constitute a quality of life (QOL) among Latin American families with a member who is intellectually disabled. Method: Total 180 Latin American families cooperated in a participative research project. During 18 months, the families and a team exchanged information about their QOL by…

  19. Services and Supports, Partnership, and Family Quality of Life: Focus on Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Brady, Sara E.; Summers, Jean Ann; Haines, Shana J.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of partnership on the relationship between services and supports adequacy and family quality of life (FQOL) for families of children with deaf-blindness ages birth to 21. A social-ecological approach enabled examining the impact of disability on the family system. A survey, consisting of…

  20. Family caregivers' burden, quality of life, and health following patients' renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wicks, M N; Milstead, E J; Hathaway, D K; Cetingok, M

    1998-09-01

    Improved quality of life and physical functioning among renal transplant recipients have been documented; however, little of the literature has addressed the effects of transplantation on family caregivers. The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to characterize the level of subjective burden, quality of life, and self-rated health of caregivers who assist family members prior to transplantation as well as at 6 months following. The study sample included 19 caregivers of 19 renal transplant recipients. In general, caregiver burden, quality of life, and self-rated health did not improve following patients' transplants. In addition, 9 of 19 family caregivers reported increased burden. Because much of healthcare is family-based and greater reliance on family support seems inevitable, further studies are needed to examine the impact of transplantation on the family as well as the impact of the family on patients' posttransplant outcomes. PMID:9866547

  1. Home apnea monitoring and disruptions in family life: a multidimensional controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmann, E; Wulff, L; Meny, R G

    1992-01-01

    We used data from telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to examine 12 aspects of family life among 93 families with infants considered at high risk for sudden infant death syndrome and on home apnea monitors and a matched comparison group with infants not requiring monitoring. Using logistic regression to control confounding variables, we found that case mothers were at an increased risk of poor health, but we found no other significant differences in family life between the two groups. PMID:1566950

  2. Meaning in Life, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Family Cohesion as Predictors of Family Satisfaction among Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Sweeney, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested whether self-efficacy, coping styles, family cohesion, and meaning in life predicted family satisfaction among 64 mothers of children with disabilities. They also examined whether meaning in life mediated the relationship between cohesion and family satisfaction or served as a resource whose effects on family satisfaction were…

  3. Digital Inequalities of Family Life Information Seeking and Family Well-Being Among Chinese Adults in Hong Kong: A Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inequalities in Internet use and health information seeking are well documented, but less is known about information for family life activities. Objective We investigated the social determinants of online family life information seeking behaviors and its associations with family well-being among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods A probability-based telephone survey was conducted in 2012 to record family life information seeking behaviors, including frequency of seeking and paying attention to family life information, levels of trust, and perceived usefulness of family life information. Family well-being was assessed using 3 single items on perceived family harmony, happiness, and health, with higher scores indicating greater well-being. Adjusted odds ratios for family life information seeking behaviors by socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors, and adjusted beta coefficients for family well-being by family life information seeking behaviors were calculated. Results Of 1537 respondents, 57.57% (855/1537) had ever and 26.45% (407/1537) sought monthly family life information through the Internet. Lower educational attainment and household income, smoking, and physical inactivity were associated with less frequent seeking and paying attention (all P<.05). Greater perceived family health was associated with more frequent attention (adjusted β=.32, 95% CI.11-.52), greater levels of trust (adjusted β=.28, 95% CI .07-.48), and perceived usefulness (adjusted β=.23, 95% CI .01-.45) of family life information. Frequent attention and higher level of trust were also associated with greater family harmony (adjusted β=.22, 95% CI .002-.41) and happiness (adjusted β=.23, 95% CI .003-.42), respectively. Conclusions This is the first study investigating family life information seeking behaviors and suggested inequalities of online family life information seeking behaviors. The association between family life information seeking behavior and family

  4. Life Satisfaction among Young Adults from Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…

  5. 12 CFR 2.3 - Distribution of credit life insurance income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of credit life insurance income. 2... CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.3 Distribution of credit life insurance income. (a) Distribution of credit life... percent), who is involved in the sale of credit life insurance to loan customers of the national bank,...

  6. Caring for Pediatric Patients' Families at the Child's End of Life.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Jodi E; Reynolds, Melissa R; Larson, Jennifer S

    2015-12-01

    Nurses play an important role in supporting families who are faced with the critical illness and death of their child. Grieving families desire compassionate, sensitive care that respects their wishes and meets their needs. Families often wish to continue relationships and maintain lasting connections with hospital staff following their child's death. A structured bereavement program that supports families both at the end of their child's life and throughout their grief journey can meet this need. PMID:26628545

  7. Toward a definition of family resilience: integrating life-span and family perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hawley, D R; DeHaan, L

    1996-09-01

    Family resilience is a relatively new construct that describes how families adapt to stress and bounce back from adversity. Literature pertaining to resilience as a family-level variable is reviewed. An overview of the developmental psychopathology literature dealing with individual resilience is also provided. Implications for extending the study of family resilience drawn from research on individual resilience are discussed and a definition of family resilience is proposed. PMID:9111710

  8. Effects of changing demographic factors upon women's family status in China: a model of a family status life table and its application.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a life table model for China based on Bongaarts nuclear family model and the concept marker of the family, who is identified as the senior women in the family. The attached appendix details the calculations. The type and size of the family are determined by the status change of every marker in the family; the marital, parity, and maternal states. Co-residence in the 3 generation family as well as families maintaining close emotional and economic ties regardless of residence are included. Comparisons of demographic changes are made for 1950-70 and 1981. The following factors are relevant to understanding this model. 1) Fertility, mortality, and marriage rates by age group are considered artificially constant. 2) The Markov hypothesis operates in such a way that birth variations for women at specific age groups vary with marital status. 3) The model is female only. 4) The divorce and re-marriage rate is indirectly estimated. The findings indicate that along with provincial data, 82.3% remained single in 1981 before the recommended marriage at the mature age of 20. Although the multi birth rate appears low, the distribution of births for 50-year-olds indicates the 47.6% have 3 or more births and multi births still represent a serious problem.

  9. The Ecology of Urban Family Life. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Moncrieff, Ed.; And Others

    This report presents the results of research that gathered baseline data for a proposed evaluation of the Family Matters Project, an early intervention program that studied the utility of family and local resources as support systems in the care of preschoolers. Conducted in Syracuse, New York, the research collected demographic data, descriptions…

  10. Parental Employment and Family Life: Research in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menaghan, Elizabeth G.; Parcel, Toby L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines recent research regarding how parents' employment experiences affect their own well-being, their marital relationships, and the interaction patterns in their families, with consequences for children. Emphasizes contributions of these theoretical approaches: new home economics, work-family role conflict perspectives, and work socialization…

  11. Life Support: A System of Care for Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the issue of separation and its impact on military families, including on infants and toddlers. Deployments and unaccompanied tours of duty (temporary assignments and 12-24 month assignments, both without family members, respectively) take military personnel away from their loved ones for extended periods of time. …

  12. Everyday Life in Distance Education: One Family's Home Schooling Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Nicole C.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a narrative portrait of one family enrolled in a school of distance education in Queensland, Australia. Most of the families own or manage sheep and/or beef grazing properties, and their children receive their education by correspondence papers and daily UHF radio lessons. The students complete their school work at home with a…

  13. An Examination of Cognitive Processes in Everyday Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichter, Hope Jensen; Hamid-Buglione, Vera

    An exploratory study making use of ethnographic and grounded theory methods was carried out with two Hispanic and two Black American working-class families. Exploration focused on how cognitive processes taking place in the natural setting of the family can best be understood. In order to uncover the intellectual interactions that take place in…

  14. Family Life, Literature and Films: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Council on Family Relations, Minneapolis.

    This revised selected bibliography offers descriptive annotations of literature, films, records, tapes, and other teaching aids related to marriage, parenthood, family relationships, and kindered topics. The material is divided into the following general areas: (1) theoretical, historical, and cross cultural perspectives on the family; (2)…

  15. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  16. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption. PMID:22047850

  17. Family Rituals and Quality of Life in Children With Cancer and Their Parents: The Role of Family Cohesion and Hope

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M. Cristina; Kazak, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family rituals are associated with adaptive functioning in pediatric illness, including quality of life (QoL). This article explores the role of family cohesion and hope as mediators of this association in children with cancer and their parents. Methods Portuguese children with cancer (N = 389), on- and off-treatment, and one of their parents completed self-report measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect links between family rituals and QoL. Results When children and parents reported higher levels of family rituals, they also reported more family cohesion and hope, which were linked to better QoL. At the dyadic level, children’s QoL was related to parents’ family rituals through the child’s family cohesion. This model was valid across child’s age-group, treatment status, and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Family rituals are important in promoting QoL in pediatric cancer via family cohesion and hope individually and via family cohesion in terms of parent–child interactions. PMID:25775914

  18. Work-family enrichment among dual-earner couples: can work improve our family life?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Marianne G; O'Brien, Karen M

    2013-10-01

    The extent to which resources generated at work and positive affect were associated with enrichment in the family domain among 107 dual-earner couples was investigated. Grounded in work-family enrichment theory (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006), this study examined the indirect effect of workplace organizational support on family satisfaction through positive affect at work. Organizational support for work-family management was associated with positive affect at work for both women and men, and positive affect at work was related to family satisfaction for women. One interpersonal effect emerged: women's positive affect at work was associated with family satisfaction for men. Implications for theory, practice, research, and workplace policy are discussed.

  19. Problem solving in relation to resources in everyday life in families of children with disabilities: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ylvén, Regina; Granlund, Mats; Persson, Carina

    2012-06-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire study focusing on problem-solving patterns in relation to resources in families of children with disabilities. The descriptive statistical analyses built on data from 13 families and findings showed an overall satisfactory score distribution for three of the included instruments, whereas two instruments showed floor effects in one third of the items. Findings indicated design problems with data collection related to adapting questionnaires to a web-based survey format and to problems with the stop function that was added. Implementing the main study using web-based surveys needs critical considerations according to the choice of the web tool and the recruitment process.

  20. The impact of patients’ chronic disease on family quality of life: an experience from 26 specialties

    PubMed Central

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Salek, M Sam; Finlay, Andrew Yule

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have assessed family quality of life in individual disease areas and specialties. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disease on family members of patients over a wide range of specialties and identify key impact areas. This information is essential in order to reveal the extent of this impact and to allow strategies to be developed to support the family members of patients with chronic disease. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 133 family members of mostly chronically ill patients from 26 medical specialties. Family members were invited to discuss all areas of their lives that had been affected by having an unwell relative. Thematic analysis was carried out using NVivo9® software. Results Most family members were female (61%), the partner or spouse of the patient (56%), or the parent (22%). Their mean age was 56.1 years (range: 21–85 years) and the mean duration of the patient’s disease was 8.9 years (range: 1 month to 60 years). Ten key themes of family quality of life were identified from interviews. The median number of themes reported by family members was six (range: 1–10). The key themes included: emotional impact (mentioned by 92% of subjects), daily activities (91%), family relationships (69%), sleep and health (67%), holidays (62%), involvement in medical care and support given to family members (61%), work and study (52%), financial impact (51%), social life (37%), and time planning (14%). Relationships between the themes were identified. Conclusion This large scale multi-specialty study has demonstrated the significant, yet similar, impact that illness can have on the quality of life of patients’ family members. Family quality of life is a previously neglected area of health care which needs to be addressed in order to provide appropriate support for the patient and the family unit. PMID:24092994

  1. Dual-earner families' stress levels and personal and life-style-related variables.

    PubMed

    Sund, K; Ostwald, S K

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated personal and life-style-related variables and stress levels in dual-earner families in the preschool stage of family development. The sample was composed of 92 families receiving child day care through a major day care provider in the Upper Midwest. The Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes was used to measure the family stress level. The majority of dual-earner families in this sample were experiencing a moderate level of family stress based on national stress level norms calculated for families in the preschool stage of development. Parental age and age of children were statistically related to the family stress level. Life-style-related variables statistically significant in this study were amount of income and satisfaction with income level, satisfaction with child care, and flexibility in vacation scheduling. Parents who could easily schedule vacations during the same time period had significantly lower family stress levels than parents who had difficulty scheduling vacations together, p less than .003. Additionally, parents who reported being forced to take separate vacations because of their work schedules had statistically higher scores on family stress than parents who had never had to take separate vacations because of work schedules, p less than .002.

  2. Dual-earner families' stress levels and personal and life-style-related variables.

    PubMed

    Sund, K; Ostwald, S K

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated personal and life-style-related variables and stress levels in dual-earner families in the preschool stage of family development. The sample was composed of 92 families receiving child day care through a major day care provider in the Upper Midwest. The Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes was used to measure the family stress level. The majority of dual-earner families in this sample were experiencing a moderate level of family stress based on national stress level norms calculated for families in the preschool stage of development. Parental age and age of children were statistically related to the family stress level. Life-style-related variables statistically significant in this study were amount of income and satisfaction with income level, satisfaction with child care, and flexibility in vacation scheduling. Parents who could easily schedule vacations during the same time period had significantly lower family stress levels than parents who had difficulty scheduling vacations together, p less than .003. Additionally, parents who reported being forced to take separate vacations because of their work schedules had statistically higher scores on family stress than parents who had never had to take separate vacations because of work schedules, p less than .002. PMID:3877914

  3. Taxonomy of Family Life Styles: III. Replication with Families with Severely Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Iris Tan; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The home environment and behavior of 97 families with severely mentally retarded children was examined in order to determine the presence of family types. Five unique family clusters were identified: cohesive, control-oriented, responsive-to-child, moral-religious-oriented, and achievement-oriented. (Author/DB)

  4. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics. PMID:27465775

  5. Hospice family members’ perceptions and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla; Kruse, Robin L.; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that more than 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, end-of-life care has consistently been found to be less than adequate in this setting. Even for those residents on hospice, end-of-life care has been found to be problematic. This study had two research questions; 1) How do family members of hospice nursing home residents differ in their anxiety, depression, quality of life, social networks, perceptions of pain medication, and health compared to family members of community dwelling hospice patients? 2) What are family members’ perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home setting? Methods This study is a secondary mixed methods analysis of interviews with family members of hospice nursing home residents and a comparative statistical analysis of standard outcome measures between family members of hospice patients in the nursing home and family member of hospice patients residing in the community. Results Outcome measures for family members of nursing home residents were compared (n=176) with family members of community dwelling hospice patients (n=267). The family members of nursing home residents reported higher quality of life however, levels of anxiety, depression, perceptions of pain medicine, and health were similar for hospice family members in the nursing home and in the community. Lending an understanding to the stress for hospice family members of nursing home residents concerns were found with collaboration between the nursing home and the hospice, nursing home care that did not meet family expectations, communication problems, and resident care concerns including pain management. Some family members reported positive end-of-life care experiences in the nursing home setting. Conclusion These interviews identify a multitude of barriers to quality end-of-life care in the nursing home setting, and demonstrate that support for family members is an essential part of quality end-of-life care for

  6. Assessment of the Quality of Life in Families with Children Who Have Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagran, B.; Schmidt, M.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research was conducted, within the framework of the International Family Quality of Life Project, on the quality of life of families with a member who has a disability. We concentrated on the nine specific domains that the family life measure used, and recorded data from five of its six measurement dimensions: "Importance,…

  7. Life history, diversity and distribution: A study of Japanese pteridophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Kato, Masako; Ricklefs, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies address the relationships between diversity or distribution and attributes of the physical environment. However, how these relationships are connected to variation in life history is poorly understood. This is particularly true in the case of pteridophytes. Japanese ferns and their allies comprise one of the best-known pteridophyte floras in the world. We analyzed ca 600 species of Japanese pteridophytes for which there is detailed information on distribution, reproduction, and chromosome number. Species richness was greatest in groups with a single reproductive mode (sexual, followed by apogamous), but distribution was greatest in species groups with multiple reproductive modes: sexual plus either sterile (irregular in meiosis) or apogamous. Geographical ranges varied greatly among species with small chromosome numbers but were uniformly small among species having high chromosome numbers. Seasonally green (mostly summer green) species had significantly larger distribution ranges than evergreen species. Endemic species had higher proportions of apogamy and sterility than non-endemic species. Seasonally green species had significantly larger distributional ranges, and a smaller proportion of species with apogamous reproduction, than evergreen species. There was no clear relationship between distribution and spore size, either among endemic species, non-endemic species, or all species combined. There was no relationship between spore size and chromosome number when all species were combined. However, positive relationships were detected within three of the nine largest genera, suggesting potential phylogenetic effects. We concluded that habitat availability, rather than dispersability, may be the limiting factor for the distribution of pteridophytes in Japan.

  8. Bone Health for Life: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Bone Basics Bone Health for Life: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family Publication available ... and preclinical sciences. Where Can People Find More Information About Bone Health? For more information on osteoporosis ...

  9. Family Wisdom: The 2,000 Most Important Things Ever Said about Parenting, Children, and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Susan

    Spanning centuries and cultures, this book offers 2,000 perceptive and helpful quotations and proverbs that encompass a rich spectrum of reflections on all aspects of family life. The quotations are drawn from philosophers, poets, novelists, psychologists, and child development experts and are divided into the following areas: (1) everyday living,…

  10. Training of health personnel as teachers of adolescents in family life education.

    PubMed

    Sito, A

    1988-01-01

    In view of the rapid social changes, the role and functions of parenting have become confused and more difficult. This has increased the need for active partnership between parents and professionals and between professionals involved in helping parents in their educative role. The concepts and practice of family life education in Poland are shortly discussed. A program of training health workers in family life education is presented.

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables.... § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life expectancy for... The following table, referred to as the Single Life Table, is used for determining the life...

  12. The Relation of Marital Adjustment and Family Functions With Quality of Life in Women

    PubMed Central

    Basharpoor, Sajjad; Sheykholeslami, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Given the immense importance of marital relationships in the quality of life, this research was conducted in order to investigate the relationships between marital adjustment and family functions with quality of life in women. The design of the current study was correlational. Seven hundred and thirty women were selected randomly among all women living in the province of Western Azerbaijan (Iran) and participated in this study. The sample responded to the Family Assessment Device, Dyadic Adjustment scale and Quality of Life questionnaire, individually in their homes. Collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression tests. The results showed that all dimensions of family functions and dyadic adjustment were positively correlated with quality of life in women. Results of multiple regression also revealed that 33 percent of total quality of life can be explained by family functions and 24 percent of this variable can be explained by dyadic adjustment. Our study demonstrated that women’s quality of life was affected by family functions and marital adjustment in family. PMID:27247668

  13. Taxonomy of Family Life Styles: I. Homes with TMR Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Iris Tan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cluster analysis of social environment variables for 115 families with children (average age 12 years) in trainable mentally retarded classes revealed five distinctive patterns: cohesive; harmonious; control oriented, somewhat unharmonious; low disclosure, unharmonious; child oriented, expressive; and disadvantaged, low morale. Comparisons and…

  14. Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use over the Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Klepinger, Daniel H.

    2007-01-01

    Using multiply imputed data from 5 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8,294), we investigated whether childhood family characteristics and childhood religious affiliation explain ethnic differences in marijuana and cocaine use in the last year. None of the childhood factors explained ethnic differences in drug use, though…

  15. GAIN Family Life and Child Care Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Neil; And Others

    This longitudinal study examined the California Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program, which mandated that recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) work, prepare for work, or attend school after their youngest child reached 6 years of age. Interviews with 255 single AFDC mothers with one or more children under the age…

  16. A Teacher's Point of View on Family Life (Sex) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlinski, Judy R.

    2007-01-01

    As a Family and Consumer Science educator at Union City High School in Union City, Pennsylvania, I have heard and seen a great deal. I have been teaching for 24 years at this rural Pennsylvania Middle/High School where teen pregnancy has always been a problem. Teaching students abstinence as the only method of birth control has been a major…

  17. Relationships between the Sociodemographic and Family Characteristics, Street Life Experiences and the Hopelessness of Street Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyan, Veli

    2005-01-01

    Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…

  18. Family Matters: Dyadic Agreement in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Bettina; Allen, Rebecca S.; Haley, Philip P.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined race/ethnicity and cultural context within hypothetical end-of-life medical decision scenarios and its influence on patient-proxy agreement. Design and Methods: Family dyads consisting of an older adult and 1 family member, typically an adult child, responded to questions regarding the older adult's preferences for…

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in the Family Caregivers of Stroke Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yangkun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of family caregivers of Chinese stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-three stroke patients consecutively admitted to a stroke clinic and their 123 family caregivers were recruited. The caregivers' HRQOLs were assessed…

  20. African American Family Life: Ecological and Cultural Diversity. Duke Series in Child Development and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C., Ed.; Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts from different disciplines to offer new perspectives on contemporary African American families. A wealth of knowledge is presented on the heterogeneity of Black family life today; the challenges and opportunities facing parents, children, and communities; and the impact on health and development of key…

  1. The Family Life Cycle and Critical Transitions: Utilizing Cinematherapy to Facilitate Understanding and Increase Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning successfully from one stage of development to the next in the family life cycle requires the accomplishment of certain developmental tasks. Couples and families who fail to accomplish these tasks often become "stuck" and unable to move forward. This impasse frequently leads to heightened stress reactions and crippled channels of…

  2. Life orientation in Finnish family caregivers' of persons with Alzheimer's disease: a diary study.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Tarja; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Koivisto, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Family caregivers provide the majority of home care of people with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we discuss family caregivers' life orientation and changes in life orientation during the first year after the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers' unstructured diaries (n = 83), of the first six months after diagnosis (years 2002-2004), were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two core themes emerged from the data analysis: the meaning of the onset of Alzheimer's disease for the lives of family caregivers, and restructuring life in its entirety. Family caregivers face challenges in their life orientation after the onset of their family members' Alzheimer's disease. Their personal milieu, familial cohesion, and conception of the future consequentially change. They face multiple challenges in the process of becoming caregivers. In this study, it was revealed that the process starts before the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and has an impact on their future. We conclude that family caregivers' well-being should be assessed at the time of the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23186523

  3. Family Life and Racial and Ethnic Diversity: An Assessment of Communitarianism, Liberalism, and Conservatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjoberg, Gideon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the debates among communitarians, liberals, and conservatives regarding contemporary family issues and critically evaluates these perspectives. Current orientations inadequately address the impact of large-scale bureaucratic organizations on family life and do not confront problems relating to ethnic and racial discrimination. Education…

  4. Life without plastic: A family experiment and biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Shelton, Janie F; Piegler, Kathrin; Wallner, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates has been associated with negative health outcomes in animal and human studies, and human bio-monitoring studies demonstrate widespread exposure in the US and Europe. Out of concern for the environment and health, individuals may attempt to modify their environment, diet, and consumer choices to avoid such exposures, but these natural experiments are rarely if ever quantitatively evaluated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites following an exposure reduction intervention among an Austrian family of five. Urine samples were taken shortly after the family had removed all plastic kitchenware, toys, and bathroom products, and started a concerted effort to eat less food packaged in plastic. Two-months later, urine samples were collected at a follow-up visit, and concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites were compared. Shortly after removal of plastic urinary concentrations of BPA were below limit of quantification in all samples. Phthalate concentrations were low, however, 10 of 14 investigated metabolites could be found above limit of quantification. After the two-month intervention, phthalate urinary concentrations had declined in some but not all family members. In the mother most phthalate metabolites increased. The low levels might be partly due to the environmentally conscious lifestyle of the family and partly due to the fact that body levels had dropped already because of the delay of four days between finishing removal and first measurement. Further two months avoidance of dietary exposure and exposure to environmental plastics reduced urinary concentrations for all but one metabolite in the oldest son only, but decreased somewhat in all family members except the mother. PMID:27235111

  5. Health Disparities in Mid-to-Late Life: The Role of Earlier Life Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between neighborhoods of residence in young adulthood and health in mid to late life in the United States are examined using the 1968-2005 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The sample consists of persons who were aged 20-30 in 1968 and are followed for a period of 38 years (N=2,730). Four-level hierarchical random effects models of self-assessed general health status as a function of individual, family, and neighborhood factors are estimated. Using the original sampling design of the PSID, we analyze adult health trajectories of married couples and neighbors followed from young adulthood through elderly ages to assess the magnitudes of the possible causal effects of family and neighborhood characteristics in young adulthood on health in mid to late life. Estimates suggest disparities in neighborhood conditions in young adulthood account for one-quarter of the variation in mid-to-late-life health. Living in poor neighborhoods during young adulthood is strongly associated with negative health outcomes in later life. This result is robust even in the presence of a reasonably large amount of potential unobservable individual and family factors that may significantly affect both neighborhood of residence and subsequent health status. Racial differences in health status in mid to late life are also associated with family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions earlier in life. Three quarters of the black-white gap in health status at ages over 55 can be accounted for by differences in childhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood and family factors in young adulthood. PMID:22212443

  6. Health disparities in mid-to-late life: the role of earlier life family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rucker C; Schoeni, Robert F; Rogowski, Jeannette A

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between neighborhoods of residence in young adulthood and health in mid-to-late life in the United States are examined using the 1968-2005 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The sample consists of persons who were aged 20-30 in 1968 and are followed for a period of 38 years (N=2730). Four-level hierarchical random effects models of self-assessed general health status as a function of individual, family, and neighborhood factors are estimated. Using the original sampling design of the PSID, we analyze adult health trajectories of married couples and neighbors followed from young adulthood through elderly ages to assess the magnitudes of the possible causal effects of family and neighborhood characteristics in young adulthood on health in mid-to-late life. Estimates suggest disparities in neighborhood conditions in young adulthood account for one-quarter of the variation in mid-to-late life health. Living in poor neighborhoods during young adulthood is strongly associated with negative health outcomes in later-life. This result is robust even in the presence of a reasonably large amount of potential unobservable individual and family factors that may significantly affect both neighborhood of residence and subsequent health status. Racial differences in health status in mid-to-late life are also associated with family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions earlier in life. Three quarters of the black-white gap in health status at ages over 55 can be accounted for by differences in childhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood and family factors in young adulthood.

