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Sample records for distributed immiscible liquid

  1. APPLICATION OF A LUMPED-PROCESS MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO DISSOLUTION OF NON-UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED IMMISCIBLE LIQUID IN HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA

    PubMed Central

    Marble, J. C.; DiFilippo, E. L.; Zhang, Z.; Tick, G. R.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The use of a lumped-process mathematical model to simulate the complete dissolution of immiscible liquid non-uniformly distributed in physically heterogeneous porous-media systems was investigated. The study focused specifically on systems wherein immiscible liquid was poorly accessible to flowing water. Two representative, idealized scenarios were examined, one wherein immiscible liquid at residual saturation exists within a lower-permeability unit residing in a higher-permeability matrix, and one wherein immiscible liquid at higher saturation (a pool) exists within a higher-permeability unit adjacent to a lower-permeability unit. As expected, effluent concentrations were significantly less than aqueous solubility due to dilution and by-pass flow effects. The measured data were simulated with two mathematical models, one based on a simple description of the system and one based on a more complex description. The permeability field and the distribution of the immiscible-liquid zones were represented explicitly in the more complex, distributed-process model. The dissolution rate coefficient in this case represents only the impact of local-scale (and smaller) processes on dissolution, and the parameter values were accordingly obtained from the results of experiments conducted with one-dimensional, homogeneously-packed columns. In contrast, the system was conceptualized as a pseudo-homogeneous medium with immiscible liquid uniformly distributed throughout the system for the simpler, lumped-process model. With this approach, all factors that influence immiscible-liquid dissolution are incorporated into the calibrated dissolution rate coefficient, which in such cases serves as a composite or lumped term. The calibrated dissolution rate coefficients obtained from the simulations conducted with the lumped-process model were approximately two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the independently-determined values used for the simulations conducted with the

  2. Evaporative Mass Transfer Behavior of a Complex Immiscible Liquid

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Colleen M.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with a multiple-component immiscible liquid, collected from the Picillo Farm Superfund Site in Rhode Island, to examine liquid-vapor mass-transfer behavior. The immiscible liquid, which comprises solvents, oils, pesticides, PCBs, paint sludges, explosives, and other compounds, was characterized using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine mole fractions of selected constituents. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate equilibrium phase-partitioning behavior. Two sets of air-stripping column studies were conducted to examine the mass-transfer dynamics of five selected target compounds present in the immiscible-liquid mixture. One set of column experiments was designed to represent a system with free-phase immiscible liquid present; the other was designed to represent a system with a residual phase of immiscible liquid. Initial elution behavior of all target components generally appeared to be ideal for both systems, as the initial vapor-phase concentrations were similar to vapor-phase concentrations measured for the batch experiment and those estimated using Raoult’s law (incorporating the immiscible-liquid composition data). Later-stage removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene appeared to be rate limited for the columns containing free-phase immiscible liquid and no porous medium. Conversely, evaporative mass transfer appeared to be ideal throughout the experiment conducted with immiscible liquid distributed relatively uniformly as a residual phase within a sandy porous medium. PMID:18614196

  3. Evaporative mass transfer behavior of a complex immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    McColl, Colleen M; Johnson, Gwynn R; Brusseau, Mark L

    2008-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with a multiple-component immiscible liquid, collected from the Picillo Farm Superfund Site in Rhode Island, to examine liquid-vapor mass-transfer behavior. The immiscible liquid, which comprises solvents, oils, pesticides, PCBs, paint sludges, explosives, and other compounds, was characterized using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine mole fractions of selected constituents. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate equilibrium phase-partitioning behavior. Two sets of air-stripping column studies were conducted to examine the mass-transfer dynamics of five selected target compounds present in the immiscible-liquid mixture. One set of column experiments was designed to represent a system with free-phase immiscible liquid present; the other was designed to represent a system with a residual phase of immiscible liquid. Initial elution behavior of all target components generally appeared to be ideal for both systems, as the initial vapor-phase concentrations were similar to vapor-phase concentrations measured for the batch experiment and those estimated using Raoult's law (incorporating the immiscible-liquid composition data). Later-stage removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene appeared to be rate limited for the columns containing free-phase immiscible liquid and no porous medium. Conversely, evaporative mass transfer appeared to be ideal throughout the experiment conducted with immiscible liquid distributed relatively uniformly as a residual phase within a sandy porous medium.

  4. Multilayer fluid dynamics of immiscible liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Jean N.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical, numerical and experimental study of convective flow in multilayer immiscible liquids has been performed. Studies include transparent high Prandtl number of liquid as well as opaque low Prandtl metallic melts. A new radioscopic flow visualization has been developed for the latter studies.

  5. Measuring Interfacial Tension Between Immiscible Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser; Balasubramaniam, R.; Delsignore, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Glass capillary tube technique measures interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids. Yields useful data over fairly wide range of interfacial tensions, both for pairs of liquids having equal densities and pairs of liquids having unequal densities. Data on interfacial tensions important in diverse industrial chemical applications, including enhanced extraction of oil; printing; processing foods; and manufacture of paper, emulsions, foams, aerosols, detergents, gel encapsulants, coating materials, fertilizers, pesticides, and cosmetics.

  6. Measuring Interfacial Tension Between Immiscible Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser; Balasubramaniam, R.; Delsignore, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Glass capillary tube technique measures interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids. Yields useful data over fairly wide range of interfacial tensions, both for pairs of liquids having equal densities and pairs of liquids having unequal densities. Data on interfacial tensions important in diverse industrial chemical applications, including enhanced extraction of oil; printing; processing foods; and manufacture of paper, emulsions, foams, aerosols, detergents, gel encapsulants, coating materials, fertilizers, pesticides, and cosmetics.

  7. Phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Lee H.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of phase separation in the succinonitrile-water system are being investigated. Experiments involve initial physical mixing of the two immiscible liquids at a temperature above the consolute, decreasing the temperature into the miscibility gap, followed by iamging of the resultant microstructure as it evolves with time. Refractive index differences allow documentation of the changing microstructures by noninvasive optical techniques without the need to quench the liquid structures for analysis.

  8. Phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of phase separation in the succinonitrile-water system are being investigated. Experiments involve initial physical mixing of the two immiscible liquids at a temperature above the consolute, decreasing the temperature into the miscibility gap, followed by imaging of the resultant microstructure as it evolves with time. Refractive index differences allow documentation of the changing microstructures by noninvasive optical techniques without the need to quench the liquid structures for analysis.

  9. Experiments on liquid immiscibility along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, Bernard; Grove, Timothy L.

    2012-07-01

    Crystallization experiments have been conducted on compositions along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent to define the compositional space for the development of silicate liquid immiscibility. Starting materials have 46-56 wt% SiO2, 11.7-17.7 wt% FeOtot, and Mg-number between 0.29 and 0.36. These melts fall on the basaltic trends relevant for Mull, Iceland, Snake River Plain lavas and for the Sept Iles layered intrusion, where large-scale liquid immiscibility has been recognized. At one atmosphere under anhydrous conditions, immiscibility develops below 1,000-1,020°C in all of these compositionally diverse lavas. Extreme iron enrichment is not necessary; immiscibility also develops during iron depletion and silica enrichment. Variations in melt composition control the development of silicate liquid immiscibility along the tholeiitic trend. Elevation of Na2O + K2O + P2O5 + TiO2 promotes the development of two immiscible liquids. Increasing melt CaO and Al2O3 stabilizes a single-liquid field. New data and published phase equilibria show that anhydrous, low-pressure fractional crystallization is the most favorable condition for unmixing during differentiation. Pressure inhibits immiscibility because it expands the stability field of high-Ca clinopyroxene, which reduces the proportion of plagioclase in the crystallizing assemblage, thus enhancing early iron depletion. Magma mixing between primitive basalt and Fe-Ti-P-rich ferrobasalts can serve to elevate phosphorous and alkali contents and thereby promote unmixing. Water might decrease the temperature and size of the two-liquid field, potentially shifting the binodal (solvus) below the liquidus, leading the system to evolve as a single-melt phase.

  10. Liquid immiscibility in model bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veatch, Sarah L.

    There is growing evidence that cell plasma membranes are laterally organized into "raft" regions in which particular lipids and proteins are concentrated. These domains have sub-micron dimensions and have been implicated in vital cell functions. Similar liquid domains are observed in model bilayer membrane mixtures that mimick cellular lipid compositions. In model membranes, domains can be large (microns) and can readily form in the absence of proteins. This thesis presents studies of liquid immiscibility in model membrane systems using two experimental methods. By fluorescence microscopy, this thesis documents that miscibility transitions occur in a wide variety of ternary lipid mixtures containing high melting temperature (saturated) lipids, low melting temperature (usually unsaturated) lipids, and cholesterol. I have constructed detailed miscibility phase diagrams for three separate ternary lipid mixtures (DOPC/DPPC/Chol, DOPC/PSM/Chol, and POPC/PSM/Chol). Phase separation is also observed in membranes of lipids extracted from human erythrocytes. NMR experiments probe lipid order and verify the coexistence of a saturated lipid and cholesterol rich liquid ordered (Lo) phase with a more disordered, unsaturated lipid rich liquid crystalline (Lalpha) phase at low temperatures. These experiments also find multiple thermodynamic transitions and lipid organization on different length-scales. This complexity is revealed because fluorescence microscopy and NMR probe lipid order at different length-scales (>1mum vs. ˜100nm). NMR detects small domains (˜80nm) at temperatures just below the miscibility transition, even though micron-scale domains are observed by fluorescent microscopy. NMR does detect large-scale ("100nm) demixing, but at a lower temperature. In addition, it has long been known that >10nm length-scale structure is present in many lipid mixtures containing cholesterol and at least one additional lipid species, though it is shown here that only a subset of

  11. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  12. Solidification Processing of Immiscible Liquids in the Presence of Applied Ultrasonic Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Shinwood; Grugel, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    Uniform microstructural development during solidification of immiscible liquids on Earth is hampered by inherent density differences between the phases. Microgravity processing minimizes settling but segregation still occurs due to gravity independent wetting and coalescence phenomena. Experiments with the transparent organic, metal analogue, succinonitrile-glycerol system were conducted in conjunction with applied ultrasonic energy. The processing parameters associated with this technique have been evaluated in view of optimizing dispersion uniformity. Experimental results to evaluate microstructural phase distributions, based on other liquid-liquid immiscibility systems, will also be presented.

  13. The Impact of Composition on the Physical Properties and Evaporative Mass Transfer of a PCE-Diesel Immiscible Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kenneth C.; Taylor, Renee; Gray, Evan; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of immiscible-liquid composition on mass transfer between immiscible liquid and vapor was evaluated for a complex mixture of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons. A mixture of PCE (tetrachloroethene) and diesel was discovered at a site in Tucson, Arizona. Partitioning of PCE into a previously spilled diesel free product has been observed, with resultant concentrations of PCE above 15% by weight. The density, viscosity, surface tension, and interfacial tension were measured for PCE-diesel mixtures with PCE fractions from 7 to 32%, and the results indicated that immiscible-liquid composition did impact the physical properties of the PCE-diesel mixture. Comparison of gas and aqueous phase partitioning results to predictions based on Raoult's Law indicated that the immiscible liquid behaved essentially as an ideal mixture. Flow-cell experiments were conducted to characterize PCE removal from the PCE-diesel mixture via vapor extraction. The effluent concentrations for the experiment conducted with free-phase immiscible liquid were comparable to equilibrium values. Conversely, they were significantly lower for the experiment wherein a residual saturation of immiscible liquid was distributed within sand. These results suggest that evaporation for the latter experiment was constrained by rate-limited mass transfer, which was attributed to dilution effects associated with a nonuniform immiscible-liquid distribution. PMID:18926630

  14. Segregation of immiscible liquids: From droplet size to plutonic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Wu, B.; Wang, T.; Hui, H.

    2016-12-01

    Silicate liquid immiscibility has been evidenced as discrete glassy droplets in volcanic rocks microscopically. Furthermore, this process has been proposed to have resulted in mafic and felsic fractions on outcrop scale in plutons. However, it is unclear how tiny discrete immiscible liquid droplets could be segregated from a continuous melt (medium) and lead to magmatic differentiation on a chamber scale. The settling of immiscible liquid droplets depends on their sinking (or floating) velocities, which could be described using the Stokes' law. The discrete liquid droplets during settling could collide and coalesce with each other, resulting in larger droplets, which is different from the collision of crystals in the magma. The coalescence can significantly increase the droplet velocities, which are proportional to the square of the droplet radii according to the Stokes' law. In a slow-cooling magma chamber, the exsolution and settling of the discrete liquid droplets may reach "equilibrium", which here we call the steady state. Numerical analyses using population dynamics equations have been carried out to study how physical properties of melts affect the segregation of immiscible liquids at the steady state. Our preliminary results indicate that the residence time (average time it takes for discrete droplets to settle) of discrete melt with viscosity higher than that of the medium could be longer than that of discrete melt with viscosity lower than that of the medium, by even more than one order of magnitude. Furthermore, the residence time is approximately proportional to the square root of the medium viscosity, inversely proportional to the square root of the density difference and inversely proportional to the exsolution rate if the discrete melt is exsolved as initially small droplets ( 10 µm in radius). This study could shed light on understanding the feasibility of formation of plutons through liquid immiscibility in dynamics.

  15. Measurement of interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Neilson, George F.; Baertlein, Carl; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given of a containerless microgravity experiment aimed at measuring the interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs using a compound drop rotation method. The reasons for the failure to execute such experiments in microgravity are described. Also, the results of post-flight analyses used to confirm our arguments are presented.

  16. Experimental liquid line of descent and liquid immiscibility for basalt 70017. [lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Daniel, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes one possible liquid line of descent produced for a high-titanium mare basalt composition through an arbitrarily chosen series of partial equilibrium and fractional crystallization experiments on basalt 70017. The liquid line of descent leading to immiscibility at 994 C is characterized by enrichment of FeO, K2O, SiO2, and MnO and depletion of MgO and TiO2 in the residual liquids. The composition of the residual liquid at the onset of immiscibility is ferrobasaltic, and the initial appearance of immiscible liquids in the form of silica-rich spherules is in the vicinity of plagioclase-liquid contacts. The integrated bulk composition of the areas of finely exsolved liquids indicates that the trend of the liquid line of descent is at a small angle to the tie lines joining the two liquids.

  17. Coalescence of Immiscible Liquid Metal Drop on Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Li, Jie; Wang, Long; Duan, Yunrui; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the wetting and coalescence of liquid Al and Pb drops on four carbon-based substrates. We highlight the importance of the microstructure and surface topography of substrates in the coalescence process. Our results show that the effect of substrate on coalescence is achieved by changing the wettability of the Pb metal. Additionally, we determine the critical distance between nonadjacent Al and Pb films required for coalescence. These findings improve our understanding of the coalescence of immiscible liquid metals at the atomistic level. PMID:27667589

  18. Acoustic detection of Immiscible Liquids in Sand

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Jil T.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Seifert, Patricia K.; Nihei, Kurt T.

    1999-03-01

    Laboratory cross-well P-wave transmission at 90 kHz was measured in a 61 cm diameter by 76 cm tall water-saturated sand pack, before and after introducing a non-aqueous phase organic liquid (NAPL) (n-dodecane). In one experiment NAPL was introduced to form a lens trapped by a low permeability layer; a second experiment considered NAPL residual trapped behind the front of flowing NAPL. The NAPL caused significant changes in the travel time and amplitude of first arrivals, as well as the generation of diffracted waves arriving after the direct wave. The spatial variations in NAPL saturation obtained from excavation at the end of the experiment correlated well with the observed variations in the P-wave amplitudes and travel times. NAPL residual saturation changes from NAPL flow channels of 3 to 4% were detectable and the 40 to 80% NAPL saturation in the NAPL lens was clearly visible at acoustic frequencies. The results of these experiments demonstrate that small NAPL saturations may be more easily detected with amplitude rather than travel time data, but that the relationships between the amplitude changes and NAPL saturation maybe more complex than those for velocity.

  19. Theoretical and experimental investigation on separation of two immiscible liquids using hydrocyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnet, M.; Harms, G.

    1996-12-31

    For a reliable design of hydrocyclones for the separation of two immiscible liquids the correct calculation of pressure drop and separation efficiency is necessary. To determine the separation process correctly, a possible droplet breakup within the hydrocyclone due to shear forces and/or turbulence has to be considered. It is shown, that the real droplet size distribution which is responsible for the separation process can be calculated depending on fluid flow parameters. 5 figs.

  20. MASS-REMOVAL AND MASS-FLUX-REDUCTION BEHAVIOR FOR IDEALIZED SOURCE ZONES WITH HYDRAULICALLY POORLY-ACCESSIBLE IMMISCIBLE LIQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M. L.; Difilippo, Erica L.; marble, justin C.; Oostrom, Mart

    2008-04-01

    A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to investigate aqueous dissolution and mass-removal behavior for systems wherein immiscible liquid was non-uniformly distributed in physically heterogeneous source zones. The study focused specifically on characterizing the relationship between mass flux reduction and mass removal for systems for which immiscible liquid is poorly accessible to flowing water. Two idealized scenarios were examined, one wherein immiscible liquid at residual saturation exists within a lower-permeability unit residing in a higher-permeability matrix, and one wherein immiscible liquid at higher saturation (a pool) exists within a higher-permeability unit adjacent to a lower-permeability unit. The results showed that significant reductions in mass flux occurred at relatively moderate mass-removal fractions for all systems. Conversely, minimalmass flux reduction occurred until a relatively large fraction of mass (>80%) was removed for the control experiment, which was designed to exhibit ideal mass removal. In general, mass flux reduction was observed to follow an approximately one-to-one relationship with mass removal. Two methods for estimating mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior, one based on system-indicator parameters (ganglia-to-pool ratio) and the other a simple mass-removal function, were used to evaluate the measured data. The results of this study illustrate the impact of poorly accessible immiscible liquid on mass-removal and mass-flux processes, and the difficulties posed for estimating mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior.

  1. Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H.; Matsubae, K.; Bai, H.; Nagasaka, T.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

  2. Solidification Processing of Immiscible Liquids in the Presence of Applied Ultrasonic Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Kim, S.

    2001-01-01

    Uniform microstructural distribution during solidification of immiscible liquids (e.g., oil and water; aluminum and lead) on Earth is hampered by inherent density differences between the phases. Microgravity processing minimizes settling but segregation still occurs due to gravity independent wetting and coalescence phenomena. Experiments with the transparent organic, metal analogue, succinonitrile-glycerol system were conducted in conjunction with applied ultrasonic energy. The processing parameters associated with this technique have been evaluated in view of optimizing dispersion uniformity. Characterization of the experimental results in terms of a modeling effort will also be presented,

  3. Solidification Processing of Immiscible Liquids in the Presence of Applied Ultrasonic Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Kim, S.

    2001-01-01

    Uniform microstructural distribution during solidification of immiscible liquids (e.g., oil and water; aluminum and lead) on Earth is hampered by inherent density differences between the phases. Microgravity processing minimizes settling but segregation still occurs due to gravity independent wetting and coalescence phenomena. Experiments with the transparent organic, metal analogue, succinonitrile-glycerol system were conducted in conjunction with applied ultrasonic energy. The processing parameters associated with this technique have been evaluated in view of optimizing dispersion uniformity. Characterization of the experimental results in terms of a modeling effort will also be presented,

  4. Layered interfaces between immiscible liquids studied by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geysermans, P.; Elyeznasni, N.; Russier, V.

    2005-11-01

    We present a study of the structure in the interface between two immiscible liquids by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics calculations. The liquids are modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials, which achieve immiscibility by supressing the attractive interaction between unlike particles. The density profiles of the liquids display oscillations only in a limited part of the simple liquid-phase diagram (ρ,T). When approaching the liquid-vapor coexistence, a significant depletion appears while the layering behavior of the density profile vanishes. By analogy with the liquid-vapor interface and the analysis of the adsorption this behavior is suggested to be strongly related to the drying transition.

  5. Compositional and kinetic controls on liquid immiscibility in ferrobasalt-rhyolite volcanic and plutonic series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Grove, Timothy L.

    2013-07-01

    We present major element compositions of basalts and their differentiation products for some major tholeiitic series. The dry, low-pressure liquid lines of descent are shown to approach or intersect the experimentally-defined compositional space of silicate liquid immiscibility. Ferrobasalt-rhyolite unmixing along tholeiitic trends in both volcanic and plutonic environments is supported by worldwide occurrence of immiscible globules in the mesostasis of erupted basalts, unmixed melt inclusions in cumulus phases of major layered intrusions such as Skaergaard and Sept Iles, and oxide-rich ferrogabbros closely associated with plagiogranites in the lower oceanic crust. Liquid immiscibility is promoted by low-pressure, anhydrous fractional crystallization that drives the low Al2O3, high FeO liquids into the two-liquid field. Kinetic controls can be important in the development of two-liquid separation. The undercooling that occurs at the slow cooling rates of plutonic environments promotes early development of liquid immiscibility at higher temperature. In contrast rapid cooling in erupted lavas leads to large undercoolings and liquid immiscibility develops at significantly lower temperatures. Unmixing leads to the development of a compositional gap characterized by the absence of intermediate compositions, a feature of many tholeiitic provinces. The compositions of experimental unmixed silica-rich melts coincide with those of natural rhyolites and plagiogranites with high FeOtot and low Al2O3, suggesting the potential role of large-scale separation of immiscible Si-rich liquid in the petrogenesis of late-stage residual melts. No trace of the paired ferrobasaltic melt is found in volcanic environments because of its uneruptable characteristics. Instead, Fe-Ti ± P-rich gabbros are the cumulate products of immiscible Fe-rich melts in plutonic settings. The immiscibility process may be difficult to identify because both melts crystallize the same phases with the same

  6. Hydrogenation with monolith reactor under conditions of immiscible liquid phases

    DOEpatents

    Nordquist, Andrew Francis; Wilhelm, Frederick Carl; Waller, Francis Joseph; Machado, Reinaldo Mario

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved for the hydrogenation of an immiscible mixture of an organic reactant in water. The immiscible mixture can result from the generation of water by the hydrogenation reaction itself or, by the addition of, water to the reactant prior to contact with the catalyst. The improvement resides in effecting the hydrogenation reaction in a monolith catalytic reactor from 100 to 800 cpi, at a superficial velocity of from 0.1 to 2 m/second in the absence of a cosolvent for the immiscible mixture. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrogenation is carried out using a monolith support which has a polymer network/carbon coating onto which a transition metal is deposited.

  7. Why are blue zhamanshinites blue? Liquid immiscibility in an impact melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Koeberl, Christian

    1991-01-01

    A study of the cause of the coloration of blue zhamanshinites, which are glassy impact melt rocks from the Zhamanshin crater in the USSR are reported. It is found that the blue color results from Rayleigh scattering from spherical, 100 nm-diameter inclusions of a separate Ca-Fe-Mg-P-rich silicate glass. These observations can best be explained by the operation of liquid immiscibility in the zhamanshinite melt, and suggest that liquid immiscibility may have a more general role in impactite evolution.

  8. Electroosmotic flow in a water column surrounded by an immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Saeid; Khani, Sina; Wen, John Z; Li, Dongqing

    2012-04-15

    In this paper, we conducted numerical simulation of the electroosmotic flow in a column of an aqueous solution surrounded by an immiscible liquid. While governing equations in this case are the same as that in the electroosmotic flow through a microchannel with solid walls, the main difference is the types of interfacial boundary conditions. The effects of electric double layer (EDL) and surface charge (SC) are considered to apply the most realistic model for the velocity boundary condition at the interface of the two fluids. Effects on the flow field of ς-potential and viscosity ratio of the two fluids were investigated. Similar to the electroosmotic flow in microchannels, an approximately flat velocity profile exists in the aqueous solution. In the immiscible fluid phase, the velocity decreases to zero from the interface toward the immiscible fluid phase. The velocity in both phases increases with ς-potential at the interface of the two fluids. The higher values of ς-potential also increase the slip velocity at the interface of the two fluids. For the same applied electric field and the same ς-potential at the interface of the two fluids, the more viscous immiscible fluid, the slower the system moves. The viscosity of the immiscible fluid phase also affects the flatness of the velocity profile in the aqueous solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wetting of a liquid surface by another immiscible liquid in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Gilles; Ross, Guy G.; Andrzejewski, Lukasz

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of interfacial properties is essential to the development of new drugs either on earth or, particularly, in the absence of gravity. Under the reduced gravity conditions of parabolic flights, we have shown that, using an appropriate cell setup in order to control liquid surfaces, a liquid drop can be expanded onto and withdrawn from another immiscible liquid, which permits the measurement of the contact angle of this system. Surface energies of liquids being easily measurable, this technique allows a verification of numerous models used in interface science. During each parabola, 20 s of microgravity measurements permitted the acquisition of video pictures of these drops. Contact angles have been obtained from goniometric analysis of the recorded images. Generally, the drops obtained satisfied the equilibrium state predicted by Neumann's equations. However, unexpected long lasting metastable drops have also been observed on a curved unconfined liquid surface. The existence of a drop-sinking barrier, larger for a curved liquid surface, is proposed to explain this observation.

  10. Liquid-liquid phase equilibrium and core-shell structure formation in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyang; Jia, Peng; Sun, Xiaofei; Geng, Haoran; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the liquid-phase separation of ternary immiscible Al45Bi19.8Sn35.2 and Al60Bi14.4Sn25.6 melts was studied with resistivity and thermal analysis methods at different temperature. The resistivity-temperature curves appear abrupt and anomalously change with rising temperature, corresponding to the anomalous and low peak of melting process in DSC curves, indicative of the occurrence of the liquid-phase separation. The anomalous behavior of the resistivity temperature dependence is attributable to concentration-concentration fluctuations. The effect of composition and melt temperature on the liquid-phase separation and core-shell structure formation in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys was studied. The liquid-phase separation and formation of the core-shell structure in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys are readily acquired when the alloy compositions fall into liquid miscibility gap. What's more, the cross-sectional structure changes from irregular, dispersed to core-type shapes under the actions of Marangoni motion with increasing melt temperature. This study provides some clues for the preparation of core-shell microspheres of immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys via liquid-phase separation.

  11. Plagiogranites as late-stage immiscible liquids in ophiolite and mid-ocean ridge suites - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, S.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of relationships between basic and acidic rocks was made by fractionating primitive basalt at low pressure anhydrous conditions at various fugacities. Fractionally crystallized basalt became increasingly enriched in iron which became silicate liquid immiscible, producing Fe-enriched basaltic and granitic liquids. The latter is similar to plagiogranites found in mid-oceanic rift (MOR) regions, showing that silicate liquid immiscibility could be the petrogenic process which produces plagiogranites in some MOR regions and ophiolites. The major problem in considering plagiogranites as products of silicate liquid immiscibility is absence of any description of the Fe-enriched conjugate liquid in the ophiolite or MOR literature, and the identification of this magma is essential for a definite case of silicate liquid immiscibility.

  12. Rebound of continuous droplet streams from an immiscible liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, William J.; Laiacona, Danielle M.; German, Guy K.; Chiarot, Paul R.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the rebound of high velocity continuous water droplet streams from the surface of an immiscible oil pool. The droplets have diameters and velocities of less than 90 μm and 15 m/s, respectively, and were created at frequencies up to 60 kHz. The impact and rebound of continuous droplet streams at this scale and velocity have been largely unexplored. This regime bridges the gap between single drop and jet impacts. The impinging droplets create a divot at the surface of the oil pool that had a common characteristic shape across a wide-range of droplet and oil properties. After impact, the reflected droplets maintain the same uniformity and periodicity of the incoming droplets but have significantly lower velocity and kinetic energy. This was solely attributed to the generation of a flow induced in the viscous oil pool by the impacting droplets. Unlike normally directed impact of millimeter-scale droplets with a solid surface, our results show that an air film does not appear to be maintained beneath the droplets during impact. This suggests direct contact between the droplets and the surface of the oil pool. A ballistic failure limit, correlated with the Weber number, was identified where the rebound was suppressed and the droplets were driven through the oil surface. A secondary failure mode was identified for aperiodic incoming streams. Startup effects and early time dynamics of the rebounding droplet stream were also investigated.

  13. Drop fragmentation at impact onto a bath of an immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, H; Sun, C; Prosperetti, A; Lohse, D

    2013-06-28

    The impact of a drop onto a deep bath of an immiscible liquid is studied with emphasis on the drop fragmentation into a collection of noncoalescing daughter drops. At impact the drop flattens and spreads at the surface of the crater it transiently opens in the bath and reaches a maximum deformation, which gets larger with increasing impact velocity, before surface tension drives its recession. This recession can promote the fragmentation by two different mechanisms: At moderate impact velocity, the drop recession converges to the axis of symmetry to form a jet which then fragments by a Plateau-Rayleigh mechanism. At higher velocity the edge of the receding drop destabilizes and shapes into radial ligaments which subsequently fragment. For this latter mechanism the number N∝We3 and the size distribution of the daughter drops p(d)∝d-4 as a function of the impact Weber number We are explained on the basis of the observed spreading of the drop. The universality of this model for the fragmentation of receding liquid sheets might be relevant for other configurations.

  14. Drop Fragmentation at Impact onto a Bath of an Immiscible Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, H.; Sun, C.; Prosperetti, A.; Lohse, D.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of a drop onto a deep bath of an immiscible liquid is studied with emphasis on the drop fragmentation into a collection of noncoalescing daughter drops. At impact the drop flattens and spreads at the surface of the crater it transiently opens in the bath and reaches a maximum deformation, which gets larger with increasing impact velocity, before surface tension drives its recession. This recession can promote the fragmentation by two different mechanisms: At moderate impact velocity, the drop recession converges to the axis of symmetry to form a jet which then fragments by a Plateau-Rayleigh mechanism. At higher velocity the edge of the receding drop destabilizes and shapes into radial ligaments which subsequently fragment. For this latter mechanism the number N∝We3 and the size distribution of the daughter drops p(d)∝d-4 as a function of the impact Weber number We are explained on the basis of the observed spreading of the drop. The universality of this model for the fragmentation of receding liquid sheets might be relevant for other configurations.

  15. Calculation of Liquid-Solid Interfacial Free Energy in Pb-Cu Binary Immiscible System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-shan; Zhou, Sheng-gang; Cao, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Based on the solid-liquid interfacial free energy theory of the complex Warren binary & pseudo-binary system and through the simplification of it by taking Pb-Cu binary system as an example, the physical model for it in binary immiscible system can be obtained. Next, its thermodynamic formula is derived to obtain a theoretical formula that only contains two parameters, and comparisons are made with regard to γSL calculated values and experimental values of MPE (multiphase equilibrium method) under several kinds of temperatures. As manifested in the outcomes, the improved physical model and theoretical formula will become not only easy to understand but also simple for calculation (the calculated value of γSL depends on two parameters, i.e. temperature and percentage composition of Cu atom). It can be treated as the foundation of application for the γSL calculation of liquid-solid interfacial free energy in other immiscible systems.

  16. Liquid immiscibility in a CTGS (Ca3TaGa3Si2O14) melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Jun; Zhao, Hengyu; Koyama, Chihiro; Maeda, Kensaku; Fujiwara, Kozo; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Uda, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Although many studies have indicated that Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) grows congruently from a stoichiometric melt when using the Czochralski (Cz) technique, the occurrence of a secondary phase during growth when using the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) technique has been reported. We have examined the detailed growth mechanism of μ-PD grown CTGS as well as its congruency. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) at an elevated temperature up to 1650 °C shows no peaks associated with the presence of a secondary phase, whereas a secondary phase related peak was detected at an elevated temperature up to 1490 °C with the same heating rate. Back-scattered electron images (BEIs) revealed the occurrence of Ca3Ta2Ga4O14 (CTG) as a secondary phase. The secondary phase appears at the very early stage of growth, which is not possible to explain by a eutectic reaction. The experimental results suggest that liquid immiscibility was present in the melt at around 1490 °C during the growth of s-CTGS. Liquid immiscibility produces Si-rich and Si-poor melts, from which different phases with different compositions are solidified. The μ-PD technique poses a more static environment in the melt than that of Cz technique due to low melt convection and the lack of stirring, which enables liquid immiscibility to emerge.

  17. Effect of Various Enhanced-Solubilization Agents on Multi-Component Immiscible Liquid Dissolution and Mass Flux in Homogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tick, G. R.; Slavic, D.

    2010-12-01

    Complex multi-component immiscible liquid mixtures can significantly limit the effectiveness of groundwater remediation. The use of enhanced-flushing technologies has emerged as a promising technique for the remediation of sites contaminated with immiscible liquids. An important aspect for the effective remediation of these sites depends on the physical heterogeneity of the subsurface, the related distribution of immiscible liquid present within porous media, and the composition of the immiscible liquid mixture. A series of column experiments was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of four different flushing agents on the removal of a uniformly distributed multi-component immiscible liquid consisting of equal mole fractions of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) in homogeneous quartz sand. The solubilization agents investigated included: two complexing sugars, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD); one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); and one cosolvent, ethanol (ETOH). The effectiveness of the flushing agents was evaluated by comparing elution profiles, flushing efficiencies, mass flux behavior, and dissolution ideality (i.e. Raoult’s law prediction) of each component. The results of these experiments indicate that the addition of a chemical flushing agent greatly reduces the time needed to remove each component compared to flushing with water alone (i.e. pump and treat). Although the stronger solubilization-power agents (i.e. SDS and ETOH) showed quicker removal in general, each solubilization agent exhibited unique removal limitations based upon different removal efficiency analyses. For instance, TCE and DCE exhibited relatively ideal dissolution while PCE showed significant nonideal dissolution behavior during flushing with MCD. These findings suggest that the selection of a particular flushing agent should be evaluated carefully prior to remediation as the mass flux and

  18. METHOD FOR MEASURING AIR-IMMISCIBLE LIQUID PARTITION COEFFICIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal objective of this work was to measure nonaqueous phase liquid-air partition coefficients for various gas tracer compounds. Known amounts of trichloroethene (TCE) and tracer, as neat compounds, were introduced into glass vials and allowed to equilibrate. The TCE and ...

  19. METHOD FOR MEASURING AIR-IMMISCIBLE LIQUID PARTITION COEFFICIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal objective of this work was to measure nonaqueous phase liquid-air partition coefficients for various gas tracer compounds. Known amounts of trichloroethene (TCE) and tracer, as neat compounds, were introduced into glass vials and allowed to equilibrate. The TCE and ...

  20. Capillary foams: highly stable bubbles formed by synergistic action of particles and immiscible liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Carson; Zhang, Yi; Behrens, Sven

    2015-03-01

    Liquid foams are a familiar part of everyday life from beer and frothed milk to bubble baths; they also play important roles in enhanced oil recovery, lightweight packaging, and insulation. We report a new class of foams, obtained by frothing a suspension of colloidal particles in the presence of a small amount of an immiscible secondary liquid. A unique aspect of the new foams, termed capillary foams, is that suspended particles mediate spreading of a minority liquid around gas bubbles. The resulting mixed particle/liquid coating can stabilize bubbles against coalescence even when the particles alone cannot. We demonstrate the generality of capillary foams by forming them from a diverse set of particle/liquid combinations and rationalize the results with a simple free energy model. In addition to many applications as liquid foams, capillary foams can serve as precursors for hierarchically-structured solids with porosity on different length scales and with significant application potential.

  1. Dissolution and biodegradation of a mixture of immiscible liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, P.; Erickson, L.E.; Fan, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    Subsurface contaminants are frequently encountered as mixtures of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) at sites contaminated by gasoline or coal tar comprising organic mixtures. The leaching of these organic mixtures from the aquifer has been examined with and without biodegradation. The results obtained have been compared with the limiting case of a single component NAPL. Various physical processes involved have been quantified based on the assumptions that liquid-liquid and sorption equilibria are established at the beginning of each flushing; oxygen required for biochemical oxidation is completely consumed by the end of each flushing; and the rate of biochemical oxidation obeys the Monod kinetics for a multi-substrate system, characterized by an oxygen utilization factor. This has given rise to an equilibrium model expressing the mass fraction of any component remaining in the aquifer, its aqueous concentration, and the composition of the NAPL as functions of the number of flushings. The results of the simulation with the model demonstrate that bioremediation can significantly reduce the time necessary for removing the components of intermediate solubility such as xylene. Highly soluble components of the NAPL are mainly removed by the pump-and-treat mechanism while the components of extremely low solubility are unavailable to the microbes as substrates in a multi-component system.

  2. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich liquids in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Lennart A.; Wang, Meng; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Roberts, R. James; Veksler, Ilya V.; Cawthorn, R. Grant; Holtz, François

    2016-06-01

    The Bushveld Complex (South Africa) is the largest layered intrusion on Earth and plays a considerable role in our understanding of magmatic differentiation and ore-forming processes. In this study, we present new geochemical data for apatite-hosted multiphase inclusions in gabbroic cumulates from the Bushveld Upper Zone. Inclusions re-homogenized at high-temperature (1060-1100 °C) display a range of compositions in each rock sample, from iron-rich (35 wt.% FeOtot; 28 wt.% SiO2) to silica-rich (5 wt.% FeOtot; 65 wt.% SiO2). This trend is best explained by an immiscible process and trapping of contrasted melts in apatite crystals during progressive cooling along the binodal of a two-liquid field. The coexistence of both Si-rich and Fe-rich immiscible melts in single apatite grains is used to discuss the ability of immiscible melts to segregate from each other, and the implications for mineral and bulk cumulate compositions. We argue that complete separation of immiscible liquids did not occur, resulting in crystallization of similar phases from both melts but in different proportions. However, partial segregation in a crystal mush and the production of contrasting phase proportions from the Fe-rich melt and the Si-rich melt can be responsible for the cyclic evolution from melanocratic (Fe-Ti-P-rich) to leucocratic (plagioclase-rich) gabbros which is commonly observed in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex where it occurs at a vertical scale of 50 to 200 m.

  3. Compositional Convection Trumps Silicate Liquid Immiscibility (and Other Matters)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    2007-12-01

    Published data for the Skaergaard (Skd) intrusion through MZ-UZc suggest that all the average cumulates are hyper-mafic and poor in felsic components relative to a cotectic condition. The "lost" felsic components presumably reside in the SHR and UBS. Reports of conjugate mafic-felsic liquids in Skd have always run afoul of the difficult extrapolation of scale from the microscopic emulsion to the megascopic separation of two liquids in the intrusion. This is a false question. When Mt+ occurs below the base of MZ, the cumulates are exceedingly dense and are nearly perfect adcumulates (shown by least plagioclase zoning: Toplis et al. ms CMP 07). The resulting rejected solute (RS) is, therefore, clearly felsic, buoyant, hot, and evolved relative to the resident bulk magma. This RS will rise freely in plumes and collect near the roof. The challenge to the 2-liquid hypothesis is, then, how to distinguish it from classical cumulate theory. From current evidence, this challenge cannot be met. Compositional convection is a well-understood and quantifiable property of freezing liquids, from the formation of sea ice to the crystallization of the inner core of the Earth and the corrosion of troctolite above thin dunite sills at Rum. Its power has been quantified to a first approximation (Morse 1986 JPet 27:1183) and shown to be appreciable. In contrast, the ability of emulsions with high variance of NBO/T to separate megascopically has never been shown. The probability of solute rejection and pluming of felsic residua is 1.0, whereas the contrary hypothesis of liquid separation has no known probability. Even if it occurred, it would be redundant in the face of assured compositional convection. The issue is moot at best, and unworthy of further exploration. Both ideas produce an evolving felsic melt near the intrusion roof, and that leads to increasing polymerization and inability to achieve adcumulus growth, so the UZ of the intrusion has greater plagioclase zoning as evidence

  4. Transparent, immiscible, surrogate liquids with matchable refractive indexes: Increased range of density and viscosity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadillon, Jérémy; Saksena, Rajat; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2016-12-01

    By replacing the "heavy" silicone oil used in the oil phase of Saksena, Christensen, and Pearlstein ["Surrogate immiscible liquid pairs with refractive indexes matchable over a wide range of density and viscosity ratios," Phys. Fluids 27, 087103 (2015)] by one with a twentyfold higher viscosity, and replacing the "light" silicone oil in that work by one with a viscosity fivefold lower and a density about 10% lower, we have greatly extended the range of viscosity ratio accessible by index-matching the adjustable-composition oil phase to an adjustable-composition 1,2-propanediol + CsBr + H2O aqueous phase and have also extended the range of accessible density ratios. The new system of index-matchable surrogate immiscible liquids is capable of achieving the density and viscosity ratios for liquid/liquid systems consisting of water with the entire range of light or medium crude oils over the temperature range from 40 °F (4.44 °C) to 200 °F (93.3 °C) and can access the density and viscosity ratios for water with some heavy crude oils over part of the same temperature range. It also provides a room-temperature, atmospheric-pressure surrogate for the liquid CO2 + H2O system at 0 °C over almost all of the pressure range of interest in sub-seabed CO2 sequestration.

  5. Effect of pressure on cation partitioning between immiscible liquids in the system Ti0 2-SiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Circone, S.; Agee, C. B.

    1995-03-01

    Liquidus phase relations in the system Si0 2-TiO 2 have been determined at 3.0 GPa to investigate the effect of pressure on the partitioning of Si and Ti between coexisting immiscible liquids. Experiments on oxide mixtures containing 10, 50, 90, and 100 mol% TiO 2 were performed in multi-anvil and piston-cylinder apparatus at 2173-2740 K. At 1 atm, immiscible liquids form because the liquid structures are dissimilar: tetravalent cations occur in primarily fourfold (Si0 2-rich liquid) vs. sixfold (TiO 2-rich liquid) coordination by oxygen. At 3.0 GPa, immiscible liquids also coexist, but the phase relations and liquid compositions are significantly different. The eutectic liquid is now Ti0 2-rich (78.4 vs. 8.1 mol% TiO 2 at 1 atm). Above the liquidus, the coexisting immiscible liquids are enriched in Si0 2. The Si0 2 content of the TiO 2-rich liquid has increased by more than a factor of 3, while the TiO2-content of the SiO 2-rich liquid has decreased by 1/2. The persistence of a wide solvus implies that pressure does not cause liquid structure assimilation. The observed shift in immiscible liquid compositions indicated that pressure has raised the activity of TiO 2 in the liquid dominated by tetravalent cations in fourfold coordination and lowered the activity of SiO 2 in a liquid dominated by tetravalent cations in sixfold coordination. The decrease in TiO 2 content of the SiO 2-rich liquid with pressure is probably related to the positive volume of mixing observed in 1 atm glasses in this composition range. The enhanced solubility of SiO 2 in the TiO 2-rich liquid with pressure may be due to a pressure-induced increase in the coordination state of Si.

  6. Liquid immiscibility and core-shell morphology formation in ternary Al–Bi–Sn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, R.; Zhang, J.F.; Zhang, S.G. Li, J.G.

    2013-07-15

    The effects of composition on liquid immiscibility, macroscopic morphology, microstructure and phase transformation in ternary Al–Bi–Sn alloys were investigated. Three types of morphology, the core-shell type, the stochastic droplet type and uniform dispersion type, of Al–Bi–Sn particles prepared by a jet breakup process were distinguished, and the relationships between which were discussed. The phase transformation behaviors of the Al–Bi–Sn alloys were studied by thermal analysis, in agreement with the microstructural observation and microanalysis. The liquid immiscibility and formation of the core-shell morphology in Al–Bi–Sn alloys are easily achieved when the composition lies in the liquid miscibility gap. The particles exhibit a high melting point Al-rich core with a low melting point Sn–Bi-rich solder shell, showing promise for application as high-density electronic packaging materials. - Highlights: • The liquid demixing, morphology and microstructure in Al–Bi–Sn alloys were studied. • Three types of morphology were classified and discussed. • The conditions for formation of the core-shell morphology were obtained. • The phase transition behaviors agree with the microstructure characterization. • The Al/Sn–Bi core-shell particles show promise for use in electronic packaging.

  7. Controlling of immiscible liquids fluid in a capillary reactor - from continuous to segmented flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyushkin, L. B.; Mbwahnche, R. C.; Ryzhov, O. A.

    2016-11-01

    Experimental variation of the droplets form in the flow of immiscible fluids in a capillary with the inner diameter of 0,9 mm is presented. The possibility of the transition from continuous to segmented flow by varying the velocity of precursors and carrier liquids is demonstrated. It is shown that the rate of variation of one precursor in respect to other makes it possible to vary the ratio of mixing components. Simulation results for Ψ-shaped mixer in COMSOL Multiphysics software are also presented.

  8. Ripples on a rising bubble through an immiscible two-liquid interface generate numerous micro droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, T.; Ueda, Y.; Iguchi, M.

    2010-11-01

    The mass transfer between immiscible two liquid phases can be greatly accelerated by bubbling gas through a reactor (Bird R. B., Stewart W. E. and Lightfoot E. N., Transport Phenomena, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons) 2002). Therefore, the physical phenomenon occurring during the passage of a rising bubble through an immiscible two-liquid interface is of particular interest. The passage of the bubble through the oil (upper phase)/water (lower phase) interface starts with an upward lifting of the interface, and the bubble attracts a column of the water phase upwards keeping a film of the water phase around itself. In the present study, a particular remark is given to the influence of different interface tensions retracting the water film, after the water film ruptured, which lays on the interface between air and silicone oil. Unlike the previous studies on the rupture of a single liquid film in a gas which is pulled due to the identical surface tension, this system can form concentric ripples on the outer interface of the water film (oil/water interface) around the bubble due to the weak interface tension. Then, numerous micro water droplets break out from the fully grown ripples.

  9. Boiling of the interface between two immiscible liquids below the bulk boiling temperatures of both components.

    PubMed

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V; Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-11-01

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becoming heated above its bulk boiling point. On the contrary, we address the case where both liquids remain below their bulk boiling points. In this paper we construct the theoretical description of the boiling process and discuss the actualisation of the case we consider for real systems.

  10. Flow characteristics of two immiscible liquid layers subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Someya, Satoshi; Munakata, Tetsuo; Nishio, Masahiro; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    2002-10-01

    Marangoni convection, driven by an interfacial instability due to a surface tension gradient, presents a significant problem in crystal growth in normal microgravity environments. It is important to suppress and control the convection phenomenon for better material processing, especially in crystal growth by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski or liquid encapsulated floating zone techniques, in which the melt is encapsulated in an immiscible medium. Marangoni convection can occur on the liquid-liquid interface and on the gas-liquid free surface. Buoyancy driven convection can also affect and complicate the flow. In the study we report here, experiments were carried out with two liquid layers, silicone oil and fluorinert, in an open and enclosed rectangular cavity. The flow in the cavity was subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient. The interactive flow near the liquid-liquid interface was measured by the particle image velocimetry technique. The measured flow field is in agreement with numerical predictions. Free surface fluctuations with several dominant frequencies were also measured.

  11. Enhanced-Solubilization of a Multi-Component Immiscible Liquid Source Zone within an Intermediate-scale Flow Cell System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvell, J. R.; Tick, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Complex multi-component immiscible liquid mixtures can significantly limit the effectiveness of groundwater remediation. The use of enhanced-flushing technologies has emerged as a promising technique for the remediation of sites contaminated with immiscible liquids. A series of two dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of two different flushing agents on the removal of a uniformly distributed multi-component immiscible liquid source zone. A 39.5 x 20.2 cm flow-cell was packed with 20/30-mesh sand and emplaced with a 15 x 3 cm rectangular source zone within the center of the flow cell. The source zone was established with a 10% NAPL saturation (Sn) consisting of equal 1:1:1 mole mixture of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE). The solubilization agents investigated included 5 wt% solution of a complexing sugar, hydroxypropyl-$betacyclodextrin (HPCD), and a 5 wt% solution of a surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results of these experiments indicate that the addition of a chemical flushing agent greatly reduces the time needed to remove each component compared to flushing with water alone (i.e. pump and treat). Elution curve (concentration-time) analysis from both total extraction and at the down-gradient end of the source zone showed that SDS removed all three components from the source zone approximately 10 times faster than HPCD. For the extraction port SDS showed slightly more ideal removal in terms of mass flux behavior, removing more mass initially before a significant reduction in mass flux was observed. Although SDS was superior when evaluated on a recovery basis, HPCD outperformed SDS for all components when compared based on contaminant-mass to reagent-mass and moles of contaminant to moles of reagent removed for the source zone port. These findings suggest that the selection of a particular flushing agent should be evaluated carefully prior to remediation as

  12. Heat transfer between stratified immiscible liquid layers driven by gas bubbling across the interface

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Irvine, T.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The modeling of molten core debris in the CORCON and VANESA computer codes as overlying, immiscible liquid layers is discussed as it relates to the transfer of heat and mass between the layers. This initial structure is identified and possible configurations are discussed. The stratified, gas-sparged configuration that is presently employed in CORCON and VANESA is examined and the existing literature for interlayer heat transfer is assessed. An experiment which was designed to measure interlayer heat transfer with gas sparging is described. The results are presented and compared to previously existing models. A dimensionless correlation for stratified, interlayer heat transfer with gas sparging is developed. This relationship is recommended for inclusion in CORCON-MOD2 for heat transfer between stratified, molten liquid layers. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Effects of liquid immiscibility on trace element fractionation in magmatic iron meteorites: A case study of group IIIAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulff-Moeller, Finn

    1998-03-01

    Magmatic iron meteorites are generally agreed to represent metal that crystallized in asteroidal cores from a large pool of liquid. Estimates suggest that the metallic liquid contained significant amounts of S and P, both of which are incompatible and exert a strong effect on trace-element partitioning. In tandem, S and P are also prone to cause immiscibility between sulfide liquid and P-rich metal liquid. The liquid immiscibility field occupies about 70% of the portion of the Fe-Ni-S-P system in which iron is the first phase to crystallize. In spite of this, previous fractional crystallization models have taken into account only one liquid phase and have encountered significant discrepancies between the meteorite data and model values for the key elements Ni, Ir, Ga, Ge and Au at even moderate degrees of fractionation. For the first time, a model for trace-element partitioning between immiscible liquids in the Fe-Ni-S-P system is presented in order to assess the effects on fractionation in magmatic iron meteorite groups. The onset of liquid immiscibility causes a significant change in the enrichment patterns of S and P in both liquids, so elements with contrasting partitioning behavior will show trends deviating clearly from one-liquid trends. A trend recorded in the solid metal will either be a smooth curve as long as equilibrium is maintained between the two liquids or the trend may diverge into a field limited by two extreme curves depending on the degree of disequilibrium. Bulk initial liquids for most magmatic groups have S/P (wt%) ratios well below 25. In these cases, and due to the constitution of the Fe-Ni-S-P system, most of the metal will crystallize from the rapidly decreasing volume of metal liquid and only a subordinate amount from the sulfide liquid. Because of the strong extraction of P into the metal liquid, P will have a much larger influence on trace-element partitioning than a low initial P content might suggest. My model calculations suggest

  14. Ensemble distribution for immiscible two-phase flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, Isha; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vassvik, Morten; Sinha, Santanu; Hansen, Alex

    2017-02-01

    We construct an ensemble distribution to describe steady immiscible two-phase flow of two incompressible fluids in a porous medium. The system is found to be ergodic. The distribution is used to compute macroscopic flow parameters. In particular, we find an expression for the overall mobility of the system from the ensemble distribution. The entropy production at the scale of the porous medium is shown to give the expected product of the average flow and its driving force, obtained from a black-box description. We test numerically some of the central theoretical results.

  15. Miscible and immiscible liquid experiments and simulations on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Michael; Mokler, Matthew; Cabot, William; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2011-11-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations are presented in which an incompressible system of two liquids is accelerated to produce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In these experiments, the initially stable, stratified liquid combination is accelerated downward on a vertical rail system in one of two experimental apparatuses: an apparatus in which a system of weights and pulleys accelerates the liquid filled tank (which is affixed to a test sled), or a new apparatus which uses linear induction motors to accelerate the tank (which is attached to an aluminum plate) to produce much greater acceleration levels. Both miscible and immiscible liquid combinations are used. In both apparatuses the resulting fluid flows are visualized with backlit imaging using LED backlights in conjunction with monochrome high-speed video cameras, both of which travel with the moving fluid filled containers. Initial perturbations are either unforced and allowed to progress from background noise or forced by vertically oscillating the liquid combination to produce parametric internal waves. The results of these experiments are compared to numerical simulations performed using the CFD code Miranda.

  16. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.

  17. Seismological constraints on core composition from Fe-O-S liquid immiscibility.

    PubMed

    Helffrich, George; Kaneshima, Satoshi

    2004-12-24

    Earth's core is composed primarily of iron (Fe) with about 10% by weight of lighter elements. The lighter elements are progressively enriched in the liquid outer core as the core cools and the inner core crystallizes. Thermodynamic modeling of Fe-O-S liquids shows that immiscible liquids can exist at outer-core pressures (136 to 330 gigapascals) at temperatures below 5200 kelvin and lead to layering in the outer core if the concentrations of the lighter elements are high enough. We found no evidence for layering in the outer core in the travel times and wave forms of P4KP seismic waves that reflect internally in the core. The absence of layers therefore constrains outer-core compositions in the Fe-O-S system to be no richer than 6 +/- 1 weight % (wt %) O and 2 to 15 wt % S. A single core liquid composition of 10.5 +/- 3.5 wt % S and 1.5 +/- 1.5 wt % O is compatible with wave speeds and densities throughout the outer core.

  18. Miscible and immiscible liquid experiments and simulations on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Michael; Jacobs, Jeffrey; Cabot, William

    2010-11-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations are presented in which an incompressible system of two liquids is accelerated to produce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In these experiments, the initially stable, stratified liquid combination is accelerated downward in one of two experimental apparatuses: a weight and pulley system in which a fluid filled container is accelerated on a rail system, or a new LIM apparatus which uses linear induction motors to accelerate the tank (which is attached to an aluminum plate) to produce much greater acceleration levels. Both miscible and immiscible liquid combinations are used. In both apparatuses the resulting fluid flows are visualized with backlit imaging using LED backlights in conjunction with monochrome high-speed video cameras, both of which travel with the moving fluid filled containers. Initial perturbations are either unforced and allowed to progress from background noise or forced by vertically oscillating the liquid combination to produce parametric internal waves. The results experiments are compared to numerical simulations performed using the CFD code Miranda.

  19. Large-scale liquid immiscibility at the top of the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed study of the top 625 m of the Bushveld Complex has revealed two distinct sections of cumulate rocks, the contact between which occurs over a limited stratigraphic range (< 50 m). The ~300 m-thick lower section consists of magnetite-bearing ferrodiorite with cumulus olivine Fo30, plagioclase An45, clinopyroxene En35 and several intercolated layers of magnetitite and nelsonite (apatite- Fe-Ti oxide rocks). In situ analysis shows that cumulus apatite in the lower section contains relatively low REE concentrations and no chondrite-normalized Eu anomaly. In contrast, overlying ~325 m-thick section consists of ferrodioritie cumulates (olivine Fo12-5, plagioclase An40, clinopyroxene En25-10) but contains much less magnetite, more ilmenite, and cumulus orthoclase and quartz. In addition, cumulus apatite of the upper section displays 3x higher REE concentrations than apatite of the lower section and a strong negative Eu anomaly. To explain the above observations, we propose that large-scale silicate liquid immiscibility resulted in the physical separation of a dense, Fe-rich magma to form the lower part of the sequence and a buoyant Si-rich magma to form the upper part of the sequence. This hypothesis is consistent not only with the change in proportions of cumulus phases but also the abrupt change in apatite REE contents. Liquid-liquid partitioning experiments have shown that during immiscibility the Fe-rich liquid will take up to 3-5 times more REE than the Si-rich liquid (Watson, 1976 Contrib. to Min. and Pet. vol. 56, p. 119-134). Yet the cumulus apatite in the lower section has relatively low REE concentrations and the apatite in the upper section has approximately 3x higher REE. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by the high sensitivity of the apatite-melt DREE to the SiO2 content of the liquid (with low DREE for low SiO2 melts, and high DREE for highly silicic melts) (Watson and Green, 1981 EPSL v. 56, p. 405-421). Applying a low DREE appropriate for

  20. Optofluidic restricted imaging, spectroscopy and counting of nanoparticles by evanescent wave using immiscible liquids.

    PubMed

    Liang, L; Zuo, Y F; Wu, W; Zhu, X Q; Yang, Y

    2016-08-21

    Conventional flow cytometry (FC) suffers from the diffraction limit for the detection of nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, whereas traditional total internal reflection (TIR) microscopy can only detect few samples near the solid-liquid interface mostly in static states. Here we demonstrate a novel on-chip optofluidic technique using evanescent wave sensing for single nanoparticle real time detection by combining hydrodynamic focusing and TIR using immiscible flows. The immiscibility of the high-index sheath flow and the low-index core flow naturally generate a smooth, flat and step-index interface that is ideal for the TIR effect, whose evanescent field can penetrate the full width of the core flow. Hydrodynamic focusing can focus on all the nanoparticles in the extreme centre of the core flow with a width smaller than 1 μm. This technique enables us to illuminate every single sample in the running core flow by the evanescent field, leaving none unaffected. Moreover, it works well for samples much smaller than the diffraction limit. We have successfully demonstrated the scattering imaging and counting of 50 nm and 100 nm Au nanoparticles and also the fluorescence imaging and counting of 200 nm beads. The effective counting speeds are estimated as 1500, 2300 and 2000 particles per second for the three types of nanoparticles, respectively. The optical scattering spectra were also measured to determine the size of individual Au nanoparticles. This provides a new technique to detect nanoparticles and we foresee its application in the detection of molecules for biomedical analyses.

  1. Using Three-Phase Flow of Immiscible Liquids to Prevent Coalescence of Droplets in Microfluidic Channels: Criteria to Identify theThird Liquid and Validation with Protein Crystallizations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.; Li, L; Reyes, S; Adamson, D; Ismagilov, R

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript describes the effect of interfacial tensions on three-phase liquid-liquid-liquid flow in microfluidic channels and the use of this flow to prevent microfluidic plugs from coalescing. One problem in using microfluidic plugs as microreactors is the coalescence of adjacent plugs caused by the relative motion of plugs during flow. Here, coalescence of reagent plugs was eliminated by using plugs of a third immiscible liquid as spacers to separate adjacent reagent plugs. This work tested the requirements of interfacial tensions for plugs of a third liquid to be effective spacers. Two candidates satisfying the requirements were identified, and one of these liquids was used in the crystallization of protein human Tdp1 to demonstrate its compatibility with protein crystallization in plugs. This method for identifying immiscible liquids for use as a spacer will also be useful for applications involving manipulation of large arrays of droplets in microfluidic channels.

  2. Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erqiang; Al-Otaibi, Shabbab; Vakarelski, Ivan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2014-11-01

    A bubble can pass through the interface between two immiscible liquids if it is energetically favourable. Once the intermediate film has drained sufficiently, the bubble makes contact with the interface, forming a triple-line and producing strong capillary waves which travel around the bubble and can pinch off a satellite on the opposite side, akin to the coalescence cascade dynamics. We identify the critical Ohnesorge number where such satellites are produced and characterize their sizes. The total transition time scales with the bubble size and differential surface tension, while the satellite pinch-off time scales with the capillary-inertial time of the pool liquid which originally surrounds the bubble. We also use high-speed video imaging to study the contact neck motion. For low viscosity it grows in time with a power-law exponent between 0.44 and 0.50, with a prefactor modified by the net sum of the three interfacial tensions. Increasing the receiving drop viscosity drastically slows down the triple-line motion, when the Ohnesorge number exceeds around 0.08. This differs qualitatively from the coalescence of two miscible drops of different viscosities, where the lower viscosity sets the coalescence speed. We thereby propose a strong resistance from the triple-line.

  3. Experimental study of liquid immiscibility in the Kiruna-type Vergenoeg iron-fluorine deposit, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tong; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Schütte, Philip; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Zhang, Zhaochong; Holtz, Francois

    2017-04-01

    In this study we experimentally assess whether the bulk composition of the Kiruna-type iron-fluorine Vergenoeg deposit, South Africa (17 wt.% SiO2 and 55 wt.% FeOtot) could correspond to an immiscible Fe-rich melt paired with its host rhyolite. Synthetic powder of the host rhyolite was mixed with mafic end-members (ore rocks) in variable proportions. Experimental conditions were 1-2 kbar and 1010 °C, with a range of H2O and F contents in the starting compositions. Pairs of distinct immiscible liquids occur in experiments saturated with fluorite, under relatively dry conditions, and at oxygen fugacity conditions corresponding to FMQ-1.4 to FMQ+1.8 (FMQ = fayalite-magnetite-quartz solid buffer). The Si-rich immiscible liquids contain 60.9-73.0 wt.% SiO2, 9.1-12.5 wt.% FeOtot, 2.4-4.2 wt.% F, and are enriched in Na2O, K2O and Al2O3. The paired Fe-rich immiscible melts have 41.0-49.5 wt.% SiO2, 20.6-36.1 wt.% FeOtot and 4.5-6.0 wt.% F, and are enriched in MgO, CaO and TiO2. Immiscibility does not develop in experiments performed under water-rich (aH2O > 0.2; a = activity) and/or oxidized (>FMQ+1.8) conditions. In all experiments, solid phases are magnetite, ±fayalite, fluorite and tridymite. Our results indicate that the rocks from the Vergenoeg pipe crystallized in a magma chamber hosting two immiscible silicate melts. Crystallization of the pipe from the Fe-rich melt explains its extreme enrichment in Ca, F and Fe compared to the host rhyolitic rocks. However, its low bulk silica content compared to experimental Fe-rich melts indicates that the pipe formed by remobilization of a mafic crystal mush dominated by magnetite and fayalite. Segregation of evolved residual liquids as well as the conjugate immiscible Si-rich melt produced the host rhyolite. The huge amount of fluorine in Vergenoeg ores (∼12 wt.% F) can hardly be explained by simple crystallization of fluorite from the Fe-rich silicate melt (up to 6 wt.% F at fluorite saturation). Instead, we confirm a

  4. Silicate-natrocarbonatite liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite, Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, Tanzania: Melt inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharygin, Victor V.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Zaitsev, Anatoly N.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2012-11-01

    Primary silicate-melt and carbonate-salt inclusions occur in the phenocrysts (nepheline, fluorapatite, wollastonite, clinopyroxene) in the 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. Silicate-melt inclusions in nepheline clearly show liquid immiscibility phenomena expressed in the presence of carbonate globules in silicate glass. The coexistence of inclusions with markedly different proportions of silicate glass + vapor-carbonate globule in the core of nepheline phenocrysts, the presence of carbonate-salt inclusions in fluorapatite and our heating experiments strongly suggest that their entrapment began at temperatures higher than 1130 °C in an intermediate chamber when initial carbonated nephelinite melt was heterogeneous and represented a mixture of immiscible liquids. Silicate-natrocarbonatite melt immiscibility took place at high temperature and immiscible nephelinite and carbonatite liquids coexisted over a wide temperature range from ≥ 1130 °C to 600 °C. Homogenization of a carbonate globule (dissolution of the gas bubble in carbonate melt) at 900-940 °C indicates that after separation from silicate magma the natrocarbonatite represented homogeneous liquid in the 900-1130 °C temperature range, whereas below these temperatures immiscible melts of different composition and fluid phase have separated from it. The bulk composition of homogeneous natrocarbonatite melt may be estimated as ≈ 20% CaF2, 40-60% (Na,K)2CO3 and 20-40% CaCO3 based on the coexistence of nyerereite, calcite and fluorite and the rapid phase transition (carbonate aggregate → carbonate liquid) at 550-570 °C observed in vapor-carbonate globules of nepheline-hosted silicate-melt inclusions and on the Na2CO3-CaCO3-CaF2 phase diagram. Silicate glasses of nepheline-hosted immiscible inclusions drastically differ from host nephelinite in the abundance of major and trace elements. They are high peralkaline ((Na + K)/Al — up to 9.5) and virtually free of water (H2

  5. Mass Transfer in the Dissolution of a Multi-Component Liquid Droplet in an Immiscible Liquid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jonathan T.; Needham, David

    2013-01-01

    The Epstein Plesset equation has recently been shown to accurately predict the dissolution of a pure liquid microdroplet into a second immiscible solvent, such as oil into water. Here, we present a series of new experiments and a modification to this equation to model the dissolution of a two-component oil-mixture microdroplet into a second immiscible solvent, in which the two materials of the droplet have different solubilities. The model is based upon a reduced surface area approximation and the assumption of ideal homogenous mixing: Massfluxdmidt=AfraciDi(ci-cs){1R+1πDit}, where Afraci is the area fraction of component I; ci and cs are the initial and saturation concentrations of the droplet material in the surrounding medium; R is the radius of the droplet; t is time; and Di is the coefficient of diffusion of component I in the surrounding medium. This new model has been tested by use of a two-chamber micropipette-based method, which measured the dissolution of single individual microdroplets of mutually-miscible liquid mixtures (ethyl acetate/butyl acetate, and butyl acetate/amyl acetate) into water. We additionally measured the diffusion coefficient of the pure materials: ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, and amyl acetate, in water at 22 deg C. Diffusion coefficients for the pure acetates in water were: 8.65 x 10−6, 7.61 x 10−6, and 9.14 x 10−6 cm2/s respectively. This model accurately predicts the dissolution of microdroplets for the ethyl acetate/butyl acetate and butyl acetate/amyl acetate systems given the solubility and diffusion coefficients of each of the individual components in water as well as the initial droplet radius. The average mean squared error was 8.96%. The dissolution of a spherical ideally mixed multi-component droplet closely follows the modified Epstein Plesset model presented here. PMID:24050124

  6. Heat transfer between immiscible liquids enhanced by gas bubbling. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Schwarz, C.E.; Klages, J.; Klein, J.

    1982-08-01

    The phenomena of core-concrete interactions impact upon containment integrity of light water reactors (LWR) following postulated complete meltdown of the core by containment pressurization, production of combustible gases, and basemat penetration. Experiments have been performed with non-reactor materials to investigate one aspect of this problem, heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquids whose interface is disturbed by a transverse non-condensable gas flux emanating from below. Hydrodynamic studies have been performed to test a criterion for onset of entrainment due to bubbling through the interface and subsequent heat transfer studies were performed to assess the effect of bubbling on interfacial heat transfer rates, both with and without bubble induced entrainment. Non-entraining interfacial heat transfer data with mercury-water/oil fluid pairs were observed to be bounded from below within a factor of two to three by the Szekeley surface renewal heat transfer model. However heat transfer data for fluid pairs which are found to entrain (water-oil), believed to be characteristic of molten reactor core-concrete conditions, were measured to be up to two orders of magnitude greater than surface renewal predictions and are calculated by a simple entrainment heat transfer model.

  7. Electrochemical behaviour and voltammetric sensitivity at arrays of nanoscale interfaces between immiscible liquids.

    PubMed

    Rimboud, Mickaël; Hart, Robert D; Becker, Thomas; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2011-11-21

    Arrays of nanoscale interfaces between immiscible electrolyte solutions were formed using silicon nitride nanopore array membranes. Nanopores in the range from 75 nm radius down to 17 nm radius were used to form the nano-interfaces. It was found that the liquid organic phase electrolyte solution filled the pores so that inlaid nano-interfaces were formed with the aqueous phase. Cyclic voltammetry at these nano-interface arrays demonstrated steady-state behaviour at the larger interfaces but the voltammetric wave-shape became progressively worse as the interface size decreased. It was found that the ion transfer currents were ca. 50% of those expected based on theoretical calculations, which is attributed to overlap of diffusion zones at adjacent nano-interfaces. Here, the separation between adjacent nano-interfaces was 20-times the interface radius. The analytical sensitivity for ion transfer from the aqueous to the 1,6-dichlorohexane organic phase was estimated from calibration plots of current density versus concentration of aqueous tetraethylammonium cation. The sensitivity was in the range of 65 μA cm(-2) μM(-1) (at 75 nm radius interfaces) to 265 μA cm(-2) μM(-1) (at 17 nm radius interfaces). The sensitivity depended directly on the inverse of the nano-interface radius, implying that smaller interfaces will provide better sensitivity, due to the enhanced flux of analyte arising from convergent diffusion to smaller electrochemical interfaces.

  8. SPAR 5 experiment no. 74-30 agglomeration in immiscible liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S.; Markworth, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of gravity, cooling rate, and composition on the macro-and microstructure of liquid phase immiscible alloys were researched. Aluminum indium alloys of compositions 30, 40, 70, and 90 weight percent indium were processed aboard two sounding rocket flights, SPAR 2 and SPAR 5. Radiographic and metallographic examination of the SPAR 2 flight and ground base samples showed the expected separation at lg of the ground base alloys into indium rich and aluminum rich layers. The flight alloys produced an aluminum rich core surrounding by indium rich metal. The results obtained from the SPAR 5 40 and 70 weight percent indium alloys were essentially identical to those from SPAR 2. The 30 and 90 weight percent indium alloys also showed massive separation into configuration similar to the 40 and 70 weight percent indium alloys. The 90 weight percent indium alloy showed additional evidence that surface tension induced droplet migration had occurred in this alloy which could at least in part account for the observed structures.