  7. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  8. Family Literacy: Community & Family Life Materials. A Guide to Recent and Recommended Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Martha A.; And Others

    The books in this family literacy guide are listed alphabetically by title in each of three sections. The author, publisher, copyright date, reading level, type of book, number of pages, International Standard Book Number, price, and annotation comprise each entry. The topic of the family contains 11 titles: "Angry Feelings"; "Beginning with…

  9. The complex nature of family support across the life span: Implications for psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and older adults (ages 50+). A sample of 881 adults (72% White; 26% Black) was drawn from the longitudinal Social Relations, Age, and Health Study. Structural equation modeling indicated that among young and middle-aged adults, increasing family negativity was associated with increases in depressive symptoms over time. In contrast, among older adults, lowered proportion of family in network and an increasing number of family members in the network (i.e., family size) were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms. These findings were moderated by family negativity. Among older adults with low family negativity, having a lower proportion of family and larger family size were associated with decreasing depressive symptoms, but there was no effect among those reporting high family negativity. Overall, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the complex, developmental nature of how family support influences well-being across the life span and highlights unique age differences. PMID:25602936

  10. Relationship between Individual Quality of Life and Family Quality of Life for People with Intellectual Disability Living in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, M.; Bianco, A.; Rossi, M.; Scuticchio, D.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is substantial literature investigating quality of life (QoL) of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). QoL of families of people with ID is emerging as an important field of research. Despite this, there is a lack of studies regarding their relationship. Aim: The present paper aimed to study the relationship between QoL…

  11. Nursing Home Life: A Guide for Residents and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This guide represents part of AARP's comprehensive consumer education effort in the area of long-term care. The purpose of the guide is to provide information for consumers as they look for a nursing home, arrange for admission, and adjust to life in the home after admission. Section 1 introduces the guide. Section 2 describes how to assess needs,…

  12. Family, Close Relatives, Friends: Life Satisfaction among Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, Arzu; Oztop, Hulya; Dogan, Nuri; Guven, Seval

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of socioeconomic (age, education, marital status, income, and health) and demographic variables and the quantity and quality of relationships with adult children, grandchildren, siblings and friends on life satisfaction of the elderly. Participants were 200 persons older than 60 years of age. Hierarchical…

  13. The Impact of Child, Family, and Professional Support Characteristics on the Quality of Life in Families of Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kate; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of young children with disabilities are faced with ongoing challenges that impact various aspects of family life. Given the increasing emphasis on promoting positive outcomes in these families, the overall aim of the current study was to examine the contribution of child, family, and support characteristics to the quality of…

  14. Family income and young adolescents’ perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Design and objectives Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents’ perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). Results The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Conclusions Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. PMID:26957529

  15. Exploring the Literacy Practices of Refugee Families Enrolled in a Book Distribution Program and an Intergenerational Family Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Sunita; Sylvia, Monica R.; Ridzi, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study presents findings of the literacy practices of Burmese refugee families and their interaction with a book distribution program paired with an intergenerational family literacy program. The project was organized at the level of Bronfenbrenner's exosystem (in "Ecology of human development". Cambridge, Harvard…

  16. Universality of bereavement life review for spirituality and depression in bereaved families.

    PubMed

    Ando, Michiyo; Sakaguchi, Yukihiro; Shiihara, Yasufumi; Izuhara, Kumi

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the Bereavement Life Review on depression and spiritual well-being of bereaved families in a setting that does not specialize in palliative care. The participants were 20 bereaved family members who underwent the Bereavement Life Review over 2 sessions in 2 weeks. Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition scores significantly decreased from 14.4 ± 9.2 to 11.6 ± 7.4 (t = 2.15, P = .045) and Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual scores increased from 24.3 ± 10.1 to 25.9 ± 11 (t = -1.0, P = .341) from pre- to postintervention. These results show that the Bereavement Life Review can decrease depression and improve spiritual well-being of bereaved families after the death of a family member in a setting without specialized palliative care. The results also suggest the universality of this therapy.

  17. Universality of bereavement life review for spirituality and depression in bereaved families.

    PubMed

    Ando, Michiyo; Sakaguchi, Yukihiro; Shiihara, Yasufumi; Izuhara, Kumi

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the Bereavement Life Review on depression and spiritual well-being of bereaved families in a setting that does not specialize in palliative care. The participants were 20 bereaved family members who underwent the Bereavement Life Review over 2 sessions in 2 weeks. Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition scores significantly decreased from 14.4 ± 9.2 to 11.6 ± 7.4 (t = 2.15, P = .045) and Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual scores increased from 24.3 ± 10.1 to 25.9 ± 11 (t = -1.0, P = .341) from pre- to postintervention. These results show that the Bereavement Life Review can decrease depression and improve spiritual well-being of bereaved families after the death of a family member in a setting without specialized palliative care. The results also suggest the universality of this therapy. PMID:23677768

  18. Family of Oxygen-Oxygen Radial Distribution Functions for Water.

    PubMed

    Brookes, David H; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2015-08-01

    In a typical X-ray diffraction experiment, the elastically scattered intensity, I(Q), is the experimental observable. I(Q) contains contributions from both intramolecular as well as intermolecular correlations embodied in the scattering factors, HOO(Q) and HOH(Q), with negligible contributions from HHH(Q). Thus, to accurately define the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function, gOO(r), a model of the electron density is required to accurately weigh the HOO(Q) component relative to the intramolecular and oxygen-hydrogen correlations from the total intensity observable. In this work, we carefully define the electron density model and its underlying assumptions and more explicitly utilize two restraints on the allowable gOO(r) functions, which must conform to both very low experimental errors at high Q and the need to satisfy the isothermal compressibility at low Q. Although highly restrained by these conditions, the underdetermined nature of the problem is such that we present a family of gOO(r) values that provide equally good agreement with the high-Q intensity and compressibility restraints and with physically correct behavior at small r. PMID:26267185

  19. Living ordinary family life with an allergic child-the mother's perspective.

    PubMed

    Alanne, Soili; Laitinen, Kirsi; Paavilainen, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Ecocultural theory considering family as an entity may serve as a new point of view instead of "impact of disease"-perspective. Aims were to reveal ecocultural themes and activities of daily routines in the treatment of a child's food allergy and eczema. Interviews (N=24) were held with mothers with allergic children aged 12 months and mothers repeat interviews at 24 months. The theme; "living an ordinary family life", was implemented across the family activities of routines essential for treating the child's allergy. New or altered treatment regimens can be tailored to families on the basis of existing activities.

  20. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  1. Reconstructing the Brothers Grimm: new tales for step-family life.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A C

    1999-01-01

    Step-families are situated within the sociopolitical context of family change and are examined as a prototype of the "post-modern" family. This essay looks at the cultural construction of step-family life and proposes a model for collaboratively reconstructing stories that liberate step-relationships from the legacy of the Brothers Grimm, deconstructing the stories of failure, insufficiency, and neglect. Building on narrative and social constructionist ways of thinking about families, the concept of side-shadowing (a hermeneutic approach from literary/historical criticism) is introduced to elucidate how therapists can help family members discover ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are both more personally satisfying and more congruent with the changed context of family life. Two therapeutic challenges are high-lighted: reconceptualizing what it means to be a step-family and coming to terms with differential attachment in relationships while working with step-families. The essay ends with a fairy tale for the 21st century.

  2. Determinants of Change in Stroke-Specific Quality of Life After Distributed Constraint-Induced Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Snow, Wilaiwan M.; Wang, Tien-Ni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We identified the predictive factors of change in quality of life (QOL) after a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (dCIT) among stroke survivors. METHOD. Seventy-four participants were treated with dCIT. We identified eight potential determinants of change: age, gender, side of lesion, time since stroke, cognitive status, motor impairment of the upper extremity, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS–QOL) was used to assess QOL. RESULTS. Right-sided lesion and onset >17 mo earlier determined greater improvement in the SS–QOL Energy domain. Onset >10 mo earlier, poorer IADL performance, and age >68 yr predicted improvement in the Family Role, Mobility, and Mood domains, respectively. CONCLUSION. Side of lesion, time since stroke, IADL performance, and age were the most important determinants of QOL in patients receiving stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:23245783

  3. Parental Stress, Socioeconomic Status, Satisfaction with Services, and Family Quality of Life among Parents of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Heather F.

    2011-01-01

    Family quality of life (FQOL) refers to the degree to which families of individuals with disabilities are able to meet their basic needs, enjoy time together, and pursue leisure interests and activities (Park et al., 2003). Researchers have identified barriers that families of individuals with disabilities encounter as they pursue a life of…

  4. Altruism within the Family: A Comparison of Father and Mother Using Life Happiness and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Qiyan; Ho, Kong Weng; Ho, Kong Chong

    2013-01-01

    Studies on intra-household allocation of resources show that exogenous increase in mothers' income has larger effect on children's outcomes than the same increase in fathers' income, suggesting gender differences may exist in parents' altruism towards their children. Using self-reported life happiness and life satisfaction, we investigate the…

  5. Adolescent attitudes and relevance to family life education programs.

    PubMed

    Unni, Jeeson C

    2010-02-01

    The study was conducted in seven private coeducational English-medium schools in Cochin to understand adolescent attitudes in this part of the country. Queries submitted by students (n=10,660) and responses to separate pretested questionnaires for boys (n=886 received) and girls (n=589 received) were analysed. The study showed a lacuna of knowledge among adolescents with the most frequently asked queries being on masturbation, and sex and sexuality. More than 50% of adolescents received information on sex and sexuality from peers; boys had started masturbating by 12 yr age and 93% were doing so by 15 yr age. Although 73% of girls were told about menstruation by their parents, 32% were not aware, at menarche, that such an event would occur and only 8% were aware of all aspects of maintaining menstrual hygiene. 19% of boys succumbed to peer pressure into reading/viewing pornography; more than 50% of adolescents admitted to having had an infatuation around 13 yrs of age or after. 13% of boys admitted to having been initiated into smoking by friends; mostly between 14-16 yrs age; 6.5% boys had consumed alcohol with peers or at family functions, starting between ages of 15 to 17 yrs. Though >70% of adolescents were aware about AIDS, adequate knowledge about its spread and prevention was lacking.

  6. Determining the familial risk distribution of colorectal cancer: a data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Chau, Rowena; Jenkins, Mark A; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Giles, Graham G; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to characterize the distribution of colorectal cancer risk using family history of cancers by data mining. Family histories for 10,066 colorectal cancer cases recruited to population cancer registries of the Colon Cancer Family Registry were analyzed using a data mining framework. A novel index was developed to quantify familial cancer aggregation. Artificial neural network was used to identify distinct categories of familial risk. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer were calculated for each category. We identified five major, and 66 minor categories of familial risk for developing colorectal cancer. The distribution the major risk categories were: (1) 7% of families (SIR = 7.11; 95% CI 6.65-7.59) had a strong family history of colorectal cancer; (2) 13% of families (SIR = 2.94; 95% CI 2.78-3.10) had a moderate family history of colorectal cancer; (3) 11% of families (SIR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.12-1.36) had a strong family history of breast cancer and a weak family history of colorectal cancer; (4) 9 % of families (SIR = 1.06; 95 % CI 0.96-1.18) had strong family history of prostate cancer and weak family history of colorectal cancer; and (5) 60% of families (SIR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57-0.65) had a weak family history of all cancers. There is a wide variation of colorectal cancer risk that can be categorized by family history of cancer, with a strong gradient of colorectal cancer risk between the highest and lowest risk categories. The risk of colorectal cancer for people with the highest risk category of family history (7% of the population) was 12-times that for people in the lowest risk category (60%) of the population. Data mining was proven an effective approach for gaining insight into the underlying cancer aggregation patterns and for categorizing familial risk of colorectal cancer.

  7. The Facts of Life--A Guide for Teens and Their Families. Family Communication Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    This book is a guide for teens and their families. The following topics are discussed: (1) All of Us Are Sexual; (2) Our Sexual Bodies; (3) As Boys Become Men; (4) As Girls Become Women; (5) How Pregnancy Happens; (6) Expressing Ourselves Sexually; (7) Protecting Ourselves Sexually; (8) Notes for Parents; and (9) Helpful Hints for Parents.

  8. "Don't lock me out": life-story interviews of family business owners facing succession.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Alexandra; Breunlin, Douglas; Panattoni, Katherine; Gustafson, Mara; Ransburg, David; Ryan, Carol; Hammerman, Thomas; Terrien, Jean

    2011-06-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to analyze life-story interviews obtained from 10 family business owners regarding their experiences in their businesses with the goal of understanding the complexities of family business succession. The grounded theory that emerged from this study is best understood as a potential web of constraints that can bear on the succession process. Coding of these interviews revealed four key influences, which seem to have the potential to facilitate or constrain the family business owner's approach to succession. Influence 1, "The business within," captures intrapsychic dynamics of differentiation and control. Influence 2, "The marriage," addresses how traditional gender roles shape succession. Influence 3, "The adult children," examines the role of having a natural (accidental, organic, passively groomed) successor. Influence 4, "The vision of retirement," captures the impact of owners' notions of life post-succession. Family therapists frequently encounter family systems in which the family business is facing succession. Even if succession is not the presenting problem, and even if the business owner is in the indirect (rather than direct) system, this research reminds clinicians of the importance of the family's story about the family business. Therefore, clinical implications and recommendations are included.

  9. "Don't lock me out": life-story interviews of family business owners facing succession.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Alexandra; Breunlin, Douglas; Panattoni, Katherine; Gustafson, Mara; Ransburg, David; Ryan, Carol; Hammerman, Thomas; Terrien, Jean

    2011-06-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to analyze life-story interviews obtained from 10 family business owners regarding their experiences in their businesses with the goal of understanding the complexities of family business succession. The grounded theory that emerged from this study is best understood as a potential web of constraints that can bear on the succession process. Coding of these interviews revealed four key influences, which seem to have the potential to facilitate or constrain the family business owner's approach to succession. Influence 1, "The business within," captures intrapsychic dynamics of differentiation and control. Influence 2, "The marriage," addresses how traditional gender roles shape succession. Influence 3, "The adult children," examines the role of having a natural (accidental, organic, passively groomed) successor. Influence 4, "The vision of retirement," captures the impact of owners' notions of life post-succession. Family therapists frequently encounter family systems in which the family business is facing succession. Even if succession is not the presenting problem, and even if the business owner is in the indirect (rather than direct) system, this research reminds clinicians of the importance of the family's story about the family business. Therefore, clinical implications and recommendations are included. PMID:21564058

  10. Latino Families in the United States. A Resourcebook for Family Life Education = Las Familias Latinas en los Estados Unidos. Recursos para la Capacitacion Familiar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this resource book are to increase family life educators' knowledge and understanding of Latinos and to encourage advocacy by Latinos for appropriate family life programs in their communities. English and Spanish versions of the same text are included. There are six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the book's objectives and…

  11. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Early Childhood: Quality of Life for Children and Families

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Angela R.; Biggs, Sarah N.; Walter, Lisa M.; Embuldeniya, Upeka S.; Davey, Margot J.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Anderson, Vicki; Trinder, John; Horne, Rosemary S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize health-related quality of life (QOL) in preschool children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and their families compared with nonsnoring control patients in the community. It was hypothesized that children with SDB and their families would have poorer QOL than control children, that a relationship would be found between SDB severity and QOL, and that even children with mild SDB and their families would have reduced QOL. Participants and Methods: A clinical sample of preschool children (3-5 y) with SDB diagnosed by gold standard polysomnography (primary snoring, PS = 56, mild obstructive sleep apnea, OSA = 35, moderate/severe OSA = 24) and control children recruited from the community (n = 38) were studied. Parents completed health-related QOL and parenting stress questionnaires. Results: Children and families in the PS and mild OSA groups had consistently poorer QOL than control children (both P < 0.05-0.001), based on parent ratings, and parents of children with PS had elevated stress ratings relative to control children (P < 0.05-0.001). The moderate/severe OSA group differed from the control group on select measures of parent and family QOL (worry, P < 0.001 and total family impact, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that sleep disordered breathing is associated with reduced quality of life in preschool children and their families. These results support previous quality of life findings in older children and in samples with broader age ranges. Furthermore, clinically referred preschool children with mild forms of sleep disordered breathing may be at greatest risk. Citation: Jackman AR; Biggs SN; Walter LM; Embuldeniya US; Davey MJ; Nixon GM; Anderson V; Trinder J; Horne RSC. Sleep disordered breathing in early childhood: quality of life for children and families. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1639-1646. PMID:24179296

  12. Life history traits to predict biogeographic species distributions in bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, V.; Rinaldi, A.; Sarà, G.

    2015-10-01

    Organismal fecundity ( F) and its relationship with body size (BS) are key factors in predicting species distribution under current and future scenarios of global change. A functional trait-based dynamic energy budget (FT-DEB) is proposed as a mechanistic approach to predict the variation of F and BS as function of environmental correlates using two marine bivalves as model species ( Mytilus galloprovincialis and Brachidontes pharaonis). Validation proof of model skill (i.e., degree of correspondence between model predictions and field observations) and stationarity (i.e., ability of a model generated from data collected at one place/time to predict processes at another place/time) was provided to test model performance in predicting the bivalve distribution throughout the 22 sites in the Central Mediterranean Sea under local conditions of food density and body temperature. Model skill and stationarity were tested through the estimate of commission (i.e., proportion of species' absences predicted present) and omission (i.e., proportion of presences predicted absent) errors of predictions by comparing mechanistic predicted vs. observed F and BS values throughout the study area extrapolated by lab experiments and literature search. The resulting relationship was reliable for both species, and body size and fecundity were highly correlated in M. galloprovincialis compared to B. pharaonis; FT-DEB showed correct predictions of presence in more than 75 % of sites, and the regression between BS predicted vs. observed was highly significant in both species. Whilst recognising the importance of biotic interactions in shaping the distribution of species, our FT-DEB approach provided reliable quantitative estimates of where our species had sufficient F to support local populations or suggesting reproductive failure. Mechanistically, estimating F and BS as key traits of species life history can also be addressed within a broader, scale-dependent context that surpasses the

  13. Life history traits to predict biogeographic species distributions in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Montalto, V; Rinaldi, A; Sarà, G

    2015-10-01

    Organismal fecundity (F) and its relationship with body size (BS) are key factors in predicting species distribution under current and future scenarios of global change. A functional trait-based dynamic energy budget (FT-DEB) is proposed as a mechanistic approach to predict the variation of F and BS as function of environmental correlates using two marine bivalves as model species (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Brachidontes pharaonis). Validation proof of model skill (i.e., degree of correspondence between model predictions and field observations) and stationarity (i.e., ability of a model generated from data collected at one place/time to predict processes at another place/time) was provided to test model performance in predicting the bivalve distribution throughout the 22 sites in the Central Mediterranean Sea under local conditions of food density and body temperature. Model skill and stationarity were tested through the estimate of commission (i.e., proportion of species' absences predicted present) and omission (i.e., proportion of presences predicted absent) errors of predictions by comparing mechanistic predicted vs. observed F and BS values throughout the study area extrapolated by lab experiments and literature search. The resulting relationship was reliable for both species, and body size and fecundity were highly correlated in M. galloprovincialis compared to B. pharaonis; FT-DEB showed correct predictions of presence in more than 75 % of sites, and the regression between BS predicted vs. observed was highly significant in both species. Whilst recognising the importance of biotic interactions in shaping the distribution of species, our FT-DEB approach provided reliable quantitative estimates of where our species had sufficient F to support local populations or suggesting reproductive failure. Mechanistically, estimating F and BS as key traits of species life history can also be addressed within a broader, scale-dependent context that surpasses the

  14. Life history traits to predict biogeographic species distributions in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Montalto, V; Rinaldi, A; Sarà, G

    2015-10-01

    Organismal fecundity (F) and its relationship with body size (BS) are key factors in predicting species distribution under current and future scenarios of global change. A functional trait-based dynamic energy budget (FT-DEB) is proposed as a mechanistic approach to predict the variation of F and BS as function of environmental correlates using two marine bivalves as model species (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Brachidontes pharaonis). Validation proof of model skill (i.e., degree of correspondence between model predictions and field observations) and stationarity (i.e., ability of a model generated from data collected at one place/time to predict processes at another place/time) was provided to test model performance in predicting the bivalve distribution throughout the 22 sites in the Central Mediterranean Sea under local conditions of food density and body temperature. Model skill and stationarity were tested through the estimate of commission (i.e., proportion of species' absences predicted present) and omission (i.e., proportion of presences predicted absent) errors of predictions by comparing mechanistic predicted vs. observed F and BS values throughout the study area extrapolated by lab experiments and literature search. The resulting relationship was reliable for both species, and body size and fecundity were highly correlated in M. galloprovincialis compared to B. pharaonis; FT-DEB showed correct predictions of presence in more than 75 % of sites, and the regression between BS predicted vs. observed was highly significant in both species. Whilst recognising the importance of biotic interactions in shaping the distribution of species, our FT-DEB approach provided reliable quantitative estimates of where our species had sufficient F to support local populations or suggesting reproductive failure. Mechanistically, estimating F and BS as key traits of species life history can also be addressed within a broader, scale-dependent context that surpasses the

  15. Supporting family caregivers at the end of life: "they don't know what they don't know".

    PubMed

    Rabow, Michael W; Hauser, Joshua M; Adams, Jocelia

    2004-01-28

    Even for patients receiving complex, intensive medical care for serious and life-threatening illness, family caregiving is typically at the core of what sustains patients at the end of life. The amorphous relationship between physicians and the families of patients at the end of life presents both challenges and opportunities for which physicians may be unprepared. Families play important roles in the practical and emotional aspects of patient care and in decision making at the end of life. At the same time, family members may carry significant burdens as a result of their work. Through the perspectives of the wife, daughter, and home care nurse of a patient who died from pancreatic cancer, we illustrate the range of family caregiver experiences and suggest potentially helpful physician interventions. We describe 5 burdens of family caregiving (time and logistics, physical tasks, financial costs, emotional burdens and mental health risks, and physical health risks) and review the responsibilities of physicians to family caregivers. Based on available evidence, we identify 5 areas of opportunity for physicians to be of service to family members caring for patients at the end of life, including promoting excellent communication with family, encouraging appropriate advance care planning and decision making, supporting home care, demonstrating empathy for family emotions and relationships, and attending to family grief and bereavement. In caring well for family caregivers at the end of life, physicians may not only improve the experiences of patients and family but also find greater sustenance and meaning in their own work.

  16. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: the role of demands and resources.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work-family interface. The basic proposition is that life stages partly determine career development, and consequently the specific working conditions (job demands and job resources) and family conditions (family demands and family resources) that individuals are exposed to. As a result, the specific demands and resources in the work and family domains determine to what extent individuals experience that work and family are conflicting or enriching life domains. In this review we suggest that individuals in early adulthood will experience high inter-role conflict and low facilitation due to high demands and low resources in both life domains, while individuals in late adulthood will experience the opposite pattern; that is, low conflict and high facilitation due to low demands and high resources in both domains. Individuals in middle adulthood will experience high work-family conflict but also high family-work facilitation due to the presence of high job demands and resources in both life domains. Integrating life and career stage perspectives and the experience of work-family interface is of notable practical utility because it provides a mechanism to make more informed decisions about the relative need for and corresponding benefits of work-family programs.

  17. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: the role of demands and resources.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work-family interface. The basic proposition is that life stages partly determine career development, and consequently the specific working conditions (job demands and job resources) and family conditions (family demands and family resources) that individuals are exposed to. As a result, the specific demands and resources in the work and family domains determine to what extent individuals experience that work and family are conflicting or enriching life domains. In this review we suggest that individuals in early adulthood will experience high inter-role conflict and low facilitation due to high demands and low resources in both life domains, while individuals in late adulthood will experience the opposite pattern; that is, low conflict and high facilitation due to low demands and high resources in both domains. Individuals in middle adulthood will experience high work-family conflict but also high family-work facilitation due to the presence of high job demands and resources in both life domains. Integrating life and career stage perspectives and the experience of work-family interface is of notable practical utility because it provides a mechanism to make more informed decisions about the relative need for and corresponding benefits of work-family programs. PMID:22793870

  18. Value attainment: an explanation for the negative effects of work-family conflict on job and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Perrewé, P L; Hochwarter, W A; Kiewitz, C

    1999-10-01

    Perceptions of work interfering with family life and family issues interfering with work are examined as 2 distinct constructs representing work-family conflict. Experienced work-family conflict is argued to reduce one's value attainment which, in turn, lowers both job and life satisfaction. This study examines value attainment as a mediating variable in the work-family conflict and satisfaction relationship. Responses from 270 hotel managers indicate that value attainment either partially or fully mediates the relationship between work interference with family and family interference with work and both job and life satisfaction. Value attainment is argued to be a meaningful explanatory variable for the negative relationship between work-family conflict and job-life satisfaction.

  19. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  20. The Family Context of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence on the Behavioral Phenotype and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis In this review, we report the findings from our longitudinal program of research examining the bidirectional influences of the family environment on the behavioral phenotype of autism, and describe a newly developed family psychoeducation program, titled Transitioning Together, designed to reduce family stress, address behavior problems, and improve the overall quality of life of adolescents with autism and their families. In our search for characteristics of the family environment that influence the behavioral phenotype of adolescents and adults with autism, we focus on both positive dimensions of family life, such as warmth and positive remarks that may promote adaptive behavior in individuals with autism, as well as negative dimensions, such as high levels of criticism that may result in an escalation of behavior problems. We find that high levels of maternal warmth and positive remarks are associated with the abatement of behavior problems over time, while high levels of maternal criticism are associated with increasing levels of behavior problems in adolescents and adults with autism. These patterns of relationships have been replicated in a longitudinal study of families of children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome, and are consistent with other studies examining the impact of the family on the behavior of children with developmental disabilities. These findings suggest that the family environment is an important target for interventions not only to reduce family stress but also to improve the behavioral functioning of children, adolescents or adults with ASD. Building upon a well-developed intervention for families of individuals with psychiatric conditions, we report on the development of Transitioning Together, a psychoeducation program targeted to families with adolescents with autism who are approaching high school exit, a difficult transition stage for individuals with autism that is often marked by negative changes in behavior problems

  1. The cosmos of the Paris apartment: working-class family life in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bachelard's notion of “cosmicity” this article investigates the living conditions of Parisian working-class families in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social critics claimed that the lack of privacy in urban apartments made decent family life impossible. However, evidence from judicial dossiers concerning attentat à la pudeur (intimate assault against children) illuminates the lived experience of children and their families in Paris apartments. Rather than a sharp divide between public and private, children experienced their apartment homes as the core of a social and spatial world under the surveillance of parents, neighbors, and other children.

  2. Life Stress, Maternal Optimism, and Adolescent Competence in Single Mother, African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Conger, Rand D.; Widaman, Keith; Cutrona, Carolyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and internalizing problems were associated with lower levels of maternal warmth and child management and with lower child school competence. Extending previous studies, we found that maternal optimism was a positive resource, predicting lower levels of maternal internalizing symptoms and higher levels of effective child management and moderating the impact of economic stress on maternal internalizing problems. These findings highlight the need for further investigation of processes and resources that promote positive outcomes for African American mother-headed families and single mother families in general. PMID:20731493

  3. Predictors and processes associated with home-based family therapists' professional quality of life.

    PubMed

    Macchi, C R; Johnson, Matthew D; Durtschi, Jared A

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether home-based family therapists' (HBFT) workload and clinical experience were associated with therapists' professional quality of life directly and indirectly through self-care activities and frequency of clinical supervision. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling with a sample of 225 home-based therapists. Results suggested that therapists' workload and HBFT experience significantly predicted therapists' professional quality of life. These associations between therapists' workload and HBFT experience were partially mediated through participation in self-care and frequency of clinical supervision. Implications for improving therapists' quality of life are discussed as a function of therapists' workload, clinical experience, self-care, and supervision.