  9. Getting in shape: molten wax drop deformation and solidification at an immiscible liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa N; Lindberg, Seth E; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Shen, Amy Q

    2015-05-01

    The controlled production of non-spherical shaped particles is important for many applications such as food processing, consumer goods, adsorbents, drug delivery, and optical sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation and simultaneous solidification of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface of higher density. By varying initial temperature and viscoelasticity of the molten drop, drop size, impact velocity, viscosity and temperature of the bath fluid, and the interfacial tension between the molten wax and bath fluid, spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath and were arrested into non-spherical solidified particles in the form of ellipsoid, mushroom, disc, and flake-like shapes. We constructed cursory phase diagrams for the various particle shapes generated over a range of Weber, Capillary, Reynolds, and Stefan numbers, governed by the interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal effects. We solved a simplified heat transfer problem to estimate the time required to initiate the solidification at the interface of a spherical molten wax droplet and cooling aqueous bath after impact. By correlating this time with the molten wax drop deformation history captured from high speed imaging experiments, we elucidate the delicate balance of interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal forces that determine the final morphology of wax particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of Selective Ion Transfer across Liquid–Liquid Interfaces: A Rectifying Heterojunction Based on Immiscible Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The current rectification displayed by solid-state p–n semiconductor diodes relies on the abundance of electrons and holes near the interface between the p–n junction. In analogy to this electronic device, we propose here the construction of a purely ionic liquid-state electric rectifying heterojunction displaying an excess of monovalent cations and anions near the interface between two immiscible solvents with different dielectric properties. This system does not need any physical membrane or material barrier to show preferential ion transfer but relies on the ionic solvation energy between the two immiscible solvents. We construct a simple device, based on an oil/water interface, displaying an asymmetric behavior of the electric current as a function of the polarity of an applied electric field. This device also exhibits a region of negative differential conductivity, analogous to that observed in brain and heart cells via voltage clamp techniques. Computer simulations and mean field theory calculations for a model of this system show that the application of an external electric field is able to control the bulk concentrations of the ionic species in the immiscible liquids in a manner that is asymmetric with respect to the polarity or direction of the applied electric field. These properties make possible to enhance or suppress selective ion transport at liquid−liquid interfaces with the application of an external electric field or electrostatic potential, mimicking the function of biological ion channels, thus creating opportunities for varied applications. PMID:27924315

  11. Immiscible phase nucleic acid purification eliminates PCR inhibitors with a single pass of paramagnetic particles through a hydrophobic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sur, Kunal; McFall, Sally M; Yeh, Emilie T; Jangam, Sujit R; Hayden, Mark A; Stroupe, Stephen D; Kelso, David M

    2010-09-01

    Extraction and purification of nucleic acids from complex biological samples for PCR are critical steps because inhibitors must be removed that can affect reaction efficiency and the accuracy of results. This preanalytical processing generally involves capturing nucleic acids on microparticles that are then washed with a series of buffers to desorb and dilute out interfering substances. We have developed a novel purification method that replaces multiple wash steps with a single pass of paramagnetic particles (PMPs) though an immiscible hydrophobic liquid. Only two aqueous solutions are required: a lysis buffer, in which nucleic acids are captured on PMPs, and an elution buffer, in which they are released for amplification. The PMPs containing the nucleic acids are magnetically transported through a channel containing liquid wax that connects the lysis chamber to the elution chamber in a specially designed cartridge. Transporting PMPs through the immiscible phase yielded DNA and RNA as pure as that obtained after extensive wash steps required by comparable purification methods. Our immiscible-phase process has been applied to targets in whole blood, plasma, and urine and will enable the development of faster and simpler purification systems.

  12. Sol-Gel synthesis of MgO-SiO2 glass compositions having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1987-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol % MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol % MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol % MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol %) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  13. In situ synchrotron study of liquid phase separation process in Al-10 wt.% Bi immiscible alloys by radiography and small angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W. Q.; Zhang, S. G.; Li, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    Liquid phase separation process of immiscible alloys has been repeatedly tuned to create special structure for developing materials with unique properties. However, the fundamental understanding of the liquid phase separation process is still under debate due to the characteristics of immiscible alloys in opacity and high temperature environment of alloy melt. Here, the liquid phase separation process in solidifying Al-Bi immiscible alloys was investigated by synchrotron radiography and small angle X-ray scattering. We provide the first direct evidence of surface segregation prior to liquid decomposition and present that the time dependence on the number of Bi droplets follows Logistic curve. The liquid decomposition results from a nucleation and growth process rather than spinodal decomposition mechanism because of the positive deviation from Porod's law. We also found that the nanometer-sized Bi-rich droplets in Al matrix melt present mass fractal characteristics.

  14. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by the sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water: TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  15. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water:TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, x ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  16. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by the sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water: TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  17. Field and modelling studies of immiscible fluid flow above a contaminated water-table aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkelrath, W.N.; Essaid, H.I.; Hess, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method was developed for measuring the spatial distribution of immiscible liquid contaminants in the subsurface. Fluid saturation distributions measured at a crude-oil spill site were used to test a numerical multiphase flow model.

  18. The Study of a Liquid Droplet Falling Through Two Immiscible Layers of Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    In an exploratory experiment, we noticed the unusual behaviors of liquid droplets falling through layers of oil and water. A rectangular container was filled with an aqueous solution and a layer of oil. A dropper was used to control the size of the droplet. Water was mixed with Bromothymol Blue dye, a chemical indicator, to visualize the flow processes. Surface tension and the buoyancy of the oil layer between the liquid droplet and the water below caused the liquid droplet to be stopped at the interface. Over time, the support weakened and the droplet would fall quickly through the water. The first of two cases was a salt water solution with NaOH, and the second consisted of balsamic vinegar and NaOH. Once the salt water droplet touched the aqueous solution, it collapsed, sank and spread rapidly at the interface. The sinking motion dragged the spreading fluid back to its center and then down. For the second case, a trace amount of the droplet spread rapidly at the interface while the main portion of the droplet sank and then spontaneously exploded. The difference in behavior is mainly due to the surface tension of the droplet in water. The underlying mechanisms of the droplet's flow instability are from the effects of diffusion weakening the surface tension. Bianca Mesa is an undergraduate student in the Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Department at Florida Atlantic University. She is pursuing a B.S. degree in Ocean Engineering. In addition to her academic interests, she is also an avid sailor.

  19. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  20. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  1. Exchange flows of two immiscible Newtonian liquids in a vertical tube: From falling drops to falling slugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varges, P. R.; Fonseca, B. S.; Naccache, M. F.; de Souza Mendes, P. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental study of buoyancy-driven flows of two immiscible Newtonian liquids in a vertical tube where initially the heavier and more viscous one is placed on the top of the lighter one. Flow visualization was performed using a digital camera, and inversion velocities were determined through image analysis. The influence of the governing parameters on the speed and flow regime was examined for pairs of liquids with small density differences. Two different flow regimes were observed, namely, falling drops and falling slugs. In the first regime, spherical and ellipsoidal drops are obtained, depending on the ratio between the drop and tube diameters. The falling slug regime is a core-annular flow pattern above a critical value of interfacial tension, while no flow is noticed below this critical value. The experimental results are in good agreement with model predictions from the literature. Indeed, the results showed that terminal velocity can be estimated by empirical correlations for falling spheres.

  2. Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Carl D.

    1983-03-29

    An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

  3. Specific interface area in a thin layer system of two immiscible liquids with vapour generation at the contact interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Gazdaliev, Ilias M.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2017-06-01

    For well-stirred multiphase fluid systems the mean interface area per unit volume, or “specific interface area” SV, is a significant characteristic of the system state. In particular, it is important for the dynamics of systems of immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. We estimate the value of parameter SV as a function of the heat influx {\\dot{Q}}V to the system or the average system overheat <Θ> above the interfacial boiling point. The derived results can be reformulated for the case of an endothermic chemical reaction between two liquid reagents with the gaseous form of one of the reaction products. The final results are restricted to the case of thin layers, where the potential gravitational energy of bubbles leaving the contact interface is small compared to their surface tension energy.

  4. Chemical projectile-target interaction and liquid immiscibility in impact glass from the Wabar craters, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Christopher; Hecht, Lutz; Ebert, Matthias; Wirth, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Impact glasses are usually strongly affected by secondary alteration and chemical weathering. Thus, in order to understand relevant formation processes, detailed petrographic studies on unweathered impact glasses are necessary as preserved heterogeneities in quenched impact glasses may serve as a tool to better understand their genesis. Here, we report on petrography and microchemistry of impact glasses from the Wabar impact craters (Saudi Arabia) that, with an age of ∼300 years, are among the youngest terrestrial impact craters. The fact that parts of the IIIAB iron meteorite have survived impact and subsequent weathering is granting Wabar a special role among the presently 184 confirmed terrestrial impact structures. Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obtained on the black impact melt/glass variety at Wabar suggest that meteoritic Fe was selectively mixed with high-silica target melt at high temperatures due to selective oxidation, resulting in high Fe/Ni ratios for the black melt (37 on average, individual values range from 13 to 449) and low Fe/Ni ratios for projectile droplets ("FeNi spheres" with a Fe/Ni ratio of 3 on average; Fe/Ni ratio for the meteorite is ∼12). The black melt shows emulsion textures that are the result of silicate liquid immiscibility. Liquid-liquid phase-separation resulted in the formation of a poorly polymerized, ultrabasic melt (Lfe) rich in divalent cations like Fe2+, Ca2+, or Mg2+, that is dispersed in a highly polymerized, high-silica melt (Lsi) matrix. The typical Wabar black melt emulsion displays a spheres-in-a-matrix texture of ∼10-20% Lfe homogeneously dispersed in the form of two sets of spheres and droplets (10-30 nm and 0.1-0.4 μm in diameter) in ∼80-90% Lsi matrix, plus occasionally disseminated FeNi spheres. Around large (>10 μm) FeNi spheres, however, the typical emulsion texture changes to ∼21% Lsi dispersed in ∼79% Lfe. This change of texture is interpreted as

  5. Surrogate Immiscible Liquid Solution Pairs with Refractive Indexes Matchable Over a Wide Range of Density and Viscosity Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Rajat; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2014-11-01

    Use of laser diagnostics in liquid-liquid flows is limited by refractive index mismatch. This can be avoided using a surrogate pair of immiscible index-matched liquids, with density and viscosity ratios matching those of the original liquid pair. We demonstrate that a wide range of density and viscosity ratios is accessible using aqueous solutions of 1,2-propanediol and CsBr (for which index, density, and viscosity are available), and solutions of light and heavy silicone oils and 1-bromooctane (for which we measured the same properties at 119 compositions). For each liquid phase, polynomials in the composition variables were fitted to index and density and to the logarithm of kinematic viscosity, and the fits were used to determine accessible density and viscosity ratios for each matchable index. Index-matched solution pairs can be prepared with density and viscosity ratios equal to those for water-liquid CO2 at 0oC over a range of pressure, and for water-crude oil and water-trichloroethylene, each over a range of temperature. For representative index-matched solutions, equilibration changes index, density, and viscosity only slightly, and chemical analysis show that no component of either solution has significant interphase solubility. Partially supported by Intl. Inst. for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research.

  6. Electrified Microscopic and Conventional Interfaces between Two Immiscible Electrolyte Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-24

    2 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIFIED LIQUID / LIQUID INTERFACES Interfaces between two immiscible solutions containing ionic species are of interest to a wide...if necessary and identify by block number) PELD I GPOUP SUB GROUP MICRODOMAINS, MICELES, LIQUID - LIQUID ELECTROCHEMISTRY, IMMISCIBLE ELECTROLYTES...between immiscible phases bridges the field of heterogeneous electrode electrochemistry and that of homogeneous solution chemistry. Early work on liquid

  7. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: PROJECT OVERVIEW AND INITIAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and the initial results of a pilot-scale experiment designated to test the use of cyclodextrin for enhanced in-situ flushing of an aquifer contaminated by immiscible liquid. This is the first field test of this technology, terme...

  8. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: PROJECT OVERVIEW AND INITIAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and the initial results of a pilot-scale experiment designated to test the use of cyclodextrin for enhanced in-situ flushing of an aquifer contaminated by immiscible liquid. This is the first field test of this technology, terme...

  9. Surfactant chain length and concentration influence on the interfacial tension of two immiscible model liquids: a coarse-grained approach.

    PubMed

    Catarino Centeno, R; Bustamante-Rendón, R A; Hernández-Fragoso, J S; Arroyo-Ordoñez, I; Pérez, E; Alas, S J; Gama Goicochea, A

    2017-10-06

    The interfacial tension between immiscible liquids is studied as a function of a model linear surfactant length and concentration using coarse-grained, dissipative particle dynamics numerical simulations. The adsorption isotherms obtained from the simulations are found to be in agreement with Langmuir's model. The reduction of the interfacial tension with increasing surfactant concentration is found to display some common characteristics for all the values of chain length modeled, with our predictions being in agreement with Szyszkowski's equation. Lastly, the critical micelle concentration is predicted for all surfactant lengths, finding exponentially decaying behavior, in agreement with Kleven's model. It is argued that these findings can be helpful guiding tools in the interpretation of available experiments and in the design of new ones with new surfactants and polymers.

  10. Three-dimensional simulations of pressure-driven displacement flow of two immiscible liquids using a multiphase Lattice Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redapangu, Prasanna R.; Sahu, Kirti Chandra; Vanka, S. P.

    2013-11-01

    A three-dimensional multiphase lattice Boltzmann approach is used to study the pressure-driven displacement flow of two immiscible liquids of different densities and viscosities in an inclined square duct. A three-dimensional-fifteen-velocity (D3Q15) lattice model is used. The simulations are performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU) based machine. The effects of channel inclination, viscosity and density contrasts are investigated. The contours of the density and the average viscosity profiles in different planes are plotted and compared with two dimensional simulations. We demonstrate that the flow dynamics in three-dimensional channel is quite different as compared to that of two-dimensional channel. In particular, we found that the flow is relatively more coherent in three-dimensional channel than that in two-dimensional channel. A new screw-type instability is seen in the three-dimensional channel which cannot be observed in two-dimensional simulations.

  11. Decoupling of paired elements, crossover REE patterns, and mirrored spider diagrams: Fingerprinting liquid immiscibility in the Tapira alkaline-carbonatite complex, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brod, José Affonso; Junqueira-Brod, Tereza Cristina; Gaspar, José Carlos; Petrinovic, Ivan Alejandro; Valente, Sérgio de Castro; Corval, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Tapira is an alkaline silicate-carbonatite complex belonging to the kamafugite-carbonatite association in the Late-Cretaceous Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP). It is dominated by coarse-grained plutonic rocks (bebedourite - a phlogopite-, apatite-, and perovskite-rich clinopyroxenite - with subordinated dunites, wehrlites, carbonatites and phoscorites). The plutonic rocks are crosscut by fine-grained ultramafic alkaline rocks (phlogopite picrites, bebedouritic dikes) and fine-grained carbonatites. Both types of dike-rocks show petrographic evidence of the coexistence of immiscible silicate and carbonatite liquids, such as carbonate ocelli present in the silicate rocks and, more rarely, silicate ocelli within carbonatites. A detailed geochemical study of the rock types in the complex, with emphasis on the fine-grained varieties, showed that whilst some rocks may be related to each other through crystal fractionation (e.g. phlogopite picrites and bebedouritic dikes), others display anomalous trace-element behaviour that cannot be readily explained by the fractionation of a particular phase or combination of phases. We interpret such anomalous geochemical signatures as produced by silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility, on the basis of available experimental data on partition coefficients between coexisting immiscible liquids. The immiscibility signatures comprise: (a) decoupling of geochemical pairs, such as Nb-Ta and Zr-Hf; (b) rotation of REE patterns, which cross over the patterns of the primitive liquids; and (c) matching and opposite enrichment-depletion trace elements relationships in spider diagrams of conjugate immiscible liquids. We suggest that, once established, such geochemical signatures are very difficult to erase during the subsequent petrogenetic evolution processes, which may result in superimposed conflicting signatures.

  12. Dissolution of a multicomponent droplet in an immiscible ambient fluid: Application of the distribution law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shigan; Prosperetti, Andrea; Andrea Prosperetti Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A liquid droplet will shrink in an undersaturated ambient liquid medium due to mass transfer across the interface even when the drop liquid is only sparingly soluble in the host liquid. The dissolution rate of a single-component droplet can be accurately predicted by an adaptation of the the Epstein-Plesset theory, in which it is assumed that the droplet surface remains at saturation. This hypothesis may be violated in the case of a multi-component droplet, as the more soluble component dissolves faster than the other(s). As a consequence, the droplet surface cannot remain saturated with this component in the later stages of the process. To account for this feature a modified Epstein-Plesset theory is developed on the basis of the distribution law of liquid-liquid solutions. The implications of the teory are illustrated with several examples. This study was supported by a grant from BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative through the University of Texas Marine Science Institute (DROPPS consortium: ``Dispersion Research on Oil: Physics and Plankton Studies''). The funders had no role in study.

  13. Surrogate immiscible liquid pairs with refractive indexes matchable over a wide range of density and viscosity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Rajat; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-08-01

    In liquid-liquid flows, use of optical diagnostics is limited by interphase refractive index mismatch, which leads to optical distortion and complicates data interpretation, and sometimes also by opacity. Both problems can be eliminated using a surrogate pair of immiscible index-matched transparent liquids, whose density and viscosity ratios match corresponding ratios for the original liquid pair. We show that a wide range of density and viscosity ratios is accessible using aqueous solutions of 1,2-propanediol and CsBr (for which index, density, and viscosity are available), and solutions of light and heavy silicone oils and 1-bromooctane (for which we measured the same properties at 119 compositions). For each liquid phase, polynomials in the composition variables, least-squares fitted to index and density and to the logarithm of kinematic viscosity, were used to determine accessible density and viscosity ratios for each matchable index. Index-matched solution pairs can be prepared with density and viscosity ratios equal to those for water-liquid CO2 at 0 °C over a range of pressure (allowing water-liquid CO2 behavior at inconveniently high pressure to be simulated by 1-bar experiments), and for water-crude oil and water-trichloroethylene (avoiding opacity and toxicity problems, respectively), each over a range of temperature. For representative index-matched solutions, equilibration changes index, density, and viscosity only slightly, and mass spectrometry and elemental analysis show that no component of either phase has significant interphase solubility. Finally, procedures are described for iteratively reducing the residual index mismatch in surrogate solution pairs prepared on the basis of approximate polynomial fits to experimental data, and for systematically dealing with nonzero interphase solubility.

  14. Dynamics of rigid microparticles at the interface of co-flowing immiscible liquids in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, K S; Banerjee, U; Sen, A K

    2017-05-01

    We report the dynamical migration behavior of rigid polystyrene microparticles at an interface of co-flowing streams of primary CP1 (aqueous) and secondary CP2 (oils) immiscible phases at low Reynolds numbers (Re) in a microchannel. The microparticles initially suspended in the CP1 either continue to flow in the bulk CP1 or migrate across the interface into CP2, when the stream width of the CP1 approaches the diameter of the microparticles. Experiments were performed with different secondary phases and it is found that the migration criterion depends on the sign of the spreading parameter S and the presence of surfactant at the interface. To substantiate the migration criterion, experiments were also carried out by suspending the microparticles in CP2 (oil phase). Our study reveals that in case of aqueous-silicone oil combination, the microparticles get attached to the interface since S<0 and the three phase contact angle, θ>90°. For complete detachment of microparticles from the interface into the secondary phase, additional energy ΔG is needed. We discuss the role of interfacial perturbation, which causes detachment of microparticles from the interface. In case of mineral and olive oils, the surfactants present at the interface prevents attachment of the microparticles to the interface due to the repulsive disjoining pressure. Finally, using a aqueous-silicone oil system, we demonstrate size based sorting of microparticles of size 25μm and 15μm respectively from that of 15μm and 10μm and study the variation of separation efficiency η with the ratio of the width of the aqueous stream to the diameter of the microparticles ρ.

  15. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  16. An experimental study of small-amplitude drop oscillations in immiscible liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E.; Zwern, A.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the characteristics of small-amplitude shape oscillations of drops immersed in a host liquid have been carried out by acoustical means. The resonance frequencies of the first few modes have been measured, as well as the damping constant for the fundamental mode, as functions of the drop radius and viscosities of the two liquids. A qualitative photographic study during steady oscillations has revealed a simple internal fluid-particle flow field with no circulation. The theory available at the present time has been found to provide results which are in general agreement with experimental findings for low-viscosity liquids.

  17. Large-scale liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization in the 1780 Ma Taihang dyke swarm: Implications for genesis of the bimodal Xiong'er volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Xinping; Lai, Yong; Wang, Chong; Windley, Brian F.

    2015-11-01

    Immiscibility is a potential mechanism for the formation of high-Fe-Ti-P rocks; however, whether large-scale segregation and eruption of high-Si lavas can occur in nature has yet to be proven. In this study, we investigate the possibility of immiscibility between the cogenetic 1780 Ma high-Fe-Ti-P-bearing Taihang dykes and the 'bimodal' Xiong'er volcanics in North China. The compositions of silicate melt inclusions in plagioclase megacrysts of the dykes provide a new approach to obtain the primary liquid. Mineral and bulk-rock compositions reveal that large compositional variations in the dykes are the result of plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-dominated fractional crystallization and of density-driven mineral sorting, which together caused the liquids to be poor in Ca-Al but rich in Fe-Ti-P-K, and thus chemically immiscible. Conjugate interstitial granophyric and ilmenite-rich intergrowths and reactive microstructures especially olivine coronas in the dykes, and Si-/Fe-Ti-rich globules in the volcanics, provide petrographic evidence for the presence of two coeval, coexisting liquids in equilibrium separated by a miscibility gap, and thus for immiscibility and segregation/migration. The fractional crystallization and subsequent segregation were responsible for the compositional diversity of the Taihang dykes and also of the 'bimodal' Xiong'er volcanics. Accordingly, the dacite and rhyolite lavas are potentially the high-Si counterparts of the high-Ti dykes, and the basalt and andesite lavas are the erupted equivalents of the relatively low-Ti dykes. It is likely that the sustained plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-dominated fractional crystallization, and the enhanced fO2 were responsible for the immiscibility. The segregation probably took place during the ascent of the liquid in the pumping system (feeder dykes). This likely represents one natural example of crust-scale immiscibility from which many high-Ti dykes and silicic lavas (~ 1/3 volume of the Xiong

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron

  19. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary

  20. Immiscible silicate liquids and phosphoran olivine in Netschaëvo IIE silicate: Analogue for planetesimal core-mantle boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Roosbroek, Nadia; Hamann, Christopher; McKibbin, Seann; Greshake, Ansgar; Wirth, Richard; Pittarello, Lidia; Hecht, Lutz; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated a piece of the Netschaëvo IIE iron meteorite containing a silicate inclusion by means of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Netschaëvo contains chondrule-bearing clasts and impact melt rock clasts were also recently found. The examined inclusion belongs to the latter and is characterized by a porphyritic texture dominated by clusters of coarse-grained olivine and pyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass that consists of new crystals of olivine and a hyaline matrix. This matrix material has a quasi-basaltic composition in the inner part of the inclusion, whereas the edge of the inclusion has a lower SiO2 concentration and is enriched in MgO, P2O5, CaO, and FeO. Close to the metal host, the inclusion also contains euhedral Mg-chromite crystals and small (<2 μm), Si-rich globules. A TEM foil was cut from this glassy, silico-phosphate material. It shows that the material consists of elongated olivine crystallites containing up to 14 wt% P2O5, amorphous material, and interstitial Cl-apatite crystals. The Si-rich silicate glass globules show a second population of Fe-rich silicate glass droplets, indicating they formed by silicate liquid immiscibility. Together with the presence of phosphoran olivine and quenched Cl-apatite, these textures suggest rapid cooling and quenching as a consequence of an impact event. Moreover, the enrichment of phosphorus in the silicate inclusion close to the metal host (phosphoran olivine and Cl-apatite) indicates that phosphorus re-partitioned from the metal into the silicate phase upon cooling. This probably also took place in pallasite meteorites that contain late-crystallizing phases rich in phosphorus. Accordingly, our findings suggest that oxidation of phosphorus might be a general process in core-mantle environments, bearing on our understanding of planetesimal evolution. Thus, the Netschaëvo sample serves as a natural planetesimal core-mantle boundary experiment

  1. Diffusion in Immiscible Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to measure the diffusion coefficients for molten Pb in Zn in the immiscible liquid-phase region. Diffusion couples of pure Pb and Zn were prepared using a shear cell. These have been placed in graphite crucibles and encapsulated in stainless steel cartridges and are awaiting the next Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA) flight opportunity. In flight, one couple will be soaked for 40 minutes at 440 deg C (just above the monotectic temperature) and the second couple will be soaked for 40 minutes 820 deg C (just above the consolute temperature). After the soak both samples will be rapidly quenched by flowing He to minimize redistribution of the immiscible phases. Post flight compositional analysis will be accomplished using X-ray fluorescence in the scanning electron microscopy.

  2. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquid–liquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2014-02-15

    Inorganic–organic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquid–liquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 °C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect. - Graphical abstract: The Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered yttrium hydroxide exhibits intense red photoluminescence after intercalation of benzoate ions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Immiscible biphasic liquid systems were introduced to synthesize layered yttrium hydroxides. • The temperature of the biphasic systems does not exceed 80 °C in one step of the synthesis. • Hydrophobic organic anions were intercalated between the hydroxide layers in one pot. • Structure and morphology of the hydroxides were modulated by changing the kind of organic anions. • Eu{sup 3+}-doping led to red luminescence from the hydroxides in association with the intercalated organic anions.

  3. Characterizing the Use of Ultrasonic Energy in Promoting Uniform Microstructural Dispersions in Immiscible Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity driven separation and preferential wetting precludes uniform microstructural distributions during solidification processing of immiscible, liquid-liquid mixtures. Historically, it is, however, established that liquid/liquid suspensions can be established and maintained by utilizing ultrasound. Following a brief introduction the results of experiments on immiscible mixtures subjected to ultrasonic energy during solidification processing will be compared and evaluated in view of a recently developed mathematical model. The presentation continues by discussion of scaling the model to commercial viability and concludes with the implications of such processing in a microgravity environment.

  4. Characterizing the Use of Ultrasonic Energy in Promoting Uniform Microstructural Dispersions in Immiscible Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity driven separation and preferential wetting precludes uniform microstructural distributions during solidification processing of immiscible, liquid-liquid mixtures. Historically, it is, however, established that liquid/liquid suspensions can be established and maintained by utilizing ultrasound. Following a brief introduction the results of experiments on immiscible mixtures subjected to ultrasonic energy during solidification processing will be compared and evaluated in view of a recently developed mathematical model. The presentation continues by discussion of scaling the model to commercial viability and concludes with the implications of such processing in a microgravity environment.

  5. Characterizing the Use of Ultrasonic Energy in Promoting Uniform Microstructural Dispersions in Immiscible Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity driven separation and preferential wetting precludes uniform microstructural distributions during solidification processing of immiscible, liquid-liquid mixtures. Historically, it is, however, established that liquid/liquid suspensions can be established and maintained by utilizing ultrasound. Following a brief introduction the results of experiments on immiscible mixtures subjected to ultrasonic energy during solidification processing will be compared and evaluated in view of a recently developed mathematical model. The presentation continues by discussion of scaling the model to commercial viability and concludes with the implications of such processing in a microgravity environment.

  6. Effect of alpha-cyclodextrin on drug distribution studied by electrochemistry at interfaces between immiscible electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Deryabina, Maria A; Hansen, Steen H; Østergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik

    2009-05-21

    The description and understanding of noncovalent interactions and distribution of potential new drug compounds in an organism is of paramount importance for the successful development of new drugs. In this work, a new procedure based on electrochemistry at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) for addressing and discriminating between drug compound/ligand interactions in aqueous solution and nonspecific ligand effects on oil-water distribution behavior has been developed. The procedure is demonstrated using five drug compounds with different physical chemical parameters and alpha-cyclodextrin as the aqueous phase ligand. Alpha-cyclodextrin was chosen as an aqueous phase ligand, as it is frequently used in drug formulations to enhance solubility and bioavailability of drug compounds. Supplementary capillary electrophoresis experiments provided more detailed information on alpha-cyclodextrin drug complexation and, in combination with the electrochemical studies, provided information on solvation effects affecting the oil-water distribution of the drug compounds. The use of ligand shift ion partition diagrams for data presentation is a convenient format for the visualization of ligand effects on distribution behavior of related drug compounds.

  7. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility in the mantle propels kimberlite magma ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Yaxley, Gregory M.

    2015-06-01

    Kimberlite is a rare volcanic rock renowned as the major host of diamonds and originated at the base of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Although kimberlite magmas are dense in crystals and deeply-derived rock fragments, they ascend to the surface extremely rapidly, enabling diamonds to survive. The unique physical properties of kimberlite magmas depend on the specific compositions of their parental melts that, in absence of historical eruptions and due to pervasive alteration of kimberlite rocks, remain highly debatable. We explain exceptionally rapid ascent of kimberlite magma from mantle depths by combining empirical data on the essentially carbonatite composition of the kimberlite primary melts and experimental evidence on interaction of the carbonate liquids with mantle minerals. Our experimental study shows that orthopyroxene is completely dissolved in a Na2CO3 melt at 2.0-5.0 GPa and 1000-1200 °C. The dissolution of orthopyroxene results in homogeneous silicate-carbonate melt at 5.0 GPa and 1200 °C, and is followed by unmixing of carbonate and carbonated silicate melts and formation of stable magmatic emulsion at lower pressures and temperatures. The dispersed silicate melt has a significant capacity for storing a carbonate component in the deep mantle (13 wt% CO2 at 2.0 GPa). We envisage that this component reaches saturation and is gradually released as CO2 bubbles, as the silicate melt globules are transported upwards through the lithosphere by the carbonatite magma. The globules of unmixed, CO2-rich silicate melt are continuously produced upon further reaction between the natrocarbonatite melt and mantle peridotite. On decompression the dispersed silicate melt phase ensures a continuous supply of CO2 bubbles that decrease density and increase buoyancy and promote rapid ascent of the magmatic emulsion.

  8. Effect of immiscible liquid contaminants on P-wave transmission through natural aquifer samples

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Jil T.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2003-01-31

    We performed core-scale laboratory experiments to examine the effect of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants on P-wave velocity and attenuation in heterogeneous media. This work is part of a larger project to develop crosswell seismic methods for minimally invasive NAPL detection. The test site is the former DOE Pinellas Plant in Florida, which has known NAPL contamination in the surficial aquifer. Field measurements revealed a zone of anomalously high seismic attenuation, which may be due to lithology and/or contaminants (NAPL or gas phase). Intact core was obtained from the field site, and P-wave transmission was measured by the pulse-transmission technique with a 500 kHz transducer. Two types of samples were tested: a clean fine sand from the upper portion of the surficial aquifer, and clayey-silty sand with shell fragments and phosphate nodules from the lower portion. Either NAPL trichloroethene or toluene was injected into the initially water-saturated sample. Maximum NAPL saturations ranged from 30 to 50% of the pore space. P-wave velocity varied by approximately 4% among the water-saturated samples, while velocities decreased by 5 to 9% in samples at maximum NAPL saturation compared to water-saturated conditions. The clay and silt fraction as well as the larger scatterers in the clayey-silty sands apparently caused greater P-wave attenuation compared to the clean sand. The presence of NAPLs caused a 34 to 54% decrease in amplitudes of the first arrival. The central frequency of the transmitted energy ranged from 85 to 200 kHz, and was sensitive to both grain texture and presence of NAPL. The results are consistent with previous trends observed in homogeneous sand packs. More data will be acquired to interpret P-wave tomograms from crosswell field measurements, determine the cause of high attenuation observed in the field data and evaluate the sensitivity of seismic methods for NAPL detection.

  9. Partitioning of Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th and U between immiscible carbonate and silicate liquids: Evaluating the effects of P2O5,F, and carbonate composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Walker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Previously we have reported carbonate liq./silicate liq. partition coefficients (D) for a standard suite of trace elements (Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th, and U) and Ra and Pa as well. In brief, we have found that immiscible liquid partitioning is a strong function of temperature. As the critical temperature of the carbonate-silicate solvus is approached, all partition coefficients approach unity. Additionally, for the overwhelming majority of the partitioning elements, InD is a linear function of 'ionic field strength,' z/r, where z is the charge of the partitioned cation and r is its ionic radius.

  10. Physical properties of immiscible polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. Milton

    1987-01-01

    The demixing of immiscible polymers in low gravity is discussed. Applications of knowledge gained in this research will provide a better understanding of the role of phase segregation in determining the properties of polymer blends made from immiscible polymers. Knowledge will also be gained regarding the purification of biological materials by partitioning between the two liquid phases formed by solution of the polymers polyethylene glycol and dextran in water. Testing of new apparatus for space flight, extension of affinity phase partitioning, refinement of polymer chemistry, and demixing of isopycnic polymer phases in a one gravity environment are discussed.

  11. Predictions of Phase Distribution in Liquid-Liquid Two-Component Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Xiaodong; Duval, Walter M.

    2011-06-01

    Ground-based liquid-liquid two-component flow can be used to study reduced-gravity gas-liquid two-phase flows provided that the two liquids are immiscible with similar densities. In this paper, we present a numerical study of phase distribution in liquid-liquid two-component flows using the Eulerian two-fluid model in FLUENT, together with a one-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) that takes into account fluid particle interactions, such as coalescence and disintegration. This modeling approach is expected to dynamically capture changes in the interfacial structure. We apply the FLUENT-IATE model to a water-Therminol 59® two-component vertical flow in a 25-mm inner diameter pipe, where the two liquids are immiscible with similar densities (3% difference at 20°C). This study covers bubbly (drop) flow and bubbly-to-slug flow transition regimes with area-averaged void (drop) fractions from 3 to 30%. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experimental data indicate that for bubbly flows, the predictions of the lateral phase distributions using the FLUENT-IATE model are generally more accurate than those using the model without the IATE. In addition, we demonstrate that the coalescence of fluid particles is dominated by wake entrainment and enhanced by increasing either the continuous or dispersed phase velocity. However, the predictions show disagreement with experimental data in some flow conditions for larger void fraction conditions, which fall into the bubbly-to-slug flow transition regime. We conjecture that additional fluid particle interaction mechanisms due to the change of flow regimes are possibly involved.

  12. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOEpatents

    Spauschus, Hans O.; Starr, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

  13. Probing the water distribution in porous model sands with two immiscible fluids: A nuclear magnetic resonance micro-imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum Han; Lee, Sung Keun

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the structural heterogeneity of porous networks on the water distribution in porous media, initially saturated with immiscible fluid followed by increasing durations of water injection, remains one of the important problems in hydrology. The relationship among convergence rates (i.e., the rate of fluid saturation with varying injection time) and the macroscopic properties and structural parameters of porous media have been anticipated. Here, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) micro-imaging to obtain images (down to ∼50 μm resolution) of the distribution of water injected for varying durations into porous networks that were initially saturated with silicone oil. We then established the relationships among the convergence rates, structural parameters, and transport properties of porous networks. The volume fraction of the water phase increases as the water injection duration increases. The 3D images of the water distributions for silica gel samples are similar to those of the glass bead samples. The changes in water saturation (and the accompanying removal of silicone oil) and the variations in the volume fraction, specific surface area, and cube-counting fractal dimension of the water phase fit well with the single-exponential recovery function { f (t) = a [ 1 -exp (- λt) ] } . The asymptotic values (a, i.e., saturated value) of the properties of the volume fraction, specific surface area, and cube-counting fractal dimension of the glass bead samples were greater than those for the silica gel samples primarily because of the intrinsic differences in the porous networks and local distribution of the pore size and connectivity. The convergence rates of all of the properties are inversely proportional to the entropy length and permeability. Despite limitations of the current study, such as insufficient resolution and uncertainty for the estimated parameters due to sparsely selected short injection times, the observed trends highlight the first

  14. Immiscible Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckelmann, Jens; Luning, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    layers of liquids. The setup of both demonstrations is such that one homogeneous layer in a multiphasic mixture separates into two new layers upon shaking. The solvents used are methanol, toluene, petroleum ether or "n"-pentane, silicone oil, perfluoroheptanes,…

  15. Immiscible Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckelmann, Jens; Luning, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    layers of liquids. The setup of both demonstrations is such that one homogeneous layer in a multiphasic mixture separates into two new layers upon shaking. The solvents used are methanol, toluene, petroleum ether or "n"-pentane, silicone oil, perfluoroheptanes,…

  16. Enhancing distributive mixing of immiscible polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend through zeolite ZSM-5 compounding sequence.