  4. Investigation of relationship between social capital and quality of life in female headed families

    PubMed Central

    Rimaz, Shahnaz; Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Vesali, Samira; Saiepour, Narges; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although most studies on female-headed families focus on women's access to social support, the associations between social capital and quality of life in these families are unclear in many societies (such as Iran). This study aimed to determine the associations between social capital and quality of life in Iranian female headed families. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 152 female-headed households supported by Tehran Municipality, district 9 from April 2011 to July 2012. Convenience sampling was employed. Data were collected using demographic questionnaire, the Iranian version of World Health Organization Quality of Life, and the Word Bank Social Capital. Descriptive and multiple regression methods were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean±SD age of participants was 50.8±13.8 years. Findings revealed that in quality of life, the domains of environment health and social relation received the lowest (9.87 ± 2.41) and the highest (12.61 ±3.43) scores respectively; and with respect to social capital, membership in groups and social trust had the least (19.61 ± 17.11) and the most (51.04 ± 17.37) scores, respectively. The multiple regression model revealed a significant positive association between total score of the quality of life and the total score for the social capital (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Findings suggest that quality of life of female-headed families and social capital domains are strongly related. This means that by improving the social capital, women’s life can also be improved. PMID:26793661

  5. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  6. Family Socioeconomic Status and Student Adaptation to School Life: Looking beyond Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Renato G.; Novo, Rosa F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this quantitative, cross-sectional study we analyse the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and students' adaptation to school life, as expressed through several indicators of achievement, integration (adaptation to transitions, behaviour problems, risk behaviours, interpersonal difficulties, participation in…

  7. "I Am-We Are": Personal and Social Pathways to Further Study, Work and Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornholt, L. J.; Maras, P. M.; Robinson, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This project explores the apparent layers in motivation for young people's plans in order to extend Pathways Theory. We bring together personal, relational and group motivation to explain the planned pathways to study, work and family life. Location was an Australian town, close to the national socio-economic average, to control broad social…

  8. The Organization of Work, Schooling and Family Life in Philadelphia, 1838-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael B.; And Others

    Thirteen papers which analyze the relations of work, schooling and family life in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1838 to 1920, are provided in this report. The papers (and their authors) are the following: (1) "The Transition to Adulthood Among White Philadelphians, 1850-1880" (Michael B. Katz and John Modell); (2) "Work, Household, and the…

  9. The Impact of Japanese Corporate Transnationalism on Men's Involvement in Family Life and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuike, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Japanese corporate transnationalism affects husbands' involvement in family life and marital relationships primarily from a perspective of wives. It is based on interviews with 22 Japanese wives and 4 husbands. Studies of Japanese corporate transnationalism treat men as mere supervisors to local workers or…

  10. Scaling up Sexuality Education in Senegal: Integrating Family Life Education into the National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Katie; Traoré Seck, Aminata; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, school-based sexuality education has evolved over 20 years from family life education (FLE) pilot projects into cross-curricular subjects located within the national curriculum of primary and secondary schools. We conducted a literature review and semi-structured interviews to gather information regarding the scale and nature of FLE…

  11. Good Works: Highlights of a Study on the Center for Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Susan

    This report summarizes findings from a comprehensive evaluation of the Center for Family Life (CFL) in Sunset Park, Brooklyn, New York. CFL provides assessment and counseling, community-school programs, parent education workshops, adult employment programs, foster grandparent programs, neighborhood foster care programs, and a thrift shop. The…

  12. Husbands' and Wives' Perceptions of Marital Fairness across the Family Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated marital fairness, or subjective balance between spouses' gains and losses, by surveying 134 married Australians representing 5 family life cycle phases. Findings showed husbands felt more equitably treated both initially and after children's departure than during phases with children in home, wives showed little variation with phase, and…

  13. Sexuality and Family Life Education: An Annotated Bibliography of Curricula for Sale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallingby, Leigh

    1985-01-01

    This document contains an annotated bibliography of sexuality and family life education curricula which are available for sale. The curricula are listed without evaluation and, because of topic overlap, specific content areas covered in each curriculum are not listed in the annotations. It is noted, however, that topics often covered include…

  14. An Exercise in Realism: Contemporary Family Life. Profiles of Promise 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Joyce

    The high school football coach at Parkrose Senior High School explains his involvement as one of two teachers of a Contemporary Family Life course as an attempt to give students an opportunity to develop an understanding of the problems generated by marriage. One of several elective mini-courses offered to all seniors who have completed a required…

  15. Work-Life Compendium, 2001: 150 Canadian Statistics on Work, Family & Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen L.; Lero, Donna S.; Rooney, Jennifer A.

    The issue of integrating work and family responsibilities has been the subject of federal, provincial, and territorial policy planning and several task forces in Canada. This report plus executive summary, designed to inform the dialogue and stimulate continued discussion, brings together a wide variety of work-life facts and figures related to…

  16. Family Life Education for Young Adolescents: A Summary of Three Quasi-Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Elicia J.; And Others

    The impact of three family life education courses for black, inner-city, junior high school students was the topic of this study. A total of 172 students in 7th and 8th grades participated in experimental and control groups. The programs varied in their intensity; students in the experimental group met for 40 minutes once a week for 15 weeks…

  17. The Adolescent with Down's Syndrome: Life for the Teenager and for the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sue; Sacks, Ben

    The book presents the results of a survey of the daily life and attitudes of 90 English families with an adolescent with Down Syndrome (DS). The first chapter reviews the typical development of DS children. Chapter 2 provides demographic data including schooling (94% attended schools for children with severe learning difficulties), residence (83%…

  18. Family Resiliency, Uncertainty, Optimism, and the Quality of Life of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael P.; Berven, Norman L.; Chan, Fong; Tschopp, Molly K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to contribute to the understanding of quality of life as it is experienced by a community-based, nonclinical sample of individuals with HIV/AIDS by applying family resiliency theory and cognitive appraisal concepts of uncertainty and optimism. Through the use of a Web-based survey, 125 individuals with HIV/AIDS…

  19. Infertility: Towards an Awareness of a Need among Family Life Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Nancy L.; Christopher, F. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional problems related to infertility investigation and treatment. Reviews causes and treatment of infertility, coping patterns, and the role of counselors and family life educators in easing the crises of infertility and facilitating successful resolution of associated emotional problems. (JAC)

  20. Action Plan for Communicating and Marketing the Work and Family Life Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, James S.; Hunady, Ronald J.

    This information packet is designed to help Ohio's high school and middle/junior high school teachers develop a plan to communicate and market the state's work and family life program to various constituencies (students, parents, guidance counselors, school boards, and the general public). Discussed first are the rationale for and intended results…

  1. Real-Life Spatial Skills, Handedness, and Family History of Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, I.; Tremblay, T.; Joanette, Y.; Passini, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to Annett (1985), pronounced left hemisphere lateralization for language abilities in women, as in female absolute right-handers, limits their right hemisphere capacity and spatial abilities. This study examines the degree of handedness and the family history of non-right-handedness with respect to real-life spatial abilities in women.…

  2. Real Life Calls for Real Books: Literature to Help Children Cope with Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a rationale and related practical suggestions for using literature as a support system for social-emotional development as children cope with the stresses, anxieties, and feelings of loss that can occur in family life. The authors discusses types of books, how to choose them, and how teachers can use authentic literature to…

  3. An Evaluation Of Family Life Education At David Thompson Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Susan

    The Family Life Education program at David Thompson Secondary School is a one semester course dealing with human sexuality. Given to eleventh grade students the course is directed at helping students understand the emotional and social dimensions of their sexuality. Because the emphasis in the course was on feeling, not fact, this evaluation of…

  4. Relationships between Parental Attachment, Work and Family Roles, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment and satisfaction with work and family roles, as well as the relationship of these variables to life satisfaction. Results from a multiple regression analysis indicated that satisfaction with work and marriage, but not parenting satisfaction or parental…

  5. Problems of Everyday Life in the Family: "Poverty" as the Focus of Perception of Everyday Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorkaia, Nataliia

    2004-01-01

    Among the problems that make the everyday life of the family the most difficult, it is those related to people's material condition that have been and still are the most important. The fact that this topic remains solidly in the lead and has its own sequence of events--scarcity, rising prices, low income, and not having enough--is an indication…

  6. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  7. Family Perspectives on End-of-Life Care Experiences in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetle, Terrie; Shield, Renee; Teno, Joan; Miller, Susan C.; Welch, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to expand knowledge regarding end-of-life care received in nursing homes through the use of narrative interviews with family members close to the decedents. Design and Methods: We conducted follow-up qualitative interviews with 54 respondents who had participated in an earlier national survey of 1,578…

  8. Family Life Program for the Women's Home Leagues of the Salvation Army. Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvation Army. New York, NY.

    This guide, one of a series of Education for Parenthood manuals developed for use in Salvation Army demonstration programs, offers a course to be used by the Army's Women's Home Leagues, other women's groups, or young married couples. Subject matter focuses on changing patterns of family life, parent-child relationships, and ways to strengthen the…

  9. Long Work Hours and Family Life: A Cross-National Study of Employees' Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Amy S.; Blair-Loy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Work-family conflict is a pressing research and policy issue. The authors extend previous scholarship on this issue by studying elite employees worries about the effects of long work hours on those in their personal life. This issue is researched cross-nationally in a sample of managers and professionals based in the United States, London, and…

  10. This Harlem life: black families and everyday life in the 1920s and 1930s.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stephen; White, Shane; Garton, Stephen; White, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article uses Probation Department files to reconstruct the lives of five ordinary residents of Harlem. It highlights what that black metropolis offered those outside the political and cultural elite, who have dominated historical scholarship, showing how ordinary blacks negotiated the challenges of life in northern neighborhoods, and drew on institutions and organizations, to establish and sustain new lives. We offer the kind of individualized perspective on everyday life that other scholars have provided for high culture, but which does not exist for other realms of existence in Harlem, even in early twentieth century sociological studies of black life. Where scholars seeking to distinguish the neighborhood from a slum have pointed to the prevailing pride and self-confidence of its residents, this article directs attention to more immediate, concrete supports that sustained and enriched life in Harlem. Relationships with spouses, children, siblings and cousins sustained individuals faced with the social reality of living in overcrowded, deteriorating, disease infested housing, subject to the racism of white police, politicians and employers; so too did friendships made in nightclubs, speakeasies, dances and movie theatres, and membership of churches, fraternal organizations, social clubs, and sports clubs and teams.

  11. Early Childhood Education Teachers: Life History, Life Course, and the Problem of Family-Work Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…

  12. Birth order distribution as a family planning program evaluation indicator.

    PubMed

    Prasartkul, P; Porapakkham, Y; Sittitrai, W

    1988-07-01

    This research aims at deriving a simple indicator for measuring fertility and family planning program output at various administrative levels of the country. The proportion of 1st and 2nd births to total registered births (FSB) is proposed as an ideal measure of family planning performance at the provincial and regional level. The FSB indicator is simple to understand and analyze and it can be obtained in the existing registration system of Thailand. This indicator is highly correlated with the contraceptive prevalence rate, the crude birth rate and the total fertility rate. Based one the findings of this study, it is assured that the FSB is a practical indicator of the family planning program performance at any level of administrative unit in Thailand. It is recommended that the service statistics reporting system should begin including the FSB tabulations for regions, provinces, and districts immediately.

  13. Family and Community Influences on Health and Socioeconomic Status: Sibling Correlations Over the Life Course*

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of sibling correlations in health and socioeconomic outcomes over the life course in the U.S. Sibling correlations provide an omnibus measure of the importance of all family and community influences. I find that sibling correlations in a range of health and socioeconomic outcomes start quite high at birth and remain high over the life course. The sibling correlation in birth weight is estimated to be 0.5. Sibling correlations in test scores during childhood are as high as 0.6. Sibling correlations in adult men’s wages are also around 0.5. Decompositions provide suggestive evidence on which pathways may account for the gradients in health and SES by family background. For example, sibling correlations in cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills during childhood are lower controlling for family income. Similarly, parent education levels can account for a sizable portion of the correlation in adult health status among brothers. PMID:23412989

  14. Challenges Facing Families at the End of Life in Three Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kehl, Karen A.; Kirchhoff, Karin T.; Kramer, Betty J.; Hovland-Scafe, Cyndi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the challenges faced by family members at the end of life in different care settings and how those challenges compare across settings. A total of 30 participants, who had a family member die in inpatient hospice, a skilled nursing facility or a community support program were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews were recorded and transcribed. Text was coded using qualitative thematic analysis. Themes were determined by consensus. Twelve challenges were identified across care sites. Two themes emerged in all three settings: bearing witness and the experience of loss. The study findings contribute to our knowledge of family perceptions of care in different settings and raises awareness of the need for further research describing the experiences at the end of life in different settings and the importance of creating and testing interventions for both setting specific needs and universal issues. PMID:20563315

  15. Family quality of life and ASD: the role of child adaptive functioning and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Emily, Gardiner; Grace, Iarocci

    2015-04-01

    The family is the key support network for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in many cases into adulthood. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) construct encompasses family satisfaction with both internal and external dynamics, as well as support availability. Therefore, although these families face considerable risk in raising a child with a disability, the FQOL outcome is conceptualized as representative of a continuum of family adaptation. This study examined the role of child characteristics, including adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, in relation to FQOL. Eighty-four caregivers of children and adolescents (range = 6-18 years) with ASD participated, completing questionnaires online and by telephone. Adaptive functioning, and specifically daily living skills, emerged as a significant predictor of FQOL satisfaction, after accounting for behavioural and demographic characteristics, including child age, gender, perceived disability severity, and behavioural problems, as well as family income. Furthermore, there were significant differences across each domain of FQOL when groups were separated by daily living skill functioning level ('low,' 'moderately low,' and 'adequate'). The results suggest that intervention strategies targeting daily living skills will likely have beneficial effects for both individual and family well-being, and may reduce family support demands.

  16. Spain [is growing market, but family life is still conservative]. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L

    1984-11-01

    This discussion of Spain focuses on regions and cities, ethnicity and religion, age distribution, households and families, literacy and education labor force the economy, women, and sources of information. Spain, at one time a mainly agrarian society, is shifting towards a more industrialized civilization. Concurrent with industrialization is a migration of workers from rural to urban areas. Spain has an estimated 1984 population of 38,717,000 of which 77% reside in urban areas. Approximately 28% live in the 3 metropolitan cities of Madrid, Bilbao, and Barcelona. 10 years ago only 70% of the population lived in any urban area. Spain's annual population growth rate currently stands at 0.5%, a marked decrease from the 1.05% average annual growth rate between 1960-80. Compared with other major Western European countries, Spain is sparsely populated with an average of only 196 people per square mile. There are 4 major ethnic groups in Spain. The largest is Spanish, which accounts for 72.8% of the population. The gypsy population numbers approximately 200,000 and is a minority group that is not fully integrated into Spanish society. Open practice of all religions is now permitted in Spain, and Roman Catholicism is no longer sanctioned as the official religion of the country. Over 90% of the population report themselves as Roman Catholic. Spain has 1 of the youngest population in Europe with 41% of the population under age 24. 11% are age 65 years or older. The birth and death rates, 19.4 and 8.2/1000 respectively in 1974, declined to 13.0 and 7.0 in 1983. Life expectancy is 73 years. Families in Spain tend to be extended families. The average household often consists of 3 generations. Single person households are a rarity. The literacy rate, defined by the number of adults age 15 or older who can read and write, has risen sharply from 87% in 1974 to 97% in 1981. Spain has the highest jobless rate in Western Europe. At the end of May 1984 the unemployment rate was 20% in

  17. Distribution of the mammalian Stat gene family in mouse chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1995-09-01

    Studies of transcriptional activation by interferons and a variety of cytokines have led to the identification of a family of proteins that serve as signal transducers and activators of transcription, Stats. Here, we report that the seven mouse Stat loci map in three clusters, with each cluster located on a different mouse autosome. The data suggest that the family has arisen via a tandem duplication of the ancestral locus, followed by dispersion of the linked loci to different mouse chromosomes. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Charting the Territory: Children and families living with progressive life-threatening conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siden, Harold; Steele, Rose

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To increase awareness of the topic of paediatric palliative care among practicing physicians in Canada by exploring the impact of a child’s neurological or rare genetic life-threatening condition on the affected child and his/her parents. METHODS: Cross-sectional, baseline results from an observational, longitudinal study, Charting the Territory, which followed 275 children and 390 parents from 258 families. Parents completed multiple surveys, for themselves and their child. RESULTS: These children had a high symptom burden. The three most common symptoms were pain, sleep problems and feeding difficulties; on average, they had 3.2 symptoms of concern. Despite analgesic use, the frequency of pain episodes and distress were invariant over time, suggesting that treatments were not successful. Parents experienced anxiety, depression and burden; at the same time they also reported positive life change and a high degree of spirituality. The child’s condition resulted in parental changes in living arrangements, work status and hours devoted to caregiving. Nearly two-thirds of families were involved with a palliative care team; the size of the community in which a family resided did not make a significant difference in such involvement. CONCLUSIONS: These families experience many challenges, for the patient, other individual members and the family as a whole. At least some of these challenges may be alleviated by early and organized palliative care. Effective interventions are needed to enhance symptom management for the ill child and to alleviate the various negative impacts on the family. PMID:25914572

  19. Financial Strain, Major Family Life Events, and Parental Academic Involvement During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Thompson, Daisy E; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    Parental academic involvement-whether through school participation and communication, or supervision and assistance at home-often has been cited as a way to enhance academic achievement. Yet, little is known about how the financial and life pressures faced by families can compromise parents' ability to become involved in their adolescents' education. In the current study, these dynamics were examined among Mexican-origin families, who often may face challenging financial and familial circumstances, and whose students may have more difficulty in secondary school. Parents of Mexican-origin ninth and tenth grade students from two high schools in Los Angeles (N = 428; 50 % female) completed quantitative interviews. The results revealed that financial strain predicted less involvement at school, and major family life events predicted less involvement at home, even after controlling for potentially confounding factors. Moreover, both of the associations between parental stress and parental academic involvement were mediated by lower levels of relationship quality between parents and adolescents, but not by conflict within the parent-adolescent dyad or parental depressive and somatic symptoms. The findings suggest that stress may limit parents' ability to become involved their adolescents' education, and highlight the importance of understanding family dynamics when examining parental academic involvement among Mexican-origin families.

  20. Help patients and families as they struggle with end-of-life issues.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    When patients appear to be reaching the end of life, case managers should find out their wishes, alert the treating physician and the rest of the staff, and ensure that patients' wishes are carried out. In an effort to encourage discussions about end-of-life care, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has begun paying physicians for consultations on advance care planning. CMS' push toward pay for performance and bundled payments creates financial incentives for hospitals to consider alternatives to admitting patients as inpatients. Providers' feelings sometimes make them hesitant to talk about end-of-life issues with patients and family members. Case managers should take a patient-centered approach and find out patients' goals before bringing up hospice care, and educate family members on what to expect when they get home. PMID:27183773

  1. Museum Signage as Distributed Mediation to Encourage Family Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyungyoun

    2009-01-01

    Many prior studies conducted in museums have focused primarily on exhibits as the main objects for learning. Less progress has been made in studying signage as another meaning-making tool in museums. The present study was designed to understand the role of signage in family learning by answering the following research questions, "How does signage…

  2. Jobs in Marketing and Distribution. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes jobs in marketing and distribution in the following chapter classifications: product development, marketing products and property, salesworkers unlimited, selling intangibles (ideas and services), purchasing and distribution, and management and marketing services. For each occupation duties are outlined and working conditions…

  3. On conjugate families and Jeffreys priors for von Mises–Fisher distributions

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses characteristics of standard conjugate priors and their induced posteriors in Bayesian inference for von Mises–Fisher distributions, using either the canonical natural exponential family or the more commonly employed polar coordinate parameterizations. We analyze when standard conjugate priors as well as posteriors are proper, and investigate the Jeffreys prior for the von Mises–Fisher family. Finally, we characterize the proper distributions in the standard conjugate family of the (matrix-valued) von Mises–Fisher distributions on Stiefel manifolds. PMID:23805026

  4. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on bird nesting, singing, finding a mate, incubating eggs, and raising the young. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. A ready-to-copy student worksheet is included. (JN)

  5. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cancer, both individuals may experience sadness, anxiety, anger, or even hopelessness. For some couples, facing the ... express your needs to avoid the frustration and anger that could result from misinterpreting your spouse's behavior. ...

  6. The Size Distribution of Jupiter-Family Cometary Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Lowry, Stephen C.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: We are continuing our program to determine the size distribution of cometary nuclei. We have compiled a catalog of 105 measurements of 57 cometary nuclei, drawn from the general literature, from our own program of CCD photometry of distant cometary nuclei (Lowry and Weissman), and from unpublished observations by colleagues. We model the cumulative size distribution of the nuclei as a power law. Previous determinations of the size distribution slope do not agree. Fernandez et al. found a slope of alpha = 2.65+/-0.25 whereas Lowry et al. and Weissman and Lowry each found a slope of alpha = 1.60+/-0.10.

  7. Beyond autonomy: diversifying end-of-life decision-making approaches to serve patients and families.

    PubMed

    Winzelberg, Gary S; Hanson, Laura C; Tulsky, James A

    2005-06-01

    Efforts to improve end-of-life decision-making quality have emphasized the principle of individual autonomy to better ensure that patients receive care consistent with their preferences. This principle has primarily been defined through court decisions during the past 3 decades as a patient's right to refuse medical technologies and avoid life-prolonging treatments. However, autonomy as traditionally defined only serves a small segment of dying patients. Patients might not value autonomy or consider autonomy important but define it differently than decision-making self-determination. Some patients also think in terms of their care goals rather than individual treatment preferences. Patients' functional and cognitive abilities, age, racial and ethnic backgrounds, and desire to avoid burdening loved ones may influence attitudes and definitions regarding autonomy. To improve end-of-life decision-making for an increasingly multicultural and aging population, the following priorities should be set: (1) Increase the flexibility of advance care planning and decision-making strategies used with capable patients to encompass diverse perceptions of autonomy; and (2) Improve communication between physicians and patients' families when patients lack decision-making capacity to facilitate decision-making and address families' emotional burdens. The goal of these priorities is to promote understanding of patients' and families' decision-making preferences and goals and to minimize decision-making burdens on families.

  8. Family members’ perceptions of end-of-life care across diverse locations of care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of the study was to assess perceived level of satisfaction with end-of-life care, focusing on the last 48 hours of life. Methods A previously validated instrument was used in a telephone survey with bereaved family members (n=90) of patients who died within an organization in British Columbia. Results Bereaved family members had many unmet needs for information about the patient’s changing condition, the process of dying, how symptoms would be managed and what to do at the time of death. In addition, many bereaved relatives felt that the patient or resident had an unmet need for emotional support and that their own emotional needs were not addressed adequately. The last place of care had the most significant effect on all of these variables, with acute care and residential care having the most unmet needs. Hospice had the fewest unmet needs, followed by the palliative and the intensive care units. Conclusions We discuss these findings in relation to overall satisfaction with care, focus on individual, ethno-cultural and diversity issues, information and decision-making, symptom management and attending to the family. We conclude by offering possible practices address the end-of-life needs of patients and family members. PMID:23870101

  9. Use of Life Course Work–Family Profiles to Predict Mortality Risk Among US Women

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Ivan Mejía; Glymour, M. Maria; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between US women’s exposure to midlife work–family demands and subsequent mortality risk. Methods. We used data from women born 1935 to 1956 in the Health and Retirement Study to calculate employment, marital, and parenthood statuses for each age between 16 and 50 years. We used sequence analysis to identify 7 prototypical work–family trajectories. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality associated with work–family sequences, with adjustment for covariates and potentially explanatory later-life factors. Results. Married women staying home with children briefly before reentering the workforce had the lowest mortality rates. In comparison, after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and education, HRs for mortality were 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58, 2.90) among single nonworking mothers, 1.48 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.98) among single working mothers, and 1.36 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.80) among married nonworking mothers. Adjustment for later-life behavioral and economic factors partially attenuated risks. Conclusions. Sequence analysis is a promising exposure assessment tool for life course research. This method permitted identification of certain lifetime work–family profiles associated with mortality risk before age 75 years. PMID:25713976

  10. Concordance of Family and Staff Member Reports about End of Life in Assisted Living and Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Shayna E.; Williams, Christianna S.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify differences in perspectives that may complicate the process of joint decision making at the end of life, this study determined the agreement of family and staff perspectives about end-of-life experiences in nursing homes and residential care/assisted living communities and whether family and staff roles, involvement in care,…

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Life expectancy and distribution period tables. 1... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  12. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  14. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life... expectancy of an individual: Single Life Table Age Lifeexpectancy 0 82.4 1 81.6 2 80.6 3 79.7 4 78.7 5 77.7...

  15. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A; Schnohr, Christina W; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-11-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO collaborative Study (N = 58,352 across 35 countries) were analysed using multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses for outcome measures life satisfaction score and binary high/low life satisfaction. National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross-nationally. Socioeconomic inequalities were greatest in poor countries and in countries with unequal income distribution. GDP (PPP US$) and Gini did not explain between country variance in socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. The existence of, and variation in, within-country socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent life satisfaction highlights the importance of identifying and addressing mediating factors during this life stage.

  16. "Cancer in the family" and genetic testing: implications for life insurance.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elly L; Doherty, Rebecca J; Gaff, Clara L; Macrae, Finlay A; Lindeman, Geoffrey J

    2003-11-01

    The potential for discrimination when applying for insurance can be of concern for individuals with a family history of cancer or of a genetic disorder and who are considering genetic counselling or genetic testing. The actual incidence of "genetic discrimination", however, is not known, despite considerable media coverage of this issue. The clinical details required by insurers have received less attention. We obtained primary application and personal statement forms used by 21 different underwriters of voluntary life insurance and found substantial differences in the information requested about family history and genetic testing. All insurance applications, however, contained a duty of disclosure that would require revealing the result, if known by the applicant, of a genetic test in a family member. Therefore, decisions made by family members can affect insurance applications, and people considering genetic testing may also need to consider the implications of the results for other family members. Health practitioners should balance the potential benefits of appropriate genetic testing against potential restriction to life and income-protection insurance when advising people about genetic testing.

  17. Communication nonaccommodation in family conversations about end-of-life health decisions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Allison M; Caughlin, John P

    2015-01-01

    Furthering our understanding of how communication can improve end-of-life decision making requires a shift in focus from whether people talk to how people talk about end-of-life health decisions. This study used communication accommodation theory to examine the extent to which communication nonaccommodation distinguished more from less successful end-of-life conversations among family members. We analyzed elicited conversations about end-of-life health decisions from 121 older parent/adult child dyads using outside ratings of communication over- and underaccommodation and self-reported conversational outcomes. Results of multilevel linear modeling revealed that outside ratings of underaccommodation predicted self-reported and partner-reported uncertainty, and ratings of overaccommodation predicted self-reported decision-making efficacy and change in concordance accuracy. We discuss the methodological, theoretical, and practical implications of these findings.

  18. Transracial Adoption: How It Is 17 Years Later. Family Life Project: A Longitudinal Adoption Study/Phase V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroegh, Karen S.

    In 1970, as part of an effort to meet the needs of black children waiting for adoption by two-parent black families, the Chicago (Illinois) Child Care Society launched a longitudinal study of the growth, development, and family life of transracial adoptees (TRAs), or black and mixed-race children adopted by white families, and inracial adoptees…

  19. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  20. Parent Perceived Impact of Spaniard Boys' and Girls' Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Oppositional Defiant Behaviors on Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Puente, Anibal; Martinez, Jose V.; Cumba, Eduardo; Scandar, Ruben O.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the impact of inattention, hyperactivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors and gender on family life. Method: We created scales for the Family Experiences Inventory (FEI) in a nonclinical sample of Spaniard families with children ages 6 to 12 years (N = 369) and analyzed the perceived impact of these…

  1. Religious freedom and family life: reflections on the right to choose.

    PubMed

    Paltrow, L M

    1985-01-01

    Family integrity, family life and family privacy, and parental authority are the arguments used to convince legislators to pass parental consent and notification laws and judges to uphold them. Those who favor these laws argue that the government is interfering with family life and undermining parental authority when it permits minors to get abortions without parental consent or notification. It is time to challenge the family integrity argument. Too often the notion is accepted that abortion is unique in the sense that it is unlike all other constitutionally protected rights. Imagine a 16-year-old girl who lives in a rigidly orthodox Catholic family who is never encouraged to read and think, even about religious laws. One day she discovers that that she is pregnant. This young woman thinks of her dreams of the future and her ability to care for and raise a child. Ultimately, she decides to have an abortion. She finds a local doctor and clinic and has an abortion without her parents' knowledge or consent. Carol Gilligan, in her book, "In a Different Voice," examines the psychological development of women. Her studies reveal that, for women, decisions about pregnancy are among the most significant in providing opportunities for moral development, personal growth, and the separation from family that achieving adulthood requires. Yet, some would deny women that opportunity to make these decisions by requiring parental consent or notice. The right to choose abortion is not all that different from other constitutionally protected individual rights. Both free speech and the right to choose provide unequalled opportunities for people to become responsible, thinking citizens. Possibly abortion is not unique, since many decisions affect and involve other's lives. What is unique is that moral reasoning is not attributed to young women who must make choices about pregnancy.

  2. Assessment of Family Functioning and Its Relationship to Quality of Life in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Azmoude, Elham; Tafazoli, Mahin; Parnan, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most important components and health indicators, especially among people with chronic diseases is quality of life. One of the possible factors which may impact on quality of life of diabetic patients is family functioning. This study aimed to determine the relationship between family functioning and quality of life of diabetic and non-diabetic women. Methods: In this correlational cross-sectional study, 180 women (diabetics and non-diabetics) who referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2014-2015 were studied. Data were collected using SF-36 questionnaire and Mc Master Family Assessment Device (FAD). Data were analyzed using descriptive and statistical tests by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The result showed that diabetic women reported family impairment compared with none diabetic women. There was a significant relationship between the family functioning and quality of life in diabetics and non-diabetic women. Based on the results of the stepwise regression model, among factors of family function only the factor of behavioral control was able to predict the quality of life in diabetic women. Conclusion: Regarding the study findings, good family function associated with better quality of life in diabetics and healthy women. Therefore, due to disturbed family function in diabetic’s women implementation of training programs and consulting services could improve their quality of life. PMID:27752489

  3. Withdrawing life support. Do families and physicians decide as patients do?

    PubMed

    Munoz Silva, J E; Kjellstrand, C M

    1988-01-01

    We studied whether families and physicians decided as patients do, in discontinuation of life-supporting treatment. We did so by comparing 66 competent patients, who themselves decided to stop dialysis to die, and 66 incompetent patients for whom families and physicians decided. We also compared comatose to demented patients and families' to physician's decision-making. There was no difference in sex, diagnosis, age, time period, decision maker (family or physician), site of residence, duration or type of dialysis, home or in-center dialysis or survival time after discontinuation. More competent than incompetent patients died at home (p less than 0.005). All incompetent patients had emerging complications, but such complications were present in only 40/60 competent patients (p less than 0.0005). In the early 1970s the physician initiated the termination of dialysis in all cases of incompetent patients; in the 1980s this had decreased to 48% (less than 0.001). No case was decided by court or hospital committee. There was no difference between comatose or demented incompetent patients, nor was there any important difference between family and physician decision-making. We believe our study indicates that substitute judgement is applied appropriately and that the decision can safely and best be left to families and physicians.

  4. Anterior Urethral Stricture Disease Negatively Impacts the Quality of Life of Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Weese, Jonathan R.; Eswara, Jairam R.; Marshall, Stephen D.; Chang, Andrew J.; Vetter, Joel; Brandes, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the quality of life (QoL) distress experienced by immediate family members of patients with urethral stricture via a questionnaire given prior to definitive urethroplasty. The emotional, social, and physical effects of urethral stricture disease on the QoL of family members have not been previously described. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was administered prospectively to an immediate family member of 51 patients undergoing anterior urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB). The survey was comprised of twelve questions that addressed the emotional, social, and physical consequences experienced as a result of their loved one. Results. Of the 51 surveyed family members, most were female (92.2%), lived in the same household (86.3%), and slept in the same room as the patient (70.6%). Respondents experienced sleep disturbances (56.9%) and diminished social lives (43.1%). 82.4% felt stressed by the patient's surgical treatment, and 83.9% (26/31) felt that their intimacy was negatively impacted. Conclusions. Urethral stricture disease has a significant impact on the family members of those affected. These effects may last decades and include sleep disturbance, decreased social interactions, emotional stress, and impaired sexual intimacy. Treatment of urethral stricture disease should attempt to mitigate the impact of the disease on family members as well as the patient. PMID:27034658

  5. Anterior Urethral Stricture Disease Negatively Impacts the Quality of Life of Family Members.

    PubMed

    Weese, Jonathan R; Raup, Valary T; Eswara, Jairam R; Marshall, Stephen D; Chang, Andrew J; Vetter, Joel; Brandes, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the quality of life (QoL) distress experienced by immediate family members of patients with urethral stricture via a questionnaire given prior to definitive urethroplasty. The emotional, social, and physical effects of urethral stricture disease on the QoL of family members have not been previously described. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was administered prospectively to an immediate family member of 51 patients undergoing anterior urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB). The survey was comprised of twelve questions that addressed the emotional, social, and physical consequences experienced as a result of their loved one. Results. Of the 51 surveyed family members, most were female (92.2%), lived in the same household (86.3%), and slept in the same room as the patient (70.6%). Respondents experienced sleep disturbances (56.9%) and diminished social lives (43.1%). 82.4% felt stressed by the patient's surgical treatment, and 83.9% (26/31) felt that their intimacy was negatively impacted. Conclusions. Urethral stricture disease has a significant impact on the family members of those affected. These effects may last decades and include sleep disturbance, decreased social interactions, emotional stress, and impaired sexual intimacy. Treatment of urethral stricture disease should attempt to mitigate the impact of the disease on family members as well as the patient.

  6. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. PMID:22512300

  7. How to help patients and families make better end-of-life decisions.

    PubMed

    Howe, Edmund G

    2014-01-01

    How can clinical ethics consultants best assist patients and their family members when patients may be dying? In this introduction, I consider this concern in light of four articles that appear in this issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics, by Jeffrey T. Berger; Mary T. White; Linying Hu, Xiuyun Yin, Xiaolei Bao, and Jin-Bao Nie; and Thaddeus Mason Pope and Melinda Hexum. Patients and family members experience extreme stress at the end of life, a high-stakes situation in which few of us have extensive experience. This stress can make us less able to process new information, cripple decision making, and even lead to long-term harm. I provide a number of practical approaches that clinical ethics consultants can use to help patients and family members in these situations, so that their decisions may reflect more what they really want and so that, after this stress has diminished, they may then do better.

  8. Small Science: Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of science learning are afforded at home during this early period of life? The study reported in this paper sought to investigate the scientific development of infants-toddlers (10 to 36 months) growing up in Bangladeshi families living in Australia and Singapore. Four families were studied over 2 years. Digital video observations were made of everyday family life and analysed using Vygotsky's theoretical framework of everyday concepts and scientific concepts (51 h of digital observations). While there are many possibilities for developing scientific concepts in infants-toddlers' everyday life, our study found four categories of what we have called small science: multiple possibilities for science; discrete science; embedded science and counter intuitive science. The findings of this study contribute to the almost non-existent literature into infants and toddlers' scientific development and advance new understandings of early childhood science education.

  9. Small Science: Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-06-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of science learning are afforded at home during this early period of life? The study reported in this paper sought to investigate the scientific development of infants-toddlers (10 to 36 months) growing up in Bangladeshi families living in Australia and Singapore. Four families were studied over 2 years. Digital video observations were made of everyday family life and analysed using Vygotsky's theoretical framework of everyday concepts and scientific concepts (51 h of digital observations). While there are many possibilities for developing scientific concepts in infants-toddlers' everyday life, our study found four categories of what we have called small science: multiple possibilities for science; discrete science; embedded science and counter intuitive science. The findings of this study contribute to the almost non-existent literature into infants and toddlers' scientific development and advance new understandings of early childhood science education.

  10. Implicit measures of early-life family conditions: Relationships to psychosocial characteristics and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Meanne; Chen, Edith; Hibbert, Anita S.; Wong, Jennifer H. K.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives An implicit measure of early-life family conditions was created to help address potential biases in responses to self-reported questionnaires of early-life family environments. We investigated whether a computerized affect attribution paradigm designed to capture implicit, affective responses (anger, fear, warmth) regarding early-life family environments was a) stable over time, b) associated with self-reports of childhood family environments, c) able to predict adult psychosocial profiles (perceived social support, heightened vigilance), and d) able to predict adult cardiovascular risk (blood pressure) either alone or in conjunction with a measure of early-life socioeconomic status. Method Two studies were conducted to examine reliability and validity of the affect attribution paradigm (Study 1, N = 94) and associated adult psychosocial outcomes and cardiovascular risk (Study 2, N = 122). Results Responses on the affect attribution paradigm showed significant correlations over a 6-month period, and were moderately associated with self-reports of childhood family environments. Greater attributed negative affect about early-life family conditions predicted lower levels of current perceived social support and heightened vigilance in adulthood. Attributed negative affect also interacted with early-life socioeconomic status to marginally predict resting systolic blood pressure, such that those individuals high in early-life SES but who had implicit negative affect attributed to early-life family conditions had SBP levels that were as high as individuals low in early-life SES. Conclusions Implicit measures of early-life family conditions are a useful approach for assessing the psychosocial nature of early-life environments and linking them to adult psychosocial and physiological health profiles. PMID:21644806

  11. Completing the circle: elders speak about end-of-life care with aboriginal families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Mary; Baydala, Angelina; Bourassa, Carrie; McKay-McNabb, Kim; Placsko, Cheryl; Goodwill, Ken; McKenna, Betty; McNabb, Pat; Boekelder, Roxanne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we share words spoken by Aboriginal elders from Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to the research question, "What would you like non-Aboriginal health care providers to know when providing end-of-life care for Aboriginal families?" Our purpose in publishing these results in a written format is to place information shared by oral tradition in an academic context and to make the information accessible to other researchers. Recent theoretical work in the areas of death and dying suggests that cultural beliefs and practices are particularly influential at the end of life; however, little work describing the traditional beliefs and practices of Aboriginal peoples in Canada exists to guide culturally appropriate end-of-life care delivery. Purposive sampling procedures were used to recruit five elders from culturally diverse First Nations in southern Saskatchewan. Key informant Aboriginal elder participants were videotaped by two Aboriginal research assistants, who approached the elders at powwows. Narrative analysis of the key informant interview transcripts was conducted to identify key concepts and emerging narrative themes describing culturally appropriate end-of-life health care for Aboriginal families. Six themes were identified to organize the data into a coherent narrative: realization; gathering of community; care and comfort/transition; moments after death; grief, wake, funeral; and messages to health care providers. These themes told the story of the dying person's journey and highlighted important messages from elders to non-Aboriginal health care providers.

  12. Age distribution curve in psychiatric admissions inversely correlates with Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Olivier; Le Bon, Serge-Daniel

    2014-09-30

    A strong inverse correlation was found between the age-distribution curve of psychiatric admissions and the U-bend Life Satisfaction curve. It may indicate that the peak of mental disorders at midlife reflects a less satisfactory period of life or, conversely, that the mental health load burdens of Life Satisfaction.

  13. Unequal geographic distribution of life expectancy in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae

    2015-03-01

    This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established.

  14. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.

  15. Imprisoned by Empathy: Familial Incarceration and Psychological Distress among African American Men in the National Survey of American Life.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tony N; Bell, Mary Laske; Patterson, Evelyn J

    2016-06-01

    The stress process model predicts that current incarceration of a family member should damage the health status of the inmate's relatives. We address this prediction with data from the National Survey of American Life, focusing exclusively on African American men (n = 1,168). In survey-adjusted generalized linear models, we find that familial incarceration increases psychological distress, but its effect attenuates ostensibly after controlling for other chronic strains. Familial incarceration remains statistically insignificant with the introduction of mastery and family emotional support and their respective interactions with familial incarceration. However, a statistical interaction between familial incarceration and former incarceration reveals that levels of psychological distress are significantly higher among never-incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated but significantly lower among formerly incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated. We conclude that familial incarceration's influence on black men's mental health status may be more complex than extant theory predicts.

  16. Imprisoned by Empathy: Familial Incarceration and Psychological Distress among African American Men in the National Survey of American Life.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tony N; Bell, Mary Laske; Patterson, Evelyn J

    2016-06-01

    The stress process model predicts that current incarceration of a family member should damage the health status of the inmate's relatives. We address this prediction with data from the National Survey of American Life, focusing exclusively on African American men (n = 1,168). In survey-adjusted generalized linear models, we find that familial incarceration increases psychological distress, but its effect attenuates ostensibly after controlling for other chronic strains. Familial incarceration remains statistically insignificant with the introduction of mastery and family emotional support and their respective interactions with familial incarceration. However, a statistical interaction between familial incarceration and former incarceration reveals that levels of psychological distress are significantly higher among never-incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated but significantly lower among formerly incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated. We conclude that familial incarceration's influence on black men's mental health status may be more complex than extant theory predicts. PMID:27257267

  17. Museum signage as distributed mediation to encourage family learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungyoun

    Many prior studies conducted in museums have focused primarily on exhibits as the main objects for learning. Less progress has been made in studying signage as another meaning-making tool in museums. The present study was designed to understand the role of signage in family learning by answering the following research questions, "How does signage about exhibit content or interaction strategies affect parents' and children's learning and their engagement?" and "What is the role of parent prior knowledge on parents' and children's learning and their engagement?" To address these questions, 45 parent-child dyads with children aged six to seven years were recruited to engage with two exhibits about cars. Fifteen parent-child dyads were assigned to each of three conditions, created by two different types of signage: (1) Content and interaction signage condition, (2) Content signage condition, and (3) No signage condition. In each condition, eight parents with low knowledge in the car domain and seven parents with high knowledge were recruited. Findings showed that parents and children learned and engaged differently across the three signage conditions. Both children and parents in the conditions with signage learned more than children and parents in the no signage condition. By using information from signage, parents in the two signage conditions were able to identify the content of the exhibit more quickly and to shape appropriate educational messages in their conversations with children. Findings also showed that parents with high knowledge were more likely to have the exhibit-focused engagement, which was often oriented to their own interpretation and not always beneficial for children's learning. However, by showing that parent-child dyads in the content and interaction signage condition were most likely to operate and observe the exhibit appropriately and most likely to describe evidence and make appropriate inferences, this study suggested that the interaction

  18. Quality of life and competitive work among adults with severe mental illness: moderating effects of family contact.

    PubMed

    Gold, Paul B

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Competitive employment may improve life quality for adults with severe mental illness, but it is not known for whom or under what circumstances. On the basis of previous research demonstrating benefits of family contact for African-American adults with severe mental illness, it was hypothesized that frequent family contact would moderate (enhance) a positive association between competitive employment and global quality of life for a rural sample of predominantly African-American adults. METHODS In a secondary analysis of data collected from a randomized trial of supported employment, a series of nested random regression analyses was conducted to test the hypothesized moderating effect of face-to-face family contact on the association between competitive employment and global quality of life, controlling for severity of psychiatric symptoms and satisfaction with family relations. RESULTS Most of the 143 study participants spent time with a family member at least once a month (80%)-and most at least weekly (60%). Participants who held a competitive job and had face-to-face contact with family members at least weekly reported higher global quality of life than all other study participants. CONCLUSIONS In this rural sample of African-American adults with severe mental illness, competitive work was associated with higher global quality of life only for those who frequently spent time with family members. Research is needed to test the generalizability of this finding to other geographic settings and cultures, as well as the feasibility and effectiveness of formal inclusion of family members in psychosocial rehabilitation interventions.

  19. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25th percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%). PMID:26180265

  20. The influence of family context on life, educational and occupational ideal among middle school students in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Benxian; Zhang, Ling; Zhen, Rui; Zhou, Xiao

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between family context of middle school students on their educational and occupational ideals. Middle school students (N = 2000) responded to questions assessing family location, family structure, parental educational level and family economic status, as well as to the Middle School Students' Ideals Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that life, educational and occupational ideals of female students and students in lower grades were higher than that of male students and students in higher grades. Regression analysis indicated that paternal education level have a positive association with educational and occupational ideals, but not life ideals, and family economic status have a positive relation to life ideals, but not educational and occupational ideals. Moreover, the interaction between family economic status and family location has a negative association with students' life, educational and occupational ideals. These results suggest that different factors predicted different ideals of adolescents, and that family economic status had a negative moderating effect on the relationship between family location and ideals of students.

  1. Quality of life in families of Croatian veterans 15 years after the war.

    PubMed

    Zdjelarević, Ana; Komar, Zoran; Loncar, Mladen; Plasć, Ivana Dijanić; Hrabac, Pero; Groznica, Ivana; Marcinko, Darko

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war trauma with its consequences such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disability due to combat injuries poses a significant problem for modern Croatian society. However, this is also a public health problem requiring continuous study of effective treatment strategies to achieve an increase in quality of life of most war-affected groups. Aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of population most affected by war - families of Croatian veterans. Present study included 126 female participants, who agreed to complete physical and psychiatric examination organized by the Ministry of Family, War Veterans and Intergenerational Solidarity. Included were participants with status of either wife of war veteran suffering from PTSD, wife who lost her husband in war circumstances or wife of war veteran with physical disabilities resulting from war activities. All three groups were asked to fill out the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - short form (WHOQOL-BREF). Results indicate that assumed intensity of secondary trauma is not associated with quality of life. Namely, the highest level of satisfaction was found in wives of the most seriously affected invalids of war (M=3.77; sd=0.741), folowed by the wives of deceased soldiers (M=3.5; sd= 0.697), while the lowest quality of life results were found in wives of veterans suffering from PTSD (M=3.12; sd=0.608). Our results confirm that, nearly 15 years after the war, wives of disabled or killed Croatian soldiers have a (comparatively) satisfactory quality of their everyday lives, compared to the wives of veterans suffering from PTSD.

  2. Positive youth development, life satisfaction, and problem behaviors of adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Leung, Hildie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264

  3. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction, and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Leung, Hildie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264

  4. Family relations and health over the life course. A Lebanese perspective.

    PubMed

    Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-01-01

    The link between family relations and well-being in old age has received ample attention in the international literature, but remains least examined in the Arab region where cultural ideals assume positive intergenerational relations within families as the norm. In this paper, we employ survey data collected in Greater Beirut in 2009 to explore associations between family relations and health. over the life course. We tested (1) the extent to which age and social relation characteristics predict health; and (2) whether the association between age and health is stronger for those who report: smaller social networks and poorer relationship quality. We employed self-rated health and self-reported chronic illness as the health outcome measures and:social network size, positive quality and negative quality with family members as the social relations measures. Our findings suggest that social relations are differentially important depending on the health status indicator examined. The single dimension that influenced both self-rated health and the probability of reporting a chronic illness was positive relationship quality with spouse. Further, social relations, particularly having a negative relationship quality with spouse and adult child, exert stronger effects on both self-rated health and chronic illness for older compared to younger adults. The findings of the present study are important for clinical practitioners who often consider the role and importance of available social resources as they address the health needs of older adults. PMID:25906508

  5. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below.

  6. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  7. Schizophrenia in Malaysian families: A study on factors associated with quality of life of primary family caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a chronic illness which brings detrimental effects in the caregivers' health. This study was aimed at highlighting the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with the subjective Quality of Life (QOL) of Malaysian of primary family caregivers of subjects with schizophrenia attending an urban tertiary care outpatient clinic in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to study patient, caregiver and illness factors associated with the QOL among 117 individuals involved with caregiving for schizophrenia patients. The study used WHOQOL-BREF to assess caregivers' QOL and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to assess the severity of patients' symptoms. Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) assessed the stress level due to life events. Results The mean scores of WHOQOL-BREF in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were 66.62 (14.36), 61.32 (15.52), 62.77 (17.33), 64.02 (14.86) consecutively. From multiple regression analysis, factors found to be significantly associated with higher QOL were higher educational level among caregivers in social and environmental domains; caregivers not having medical problem/s in physical and psychological domains; later onset and longer illness duration of illness in social domains; patients not attending day care program in environmental domain; lower BPRS score in physical and environmental domains. SRRS score of caregivers was also found to have a significant negative correlation with QOL in environmental and psychological domains. Other factors were not significantly associated with QOL. Conclusion Caregivers with more social advantages such as higher educational level and physically healthier and dealing with less severe illness had significantly higher QOL in various aspects. Supporting the caregivers in some of these modifiable factors in clinical practice is important to achieve their higher level QOL. PMID:21651770

  8. OPTIMAL SHRINKAGE ESTIMATION OF MEAN PARAMETERS IN FAMILY OF DISTRIBUTIONS WITH QUADRATIC VARIANCE

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianchao; Kou, S. C.; Brown, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the simultaneous inference of mean parameters in a family of distributions with quadratic variance function. We first introduce a class of semi-parametric/parametric shrinkage estimators and establish their asymptotic optimality properties. Two specific cases, the location-scale family and the natural exponential family with quadratic variance function, are then studied in detail. We conduct a comprehensive simulation study to compare the performance of the proposed methods with existing shrinkage estimators. We also apply the method to real data and obtain encouraging results. PMID:27041778

  9. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial ceramide distribution by members of the BCL-2 family[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tejia; Barclay, Lauren; Walensky, Loren D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an intricately regulated cellular process that proceeds through different cell type- and signal-dependent pathways. In the mitochondrial apoptotic program, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by BCL-2 proteins leads to the release of apoptogenic factors, caspase activation, and cell death. In addition to protein components of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery, an interesting role for lipids and lipid metabolism in BCL-2 family-regulated apoptosis is also emerging. We used a comparative lipidomics approach to uncover alterations in lipid profile in the absence of the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We detected over 1,000 ions in these experiments and found changes in an ion with an m/z of 534.49. Structural elucidation of this ion through tandem mass spectrometry revealed that this molecule is a ceramide with a 16-carbon N-acyl chain and sphingadiene backbone (d18:2/16:0 ceramide). Targeted LC/MS analysis revealed elevated levels of additional sphingadiene-containing ceramides (d18:2-Cers) in BAX, BAK-double knockout MEFs. Elevated d18:2-Cers are also found in immortalized baby mouse kidney epithelial cells lacking BAX and BAK. These results support the existence of a distinct biochemical pathway for regulating ceramides with different backbone structures and suggest that sphingadiene-containing ceramides may have functions that are distinct from the more common sphingosine-containing species. PMID:26059977

  11. The Relationship between Organizational Support, Work-Family Conflict, and the Job-Life Satisfaction of University Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Marlene A.; Sagas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between organizational support, work-family conflict, and job and life satisfaction among coaches. Data from collegiate head coaches with families (N = 253) were gathered through a mailed questionnaire. Results from a series of covariance structure models indicated that a partially mediated model was the best…

  12. Family Resources and Mid-Life Level of Education: A Longitudinal Study of the Mediating Influence of Childhood Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of parental involvement, popular among educators and policy-makers, in investigating differences in level of attained education by family background. The question is if parental involvement in children's schooling at age 14 acts as a mediator between family resources and mid-life level of attained education.…

  13. Family Functioning and Quality of Life among Families in Eating Disorders: A Comparison with Substance-related Disorders and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Sepulveda, Ana R; Sánchez, Julio César; Parks, Melissa; Álvarez, Tamara; Graell, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the family functioning of Spanish parents of patients with an eating disorder (ED) with that of carers of patients with substance-related disorders (SRDs) and families of healthy controls (HC). This cross-sectional study included 48 mothers and 45 fathers of 48 adolescent patients with an ED, 47 mothers and 37 fathers of 47 patients with an SRD and 66 mothers and 50 fathers of 68 HCs. Families of ED patients reported lower levels of criticism, symptom accommodation and negative caregiving experience than families of SRD patients. However, relatives of both ED and SRD patients reported similar levels of quality of life related to their mental health. Furthermore, families of HCs generally exhibited better scores on all scales assessing their caregiving experiences. Regarding gender differences, there was a tendency in mothers, primarily those from the ED group, to report more adverse experiences as caregivers compared with fathers. Symptoms characteristic to each disorder may be associated with differential patterns of family functioning and may require specifically tailored family interventions. Early family intervention in adolescence is crucial, as relatives' quality of life does not seem to have been badly affected at this point in the course of the illness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Family Functioning and Quality of Life among Families in Eating Disorders: A Comparison with Substance-related Disorders and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Sepulveda, Ana R; Sánchez, Julio César; Parks, Melissa; Álvarez, Tamara; Graell, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the family functioning of Spanish parents of patients with an eating disorder (ED) with that of carers of patients with substance-related disorders (SRDs) and families of healthy controls (HC). This cross-sectional study included 48 mothers and 45 fathers of 48 adolescent patients with an ED, 47 mothers and 37 fathers of 47 patients with an SRD and 66 mothers and 50 fathers of 68 HCs. Families of ED patients reported lower levels of criticism, symptom accommodation and negative caregiving experience than families of SRD patients. However, relatives of both ED and SRD patients reported similar levels of quality of life related to their mental health. Furthermore, families of HCs generally exhibited better scores on all scales assessing their caregiving experiences. Regarding gender differences, there was a tendency in mothers, primarily those from the ED group, to report more adverse experiences as caregivers compared with fathers. Symptoms characteristic to each disorder may be associated with differential patterns of family functioning and may require specifically tailored family interventions. Early family intervention in adolescence is crucial, as relatives' quality of life does not seem to have been badly affected at this point in the course of the illness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26915666

  15. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S.; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Santos, Raul D.; Stalenhoef, Anton F.H.; Steinhagen- Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is <3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) if >10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8–10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy

  16. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S; Watts, Gerald F; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L; Defesche, Joep C; Descamps, Olivier S; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Santos, Raul D; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-09-21

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is <3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) if >10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8-10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life

  17. In their own time: the family experience during the process of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Debra

    2008-10-01

    Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (LST) occurs commonly in critical care units, yet little is known about the family experience with this process. The purpose of this study was to understand the lived experience of families participating in the process of withdrawal of LST from a family member with an unexpected, life-threatening illness or injury. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used as nineteen families were interviewed and observed. Within and across family analyses were conducted. Methodological rigor was established and redundancy was achieved. The categories that evolved from the data included: this happens to other families, time to understand the severity of the illness or injury, time to see if health would be restored, riding a roller coaster, family readiness: willingness to consider withdrawal of LST as a possible option, one step at a time, family readiness: time to make a decision, the family will go on, and waiting for a miracle. The family experience participating in the process of withdrawal of LST happened for families "in their own time." The results of this study have important implications for clinical practice and future research. PMID:18980452

  18. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  19. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  20. Correlates of partner and family violence among older Canadians: a life-course approach

    PubMed Central

    Miszkurka, M.; Steensma, C.; Phillips, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Knowledge about individual and interpersonal correlates of violence in Canadian seniors is limited. This study identifies correlates of current and past violence by intimate partner and family member(s) in community-dwelling Canadian seniors, while accounting for childhood adverse circumstances. Methods: We performed logistic regression analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 to 74 years and living in Kingston (Ontario) and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec). Domestic violence was assessed using the Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) screening tool. Odds ratios (ORs) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Current violence of a psychological nature was reported by 18% of the sample. Women were at greater risk of current and lifetime violence perpetrated by a family member (current violence: adjusted OR  =  1.83; 95% CI: 1.02–3.30) as well as experiencing violence from their intimate partner in their lifetime than were men (adjusted OR  =  2.48; 95% CI: 1.40–4.37). Risk factors have accumulated over the life course that were found to be consistently associated with both current and lifetime violence included having witnessed violence at home in childhood (lifetime violence by family member: adjusted OR  =  9.46; 95% CI: 5.11–17.52), as well as poor quality of relationships with intimate partners, family and friends. Conclusion: Our research documents the ongoing impact of early adversity on subsequent partner and family violence in Canada. Findings identify some preventable factors associated with current psychological violence and past violence among community-dwelling Canadian seniors. PMID:26959723

  1. Distribution of protein folds in the three superkingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Y I; Brenner, S E; Bash, P A; Koonin, E V

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive protein-fold recognition procedure was developed on the basis of iterative database search using the PSI-BLAST program. A collection of 1193 position-dependent weight matrices that can be used as fold identifiers was produced. In the completely sequenced genomes, folds could be automatically identified for 20%-30% of the proteins, with 3%-6% more detectable by additional analysis of conserved motifs. The distribution of the most common folds is very similar in bacteria and archaea but distinct in eukaryotes. Within the bacteria, this distribution differs between parasitic and free-living species. In all analyzed genomes, the P-loop NTPases are the most abundant fold. In bacteria and archaea, the next most common folds are ferredoxin-like domains, TIM-barrels, and methyltransferases, whereas in eukaryotes, the second to fourth places belong to protein kinases, beta-propellers and TIM-barrels. The observed diversity of protein folds in different proteomes is approximately twice as high as it would be expected from a simple stochastic model describing a proteome as a finite sample from an infinite pool of proteins with an exponential distribution of the fold fractions. Distribution of the number of domains with different folds in one protein fits the geometric model, which is compatible with the evolution of multidomain proteins by random combination of domains. [Fold predictions for proteins from 14 proteomes are available on the World Wide Web at. The FIDs are available by anonymous ftp at the same location.