    PubMed

    Thipmanee, Ranumas; Lukubira, Sam; Ogale, Amod A; Sane, Amporn

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this work was to explore the effect of zeolite ZSM-5 (ZSM5) incorporation sequence on the phase morphology, microstructure, and performance of polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (PE/TPS) films. Two processing sequences were used for preparing PE/TPS/ZSM5 composites at a weight ratio of PE to TPS of 70:30 and ZSM5 concentrations of 1-5 wt%: (i) melt compounding of PE with ZSM5 prior to melt blending with TPS (SI); and (ii) TPS was compounded with ZSM5 prior to blending with PE (SII). Distributive mixing and mechanical properties of PE/TPS blend were greatly enhanced when ZSM5 was incorporated via SII. These were caused by both the higher affinity between PE and ZSM5, compared to that of TPS and ZSM5, and the reduction of TPS viscosity after compounding with ZSM5, leading to migration of ZSM5 from TPS dispersed phase toward PE matrix and increase in breakup of TPS droplets during SII sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid isolation and purification of 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (crambene) from Crambe abyssinica seed meal using immiscible solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Niedoborski, T E; Klein, B P; Wallig, M A

    2001-08-01

    1-Cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (crambene) is a nitrile found in cruciferous vegetables that causes significant upregulation of quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferases in vivo and in vitro, making it a likely candidate as a cancer chemopreventive compound. To investigate further the putative anticarcinogenic mechanisms of crambene, a compound of the highest possible purity is vital. Therefore, a rapid and effective method of purification of crambene is necessary to continue studies of its beneficial health effects. A rapid method to isolate and purify natural crambene from either Crambe abyssinica (crambe) seed or commercially processed crambe seed meal was developed using immiscible solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of this methodology eliminated the need for time-consuming and relatively inefficient column chromatography, improved extraction efficiency, and resulted in higher purity than previously used methodologies. Elimination of trace amounts of fatty acid residues, unachievable with previous methodologies, also was accomplished.

  18. Application of a novel oscillatory flow micro-bioreactor to the production of gamma-decalactone in a two immiscible liquid phase medium.

    PubMed

    Reis, N; Gonçalves, C N; Aguedo, M; Gomes, N; Teixeira, J A; Vicente, A A

    2006-04-01

    A novel micro-bioreactor based on the oscillatory flow technology was applied to the scale-down of the biotechnological production of gamma-decalactone. A decrease up to 50% of the time required to obtain the maximum concentration of the compound was observed, when compared with other scaled-down platforms (stirred tank bioreactor or shake flask). A three-fold increase in gamma-decalactone productivity was obtained by increasing oscillatory mixing intensity from Re(o) approximately 482 to Re(o) approximately 1447. This was presumably related to the effective contribution of the reactor geometry to enhanced mass transfer rates between the two immiscible liquid phases involved in the process by increasing the interfacial area.

  19. Studies on immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of immiscible liquids of different densities in zero-gravity and to determine the rate of coalescence like droplets, a demonstration experiment was performed on the Skylab 4 mission. Dispersions of oil-in-water and of water-in-oil were prepared by the astronauts and their appearance photographed over a time span of 10 hours. The experiment indicated that all emulsions were stable over this period and that the coalescent rate was at least 3 times 10 to the 5th power times smaller on Skylab than on earth. The recorded melting of a cylindrical piece of ice on Skylab 3 is used to study the mode of heat transfer for the latent heat of melting in low-gravity.

  20. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Ba2V2O7 Phosphor Powders and Films Using Immiscible Biphasic Organic-Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mami; Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2016-08-15

    A liquid-phase synthesis of inorganic phosphor materials at a moderate temperature was proposed by using immiscible liquid-liquid biphasic systems. A self-activated Ba2V2O7 phosphor was actually synthesized from vanadium alkoxide dissolved in an organic solution and barium acetate in an aqueous solution. A mild hydrolysis reaction of the alkoxide started at the organic-inorganic interface, and an intermediate compound, Ba(VO3)2·H2O, was initially formed. Ba2V2O7 powders were then obtained by the conversion from Ba(VO3)2·H2O promoted in the aqueous solution. Ba2V2O7 films were obtained on surface-modified silica glass substrates through the similar chemical reactions. Factors such as the surface state of substrates, the kind of organic solvents, and the volume of aqueous solutions were examined to improve the film deposition behavior. The resultant Ba2V2O7 materials showed broad-band visible photoluminescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light based on the charge transfer transition in the VO4(3-) units existing as dimers.

  1. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  2. Experimental investigations and phase-field simulations of triple-phase-separation kinetics within liquid ternary Co-Cu-Pb immiscible alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. H.; Wang, W. L.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2017-05-01

    The phase-separation kinetics and microstructure evolution mechanisms of liquid ternary C o43C u40P b17 immiscible alloys are investigated by both the drop tube technique and phase-field method. Two successive phase separations take place during droplet falling and lead to the formation of a three-phase three-layer core-shell structure composed of a Co-rich core, a Cu-rich middle layer, and a Pb-rich shell. The Pb-rich shell becomes more and more conspicuous as droplet diameter decreases. Meanwhile, the Co-rich core center gradually moves away from the core-shell center. Theoretical analyses show that a larger temperature gradient inside a smaller alloy droplet induces the accelerated growth of the surface segregation shell during triple-phase separation. The residual Stokes motion and the asymmetric Marangoni convection result in the appearance of an eccentric Co-rich core and the core deviation degree is closely related to the droplet size and initial velocity. A three-dimensional phase-field model of ternary immiscible alloys, which considers the successive phase separations under the combined effects of Marangoni convection and surface segregation, is proposed to explore the formation mechanisms of three-phase core-shell structures. The simulated core-shell morphologies are consistent with the experimental observations, which verifies the model's validity in reproducing the core-shell dynamic evolution. Numerical results reveal that the development of three-phase three-layer core-shell structures can be attributed to the primary and then secondary phase separations dominated simultaneously by Marangoni convection and surface segregation. Furthermore, the effects of droplet temperature gradient on the growth kinetics of the surface segregation shell are analyzed in the light of phase-field theory.

  3. Combination of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry with a novel reagent gas and two immiscible organic solvent liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction for analysis of clomipramine in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Bidgoli, Ali Akbar Hajialiakbari; Khayamian, Taghi; Moradmand, Ali

    2011-12-02

    A novel and sensitive method based on combination of two immiscible organic solvents hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction and corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (HF-LLLME-CD-IMS) was employed for the analysis of clomipramine in human urine and plasma. The effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid as the reagent gas (dopant) on the corona discharge ion mobility signal was investigated. The influence of dopant amount was also studied. Optimum mass flow rates of the dopants were 3.7, 1.1 and 1.0 μmol min(-1) for formic, acetic and propionic acid, respectively. Experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of HF-LLLME, such as NaOH concentration as donor solution, ionic strength of the sample, stirring rate, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, analytical parameters such as linearity, precision and limit of detection were also evaluated. The linear dynamic range was from 1 to 100 μg L(-1) (r(2)=0.9980) and the limit of detection was 0.35 μg L(-1). Intra- and inter-day precisions were satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.9 and 6.7%, respectively. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of clomipramine in human plasma and urine.

  4. Application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to the morphological analysis of confined co-axial jets of immiscible liquids with comparable densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampous, Georgios; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2014-11-01

    The development of a round liquid jet under the influence of a confined coaxial flow of an immiscible liquid of comparable density (central to annular flow density ratio of 8:10) was investigated in the vicinity of the nozzle exit. Two flow regimes were considered; one where the annular flow is faster than the central jet, so the central liquid jet is accelerated and one where the annular flow is slower, so the central liquid jet is decelerated. The central jet was visualised by high speed photography. Three modes of jet development were identified and classified in terms of the Reynolds number, Re, of the central jet which was in the range of 525 < Re < 2725, a modified definition of the Weber number, We, which allows the distinction between accelerating and deceleration flows and was in the range of -22 < We < 67 and the annular to central Momentum Ratio, MR, of the two streams which was in the range of 3.6 < MR < 91. By processing the time resolved jet images using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), it was possible to reduce the description of jet morphology to a small number of spatial modes, which isolated the most significant morphologies of the jet development. In this way, the temporal and spatial characteristics of the instabilities on the interface were clearly identified which highlights the advantages of POD over direct observation of the images. Relationships between the flow parameters and the interfacial waves were established. The wavelength of the interfacial instability was found to depend on the velocity of the fastest moving stream, which is contrary to findings for fluids with large density differences.

  5. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquid-liquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2014-02-01

    Inorganic-organic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquid-liquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 °C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu3+ ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect.

  6. Dependence of the distribution constant in liquid-liquid partition equilibria on the van der Waals molecular surface area.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Serban C; David, Victor

    2013-09-01

    The direct calculation of free energy of interactions between a solute j and two immiscible liquids shows a linear dependence between the (logarithm of) the distribution constant in liquid-liquid partition equilibrium log K(j) and the van der Waals surface area of the solute. The study provides a thermodynamic proof for the formula log K(BA,j) = c1 log K(BC,j) + c2 that describes the linear dependence between (the logarithm of) the distribution constant for a solute j in a solvent system (B/A) and (the logarithm of) the distribution constant for the same solute in a different solvent system (B/C). This relation has been well proven by various experimental studies and it is frequently used in liquid chromatographic separations as well as in liquid-liquid extractions, but was not explained previously based on thermodynamic results. The theory was verified using the prediction of octanol/water distribution constants log K(ow) for a wide range of molecules, including hydrocarbons and compounds with a variety of functional groups. The results have also been verified for the distribution constants in other solvent systems. The expression for the distribution constant obtained in this study also gives a theoretical base for the additive fragment methodology used for the prediction of log K(ow). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of a microfluidic-chip system for liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents for the extraction and preconcentration of some hormonal drugs.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, an on-chip liquid phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was introduced for the analysis of levonorgestrel (Levo), dydrogesterone (Dydo) and medroxyprogesterone (Medo) as the model analytes in biological samples. The chip-based LPME set-up was composed of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates with microfabricated channels and a microporous membrane sandwiched between them to separate the sample solution and acceptor phase. These channels were used as a flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase, respectively. In this system, two immiscible organic solvents were used as supported liquid membrane (SLM) and acceptor phase, respectively. During extraction, the model analytes in the sample solution were transported through the SLM (n-dodecane) into the acceptor organic solvent (methanol). The new set-up provided effective and reproducible extractions using low volumes of the sample solution. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the new set-up provided good linearity in the range of 5.0-500µgL(-1) for the model analytes with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.9909. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) and limits of detection (LODs) values were less than 6.5% (n=5) and 5.0µgL(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were obtained using 1.0mL of the sample solution and 20.0µL of the acceptor solution higher than 19.9-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the model analytes in urine samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of crucible wetting during solidification of immiscible Pb-Zn alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, H. C., III; Probst, H. B.

    1989-01-01

    Many industrial uses for liquid phase miscibility gap alloys are proposed. However, the commercial production of these alloys into useful ingots with a reasonable amount of homogeneity is arduous because of their immiscibility in the liquid state. In the low-g environment of space gravitational settling forces are abated, thus solidification of an immiscible alloy with a uniform distribution of phases becomes feasible. Elimination of gravitational settling and coalescence processes in low-g also makes possible the study of other separation and coarsening mechanisms. Even with gravitational separation forces reduced, many low-g experiments have resulted in severely segregated structures. The segregation in many cases was due to preferential wetting of the crucible by one of the immiscible liquids. The objective was to analyze the wetting behavior of Pb-Zn alloys on various crucible materials in an effort to identify a crucible in which the fluid flow induced by preferential wetting is minimized. It is proposed that by choosing the crucible for a particular alloy so that the difference in surface energy between the solid and two liquid phases is minimized, the effects of preferential wetting can be diminished and possibly avoided. Qualitative experiments were conducted and have shown the competitive wetting behavior of the immiscible Pb-Zn system and 13 different crucible materials.

  9. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  10. A Full View of the Segregation Evolution in Al-Bi Immiscible Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenquan; Zhang, Shuguang; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Qiaodan; Yu, Jianding; Fu, Yanan; Li, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    Using synchrotron radiography, in this study, we caught a full view of the segregation evolution of Al-10 wt pct Bi immiscible alloy during solidification. We provide the direct experimental evidence of surface segregation prior to liquid decomposition. And the Bi enrichment at the bottom part should come from melt flow rather than Soret effect. The Marangoni effect and Stokes effect dominate in separate stages in solidifying Al-Bi alloy. Further, the size distribution of Bi droplets obeys Gaussian distribution.

  11. Effects of crucible wetting during solidification of immiscible Pb-Zn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Henry C., III; Probst, Hubert B.

    1988-01-01

    Many industrial uses for liquid phase miscibility gap alloys are proposed. However, the commercial production of these alloys into useful ingots with a reasonable amount of homogeneity is arduous because of their immiscibility in the liquid state. In the low-g environment of space gravitational settling forces are abated, thus solidification of an immiscible alloys with a uniform distribution of phases becomes feasible. Elimination of gravitational settling and coalescence processes in low-g also makes possible the study of other separation and coarsening mechanisms. Even with gravitational separation forces reduced, many low-g experiments have resulted in severely segregated structures. The segregation in many cases was due to preferential wetting of the crucible by one of the immiscible liquids. The objective was to analyze the wetting behavior of Pb-Zn alloys on various crucible materials in an effort to identify a crucible in which the fluid flow induced by preferential wetting is minimized. It is proposed that by choosing the crucible for a particular alloy so that the difference in surface energy between the solid and two liqud phases is minimized, the effects of preferential wetting can be diminished and possibly avoided. Qualitative experiments were conducted and have shown the competitive wetting behavior of the immiscible Pb-Zn system and 13 different crucible materials.

  12. Effect of P-wave scattering on velocity and attenuation in unconsolidated sand saturated with immiscible liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, P.K.; Geller, J.T.; Johnson, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Seismic wave tomography is a potentially powerful tool for detecting and delineating nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants in the shallow subsurface. To develop this application, the authors are conducted laboratory and numerical studies to understand the mechanisms of P-wave transmission through NAPL-water-sand systems. P-wave measurements of traveltime and amplitude were taken in the 100--900 kHz frequency range through saturated sand with variable NAPL content. To simulate the stress conditions of the shallow surface, a low confining and axial pressure of 60 and 140 kPa, respectively, was applied. The measurements show a significant change in the traveltime and amplitude of the primary arrival as a function of NAPL saturation. To simulate the laboratory measurements, the authors performed numerical calculations of P-wave propagation through a 1-D medium. The results show that the main behavior of traveltime and amplitude variation can be explained by P-wave scattering. This represents an alternative explanation to the theories that describe local fluid flow as the dominant mechanism for seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion.

  13. Distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiawen; Chen, Langnan; Liu, Hao

    2013-12-01

    We examine the distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity by employing the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model and three-minute frequency data from Chinese stock markets. We find that the BCPE distribution within the GAMLSS framework fits the distributions of stock market liquidity well with the diagnosis test. We also find that the stock market index exhibits a significant impact on the distributions of stock market liquidity. The stock market liquidity usually exhibits a positive skewness, but a normal distribution at a low level of stock market index and a high-peak and fat-tail shape at a high level of stock market index.

  14. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    SciTech Connect

    Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

    1999-03-30

    A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  15. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOEpatents

    Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

    1999-03-30

    A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  16. Coupled growth of immiscible alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, B.; Hayes, L.; Arikawa, Y.; O`Dell, S.; Cheney, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the flight experiment Coupled Growth in Hypermonotectics scheduled to fly aboard the Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission during the Summer of 1996. The experiment is designed to directionally solidify samples in immiscible alloy systems in an attempt to obtain an improved understanding of the physics controlling the solidification process. This paper specifically addresses some of the unique difficulties concerning ampoule design for these experiments. As an example, an ampoule material must be utilized that is not wet by the minor immiscible liquid phase. In addition, a means must be provided to accommodate thermal contraction and solidification shrinkage during processing in order to avoid free surface formation on the melt. An attempt has also been made to control thermal end effects in order to obtain a relatively constant growth rate during processing. The final design results in an ampoule assembly that contains insulating segments, dummy samples, moving pistons and a high temperature spring assembly. The details of this design and the results of ground based testing will be discussed.

  17. Coupled growth in immiscible alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. Barry; Hayes, Larry C.; Arikawa, Y.; O'Dell, S.; Cheney, A.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses the flight experiment 'Coupled Growth in Hypermonotectics' schedules to fly aboard the life and microgravity spacelab mission during the summer of 1996. The experiment is designed to directionally solidify samples in immiscible alloy systems in an attempt to obtain an improved understanding of the physics controlling the solidification process. This paper specifically addresses some of the unique difficulties concerning ampoule design for these experiments. As an example, an ampoule material must be utilized that is not wet by the minor immiscible liquid phase. In addition, a means must be provided to accommodate thermal contraction and solidification shrinkage during processing in order to avoid free surface formation on the melt. An attempt has also been made to control thermal end effects in order to obtain a relatively constant growth rate during processing. The final design results in an ampoule assembly that contains insulating segments, dummy samples, moving pistons and a high temperature spring assembly. The details of this design and the results of ground based testing will be discussed.

  18. Variolites - results of liquid immiscibility or mingling?: Evidence from variolitic lava, axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    column of picrobasaltic magma of existed at that time in crust above small shallow magmatic chamber with residual melt of andesite (icelandite) in composition, which was involved in general upwards current. Because ascending of magmas in axial part of the MAR was whirl (Sharkov et al., 2008), alien melt was dispersed on small drops, but, however, had not time to dissolved in host picrite melt. Formation of proper variolites was occurred in process of moving and cooling of such heterogeneous lava on oceanic floor. From this follows that axial parts of low-spreading ridges have very complicate structure, where different melts can coexist. There are no any evidence of liquid immiscibility the variolite origin. The same petrological features are typical for classic Paleoproterozoic variolites of the Yal-Guba, Onega Lake, Karelia. They were firstly described by F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing in 1920th. We conclude that variolite formation are linked with complex magmatic systems where small shallow magma chambers with evolved melt were intersected by streams of new magma portions from deep-seated source. Indispensable condition for variolites is contrasting composition of the magmas which allow to clearly see this phenomenon.

  19. Assembly of plate-like nanoparticles in immiscible polymer blends--effect of the presence of a preferred liquid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Filippone, Giovanni; Causa, Andrea; Salzano de Luna, Martina; Sanguigno, Luigi; Acierno, Domenico

    2014-05-14

    The assembly of lamellar (clay) nanoparticles in a blend of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with drop-matrix morphology is studied combining viscoelastic measurements and morphological analyses. A reference system based on pure PS is used to highlight the effect on the assembly process of the presence of liquid interfaces where the particles are inclined to gather. The filler content is varied in a wide range to cover all the possible structures, from isolated flocs up to space-spanning networks. The goal is to elucidate whether the particles govern the blend morphology or the structural evolutions of the fluids dictate the space arrangement of the filler. The PMMA drops anchor the lamellae frustrating their peculiar mobility in the polymer melt. On the other hand, the clay radically affects the blend morphology, inducing irregularly-shaped drops and drop clustering phenomena even in case of partial coverage of the drop surface. Above the critical filler content for the saturation of the polymer-polymer interface, a space-spanning particle network eventually builds up. Despite the embedding of the PMMA drops, such a superstructure exhibits the same features of those forming in homogeneous mediums, enabling the use of approaches conceived for systems with single-phase matrix. Compared to the latter, the percolation and fractal models reveal subtle and yet meaningful differences in terms of stress-bearing mechanisms and structure of the building blocks which constitute the network.

  20. Ultrathin-skinned asymmetric membranes by immiscible solvents treatment

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.

    1989-11-28

    Improved semipermeable asymmetric fluid separation membranes useful in gas, vapor and liquid separations are disclosed. The membranes are prepared by substantially filling the pores of asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membranes having a finely porous layer on one side thereof with a water immiscible organic liquid, followed by contacting the finely porous layer with water.

  1. THE LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the national liquid and gaseous fuel distribution system. he study leading to the report was performed as part of an effort to better understand emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel distribution system. he primary, secondary, and tertiary seg...

  2. THE LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the national liquid and gaseous fuel distribution system. he study leading to the report was performed as part of an effort to better understand emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel distribution system. he primary, secondary, and tertiary seg...

  3. The nature and barium partitioning between immiscible melts - A comparison of experimental and natural systems with reference to lunar granite petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. R.; Taylor, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Elemental partitioning between immiscible melts has been studied using experimental liquid-liquid Kds and those determined by analysis of immiscible glasses in basalt mesostases in order to investigate lunar granite petrogenesis. Experimental data show that Ba is partitioned into the basic immiscible melt, while probe analysis results show that Ba is partitioned into the granitic immiscible melt. It is concluded that lunar granite of significant size can only occur in a plutonic or deep hypabyssal environment.

  4. Immiscible separation of metalliferous Fe/ Ti-oxide melts from fractionating alkali basalt: P-T-fO2 conditions and two-liquid elemental partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurai, Vratislav; Simon, Klaus; Wiechert, Uwe; Hoefs, Jochen; Konečný, Patrik; Huraiová, Monika; Pironon, Jacques; Lipka, Jozef

    Globules of iron-dominated (59-69 wt% FeOtot) and titanium-dominated (43.5 wt% TiO2) oxide melts have been detected in igneous xenoliths from Pliocene-to-Pleistocene alkali basalts of the Western Carpathians. Fluid inclusion and mineral composition data indicate immiscible separation of the high-iron-oxide melt (HIM) at magmatic temperatures. The HIM separation occurred during clinopyroxene (augite) accumulation in an alkali trachybasalt and continued during crystallization of amphibole (kaersutite) and K-feldspar (anorthoclase), the latter coexisting with trachyte and alkalic rhyolite residual melts. Some HIM was also expelled from sub-alkalic rhyolite (70-77% SiO2), coexisting with An27-45 plagioclase and quartz in granitic (tonalite-trondhjemite) xenoliths. Oxygen fugacities during HIM separation range from -1.4to +0.6log units around the QFM buffer. A close genetic relationship between HIM-hosted xenoliths and mantle-derived basaltic magma is documented by mineral 18O values ranging from 4.9 to 5.9‰ V-SMOW. δD values of gabbroic kaersutite between -61 and -86‰ V-SMOW are in agreement with a presumed primary magmatic water source. Most trace elements, except Li, Rb and Cs, have preferentially partitioned into the HIM. The HIM/Si-melt partition coefficients for transition elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni) and base metals (Zn, Cu, Mo) are between 2-160, resulting in extreme enrichment in the HIM. La and Ce also concentrate in the silicic melt, whereas Tb-Tm in the HIM. Hence, the immiscible separation causes REE fractionation and produces residual silicic melt enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE. The weak fractionation among Tb-Tm and Yb, Lu can be attributed to recurrent extraction of the HIM from the magmatic system, while flat HREE chondrite-normalized patterns are interpreted to indicate no or little loss of the HIM.

  5. Containerless low gravity processing of glass forming and immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry; Briggs, Craig; Robinson, M. B.

    1990-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedimentation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the 100 meter drop tube under low gravity, containerless conditions to determine the feasibility of producing dispersed structures. Three alloy compositions were utilized. Alloys containing 10 percent by volume of the gold-rich hypermonotectic phase exhibited a tendency for the gold-rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the samples. This wetting tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. Alloys containing 80 and 90 percent by volume of the gold-rich phase possessed completely different microstructures from the 10 percent samples when processed under low-g, containerless conditions. Several samples exhibited microstructures consisting of well dispersed 2 to 3 microns diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix.

  6. Phase field theory of interfaces and crystal nucleation in a eutectic system of fcc structure: II. Nucleation in the metastable liquid immiscibility region.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gyula I; Gránásy, László

    2007-08-21

    In the second part of our paper, we address crystal nucleation in the metastable liquid miscibility region of eutectic systems that is always present, though experimentally often inaccessible. While this situation resembles the one seen in single component crystal nucleation in the presence of a metastable vapor-liquid critical point addressed in previous works, it is more complex because of the fact that here two crystal phases of significantly different compositions may nucleate. Accordingly, at a fixed temperature below the critical point, six different types of nuclei may form: two liquid-liquid nuclei: two solid-liquid nuclei; and two types of composite nuclei, in which the crystalline core has a liquid "skirt," whose composition falls in between the compositions of the solid and the initial liquid phases, in addition to nuclei with concentric alternating composition shells of prohibitively high free energy. We discuss crystalline phase selection via exploring/identifying the possible pathways for crystal nucleation.

  7. Ferrobasalt-rhyolite immiscibility in tholeiitic volcanic and plutonic series (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, B.; Namur, O.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Grove, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    One atmosphere experiments show that silicate liquid immiscibility develops between Fe-rich and Si-rich melts below 1000-1020°C in compositionally diverse lavas that represent classical tholeiitic trends, such as Mull, Iceland, Snake River Plain and Sept Iles. Extreme iron enrichment along the evolution trend is not necessary; immiscibility also develops during iron depletion and silica enrichment after Fe-Ti oxide saturation. Natural liquid lines of descent for major tholeiitic series also approach or intersect the experimentally-defined compositional space of immiscibility. The importance of ferrobasalt-rhyolite unmixing in both volcanic and plutonic environments is supported by worldwide occurrence of immiscible globules in the mesostasis of erupted basalts, and by unmixed melt inclusions in cumulus phases of major layered intrusions such as Sept Iles, Skaergaard and Sudbury. A clear case of liquid immiscibility is also recorded in intrusive tholeiitic gabbros from the Siberian Large Igneous Province and is evidenced by textures and compositions of millimeter-sized silicate melt pools trapped in native iron. An important implication of immiscibility in natural ferrobasaltic provinces is the development of a compositional gap characterized by the absence of intermediate compositions, a major feature observed in many tholeiitic provinces and referred to as the Daly gap. The compositions of experimental silica-rich immiscible melts coincide with those of natural rhyolites with high FeOtot and low Al2O3, which suggests a potential role for large-scale immiscibility in the petrogenesis of late-stage ferroan silicic melts. No evidence for the paired ferrobasaltic melt is observed in volcanic provinces, probably because of its uneruptable characteristics. Instead, Fe-Ti×P-rich gabbros crystallized at depth and are the cumulate products of immiscible Fe-rich melts in plutonic settings, a feature clearly evidenced in the Sept Iles intrusion. The production of

  8. Mapping liquid distribution in absorbent incontinence products.

    PubMed

    Landeryou, M A; Yerworth, R J; Cottenden, A M

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews methods available for mapping the distribution of fluid in incontinence pad materials to assist with evaluating existing products and developing new ones, and to provide data for building and validating predictive models. Specifically, the following technologies are considered and their strengths and limitations described: discrete sensors based on conductance, temperature or optical measurements, optical imaging, gravimetric methods, X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. It is suggested that the ideal method would enable fluid distribution to be mapped in three dimensions with good spatial and time resolution in single materials and composite structures of simple and complex geometries under static and dynamic mechanical loading. It would also allow liquid to be mapped in products when worn by users. It is concluded that, although each existing method meets some of these requirements, and each requirement is met, at least reasonably well, by at least one method, improved techniques are needed. The particular need for methods that can provide some measurement of liquid saturation within absorbent products, both in the laboratory and in real use, is highlighted. In many cases, simple methods used appropriately are sufficient to elicit the important aspects of liquid transport and storage within absorbent products.

  9. The Momentum Distribution of Liquid ^4{He}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisk, T. R.; Bryan, M. S.; Sokol, P. E.; Granroth, G. E.; Moroni, S.; Boninsegni, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report a high-resolution neutron Compton scattering study of liquid ^4{He} under milli-Kelvin temperature control. To interpret the scattering data, we performed Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the atomic momentum distribution and final state effects for the conditions of temperature and density considered in the experiment. There is excellent agreement between the observed scattering and ab initio calculations of its lineshape at all temperatures. We also used model fit functions to obtain from the scattering data empirical estimates of the average atomic kinetic energy and Bose condensate fraction. These quantities are also in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. We conclude that contemporary Quantum Monte Carlo methods can furnish accurate predictions for the properties of Bose liquids, including the condensate fraction, close to the superfluid transition temperature.

  10. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: COMPARISON TO WATER FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale field experiment was conducted to compare the remediation effectiveness of an enhanced-solubilization technique to that of water flushing for removal of multicomponent nonaqueous-phase organic liquid (NAPL) contaminants form a phreatic aquifer. This innovative remed...

  11. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: COMPARISON TO WATER FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale field experiment was conducted to compare the remediation effectiveness of an enhanced-solubilization technique to that of water flushing for removal of multicomponent nonaqueous-phase organic liquid (NAPL) contaminants form a phreatic aquifer. This innovative remed...

  12. Electrospinning: Distribution of charges in liquid jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2011-12-01

    An analysis of the radial distribution of charges in liquid jets is presented. Two cases where considered: (1) when the charges are uniformly distributed through the jet cross-section but are allowed to concentrate at the jet surface with time; (2) when the charges reach a steady state where the Coulomb repulsion and Brownian mixing are counterbalanced keeping the charges inside the jet. Using the first model, we showed that the charge adsorption in nonpolar fluids occurs much faster than that in polar fluids. This provides the basis for the consideration of the second model applicable for polar liquids. We examined this case and found that a steady state does exist, but the concentration of charges is limited from above by a critical concentration inversely proportional to the square of the jet radius. It was shown that above this critical concentration, the charges should accumulate at the jet surface producing an infinitely large surface charge. Using this analysis, we suggest the classification of different regimes of electrospinning when the jets are mostly carrying the volume or surface charges.

  13. Mixing of immiscible polymers using nanoporous coordination templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Takashi; Kaseda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Yotaro; Inukai, Munehiro; Toriyama, Takaaki; Takahara, Atsushi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-07-01

    The establishment of methodologies for the mixing of immiscible substances is highly desirable to facilitate the development of fundamental science and materials technology. Herein we describe a new protocol for the compatibilization of immiscible polymers at the molecular level using porous coordination polymers (PCPs) as removable templates. In this process, the typical immiscible polymer pair of polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was prepared via the successive homopolymerizations of their monomers in a PCP to distribute the polymers inside the PCP particles. Subsequent dissolution of the PCP frameworks in a chelator solution affords a PSt/PMMA blend that is homogeneous in the range of several nanometers. Due to the unusual compatibilization, the thermal properties of the polymer blend are remarkably improved compared with the conventional solvent-cast blend. This method is also applicable to the compatibilization of PSt and polyacrylonitrile, which have very different solubility parameters.

  14. Mixing of immiscible polymers using nanoporous coordination templates

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Takashi; Kaseda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Yotaro; Inukai, Munehiro; Toriyama, Takaaki; Takahara, Atsushi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of methodologies for the mixing of immiscible substances is highly desirable to facilitate the development of fundamental science and materials technology. Herein we describe a new protocol for the compatibilization of immiscible polymers at the molecular level using porous coordination polymers (PCPs) as removable templates. In this process, the typical immiscible polymer pair of polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was prepared via the successive homopolymerizations of their monomers in a PCP to distribute the polymers inside the PCP particles. Subsequent dissolution of the PCP frameworks in a chelator solution affords a PSt/PMMA blend that is homogeneous in the range of several nanometers. Due to the unusual compatibilization, the thermal properties of the polymer blend are remarkably improved compared with the conventional solvent-cast blend. This method is also applicable to the compatibilization of PSt and polyacrylonitrile, which have very different solubility parameters. PMID:26130294

  15. Miscible and immiscible experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using planar laser induced fluorescence visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokler, Matthew; Roberts, Michael; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments are presented in which two stratified liquids having Atwood number of 0.2 are accelerated in a vertical linear induction motor driven drop tower. A test sled having only vertical freedom of motion contains the experiment tank and visualization equipment. The sled is positioned at the top of the tower within the linear induction motors and accelerated downward causing the initially stable interface to be unstable and allowing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Forced and unforced experiments are conducted using both immiscible and miscible liquid combinations. Forced initial perturbations are produced by vertically oscillating the test sled prior to the start of acceleration. The interface is visualized using a 445 nm laser light source that illuminates a fluorescent dye mixed in one of the fluids. The resulting fluorescent images are recorded using a monochromatic high speed video camera. The laser beam is synchronously swept across the fluorescent fluid, at the frame rate of the camera, exposing a single plane of the interface allowing for the measurement of spike and bubble growth. Comparisons between miscible and immiscible mixing layer distributions are made from the resulting interface concentration profiles.

  16. Cyclodextrin-enhanced in situ flushing of multiple-component immiscible organic liquid contamination at the field scale: Analysis of dissolution behavior

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.E.; Brusseau, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    There is great interest in the potential use of solubility-enhancing agents for subsurface remediation of non-aqueous-phase organic liquid (NAPL) contamination. Cyclodextrin was demonstrated to be effective for NAPL removal during a recent pilot-scale field study. The study provides an opportunity to investigate the mechanisms controlling mass transfer between a multicomponent NAPL and an enhanced-flushing agent solution at the field scale. A relationship is developed to describe enhanced dissolution of a multiple-component NAPL and is used to analyze the field data. While NAPL dissolution behavior was generally complex during the cyclodextrin flush, the initial peak and final effluent concentrations for most of the target contaminants were within a factor of 2 of the equilibrium values predicted using the ideal enhanced-dissolution theory. This suggests that the dissolution of the multicomponent NAPL during the cyclodextrin flush may be approximately treated, at least for practical purposes, as an ideal, equilibrium process. It appears that the dissolution theory successfully predicted the observed behavior for this system. Thus, it may be useful for assisting in the planning, design, and evaluation of other enhanced-flushing applications involving multi-component NAPL.

  17. Purification of cell subpopulations via immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension (IFAST).

    PubMed

    Berry, Scott M; Strotman, Lindsay N; Kueck, Jessica D; Alarid, Elaine T; Beebe, David J

    2011-12-01

    The selective isolation of a sub-population of cells from a larger, mixed population is a critical preparatory process to many biomedical assays. Here, we present a new cell isolation platform with a unique set of advantages over existing devices. Our technology, termed Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension, exploits physical phenomena associated with the microscale to establish fluidic barriers composed of immiscible liquids. By attaching magnetically-responsive particles to a target cell population via immunocapture, we can selectively transport this population across the immiscible barrier and into a separate aqueous solution. The high interfacial energy associated with the immiscible phase / aqueous phase boundaries prevents unwanted cells or other contaminants from inadvertently crossing the immiscible phase. We have demonstrated, using fluorescent particles, stromal cells, and whole blood as "background", that we can successfully isolate ~70% of a target breast cancer cell population with an average purity of >80%. Increased purity was obtained by coupling two immiscible barriers in series, a modification that only slightly increases operational complexity. Furthermore, several samples can be processed in parallel batches in a near-instantaneous manner without the requirement of any washing, which can cause dilution (negative selection) or significant uncontrolled loss (positive selection) of target cells. Finally, cells were observed to remain viable and proliferative following traverse through the immiscible phase, indicating that this process is suitable for a variety of downstream assays, including those requiring intact living cells.

  18. Improved Root Normal Size Distributions for Liquid Atomization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Improved Root Normal Size Distributions for Liquid Atomization Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited... Atomization Culbert B. Laney1 Engility Corp., 8211 Terminal Rd, Lorton, VA 22079 U.S.A. Abstract: This paper identifies two issues with traditional...root normal size distributions, which are commonly fitted to experimental results for liquid atomization and sprays. First, while root normal size

  19. Momentum distributions in hcp, bcc, and liquid /sup 4/He

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, P.E.; Simmons, R.O.; Price, D.L.; Hilleke, R.O.

    1984-05-01

    Using Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering we have measured the nuclear momentum distribution in hcp, bcc and liquid /sup 4/He at constant density over a temperature range 0.96K < T < 4.0K. We find no temperature dependence of the momentum distribution in the hcp solid or the liquid. We also find no difference between the hcp, bcc and liquid phases. The average kinetic energy per atom is lower than the best present theories predict.