  2. The Change in the Quality of Life of Country Families in the Cumberland Mountains of Eastern Kentucky, 1960 to 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughenour, C. Milton

    The study examined the changes in the quality of life of country families in four eastern Kentucky counties between 1960 and 1973. Since quality of life is an abstract concept, the changes were assessed with respect to income, occupation, and level of living. The aim was to assess the changes in both objective and subjective terms as the families…

  3. Emerging Trends in Family Caregiving Using the Life Course Perspective: Preparing Health Educators for an Aging Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Elise K.; Adams, Rebecca; Morrison, Sharon; Strack, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background: As life expectancy and morbidity related to chronic disease increase, the baby boomers will be called upon to provide care to aging members of their family or to be care recipients themselves. Purpose: Through the theoretical lens of the life course perspective, this review of the literature provides insight into what characteristics…

  4. Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

  5. Prediction of the fatigue life distribution for aluminum through its mechanical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, S. Z.; Zaid, Adnan I. O.

    2016-08-01

    A novel and reliable theoretical model based on the Birnbaum-Saunders (BISA) distribution is presented from which the fatigue life can be determined. Experimental verification of the model is in progress and will be published in due course.

  6. About the modified Gaussian family of income distributions with applications to individual incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, José María; Prieto, Faustino; Trueba, Carmen; Jordá, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal [Q. Guo, L. Gao, Distribution of individual incomes in China between 1992 and 2009, Physica A 391 (2012) 5139-5145], a new family of distributions for modeling individual incomes in China was proposed. This family is the so-called Modified Gaussian (MG) distribution, which depends on two parameters. The MG distribution shows a satisfactory fit for the individual income data between 1992 and 2009. However, for the practical use of this model with individual incomes, it is necessary to know its probabilistic and statistical properties, especially the corresponding inequality measures. In this paper, probabilistic functions and inequality measures of the MG distribution are obtained in closed form, including the normalizing constant, probability functions, moments, first-degree stochastic dominance conditions, relationships with other families of distributions and standard tools for inequality measurement (Lorenz and generalized Lorenz curves and Gini, Donaldson-Weymark-Kakwani and Pietra indices). Several methods for parameter estimation are also discussed. In order to illustrate all the previous formulations, we have fitted individual incomes of Spain for three years using the European community household panel survey, concluding a static pattern of inequality, since the Gini index and other inequality measures remain constant over the study period.

  7. The distribution of stars most likely to harbor intelligent life.

    PubMed

    Whitmire, Daniel P; Matese, John J

    2009-09-01

    Simple heuristic models and recent numerical simulations show that the probability of habitable planet formation increases with stellar mass. We combine those results with the distribution of main-sequence stellar masses to obtain the distribution of stars most likely to possess habitable planets as a function of stellar lifetime. We then impose the self-selection condition that intelligent observers can only find themselves around a star with a lifetime greater than the time required for that observer to have evolved, T(i). This allows us to obtain the stellar timescale number distribution for a given value of T(i). Our results show that for habitable planets with a civilization that evolved at time T(i) = 4.5 Gyr the median stellar lifetime is 13 Gyr, corresponding approximately to a stellar type of G5, with two-thirds of the stars having lifetimes between 7 and 30 Gyr, corresponding approximately to spectral types G0-K5. For other values of T(i) the median stellar lifetime changes by less than 50%.

  8. Impact of life and family background on delayed presentation to hospital in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yuta; Imai, Takeshi; Yamada, Koji; Sakurai, Kenzo; Atsumi, Chihiro; Tsuruoka, Atsushi; Mizukami, Heisuke; Sasaki, Naoshi; Akiyama, Hisanao; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The over-65 population stands at 29 million, more than 20% of the total population in Japan. This is the highest rate in the world. One-person households and older couple households will be increasing. The aim of the present study was to identify whether life and family background are significant factors for delayed presentation to hospital after stroke onset. A total of 253 patients (mean age, 70.7 ± 13.2 years) with stroke was examined. Patients who presented to hospital within 3 hours of onset were categorized as the early presentation group, and the other patients were categorized as the late presentation group. Life and family background were classified into 3 categories, namely 1-person households, 2-person households, and patients living with 3 or more persons. Two-person households were further subdivided by the age of family members. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that 1-person households (odds ratio [OR]: 2.980, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.108-8.011) and 2-person households with individuals 65 years and older (OR: 3.059, 95% CI: 1.297-7.217) were significant independent factors for delayed presentation, in addition to stroke subtype, time of stroke onset, and route of admission. Onset-to-door time in patients with night-time onset was significantly different among different types of households. Significant delay was demonstrated in 2-person households with 2 individuals 65 years and older compared with that in patients living with 3 or more persons (P = .038). Our findings show that delayed presentation to hospital is more likely in stroke patients living in an elderly couple household, especially those with evening onset in an aging society.

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.209 - Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209 Utilization and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items. 101-27.209 Section 101-27.209 Public Contracts and Property...

  10. Spouses of Older Adults With Late-Life Drinking Problems: Health, Family, and Social Functioning*

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits. PMID:20553658

  11. [A study regarding estimates of the trends in the family life cycle in Korea: 1935-1975 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kwon, H W

    1981-12-01

    The concept of the family life cycle is important because it leads one away from thinking in terms of static family ideal types and towards an appreication of actual process. It concerns the hypothetically "typical" family as it progresses from marriage through childrearing, children leaving home, the "empty nest" period, and the final dissolution of the family. One underlying idea of family life cycle studies is to establish a priori phases in the structure of the family as a group which are related to the process of family formation and the phases of the life cycles of those who compose it. The purpose of this paper is to look at the relationship between family types and industrialization, and to review and update previous work done in this area, as well as to estimate and discuss trends in the family life cycle on the basis of actual data available. In this study, the WHO basic model of a nuclear family life cycle is used which consists of 6 stages: formation, extension, completed extension, contraction, completed contraction, and dissolution. Some conclusions which can be drawn follow. The median age at marriage has been increasing, and although Korean women begin their childbearing later, they completed childbirth earlier, by means of reducing the number of children and by shortening the birth interval. In 1935 and 1945, husbands appeared to die before the marriage of the last child, which means the deviation of the assumption that both are alive when the last child gets married. Recent data shows that more childfree years will be spent by couples during old age than ever before. The length of each phase of the family life cycle in Korea portrays a consistent picture. The interval from marriage to the birth of the last child decreased by about 1/2, from 14.8 years in 1935 to 7.1 years in 1975. And the period of contraction has shortened about 1/2, which is an effect of smaller number of children/family and the shorter birth interval. Korean women now enjoy a

  12. The relationship between recent stressful life events, personality traits, perceived family functioning and internet addiction among college students.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wansen; Li, Yonghui; Sui, Nan

    2014-02-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is an emerging social and mental health issue among youths. Analysis of risk factors, as well as their interactions, is crucial for understanding the development of IA. This study investigated the relationship between recent stressful life events, personality traits, perceived family functioning and IA in 892 college students. Subjects were classified into categories (non-addicted, mild IA or severe IA) using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Stressful life events, personality traits and family functioning were assessed using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, respectively. The results indicated that compared with non-addicted subjects, subjects with severe IA (9.98%) had lower family functioning, lower extraversion, higher neuroticism and psychoticism, and more stressful life events, and subjects with mild IA (11.21%) had higher neuroticism and more health and adaptation problems. Neuroticism and health and adaptation problems were potential predictors of IA. An interaction effect between psychoticism and total life stress on IA was also found. These findings highlight the role of personality traits and life stress and their interactions in college students' IA. Further research should explore the mechanisms underlying the interaction effect of psychoticism with life stress on IA.

  13. Family Life Course Transitions and Rural Household Economy During China’s Market Reform

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, FEINIAN; KORINEK, KIM

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration. PMID:21308566

  14. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families. PMID:26090927

  15. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child’s general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families. PMID:26090927

  16. Work and Family Patterns of American Women. The Family Life Cycle: 1985; [and] Maternity Leave Arrangements: 1961-85. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The two papers in this report focus on some of the social, demographic, and economic consequences of the increasing entry of women into the workforce. Arthur Norton and Louisa Miller in "The Family Life Cycle: 1985" show trends in the frequency and timing of marriage, divorce, remarriage, and fertility across several generations of women. Martin…

  17. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  18. Reflexivity over and above convention: the new orthodoxy in the sociology of personal life, formerly sociology of the family.

    PubMed

    Gilding, Michael

    2010-12-01

    There is a new orthodoxy in the field that was once understood as the sociology of the family, and is increasingly understood as the sociology of 'personal life', 'intimacy', 'relationships' and 'families'. The orthodoxy highlights the open-endedness of intimate relations at the expense of the family as an institution; that is, reflexivity over and above convention. This article argues that the new orthodoxy not only overstates reflexivity at the expense of convention, but abdicates understanding to frameworks grounded in biologistic and economistic understandings of human behaviour. The article makes its point through attention to three areas of research at odds with the new orthodoxy: paternity uncertainty, inheritance and family business. It then proposes that conceptualization of the family as an institutional regime gives due weight to the reflexive reconfiguration of family relationships and practices on the one hand, and their institutional embeddedness on the other.

  19. The important role for nurses in supporting the Asian Hindu patient and family at end of life: providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anuradha; Freeman, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    As cultural ecology of Canada evolves with daily arrival of new immigrants, Canadians welcome them and feel very proud of preserving their multicultural heritage. As minority groups, especially South Asian Hindus, continue to grow, there is a need to understand their cultural perspectives and accommodate their cultural preferences for end-of-life care. This article addresses end-of-life care from a point of view of Hindu culture and religion and provides a brief overview of their beliefs and rituals related to it. This article also guides nurses to understand diverse Hindu cultural practices and beliefs to help support their patients and families at this difficult time of life. PMID:21462877

  20. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  1. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  2. Much more than a gene: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, reproductive choices and family life.

    PubMed

    Dekeuwer, Catherine; Bateman, Simone

    2013-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigates the way in which carriers of a mutation on the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene, associated with a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer, make their reproductive decisions. Using semi-structured interviews, the study explored the way in which these persons reflected on the acceptability of taking the risk of transmitting this mutation to the next generation, the arguments they used in favor or against taking that risk, and in the light of these arguments, their opinion on the acceptability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) as a reproductive option. The findings suggest that when carriers are planning to have a(nother) child, they are mainly concerned by the risk of transmitting 'much more than a gene': essentially painful experiences not only with respect to health, such as undergoing cancer surveillance or combatting one's own illness, but also with regards to family life, such as witnessing the illness and death of a close relative, encountering difficulties in finding a partner or reconsidering one's plans to have a family. As for opinions concerning the acceptability of PGD as a reproductive option, opinions about personal recourse were varied but all expressed the understanding that PGD should be made available to those persons who consider it their best option.

  3. Conversations about End of Life: Perspectives of Nursing Home Residents, Family, and Staff

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Karen B.; Madden, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Care in nursing homes (NHs) often overlooks individual values and preferences. Residents' voices are critical to discussions about preferences, yet there remains limited research on conversations about the end of life (EOL) from the perspective of older adults who reside in NHs. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the communication, content and process, related to EOL conversations among residents, family, and staff. Methods: We used semistructured interviews in this qualitative, descriptive study to describe conversations about EOL preferences. We examined participants' conversation, when it occurred, and what was discussed. We queried about barriers to and facilitators in discussing EOL care in the NH setting. We interviewed residents (n=16), family (n=12), and interdisciplinary staff (n=10) from four NHs. Results: The overarching theme—missed conversations—describes EOL-related communication. Residents, families, and staff rarely talked about EOL care preferences, nor did they pass along information about preferences or initiate conversations about EOL care with each other. Three categories explained missed conversations: inquiry (“No one asked”); assumptions (presence of an advance directive [AD], “They know me”); and conveying (lack of conveying information or wishes). Existing barriers and lacking facilitators resulted in missed opportunities to hold conversations about EOL preferences. Conclusions: Not all residents wanted to have conversations, but many wanted to be asked about their preferences. Missed conversations may adversely affect the quality of EOL care. Conversations with residents can be initiated by asking residents who they would like involved in the conversation and drawing upon the experience of others. PMID:25658608

  4. The role of family social background and inheritance in later life volunteering: evidence from SHARE-Israel.

    PubMed

    Youssim, Iaroslav; Hank, Karsten; Litwin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Building on a tripartite model of capitals necessary to perform productive activities and on work suggesting that cumulative (dis-)advantage processes are important mechanisms for life course inequalities, our study set out to investigate the potential role of family social background and inheritance in later life volunteering. We hypothesized that older individuals who inherited work-relevant economic and cultural capitals from their family of origin are more likely to be engaged in voluntary activities than their counterparts with a less advantageous family social background. Our main findings from the analysis of a representative sample of community-dwelling Israelis aged 50 and over provide strong support for this hypothesis: the likelihood to volunteer is significantly higher among those who received substantial financial transfers from their family of origin ("inherited economic capital") and among those having a "white collar" parental background ("inherited cultural capital"). We conclude with perspectives for future research.

  5. Life satisfaction and adjustment of children of alcoholics: the effects of parental drinking, family disorganization and survival roles.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, V; Devine, C

    1993-11-01

    The stress paradigm was used to investigate the extent to which parental alcohol dependency, family disorganization ana Black's (1979) and Wegscheider's (1976) survival roles affected the adjustment of children of alcoholics (COAs). The study was cross-sectional based on the responses of a non-random community sample of 112 adolescents. The predictors of life satisfaction differed from the predictors of minor psychiatric symptoms. Parental alcohol dependency had no direct effect on minor psychiatric symptoms, with low family cohesiveness and intimacy being the major determinants of psychopathology. In contrast, parental alcohol dependency and family disharmony had an additive effect on level of life satisfaction. Family variables did not buffer children from the effects of alcohol once they recognized parental drinking as a problem. Nor did the survival roles protect children in any way. Indeed, the roles of the 'lost' child, the 'acting-out' child, and the 'clown' were detrimental to well-being.

  6. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda. PMID:25791963

  7. The Life Cycle of Bare Branch Families in China---A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Quanbao; GUO, Zhen; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    China is and will be characterized by a large number of men who are unable to marry: these men are often referred to as “bare branches.” In this paper we define the bare branch family and divide its life cycle into three stages: the unmarried co-resident with both parents, co-resident with a surviving parent, and living alone. Using life tables and probability methods, we find that up to age 60, the bare branch male faces cumulative probabilities of 0.8 and 0.6, for his father's and mother's death, respectively. The definition of the age at which bare branch status is initialized influences the length of these stages. As the childbearing age of parents increases, the age of a bare branch at the death of his parents decreases, and the duration of his living alone lengthens. An increase in the mother's childbearing age, holding that of the father constant, shortens the stage of co-residence with both parents, and lengthens the stage of living alone. PMID:24174704

  8. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda.

  9. "A Day in the Life": Exploring Eating Events Involving Two-Year Old Girls and Their Families in Diverse Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Julia; Hancock, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a specific aspect of a larger study of "a day in the life" of five two-and-a-half-year-old girls in families in Canada, Italy, Peru, Thailand and the UK. The larger study involved filming each of the five children in their family contexts for one whole day and studying a number of emerging themes related to the child's…

  10. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan.

  11. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan. PMID:23517512

  12. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features.

  13. Family structure and quality of life of elders in rural China: the role of the new rural social pension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Han, Xiuhua; Xiao, Qunying; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, M W

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a survey in Ankang district of Shaanxi province of China in 2011, this article examines the protective effect of the New Rural Social Pension (NRSP) on quality of life of rural elders, as well the moderating effect on association between family structure and quality of life. An instrumental variable approach is used. NRSP is shown to significantly improve the quality of life of rural elders, and a robustness check shows that this effect is consistent across different sets of subgroups. Compared with the elders who have at least one son, the quality of life of those who are childless or have only one child is significantly lower. The NRSP is more likely to significantly improve the quality of life of one-child elders. In addition, the associations between the NRSP and the different facets of quality of life of the elders are significant except for the facet of sensory abilities.

  14. Tissue distribution of amyloid deposits in Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Tarr, M J; Benson, M D

    1986-07-01

    The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits was studied in 15 related Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis. There was interstitial medullary amyloidosis in the kidneys of all 15 cats but only 11 had detectable glomerular involvement. The thyroid glands, stomach and colon were affected in all cats examined. Most of the cats also had amyloid deposits in the small intestine, spleen, heart, adrenals, pancreas, liver, lymph nodes and bladder. In 50 per cent or fewer of the cats examined, there was involvement of the parathyroids, lung and gonads. The central nervous system was not involved in any of the 3 cats evaluated. In 8 of the cats, no concurrent inflammatory disease could be detected. The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits resembled that found in other breeds of domestic cats with systemic amyloidosis. Despite the wide tissue distribution of amyloid deposits, clinical signs were related to renal amyloidosis. Familial amyloidosis in the Abyssinian cat may represent a valuable spontaneous animal model for the study of Familial Mediterranean Fever in man and the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in general. PMID:3734172

  15. From dioramas to the dinner table: An ethnographic case study of the role of science museums in family life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Kirsten M.

    families use museums over time and the network of learning resources that support family life. This study suggests possible ways for museum professionals to reconsider the design of learning activities, museum environments, and a shift in focus from the learning institution of the science museum to the learning institution of the family.

  16. State policy decisions in the 1990s with implications for the financial well-being of later-life families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gretchen J

    2006-01-01

    This study explores trends and patterns in states' policy decisions affecting the economic well-being of later-life individuals and families in the United States in recent decades, focusing on the 1990s. Rules were selected from the areas of inheritance, estate taxes, homestead exemptions, Medicaid eligibility, estate recovery, and filial responsibility. Results indicate an increasing use of a broad definition of family, one implying that spouses, the nuclear family, extended kin, step-relations, and sometimes in-laws constitute an ongoing collective whose members share economic resources and risks over their lives and beyond. Despite this global trend, states varied in their rules addressing intrafamilial financial obligations and families' accountability to states. While some seemed interested in facilitating the conservation of familial resources, others seemed willing to minimize public assistance while coercing kin into accepting financial responsibility for one another. Research was suggested to answer questions raised by this study.

  17. Intergenerational family relations and life satisfaction among three elderly population groups in transition in the Israeli multi-cultural society.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ruth

    2009-03-01

    The study aims to illuminate the links between personal and familial resources and wellbeing of elders 65+ in three population groups in Israel: kibbutz members, new immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Arabs-all of whom are undergoing different types of personal, social and economic transitions. About 70 respondents in each group were interviewed regarding life satisfaction, familial relations based on the paradigm of intergenerational family solidarity and personal resources (socio-demographic and physical functioning). The main conclusions of this study are: the lives of the elderly immigrants are much more disruptive by the transitional migration processes they are undergoing and this affects their well-being which was much lower than the other two groups. Additionally they received more help from the family. Family solidarity, mainly opportunity structures and emotional bonds were especially strong among the Arabs, with the lowest level of conflict. The Arab elderly were also different from the other two groups in the lower level of help they provided to their adult children, probably due to their more limited level of personal resources and the differing social expectations. The majority of respondents acknowledged some degree of filial obligations, although much lower among kibbutz members. Personal resources (physical functioning and financial adequacy) had the strongest effect on life satisfaction in all three groups. The dimensions of family solidarity played a less dominant role. The discussion highlights the distinctive family culture of the three groups, the transition they face, and their differential resources with some policy recommendations.

  18. When everyday life becomes a storm on the horizon: families' experiences of good mental health while hiking in nature.

    PubMed

    Baklien, Børge; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Bongaardt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Hiking in nature is often presented as a yearning for lost harmony premised on an alleged divide between nature as authentically healthy and society as polluted. This paper's aim is to question this strict divide and the strong belief in nature as having an innate health-providing effect, the biophilia hypothesis, by examining what Norwegian families with young children experience when walking in the forest. Twenty-four conversations with families during a hiking trip in the forest were recorded, and the data were analysed with Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological research method. The paper introduces the general descriptive meaning structure of the phenomenon 'family-hiking with young children'. It shows that a hiking trip clears space for the family in their everyday lives which is largely dominated by relations with non-family members at both work and leisure. The families experience that they actively generate a different existence with a sense of here-and-now presences that can strengthen core family relations and also provide the opportunity to pass down experiences that can be recollected and realized by future generations. This experience is complex and constituted by social practices, which indicate that the biophilia hypothesis seems to be an insufficient explanation of why families go hiking in nature. Nature rather represents a peaceful background that allows for the perpetuation of the family as a social institution and the recreation of cohesion in everyday life.

  19. Life skills profile of patients with schizophrenia and its correlation to a feeling of rejection among key family carers

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L.S.S; Chandran, R. Satheesh

    2005-01-01

    Background: The behaviour of patients with schizophrenia is of great concern to key family carers. Life skills profile (LSP) is the measure that has considerable importance in assessing the functioning of people with schizophrenia in the community. Aim: To assess the sociodemographic correlates of LSP, and to find the correlation between LSP and the rejection response of key family carers. Methods: The LSP of 48 patients with chronic schizophrenia (29 men and 19 women) was assessed. The rejection responses of key family carers (28 men and 20 women) were evaluated using the Patient Rejection Scale. Results: The LSP did not significantly differ on the variables of gender, income level or attendance of day-care centre. However, there were differences between patients from urban and rural areas. A new dimension of family harmony, added as a subscale to LSP, also did not show any significant difference on the above variables. The rejection responses of key family carers were found to be significantly related to the LSP of the patients and, among the subscales, family harmony and communication were positively related to rejection. Conclusion: Though family interventions have been found to have positive implications on relapse and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia, a model of a family intervention programme for families of patients with schizophrenia needs to be developed. PMID:20711289

  20. Strong neutral spatial effects shape tree species distributions across life stages at multiple scales.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Hua; Lan, Guo-Yu; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min; Tang, Yong; Li, Yi-De; Xu, Da-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, ecologists use lattice (regional summary) count data to simulate tree species distributions to explore species coexistence. However, no previous study has explicitly compared the difference between using lattice count and basal area data and analyzed species distributions at both individual species and community levels while simultaneously considering the combined scenarios of life stage and scale. In this study, we hypothesized that basal area data are more closely related to environmental variables than are count data because of strong environmental filtering effects. We also address the contribution of niche and the neutral (i.e., solely dependent on distance) factors to species distributions. Specifically, we separately modeled count data and basal area data while considering life stage and scale effects at the two levels with simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. A principal coordinates of neighbor matrix (PCNM) was used to model neutral spatial effects at the community level. The explained variations of species distribution data did not differ significantly between the two types of data at either the individual species level or the community level, indicating that the two types of data can be used nearly identically to model species distributions. Neutral spatial effects represented by spatial autoregressive parameters and the PCNM eigenfunctions drove species distributions on multiple scales, different life stages and individual species and community levels in this plot. We concluded that strong neutral spatial effects are the principal mechanisms underlying the species distributions and thus shape biodiversity spatial patterns. PMID:22666497

  1. 25 CFR 179.101 - How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the holder of a life estate? 179.101 Section 179.101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.101 How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?...

  2. 25 CFR 179.101 - How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the holder of a life estate? 179.101 Section 179.101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.101 How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?...

  3. 25 CFR 179.101 - How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the holder of a life estate? 179.101 Section 179.101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.101 How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?...

  4. 25 CFR 179.101 - How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the holder of a life estate? 179.101 Section 179.101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.101 How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?...

  5. Taxonomy of Family Life Styles: II. Homes with Slow-Learning Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Iris Tan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Seven clusters were identified from results of instruments measuring family social environment and family and child characteristics and behavior in 218 families with mildly retarded and educationally handicapped children (average 12 years). Ethnography and interview reports are presented for four of the families, and implications for…

  6. Families Created Through Surrogacy Arrangements: Parent-Child Relationships in the 1st Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Murray, Clare; Jadva, Vasanti; MacCallum, Fiona; Lycett,Emma

    2004-01-01

    Findings are presented of a study of families created through surrogacy arrangements. Forty-two surrogacy families were compared with 51 egg-donation families and 80 natural-conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, the quality of parent-child relationships, and infant…

  7. A simple marriage model for the power-law behaviour in the frequency distributions of family names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao-Yun; Chou, Chung-I.; Tseng, Jie-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the frequency distributions of family names are found to decay as a power law with an exponent ranging from 1.0 to 2.2. In this work, we propose a simple marriage model which can reproduce this power-law behaviour. Our model, based on the evolution of families, consists of the growth of big families and the formation of new families. Preliminary results from the model show that the name distributions are in good agreement with empirical data from Taiwan and Norway.