  20. Late immiscible Fe-rich melt separation during crystallization of highly differentiated siliceous granites

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, L.T.; Woodhead, J.A.; Williams, I.S.; Chappell, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Observational evidence pointing to late immiscible separation of an Fe-Mn-Ti-rich melt has been obtained for some siliceous granites (SiO/sub 2/ > 70%; alkali oxides > 7 1/2 %; FeO* + MnO/FeO* + MnO + MgO > 0.70). Separation is inferred when crystallization exceeded 95% (vol) and residual melts were isolated and interstitial. Effects on the distribution of incompatible elements (U, Th, REE, Nb, Ta, Ti, P, F) and the paragenesis of the host accessory minerals were immediate and profound. The evidence derived from an exemplar granite includes: (1) diversity and complexity of the accessory mineral assemblage; (2) mappable preferred association of the accessory assemblages with Fe-Ti-Mn-oxides; (3) remarkable discontinuous compositional zonation and reaction relations in various accessory minerals; (4) presence of two distinct compositional variants of some mineral species; (5) interstitial textural and compositional relations to major minerals; (6) unusual textures for the Fe-Ti-Mn-oxide minerals; (7) isotopic evidence that the assemblage is cogenetic. Among several important implications are: (1) the model is suitable for experimental petrology verification; (2) incompatible element behavior during granite crystallization is more complex and more determined by kinetics and local equilibria than has been previously considered; (3) endowment of late differentiates (aplites, pegmatites) may be determined by timing of their separation relative to immiscible liquid separation; (4) separation of incompatible elements from granites by volatile processes may be controlled by volatile/Fe-rich melt equilibria.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann equation method for multiple immiscible continuum fluids.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T J; Halliday, I; Care, C M

    2010-12-01

    This paper generalizes the two-component algorithm of Sec. , extending it, in Sec. , to describe N>2 mutually immiscible fluids in the isothermal continuum regime. Each fluid has an independent interfacial tension. While retaining all its computational advantages, we remove entirely the empiricism associated with contact behavior in our previous multiple immiscible fluid models [M. M. Dupin, Phys. Rev. E 73, 055701(R) (2006); Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 13 (2006)] while solidifying the physical foundations. Moreover, the model relies upon a fluid-fluid segregation which is simpler, computationally faster, more free of artifacts (i.e., the interfacial microcurrent), and upon an interface-inducing force distribution which is analytic. The method is completely symmetric between any numbers of immiscible fluids and stable over a wide range of directly input interfacial tension. We present data on the steady-state properties of multiple interface model, which are in good agreement with theory [R. E. Johnson and S. S. Sadhal, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 17, 289 (1985)], specifically on the shapes of multidrop systems. Section is an analysis of the kinetic and continuum-scale descriptions of the underlying two-component lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible fluids, extendable to more than two immiscible fluids. This extension requires (i) the use of a more local kinetic equation perturbation which is (ii) free from a reliance on measured interfacial curvature. It should be noted that viewed simply as a two-component method, the continuum algorithm is inferior to our previous methods, reported by Lishchuk [Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)] and Halliday [Phys. Rev. E 76, 026708 (2007)]. Greater stability and parameter range is achieved in multiple drop simulations by using the forced multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method developed, along with (for completeness) a forced exactly incompressible Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook lattice Boltzmann model, in the Appendix. These appended schemes

  2. Immiscible displacement in a rough fracture: beyond Darcy's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavan, A. A.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; McKinley, G. H.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    The interplay between wetting and disorder, as well as the inherent complexity of porous media renders the description of immiscible displacement a daunting task. Nano-scale physics dictates the macroscopic behavior of the moving contact lines, which in turn determines the flow pattern. To shed light on this problem, we conduct experiments on rough radial Hele-Shaw cells and use the results to guide our modeling efforts. We saturate the cell with a highly viscous glycerol, and then inject a less viscous silicone oil at the center of the cell and visualize the displacement patterns. The surfaces are treated to alter their wettability, allowing us to study both drainage (less wetting liquid displacing a more wetting one) and imbibition (opposite of drainage) regimes. Viscous forces tend to destabilize the interfaces, whereas capillary forces play a stabilizing role; however, the disorder in the medium complicates this balance substantially: 1) it leads to heterogeneities in the permeability field and capillary pressure distribution, and 2) it changes the effective wettability of the medium and leads to contact line-pinning and hysteresis. We observe that at high capillary numbers (ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces), the disorder only weakly modulates the patterns, whereas at low capillary numbers, the disorder affects the flow pattern significantly; it leads to preferential flow paths in the drainage regime, and pinning and intermittent avalanche-like behavior in the imbibition regime. Based on these observations, we propose a phase diagram by incorporating the wettability, capillary number, and effective roughness of the medium as the controlling parameters. Inspired by these observations, we construct a thermodynamically-consistent phase-field model, taking the non-hydrodynamic interactions between the liquids and the solid surface into account. Our model goes beyond Darcy's law, which cannot describe the observed unstable displacements, by taking

  3. Identification of Gravity-Related Effects on Crystal Growth From Melts With an Immiscibility Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Sayir, A.; Farmer, S.

    1999-01-01

    This work involves an experimental-numerical approach to study the effects of natural and Marangoni convections on solidification of single crystals from a silicate melt with a liquid-liquid immiscibility gap. Industrial use of crystals grown from silicate melts is becoming increasingly important in electronic, optical, and high temperature structural applications. Even the simplest silicate systems like Al203-SiO2 have had, and will continue to have, a significant role in the development of traditional and advanced ceramics. A unique feature of crystals grown from the silicate systems is their outstanding linear electro-optic properties. They also exhibit exceptionally high optical rotativity. As a result, these crystals are attractive materials for dielectric, optical, and microwave applications. Experimental work in our laboratory has indicated that directional solidification of a single crystal mullite appears to be preceded by liquid-liquid phase separation in the melt. Disruption of the immiscible state results in crystallization of a two phase structure. There is also evidence that mixing in the melt caused by density-driven convection can significantly affect the stability of the immiscible liquid layers and result in poly-crystalline growth. On earth, the immiscible state has only been observed for small diameter crystals grown in float zone systems where natural convection is almost negligible. Therefore, it is anticipated that growth of large single crystals from silicate melts would benefit from microgravity conditions because of the reduction of the natural convective mixing. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of transport processes on the phase separation in the melt during growth of a single crystal while addressing the following issues: (1) When do the immiscible layers form and are they real?; (2) What are the main physical characteristics of the immiscible liquids?; and (3) How mixing by natural or Marangoni convection

  4. Flow regimes during immiscible displacement

    DOE PAGES

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Mcclure, James; Berrill, Mark A.; ...

    2017-02-01

    Fractional ow of immiscible phases occurs at the pore scale where grain surfaces and phases interfaces obstruct phase mobility. However, the larger scale behavior is described by a saturation-dependent phenomenological relationship called relative permeability. As a consequence, pore-scale parameters, such as phase topology and/ or geometry, and details of the flow regime cannot be directly related to Darcy-scale flow parameters. It is well understood that relative permeability is not a unique relationship of wetting-phase saturation and rather depends on the experimental conditions at which it is measured. Herein we use fast X-ray microcomputed tomography to image pore-scale phase arrangements duringmore » fractional flow and then forward simulate the flow regimes using the lattice-Boltzmann method to better understand the underlying pore-scale flow regimes and their influence on Darcy-scale parameters. We find that relative permeability is highly dependent on capillary number and that the Corey model fits the observed trends. At the pore scale, while phase topologies are continuously changing on the scale of individual pores, the Euler characteristic of the nonwetting phase (NWP) averaged over a sufficiently large field of view can describe the bulk topological characteristics; the Euler characteristic decreases with increasing capillary number resulting in an increase in relative permeability. Lastly, we quantify the fraction of NWP that flows through disconnected ganglion dynamics and demonstrate that this can be a significant fraction of the NWP flux for intermediate wetting-phase saturation. Furthermore, rate dependencies occur in our homogenous sample (without capillary end effect) and the underlying cause is attributed to ganglion flow that can significantly influence phase topology during the fractional flow of immiscible phases.« less

  5. Liquid-liquid distribution of B group vitamins in polyethylene glycol-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Zykov, A. V.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2011-05-01

    General regularities of the liquid-liquid distribution of B1, B2, B6, and B12 vitamins in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000, PEG-5000) solution-aqueous salt solution systems are studied. The influence of the salting-out agent, the concentration of the polymer, and its molecular weight on the distribution coefficients and recovery factors of the vitamins are considered. Equations relating the distribution coefficients (log D) to the polymer concentration are derived.

  6. Age, petrology and geochemistry of carbonate-dykes and related clinopyroxenite xenoliths from the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (Italy/Switzerland): evidence of Jurassic carbonatite formation by liquid immiscibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Andrea; Grassi, Daniele; Sartori, Gino

    2017-04-01

    carbonate-dykes and enclosed clinopyroxenites may originated by liquid immiscibility, probably from a parental K-rich, ultramafic melt, similar to alkaline ultramafic intrusions occurring in the IVZ. Zircons separated from carbonate-dykes are faint-zoned, present low REE and U concentrations and display a Th/U ranging between 0.35 and 1.37. On the chondrite-normalized REE diagram, no Eu and Ce anomalies are observable. Zircon U-Pb dating by laser ablation yielded an age of 186.7 ± 2 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of intrusion of the dykes. This carbonatitic magmatism is probably related to the Jurassic, CO2-bearing alkaline magmatism occurring during the early stage of the opening of the Thetyan ocean.

  7. Analysis of temperature distribution in liquid-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N B; Brown, W Byron

    1952-01-01

    The temperature distribution in liquid-cooled turbine blades determines the amount of cooling required to reduce the blade temperature to permissible values at specified locations. This report presents analytical methods for computing temperature distributions in liquid-cooled turbine blades, or in simplified shapes used to approximate sections of the blade. The individual analyses are first presented in terms of their mathematical development. By means of numerical examples, comparisons are made between simplified and more complete solutions and the effects of several variables are examined. Nondimensional charts to simplify some temperature-distribution calculations are also given.

  8. Photoelectron angular distributions from liquid water: effects of electron scattering.

    PubMed

    Thürmer, Stephan; Seidel, Robert; Faubel, Manfred; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Hemminger, John C; Bradforth, Stephen E; Winter, Bernd

    2013-10-25

    Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) from the liquid-water surface and from bulk liquid water are reported for water oxygen-1s ionization. Although less so than for the gas phase, the measured PADs from the liquid are remarkably anisotropic, even at electron kinetic energies lower than 100 eV, when elastic scattering cross sections for the outgoing electrons with other water molecules are large. The PADs reveal that theoretical estimates of the inelastic mean free path are likely too long at low kinetic energies, and hence the electron probing depth in water, near threshold ionization, appears to be considerably smaller than so far assumed.

  9. Effects of Mixtures on Liquid and Solid Fragment Size Distributions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    treated steel ; 67.0/ mn Table 11 gives examples of size distributions taken from the research literature on atomization and sprays where mn...impact (0.5–2.0 km/s) on thin steel plates.” More specifically, he studied “spherical porous aluminum projectiles 2.51 cm in diameter … cut from a...Effects of Mixtures on Liquid and Solid Fragment Size Distributions Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  10. Selective Single-Step Separation of a Mixture of Three Metal Ions by a Triphasic Ionic-Liquid-Water-Ionic-Liquid Solvent Extraction System.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blockx, Jonas; De Coster, Hendrik; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-08-10

    In a conventional solvent extraction system, metal ions are distributed between two immiscible phases, typically an aqueous and an organic phase. In this paper, the proof-of-principle is given for the distribution of metal ions between three immiscible phases, two ionic liquid phases with an aqueous phase in between them. Three-liquid-phase solvent extraction allows separation of a mixture of three metal ions in a single step, whereas at least two steps are required to separate three metals in the case of two-liquid-phase solvent extraction. In the triphasic system, the lower organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid betainium- or choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, whereas the upper organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The triphasic system was used for the separation of a mixture of tin(II), yttrium(III), and scandium(III) ions.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann equation method for multiple immiscible continuum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, T. J.; Halliday, I.; Care, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper generalizes the two-component algorithm of Sec. , extending it, in Sec. , to describe N>2 mutually immiscible fluids in the isothermal continuum regime. Each fluid has an independent interfacial tension. While retaining all its computational advantages, we remove entirely the empiricism associated with contact behavior in our previous multiple immiscible fluid models [M. M. Dupin , Phys. Rev. E 73, 055701(R) (2006)10.1103/PhysRevE.73.055701; Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 13 (2006)10.1016/j.medengphy.2005.04.015] while solidifying the physical foundations. Moreover, the model relies upon a fluid-fluid segregation which is simpler, computationally faster, more free of artifacts (i.e., the interfacial microcurrent), and upon an interface-inducing force distribution which is analytic. The method is completely symmetric between any numbers of immiscible fluids and stable over a wide range of directly input interfacial tension. We present data on the steady-state properties of multiple interface model, which are in good agreement with theory [R. E. Johnson and S. S. Sadhal, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 17, 289 (1985)10.1146/annurev.fl.17.010185.001445], specifically on the shapes of multidrop systems. Section is an analysis of the kinetic and continuum-scale descriptions of the underlying two-component lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible fluids, extendable to more than two immiscible fluids. This extension requires (i) the use of a more local kinetic equation perturbation which is (ii) free from a reliance on measured interfacial curvature. It should be noted that viewed simply as a two-component method, the continuum algorithm is inferior to our previous methods, reported by Lishchuk [Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)]10.1103/PhysRevE.76.036701 and Halliday [Phys. Rev. E 76, 026708 (2007)]10.1103/PhysRevE.76.026708. Greater stability and parameter range is achieved in multiple drop simulations by using the forced multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method developed

  12. The Momentum Distribution of Liquid 3He, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Paul; Bryan, Matthew; Prisk, Timothy

    Liquid 3He is a system of fundamental importance to condensed matter physics because it is a prototypical example of a strongly interacting fermion system whose interactions are well known. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations predict that the atomic momentum distribution of liquid 3He contains a Fermi surface discontinuity and an average atomic kinetic energy in the range 12-13 K at saturated vapor pressure. A number of high-resolution neutron Compton scattering studies of liquid 33He have been described in the literature, with experimenters observing no Fermi surface discontinuity and obtaining kinetic energies in the range of 8-10 K. In this presentation, we reconsider measurements of the momentum distribution of liquid 3He taken at 500 mK under 0, 10, 15 bar of pressure [R.M. Dimeo et al Physica B 241-243, 952 (1998)]. We demonstrate that there is complete agreement between the experimental data and quantum Monte Carlo calculations when instrumental resolution and final state effect corrections are taken into account. We also consider the prospects for a direct observation of the Fermi surface discontinuity in liquid 3He using neutron Compton scattering. This research was supported by NSF Award DGE-1069091.

  13. Experimental comparison of measurement techniques for drop size distributions in liquid/liquid dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, S.; Wollny, S.; Voigt, A.; Kraume, M.

    2011-02-01

    An online measurement technique for drop size distribution in stirred tank reactors is needed but has not yet been developed. Different approaches and different techniques have been published as the new standard during the last decade. Three of them (focus beam reflectance measurement, two-dimensional optical reflectance measurement techniques and a fiber optical FBR sensor) are tested, and their results are compared with trustful image analysis results from an in situ microscope. The measurement of drop sizes in liquid/liquid distribution is a major challenge for all tested measurement probes, and none provides exact results for the tested system of pure toluene/water compared to an endoscope. Not only the size analysis but also the change of the size over time gives unreasonable results. The influence of the power input on the drop size distribution was the only reasonable observation in this study. The FBR sensor was not applicable at all to the used system. While all three probes are based on laser back scattering, the general question of the usability of this principle for measuring evolving drop size distributions in liquid/liquid system is asked. The exterior smooth surface of droplets in such systems is leading to strong errors in the measurement of the size of the drops. That leads to widely divergent results. A different measurement principle should be used for online measurements of drop size distributions than laser back scattering.

  14. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave.

  15. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave.

  16. A Study of Undercooling Behavior Of Immiscible Metal Alloys in the Absence of Crucible-Induced Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Michael B.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Li, Delin; Workman, Gary

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the question: Would eliminating the crucible eliminate the wall-induced nucleation of one of the liquid phases in an immiscible alloy and result in undercooling of the liquid into the metastable region thereby producing significant differences in the separation process and the microstructure upon solidification. Another primary objective of this research is to study systems with a metastable miscibility gap and to directly determine the metastable liquid miscibility gap by undercooling experiments. Nucleation and growth of droplets in these undercooled metallic liquid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Results of this investigation indicate that containerless processing of immiscibles may not promote the undercooling of the single-phase liquid into the metastable region. Although no recalescence event was observed for this liquid-liquid transition, undercooling did occur across the miscibility gap for the solidification of the Ti phase that eventually separated.

  17. Liquid rocket performance computer model with distributed energy release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combs, L. P.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a computer program for analyzing the effects of bipropellant spray combustion processes on liquid rocket performance is described and discussed. The distributed energy release (DER) computer program was designed to become part of the JANNAF liquid rocket performance evaluation methodology and to account for performance losses associated with the propellant combustion processes, e.g., incomplete spray gasification, imperfect mixing between sprays and their reacting vapors, residual mixture ratio striations in the flow, and two-phase flow effects. The DER computer program begins by initializing the combustion field at the injection end of a conventional liquid rocket engine, based on injector and chamber design detail, and on propellant and combustion gas properties. It analyzes bipropellant combustion, proceeding stepwise down the chamber from those initial conditions through the nozzle throat.

  18. Ion distribution and selectivity of ionic liquids in microporous electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Justin N.; Wesolowski, David J.; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-05-01

    The energy density of an electric double layer capacitor, also known as supercapacitor, depends on ion distributions in the micropores of its electrodes. Herein we study ion selectivity and partitioning of symmetric, asymmetric, and mixed ionic liquids among different pores using the classical density functional theory. We find that a charged micropore in contact with mixed ions of the same valence is always selective to the smaller ions, and the ion selectivity, which is strongest when the pore size is comparable to the ion diameters, drastically falls as the pore size increases. The partitioning behavior in ionic liquids is fundamentally different from those corresponding to ion distributions in aqueous systems whereby the ion selectivity is dominated by the surface energy and entropic effects insensitive to the degree of confinement.

  19. Pair distribution function study on compression of liquid gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shengnian; Yu, Tony; Chen, Jiuhua; Ehm, Lars; Guo, Quanzhong; Parise, John

    2008-01-01

    Integrating a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and focused high energy x-ray beam from the superconductor wiggler X17 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have successfully collected high quality total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium. The experiments were conducted at a pressure range from 0.1GPa up to 2GPa at ambient temperature. For the first time, pair distribution functions (PDF) for liquid gallium at high pressure were derived up to 10 {angstrom}. Liquid gallium structure has been studied by x-ray absorption (Di Cicco & Filipponi, 1993; Wei et al., 2000; Comez et al., 2001), x-ray diffraction studies (Waseda & Suzuki, 1972), and molecular dynamics simulation (Tsay, 1993; Hui et al., 2002). These previous reports have focused on the 1st nearest neighbor structure, which tells us little about the atomic arrangement outside the first shell in non- crystalline materials. This study focuses on the structure of liquid gallium and the atomic structure change due to compression. The PDF results show that the observed atomic distance of the first nearest neighbor at 2.78 {angstrom} (first G(r) peak and its shoulder at the higher Q position) is consistent with previous studies by x-ray absorption (2.76 {angstrom}, Comez et al., 2001). We have also observed that the first nearest neighbor peak position did not change with pressure increasing, while the farther peaks positions in the intermediate distance range decreased with pressure increasing. This leads to a conclusion of the possible existence of 'locally rigid units' in the liquid. With the addition of reverse Monte Carlo modeling, we have observed that the coordination number in the local rigit unit increases with pressure. The bulk modulus of liquid gallium derived from the volume compression curve at ambient temperature (300K) is 12.1(6) GPa.

  20. Distributed liquid level sensors using self-heated optical fibers for cryogenic liquid management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Rongzhang; Zhang, Botao; Lin, Yuankun; Chen, Kevin P

    2012-09-10

    We present a continuous liquid level sensing system for both room temperature and cryogenic fluids with millimeter spatial resolution. Change of in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering signal from the distinct thermal response of the heated sensing fiber in liquid and in air were interrogated and spatially resolved using the optical frequency domain reflectometry. Both electrical and optical heating techniques were investigated for cryogenic liquid applications at 4 K, 77 K, and the room temperature. The successful combination of self-heated fiber and wavelength-swept Rayleigh scattering interferometry provides, for the first time to our best knowledge, a truly distributed fuel gauge with high spatial resolution for cryogenic fuel storage, transportation, and management on ground and in space.

  1. A novel coarsening mechanism of droplets in immiscible fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    In our daily lives, after shaking a salad dressing, we see the coarsening of oil droplets suspended in vinegar. Such a demixing process is observed everywhere in nature and also of technological importance. For a case of high droplet density, domain coarsening proceeds with inter-droplet collisions and the resulting coalescence. This phenomenon has been explained primarily by the so-called Brownian-coagulation mechanism: stochastic thermal forces exerted by molecules induce random motion of individual droplets, causing accidental collisions and subsequent interface-tension-driven coalescence. Contrary to this, here we demonstrate that the droplet motion is not random, but hydrodynamically driven by the composition Marangoni force due to an interfacial tension gradient produced in each droplet as a consequence of composition correlation among droplets. This alters our physical understanding of droplet coarsening in immiscible liquid mixtures on a fundamental level.

  2. Immiscible fluids in mixed wet porous media: the role of wettability correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murison, Julie; Semin, Benoit; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Herminghaus, Stephan; Schroeter, Matthias; Brinkmann, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Various phenomena observed during immiscible displacement in a porous medium can be related to pore wall wettability. Petroleum engineers traditionally quantify the overall wettability of a rock sample in terms of the Ammot-Harvey or USBM index. To establish a link between these gloabl quantities and the pore-scale distribution of surface energies, we developed a series of model porous media. Using a variety of preparation methods, we are able to create dense beds of glass beads with the same average surface energy, differing only in the typical extension of the wetting and non-wetting surface domains. Experimental measurements of capillary pressure saturation curves for repeated imbibition and drainage show that the work dissipated in a complete cycle is monotonically increasing with the correlation length ξ of the surface energies. To test whether capillary hysteresis can be linked to specific features of the front morphology, we visualized the distribution of liquids by means of X-ray microtomography. The Minkowski measures volume, surface area, and Euler number are employed to characterize the interfacial shape. Differences of the front morphology during imbibition and drainage match with trends observed for the hysteresis loop opening.

  3. Three orthogonal ultrasounds fabricate uniform ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, W.; Wang, B. J.; Liu, H. M.; Hu, L.; Wei, B.

    2016-11-01

    The production of Al based monotectic alloys with uniform microstructure is usually difficult due to the large density difference between the two immiscible liquid phases, which limits the application of such alloys. Here, we apply three orthogonal ultrasounds during the liquid phase separation process of ternary Al71.9Sn20.4Cu7.7 immiscible alloy. A uniform microstructure consisting of fine secondary (Sn) phase dispersed on Al-rich matrix is fabricated in the whole alloy sample with a large size of 30 × 30 × 100 mm. The numerical calculation results indicate that the coupled effect of three ultrasounds promotes the sound pressure level and consequently enlarges the cavitation zone within the alloy melt. The strong shockwaves produced by cavitation prevent the (Sn) droplets from coalescence, and keep them suspended in the parent Al-rich liquid phase. This accounts for the formation of homogeneous composite structures. Thus the introduction of three orthogonal ultrasounds is an effective way to suppress the macrosegregation caused by liquid phase separation and produce bulk immiscible alloys with uniform structures.

  4. Three orthogonal ultrasounds fabricate uniform ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, W; Wang, B J; Liu, H M; Hu, L; Wei, B

    2016-11-14

    The production of Al based monotectic alloys with uniform microstructure is usually difficult due to the large density difference between the two immiscible liquid phases, which limits the application of such alloys. Here, we apply three orthogonal ultrasounds during the liquid phase separation process of ternary Al71.9Sn20.4Cu7.7 immiscible alloy. A uniform microstructure consisting of fine secondary (Sn) phase dispersed on Al-rich matrix is fabricated in the whole alloy sample with a large size of 30 × 30 × 100 mm. The numerical calculation results indicate that the coupled effect of three ultrasounds promotes the sound pressure level and consequently enlarges the cavitation zone within the alloy melt. The strong shockwaves produced by cavitation prevent the (Sn) droplets from coalescence, and keep them suspended in the parent Al-rich liquid phase. This accounts for the formation of homogeneous composite structures. Thus the introduction of three orthogonal ultrasounds is an effective way to suppress the macrosegregation caused by liquid phase separation and produce bulk immiscible alloys with uniform structures.

  5. Three orthogonal ultrasounds fabricate uniform ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, W.; Wang, B. J.; Liu, H. M.; Hu, L.; Wei, B.

    2016-01-01

    The production of Al based monotectic alloys with uniform microstructure is usually difficult due to the large density difference between the two immiscible liquid phases, which limits the application of such alloys. Here, we apply three orthogonal ultrasounds during the liquid phase separation process of ternary Al71.9Sn20.4Cu7.7 immiscible alloy. A uniform microstructure consisting of fine secondary (Sn) phase dispersed on Al-rich matrix is fabricated in the whole alloy sample with a large size of 30 × 30 × 100 mm. The numerical calculation results indicate that the coupled effect of three ultrasounds promotes the sound pressure level and consequently enlarges the cavitation zone within the alloy melt. The strong shockwaves produced by cavitation prevent the (Sn) droplets from coalescence, and keep them suspended in the parent Al-rich liquid phase. This accounts for the formation of homogeneous composite structures. Thus the introduction of three orthogonal ultrasounds is an effective way to suppress the macrosegregation caused by liquid phase separation and produce bulk immiscible alloys with uniform structures. PMID:27841283

  6. The Momentum Distribution of Liquid ⁴He

    DOE PAGES

    Prisk, T. R.; Bryan, M. S.; Sokol, P. E.; ...

    2017-07-24

    We report a high-resolution neutron Compton scattering study of liquid ⁴He under milli-Kelvin temperature control. To interpret the scattering data, we performed Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the atomic momentum distribution and final state effects for the conditions of temperature and density considered in the experiment. There is excellent agreement between the observed scattering and ab initio calculations of its lineshape at all temperatures. We also used model fit functions to obtain from the scattering data empirical estimates of the average atomic kinetic energy and Bose condensate fraction. These quantities are also in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. Wemore » conclude that contemporary Quantum Monte Carlo methods can furnish accurate predictions for the properties of Bose liquids, including the condensate fraction, close to the superfluid transition temperature.« less

  7. Can Nanorods Emulsify Immiscible Polymer Blends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hore, Michael J. A.

    2005-03-01

    The addition of nanoscale rods to immiscible binary polymer blends has a pronounced effect on the dynamics of phase separation. The results of computer simulations of the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) model in three dimensions (3D) indicate that when nanorods prefer one of two components in an immiscible binary polymer blend, the rate of phase separation decreases when the volume fraction of nanorods is increased, or as the aspect ratio (L/D) of the rods is increased. Interestingly, anisotropic nanoparticles have a much more pronounced effect on phase separation dynamics in the system when compared to the effects of spherical nanoparticles, which, generically, do not alter the characteristics of the kinetics in the system. In particular, it may be the case that at high volume fractions -- or alternatively, low volume fractions and large aspect ratio of nanorods -- the system may undergo micro-phase separation only, indicating that the nanorods may be excellent emulsifying agents.

  8. Size distributions of gold nanoclusters studied by liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    WILCOXON,JESS P.; MARTIN,JAMES E.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-05-23

    The authors report high pressure liquid chromatography, (HPLC), and transmission electron microscopy, (TEM), studies of the size distributions of nanosize gold clusters dispersed in organic solvents. These metal clusters are synthesized in inverse micelles at room temperature and those investigated range in diameter from 1--10 nm. HPLC is sensitive enough to discern changes in hydrodynamic volume corresponding to only 2 carbon atoms of the passivating agent or metal core size changes of less than 4 {angstrom}. The authors have determined for the first time how the total cluster volume (metal core + passivating organic shell) changes with the size of the passivating agent.

  9. Detecting energy dependent neutron capture distributions in a liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2015-03-01

    A novel technique is being developed to estimate the effective dose of a neutron field based on the distribution of neutron captures in a scintillator. Using Monte Carlo techniques, a number of monoenergetic neutron source energies and locations were modelled and their neutron capture response was recorded. Using back propagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) the energy and incident direction of the neutron field was predicted from the distribution of neutron captures within a 6Li-loaded liquid scintillator. Using this proposed technique, the effective dose of 252Cf, 241AmBe and 241AmLi neutron fields was estimated to within 30% for four perpendicular angles in the horizontal plane. Initial theoretical investigations show that this technique holds some promise for real-time estimation of the effective dose of a neutron field.

  10. Solute location in a nanoconfined liquid depends on charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Jacob A.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2015-07-01

    Nanostructured materials that can confine liquids have attracted increasing attention for their diverse properties and potential applications. Yet, significant gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of such nanoconfined liquids. Using replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a nanoscale, hydroxyl-terminated silica pore system, we determine how the locations explored by a coumarin 153 (C153) solute in ethanol depend on its charge distribution, which can be changed through a charge transfer electronic excitation. The solute position change is driven by the internal energy, which favors C153 at the pore surface compared to the pore interior, but less so for the more polar, excited-state molecule. This is attributed to more favorable non-specific solvation of the large dipole moment excited-state C153 by ethanol at the expense of hydrogen-bonding with the pore. It is shown that a change in molecule location resulting from shifts in the charge distribution is a general result, though how the solute position changes will depend upon the specific system. This has important implications for interpreting measurements and designing applications of mesoporous materials.

  11. Solute location in a nanoconfined liquid depends on charge distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Jacob A.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2015-07-28

    Nanostructured materials that can confine liquids have attracted increasing attention for their diverse properties and potential applications. Yet, significant gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of such nanoconfined liquids. Using replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a nanoscale, hydroxyl-terminated silica pore system, we determine how the locations explored by a coumarin 153 (C153) solute in ethanol depend on its charge distribution, which can be changed through a charge transfer electronic excitation. The solute position change is driven by the internal energy, which favors C153 at the pore surface compared to the pore interior, but less so for the more polar, excited-state molecule. This is attributed to more favorable non-specific solvation of the large dipole moment excited-state C153 by ethanol at the expense of hydrogen-bonding with the pore. It is shown that a change in molecule location resulting from shifts in the charge distribution is a general result, though how the solute position changes will depend upon the specific system. This has important implications for interpreting measurements and designing applications of mesoporous materials.

  12. Immiscibility between calciocarbonatitic and silicate melts and related wall rock reactions in the upper mantle: a natural case study from Romanian mantle xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalot-Prat, Françoise; Arnold, Michel

    1999-04-01

    This paper presents the textural, mineralogical and chemical study of veinlets cross-cutting peridotite xenoliths from the lithospheric mantle and brought to the surface by alkaline basalts (Persani Mountains, Romania). The veinlets utilized pre-existing zones of weakness in the host rocks or display a random distribution, lining grain boundaries or cross-cutting any mineral, and always forming an interconnected network. They are filled with carbonate patches included in a silicate matrix. Both products are holocrystalline. Carbonate products have alkali-poor calciocarbonatitic to sövitic compositions, while the silicate matrix composition ranges from monzodioritic to monzonitic and alkali feldspar syenitic, depending on the host-sample, i.e., within a rather alkaline silica-saturated series. The mineral phases present in the silicate matrix (F-apatite, armalcolite, chromite, diopside-enstatite series, plagioclase-sanidine series) are usually present in the carbonate zones, where forsterite is also found. Some minerals cross-cut the interface between both types of zones. Only the matrix is different, feldspathic (oligoclase to sanidine) in the former and pure calcite in the latter. Thus, mineralogical and textural relationships between both products are consistent with an origin with equilibrium liquid immiscibility. Mantle minerals cross-cut by veinlets are sometimes resorbed at grain boundaries, and at the contact of the most alkaline silicate and carbonate melts, subhedral diopside/augite formed at the expense of mantle enstatite or olivine. In terms of mineral chemistry, the compositional variations recorded by vein minerals vary along a continuous trend. They generally superpose to those observed from lherzolites to harzburgites, and exhibit the same range of composition as that observed between rims and cores of mantle minerals cross-cut by veinlets. In detail, the Ca-rich pyroxenes of veinlets are Al-poor and Mg-rich; cpx in the carbonate zones are slightly

  13. Immiscible phase incorporation during directional solidification of hypermonotectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry; Merrick, Roger A.

    1993-01-01

    Solidification processes in immiscible samples were investigated by directly observing the events taking place at the solid-liquid interface during directional solidification. Visualization of these events was made possible through the use of a transparent metal analog system and a temperature gradient stage assembly fitted to an optical microscope. The immiscible transparent analog system utilized was the succinonitrile-glycerol system. This system has been shown to exhibit the same morphological transitions as observed in metallic alloys of monotectic composition. Both monotectic and hypermonotectic composition samples were directionally solidified in order to gain an improved understanding of the manner in which the excess hypermonotectic liquid is incorporated into the solidifying structure. The processing conditions utilized prevented sedimentation of the excess hypermonotectic liquid by directionally solidifying the samples in very thin (13 microns), horizontally oriented cells. High thermal gradient to growth rate ratios (G/R) were used in an effort to prevent constitutional supercooling and the subsequent formation of L(sub 2) droplets in advance of the solidification front during the growth of fibrous composite structures. Results demonstrated that hypermonotectic composites could be produced in samples up to two weight percent off of the monotectic composition by using a G/R ratio greater than or equal to 4.6 x 10(exp 4) C(s)/mm(sup 2) to avoid constitutional supercooling. For hypermonotectic samples processed with G/R ratios below 4.6 x 10(exp 4) C(s)/mm(sup 2), constitutional supercooling occurred and resulted in slight interfacial instability. For these samples, two methods of incorporation of the hypermonotectic liquid were observed and are reported. The correlation between the phase spacing, lambda, and the growth rate, R, was examined and was found to obey a relationship generally associated with a diffusion controlled coupled growth process. For

  14. Interfacial dynamics of two immiscible fluids in spatially periodic porous media: The role of substrate wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Pranab Kumar; DasGupta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-07-01

    We delineate the contact line dynamics of two immiscible fluids in a medium having spatially periodic porous structures. The flow is driven by an external applied pressure gradient. We bring out the combined consequences of the solid fraction distribution and the substrate wettability on the resulting dynamics of the contact line, by employing phase-field formalism. We capture the sequence of spatiotemporal events leading to formation of liquid bridges by trapping a small amount of displaced phase fluid between two consecutive porous blocks, as dictated by the combinations of substrate wettability and solid fraction. We also demonstrate the existence of a regime of complete interfacial recovery, depending on the parametric space of the governing parameters under concern. Our results essentially demonstrate the intricate mechanisms by virtue of which the wettabilities of the substrates alter the dynamical evolutions of interfaces and the subsequent shapes and sizes of the adsorbed dispersed phases, bearing far-ranging consequences in several practical applications ranging from oil recovery to groundwater flow.

  15. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Immiscible Organic Transport at the Hyde Park Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, M.; Sykes, J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional two-phase mathematical model based on Darcy's law and conservation of mass for each liquid is presented. The numerical model is based on a generalized method of weighted residuals in conjunction with the finite element method and linear quadrilateral isoparametric elements. To alleviate numerical problems associated with hyperbolic equations, upstream weighting of the spatial terms in the model has been incorporated. The theoretical and numerical accuracy of the model is verified by comparison of simulation results with those from an existing one-dimensional two-phase flow simulator. The finite element model is used to simulate the migration of an immiscible organic solvent in groundwater, from a chemical waste disposal site located north of Niagara Falls, New York. The effects of uncertainty regarding porous media heterogeneities and anisotropy are examined, and it is concluded that the extent of immiscible contaminant migration is greatly sensitive to these parameters.