  8. Effect of carbide distribution on rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5749

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    Endurance tests with ball bearings made of corrosion resistant bearing steel which resulted in fatigue lives much lower than were predicted are discussed. Metallurgical analysis revealed an undesirable carbide distribution in the races. It was shown in accelerated fatigue tests in the RC rig that large, banded carbides can reduce rolling element fatigue life by a factor of approximately four. The early spalling failures on the bearing raceways are attributed to the large carbide size and banded distribution.

  9. Phylogenetic distribution of the novel avian endogenous provirus family EAV-0.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, R M; Boyce-Jacino, M T; Fu, Q; Faras, A J

    1990-01-01

    A new family of related endogenous proviruses, existing at 50 to 100 copies per haploid genome and distinguishable by remarkably short long terminal repeats, has been described for domestic chickens (Gallus gallus subsp domesticus). In this communication, by using Southern blot analysis and probes derived from both internal viral sequences and locus-specific, cellular flanking sequences, we studied the genetic distribution of this family of moderately repetitive avian endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of four Gallus species. Eight inbred lines of domestic chickens, the evolutionary progenitor to the domestic chicken (red jungle fowl), and two more distantly related species (grey and green jungle fowl) were studied. All Gallus species harbored this class of elements, although the different lines of domestic chickens and different species of jungle fowl bore distinguishable complements of the proviral loci. Jungle fowl appeared to have fewer copies than domestic chickens. For three randomly isolated proviral loci, domestic chickens (G. gallus subsp. domesticus) and red jungle fowl (G. gallus subsp. gallus) showed only a proviral state, whereas the most primitive and divergent of the jungle fowl, the green jungle fowl (G. varius), consistently demonstrated only preintegration states or disparate alleles. The presence of this family in all Gallus species and of related sequences in other genera suggests that a primordial founding integration event occurred prior to the evolutionary separation of Gallus species and possibly related genera. Additionally, at least one proviral locus has been acquired subsequent to speciation, indicating that this family was actively infectious after the primary founding event. This conserved, repetitive proviral family appears to represent the vestigial remnant of an avian retrovirus class related to and evolutionarily more ancient than the Rous-associated virus-0 family of avian endogenous retroviruses. Images PMID:2398526

  10. A mixed methods study of hope, transitions, and quality of life in family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several research studies have reported the poor quality of life of family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, factors that influence their quality of life have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the quality of life of these caregivers such as demographic variables, their transition experience, and hope. A secondary aim was to explore the transition experience of family caregivers of persons with AD. Methods A cross-sectional triangulation data transformation model mixed method design (Quant +Qual) was utilized to address the purpose of the study. Eighty family caregivers of persons with AD completed a survey with quantitative measures [demographic variables, Herth Hope Index (HHI-hope), World Health Organization Quality of Life -BREF (WHOQOL-BREF)] and a qualitative survey about their transitions experience. The qualitative data (transition open ended- survey) was converted to quantitative data using content analysis. Variables significant at the p < 0.10 level in the univariate analysis were entered in the multivariate generalized linear model used to determine significant factors associated with quality of life. Results Subjects with higher hope scores (p < 0.0001) (Factor 1: temporality and future-cognitive-temporary dimension of hope) and who dealt with their transitions by actively seeking out knowledge and assistance (p = 0.02) had higher overall quality of life scores. HHI scores were associated with overall quality of life and for each of the four quality of life domains (physical psychosocial, relationships, and environment). Conclusions Hope played a significant role in the subjects' perceptions of overall quality of life as well as the 4 quality of life domains. This underscores the need to develop ways to foster hope in family caregivers. Moreover, the active engagement of families in seeking information and help, as a way to deal with their transitions

  11. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  12. Interact. A Plan for Participation in Home & Family Life Programs. Revised. H.E. Bulletin No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers and vocational administrators in getting parents, students, and members of the community at large to participate in the process of planning and developing a high-quality home and family life education program. The first section discusses the importance of teamwork among parents, students, school, and…

  13. The Family Life Education Project in Fiji: A Case Study. Lessons Learned Series in Population Education and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Allan

    The Family Life Education project in Fiji began in 1985 to deal with the problem of a high percentage of illegitimate births among teenage girls and a high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. The project also hoped to foster the development of understanding and responsible attitudes and moral values in relation to sexual development and…

  14. Stress Faced by Pakistani Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Impact on Their Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajjad, Shahida

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the stress faced by mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Pakistan and the impact of the stress on their family life. One hundred mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Karachi city, which is in Sindh region of Pakistan, were invited and interviewed. The results indicate…

  15. "I'm Sure She Chose Me!" Accuracy of Children's Reports of Mothers' Favoritism in Later Life Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, J. Jill; Sechrist, Jori; Steinhour, Michael; Pillemer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    We used data from 769 mother-child dyads nested within 300 later life families to explore the accuracy of adult children's perceptions of mothers' patterns of favoritism in terms of closeness and confiding. Adult children were generally accurate regarding whether their mothers preferred a specific child, but often had difficulty identifying whom…

  16. A comparison study of psychological, family function marital and life satisfactions of polygamous and monogamous women in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-10-01

    This study surveyed a 2009 convenience sampling of 199 women, 93 of whom were first (or senior) wives in polygamous marriages and 106 were wives in monogamous marriages. We deployed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), ENRICH marital satisfaction questionnaire, SCL-90 mental health symptoms checklist, Rosenberg self-esteem (SE) scale, and Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin life satisfaction scale, a basic sociodemographic scale, including attitudes towards polygamy. Women from polygamous families experienced more problems in family functioning, marital relations, and reported low self-esteem, less satisfaction with life, and more somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoid ideation, psychoticism and their general severity index was higher (GSI). More women in polygamous marriages agreed with the practice of polygamy, as compared to their monogamous counterparts. The conclusion considers implications for mental health practice, policy, and further research.

  17. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  18. Experiences of caregiving, satisfaction of life, and social repercussions among family caregivers, two years post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Lurbe-Puerto, Kàtia; Leandro, Maria-Engracia; Baumann, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health and social policy priority in Europe due to their high prevalence and the long-term disability they may result in (as the principal cause of handicap). Increasingly, family caregivers take over the care at home of these patients. Two years post-stroke, our study analyzed the feelings of family caregivers from Luxembourg and northeastern Portugal toward their experience of caregiving and its repercussions on social and couple relationships, life satisfaction, and socioeconomic characteristics. Participating hospitals identified survivors and consent was sought by letter. Patients (n = 62) and their main caregivers (n = 46 pairs) were interviewed at home. The mean life satisfaction of caregivers was similar, but the experience of providing care differed in terms of family support, and disruptions of the caregivers' family responsibilities. More Portuguese respondents gave activities up, found little time for relaxation, and estimated that their health had deteriorated; more Luxembourgers felt strong enough to cope. More Portuguese spouses reported an impact on their sex lives. Family caregivers represent a "population at risk." Social workers can help them by providing domestic assistance, undertaking coaching activities, fostering favorable attitudes, and offering reassurance. Home-based rehabilitation in Europe involving family care must take account of cultural lifestyle issues.

  19. Work-Family Life Courses and Metabolic Markers in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Meena; Sacker, Amanda; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; McMunn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the combined work-family life courses of British men and women were associated with differences in metabolic markers—waist circumference, blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycated haemoglobin—in mid-life. We used data from the Medical Research Council’s National Survey of Health and Development—the 1946 British birth cohort. Multi-channel sequence analysis was used to create a typology of eight work-family life course types combining information on work, partnerships and parenthood between ages 16–51. Linear regression tested associations between work-family types and metabolic outcomes at age 53 on multiply imputed data (20 imputations) of >2,400 participants. Compared with men with strong ties to employment and early transitions to family life, men who made later transitions to parenthood and maintained strong ties to paid work had smaller waist circumferences (-2.16cm, 95% CI: -3.73, -0.59), lower triglycerides (9.78% lower, 95% CI: 0.81, 17.94) and lower blood pressure (systolic: -4.03mmHg, 95% CI: -6.93, -1.13; diastolic: -2.34mmHg, 95% CI: -4.15, -0.53). Married men and women who didn’t have children had increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (7.23% higher, 95% CI: 0.68, 14.21) and lower waist circumferences (-4.67cm, 95% CI: -8.37, -0.97), respectively. For men later transitions to parenthood combined with strong ties to paid work were linked to reduced metabolic risk in mid-life. Fewer differences between work-family types and metabolic markers were seen for women. PMID:27563726

  20. Work-Family Life Courses and Metabolic Markers in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Sacker, Amanda; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; McMunn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the combined work-family life courses of British men and women were associated with differences in metabolic markers-waist circumference, blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycated haemoglobin-in mid-life. We used data from the Medical Research Council's National Survey of Health and Development-the 1946 British birth cohort. Multi-channel sequence analysis was used to create a typology of eight work-family life course types combining information on work, partnerships and parenthood between ages 16-51. Linear regression tested associations between work-family types and metabolic outcomes at age 53 on multiply imputed data (20 imputations) of >2,400 participants. Compared with men with strong ties to employment and early transitions to family life, men who made later transitions to parenthood and maintained strong ties to paid work had smaller waist circumferences (-2.16cm, 95% CI: -3.73, -0.59), lower triglycerides (9.78% lower, 95% CI: 0.81, 17.94) and lower blood pressure (systolic: -4.03mmHg, 95% CI: -6.93, -1.13; diastolic: -2.34mmHg, 95% CI: -4.15, -0.53). Married men and women who didn't have children had increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (7.23% higher, 95% CI: 0.68, 14.21) and lower waist circumferences (-4.67cm, 95% CI: -8.37, -0.97), respectively. For men later transitions to parenthood combined with strong ties to paid work were linked to reduced metabolic risk in mid-life. Fewer differences between work-family types and metabolic markers were seen for women. PMID:27563726

  1. Using Experimental Evolution to Study Adaptations for Life within the Family

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Matthew; Jarrett, Benjamin J. M.; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Parents of many species provision their young, and the extent of parental provisioning constitutes a major component of the offspring’s social environment. Thus, a change in parental provisioning can alter selection on offspring, resulting in the coevolution of parental and offspring traits. Although this reasoning is central to our evolutionary understanding of family life, there is little direct evidence that selection by parents causes evolutionary change in their offspring. Here we use experimental evolution to examine how populations of burying beetles adapt to a change in posthatching parental provisioning. We measured the performance of larvae descended from lab populations that had been maintained with and without posthatching parental care (Full Care and No Care populations). We found that adaptation to the absence of posthatching care led to rapid and consistent changes in larval survival in the absence of care. Specifically, larvae from No Care populations had higher survival in the absence of care than larvae from Full Care populations. Other measures of larval performance, such as the ability of larvae to consume a breeding carcass and larval mass at dispersal, did not differ between the Full Care and No Care populations. Nevertheless, our results show that populations can adapt rapidly to a change in the extent of parental care and that experimental evolution can be used to study such adaptation. PMID:25905504

  2. The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Lineweaver, Charles H; Fenner, Yeshe; Gibson, Brad K

    2004-01-01

    We modeled the evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy to trace the distribution in space and time of four prerequisites for complex life: the presence of a host star, enough heavy elements to form terrestrial planets, sufficient time for biological evolution, and an environment free of life-extinguishing supernovae. We identified the Galactic habitable zone (GHZ) as an annular region between 7 and 9 kiloparsecs from the Galactic center that widens with time and is composed of stars that formed between 8 and 4 billion years ago. This GHZ yields an age distribution for the complex life that may inhabit our Galaxy. We found that 75% of the stars in the GHZ are older than the Sun.

  3. Families created through surrogacy arrangements: parent-child relationships in the 1st year of life.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Murray, Clare; Jadva, Vasanti; MacCallum, Fiona; Lycett, Emma

    2004-05-01

    Findings are presented of a study of families created through surrogacy arrangements. Forty-two surrogacy families were compared with 51 egg-donation families and 80 natural-conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, the quality of parent-child relationships, and infant temperament. The differences that were identified between the surrogacy families and the other family types indicated greater psychological well-being and adaptation to parenthood by mothers and fathers of children born through surrogacy arrangements than by the natural-conception parents. PMID:15122966

  4. Temperature effects on gametophyte life-history traits and geographic distribution of two cryptic kelp species.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, L Valeria; Correa, Juan A; Engelen, Aschwin H; Tellier, Florence; Vieira, Vasco; Faugeron, Sylvain; Valero, Myriam; Gomez, Gonzalo; Destombe, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte) of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29-30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1) estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2) compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ) at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Temperature Effects on Gametophyte Life-History Traits and Geographic Distribution of Two Cryptic Kelp Species

    PubMed Central

    Oppliger, L. Valeria; Correa, Juan A.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Tellier, Florence; Vieira, Vasco; Faugeron, Sylvain; Valero, Myriam; Gomez, Gonzalo; Destombe, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte) of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29–30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1) estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2) compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ) at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22723987

  6. The last mile of the way: understanding caregiving in African American families at the end-of-life.

    PubMed

    Turner, William L; Wallace, Beverly R; Anderson, Jared R; Bird, Carolyn

    2004-10-01

    This research is based on in-depth ethnographic interviews and focus groups with 88 African American family caregivers from various regions of the United States during a stressful time in their family development--caregiving at the end-of-life--and the grieving during the aftermath. The study employed a stratified purposeful sampling strategy. Subjects were African Americans from the Northern, Southern, and Midwestern United States. Formal care is complicated by the distrust that many African Americans hold toward the health care system, which has resulted from years of exclusion, racism and discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of hearing from African American families to gain an understanding of what services, including family therapy and other psychotherapy, they will need during this process.

  7. Bayesian Analysis of Step-Stress Accelerated Life Test with Exponential Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Pan, R.

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we propose a general Bayesian inference approach to the step-stress accelerated life test with type II censoring. We assume that the failure times at each stress level are exponentially distributed and the test units are tested in an increasing order of stress levels. We formulate the prior distribution of the parameters of life-stress function and integrate the engineering knowledge of product failure rate and acceleration factor into the prior. The posterior distribution and the point estimates for the parameters of interest are provided. Through the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, we demonstrate a nonconjugate prior case using an industrial example. It is shown that with the Bayesian approach, the statistical precision of parameter estimation is improved and, consequently, the required number of failures could be reduced.

  8. An International Multi-center Study on Self-assessed and Family Quality of Life in Children with Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chernyshov, Pavel V; Ho, Roger C; Monti, Fiorella; Jirakova, Anna; Velitchko, Svitlana S; Hercogova, Jana; Neri, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common childhood chronic inflammatory skin condition that greatly affects the quality of life (QoL) of affected children and their families. The aim of our study was to assess QoL and family QoL of children with AD from 4 different countries and then compare the data, evaluating the effects of AD severity and age of children. Data on the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Dermatitis Family Impact (DFI) questionnaires and the SCORAD index of 167 AD children 5-16 years old from Ukraine, Czech Republic, Singapore, and Italy was used for the study. SCORAD correlated with the CDLQI in all 4 countries and with DFI in all countries except Singapore. Only in Czech children did the CDLQI correlate with their age. No significant correlations between age and DFI results were found. AD symptoms and expenditures related to AD were highly scored in all countries. Impact of AD on friendship and relations between family members were among the lower scored items, and family problems did not increase proportionately with duration of AD in any of the four countries. Self-assessed health-related QoL of children with AD in our study correlated better in most cases with disease severity than family QoL results. Parents of school children with AD were generally less stressed, tired, and exhausted than parents of preschool children. These data together with results showing that duration of AD in children does not affect relations between parents and other family members is optimistic news for families with children with AD who did not recover until adolescence. PMID:26724875

  9. Life after the Shock! The Impact on Families of Caring for Young Children with Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The stresses experienced by most families include limitations on time, conditions of employment, financial burdens and sibling rivalry. For the families of a child with a chronic illness, these stresses are often compounded, making family functioning problematic. Chronic illness is marked by permanency and the need for ongoing vigilance with…

  10. Family and Children in the Attitudes and Life Plans of Russians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlamova, Svetlana Nikolaevna; Noskova, Antonina Viacheslavovna; Sedova, Natal'ia Nikolaevna

    2008-01-01

    Specialists in the field of family research emphasize that the history of the family in Russia, as in all other countries of the world, is closely linked to the social, economic, and political processes of the modernization of society. The general vector of the development of the institution of the family, under the influence of processes of…

  11. The Family Adaptation Model: A Life Course Perspective. Technical Report 880.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    This conceptual model for explaining the factors and processes that underlie family adaptation in the Army relies heavily upon two traditions: the "Double ABCX" model of family stress and adaptation and the "Person-Environment Fit" model. The new model has three major parts: the environmental system, the personal system, and family adaptation.…

  12. Adolescent Drinking Behaviour and the Role of Family Life: A Scottish Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shucksmith, Janet; Glendinning, Anthony; Hendry, Leo

    1997-01-01

    Explores young people's alcohol consumption with respect to their families' social position and patterns of support and control by parents. Longitudinal analysis of over 600 participants indicate that family structure influenced young persons' alcohol use, but drinking behavior was unrelated to the families' socioeconomic circumstances. Other…

  13. The Complex Nature of Family Support across the Life Span: Implications for Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah J.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and…

  14. The Entrepreneurship Bootcamp for Veterans' Families Program: Transformative Learning for Discontinuous Life Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmon, Stephen Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study explored the nature of the experiences of family members of service-disabled veterans who participated in the Entrepreneurship Bootcamp for Veterans Family Program (EBV-F), an entrepreneurial learning and coaching program designed to assist family members of service-disabled veterans to support the discontinuous life…

  15. "Trabajando Duro Todos Los Dias": Learning from the Life Experiences of Mexican-Origin Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Cardona, Jose Ruben; Bulock, Laurie A.; Imig, David R.; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Gold, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The agricultural economy in the United States has relied heavily on migrant farmworkers and, in particular, on Latinos. However, migrant families remain one of the most disadvantaged groups in the United States. This research focuses on a subsample of migrant families of Mexican origin (n=13), who participated in the "Rural Families Speak"…

  16. Shiftwork in the Norwegian petroleum industry: overcoming difficulties with family and social life – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Lau, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background Continuous shift schedules are required in the petroleum industry because of its dependency on uninterrupted production. Although shiftwork affects health, less is known about its effects on social and domestic life. Methods Consequently, we studied these relationships in a sample of 1697 (response rate 55.9%) petroleum workers who worked onshore and offshore for a Norwegian oil and gas company. We also examined the roles of coping strategies and locus of control for handling self-reported problems with social and domestic life. A questionnaire containing scales from the Standard Shiftwork Index and Shiftwork Locus of Control was answered electronically. Results In general, only a few participants reported that their shift schedule affected their social and domestic/family life, and several participants had enough time to spend by themselves and with their partner, close family, friends, and children. Despite this general positive trend, differences were found for shift type and individual factors such as locus of control and coping strategies. Internal locus of control was associated positively with all the dependent variables. However, engaging problem-focused coping strategies were associated only slightly with the dependent variables, while disengaging emotion-focused coping strategies were negatively associated with the dependent variables. Conclusion Since most participants reported few problems with social and domestic/family life, the availability of more leisure time may be a positive feature of shiftwork in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Locus of control and the use of coping strategies were important for shiftworkers' social and domestic/family life. PMID:19650903

  17. Life history of the deep-sea cephalopod family Histioteuthidae in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; de Mesa, Aina; Ordines, Francesc; Grau, Amàlia

    2010-08-01

    The life cycle of the two species of the deep-sea family Histioteuthidae inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea ( Histioteuthis reversa and Histioteuthis bonnellii) was studied from monthly samples taken throughout the year during daytime hours by bottom trawl gears. A small sample of individuals found floating dead on the sea surface was also analyzed. Both species were caught exclusively on the upper slope at depths greater than 300 m. Their frequency of occurrence increased with depth and showed two different peaks, at 500-600 m and 600-700 m depth in H. bonnellii and H. reversa, respectively, which might indicate spatial segregation. Maturity stages were assigned using macroscopic determination and confirmed with histological analyses. Although mature males were caught all year round, no mature females were found, which suggests that their sexual maturation in the western Mediterranean takes place deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). In fact, the increase in mean squid size with increasing depth in H. reversa indicates an ontogenetic migration to deeper waters. The individuals of both species found floating dead on the sea surface were spent females which had a relatively large cluster of small atresic eggs and a small number of remaining mature eggs scattered in the ovary and mantle cavity. The sizes of these females were clearly larger than the largest individuals caught with bottom trawls. A total of 12 and 7 different types of prey, belonging to three major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes and cephalopods), were identified in the stomach contents of H. reversa and H. bonnellii, respectively. In both species fishes were by far the main prey followed by crustaceans, whereas cephalopods were found only occasionally. The preys identified, mainly myctophids and natantian crustaceans, indicate that both histioteuthids base their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators.

  18. A Novel Family of Cell Wall-Related Proteins Regulated Differently during the Yeast Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Cid, Víctor J.; Arroyo, Javier; Nombela, César

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ygr189c, Yel040w, and Ylr213c gene products show significant homologies among themselves and with various bacterial β-glucanases and eukaryotic endotransglycosidases. Deletion of the corresponding genes, either individually or in combination, did not produce a lethal phenotype. However, the removal of YGR189c and YEL040w, but not YLR213c, caused additive sensitivity to compounds that interfere with cell wall construction, such as Congo red and Calcofluor White, and overexpression of YEL040w led to resistance to these compounds. These genes were renamed CRH1 and CRH2, respectively, for Congo red hypersensitive. By site-directed mutagenesis we found that the putative glycosidase domain of CRH1 was critical for its function in complementing hypersensitivity to the inhibitors. The involvement of CRH1 and CRH2 in the development of cell wall architecture was clearly shown, since the alkali-soluble glucan fraction in the crh1Δ crh2Δ strain was almost twice the level in the wild-type. Interestingly, the three genes were subject to different patterns of transcriptional regulation. CRH1 and YLR213c (renamed CRR1, for CRH related) were found to be cell cycle regulated and also expressed under sporulation conditions, whereas CRH2 expression did not vary during the mitotic cycle. Crh1 and Crh2 are localized at the cell surface, particularly in chitin-rich areas. Consistent with the observed expression patterns, Crh1–green fluorescent protein was found at the incipient bud site, around the septum area in later stages of budding, and in ascospore envelopes. Crh2 was found to localize mainly at the bud neck throughout the whole budding cycle, in mating projections and zygotes, but not in ascospores. These data suggest that the members of this family of putative glycosidases might exert a common role in cell wall organization at different stages of the yeast life cycle. PMID:10757808

  19. Are smokers rational addicts? Empirical evidence from the Indonesian Family Life Survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indonesia is one of the largest consumers of tobacco in the world, however there has been little work done on the economics addiction of tobacco. This study provides an empirical test of a rational addiction (henceforth RA) hypothesis of cigarette demand in Indonesia. Methods Four estimators (OLS, 2SLS, GMM, and System-GMM) were explored to test the RA hypothesis. The author adopted several diagnostics tests to select the best estimator to overcome econometric problems faced in presence of the past and future cigarette consumption (suspected endogenous variables). A short-run and long-run price elasticities of cigarettes demand was then calculated. The model was applied to individuals pooled data derived from three-waves a panel of the Indonesian Family Life Survey spanning the period 1993-2000. Results The past cigarette consumption coefficients turned out to be a positive with a p-value < 1%, implying that cigarettes indeed an addictive goods. The rational addiction hypothesis was rejected in favour of myopic ones. The short-run cigarette price elasticity for male and female was estimated to be-0.38 and -0.57, respectively, and the long-run one was -0.4 and -3.85, respectively. Conclusions Health policymakers should redesign current public health campaign against cigarette smoking in the country. Given the demand for cigarettes to be more prices sensitive for the long run (and female) than the short run (and male), an increase in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant fall in cigarette consumption in the long run rather than as a constant source of government revenue. PMID:21345229

  20. A never-ending story: school family life / sex education in European countries.

    PubMed

    Deven, F

    1991-05-01

    A comparative perspective in the early 1970's on family life and sex education (FL/SE) contributed by M. Kozakiewicz highlights IPPF Europe Region. In 1985, the Europe Regional Council explored the politics of FL/SE in European counties, Sex Education Group I Project, with the end result that moral as well as factual input was being introduced in school based sex education. Analysis of legal decisions, curricula, and research literature, which was conducted, evolved into documenting the process of the sex education provision along with the rationale behind sex education's non-existence in school curricula. Group 2 later involved 9 additional countries, but there were budget constraints. These later reports also took into account political-ideological change, and the effects of HIV/AIDs on encouraging sex education as health education. Notable reports include Cyprus' FPA's effective focus and relentless influence on the Minister of Education, and Portugal's FPA's similar success. France's MFPF human rights and feminist perspective is actively operating in the surveillance of new laws and regulations, but is unable to provide the means to sufficiently support sex education throughout the country. Czechoslovakia's political changes are still ongoing and Poland has been strongly influenced in its anti-abortion law in 1990 by the Roman Catholic Church. German unification mandates new laws of unknown fate. Luxembourg has expanded a limited medical and psychosexual counseling approach to include broader sex education activities. The IPPF successfully promoted awareness of FL/SE in schools, and FPAs have developed various strategies to influence top ministerial or administrative people. The never ending story is one of continued vigilance and adaptation to changing political dimensions. PMID:12343173

  1. Predictors of Family Conflict at the End of Life: The Experience of Spouses and Adult Children of Persons with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Betty J.; Kavanaugh, Melinda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Walsh, Matthew; Yonker, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Guided by an explanatory matrix of family conflict at the end of life, the purpose of this article was to examine the correlates and predictors of family conflict reported by 155 spouses and adult children of persons with lung cancer. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional statewide survey of family members of persons who died from lung…

  2. Age differences in the associations between sick leave and aspects of health, psychosocial workload and family life: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Judith T; van der Velden, Koos; van der Gulden, Joost W J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate differences in associations between sick leave and aspects of health, psychosocial workload, family life and work–family interference between four age groups (<36, 36–45, 46–55 and 55+ years). Design A cross-sectional study; a questionnaire was sent to the home addresses of all employees of a university. Setting A Dutch university. Participants 1843 employees returned the questionnaire (net response: 49.1%). The age distribution was as follows: <36: 32%; 36–45: 26%; 46–55: 27% and 55+: 12%. Primary outcomes Frequent sick leave (FSL, ≥3 times in the past 12 months) and prolonged sick leave (PSL, >2 weeks in total in the past 12 months). Differences between the age groups in independent variables and outcomes were investigated. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate associations between various variables and the sick leave outcomes. Interaction terms were included to detect differences between the age groups. Results Age differences were found for many work- and family-related characteristics but not in the mean scores for health-related aspects. Presence of chronic disease was reported more frequently with increasing age. The 55+ age group had almost two times less chance of FSL, but 1.6 times more chance of PSL than the <36 age group. Age moderates the associations between career opportunities, partner's contribution in domestic tasks and sex, and FSL. Job security and pay, support from supervisor, challenging work and being breadwinner have different associations with PSL. However, life events in private lives and perceived health complaints are important in all age groups. FSL and PSL have some determinants in common, but there are differences between the outcomes as well. Conclusions Age should be treated as a variable of interest instead of a control variable. Employers and occupational physicians need to be aware that each phase in life has specific difficulties that can lead to FSL and PSL. PMID

  3. Life With the Alien: Role Casting and Face-Saving Techniques in Family Conversation with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatigante, Marilena; Fasulo, Alessandra; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1998-01-01

    A qualitative study analyzed the distribution of participation by young children (ages 3-5) in family dinnertime conversation, focusing on "backstage talk," sequences adjacent to those in which the child is involved and within his auditory range, so that the child-projected participation-role alternates between that of addressee and overhearer.…

  4. 25 CFR 179.101 - How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the holder of a life estate? 179.101 Section 179.101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... § 179.101 How does the Secretary distribute principal and income to the holder of a life estate? (a... specify a distribution of proceeds; (2) Where the vested holders of remainder interests and the...

  5. The quality of life and mortality risk of elderly people in rural China: the role of family support.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Xiao, Qunying; Cai, Yanzhi; Li, Shuzhuo

    2015-03-01

    The number of elderly in China's population is projected to grow well beyond the capacity of the nation's social security system. Meanwhile, family care is being challenged by a decline in fertility and an increase in migration from rural to urban areas. This article examines the short-term, mid-term, and long-term effects of family support on elderly well-being in rural China, using 4-wave panel data on 1456 persons aged 60 and older in the Chaohu region of China. Findings showed that compared with living alone, being coresident with others lowered the mortality risk of several chronic diseases, but being coresident with adult children increased the mortality risk of cardiovascular diseases, though it was associated with a higher quality of life in the short and middle terms. Children's educational attainment and financial support increased the quality of life except for an increased risk of new incidence of cardiovascular disease in the middle term.

  6. Latina Workers in North Carolina: Work Organization, Domestic Responsibilities, Health, and Family Life.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors.

  7. Family and quality of life: key elements in intervention in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Modern thinking about children's health, as embodied in the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth Version, requires that we be attentive to the 'context' of children's lives, namely their families and the well-being of their families. Family-centred services provide both a guide to the 'processes' of service by service providers and measurable evidence-based outcomes that link better 'processes' with better parental 'outcomes'. This brief paper provides an overview of these topics, arguing that the themes we address in services, and the way we do that, can have important effects on families, and by extension, on their children.

  8. Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Zia; Bell, Thomas; Lewis, Owen T

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and none of which attempt to account for soil chemistry. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting soil feedback effects on plant survival and performance (germination, seedling survival, growth rate, biomass). We implement a full factorial experiment growing species representing five families on five plant family-specific soil sources. Our experiments exploit soils that have been cultured for over 30 years in plant family-specific beds at Oxford University Botanic Gardens. Plant responses to soil source were idiosyncratic, and species did not perform better on soils cultured by phylogenetically more distant relatives. The magnitude and sign of feedback effects could, however, be explained by differences in the chemical properties of “home” and “away” soils. Furthermore, the direction of soil chemistry-related plant-soil feedbacks was dependent on plant life stage, with the effects of soil chemistry on germination success and accumulation of biomass inversely related. Our results (1) suggest that the phylogenetic distance between plant families cannot predict plant–soil feedbacks across multiple life stages, and (2) highlight the need to consider changes in soil chemistry as an important driver of population responses. The contrasting responses at plant life stages suggest that studies focusing on brief phases in plant demography (e.g., germination success) may not give a full picture of plant

  9. Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Zia; Bell, Thomas; Lewis, Owen T

    2015-06-01

    Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and none of which attempt to account for soil chemistry. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting soil feedback effects on plant survival and performance (germination, seedling survival, growth rate, biomass). We implement a full factorial experiment growing species representing five families on five plant family-specific soil sources. Our experiments exploit soils that have been cultured for over 30 years in plant family-specific beds at Oxford University Botanic Gardens. Plant responses to soil source were idiosyncratic, and species did not perform better on soils cultured by phylogenetically more distant relatives. The magnitude and sign of feedback effects could, however, be explained by differences in the chemical properties of "home" and "away" soils. Furthermore, the direction of soil chemistry-related plant-soil feedbacks was dependent on plant life stage, with the effects of soil chemistry on germination success and accumulation of biomass inversely related. Our results (1) suggest that the phylogenetic distance between plant families cannot predict plant-soil feedbacks across multiple life stages, and (2) highlight the need to consider changes in soil chemistry as an important driver of population responses. The contrasting responses at plant life stages suggest that studies focusing on brief phases in plant demography (e.g., germination success) may not give a full picture of plant-soil feedback effects.

  10. Quality end-of-life care for dementia: What have family carers told us so far? A narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Laura; Rait, Greta; Iliffe, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with dementia do not always receive good quality end-of-life care, with undertreated pain, aggressive medical interventions and limited access to hospice care being common. Family carers often provide the majority of informal care for people with dementia, therefore may be best placed to comment on quality of care. Aim: We explored what quality end-of-life care for dementia is from the perspective of family carers. Design: A review of qualitative evidence taking a systematic approach using a narrative synthesis with tabulation, textual description of studies and thematic analysis as tools, following the guidelines from the Economic and Social Research Council. Data sources: Keywords and subject headings were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCIE and PsycINFO for studies from 1990 in April 2012 and updated in May 2013. Reference lists were checked and citation searches undertaken. Results: Eight studies were included. There was an overarching theme of ‘A family’s belief of death and their choice of treatment’. Three further themes were then identified to explain family carers’ beliefs: the relationship with professionals as a core component of care quality; emotional and commitment pressures of caring and finally, family carers’ ability to think about death and dying. Conclusion: It is difficult to define what constitutes high-quality end-of-life care for people with dementia from the perspective of family carers. Their views expressed in the literature appear to demonstrate more variation of preference of care and treatment and their uncertainty of this. PMID:24625567

  11. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-06-13

    Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history.

  12. How to add more "family" to the work-life-balance? - family friendliness in medical under- and postgraduate studies and the workplace.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies. But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching) hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success? The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (re)design the university's profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation. PMID:22558028

  13. How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies. But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching) hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success? The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (re)design the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation. PMID:22558028

  14. Child Sleep Arrangements and Family Life: Perspectives from Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germo, Gary R.; Chang, Esther S.; Keller, Meret A.; Goldberg, Wendy A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined solitary sleeping and co-sleeping arrangements in families with a young child. Data were obtained from questionnaires completed by two independent samples, one of mothers (N = 100) and one of fathers (N = 38) of preschool-aged children. Types of family sleep arrangements included children who slept in their own room from…

  15. Cultural Systems and Lifestyles: The Impact of the Occupation of Shrimping on Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumrine, Janice G.; Nix, Harold L.

    The findings of this second phase of a four-phase study of shrimp fishing focus on the effect of this occupation upon the family. Data were collected from a random sample of 87 boat captains, 73 wives, community personnel, and high school students in two Georgia coastal counties. The family structure reveals a traditional conception of male and…

  16. 40 CFR 91.120 - Compliance with Family Emission Limits over useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission...) If all test engines representing an engine family have emissions, as determined in paragraph (c)(3...) If any test engine representing an engine family has emissions (as determined in paragraph...

  17. Links between Life Course Trajectories of Family Dysfunction and Anxiety during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Japel, Christa; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Cote, Sylvana; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from three waves of a large Canadian data set, we examine the relationship between two middle childhood trajectory variables, family dysfunction and anxiety. We draw upon family systems theory and developmental psychopathology, while attempting to expand their boundaries by capitalizing on the strengths within both approaches. Our data…

  18. Review: The Development of Family Quality of Life Concepts and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, P. S.; Rillotta, F.; Brown, I.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, intervention programmes in intellectual and developmental disabilities have targeted the individual's special needs independent of the family and environmental context. This trend has been changing over the past two decades. This paper presents a literature review on changing trends in family support and the development of family…

  19. Experience with using second life for medical education in a family and community medicine education unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of new technologies to the education of health professionals is both a challenge and a necessity. Virtual worlds are increasingly being explored as a support for education. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the suitability of Second Life (SL) as an educational tool for primary healthcare professionals. Methods Design: Qualitative study of accredited clinical sessions in SL included in a continuing professional development (CPD) programme for primary healthcare professionals. Location: Zaragoza I Zone Family and Community Medicine Education Unit (EU) and 9 health centres operated by the Aragonese Health Service, Aragon, Spain. Method: The EU held two training workshops in SL for 16 healthcare professionals from 9 health centres by means of two workshops, and requested them to facilitate clinical sessions in SL. Attendance was open to all personnel from the EU and the 9 health centres. After a trail period of clinical sessions held at 5 health centres between May and November 2010, the CPD-accredited clinical sessions were held at 9 health centres between February and April 2011. Participants: 76 healthcare professionals attended the CPD-accredited clinical sessions in SL. Main measurements: Questionnaire on completion of the clinical sessions. Results Response rate: 42-100%. Questionnaire completed by each health centre on completion of the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Access to SL: 2 centres were unable to gain access. Sound problems: 0% (0/9). Image problems: 0% (0/9). Voice/text chat: used in 100% (10/9); 0 incidents. Questionnaire completed by participants in the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Preference for SL as a tool: 100% (76/76). Strengths of this method: 74% (56/76) considered it eliminated the need to travel; 68% (52/76) believed it made more effective use of educational resources; and 47% (36/76) considered it improved accessibility. Weaknesses: 91% (69/76) experienced technical problems, while; 9% (7/76) thought

  20. Using gamma distribution to determine half-life of rotenone, applied in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Maheswaran; Fairweather, Alastair; Grainger, Natasha

    2015-09-15

    Following the use of rotenone to eradicate invasive pest fish, a dynamic first-order kinetic model is usually used to determine the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipated from the treated waterbody. In this study, we investigate the use of a stochastic gamma model for determining the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipates from waterbodies. The first-order kinetic and gamma models produced similar values for the half-life (4.45 days and 5.33 days respectively) and days to complete dissipation (51.2 days and 52.48 days respectively). However, the gamma model fitted the data better and was more flexible than the first-order kinetic model, allowing us to use covariates and to predict a possible range for the half-life of rotenone. These benefits are particularly important when examining the influence that different environmental factors have on rotenone dissipation and when trying to predict the rate at which rotenone will dissipate during future operations. We therefore recommend that in future the gamma distribution model is used when calculating the half-life of rotenone in preference to the dynamic first-order kinetics model. PMID:25965037

  1. Long-term mechanical life testing of polymeric post insulators for distribution and a comparison to porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, E.A. )

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the results and analyses of long-term cantilever strength tests on polymeric line post insulators. The time-to-failure data for static cantilever loads are represented by the Weibull distribution. The life distribution, obtained from the maximum likelihood estimates of the accelerated failure times, fits an exponential model. An extrapolation of the life distribution to normal loads provides an estimate of the strength rating and mechanical equivalence to porcelain line post insulators.

  2. Phylogenetic distribution and membrane topology of the LytR-CpsA-Psr protein family

    PubMed Central

    Hübscher, Judith; Lüthy, Lucas; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte; Stutzmann Meier, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background The bacterial cell wall is the target of many antibiotics and cell envelope constituents are critical to host-pathogen interactions. To combat resistance development and virulence, a detailed knowledge of the individual factors involved is essential. Members of the LytR-CpsA-Psr family of cell envelope-associated attenuators are relevant for β-lactam resistance, biofilm formation, and stress tolerance, and they are suggested to play a role in cell wall maintenance. However, their precise function is still unknown. This study addresses the occurrence as well as sequence-based characteristics of the LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins. Results A comprehensive list of LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins was established, and their phylogenetic distribution and clustering into subgroups was determined. LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins were present in all Gram-positive organisms, except for the cell wall-deficient Mollicutes and one strain of the Clostridiales. In contrast, the majority of Gram-negatives did not contain LytR-CpsA-Psr family members. Despite high sequence divergence, the LytR-CpsA-Psr domains of different subclusters shared a highly similar, predicted mixed a/β-structure, and conserved charged residues. PhoA fusion experiments, using MsrR of Staphylococcus aureus, confirmed membrane topology predictions and extracellular location of its LytR-CpsA-Psr domain. Conclusion The LytR-CpsA-Psr domain is unique to bacteria. The presence of diverse subgroups within the LytR-CpsA-Psr family might indicate functional differences, and could explain variations in phenotypes of respective mutants reported. The identified conserved structural elements and amino acids are likely to be important for the function of the domain and will help to guide future studies of the LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins. PMID:19099556

  3. Phylogenetic distribution of protease inhibitors of the Kazal-family within the Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    van Hoef, Vincent; Breugelmans, Bert; Spit, Jornt; Simonet, Gert; Zels, Sven; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-03-01

    In mammalian pancreatic cells, the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) belonging to the Kazal-family prevents the premature activation of digestive enzymes and thus plays an important role in a protective mechanism against tissue destruction by autophagy. Although a similar protective mechanism exists in Arthropoda, the distribution of these inhibitors in this phylum remains obscure. A comprehensive in silico search of nucleotide databases, revealed the presence of members of the Kazal-family in the four major subphyla of the Arthropoda. Especially in the Hexapoda and the Crustacea these inhibitors are widespread, while in the Chelicerata and Myriapoda only a few Kazal-like protease inhibitors were found. A sequence alignment of inhibitors retrieved in the digestive system of insects revealed a conservation of the PSTI characteristics and strong resemblance to vertebrate PSTI. A phylogenetic analysis of these inhibitors showed that they generally cluster according to their order. The results of this data mining study provide new evidence for the existence of an ancient protective mechanism in metazoan digestive systems. Kazal-like inhibitors, which play an important protective role in the pancreas of vertebrates, also seem to be present in Arthropoda.

  4. Distribution and evolution of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulases in nematodes and fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been suggested as the mechanism by which various plant parasitic nematode species have obtained genes important in parasitism. In particular, cellulase genes have been acquired by plant parasitic nematodes that allow them to digest plant cell walls. Unlike the typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 cellulase genes which are found in several nematode species from the order Tylenchida, members of the GH45 cellulase have only been identified in a cluster including the families Parasitaphelenchidae (with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Aphelenchoididae, and their origins remain unknown. Results In order to investigate the distribution and evolution of GH45 cellulase genes in nematodes and fungi we performed a wide ranging screen for novel putative GH45 sequences. This revealed that the sequences are widespread mainly in Ascomycetous fungi and have so far been found in a single major nematode lineage. Close relationships between the sequences from nematodes and fungi were found through our phylogenetic analyses. An intron position is shared by sequences from Bursaphelenchus nematodes and several Ascomycetous fungal species. Conclusions The close phylogenetic relationships and conserved gene structure between the sequences from nematodes and fungi strongly supports the hypothesis that nematode GH45 cellulase genes were acquired via HGT from fungi. The rapid duplication and turnover of these genes within Bursaphelenchus genomes demonstrate that useful sequences acquired via HGT can become established in the genomes of recipient organisms and may open novel niches for these organisms to exploit. PMID:24690293

  5. Structured interviews examining the burden, coping, self-efficacy, and quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kay Chai Peter; Seow, Chuen Chai Dennis; Xiao, Chunxiang; Lee, Hui Min Julian; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is a global health issue and the effects on caregivers are substantial. The study aimed to examine the associations of burden, coping, self-efficacy with quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of 84 family caregivers caring and seeking clinical care for the persons with dementia in an outpatient clinic of a public hospital in Singapore. The outcome measures included the Family Burden Interview Schedule, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief Version. In general, significant correlations were observed between the quality of life scores with coping strategy and family burden scores, but not between the coping strategy and family burden scores. Compared to demographic factors such as caregiver age and household income, psychosocial factors including family burden, coping strategies, and self-efficacy demonstrated greater association with quality of life in the participants. However, the dynamics of these associations will change with an increasing population of persons with dementia, decreasing nuclear family size, and predicted changes in family living arrangements for the persons with dementia in future. As such, it necessitates continuous study examining the needs and concerns of family caregivers and the relevance of ongoing interventions specific to caregivers of persons with dementia.

  6. Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life,…

  7. Education, Life Expectancy and Family Bargaining: The Ben-Porath Effect Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leker, Laura; Ponthiere, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Following Ben-Porath [1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life-Cycle of Earnings." "Journal of Political Economy" 75 (3): 352-365], the influence of life expectancy on education and on human capital has attracted much attention among growth theorists. Whereas existing growth models rely on an education decision made…

  8. Negative Treatment by Family as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms, Life Satisfaction, Suicidality, and Tobacco/Alcohol Use in Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam T.T.; Bass, Judith K.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research linking family rejection and health outcomes in sexual minority people is mostly limited to North America. We assessed the associations between negative treatment by family members and depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use in sexual minority women (SMW) in Viet Nam. Methods: Data were from an anonymous internet survey (n = 1936). Latent class analysis characterized patterns of negative treatment by family members experienced by respondents. Latent class with distal outcome modeling was used to regress depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use on family treatment class, controlling for predictors of family treatment and for two other types of sexual prejudice. Results: Five latent family treatment classes were extracted, including four negative classes representing varying patterns of negative family treatment. Overall, more than one negative class predicted lower life satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and higher odds of attempted suicide (relative to the non-negative class), supporting the minority stress hypothesis that negative family treatment is predictive of poorer outcomes. Only the most negative class had elevated alcohol use. The association between family treatment and smoking status was not statistically significant. The most negative class, unexpectedly, did not have the highest odds of having attempted suicide, raising a question about survivor bias. Conclusion: This population requires public health attention, with emphasis placed on interventions targeting the family to promote acceptance and to prevent negative treatment, and interventions supporting those SMW who encounter the worst types of negative family treatment. PMID:27219025

  9. Diversity, distribution and ecology of the family Syllidae (Annelida) in the Portuguese coast (Western Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, R.; Magalhães, L.; Peter, A.; San Martín, G.; Rodrigues, A. M.; Quintino, V.

    2013-12-01

    The diversity, distribution and ecology of the family Syllidae along the Western Iberian coast was studied, based on 145 sediment samples covering the whole Portuguese coastal shelf and 30 Saccorhiza polyschides holdfasts sampled in the north of Portugal. A total of 55 species were identified in 2,306 specimens. A total of 33 species were recorded in the holdfasts and 36 in the shelf samples spanning a wide range of sediments, bathymetry and latitude. A total of 14 species were shared between both substrates. A total of 26 species were here firstly recorded, increasing to 80 the number of species known in Portugal, and new insights were added to the ecology and geographic distribution of several species. A multivariate analysis identified three assemblages, characterized by the species (a) Sphaerosyllis bulbosa and Syllis pontxioi in the western shelf coarse sediments, (b) Parapionosyllis brevicirra and Syllis mercedesae in the southern shelf muddy sands and (c) Brania pusilla and Myrianida brachycephala in the kelp holdfasts. The type of substrate (kelp holdfast vs. soft-bottom sediments) and the sediment grain size (coarser vs. finer) were the descriptors best related to the Syllid assemblages.

  10. Familial lipoprotein lipase-activity deficiency: study of total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Brun, L D; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Tremblay, A; Moorjani, S; Bouchard, C; Lupien, P J

    1989-10-01

    Total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution were evaluated in 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients. Eleven were males, aged 10 to 57 years, and eight were females, aged 13 to 46 years. Familial lipoprotein-lipase-activity deficiency was diagnosed by the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in the plasma withdrawn ten and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of ten units of heparin per kilogram of body weight. The 19 patients had skin-fold measurements for evaluation of subcutaneous fat distribution. Fifteen also underwent body density measurements by underwater weighing. Percent body fat was calculated from body density. These anthropometric data were plotted against the regression curves of 1638 normal controls of both sexes (aged 10 to 54 years) for fat tissue weight, percent body fat, subcutaneous fat/total fat mass ratio and trunk/extremity skin-fold ratio. Impairments in the process of building fat tissue reserves could not be shown in the 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients, in spite of the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in their postheparin plasma. It is hypothesized that normal fat tissue mass in these patients could be due partly to de novo synthesis of fatty acids by adipocytes, hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by hepatic lipase, and/or contribution of a specific fat-tissue lipase to the catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  11. Younger Stroke Survivors' Experiences of Family Life in a Long-Term Perspective: A Narrative Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Randi; Kirkevold, Marit; Sveen, Unni

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences following a stroke are known to be challenging, influencing the stroke survivors' ability to participate in and carry out the taken-for-granted roles and activities in family life. This study explored how living with the consequences of stroke impacted on family life in the late recovery phase, that is, six months or more after stroke onset. Twenty-two stroke survivors aged 20–61 years were interviewed in-depth six months to nine years after stroke onset. The interviews were analyzed applying a narrative, hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The findings revealed challenges that varied with time, from an initial struggle to suffice in and balance the relationships and roles within the family early after the stroke, towards a more resigned attitude later on in the stroke trajectory. The struggles are summarized in two main themes: “struggling to reenter the family” and “screaming for acceptance.” Nonestablished people living with stroke and stroke survivors in parental roles seem to be particularly vulnerable. Being provided with opportunities to narrate their experiences to interested and qualified persons outside the home context might be helpful to prevent psychosocial problems. PMID:23304485

  12. Increased mortality exposure within the family rather than individual mortality experiences triggers faster life-history strategies in historic human populations.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans.

  13. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container. PMID:25209251

  14. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container.

  15. Nonparametric Fine Tuning of Mixtures: Application to Non-Life Insurance Claims Distribution Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardet, Laure; Patilea, Valentin

    When pricing a specific insurance premium, actuary needs to evaluate the claims cost distribution for the warranty. Traditional actuarial methods use parametric specifications to model claims distribution, like lognormal, Weibull and Pareto laws. Mixtures of such distributions allow to improve the flexibility of the parametric approach and seem to be quite well-adapted to capture the skewness, the long tails as well as the unobserved heterogeneity among the claims. In this paper, instead of looking for a finely tuned mixture with many components, we choose a parsimonious mixture modeling, typically a two or three-component mixture. Next, we use the mixture cumulative distribution function (CDF) to transform data into the unit interval where we apply a beta-kernel smoothing procedure. A bandwidth rule adapted to our methodology is proposed. Finally, the beta-kernel density estimate is back-transformed to recover an estimate of the original claims density. The beta-kernel smoothing provides an automatic fine-tuning of the parsimonious mixture and thus avoids inference in more complex mixture models with many parameters. We investigate the empirical performance of the new method in the estimation of the quantiles with simulated nonnegative data and the quantiles of the individual claims distribution in a non-life insurance application.

  16. Health-related quality of life in Swedish pediatric burn patients and associations with burn and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sveen, J; Sjöberg, F; Öster, C

    2014-08-01

    Although many children with burns recover well and have a satisfying quality of life after the burn, some children do not adjust as well. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) focuses on the impact health status has on quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL with the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ) in a nationwide Swedish sample of children with burns 0.3-9.0 years after injury. Participants were parents (n=109) of children aged up to 18 years at the time of investigation who were treated at the Linköping or Uppsala Burn Center between 2000 and 2008. The majority of children did not have limitations in physical function and they did not seem to experience much pain. However, there were indications of psychosocial problems. Parents of preschool children reported most problems with the children's behavior and family disruption, whereas parents of children aged 5-18 years reported most problems with appearance and emotional health. There were mainly burn-related variables associated with suboptimal HRQoL in children aged 5-18 years, while family-related variables did not contribute as much.

  17. The Vicious Circle of Illiteracy, Over Population and Poverty--Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education Approach to Tackle It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khajapeer, M.