  17. Melt immiscibility in Apollo 15 KREEP - Origin of Fe-rich mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollister, L. S.; Crawford, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI) is investigated in terms of chemistry and occurrence in two KREEP-rich Apollo 15 basalts. The two samples have different cooling histories but the same composition. In the first sample, SLI occurred at the time of 58% crystallization. In the second sample, SLI occurred after 20% had crystallized. It is noted that SLI could be initiated as soon as plagioclase (out of a total composition which also included zircon, FeS, SiO2, whitlockite, and ilmenite) alone had crystallized. Attention is given to Fe-rich immiscible melts, and it is suggested that SLI may play an important role in the formation of the source regions of Fe-rich mare basalts. The analytical technique used for the assays was an energy dispersive analysis system with a resolution of 167 eV.

  18. Local Environment Distribution in Ab Initio Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Car, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    We have analyzed the distribution of local environments in liquid water at ambient conditions and its inherent potential energy surface (IPES) based on state-of-the-art ab initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on 128 molecules implementing hybrid PBE0 exchange [PRB 79, 085102 (2009)] and van der Waals (vdW) interactions [PRL 102, 073005 (2009)]. The local environments of molecules are characterized in terms of the local structure index (LSI) [JCP 104, 7671 (1996)] which is able to distinguish high- and low-density molecular environments. In agreement with simulations based on model potentials, we find that the distribution of LSI is unimodal at ambient conditions and bimodal in the IPES, consistent with the existence of polymorphism in amorphous phases of water. At ambient conditions spatial LSI fluctuations extend up to ~7 Å and their dynamical correlation decays on a time scale of ~3 ps, as found for density fluctuations in a recent study [PRL 106, 037801 (2011)]. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180, NSF: CHE-0956500

  19. Miscible and immiscible, forced and unforced experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Michael; Mokler, Matthew; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Experiments are presented in which an incompressible system of two liquids is accelerated to produce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In these experiments, the initially stable, stratified liquid combination is accelerated downward on a vertical rail system in one of two experimental apparatuses: an apparatus in which a system of weights and pulleys accelerates the liquid filled tank, or a new apparatus which uses linear induction motors to accelerate the tank to produce much greater acceleration levels. Both miscible and immiscible liquid combinations are used. In both apparatuses the resulting fluid flows are visualized with backlit imaging using LED backlights in conjunction with monochrome high-speed video cameras, both of which travel with the moving fluid filled containers. Initial perturbations are either unforced and allowed to progress from background noise or forced by vertically oscillating the liquid combination to produce parametric internal waves. The mixing layer growth rate α is determined for all cases and compared to numerical simulations and past experiments.

  20. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be...

  1. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be...

  2. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be...

  3. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  4. On Theories for Reacting Immiscible Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-11-05

    On some small scale each constituent of an immiscible mixture occupies a separate region of space. Given sufficient time and computing power, we could solve the continuum field equations and boundary conditions for this het erogenous system. This usually represents an enormously difficult task that is well beyond today's computational ca- pabilities. Mixture theories approximate this complex heterogeneous formulation with a set of field equations for an equivalent homoge- neous mat erial. In this work, we compare the theory for immiscible mixtures by Drumheller and Bedford with the theory of Passman, Nunziato, and Walsh. We describe the conditions under which these theories reduce to an equivalent formulation, and we also investigate the differences in their microinertial descriptions. Two variables play special roles in both theories. They are t he true material density and the volume fraction. Here we use a kinematical approach based on two new variables-t he true deformation gradient and the distention gradient. We show how the true deformation gra- dient is connected to the true material density and, in the absence of chemical reactions, the volume fraction is the inverse of the deter- minant of the distention gradient. However, when chemical reactions occur, the distention gradient and the volume fraction are not directly connected. We ako present a mixture model for a granuIar expIosive. This model is based upon the work of Baer and Nunziato, but our theory differs from their work in that we Present a three-dimension-al rnodd, `.. ` - - we cast the constitutive postulates in terms of the distention gradient rather than the volume fraction, and we incorporate elastic-plastic effects into the constitutive description of the solid granules.

  5. Distribution of rubidium between sodic sanidine and natural silicic liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, D.C.; Hedge, C.E.

    1970-01-01

    Phenocrysts of sodic sanidine from twelve upper Cenozoic units of silicic ash-flow tuff and lava from the Western United States contain from 0.25 to 0.45 the Rb present in the associated groundmass materials. The ratios of potassium to rubidium in the sanidines are, on the average, about four times greater than those of the groundmass. Separation of phenocrystic sanidine from salic melts provides an efficient method for raising the Rb content and lowering the K/Rb ratio of the melts, although the amount of differentiation probably is limited by continuous reequilibration of the alkalis between crystal and liquid phases through ion exchange. Syenites of cumulate origin will have appreciably lower Rb contents and higher K/Rb ratios than the melts from which they precipitated. Available data on the distribution of Rb between synthetic biotite and K-sanidine demonstrate that the separation of biotite probably will not deplete salic melts in Rb relative to K. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  6. 25 CFR 16.8 - Summary distribution of small liquid estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Summary distribution of small liquid estates. 16.8 Section 16.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE ESTATES OF INDIANS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES § 16.8 Summary distribution of small liquid estates. Where...

  7. 25 CFR 16.8 - Summary distribution of small liquid estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Summary distribution of small liquid estates. 16.8 Section 16.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE ESTATES OF INDIANS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES § 16.8 Summary distribution of small liquid estates. Where...

  8. 25 CFR 16.8 - Summary distribution of small liquid estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Summary distribution of small liquid estates. 16.8 Section 16.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE ESTATES OF INDIANS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES § 16.8 Summary distribution of small liquid estates. Where...

  9. The Distribution of Captured Non-Wetting Liquid Dispersed in Nanoporous Medium Recovery Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogorlov, A. A.; Borman, V. D.; Bortnikova, S. A.; Tronin, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the recovery method of a distribution function of non-wetting liquid captured in porous medium presented. Computation algorithm described. The recovered distribution functions for the system nanoporous medium (Libersorb 23) - non-wetting liquid (water) at the temperature of experiments 6°C presented. The used for calculation experimental data obtained in the time relaxation of metastable states of the non-wetting liquid in a porous medium experiment [Borman et al. 2016 Phys Rev E 93 022142].

  10. Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.

    1987-04-01

    A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.

  11. Thermally induced collision of droplets in an immiscible outer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davanlou, Ashkan; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-05-01

    Micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) have attracted wide attention and are identified as a promising solution for sample transport, filtration, chemical reactions, separation and detection. Despite their popularity, the selection of an appropriate mechanism for droplet transport and coalescence has always been a challenge. This paper investigates the use of Marangoni flow as a mechanism for levitating and transporting droplets on immiscible liquid films at higher speeds than is possible currently. For the first time, we show that it is possible to realize the natural coalescence of droplets through Marangoni effect without any external stimulation, and deliver the coalesced droplet to a certain destination through the use of surface tension gradients. The effects of shape and size on collision outcome are studied. Regions of coalescence and stretching separation of colliding droplets are delineated based on Weber number and impact number. In addition, the effect of viscosity on post collision regimes is studied. The findings in this fundamental study can be beneficial to many applications such as welding, drug delivery and microfluidics devices in controlling small droplets and targeting them to various locations.

  12. Thermally induced collision of droplets in an immiscible outer fluid.

    PubMed

    Davanlou, Ashkan; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-05-07

    Micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) have attracted wide attention and are identified as a promising solution for sample transport, filtration, chemical reactions, separation and detection. Despite their popularity, the selection of an appropriate mechanism for droplet transport and coalescence has always been a challenge. This paper investigates the use of Marangoni flow as a mechanism for levitating and transporting droplets on immiscible liquid films at higher speeds than is possible currently. For the first time, we show that it is possible to realize the natural coalescence of droplets through Marangoni effect without any external stimulation, and deliver the coalesced droplet to a certain destination through the use of surface tension gradients. The effects of shape and size on collision outcome are studied. Regions of coalescence and stretching separation of colliding droplets are delineated based on Weber number and impact number. In addition, the effect of viscosity on post collision regimes is studied. The findings in this fundamental study can be beneficial to many applications such as welding, drug delivery and microfluidics devices in controlling small droplets and targeting them to various locations.

  13. Hot water flushing for immiscible displacement of a viscous NAPL.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Denis M; Sleep, Brent E

    2007-05-14

    Thermal remediation techniques, such as hot water flooding, are emerging technologies that have been proposed for the removal of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface. In this study a combined laboratory and modeling investigation was conducted to determine if hot water flooding techniques would improve NAPL mass removal compared to ambient temperature water flushing. Two experiments were conducted in a bench scale two-dimensional sandbox (55 cmx45 cmx1.3 cm) and NAPL saturations were quantified using a light transmission apparatus. In these immiscible displacement experiments the aqueous phase, at 22 degrees C and 50 degrees C, displaced a zone with initial NAPL saturations on the order of 85%. The interfacial tension and viscosity of the selected light NAPL, Voltesso 35, are strongly temperature-dependent. Experimental results suggest that hot water flooding reduced the size of the high NAPL saturation zone, in comparison to the cold water flood, and yielded greater NAPL mass recovery (75% NAPL removal vs. 64%). Hot water flooding did not, however, result in lower residual NAPL saturations. A numerical simulator was modified to include simultaneous flow of water and organic phases, energy transport, temperature and pressure. Model predictions of mass removal and NAPL saturation profiles compared well with observed behavior. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the utility of hot water flooding improves with the increasing temperature dependence of NAPL hydraulic properties.

  14. Thermally induced collision of droplets in an immiscible outer fluid

    PubMed Central

    Davanlou, Ashkan; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) have attracted wide attention and are identified as a promising solution for sample transport, filtration, chemical reactions, separation and detection. Despite their popularity, the selection of an appropriate mechanism for droplet transport and coalescence has always been a challenge. This paper investigates the use of Marangoni flow as a mechanism for levitating and transporting droplets on immiscible liquid films at higher speeds than is possible currently. For the first time, we show that it is possible to realize the natural coalescence of droplets through Marangoni effect without any external stimulation, and deliver the coalesced droplet to a certain destination through the use of surface tension gradients. The effects of shape and size on collision outcome are studied. Regions of coalescence and stretching separation of colliding droplets are delineated based on Weber number and impact number. In addition, the effect of viscosity on post collision regimes is studied. The findings in this fundamental study can be beneficial to many applications such as welding, drug delivery and microfluidics devices in controlling small droplets and targeting them to various locations. PMID:25948547

  15. Macroscopic surface tension in a lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model of two immiscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, I.; Thompson, S. P.; Care, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a method by which an interface generating algorithm, similar to that of earlier lattice Boltzmann models of immiscible fluids, may be extended to a two component, two-speed two-dimensional (D2), nine-link (Q9) lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook fluid. For two-dimensional, microcurrent-free planar interfaces between the two immiscible fluids we derive expressions for static interfacial tensions and interfacial distributions of the two fluids. Extending our analysis to curved interfaces, we propose a scheme for incorporating the influence of interfacial microcurrents that is based upon general symmetry arguments and is correct to second order in lattice velocity. The analysis demonstrates that the interfacial microcurrents have only second-order influence upon the macroscopic behavior of the model. We find good agreement between our calculations and simulation results based on the microcurrent stream function and surface tension results from the pressure tensor or Laplace law.

  16. Particle Swarm Transport through Immiscible Fluid Layers in a Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, N. D.; Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Immiscible fluids occur either naturally (e.g. oil & water) or from anthropogenic processes (e.g. liquid CO2 & water) in the subsurface and complicate the transport of natural or engineered micro- or nano-scale particles. In this study, we examined the effect of immiscible fluids on the formation and evolution of particle swarms in a fracture. A particle swarm is a collection of colloidal-size particles in a dilute suspension that exhibits cohesive behavior. Swarms fall under gravity with a velocity that is greater than the settling velocity of a single particle. Thus a particle swarm of colloidal contaminants can potentially travel farther and faster in a fracture than expected for a dispersion or emulsion of colloidal particles. We investigated the formation, evolution, and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity in a uniform aperture fracture as hydrophobic/hydrophyllic particle swarms move across an oil-water interface. A uniform aperture fracture was fabricated from two transparent acrylic rectangular prisms (100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) that are separated by 1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 50 mm. The fracture was placed, vertically, inside a glass tank containing a layer of pure silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) on distilled water. Along the length of the fracture, 30 mm was filled with oil and 70 mm with water. Experiments were conducted using silicone oils with viscosities of 5, 10, 100, or 1000 cSt. Particle swarms (5 μl) were comprised of a 1% concentration (by mass) of 25 micron glass beads (hydrophilic) suspended in a water drop, or a 1% concentration (by mass) of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (hydrophobic) suspended in a water drop. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera and by green (525 nm) LED arrays for illumination. Swarms were spherical and remained coherent as they fell through the oil because of the immiscibility of oil and water. However, as a swarm approached the oil-water interface, it

  17. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  18. Insights into the role of wettability in cathode catalyst layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cell; pore scale immiscible flow and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, H.; Raoof, A.; Mansouri, S. H.

    2017-05-01

    The production of liquid water in cathode catalyst layer, CCL, is a significant barrier to increase the efficiency of proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Here we present, for the first time, a direct three-dimensional pore-scale modelling to look at the complex immiscible two-phase flow in CCL. After production of the liquid water at the surface of CCL agglomerates due to the electrochemical reactions, water spatial distribution affects transport of oxygen through the CCL as well as the rate of reaction at the agglomerate surfaces. To explore the wettability effects, we apply hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties using different surface contact angles. Effective diffusivity is calculated under several water saturation levels. Results indicate larger diffusive transport values for hydrophilic domain compared to the hydrophobic media where the liquid water preferentially floods the larger pores. However, hydrophobic domain showed more available surface area and higher oxygen consumption rate at the reaction sites under various saturation levels, which is explained by the effect of wettability on pore-scale distribution of water. Hydrophobic domain, with a contact angle of 150, reveals efficient water removal where only 28% of the pore space stays saturated. This condition contributes to the enhanced available reaction surface area and oxygen diffusivity.

  19. 7 CFR 1962.44 - Distribution of liquidation sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... liquidation has been approved, for essential repairs and parts for machinery and equipment to place it...

  20. 7 CFR 1962.44 - Distribution of liquidation sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... liquidation has been approved, for essential repairs and parts for machinery and equipment to place it...

  1. Welding immiscible polymers with a supercritical fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochu; Sanchez, Isaac C

    2007-11-20

    Polymer adhesion between two immiscible polymers is usually poor because there is little interpenetration of one polymer into the other at the interface. Increasing the width of the interfacial zone can enhance adhesion and mechanical properties. In principle, this can be accomplished by exposing heterogeneous polymer materials to a high-pressure fluid. The fluid can act as a common solvent and promote interpenetration. It also increases chain mobility at the interface, which helps to promote "welding" of the two polymers. A combination of the gradient theory of inhomogeneous systems and the Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state was used to investigate this phenomenon, especially the effect of the high compressibility of supercritical (SC) fluid on the compatibilization of two incompatible polymers. We calculate the interfacial density profile, interfacial thickness, and interfacial tension between the two polymers with and without the SC fluid. We find that the interfacial tension is decreased and the interfacial thickness is increased with high-pressure SC fluid for the ternary systems we have investigated. As the critical point is approached and the SC compressibility becomes large, no enhancement or deleterious effects on compatibilization were observed.

  2. Compatibilized Immiscible Polymer Blends for Gas Separations.

    PubMed

    Panapitiya, Nimanka; Wijenayake, Sumudu; Nguyen, Do; Karunaweera, Chamaal; Huang, Yu; Balkus, Kenneth; Musselman, Inga; Ferraris, John

    2016-07-30

    Membrane-based gas separation has attracted a great deal of attention recently due to the requirement for high purity gasses in industrial applications like fuel cells, and because of environment concerns, such as global warming. The current methods of cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption are energy intensive and costly. Therefore, polymer membranes have emerged as a less energy intensive and cost effective candidate to separate gas mixtures. However, the use of polymeric membranes has a drawback known as the permeability-selectivity tradeoff. Many approaches have been used to overcome this limitation including the use of polymer blends. Polymer blending technology synergistically combines the favorable properties of different polymers like high gas permeability and high selectivity, which are difficult to attain with a single polymer. During polymer mixing, polymers tend to uncontrollably phase separate due to unfavorable thermodynamics, which limits the number of completely miscible polymer combinations for gas separations. Therefore, compatibilizers are used to control the phase separation and to obtain stable membrane morphologies, while improving the mechanical properties. In this review, we focus on immiscible polymer blends and the use of compatibilizers for gas separation applications.

  3. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  4. Compatibilized Immiscible Polymer Blends for Gas Separations

    PubMed Central

    Panapitiya, Nimanka; Wijenayake, Sumudu; Nguyen, Do; Karunaweera, Chamaal; Huang, Yu; Balkus, Kenneth; Musselman, Inga; Ferraris, John

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-based gas separation has attracted a great deal of attention recently due to the requirement for high purity gasses in industrial applications like fuel cells, and because of environment concerns, such as global warming. The current methods of cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption are energy intensive and costly. Therefore, polymer membranes have emerged as a less energy intensive and cost effective candidate to separate gas mixtures. However, the use of polymeric membranes has a drawback known as the permeability-selectivity tradeoff. Many approaches have been used to overcome this limitation including the use of polymer blends. Polymer blending technology synergistically combines the favorable properties of different polymers like high gas permeability and high selectivity, which are difficult to attain with a single polymer. During polymer mixing, polymers tend to uncontrollably phase separate due to unfavorable thermodynamics, which limits the number of completely miscible polymer combinations for gas separations. Therefore, compatibilizers are used to control the phase separation and to obtain stable membrane morphologies, while improving the mechanical properties. In this review, we focus on immiscible polymer blends and the use of compatibilizers for gas separation applications. PMID:28773766

  5. A computational method for planning complex compound distributions under container, liquid handler, and assay constraints.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mark F; Wild, Daniel; Hoffman, Steve; Paulson, James; Neil, William; Nirschl, David S

    2013-10-01

    A systematic method for assembling and solving complex compound distribution problems is presented in detail. The method is based on a model problem that enumerates the mathematical equations and constraints describing a source container, liquid handler, and three types of destination containers involved in a set of compound distributions. One source container and one liquid handler are permitted in any given problem formulation, although any number of compound distributions may be specified. The relative importance of all distributions is expressed by assigning weights, which are factored into the final mathematical problem specification. A computer program was created that automatically assembles and solves a complete compound distribution problem given the parameters that describe the source container, liquid handler, and any number and type of compound distributions. Business rules are accommodated by adjusting weighting factors assigned to each distribution. An example problem, presented and explored in detail, demonstrates complex and nonintuitive solution behavior.

  6. Performance of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre superconducting cyclotron liquid nitrogen distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Gautam; Nandi, Chinmay; Bhattacharyya, Tamal Kumar; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-01-01

    The liquid nitrogen distribution at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India K500 superconducting cyclotron uses parallel branches to cool the thermal shield of helium vessel housing the superconducting coil and the cryopanels. Liquid nitrogen is supplied to the thermal shields from a pressurised liquid nitrogen dewar. Direct measurement of flow is quite difficult and seldom used in an operational cryogenic system. The total flow and heat load of the liquid nitrogen system was estimated indirectly by continuous measurement of level in the liquid nitrogen tanks. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate liquid nitrogen flow in the parallel branches. The model was used to generate flow distribution for different settings and the total flow was compared with measured data.

  7. Capillary pinning of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; MacMinn, C. W.; Huppert, H. E.; Juanes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Gravity currents in porous media have attracted interest recently in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. Capillarity can be important in the spreading and migration of the buoyant CO2 after injection because the typical pore size is very small (~10-100 microns), but the impact of capillarity on these flows is not well understood. Here, we study the impact of capillarity on the buoyant spreading of a finite gravity current of non-wetting fluid into a dense, wetting fluid in a vertically confined, horizontal aquifer. We show via simple, table-top experiments using glass bead packs that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the fluid-fluid interface. The horizontal extent of the pinned portion of the interface grows over time and this is responsible for ultimately stopping the spreading of the buoyant current after a finite distance. In addition, capillarity blunts the leading edge of the buoyant current. We demonstrate through micromodel experiments that the characteristic height of the nose of the current is controlled by the pore throat size distribution and the balance between capillarity and gravity. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. Our work suggests that capillary pinning and capillary blunting exert an important control on finite-release gravity currents in the context of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Gravity driven flow of a buoyant, nonwetting fluid (air) over a dense, wetting fluid (propylene glycol). Starting with a vertical interface between the fluids, the flow first undergoes a lock-exchange process. The process models a finite release problem after the dense fluid hits the left boundary. In contrast to finite release of a miscible current that spreads indefinitely, spreading of an immiscible

  8. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2010-09-28

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  9. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  10. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  11. The Role of Air-Electrode Structure on the Incorporation of Immiscible PFCs in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Battery.

    PubMed

    Balaish, Moran; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2017-03-22

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are considered advantageous additives to nonaqueous Li-O2 battery due to their superior oxygen solubility and diffusivity compared to common battery electrolytes. Up to now, the main focus was concentrated on PFCs-electrolyte investigation; however, no special attention was granted to the role of carbon structure in the PFCs-Li-O2 system. In our current research, immiscible PFCs, rather than miscible fluorinated ethers, were added to activated carbon class air electrode due to their higher susceptibility toward O2(•-) attack and to their ability to shift the reaction from two-phase to an artificial three-phase reaction zone. The results showed superior battery performance upon PFCs addition at lower current density (0.05 mA cm(-2)) but unexpectedly failed to do so at higher current density (0.1 and 0.2 mA cm(-2)), where oxygen transport limitation is best illustrated. The last was a direct result of liquid-liquid displacement phenomenon occurring when the two immiscible liquids were introduced into the porous carbon medium. The investigation and role of carbon structure on the mechanism upon PFCs addition to Li-O2 system are suggested based on electrochemical characterization, wettability behavior studies, and the physical adsorption technique. Finally, we suggest an optimum air-electrode structure enabling the incorporation of immiscible PFCs in a nonaqueous Li-O2 battery.

  12. Manifold to uniformly distribute a solid-liquid slurry

    DOEpatents

    Kern, Kenneth C.

    1983-01-01

    This invention features a manifold that divides a stream of coal particles and liquid into several smaller streams maintaining equal or nearly equal mass compositions. The manifold consists of a horizontal, variable area header having sharp-edged, right-angled take-offs which are oriented on the bottom of the header.

  13. The clock distribution system for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Upgrade Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, J.; Gong, D.; Guo, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, D.; Kierstead, J.; Li, X.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Xiang, A. C.; Xu, H.; Xu, T.; You, Y.; Ye, J.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype Liquid-argon Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB), called the LTDB Demonstrator, has been developed to demonstrate the functions of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I trigger electronics upgrade. Forty Analog-to-Digital converters and four FPGAs with embedded multi-gigabit-transceivers on each Demonstrator need high quality clocks. A clock distribution system based on commercial components has been developed for the Demonstrator. The design of the clock distribution system is presented. The performance of the clock distribution system has been evaluated. The components used in the clock distribution system have been qualified to meet radiation tolerance requirements of the Demonstrator.

  14. Investigation of immiscible systems and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markworth, A. J.; Oldfield, W.; Duga, J.; Gelles, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    The droplet coalescence kinetics at 0 g and 1 g were considered for two systems which contained liquid droplets in a host liquid. One of these (Al-In) typified a system containing a liquid phase miscibility gap and the order (oil-water) a mixture of two essentially insoluble liquids. A number of coalescence mechanisms potentially prominent at low g in this system were analyzed and explanations are presented for the observed unusual stability of the emulsion. Ground base experiments were conducted on the coalescence of In droplets in and Al-In alloy during cooling through the miscibility gap at different cooling rates. These were in qualitative agreement with the computer simulation. Potential applications for systems with liquid phase miscibility gaps were explored. Possibilities included superconductors, electrical contact materials, superplastic materials, catalysts, magnetic materials, and others. The role of space processing in their production was also analyzed.

  15. Tunable and flexible solvent-free liquid organic distributed feedback lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Hyung; Inoue, Munetomo; Zhao, Li; Komino, Takeshi; Seo, Soonmin; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-02-01

    We report on optically pumped blue, green, and red liquid organic distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on solvent-free fluidic organic semiconductors, and prepared on highly flexible corrugated polymeric patterns. By the appropriate selection of laser dyes doping a liquid 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole host, the lasing wavelength is effectively tuned across the visible spectrum via a cascade energy transfer scheme. We also demonstrate a mechanical tunability of the flexible liquid DFB laser emission, which is due to the deformation of the high-aspect ratio DFB grating under bending. Overall, this work provides an important step in the development of flexible liquid organic optoelectronic devices.

  16. Effect of droplet size distribution on reaction heat in a liquid-liquid heterogeneous reaction process.

    PubMed

    Yasuhiro, Fujimoto

    2004-11-11

    In heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction processes, explosions have been reported. An aim of this study is to simulate the accident stories, which might be caused by inappropriate mixing conditions in the heterogeneous reaction process. The reaction of water-insoluble anhydride and water was selected as a model process. The experimental trend data of droplet size with agitation in a batch reactor were fitted to an empirical equation. The good fittings show the applicability of the equation in our reaction conditions.

  17. Effect of wettability on adverse mobility immiscible floods

    SciTech Connect

    Vives, M.T.; Chang, Y.C.; Mohanty, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    Many immiscible displacements in reservoirs occur at adverse mobility. Effect of wettability on these displacements is not well understood and often ignored in reservoir simulation. Recent macroscopic theories of viscous fingering treat adverse immiscible flows similar to miscible flows, the mixing in the fingered region being controlled by a Todd-Longstaff-type functional form. The wettability of the medium is taken into account only through the use of appropriate relative permeabilities. The goal of this paper is to understand the macroscopic bypassing in adverse mobility immiscible floods. Immiscible displacements are conducted in a quarter 5-spot model in both drainage and imbibition modes at similar effective mobility ratios and viscous-to-gravity numbers. The level of bypassing and gravity override is visualized and measured. Tertiary water-alternating-gas (WAG) displacements are also conducted at various WAG ratios and viscosity ratios. Fractional flow analysis and numerical simulation are used to understand these displacements. Experiments show that macroscopic viscous fingering is present in adverse viscosity immiscible displacements where no saturation shock is expected from 1-D fractional flow theory. Bypassing due to both fingering and gravity override is higher in the drainage mode than in the imbibition mode, with other key parameters being the same. Optimum WAG ratio in water-wet rock is a function of oil/solvent viscosity ratio. The macroscopic flow theory needs to include capillarity and viscous fingering to match these experimental findings.

  18. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of using stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.

  19. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-23

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of using stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.

  20. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  1. Distributed hydrophone array based on liquid crystal cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodzeli, Zourab; Ladouceur, Francois; Silvestri, Leonardo; Michie, Andrew; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Guo, Grace Qi; Pozhidaev, Eugene P.; Kiselev, Alexei D.

    2012-02-01

    We describe a fibre optic hydrophone array system that could be used for underwater acoustic surveillance applications e.g. military, counter terrorist and customs authorities in protecting ports and harbors, offshore production facilities or coastal approaches as well as various marine applications. In this paper we propose a new approach to underwater sonar systems using voltage-controlled Liquid Crystals (LC) and simple multiplexing method. The proposed method permits measurements of sound under water at multiple points along an optical fibre using low cost components (LC cells), standard single mode fibre, without complex interferometric measurement techniques, electronics or demodulation software.

  2. Kinetic Energy and Angular Distributions of He and Ar Atoms Evaporating from Liquid Dodecane.

    PubMed

    Patel, Enamul-Hasan; Williams, Mark A; Koehler, Sven P K

    2017-01-12

    We report both kinetic energy and angular distributions for He and Ar atoms evaporating from C12H26. All results were obtained by performing molecular dynamics simulations of liquid C12H26 with around 10-20 noble gas atoms dissolved in the liquid and by subsequently following the trajectories of the noble gas atoms after evaporation from the liquid. Whereas He evaporates with a kinetic energy distribution of (1.05 ± 0.03) × 2RT (corrected for the geometry used in experiments: (1.08 ± 0.03) × 2RT, experimentally obtained value: (1.14 ± 0.01) × 2RT), Ar displays a kinetic energy distribution that better matches a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at the temperature of the liquid ((0.99 ± 0.04) × 2RT). This behavior is also reflected in the angular distributions, which are close to a cosine distribution for Ar but slightly narrower, especially for faster atoms, in the case of He. This behavior of He is most likely due to the weak interaction potential between He and the liquid hydrocarbon.

  3. Liquid-crystal blazed grating with azimuthally distributed liquid-crystal directors.

    PubMed

    Honma, Michinori; Nose, Toshiaki

    2004-09-20

    We propose a novel formation method of arbitrary phase profiles of circular light by controlling azimuthal angles of liquid-crystal directors; its principle is described theoretically. A new liquid-crystal blazed grating is demonstrated by use of the proposed method. It is revealed that the first-order diffraction efficiency reaches the maximum value (theoretically 100%, experimentally approximately 90%) at an optimum applied voltage when the phase difference between the extraordinary and ordinary rays agrees with one-half the wavelength. Furthermore, the polarization states of the diffracted light beams are analyzed by Stokes parameter measurements, and unique polarization-splitting properties are revealed.

  4. Solid-Solution Alloying of Immiscible Ru and Cu with Enhanced CO Oxidation Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Nishida, Yoshihide; Sato, Katsutoshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-03-24

    We report on novel solid-solution alloy nanoparticles (NPs) of Ru and Cu that are completely immiscible even above melting point in bulk phase. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray measurements demonstrated that Ru and Cu atoms were homogeneously distributed in the alloy NPs. Ru0.5Cu0.5 NPs demonstrated higher CO oxidation activity than fcc-Ru NPs, which are known as one of the best monometallic CO oxidation catalysts.

  5. A new insight into interfaces of immiscible binary polymer blends from the free volume approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, P.; Meghala, D.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Chandrashekara, M. N.; Ranganathaiah, C.

    2012-06-01

    The interface width in an immiscible (PVC/PS) polymer blend is determined using hydrodynamic interaction parameter (α) derived from free volume data measured using Positron lifetime spectrometer. CONTIN program has been employed to get the free volume hole size distribution. A new definition of interface width is presented, which originates from the Kirkwood-Riseman theory and friction coefficient as per Stokes equation. Friction at the interface of a binary blend decides how close the surfaces come or stay farther resulting in narrow or broad interface width respectively.

  6. Liquid metal filtration and distribution using fiberglass fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Dault, R.; Tremblay, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    In the last decade, the aluminum industry has mainly focused on improving metal quality by working on furnaces and casting practices and especially on in-line treatment units. However, fiberglass fabric is widely used throughout the industry. It is specially used at the last step before the solidification process when molten metal is transferred from the trough to the ingot mold. In this regard, little effort has been reported on better understanding or using fiberglass fabric in molten aluminum filtration and distribution applications. This paper will review the fiberglass fabric options. The different fiberglass fabric coatings and finishes will be described as well as their properties and characteristics with regard to molten aluminum. Fiberglass fabric used in filtration applications will be defined as a function of selected parameters such as opening, finish, throughput, etc. Finally, metal distribution will be discussed. A better understanding of fiberglass fabric finishes and bag configuration will improve metal distribution and ultimately, the final ingot quality.

  7. Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Distribution Using Phase Separation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. D.; Liu, D.; Wang, D.

    2010-03-01

    A method for gas-liquid two-phase flow distribution is proposed in this study, which can be called the phase separation method. The advantage of the new method is that it converts two-phase flow distribution into single-phase distribution, which overcomes the problem of phase splitting in the distribution process of two-phase flow radically, and an equal quality distribution is guaranteed. At first, separate the mixture of gas and liquid into single or near single phase fluids by enhancing phase splitting in distributor, then distribute the single gas and liquid flow respectively as required, finally recombine each couple of gas and liquid stream respectively to form a two phase stream exiting a branch. Experiments were conducted in an air-water multiphase flow test loop. The flow pattern in the experiments included stratified flow, wave flow, slug flow and a part of annular flow. The experimental results show that the phase separation method and apparatus could be feasible to make an equal quality distribution and the deviation of stream quality among the branches is less than 1.6%.

  8. Liquid crystal nanoparticle formulation as an oral drug delivery system for liver-specific distribution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Ryeol; Park, Ji Su; Bae, Il Hak; Lee, Yan; Kim, B Moon

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystal nanoparticles have been utilized as an efficient tool for drug delivery with enhanced bioavailability, drug stability, and targeted drug delivery. However, the high energy requirements and the high cost of the liquid crystal preparation have been obstacles to their widespread use in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we prepared liquid crystal nanoparticles using a phase-inversion temperature method, which is a uniquely low energy process. Particles prepared with the above method were estimated to be ~100 nm in size and exhibited a lamellar liquid crystal structure with orthorhombic lateral packing. Pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of a hydrophobic peptide-based drug candidate formulated with the liquid crystal nanoparticles showed a five-fold enhancement of bioavailability, sustained release, and liver-specific drug delivery compared to a host–guest complex formulation. PMID:27042053

  9. Liquid crystal nanoparticle formulation as an oral drug delivery system for liver-specific distribution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ryeol; Park, Ji Su; Bae, Il Hak; Lee, Yan; Kim, B Moon

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystal nanoparticles have been utilized as an efficient tool for drug delivery with enhanced bioavailability, drug stability, and targeted drug delivery. However, the high energy requirements and the high cost of the liquid crystal preparation have been obstacles to their widespread use in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we prepared liquid crystal nanoparticles using a phase-inversion temperature method, which is a uniquely low energy process. Particles prepared with the above method were estimated to be ~100 nm in size and exhibited a lamellar liquid crystal structure with orthorhombic lateral packing. Pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of a hydrophobic peptide-based drug candidate formulated with the liquid crystal nanoparticles showed a five-fold enhancement of bioavailability, sustained release, and liver-specific drug delivery compared to a host-guest complex formulation.

  10. Experimental study on immiscible jet breakup using refractive index matched oil-water pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A subsea oil well blowout creates an immiscible crude oil jet. This jet fragments shortly after injection, resulting in generation of a droplet cloud. Detailed understanding of the processes involved is crucial for modeling the fragmentation and for predicting the droplet size distribution. High density of opaque droplets near nozzle limits our ability to visualize and quantify the breakup process. To overcome this challenge, two immiscible fluids: silicone oil and sugar water with the same index of refraction (1.4015) are used as surrogates for crude oil and seawater, respectively. Their ratios of kinematic viscosity (5.64), density (0.83) and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Distribution of the oil phase is visualized by fluorescent tagging. Both phases are also seeded with particles for simultaneous PIV measurements. The measurements are performed within atomization range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. Index matching facilitates undistorted view of the phase distribution in illuminated section. Ongoing tests show that the jet surface initially rolls up into Kelvin-Helmholtz rings, followed by development of dispersed phase ligaments further downstream, which then break into droplets. Some of these droplets are re-entrained into the high momentum core, resulting in secondary breakup. As the oil layer and ligaments evolve, they often entrain water, resulting in generation of multiple secondary water droplets encapsulated within the oil droplets. This research is made possible by a Grant from Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  11. Liquidity, Technological Opportunities, and the Stage Distribution of Venture Capital Investments

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Henry; Mina, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the stage distribution of European venture capital investments from 1990 to 2011. Consistent with liquidity risk theory, we find that the likelihood of investing in earlier stages increases relative to all private equity investments during liquidity crisis years. While liquidity is the main driver of acquisition investments and, to some extent, of expansion financings, technological opportunities are overall the main driver of early and late stage venture capital investments. In contrast to the dotcom crash, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the relative likelihood of expansion investments, but not of early and late stage investments. PMID:26166906

  12. Self-Transport of Condensed Liquid in Micro Cooling Device Using Distributed Meniscus Pumping.

    PubMed

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P

    2015-06-16

    This paper reports a reliable passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of a tapered microchannel and sharp microstructures. This tailored microchannel with triple-spike microstructures was created to transport condensed liquid into the reservoir chamber in a micro cooling device and in the case of chip off-mode prepare the next cooling cycle before chip on-mode, allowing the reliable and continuous circulation of coolant without liquid being trapped in the vapor channel causing dryout limitation. At the tapered channel end, the pinned liquid meniscus was distributed by a middle spike and then continued to overflow into the condenser chamber due to extended capillary action.

  13. Liquidity, Technological Opportunities, and the Stage Distribution of Venture Capital Investments.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Henry; Mina, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the stage distribution of European venture capital investments from 1990 to 2011. Consistent with liquidity risk theory, we find that the likelihood of investing in earlier stages increases relative to all private equity investments during liquidity crisis years. While liquidity is the main driver of acquisition investments and, to some extent, of expansion financings, technological opportunities are overall the main driver of early and late stage venture capital investments. In contrast to the dotcom crash, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the relative likelihood of expansion investments, but not of early and late stage investments.

  14. Melt inclusion evidence of second immiscibility within a magma derived non-silicate phase (Mt Vesuvius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulignati, P.; Kamenetsky, V.; Marianelli, P.; Sbrana, A.

    2003-04-01

    Processes of melt immiscibility occurring during late magmatic differentiation play important role in the generation of many magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits and may activate and control the style of volcanic eruptions. The exsolution of a non-silicate, volatile-rich phase from the phonolitic magma occurred at the peripheral parts of the 79AD Vesuvius magma chamber. The results of our work suggest that this immiscible phase can further experience another unmixing event that occurs in essentially "post-magmatic" environment. Heating/cooling experiments were carried out on the cogenetic multiphase (clear daughter crystals + vapour bubble(s) + interstial liquid) inclusions, hosted in K-feldspar of cognate felsic xenoliths, representative of rocks in the peripheral parts of the magma chamber. During heating, solid phases begin to dissolve at about 150^oC and melt completely at 530^oC. These low temperatures of melting argue for a non-silicate composition of daughter minerals, and thus bulk inclusion content. The remaining vapour bubble dissolves at 880^oC. During subsequent cooling, vapour bubble nucleates at 785^oC and increases in size. Unmixing of at least two melt phases occurs instantaneously at 500^oC in all studied inclusions. Globules of one melt float freely in the matrix of another melt, change their shape and size, coalesce and split apart continuously down to 100--150^oC. The movements of globules slow down with decreasing temperature until final solidification at 40--50^oC. The similarity of observed phase transformations inside inclusions suggests their homogeneous trapping at magmatic temperatures. By analogy with results of the study of xenoliths from the Vesuvius 472AD eruption (Fulignati et al., 2001) we interpret unmixed phases as globules of the Na-K chloride melt set in the matrix of Ca-carbonate melt. We infer that immiscibility between low viscosity, highly fugitive non-silicate melts may significantly influence partitioning of metals

  15. Local lattice-gas model for immiscible fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S.; Doolen, G. D.; Eggert, K.; Grunau, D.; Loh, E. Y.

    1991-01-01

    A lattice-gas model is presented for two-dimensional immiscible fluid flows with surface tension that uses strictly local collision rules. Instead of using a local total color flux as Somers and Rem (1991), local colored holes are used to be the memory of particles of the same color. Interactions between walls and fluids are included that produce arbitrary contact angles.

  16. Adiabatic compressibility of an immiscible molten NaCl-AgI salt mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, V. P.; Tkachev, N. K.; Kulik, N. P.; Peshkina, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    Adiabatic compressibility β of an immiscible 0.5NaCl + 0.5AgI liquid mixture in the immiscibility range is studied experimentally and theoretically using the model of charged hard spheres. The compressibility is calculated by the relationship β = 1/ u 2ρ studied using sound velocity u measured by a pulse method and density ρ determined by hydrostatic weighing. It is shown that the compressibility of the upper phase decreases and that of the lower phase increases when the temperature increases because of the superposition of the effects of the thermal motion of ions and the phase compositions. The temperature dependence of the difference between the compressibilities of the equilibrium phases is described using the empirical equation Δβ = ( T c- T)0.442, which is close to the mean-field theory description. The results of the model calculations adequately reproduce the experimentally observed temperature dependence of the compressibility of the coexisting phases. However, the theoretically predicted critical exponent (1/2) differs from the experimentally determined exponent by 13%. These results are discussed in terms of the nature of chemical bond in silver iodide.

  17. LIQUID CYCLONE CONTACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

  18. Liquid flow and distribution in unsaturated porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2004-01-01

    Flow and transport in permeable or porous media and microchannels occurs in a variety of situations in micro- and reduced-gravity environments, many of them associated with environmental control and life support systems. While the role of gravity is limited, due to the typically small size scales associated permeable media, gravity, at the very least, affects the overall disposition of fluid in a macroscopic system. This presentation will discuss examples where the absence of gravity affects flow and phase distribution in selected examples of unsaturated flow and transport of heat and mass in porous media and microchannels that are pertinent to spacecraft systems.

  19. Liquid flow and distribution in unsaturated porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2004-01-01

    Flow and transport in permeable or porous media and microchannels occurs in a variety of situations in micro- and reduced-gravity environments, many of them associated with environmental control and life support systems. While the role of gravity is limited, due to the typically small size scales associated permeable media, gravity, at the very least, affects the overall disposition of fluid in a macroscopic system. This presentation will discuss examples where the absence of gravity affects flow and phase distribution in selected examples of unsaturated flow and transport of heat and mass in porous media and microchannels that are pertinent to spacecraft systems.

  20. Capillary pinning and blunting of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Benzhong; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Juanes, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    Gravity-driven flows in the subsurface have attracted recent interest in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. After injection, the CO2 will spread and migrate as a buoyant gravity current relative to the denser, ambient brine. Although the CO2 and the brine are immiscible, the impact of capillarity on CO2 spreading and migration is poorly understood. We previously studied the early time evolution of an immiscible gravity current, showing that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the macroscopic fluid-fluid interface and that this can eventually stop the flow. Here we study the full lifetime of such a gravity current. Using tabletop experiments in packings of glass beads, we show that the horizontal extent of the pinned region grows with time and that this is ultimately responsible for limiting the migration of the current to a finite distance. We also find that capillarity blunts the leading edge of the current, which contributes to further limiting the migration distance. Using experiments in etched micromodels, we show that the thickness of the blunted nose is controlled by the distribution of pore-throat sizes and the strength of capillarity relative to buoyancy. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. By applying this model to representative aquifers, we show that capillary pinning and blunting can exert an important control on gravity currents in the context of geological CO2 storage.

  1. Impact of Organic-Liquid Distribution and Flow-Field Heterogeneity on Reductions in Mass Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, Erica L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2010-06-07

    A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to investigate the impact of organic-liquid distribution and flow-field heterogeneity on the relationship between source-zone mass removal and reductions in contaminant mass flux from the source zone. Changes in source-zone architecture were quantified using image analysis, allowing explicit examination of their impact on the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior. The results showed that there was minimal reduction in mass flux until a large fraction of mass was removed for systems wherein organic liquid was present solely as residual saturation in regions that were hydraulically accessible. Conversely, significant reductions in mass flux occurred with relatively minimal mass removal for systems wherein organic liquid was present at both residual and higher saturations. The latter systems exhibited multi-step mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior, and characterization of the organic-liquid saturation distribution throughout flushing allowed identification of the cause of the nonideal behavior. The age of the source zone (time from initial emplacement to time of initial characterization) significantly influenced the observed mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior. The results of this study illustrate the impact of both organic-liquid distribution and flow-field heterogeneity on mass-removal and mass-flux processes.

  2. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  3. Influence of Viscous and Capillary Forces on Immiscible Fluid Displacement: Pore-Scale Experimental Study in a Water-Wet Micromodel Demonstrating Viscous and Capillary Fingering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2011-08-18

    Unstable immiscible fluid displacement in porous media affects geological carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and groundwater contamination by nonaqueous phase liquids. Characterization of immiscible displacement processes at the pore-scale is important to better understand macroscopic processes at the continuum-scale. A series of displacement experiments was conducted to investigate the impacts of viscous and capillary forces on displacement stability and fluid saturation distributions in a homogeneous water-wet pore network micromodel with precisely-microfabricated pore structures. Displacements were studied using seven wetting-nonwetting fluid pairs with viscosity ratios M (viscosity of the advancing nonwetting fluid divided by the viscosity of the displaced wetting fluid) ranging four orders of magnitude from logM = -1.95 to 1.88. The micromodel was initially saturated with either polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) or water as a wetting fluid, which was then displaced by a nonwetting alkane fluid under different flow rates. Capillary numbers (Ca) ranged over four orders of magnitude for the reported experiments, from logCa = -5.88 to -1.02. Fluorescent microscopy was used to visualize displacement and measure nonwetting fluid saturation distributions. These experiments extend the classical work by Lenormand et al. by using water-wet micromodels, high-precision fabrication, and enhanced image analysis of the saturation distributions. In the micromodel experiments initially saturated with PEG200, a viscous wetting fluid, unstable displacement occurred by viscous fingering over the whole range of imposed capillary numbers. For the experiments initially saturated with water, unstable displacement occurred by capillary fingering at low capillary numbers. When the viscous forces were increased by increasing the injection rate, crossover into stable displacement was observed for the fluid pairs with M > 0. For unstable displacement experiments applying the same

  4. Interfacial tension measurement of immiscible liq uids using a capillary tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, N.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Delsignore, D.

    1992-01-01

    The interfacial tension of immiscible liquids is an important thermophysical property that is useful in the behavior of liquids both in microgravity (Martinez et al. (1987) and Karri and Mathur (1988)) and in enhanced oil recovery processes under normal gravity (Slattery (1974)). Many techniques are available for its measurement, such as the ring method, drop weight method, spinning drop method, and capillary height method (Adamson (1960) and Miller and Neogi (1985)). Karri and Mathur mention that many of the techniques use equations that contain a density difference term and are inappropriate for equal density liquids. They reported a new method that is suitable for both equal and unequal density liquids. In their method, a capillary tube forms one of the legs of a U-tube. The interfacial tension is related to the heights of the liquids in the cups of the U-tube above the interface in the capillary. Our interest in this area arose from a need to measure small interfacial tension (around 1 mN/m) for a vegetable oil/silicon oil system that was used in a thermocapillary drop migration experiment (Rashidnia and Balasubramaniam (1991)). In our attempts to duplicate the method proposed by Karri and Mathur, we found it quite difficult to anchor the interface inside the capillary tube; small differences of the liquid heights in the cups drove the interface out of the capillary. We present an alternative method using a capillary tube to measure the interfacial tensions of liquids of equal or unequal density. The method is based on the combined capillary rises of both liquids in the tube.

  5. Multiple (immiscible) melt phases of mafic composition in Chicxulub impact ejecta from northeastern Mexico: New constraints on target lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P.; Stinnesbeck, W.; Kontny, A.; Stüben, D.; Kramar, U.; Harting, M.

    2002-12-01

    Proximal ejecta deposits in sections from NE Mexico (Rancho Nuevo, La Sierrita, El Peñon, El Mimbral) have been investigated by backscattered electron imaging, wave-length dispersive electron microprobe analyses, and cathodoluminiscence, in order to characterize target lithologies, and ejecta mixing, fractionation, and distribution mechanisms. Additional investigations included magnetic properties (Kontny et al, this meeting) and trace element analyses (Harting et al, this meeting). Petrological features of these ejecta deposits are extraordinarily well preserved. They consist of mm-cm sized vesiculated spherical to drop-shaped spherules and angular to filamentous (ejecta-) fragments, as well as carbonate clasts, marl clasts, and rare benthic foraminifera floating in a carbonaceous matrix. Occasionally, spherules and fragments show welding-amalgamation features and enclose other components, thus resulting in a foam-like texture. An origin from the Chicxulub impact is suggested by geographical proximity and morphologically similarity to spherules found in other K-T sites in North to Central America and the Atlantic. The far distribution of such coarse-grained, foamy, and fragile ejecta-clasts as well as welding features suggest ignimbrite-like transport mechanisms or nearby secondary impacts. Several silicic ejecta phases have been observed that occur as distinct phases, even within one ejecta particle with textures indicative of liquid immiscibility: (1) Fe- (25-35 wt%), Mg- (10-15 wt%) rich phases with <25 wt% SiO2, altered to chlorite, (2) K- (5-8 wt.%) and Al- (25-30 wt%) rich hydrated glass with 45-50 wt% SiO2, and (3) rare SiO2- (>60 wt%) rich andesitic glasses. In addition to these silicic phases, abundant carbonate characterizes all studied ejecta deposits. It occurs within spherules and fragments and as clasts and globules, and shows textures indicative of either liquid immiscibility and/or quenching (`feathery calcite'). Quenched carbonates are enriched

  6. The Structure, Density, and Local Environment Distribution in Ab Initio Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    We have performed extensive ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of liquid water at ambient conditions in the canonical (NVT) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles to understand the individual and collective importance of exact exchange, van der Waals interactions, and nuclear quantum effects on the structural properties of liquid water. AIMD simulations which include these effects result in oxygen-oxygen radial distribution functions which are in excellent agreement with experiments and a liquid water structure having an equilibrium density within 1% of the experimental value of 1 g/cm3. A detailed analysis of the distribution of local structure in ambient liquid water has revealed that the inherent potential energy surface is bimodal with respect to high- and low-density molecular environments, consistent with the existence of polymorphism in the amorphous phases of water. With these findings in mind, the methodology presented herein overcomes the well-known limitations of semi-local density functional theory (GGA-DFT) providing a detailed and accurate microscopic description of ambient liquid water. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180, NSF: CHE-0956500.

  7. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-23

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of usingmore » stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.« less

  8. Application of maximum entropy method for droplet size distribution prediction using instability analysis of liquid sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahednejad, E.; Ommi, F.; Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Chen, C. P.; Mahdavi, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the instability analysis of wave growth on liquid jet surface, and maximum entropy principle (MEP) for prediction of droplet diameter distribution in primary breakup region. The early stage of the primary breakup, which contains the growth of wave on liquid-gas interface, is deterministic; whereas the droplet formation stage at the end of primary breakup is random and stochastic. The stage of droplet formation after the liquid bulk breakup can be modeled by statistical means based on the maximum entropy principle. The MEP provides a formulation that predicts the atomization process while satisfying constraint equations based on conservations of mass, momentum and energy. The deterministic aspect considers the instability of wave motion on jet surface before the liquid bulk breakup using the linear instability analysis, which provides information of the maximum growth rate and corresponding wavelength of instabilities in breakup zone. The two sub-models are coupled together using momentum source term and mean diameter of droplets. This model is also capable of considering drag force on droplets through gas-liquid interaction. The predicted results compared favorably with the experimentally measured droplet size distributions for hollow-cone sprays.

  9. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-23

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of usingmore » stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.« less

  10. Research aimed at immiscible CO/sub 2/ flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, F.T.H.; Burchfield, T.E.

    1987-04-27

    The National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Niper) is conducting reserach to develop improved methods for oil recovery by immiscible CO/sub 2/ displacement. The research includes fundamental studies of displacement mechanisms and coreflooding tests for development of an optimal injection method. Heavy oils are the major target of this research. For heavier crudes (API gravity below 25/sup 0/), high viscosity is a major constraint in oil recovery and pipeline transportation. Therefore, reducing oil viscosity becomes critical. Methods currently being used for viscous oil recovery include thermal methods (steamflooding and in situ combustion) and CO/sub 2/ methods. Steamflooding has been widely applied. The number of immiscible CO/sub 2/ projects is small but increasing.

  11. Covalent Fusion of layered Incompatible Gels in Immiscible Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Santidan; Singh, Awaneesh; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    We carry out dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to model a two layered stackable gel where the gels are incompatible and are present in immiscible solvent. The bottom layer of the gel is created first and then a solution of new initiators, monomers and cross-linkers is introduced on top of it. These components then undergo polymerization and form the second gel layer. We study all possible combinations of free radical polymerization (FRP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanisms with the two layers of the gel. For example, the bottom layer gel is created via ATRP, whereas the top layer gel follows FRP. Our focus is to do a systematic study of all these combinations and find out the factors responsible for combining two incompatible gels in immiscible solvents.

  12. Tailoring the light distribution of liquid crystal display with freeform engineered diffuser.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruidong; Hong, Qi; Gao, Yating; Luo, Zhenyue; Wu, Shin-Tson; Li, Ming-Chun; Lee, Seok-Lyul; Tsai, Wen-Ching

    2015-06-01

    We propose a versatile design approach of engineered diffuser based on freeform optics that can tailor the light distribution of a liquid crystal display (LCD) to meet different applications. The proposed LCD system consists of a quasi-directional backlight, liquid crystal panel, and an engineered diffuser. It offers high efficiency, wide view, high contrast, as well as low ambient light reflection. For large size LCDs, we design a wide view diffuser to match the light distribution with state-of-the-art organic light emitting diode (OLED) TV. For mobile displays, we design a diffuser to replicate current LCD performance. Our design can also provide flattop light intensity distribution for privacy protection. These exemplary designs prove that our engineered diffuser is versatile for different applications.

  13. Spontaneous vitrification in an immiscible Fe-Cu system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L. J.; Liu, B. X.

    1990-10-01

    Spontaneous vitrification was observed in the equilibrium immiscible Fe-Cu system. The metastable phase before vitrification was an icosahedral incommensurate phase which was formed by an ion beam mixing of Fe-Cu multilayer films at room temperature and subsequent high-temperature thermal annealing. The electrical and magnetic properties of the icosahedral phase are also reported, and the relation with spontaneous vitrification is discussed.

  14. Immiscible fluid: Heat of fusion heat storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.; Mullins, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Both heat and mass transfer in direct contact aqueous crystallizing systems were studied as part of a program desig- ned to evaluate the feasibility of direct contact heat transfer in phase change storage using aqueous salt system. Major research areas, discussed include (1) crystal growth velocity study on selected salts; (2) selection of salt solutions; (3) selection of immiscible fluids; (4) studies of heat transfer and system geometry; and (5) system demonstration.

  15. NOVEL FISSION PRODUCT SEPARATION BASED ON ROOM-TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, Charles L.

    2004-06-01

    The DoE/NE underground storage tanks at Hanford, SRS, and INEEL contain liquid wastes with high concentrations of radioactive species, mainly 137Cs and 90Sr. Because the other components of the liquid waste are mainly sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide, most of this tank waste can be treated inexpensively as low-level waste if 137Cs and 90Sr can be selectively removed. Many ionophores (crown ether and calixarene compounds) have been synthesized for the purpose of selectively extracting Cs+ and Sr2+ from an aqueous phase into an immiscible organic phase. Recent studies conducted at ORNL1,2 reveal that hydrophobic ionic liquids might be better solvents for extracting metal ions from aqueous solutions with these ionophores than conventional immiscible organic solvents, such as benzene, toluene, and dichloromethane, because both Cs+ and Sr2+ exhibit larger distribution coefficients in the ionic liquids. In addition, the vapor pressures of these ionic liquids are insignificant. Thus, there is little or no vaporization loss of these solvents. Most of the ionic liquids under investigation are relatively nontoxic compared to the hydrocarbon solvents that they replace, classifying them as ''green'' solvents.

  16. Electrically Tunable Distributed Feedback Laser Emission from Scaffolding Morphologic Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Diao, Zhihui; Yao, Lishuang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Liu, Yonggang; Ma, Ji; Xuan, Li

    2013-02-01

    Electrically tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser emission from a dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission grating is demonstrated. The homogenously aligned liquid crystal (LC) in this polymer scaffolding morphologic grating enables a large refractive index (RI) change for the TM wave under applied electric field, which in turn leads to a red-shift of 8 nm in the output laser emission. The tuning behavior of the DFB laser is well explained on the basis of DFB waveguide theory and amount of phase-separated LCs.

  17. Immiscible hydrocarbon fluids in the deep carbon cycle

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Daniel, Isabelle; Cardon, Hervé; Montagnac, Gilles; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2017-01-01

    The cycling of carbon between Earth's surface and interior governs the long-term habitability of the planet. But how carbon migrates in the deep Earth is not well understood. In particular, the potential role of hydrocarbon fluids in the deep carbon cycle has long been controversial. Here we show that immiscible isobutane forms in situ from partial transformation of aqueous sodium acetate at 300 °C and 2.4–3.5 GPa and that over a broader range of pressures and temperatures theoretical predictions indicate that high pressure strongly opposes decomposition of isobutane, which may possibly coexist in equilibrium with silicate mineral assemblages. These results complement recent experimental evidence for immiscible methane-rich fluids at 600–700 °C and 1.5–2.5 GPa and the discovery of methane-rich fluid inclusions in metasomatized ophicarbonates at peak metamorphic conditions. Consequently, a variety of immiscible hydrocarbon fluids might facilitate carbon transfer in the deep carbon cycle. PMID:28604740

  18. Immiscible hydrocarbon fluids in the deep carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang; Daniel, Isabelle; Cardon, Hervé; Montagnac, Gilles; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2017-06-01

    The cycling of carbon between Earth's surface and interior governs the long-term habitability of the planet. But how carbon migrates in the deep Earth is not well understood. In particular, the potential role of hydrocarbon fluids in the deep carbon cycle has long been controversial. Here we show that immiscible isobutane forms in situ from partial transformation of aqueous sodium acetate at 300 °C and 2.4-3.5 GPa and that over a broader range of pressures and temperatures theoretical predictions indicate that high pressure strongly opposes decomposition of isobutane, which may possibly coexist in equilibrium with silicate mineral assemblages. These results complement recent experimental evidence for immiscible methane-rich fluids at 600-700 °C and 1.5-2.5 GPa and the discovery of methane-rich fluid inclusions in metasomatized ophicarbonates at peak metamorphic conditions. Consequently, a variety of immiscible hydrocarbon fluids might facilitate carbon transfer in the deep carbon cycle.

  19. Electric-Field-Assisted Droplet Dispensing on Immiscible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2014-11-01

    Dispensing tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in numerous practical applications, such as printed electronics, DNA microarray, and digital microfluidics. The precise positioning with demanded size of droplets is the main issue of dispensing tiny droplets. Furthermore, capability of dispensing charged droplets on the immiscible fluids could bring out more utilities. In this work, we demonstrate the droplet dispensing on immiscible fluids by means of electrical charge concentration (ECC). This results from the fact that the droplet is generated by electric force caused by electric induction between the surface of droplet and the immiscible fluid. The temporal evolution of the droplet-dispensing process was observed consecutively with a high-speed camera. In addition, the relationship between the size of dispensed droplet and the parameters, such as physical properties of fluids and electrical field strength, is established. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant Number: 2013R1A1A2011956).

  20. Experiments on the impact and turbulent coalescence of a blob at a liquid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeau, Maylis; Olson, Peter; Deguen, Renaud; Hirsh, Ben; Earth; Planetary Sciences Team

    2015-11-01

    We present experiments on finite liquid volumes, hereafter referred to as blobs, of variable densities impacting an interface between two immiscible liquids at high Reynolds and Weber numbers. Such processes occurred on a massive scale during the giant impacts that formed terrestrial planets and satellites, including the Earth and the Moon. We find that the fall distance of the blob controls an abrupt transition in coalescence regime and in the amount of mixing with the lower liquid. This transition coincides with a brief and global breakup of the impacting blob into drops. For small fall distances, the large-scale flow following impact behaves as a turbulent fountain: a mixture of immiscible liquids penetrates in the lower liquid, collapses and spreads along the immiscible interface. We derive an experimental scaling relation for turbulent mixing of the impacting blob with the lower liquid as a function of a Richardson number.

  1. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  2. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  3. Self-orientation effect of liquid crystals on holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal and distributed feedback lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minghuan; Liu, Yonggang; Peng, Zenghui; Zhao, Haifeng; Cao, Zhaoliang; Xuan, Li

    2017-07-01

    The average orientation of a liquid crystal (LC) director to the grating formation, morphology, and switching properties of a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating was systematically investigated in this study. The grating possessed high diffraction efficiency and low scattering with the LC director being parallel to the grating vector. The scanning electron microscope confirmed the well-defined morphology with the LC director being parallel to the grating vector. The grating was easily switched when the LC director was perpendicular to the grating vector. Moreover, polarization excitation was performed to investigate the polarization dependence behavior of the HPDLC-distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The results confirmed that the HPDLC grating is suitable as a laser oscillation when the LC director is parallel to the grating vector. Finally, the tuning range was obtained for the HPDLC DFB laser by applying an external electric field. The tunability, ease of fabrication, and mass production make the HPDLC DFB lasers suitable as smart laser sources for spectroscopy and communication.

  4. Interfacial tension between immiscible melts in the system K2O - FeO - Fe2O3 - Al2O3 - SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaehn, J.; Veksler, I. V.; Franz, G.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Interfacial tension is a very important parameter of the kinetics of phase nucleation, dissolution and growth. Excess surface energy contributes to the energy barrier for phase nucleation, and works as the main driving force for minimization of phase contact surfaces in heterogeneous systems. Immiscible silicate melts have been found to form in a broad range of basaltic, dacitic and rhyolitic magmas (Philpotts, 1982). However, liquid-liquid interfaces remain poorly studied in comparison with crystal-melt and vapor-melt interfaces. Here we present first experimental measurements of interfacial tension between synthetic Fe-rich and silica-rich immiscible melts composed of Fe oxides, K2O, alumina and silica. According to Naslund (1983), the miscibility gap in the 5-oxide system expands with increasing fO2 and becomes widest in air (fO2 = 0.2). Our goal was to estimate the maximal liquid-liquid interfacial tension for the immiscible liquids composed of silica and Fe oxides. Therefore, we have chosen the most contrasting liquid compositions that coexist in air at and above 1465 °C. Silica-rich and Fe-rich conjugate liquids at these conditions contain 73 and 17 wt. % SiO2, and 14 and 80 wt. % FeOt, respectively. These starting compositions were synthesized by fusion of reagent-grade oxides and K2CO3 at 1600 °C. In addition to interfacial tension, we have measured density and surface tension of individual coexisting liquids. All the measurements were done at 1500, 1527 and 1550 °C. Density was measured by the Archimedean method; surface and interfacial tensions were calculated from the maximal pool on a vertical cylinder (a 3-mm Pt rod attached to a high precision balance). We found interfacial tension between the immiscible liquids to decrease with increasing temperature from 16.4±2 mN/m at 1500 °C to 8.2±0.8 mN/m at 1550 °C. These values are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than typical interfacial tensions between silicate melts and crystals (Wanamaker

  5. Size Distribution and Velocity of Ethanol Drops in a Rocket Combustor Burning Ethanol and Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1961-01-01

    Single jets of ethanol were studied photomicrographically inside a rocket chamber as they broke up into sprays of drops which underwent simultaneous acceleration and vaporization with chemical reaction occurring in the surrounding combustion gas stream. In each rocket test-firing, liquid oxygen was used as the oxidant. Both drop velocity and drop size distribution data were obtained from photomicrographs of the ethanol drops taken with an ultra-high speed tracking camera developed at NASA, Lewis Research Center.

  6. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    SciTech Connect

    Chempath, Shaji; Pratt, Lawrence R

    2008-01-01

    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  7. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  8. Macroscopic Surface Tension in a Lattice Boltzmann BGK Model of Two Immiscible Fluids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. P.; Halliday, I.; Care, C. M.

    1997-08-01

    We present a method by which an interface generating algorithm, similar to that of earlier lattice Boltzmann models of immisible fluids, may be extended to a two component, two-speed D2Q9 lattice Bhatnagar Gross Krook fluid. For two-dimensional, microcurrent-free planar interfaces between the two immiscible fluids we derive expressions for static interfacial tensions and interfacial distributions of the two fluids. Extending our analysis to curved interfaces we propose a scheme for incorporating the influence of interfacial microcurrents which is based upon general symmetry arguments and is correct to second order in lattice velocity. The analysis demonstrates that the interfacial microcurrents have only second order influence upon the macroscopic behaviour of the model. We find good agreement between our calculations and simulation results based on the microcurrent stream function and surface tension results from the pressure tensor or Laplace law.

  9. Immiscible solvents enabled nanostructure formation for efficient polymer photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Michael Yang, Yang; You, Jingbi; Richard, Eric; Li, Gang

    2014-07-25

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) fabricated via solution processing are an attractive way to realize low cost solar energy harvesting. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices are the most successful design, but their morphology is less controllable. In this manuscript, we describe a simple approach to realize 'ordered' BHJ morphology using two immiscible solvents with different boiling point and a quasi-bilayer approach. Tunable fine structures were demonstrated in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) model systems, and the devices with optimized fine structure showed a 33% efficiency enhancement compared to those with a planar bilayer structure.

  10. Oil ganglion dynamics during immiscible displacement: model formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Payatakes, A.C.; Ng, K.M.; Flumerfelt, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    A model is formulated in order to study the transient behavior of oil ganglion populations during immiscible displacement in oil recovery processes. The model is composed of 3 components: a suitable model for granular porous media; a stochastic simulation method capable of predicting the expected fate (mobilization, breakup, stranding) of solitary oil ganglia moving through granular porous media; and 2 coupled ganglion population balance equations, one applying to moving ganglia and the other to stranded ones. The porous medium model consists of a regular network of randomly sized unit cells of the constricted tube type. 32 references.

  11. Study on the spatial distribution of the liquid temperature near a cavitation bubble wall.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Yasui, Kyuichi; Sun, Zhicheng; Mei, Bin; You, Meiyan; Zhu, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A simple new model of the spatial distribution of the liquid temperature near a cavitation bubble wall (Tli) is employed to numerically calculate Tli. The result shows that Tli is almost same with the ambient liquid temperature (T0) during the bubble oscillations except at strong collapse. At strong collapse, Tli can increase to about 1510 K, the same order of magnitude with that of the maximum temperature inside the bubble, which means that the chemical reactions occur not only in gas-phase inside the collapsing bubble but also in liquid-phase just outside the collapsing bubble. Four factors (ultrasonic vibration amplitude, ultrasonic frequency, the surface tension and the viscosity) are considered to study their effects for the thin liquid layer. The results show that for the thin layer, the thickness and the temperature increase as the ultrasonic vibration amplitude rise; conversely, the thickness and the temperature decrease with the increase of the ultrasonic frequency, the surface tension or the viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping drug distribution in brain tissue using liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Tucker, James W; Spreadborough, Michael J; Iverson, Suzanne L; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2015-10-06

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) is a surface sampling technique that incorporates liquid extraction from the surface of tissue sections with nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. Traditional tissue analysis techniques usually require homogenization of the sample prior to analysis via high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), but an intrinsic weakness of this is a loss of all spatial information and the inability of the technique to distinguish between actual tissue penetration and response caused by residual blood contamination. LESA-MS, in contrast, has the ability to spatially resolve drug distributions and has historically been used to profile discrete spots on the surface of tissue sections. Here, we use the technique as a mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) tool, extracting points at 1 mm spatial resolution across tissue sections to build an image of xenobiotic and endogenous compound distribution to assess drug blood-brain barrier penetration into brain tissue. A selection of penetrant and "nonpenetrant" drugs were dosed to rats via oral and intravenous administration. Whole brains were snap-frozen at necropsy and were subsequently sectioned prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and LESA-MSI. MALDI-MSI, as expected, was shown to effectively map the distribution of brain penetrative compounds but lacked sufficient sensitivity when compounds were marginally penetrative. LESA-MSI was used to effectively map the distribution of these poorly penetrative compounds, highlighting its value as a complementary technique to MALDI-MSI. The technique also showed benefits when compared to traditional homogenization, particularly for drugs that were considered nonpenetrant by homogenization but were shown to have a measurable penetration using LESA-MSI.

  13. A review of experimental studies of crystal/liquid trace element partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irving, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental techniques for examining trace-element behavior are reviewed. Applications of these techniques are described for a variety of partition coefficients including: olivine/liquid, subcalcic pyroxene/liquid, calcic pyroxene/liquid, amphibole/liquid, plagioclase/liquid, alkali feldspar/liquid, garnet/liquid, apatite/liquid and whitlockite/liquid, ilmenite/liquid, armalcolite/liquid and pseudobrookite/liquid, magnetite/liquid and spinel/liquid, perovskite/liquid, and melilite/liquid partition coefficients. Partition coefficients between immiscible liquids are discussed and suggestions for further work are noted. A detailed bibliography is included.

  14. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-21

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles.

  15. Effects of nanoclay and conductive carbon black on morphology development in chaotic mixing of immiscible polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharaiya, Dhawal

    Chaotic mixing of immiscible polymer blends has been known to produce morphological features such as lamellas, fibrils and droplets. In this research work, we studied the effect of fillers, such as carbon black (CB) and organically treated nanoclay, on morphology development in an immiscible polymer system, consisting of polyamide 6 (PA6) and polypropylene (PP) in a chaotic mixer. Operating conditions were chosen such that chaotic mixing was widespread inside the mixer. The filler particles were mixed with minor component PP before blending with PA6. It was found that continuous lamellar and fibrillar morphology of PP formed early in mixing produced double percolating conductive networks with only 1 wt% CB particles. The conductive networks sustained their existence even after fibrils broke into droplets. This was attributed to migration of CB particles from the bulk of PP droplets and selective localization at the interfaces of closely spaced PP droplets. It was also found that much smaller PP droplets resulted in the presence of CB particles. Prior reports in literature indicated that organically treated nanoclay particles can act as compatibilizer of immiscible polymer blends, although no study showed that how nanoclay would influence morphology development. In this study, we showed that clay particles helped produce PP droplets of much smaller size and with narrower size distribution due to their direct influence on breakup of PP domains. The clay particles reduced interfacial tension between PP and PA6 phases. Consequently, the PP domains sustained lamellar and fibrillar forms and significantly thin fibrils were formed. These thin fibrils in turn broke rapidly into smaller droplets. It was also found that a large fraction of clay particles migrated into PA6 phase and contained intercalated PA6 chains in their galleries. This indicated that clay particles did not participate in compatibilization in this system. The effect of degradation of surface treatment of

  16. Flow field distribution of liquid film of water lubricated bearing-rotor coupling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. L.; Hu, J. N.; Ye, X. Y.; Zhang, D. S.; Zheng, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    According to the desalination high-pressure pump water lubricated bearing-rotor coupling systems flow field distribution of liquid film in the starting transient process and its power transmission mechanism can lay the foundation of further exploring and judging lubrication state at the boot process. By using the computational fluid dynamics Fluent secondary development platform and calling the relevant DEFINE macro function to achieve the translation and rotation movement of the journal, we will use the dynamic grid technique to realize the automatic calculation and grid update of water lubricated bearings 3d unsteady liquid film flow field, and finally we will dispose the results of numerical simulation and get the pressure. When the eccentricity is large, film thickness was negatively correlated with the pressure, and positive with the velocity. Differential pressure was negatively correlated with velocity. When the eccentricity is small, film thickness is no significant relationship with differential pressure and velocity. Differential pressure has little difference with velocity.