    1976-01-01

    The interrelated nature of the problems of illiteracy, overpopulation, and poverty in developing countries is explored and an integrated approach to solving these problems in India, the Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education program, is described. (MS)

  18. Biology, Systematics, Life Cycle, and Distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Cause of Rat Lungworm Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode in the family Angiostrongylidae. It is the cause of angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), which manifests as eosinophilic meningitis. First described in 1935 from rats in China, A. cantonensis was placed in the genus Parastrongylus in 1986, but most workers have not adopted this treatment. The taxonomy of A. cantonensis and related worms is largely based on adult morphology, notably of the male bursa. However, identification of infective third stage larvae is more difficult. The natural life cycle involves rats as the definitive host and snails or slugs as the intermediate host. Human infection, as accidental hosts, results in worms maturing in the brain, but dying there instead of moving back into the bloodstream, as in rats, thereby leading to eosinophilic meningitis. The disease is an emerging infectious disease; Angiostrongylus cantonensis continues to be reported in new regions beyond its native range. PMID:23901372

  19. Promoting Health, Well-Being, and Quality of Life for Children Who Are Overweight or Obese and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a complex, multidimensional challenge that compromises occupational participation for children and families. Children who are overweight or obese are at serious risk for being stigmatized, bullied, or marginalized, and they often are medically compromised. They cope daily with occupational participation issues at home, in school, on playgrounds, and in their communities. Prevention and health promotion assessment and intervention in occupational therapy are imperative for the profession to make a significant and sustainable difference in the lives of these children and families. Innovative client- and occupation-centered programming promotes health, well-being, and quality of life for this population. It is incumbent upon occupational therapy practitioners to prevent occupational marginalization, deprivation, and alienation while promoting occupational justice for children who are overweight or obese. PMID:27548856

  20. Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

  1. Loeys-Dietz syndrome: life threatening aortic dissection diagnosed on routine family screening

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire A; Clowes, Virginia E; Cooper, John P

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was found to have a severely dilated aortic root and a Stanford type A dissection on familial screening echocardiography, following diagnosis of a dilated aorta in his son. The dissection required urgent surgical repair. Clinical examination suggested features of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type II, and subsequent demonstration of a mutation in the TGFBR1 gene in the patient and his son confirmed the diagnosis. This article highlights the high prevalence of inherited conditions in dilated aortic root presentations and the importance of family screening and surveillance to allow early surgical intervention. PMID:24495977

  2. Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2015-01-01

    It was estimated that over 260,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS while close to 2 million are directly or indirectly affected by the disease in Nigeria. Improvements in treatments for infected children have been documented in the literature but there is a gross knowledge gap on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life and psychosocial functioning (PSF) of affected children in Nigeria. We comparatively explored the association of quality of life with PSF and other factors among adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS (FAHA) and in families not affected by HIV/AIDS (FNAHA). Data was extracted for 960 adolescents from a State wide cross-sectional study in which participants were selected through multistage sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires consisting of demographic information, adapted WHO-QOL BREF and the Strength & Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The quality of life scores were categorized into Poor, Moderate and High based on the amount of standard deviation away from the mean while the SDQ scores were categorized into normal, borderline and abnormal based on the SDQ scoring systems. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for bivariate analyses while logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses at 5% level of significance. Proportion with poor quality of life (27.0%) was significantly higher among adolescents in FAHA than in FNAHA (p=0.0001). Adolescents in FAHA (OR:2.32; 95%CI:1.67-4.09) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those in FNAHA. In FAHA, adolescents on the borderline of PSF (OR:2.19; 95%CI:1.23-3.89) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those with normal PSF. Adolescents in FAHA have poorer quality of life than those in FNAHA and also face additional burdens of psychosocial dysfunctions. Interventions focusing on functional social support and economic empowerment will benefit adolescents in FAHA in the studied location. PMID:26587049

  3. The Impact of Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition on the Patient and the Family: Achieving Normalcy in Life.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Marion F; Smith, Carol E

    2015-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a technologically complex, life-sustaining therapy for individuals who have intestinal failure. Accepting an invasive lifelong therapy like HPN is challenging for patients and their family caregivers. There is a desire to maintain a sense of normalcy in life and to carry on as usual. Using qualitative methodology, the authors explored and described the lived experience of HPN-dependent adults and identified normalization as a repeating and strong theme. Understanding how individuals adapt, cope, or experience this complex therapy provides insight into how they manage their lives in as normal a way as possible. By understanding the perspective of normalization, home infusion nurses and nutrition support clinicians can embrace caregiving strategies and tools consistent with the changing social environment in which the HPN experience is lived. PMID:26126145

  4. Family, Friends, and Self: The Real-Life Context of an Abnormal Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of students in two sections of an abnormal psychology course. Assessed the number of students who had firsthand exposure to a psychiatric disorder (friend, family member, or themselves), the nature of the relationship, the average number of personal relationships with people with psychiatric disorders, and the…

  5. Sharpening Our Focus on "Family Life Education": Evidence-Based Curricula for Strengthening Close Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, individuals' close relationships, marriages, and families have undergone dramatic changes. The development and maintenance of strong interpersonal relationships, particularly close romantic relationships, are known to associate strongly and positively with physiological and psychological measures of well-being across the…

  6. Physical Activity as a Dimension of Family Life for Lower Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune; Rodger, Sylvia; Ziviani, Jenny; Jenkins, David; Batch, Jenny; Jones, Judy

    2004-01-01

    While questions of children's engagement in physical activity are being widely debated, little is known about how physical activity is valued and managed within families. This paper reports on qualitative data from a multi-method study on lower primary aged children. The focus of the broader study was to determine the relationships between young…

  7. Life after BRCA1/2 testing: family communication and support issues.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Tiffani A; McKinnon, Wendy C

    The process of genetic testing is often deemed a family affair. Several studies have indicated that individuals undergo BRCA1/2 testing not only to learn about their own cancer risks and options for screening and prevention, but also to gather information for potentially at-risk relatives. However, many individuals are not prepared for the medical and emotional implications that accompany the genetic testing process. This can be complicated by a moral or ethical obligation to disclose result status to other family members. Several characteristics including gender, BRCA1/2 carrier status, and cultural and ethnic background may influence the communication process between the proband and his/her potentially at-risk kin. In addition, the age of family members and their degree of relatedness may affect whether or not they are told the results of their relative's genetic testing. While genetic providers have an obligation to inform individuals of the implications of BRCA1/2 test results for at-risk relatives, they must also strive to respect and maintain autonomy and confidentiality. This paper will examine the characteristics that influence the disclosure of BRCA1/2 test results to relatives. In addition, methods of post-test support and follow-up to facilitate the disclosure process for patients and their family members as well as foster positive communication, will be discussed. PMID:17917144

  8. Family Life and Alcohol Consumption: The Transmission of "Public" and "Private" Drinking Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayne, Mark; Valentine, Gill; Gould, Myles

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the transmission of drinking cultures within families. In particular, we highlight the differential and discursive construction of the home as a space where parents/carers are happy to introduce children to alcohol in a "safe" environment in opposition to public spaces which they consider to be locations where alcohol…

  9. When Work Enriches Family-Life: The Mediational Role of Professional Development Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molino, Monica; Ghislieri, Chiara; Cortese, Claudio G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have pointed out the importance of work-family enrichment (WFE) for individuals' well-being and organizations and for this reason, it seems important to understand how organizations may promote it. This study attempts to understand the role of organizational resources and, particularly, of opportunities for professional…

  10. Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

  11. Life-Course Effects of Work and Family Circumstances on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Menaghan, Elizabeth G.; Jekielek, Susan M.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on 2,342 children aged 6-7 and born between 1979 and 1984 suggest that children's behavior problems are related to current family and parental employment conditions and earlier maternal resources and vulnerabilities (early deviance, self-esteem in 1980, smoking during pregnancy, cognitive…

  12. Family Caregivers as Lay Trainers: Perceptions of Learning and the Relationship between Life Experience and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceição, Simone C.O.; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Colby, Holly; Gordon, John

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an initiative to train lay people, predominantly parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN), to teach "Bridge to Independence"--a care coordination curriculum--to other family caregivers of CYSHCN. Using a model based on Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation, the goal…

  13. Some Aspects of Contemporary Rural Afroamerican Family Life in the Sea Islands of Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerson, Bamidele Agbasegbe

    1982-01-01

    Provides an ethnographic description of kinship and residential patterns among Blacks in the South Carolina Sea Islands. Indicates how the family structure of this group differs from that of United States mainland Whites and is similar to that of Blacks in Africa, the Caribbean, and the U.S. (MJL)

  14. Food Consumption Patterns in Relation to Life Styles of In-migrant Negro Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Norge W.

    This paper discusses the relevance of sociocultural characterization to an understanding of the food consumption patterns of families headed by inmigrant Negro manual workers in the central city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Field techniques employed in ethnological studies and in dietary surveys were followed in this study. The original population…

  15. Resource Management Resource Guide. A Resource for Teaching the Resource Management Core Course Area of Ohio's Work and Family Life Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kister, Joanna; And Others

    This Resource Management Resource Guide is intended to help teachers implement Ohio's Work and Family Life Program. Course content focuses on the practical problems related to managing human and material resources, making consumer decisions, and feeding, clothing, and housing the family. These practical problems are posed through case studies and…

  16. The effects of distributed life cycles on the dynamics of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniel; Méndez, Vicenç; Fedotov, Sergei

    2008-09-21

    We explore the role of cellular life cycles for viruses and host cells in an infection process. For this purpose, we derive a generalized version of the basic model of virus dynamics (Nowak, M.A., Bangham, C.R.M., 1996. Population dynamics of immune responses to persistent viruses. Science 272, 74-79) from a mesoscopic description. In its final form the model can be written as a set of Volterra integrodifferential equations. We consider the role of distributed lifespans and a intracellular (eclipse) phase. These processes are implemented by means of probability distribution functions. The basic reproductive ratio R(0) of the infection is properly defined in terms of such distributions by using an analysis of the equilibrium states and their stability. It is concluded that the introduction of distributed delays can strongly modify both the value of R(0) and the predictions for the virus loads, so the effects on the infection dynamics are of major importance. We also show how the model presented here can be applied to some simple situations where direct comparison with experiments is possible. Specifically, phage-bacteria interactions are analyzed. The dynamics of the eclipse phase for phages is characterized analytically, which allows us to compare the performance of three different fittings proposed before for the one-step growth curve. PMID:18573261

  17. Depression of Family Caregivers Is Associated with Disagreements on Life-Sustaining Preferences for Treating Patients with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Fen; Lee, Yao-Tung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Hwang, Jen-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Fuh, Jong-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background Family caregivers may not agree with patients with dementia regarding attitudes toward end-of-life preferences, and the effects of this type of disagreement are not well understood. This study sought to identify such a disagreement and its predictors. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 84 family caregivers and patients with dementia was recruited from memory clinics. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Katz index of independence in activities of daily living to assess patient symptoms, functions, and severity of dementia. Caregivers completed questionnaires on perceived patient end-of-life care preferences, caregiver end-of-life care preferences for patients, Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D), and knowledge of clinical complications of advanced dementia. Results The self-disclosure rates of patient preferences were 34.5% for tube feeding, 39.3% for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 45.2% for mechanical ventilation. For patients who had disclosed preferences, the disagreement rate between them and their caregivers was 48.3% for tube feeding, 48.5% for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 60.3% for mechanical ventilation. Caregiver depression (i.e., CES-D ≥16) was associated with disagreements on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 6.6, 95% CI = 1.4–31.1, P = 0.01) and mechanical ventilation (aOR = 14, 95% CI = 2.2–87.2, P = 0.005) preferences. Conclusion The preferences of end-of-life issues differed greatly between dementia patients and their caregivers. Depression in caregivers is associated with such discrepancy. PMID:26230958

  18. Uncertainty in the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Production of Three Biobased Polymer Families.

    PubMed

    Posen, I Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael

    2016-03-15

    Interest in biobased products has been motivated, in part, by the claim that these products have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than their fossil counterparts. This study investigates GHG emissions from U.S. production of three important biobased polymer families: polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bioethylene-based plastics. The model incorporates uncertainty into the life cycle emission estimates using Monte Carlo simulation. Results present a range of scenarios for feedstock choice (corn or switchgrass), treatment of coproducts, data sources, end of life assumptions, and displaced fossil polymer. Switchgrass pathways generally have lower emissions than corn pathways, and can even generate negative cradle-to-gate emissions if unfermented residues are used to coproduce energy. PHB (from either feedstock) is unlikely to have lower emissions than fossil polymers once end of life emissions are included. PLA generally has the lowest emissions when compared to high emission fossil polymers, such as polystyrene (mean GHG savings up to 1.4 kg CO2e/kg corn PLA and 2.9 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass PLA). In contrast, bioethylene is likely to achieve the greater emission reduction for ethylene intensive polymers, like polyethylene (mean GHG savings up to 0.60 kg CO2e/kg corn polyethylene and 3.4 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass polyethylene).

  19. Improved access to life insurance after genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: cross-sectional postal questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Roeland; Homsma, Sietske J M; Hutten, Barbara A; Kindt, Iris; Vissers, Maud N; Kastelein, John J P; van Rijckevorsel, Jan L A

    2012-07-01

    A decade ago, in the initial stage of genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in The Netherlands, it was reported that such screening decreased access to affordable life insurance for mutation carriers. In 2003, in order to improve access to insurance for FH mutation carriers, insurers agreed to underwrite according to a set of guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed whether access to insurance has improved since the advent of these guidelines. We approached 2825 subjects that had participated in the genetic testing for FH between 1998 and 2003. We compared unconditional acceptance rates before and after FH diagnosis and before and after the guidelines were issued by means of logistic regression analysis. Our study outcome pertains to 414 FH patients who applied for life insurance. Unconditional acceptance of a policy before DNA diagnosis and before the issue of guidelines occurred in 182 out of 255 (71%) cases, versus 27 out of 35 (77%) cases after DNA diagnosis, but before the issue of guidelines. De facto, 107 out of 124 (86%) patients received unconditional acceptance after DNA diagnosis and after the issue of guidelines (P for trend=0.002). Access to life insurance improved for FH patients after molecular diagnosis and it improved even further after the guidelines were issued. Therefore, we argue that limited access to life insurance on the basis of 'DNA discrimination' is no longer a valid argument against genetic cascade testing for FH, at least not in our country.

  20. Battery cycle life balancing in a microgrid through flexible distribution of energy and storage resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasawneh, Hussam J.; Illindala, Mahesh S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a microgrid consisting of four fuel cell-battery hybrid Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is devised for an industrial crusher-conveyor load. Each fuel cell was accompanied by a Li-ion battery to provide energy storage support under islanded condition of the microgrid since the fuel cells typically have poor transient response characteristics. After carrying out extensive modeling and analysis in MATLAB®, the battery utilization was found to vary significantly based on the DER's 'electrical' placement within the microgrid. This paper presents, under such conditions, a variety of battery life balancing solutions through the use of the new framework of Flexible Distribution of EneRgy and Storage Resources (FDERS). It is based on an in-situ reconfiguration approach through 'virtual' reactances that help in changing the 'electrical' position of each DER without physically displacing any component in the system. Several possible approaches toward balancing the battery utilization are compared in this paper taking advantage of the flexibility that FDERS offers. It was observed that the estimated battery life is dependent on factors such as cycling sequence, pattern, and occurrence.

  1. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A

    2016-02-01

    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR. PMID:26352274

  2. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  3. The Family Life Project: an epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities.

    PubMed

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2013-10-01

    About 20% of children in the United States have been reported to live in rural communities, with child poverty rates higher and geographic isolation from resources greater than in urban communities. There have been surprisingly few studies of children living in rural communities, especially poor rural communities. The Family Life Project helped fill this gap by using an epidemiological design to recruit and study a representative sample of every baby born to a mother who resided in one of six poor rural counties over a 1-year period, oversampling for poverty and African American. 1,292 children were followed from birth to 36 months of age. This monograph described these children and used a cumulative risk model to examine the relation between social risk and children's executive functioning, language development, and behavioral competence at 36 months. Using both the Family Process Model of development and the Family Investment Model of development, observed parenting was examined over time in relation to child functioning at 36 months. Different aspects of observed parenting were examined as mediators/moderators of risk in predicting child outcomes. Results suggested that cumulative risk was important in predicting all three major domains of child outcomes and that positive and negative parenting and maternal language complexity were mediators of these relations. Maternal positive parenting was found to be a buffer for the most risky families in predicting behavioral competence. In a final model using both family process and investment measures, there was evidence of mediation but with little evidence of the specificity of parenting for particular outcomes. Discussion focused on the importance of cumulative risk and parenting in understanding child competence in rural poverty and the implications for possible intervention strategies that might be effective in maximizing the early development of these children. PMID:24147448

  4. The Family Life Project: an epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities.

    PubMed

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2013-10-01

    About 20% of children in the United States have been reported to live in rural communities, with child poverty rates higher and geographic isolation from resources greater than in urban communities. There have been surprisingly few studies of children living in rural communities, especially poor rural communities. The Family Life Project helped fill this gap by using an epidemiological design to recruit and study a representative sample of every baby born to a mother who resided in one of six poor rural counties over a 1-year period, oversampling for poverty and African American. 1,292 children were followed from birth to 36 months of age. This monograph described these children and used a cumulative risk model to examine the relation between social risk and children's executive functioning, language development, and behavioral competence at 36 months. Using both the Family Process Model of development and the Family Investment Model of development, observed parenting was examined over time in relation to child functioning at 36 months. Different aspects of observed parenting were examined as mediators/moderators of risk in predicting child outcomes. Results suggested that cumulative risk was important in predicting all three major domains of child outcomes and that positive and negative parenting and maternal language complexity were mediators of these relations. Maternal positive parenting was found to be a buffer for the most risky families in predicting behavioral competence. In a final model using both family process and investment measures, there was evidence of mediation but with little evidence of the specificity of parenting for particular outcomes. Discussion focused on the importance of cumulative risk and parenting in understanding child competence in rural poverty and the implications for possible intervention strategies that might be effective in maximizing the early development of these children.

  5. Viral distribution and life strategies in the Bach Dang Estuary, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvier, Thierry; Agis, Martin; Bouvier, Corinne; Chu, Thuoc Van; Combe, Marine; Mari, Xavier; Nghiem, Minh Ngoc; Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Pham, Thu The; Pringault, Olivier; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Tran, Huy Quang

    2011-07-01

    Although the structure and dynamics of planktonic viruses in freshwater and seawater environments are relatively well documented, little is known about the occurrence and activity of these viruses in estuaries, especially in the tropics. Viral abundance, life strategies, and morphotype distribution were examined in the Bach Dang Estuary (Vietnam) during the dry season in 2009. The abundance of both viruses and their prokaryotic hosts decreased significantly from upstream to downstream, probably as the result of nutrient dilution and osmotic stress faced by the freshwater communities. The antibiotic mitomycin-C revealed that the fraction of lysogenic cells was substantially higher in the lower seawater part of the estuary (max 27.1%) than in the upper freshwater area where no inducible lysogens were observed. The question of whether there is a massive, continuous induction of marine lysogens caused by the mixing with freshwater is considered. Conversely, the production of lytic viruses declined as salinity increased, indicating a spatial succession of viral life strategies in this tropical estuary. Icosahedral tailless viruses with capsids smaller than 60 nm dominated the viral assemblage throughout the estuary (63.0% to 72.1% of the total viral counts), and their distribution was positively correlated with that of viral lytic production. Interestingly, the gamma-proteobacteria explained a significant portion of the variance in the <60 nm and 60 to 90 nm tailless viruses (92% and 80%, respectively), and in the Myoviridae (73%). Also, 60% of the variance of the tailless larger viruses (>90 nm) was explained by the beta-proteobacteria. Overall, these results support the view that the environment, through selection mechanisms, probably shapes the structure of the prokaryotic community. This might be in turn a source of selection for the virioplankton community via specific affiliation favoring particular morphotypes and life strategies. PMID:21390531

  6. Cdk5 promotes synaptogenesis by regulating the subcellular distribution of the MAGUK family member CASK

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Hsueh, Yi-Ping; Shu, Tianzhi; Liang, Haoya; Tseng, Huang-Chun; Hong, Chen-Jei; Su, Susan C; Volker, Janet; Neve, Rachael L; Yue, David T; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2007-01-01

    Synaptogenesis is a highly regulated process that underlies formation of neural circuitry. Considerable work has demonstrated the capability of some adhesion molecules, such as SynCAM and Neurexins/Neuroligins, to induce synapse formation in vitro. Furthermore, Cdk5 gain-of-function results in an increased number of synapses in vivo. To gain a better understanding of how Cdk5 might promote synaptogenesis, we investigated potential crosstalk between Cdk5 and the cascade of events mediated by synapse-inducing proteins. One protein recruited to developing terminals by SynCAM and Neurexins/Neuroligins is the MAGUK family member CASK. We found that Cdk5 phosphorylates and regulates CASK distribution to membranes. In the absence of Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation, CASK is not recruited to developing synapses and thus fails to interact with essential presynaptic components. Functional consequences include alterations in calcium influx. Mechanistically, Cdk5 regulates the interaction between CASK and liprin-α. These results provide a molecular explanation of how Cdk5 can promote synaptogenesis. PMID:18054859

  7. Distribution and Life Strategies of Two Bacterial Populations in a Eutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Weinbauer, Markus G.; Höfle, Manfred G.

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and epifluorescence microscopy were used to determine the depth distribution of two indigenous bacterial populations in the stratified Lake Plußsee and characterize their life strategies. Populations of Comamonas acidovorans PX54 showed a depth distribution with maximum abundances in the oxic epilimnion, whereas Aeromonas hydrophila PU7718 showed a depth distribution with maximum abundances in the anoxic thermocline layer (metalimnion), i.e., in the water layer with the highest microbial activity. Resistance of PX54 to protist grazing and high metabolic versatility and growth rate of PU7718 were the most important life strategy traits for explaining the depth distribution of the two bacterial populations. Maximum abundance of PX54 was 16,000 cells per ml, and maximum abundance of PU7718 was 20,000 cells per ml. Determination of bacterial productivity in dilution cultures with different-size fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from lake water indicates that low-molecular-weight (LMW) DOM is less bioreactive than total DOM (TDOM). The abundance and growth rate of PU7718 were highest in the TDOM fractions, whereas those of PX54 were highest in the LMW DOM fraction, demonstrating that PX54 can grow well on the less bioreactive DOM fraction. We estimated that 13 to 24% of the entire bacterial community and 14% of PU7718 were removed by viral lysis, whereas no significant effect of viral lysis on PX54 could be detected. Growth rates of PX54 (0.11 to 0.13 h−1) were higher than those of the entire bacterial community (0.04 to 0.08 h−1) but lower than those of PU7718 (0.26 to 0.31 h−1). In undiluted cultures, the growth rates were significantly lower, pointing to density effects such as resource limitation or antibiosis, and the effects were stronger for PU7718 and the entire bacterial community than for PX54. Life strategy characterizations based on data from literature and this study revealed that the fast-growing and metabolically

  8. Families in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program: Comparisons of Food Stamp and Food Distribution Program Participants and Nonparticipants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feaster, J. Gerald; Perkins, Garey B.

    This report compares food consumption and socioeconomic profiles of families participating and not participating in the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) food stamp of food distribution programs. Also, regional comparisons of the profiles are made and factors associated with income and food expenditures identified. The sample was…

  9. Quality of Life of Family Caregivers of Children with Autism: The Mother's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Bih-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the quality of life (QOL) and feeling of mothers of a child with autism. The QOL instrument was also used. A total of 104 participants completed all questionnaires, which included the Taiwan version of the WHOQOL-BREF. A final robust parsimonious structural model showed a positive…

  10. Quality of Life of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Who Live with Families in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Schalock, R. L.; Tzou, P. Y.; Lin, L. C.; Chang, A. L.; Lee, W. P.; Chang, S. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted about the quality of life (QOL) of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan, particularly their subjective QOL. This study examined the personal perceptions of these individuals as measured on internationally recognized core QOL domains and indicators. Methods: A census interview survey…

  11. Rural Mid-Life Single Adult Families: Male/Female Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingren, Herbert G.; And Others

    The study examined data from rural midlife singles concerning: (1) their socio-demographic characteristics; (2) their life satisfactions and happiness with their rural lifestyle; (3) their self-image and self-esteem; (4) their coping strategies; and (5) their social support systems. Subjects were 76 men and 149 women between the ages of 35 and 59…

  12. Social Work in Family Life Enrichment: The Children of Alcoholics--A Montessori Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald-Jay, Celynn

    1978-01-01

    If the children of alcoholics are to break the alcoholic life style cycle, they must develop their potential for creativity, initiative, independence, inner discipline, and self confidence. The Montessori approach is particularly successful in achieving these qualities in children and in promoting parenting skills in alcoholic parents. (Author/GC)

  13. Family Environments, Adrenarche, and Sexual Maturation: A Longitudinal Test of a Life History Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Life history theorists have proposed that humans have evolved to be sensitive to specific features of early childhood environments and that exposure to different environments biases children toward development of different reproductive strategies, including differential pubertal timing. The current research provides a longitudinal test of this…

  14. Parenthood and Psychological Well-Being: Theory, Measurement, and Stage in the Family Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberson, Debra; Gove, Walter R.

    1989-01-01

    Used data from national survey to examine effect of children on parents' well-being. In general, parents scored better than nonparents on measures of life meaning, while measures of affective well-being and satisfaction were more strongly influenced by context of parenting. Marital status appeared to be particularly important determinant of effect…

  15. Under the Rainbow: Rural Gay Life and Its Relevance for Family Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Culton, Linda S.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys rural gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender people (GLBT) and inductively analyzes their responses to open-ended questions regarding aspects of being GLBT in that area. "Best things" included close relationships, high quality of life, involvement with GLBT social networks, and self-acceptance. "Worst things" included weak and fragmented…

  16. Life after death: the Gorilla Family of the Senckenberg Museum (Frankfurt/Main).

    PubMed

    Nyhart, Lynn K

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines the history of the gorilla family placed on display at the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany in 1907. It considers, first, how it came to be; second, what it signified both at the time--the museal domestication of an ape previously considered to be a terrifying foe and a monstrous possible ancestor--and third, what it meant ninety years later, when I sought out its history and found more than I bargained for.

  17. Long-term care: the family, post-modernity, and conflicting moral life-worlds.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2007-01-01

    Long-term care is controversial because it involves foundational disputes. Some are moral-economic, bearing on whether the individual, the family, or the state is primarily responsible for long-term care, as well as on how one can establish a morally and financially sustainable long-term-care policy, given the moral hazard of people over-using entitlements once established, the political hazard of media democracies promising unfundable entitlements, the demographic hazard of relatively fewer workers to support those in need of long-term care, the moral hazard to responsibility of shifting accountability to third parties, and the bureaucratic hazard of moving from individual and family choice to bureaucratic oversight. These disputes are compounded by controversies regarding the nature of the family (Is it to be regarded primarily as a socio-biological category, a fundamental ontological category of social reality, or a construct resulting from the consent of the participants?), as well as its legal and moral autonomy and authority over its members. As the disputes show, there is no common understanding of respect and human dignity that will easily lead out of these disputes. The reflections on long-term care in this issue underscore the plurality of moralities defining bioethics. PMID:17924275

  18. [The moderator role of family type in the relationship between functional disability and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Salomé Martins; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a disease that interferes with quality of life and the patient's functional capability. This study aimed to identify the moderating effect of the "Type of Family" in the relationship between functional disability and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain. Two hundred and three patients with low back pain for longer than 3 months participated in the study. The instruments used were: Medical Outcome Study (MOS 20); Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDO; Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES II). Regression analyses were performed in order to test the moderating effect of the type of family. The results showed that patients with lower levels of disability presented better quality of life in the intermediate and balanced families, and this relationship was even stronger in balanced families. According to the results, intervention programs in chronic low back pain, besides the patient, should include the family particularly in balanced families since they are the ones that feel the impact of the disease on their quality of life the most.

  19. The Distribution of eIF4E-Family Members across Insecta

    PubMed Central

    Tettweiler, Gritta; Kowanda, Michelle; Lasko, Paul; Sonenberg, Nahum; Hernández, Greco

    2012-01-01

    Insects are part of the earliest faunas that invaded terrestrial environments and are the first organisms that evolved controlled flight. Nowadays, insects are the most diverse animal group on the planet and comprise the majority of extant animal species described. Moreover, they have a huge impact in the biosphere as well as in all aspects of human life and economy; therefore understanding all aspects of insect biology is of great importance. In insects, as in all cells, translation is a fundamental process for gene expression. However, translation in insects has been mostly studied only in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We used all publicly available genomic sequences to investigate in insects the distribution of the genes encoding the cap-binding protein eIF4E, a protein that plays a crucial role in eukaryotic translation. We found that there is a diversity of multiple ortholog genes encoding eIF4E isoforms within the genus Drosophila. In striking contrast, insects outside this genus contain only a single eIF4E gene, related to D. melanogaster eIF4E-1. We also found that all insect species here analyzed contain only one Class II gene, termed 4E-HP. We discuss the possible evolutionary causes originating the multiplicity of eIF4E genes within the genus Drosophila. PMID:22745595

  20. Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Easter, Tara; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, Randall Brian

    2015-11-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) inhabiting tidal creeks on six different Bahamian islands. We address two important questions: (i) How predictable and parallel are life-history changes in response to HIREC across islands and species, and (ii) what is the relative importance of shared (i.e. parallel) responses to fragmentation, differences between species or islands and species- or island-specific responses to fragmentation? Phenotypic differences between fragmentation regimes were as great or greater than differences between species or islands. While some adult life histories (lean weight and fat content) showed strong, shared responses to fragmentation, offspring-related life histories (embryo fat and fecundity) exhibited idiosyncratic, island-specific responses. While shared responses to fragmentation appeared largely driven by a reduction in piscivorous fish density, increased conspecific density and changes in salinity, we found some evidence that among-population variation in male reproductive investment and embryo fat content may have arisen via variation in conspecific density. Our results suggest that phenotypic responses to HIREC can be complex, with the predictability of response varying across traits. We therefore emphasize the need for more theoretical and empirical work to better understand the predictability of phenotypic responses to human-induced disturbances.