  17. The distribution of Sr and REE between diopside and silicate liquid. [Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grutzeck, M.; Kridelbaugh, S.; Weill, D.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental determination of the distribution coefficients in diopside-liquid pairs for strontium and nine rare-earth elements in the system CaMgSi2O6-NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8. In experiments in air at 1265 C it is found that most of the Sr(2+), Eu(2+), and RE(3+) ions substitute for Ca(2+) and, in addition, a coupled substitution of Al(3+) for Si(4+) occurs. All of the trace ions considered are found to be excluded from the diopside lattice relative to the liquid. In the case of the trivalent ions the exclusion is much more pronounced for La and Ce, which have ionic radii larger than that of Ca(2+) in 8-fold oxygen coordination. Divalent Sr and Eu with even larger radii are also strongly excluded.

  18. The rotating movement of three immiscible fluids - A benchmark problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, M.; Oude, Essink G.H.P.; Langevin, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    A benchmark problem involving the rotating movement of three immiscible fluids is proposed for verifying the density-dependent flow component of groundwater flow codes. The problem consists of a two-dimensional strip in the vertical plane filled with three fluids of different densities separated by interfaces. Initially, the interfaces between the fluids make a 45??angle with the horizontal. Over time, the fluids rotate to the stable position whereby the interfaces are horizontal; all flow is caused by density differences. Two cases of the problem are presented, one resulting in a symmetric flow field and one resulting in an asymmetric flow field. An exact analytical solution for the initial flow field is presented by application of the vortex theory and complex variables. Numerical results are obtained using three variable-density groundwater flow codes (SWI, MOCDENS3D, and SEAWAT). Initial horizontal velocities of the interfaces, as simulated by the three codes, compare well with the exact solution. The three codes are used to simulate the positions of the interfaces at two times; the three codes produce nearly identical results. The agreement between the results is evidence that the specific rotational behavior predicted by the models is correct. It also shows that the proposed problem may be used to benchmark variable-density codes. It is concluded that the three models can be used to model accurately the movement of interfaces between immiscible fluids, and have little or no numerical dispersion. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Domain walls and bubble droplets in immiscible binary Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatrella, G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Salerno, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The existence and stability of domain walls (DWs) and bubble-droplet (BD) states in binary mixtures of quasi-one-dimensional ultracold Bose gases with inter- and intraspecies repulsive interactions is considered. Previously, DWs were studied by means of coupled systems of Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with cubic terms, which model immiscible binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We address immiscible BECs with two- and three-body repulsive interactions, as well as binary Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gases, using systems of GPEs with cubic and quintic nonlinearities for the binary BEC, and coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with quintic terms for the TG gases. Exact DW solutions are found for the symmetric BEC mixture, with equal intraspecies scattering lengths. Stable asymmetric DWs in the BEC mixtures with dissimilar interactions in the two components, as well as of symmetric and asymmetric DWs in the binary TG gas, are found by means of numerical and approximate analytical methods. In the BEC system, DWs can be easily put in motion by phase imprinting. Combining a DW and anti-DW on a ring, we construct BD states for both the BEC and TG models. These consist of a dark soliton in one component (the "bubble"), and a bright soliton (the "droplet") in the other. In the BEC system, these composite states are mobile, too.

  20. BHR equations re-derived with immiscible particle effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis; Horwitz, Jeremy A.

    2015-05-01

    Compressible and variable density turbulent flows with dispersed phase effects are found in many applications ranging from combustion to cloud formation. These types of flows are among the most challenging to simulate. While the exact equations governing a system of particles and fluid are known, computational resources limit the scale and detail that can be simulated in this type of problem. Therefore, a common method is to simulate averaged versions of the flow equations, which still capture salient physics and is relatively less computationally expensive. Besnard developed such a model for variable density miscible turbulence, where ensemble-averaging was applied to the flow equations to yield a set of filtered equations. Besnard further derived transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent mass flux, and the density-specific volume covariance, to help close the filtered momentum and continuity equations. We re-derive the exact BHR closure equations which include integral terms owing to immiscible effects. Physical interpretations of the additional terms are proposed along with simple models. The goal of this work is to extend the BHR model to allow for the simulation of turbulent flows where an immiscible dispersed phase is non-trivially coupled with the carrier phase.

  1. Semianalytical solutions for cocurrent and countercurrent imbibition and dispersion of solutes in immiscible two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, K. S.; Geiger, S.; Sorbie, K. S.

    2011-02-01

    We derive a set of semianalytical solutions for the movement of solutes in immiscible two-phase flow. Our solutions are new in two ways: First, we fully account for the effects of capillary and viscous forces on the transport for arbitrary capillary-hydraulic properties. Second, we fully take hydrodynamic dispersion for the variable two-phase flow field into account. The understanding of immiscible two-phase flow and the simultaneous miscible displacement and mixing of components within a phase is important for many applications, including the location of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface, the design of contaminant cleanup procedures, the sequestration of carbon dioxide, and enhanced oil-recovery techniques. For purely advective transport we combine a known exact solution for the description of immiscible two-phase flow with the method of characteristics for the advective transport equations to obtain solutions that describe cocurrent flow and countercurrent spontaneous imbibition and advective transport in one dimension. We show that for both cases the solute front can be located graphically by a modified Welge tangent. For the advective-dispersive solute transport, we derive approximate analytical solutions by the method of singular perturbation expansion. On the basis of this, we obtain analytical expressions for the growth of the dispersive zone for the case with and without the influence of capillary pressure. We show that for the case of spontaneous countercurrent imbibition the order of magnitude of the growth rate is far smaller than that for the viscous limit. We give some illustrative examples and compare the analytical expressions with numerical reference solutions.

  2. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids

    PubMed Central

    Karunaweera, Sadish

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined. PMID:25637990

  3. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-01-28

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.

  4. Molecular weight distributions and linkages in lignocellulosic materials derivatized from ionic liquid media.

    PubMed

    Zoia, Luca; King, Alistair W T; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2011-02-09

    A novel and reproducible method is described for accurately determining the molecular weight distribution by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of whole lignocellulosic materials. This approach offers the opportunity to compare the molecular weight distributions of intact milled woods and its component fractions, lignins and holocelluloses, all from the same source, thus highlighting the potential of the technique and the contributions of the individual components to the chromatogram. The method is based on the dissolution of the ball-milled samples in the ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([amim]Cl). Under these homogeneous ionic liquid media, a derivatization reaction was performed with benzoyl chloride in the presence of pyridine. The thoroughly benzoylated wood with its associated carbohydrate and lignin components was found to be completely soluble in the THF SEC eluent with marked UV detector sensitivity. This methodology, when applied to the individually isolated holocellulose and lignin (enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin; EMAL) materials from Norway spruce ( Eucalyptus grandis ) wood and corn stover, offered a better understanding as to the possible ways the lignin and the carbohydrates may interact within these three different species. Finally, the applicability of the methodology is shown for a series of pure cellulosic samples under intense mechanical defibration conditions, offering a visualization of the molecular weight distribution changes induced during the production of nanofibrillated cellulose.

  5. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for pure liquids.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E

    2015-01-28

    Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.

  6. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    SciTech Connect

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D.

    2013-11-13

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved.

  7. Two-Liquid Cartesian Diver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, G.; Kos, M.; Jerman, R.

    2004-01-01

    It is quite easy to make a version of the well known Cartesian diver experiment that uses two immiscible liquids. This allows students to test their knowledge of density and pressure in explaining the diver's behaviour. Construction details are presented here together with a mathematical model to explain the observations.

  8. Two-Liquid Cartesian Diver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, G.; Kos, M.; Jerman, R.

    2004-01-01

    It is quite easy to make a version of the well known Cartesian diver experiment that uses two immiscible liquids. This allows students to test their knowledge of density and pressure in explaining the diver's behaviour. Construction details are presented here together with a mathematical model to explain the observations.

  9. A novel numerical approach for the solution of the problem of two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media: Application to LNAPL and DNAPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; El Amin, Mohamed F.

    2012-05-01

    The flow of two immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in petroleum exploration and extraction. The displacement of one fluid by another immiscible with it represents a very important aspect in what is called enhanced oil recovery. Another example is related to the long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide, CO2, in deep geologic formations. In this technique, supercritical CO2 is introduced into deep saline aquifer where it displaces the hosting fluid. Furthermore, very important classes of contaminants that are very slightly soluble in water and represent a huge concern if they get introduced to groundwater could basically be assumed immiscible. These are called light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). All these applications necessitate that efficient algorithms be developed for the numerical solution of these problems. In this work we introduce the use of shifting matrices to numerically solving the problem of two-phase immiscible flows in the subsurface. We implement the cell-center finite difference method which discretizes the governing set of partial differential equations in conservative manner. Unlike traditional solution methodologies, which are based on performing the discretization on a generic cell and solve for all the cells within a loop, in this technique, the cell center information for all the cells are obtained all at once without loops using matrix oriented operations. This technique is significantly faster than the traditional looping algorithms, particularly for larger systems when coding using languages that require repeating interpretation each time a loop is called like Mat Lab, Python and the like. We apply this technique to the transport of LNAPL and DNAPL into a rectangular domain.

  10. Measurement of surface shear stress vector distribution using shear-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji-Song; Scholz, Peter; Gu, Liang-Xian

    2012-10-01

    The global wall shear stress measurement technique using shear-sensitive liquid crystal (SSLC) is extended to wind tunnel measurements. Simple and common everyday equipment is used in the measurement; in particular a tungsten-halogen light bulb provides illumination and a saturation of SSLC coating color change with time is found. Spatial wall shear stress distributions of several typical flows are obtained using this technique, including wall-jet flow, vortex flow generated by a delta wing and junction flow behind a thin cylinder, although the magnitudes are not fully calibrated. The results demonstrate that SSLC technique can be extended to wind tunnel measurements with no complicated facilities used.

  11. Experiments on front roughness and averaged saturation for immiscible displacement in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, V.; Neuweiler, I.; Faerber, A.

    2009-04-01

    For mass transfer during two-phase two-component flow processes in heterogeneous porous media, the fluid-fluid interface of the two-phases have a strong influence. To predict mass transfer it is therefore important to determine the interface properties. An important characterization criterion for displacement of one fluid by another, immiscible one in porous media, is the morphology of the fluid-fluid interface. The interface morphology is investigated intensely since a long time. It is determined by the interplay between capillary, gravity and viscous forces and by the structure of the pore space. The interface morphology influences the modeling of a displacement process on the Darcy scale, where the pore scale is no longer resolved. However, the interface criteria on the pore scale cannot necessarily be transferred to the larger scale. This is in particular true in heterogeneous media, where the structure of material interfaces on the large scale may determine the flow process. Immiscible displacement fronts on a Darcy scale are often sharp and may show instabilities on the larger scale. Pore scale instabilities, on the other hand, may appear as stabilized on the large scale due to large scale structures. We will present observations of displacement fronts in Darcy scale heterogeneous media, where fluid content was measured using optical methods. The front properties were analyzed for different flow regimes and structures. The growth rate of the front roughness shows a different behavior than the spatially averaged fluid content. While the front is in most cases stable after some time, the width of the distribution of the averaged fluid content continues to grow due to pore-scale and macroscopic trapping events.

  12. Visualization and understanding of the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Fonteyne, Margot; Helkimo, Niko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Juuti, Mikko; Delaet, Urbain; Van Assche, Ivo; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the application of twin screw granulation as a continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical drug formulations. However, the mixing of granulation liquid and powder material during the short residence time inside the screw chamber and the atypical particle size distribution (PSD) of granules produced by twin screw granulation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study aims at visualizing the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging. In first instance, the residence time of material inside the barrel was investigated as function of screw speed and moisture content followed by the visualization of the granulation liquid distribution as function of different formulation and process parameters (liquid feed rate, liquid addition method, screw configuration, moisture content and barrel filling degree). The link between moisture uniformity and granule size distributions was also studied. For residence time analysis, increased screw speed and lower moisture content resulted to a shorter mean residence time and narrower residence time distribution. Besides, the distribution of granulation liquid was more homogenous at higher moisture content and with more kneading zones on the granulator screws. After optimization of the screw configuration, a two-level full factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the influence of moisture content, screw speed and powder feed rate on the mixing efficiency of the powder and liquid phase. From these results, it was concluded that only increasing the moisture content significantly improved the granulation liquid distribution. This study demonstrates that NIR chemical imaging is a fast and adequate measurement tool for allowing process visualization and hence for providing better process understanding of a continuous twin screw granulation system.

  13. Solid-State NMR Study of Metastable Immiscibility in Alkali Borosilicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, L.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation is a critical issue in controlling and designing the physical properties of borosilicate glasses such as chemical durability, crystal nucleation, and high temperature strength and can provide insight into unmixing in natural magmatic systems as well. It is important to clarify this phenomenon, especially the immiscibility boundaries, which can be difficult to determine by conventional methods. High resolution NMR can provide a sensitive probe for the observation of phase separation in glass systems. In the M2O-B2O3-SiO2 system (M= Li, Na, K), we have used oxygen-17 MQMAS (Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning) technique to explore changes in connectivities between SiO4, BO3 and BO4 units, based on changes in populations of bridging oxygens, such as B-O-B, B-O-Si and Si-O-Si, and of non-bridging oxygens. We have also used boron-11 MAS and MQMAS to quantify populations of borate units with varying first shell coordination and connectivity to other network units, e.g., "ring" vs. "non-ring" BO3 groups. In a series of alkali borosilicates of the same stoichiometry, the population of Si-O-B oxygen for the Li glass is significantly lower than that for Na and K borosilicates. This implies that the Li glass has a greater degree of phase separation at a submicroscopic scale as expected from phase diagrams. O-17 MQMAS NMR is also useful in determining the effect of quenching rate and annealing temperature on the degree of phase separation. In the Na borosilicates, a reduced concentration of Si-O-B in compositions within the immiscibility region suggests that even optically homogeneous glasses have small-scale heterogeneity. In the B-11 MAS and MQMAS studies, the ratio of BO3 to BO4 does not change with annealing. The non-ring BO3, however, converts to ring BO3 with annealing, which increases the degree of phase separation. In the study of Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glasses with different Na contents, Si-O-B(III) and Si-O-B(IV) as well as B-O-B(III) and B

  14. Gas-liquid Phase Distribution and Void Fraction Measurements Using the MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daidzic, N. E.; Schmidt, E.; Hasan, M. M.; Altobelli, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used a permanent-magnet MRI system to estimate the integral and spatially- and/or temporally-resolved void-fraction distributions and flow patterns in gas-liquid two-phase flows. Air was introduced at the bottom of the stagnant liquid column using an accurate and programmable syringe pump. Air flow rates were varied between 1 and 200 ml/min. The cylindrical non-conducting test tube in which two-phase flow was measured was placed in a 2.67 kGauss MRI with MRT spectrometer/imager. Roughly linear relationship has been obtained for the integral void-fraction, obtained by volume-averaging of the spatially-resolved signals, and the air flow rate in upward direction. The time-averaged spatially-resolved void fraction has also been obtained for the quasi-steady flow of air in a stagnant liquid column. No great accuracy is claimed as this was an exploratory proof-of-concept type of experiment. Preliminary results show that MRI a non-invasive and non-intrusive experimental technique can indeed provide a wealth of different qualitative and quantitative data and is especially well suited for averaged transport processes in adiabatic and diabatic multi-phase and/or multi-component flows.

  15. Surface temperature distribution along a thin liquid layer due to thermocapillary convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, C. L.; Chai, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The surface temperature distributions due to thermocapillary convections in a thin liquid layer with heat fluxes imposed on the free surface were investigated. The nondimensional analysis predicts that, when convection is important, the characteristics length scale in the flow direction L, and the characteristic temperature difference delta T sub o can be represented by L and delta T sub o approx. (A2Ma)/1/4 delta T sub R, respectively, where L sub R and delta sub R are the reference scales used in the conduction dominant situations with A denoting the aspect ratio and Ma the Marangoni number. Having L and delta sub o defined, the global surface temperature gradient delta sub o/L, the global thermocapillary driving force, and other interesting features can be determined. Numerical calculations involving a Gaussian heat flux distribution are presented to justify these two relations.

  16. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.

    2015-03-07

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.

  17. Experimental triplet and quadruplet fluctuation densities and spatial distribution function integrals for liquid mixtures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations. PMID:25747091

  18. Surface Modification Methods to Control Wettability in Immiscible Fluid Displacement Experimental Model Systems Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grate, J. W.; Warner, M. G.; Oostrom, M.; Zhang, C.; Wietsma, T. W.; Pittman, J. W.; Dehoff, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Wettability is a critical parameter influencing immiscible fluid displacements relevant to geological carbon sequestration. Fully water-wet clean silica surfaces can be modified with silanes to alter the wettability, with the majority of such efforts to date related to conversions of water-wet to oil-wet systems. While a sizable literature exist on contact angles obtained on silanized surfaces, these are by and large air-water contact angle data, not the oil-water contact angles needed. We have investigated a large range of silanes to modify silica surfaces over a range of wettabilities, measuring both air-water and oil-water contact angles. We have identified surface modifications to produce intermediate wet surfaces. We have found a linear correlation between air-water contact angles and oil-water contact angles, enabling literature data on air-water contact angles to be interpreted in terms of likely oil-water contact angles. In addition, we have found that while glass and silica surfaces modified by the same chemistry give the same contact angles in terms of air water contact angles, the surfaces are not as similar in terms of oil-water contact angles. These studies are being carried out in conjunction with immiscible displacements of water by liquid and supercritical CO2 in microfabricated pore network micromodels in silicon with oxidized silica surfaces and glass cover plates.

  19. Growth of normally-immiscible materials (NIMs), binary alloys, and metallic fibers by hyperbaric laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Black, M. R.; Chavez, C. A.; Maskaly, K. R.; Espinoza, M.; Boman, M.; Landstrom, L.

    2008-06-01

    This work demonstrates that two or more elements of negligible solubility (and no known phase diagram) can be co-deposited in fiber form by hyperbaric-pressure laser chemical vapor deposition (HP-LCVD). For the first time, Hg-W alloys were grown as fibers from mixtures of tungsten hexafluoride, mercury vapor, and hydrogen. This new class of materials is termed normally-immiscible materials (NIMs), and includes not only immiscible materials, but also those elemental combinations that have liquid states at exclusive temperatures. This work also demonstrates that a wide variety of other binary and ternary alloys, intermetallics, and mixtures can be grown as fibers, e.g. silicon-tungsten, aluminum-silicon, boron-carbon-silicon, and titanium-carbon-nitride. In addition, pure metallic fibers of aluminum, titanium, and tungsten were deposited, demonstrating that materials of high thermal conductivity can indeed be grown in three-dimensions, provided sufficient vapor pressures are employed. A wide variety of fiber properties and microstructures resulted depending on process conditions; for example, single crystals, fine-grained alloys, and glassy metals could be deposited.

  20. Evaporation of a Volatile Liquid Lens on the Surface of an Immiscible Liquid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-06-21

    The evaporation behavior of toluene and hexane lenses on the surface of deionized (DI) water is studied. The toluene and hexane lenses during evaporation experience an advancing stage and a receding stage. There exists a significant difference of the evaporation behavior between the toluene lenses and the hexane lenses. The lifetime and largest diameter of both the toluene and hexane lenses increase with increasing the initial volume of the lenses. For the evaporation of the toluene lenses, the lifetime and largest diameter of the lenses decrease with increasing the temperature of DI water. The effect of the residual of the oil molecules on the evaporation of toluene lenses at a temperature of 21 °C is investigated via the evaporation of a series of consecutive toluene lenses being placed on the same position of the surface of DI water. The temporal evolution of the toluene lenses placed after the first toluene lens deviates significantly from that of the first toluene lens. Significant increase of the receding speed occurs at the dimensionless time in a range 0.7-0.8.

  1. Application of the boundary integral method to immiscible displacement problems

    SciTech Connect

    Masukawa, J.; Horne, R.N.

    1988-08-01

    This paper presents an application of the boundary integral method (BIM) to fluid displacement problems to demonstrate its usefulness in reservoir simulation. A method for solving two-dimensional (2D), piston-like displacement for incompressible fluids with good accuracy has been developed. Several typical example problems with repeated five-spot patterns were solved for various mobility ratios. The solutions were compared with the analytical solutions to demonstrate accuracy. Singularity programming was found to be a major advantage in handling flow in the vicinity of wells. The BIM was found to be an excellent way to solve immiscible displacement problems. Unlike analytic methods, it can accommodate complex boundary shapes and does not suffer from numerical dispersion at the front.

  2. Study on processing immiscible materials in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reger, J. L.; Mendelson, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate mixing immiscible metal combinations under several process conditions. Under one-gravity, these included thermal processing, thermal plus electromagnetic mixing, and thermal plus acoustic mixing. The same process methods were applied during free fall on the MSFC drop tower facility. The design is included of drop tower apparatus to provide the electromagnetic and acoustic mixing equipment, and a thermal model was prepared to design the specimen and cooling procedure. Materials systems studied were Ca-La, Cd-Ga and Al-Bi; evaluation of the processed samples included the morphology and electronic property measurements. The morphology was developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analyses. Electronic property characterization of the superconducting transition temperatures were made using an impedance change-tuned coil method.

  3. Flow behaviour of negatively buoyant jets in immiscible ambient fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, A.; Phillips, J. C.; Mier-Torrecilla, M.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate experimentally the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid. Experiments are carried out by injecting a jet of dyed fresh water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. The fountain inlet flow rate and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Richardson Ri (8 × 10-4 < Ri < 1.98), Reynolds Re (467 < Re < 5,928) and Weber We (2.40 < We < 308.56) numbers. Based on the Re, Ri and We values for the experiments, we have determined a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of the observed flow types. Whereas Ri plays a stronger role when determining the maximum penetration height, the effect of the Reynolds number is stronger predicting the flow behaviour for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity.

  4. Mode-distribution analysis of quasielastic neutron scattering and application to liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Kenji; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Yamamuro, Osamu; Kofu, Maiko; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Suzuya, Kentaro; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Arai, Masatoshi

    2013-06-01

    A quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiment is a particular technique that endeavors to define a relationship between time and space for the diffusion dynamics of atoms and molecules. However, in most cases, analyses of QENS data are model dependent, which may distort attempts to elucidate the actual diffusion dynamics. We have developed a method for processing QENS data without a specific model, wherein all modes can be described as combinations of the relaxations based on the exponential law. By this method, we can obtain a distribution function B(Q,Γ), which we call the mode-distribution function (MDF), to represent the number of relaxation modes and distributions of the relaxation times in the modes. The deduction of MDF is based on the maximum entropy method and is very versatile in QENS data analysis. To verify this method, reproducibility was checked against several analytical models, such as that with a mode of distributed relaxation time, that with two modes closely located, and that represented by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function. We report the first application to experimental data of liquid water. In addition to the two known modes, the existence of a relaxation mode of water molecules with an intermediate time scale has been discovered. We propose that the fast mode might be assigned to an intermolecular motion and the intermediate motion might be assigned to a rotational motion of the water molecules instead of to the fast mode.

  5. Proton Energy Optimization and Spatial Distribution Analysis from a Thickness Study Using Liquid Crystal Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Christopher; Poole, Patrick; Schumacher, Douglas; Freeman, Richard; van Woerkom, Linn

    2016-10-01

    Laser-accelerated ions from thin targets have been widely studied for applications including secondary radiation sources and cancer therapy, with recent studies trending towards thinner targets which can provide improved ion energies and yields. Here we discuss results from an experiment on the Scarlet laser at OSU using variable thickness liquid crystal targets. On this experiment, the spatial and spectral distributions of accelerated ions were measured along target normal and laser axes at varying thicknesses from 150nm to 2000nm at a laser intensity of 1 ×1020W /cm2 . Maximum ion energy was observed for targets in the 600 - 800nm thickness range, with proton energies reaching 24MeV . The ions were further characterized using radiochromic film, revealing an unusual spatial distribution on many laser shots. Here, the peak ion yield falls in an annular ring surrounding the target normal, with an increasing divergence angle as a function of ion energy. Details of these spatial and spectral ion distributions will be presented, including spectral deconvolution of the RCF data, revealing additional trends in the accelerated ion distributions. Supported by the DARPA PULSE program through a Grant from AMRDEC, and by the NNSA under contract DE-NA0001976.

  6. Characterizing the Impact of Enhanced Solubilization Reagents on Organic-Liquid Morphology and Organic-Liquid/Water Interfacial Area Using Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narter, M.; Brusseau, M.

    2010-12-01

    A primary goal of enhanced solubilization reagents is to increase contaminant mass transfer into the aqueous phase in order to achieve faster and more efficient mass removal from the subsurface. The rate of mass transfer depends on the degree of contact between the aqueous phase and the contaminant, and thus is dependent upon the interfacial area between the two phases. It is therefore important to understand the impact of enhanced solubilization reagents on organic-liquid distribution and morphology. This was accomplished using synchrotron X-ray microtomography to examine entrapped organic liquid in a natural porous medium. Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monooleate (tween 80), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and ethanol were used as the solubilization agents. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) was used as the entrapped organic immiscible liquid. Microtomography images were collected prior to and after successive floods with three concentrations of each reagent. The results were compared to those obtained from equivalent experiments conducted with water flooding.

  7. Redox chemistry at liquid/liquid interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, A. G.; Deamer, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    The interface between two immiscible liquids with immobilized photosynthetic pigments can serve as the simplest model of a biological membrane convenient for the investigation of photoprocesses accompanied by spatial separation of charges. As it follows from thermodynamics, if the resolvation energies of substrates and products are very different, the interface between two immiscible liquids may act as a catalyst. Theoretical aspects of charge transfer reactions at oil/water interfaces are discussed. Conditions under which the free energy of activation of the interfacial reaction of electron transfer decreases are established. The activation energy of electron transfer depends on the charges of the reactants and dielectric permittivity of the non-aqueous phase. This can be useful when choosing a pair of immiscible solvents to decrease the activation energy of the reaction in question or to inhibit an undesired process. Experimental interfacial catalytic systems are discussed. Amphiphilic molecules such as chlorophyll or porphyrins were studied as catalysts of electron transfer reactions at the oil/water interface.

  8. Redox chemistry at liquid/liquid interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, A. G.; Deamer, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    The interface between two immiscible liquids with immobilized photosynthetic pigments can serve as the simplest model of a biological membrane convenient for the investigation of photoprocesses accompanied by spatial separation of charges. As it follows from thermodynamics, if the resolvation energies of substrates and products are very different, the interface between two immiscible liquids may act as a catalyst. Theoretical aspects of charge transfer reactions at oil/water interfaces are discussed. Conditions under which the free energy of activation of the interfacial reaction of electron transfer decreases are established. The activation energy of electron transfer depends on the charges of the reactants and dielectric permittivity of the non-aqueous phase. This can be useful when choosing a pair of immiscible solvents to decrease the activation energy of the reaction in question or to inhibit an undesired process. Experimental interfacial catalytic systems are discussed. Amphiphilic molecules such as chlorophyll or porphyrins were studied as catalysts of electron transfer reactions at the oil/water interface.

  9. Linking granulation performance with residence time and granulation liquid distributions in twin-screw granulation: An experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Toiviainen, Maunu; De Leersnyder, Fien; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2016-07-30

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising wet granulation technique for the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. A twin screw granulator displays a short residence time. Thus, the solid-liquid mixing must be achieved quickly by appropriate arrangement of transport and kneading elements in the granulator screw allowing the production of granules with a size distribution appropriate for tableting. The distribution of residence time and granulation liquid is governed by the field conditions (such as location and length of mixing zones) in the twin-screw granulator, thus contain interesting information on granulation time, mixing and resulting sub-processes such as wetting, aggregation and breakage. In this study, the impact of process (feed rate, screw speed and liquid-to-solid ratio) and equipment parameters (number of kneading discs and stagger angle) on the residence time (distribution), the granulation liquid-powder mixing and the resulting granule size distributions during twin-screw granulation were investigated. Residence time and axial mixing data was extracted from tracer maps and the solid-liquid mixing was quantified from moisture maps, obtained by monitoring the granules at the granulator outlet using near infra-red chemical imaging (NIR-CI). The granule size distribution was measured using the sieving method. An increasing screw speed dominantly reduced the mean residence time. Interaction of material throughput with the screw speed and with the number of kneading discs led to most variation in the studied responses including residence time and mixing capacity. At a high screw speed, granulation yield improved due to high axial mixing. However, increasing material throughput quickly lowers the yield due to insufficient mixing of liquid and powder. Moreover, increasing liquid-to-solid ratio resulted in more oversized granules, and the fraction of oversized granules further increased at higher throughput. Although an increasing number

  10. Effects of porosity distribution variation on the liquid water flux through gas diffusion layers of PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zhigang; Xiao, Jinsheng; Li, Dayong; Pan, Mu; Yuan, Runzhang

    Flooding of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and dehydrating of the polymer electrolyte membrane have been the key problems to be solved for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). So far, almost no papers published have focused on studies of the liquid water flux through differently structured gas diffusion layers (GDLs). For gas diffusion layers including structures of uniform porosity, changes in porosity (GDL with microporous layer (MPL)) and gradient change porosity, using a one-dimensional model, the liquid saturation distribution is analyzed based on the assumption of a fixed liquid water flux through the GDL. And then the liquid water flux through the GDL is calculated based on the assumption of a fixed liquid saturation difference between the interfaces of the catalyst layer/GDL and the GDL/gas channel. Our results show that under steady-state conditions, the liquid water flux through the GDL increases as contact angle and porosity increase and as the GDL thickness decreases. When a MPL is placed between the catalyst layer and the GDL, the liquid saturation is redistributed across the MPL and GDL. This improves the liquid water draining performance. The liquid water flux through the GDL increases as the MPL porosity increases and the MPL thickness decreases. When the total thickness of the GDL and MPL is kept constant and when the MPL is thinned to 3 μm, the liquid water flux increases considerably, i.e. flooding of MEA is difficult. A GDL with a gradient of porosity is more favorable for liquid water discharge from catalyst layer into the gas channel; for the GDLs with the same equivalent porosity, the larger the gradient is, the more easily the liquid water is discharged. Of the computed cases, a GDL with a linear porosity 0.4 x + 0.4 is the best.

  11. Experimental investigation of liquid-liquid system drop size distribution in Taylor-Couette flow and its application in the CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzad, Reza; Puttinger, Stefan; Pirker, Stefan; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Liquid-liquid systems are widely used in the several industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and petroleum. Drop size distribution (DSD) plays a key role as it strongly affects the overall mass and heat transfer in the liquid-liquid systems. To understand the underlying mechanisms single drop breakup experiments have been done by several researchers in the Taylor-Couette flow; however, most of those studies concentrate on the laminar flow regime and therefore, there is no sufficient amount of data in the case of in turbulent flows. The well-defined pattern of the Taylor-Couette flow enables the possibility to investigate DSD as a function of the local fluid dynamic properties, such as shear rate, which is in contrast to more complex devices such as stirred tank reactors. This paper deals with the experimental investigation of liquid-liquid DSD in Taylor-Couette flow. From high speed camera images we found a simple correlation for the Sauter mean diameter as a function of the local shear employing image processing. It is shown that this correlation holds for different oil-in-water emulsions. Finally, this empirical correlation for the DSD is used as an input data for a CFD simulation to compute the local breakup of individual droplets in a stirred tank reactor.

  12. Experimental investigation of liquid-liquid system drop size distribution in Taylor-Couette flow and its application in the CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzad, Reza; Puttinger, Stefan; Pirker, Stefan; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    Liquid-liquid systems are widely used in the several industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and petroleum. Drop size distribution (DSD) plays a key role as it strongly affects the overall mass and heat transfer in the liquid-liquid systems. To understand the underlying mechanisms single drop breakup experiments have been done by several researchers in the Taylor-Couette flow; however, most of those studies concentrate on the laminar flow regime and therefore, there is no sufficient amount of data in the case of in turbulent flows. The well-defined pattern of the Taylor-Couette flow enables the possibility to investigate DSD as a function of the local fluid dynamic properties, such as shear rate, which is in contrast to more complex devices such as stirred tank reactors. This paper deals with the experimental investigation of liquid-liquid DSD in Taylor-Couette flow. From high speed camera images we found a simple correlation for the Sauter mean diameter as a function of the local shear employing image processing. It is shown that this correlation holds for different oil-in-water emulsions. Finally, this empirical correlation for the DSD is used as an input data for a CFD simulation to compute the local breakup of individual droplets in a stirred tank reactor.

  13. A Membrane-Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-10-02

    Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short-lifetimes, and expensive ion-selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane-free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes and where vanadium is replaced by organic molecules. We show that the biphasic system formed by one acidic solution and one ionic liquid, both containing quinoyl species, behaves as a reversible battery without any membrane. This proof-of-concept of a membrane-free battery has an open circuit voltage of 1.4 V with a high theoretical energy density of 22.5 Wh L(-1) , and is able to deliver 90 % of its theoretical capacity while showing excellent long-term performance (coulombic efficiency of 100 % and energy efficiency of 70 %). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. The microstructure and electrical transport properties of immiscible copper-niobium alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rajarshi; Bose, Sangita; Ayyub, Pushan; Genc, Arda

    2008-02-01

    Mutually immiscible in the solid state, copper and niobium exhibit a relatively strong clustering (phase separating) tendency in the liquid state and can therefore only be alloyed in a highly metastable form: for example, by vapor quenching. We have deposited metastable Cu-Nb alloy thin films with nominal compositions ranging from 5 to 90 at. % Nb by magnetron cosputtering. The microstructure of these films depends strongly on the composition and ranges from coarse-grained solid solutions for Cu-rich and Nb-rich compositions to phase-separated amorphous mixtures when the two elements are in comparable amounts. The crystalline Cu- or Nb-rich compositions exhibit positive temperature coefficients of resistivity (TCR) with the Cu-90 at. % Nb film exhibiting a superconducting transition with (T{sub C}){sub onset}{approx}4.5 K. The amorphous films show high room temperature resistivity, a negative TCR, and composition dependent superconducting transitions. We investigate the relation between the microstructure, phase stability, and the electrical transport properties.

  15. Stability analysis of two immiscible fluids in a shear driven flow: a DNS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cartagena, Edgardo J.; Bernardini, Matteo; Arenas, Isnardo; Mohammadi, Alireza; Iungo, G. Valerio; Smits, Alexander J.; Leonardi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Numerical studies of the flow over either super hydrophobic surfaces or liquid infused surfaces have shown that a large drag reduction (>10%) can be obtained if the flow remains in the Cassie state, thus stability of the interface plays a crucial role to achieve drag reduction. Direct Numerical Simulations of two immiscible fluids have been performed to assess how the stability of the interface depends on the viscosity ratio, thickness and Reynolds number of the two-layer flow. The flow is driven by the motion of one plate at constant velocity while the other plate is at rest. A finite difference code, based on a Runge-Kutta and fractional step method, has been combined to a level set method for tracking the interface between the two fluids. Results agree well with the linear theory until the nonlinear saturation. Once the fluctuations become large, a halving of the wavelength in the streamwise direction is observed for the least stable mode. The interaction between Tollmien-Schlichting waves and interfacial instabilities will be discussed at the meeting. This work was supported under ONR MURI Grants N00014-12-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962, Program Manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim. Numerical simulations were performed on the Texas Advanced Computer Center.

  16. Density and Adiabatic Compressibility of the Immiscible Molten AgBr+LiCl Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Victor P.; Kulik, Nina P.

    2017-04-01

    The adiabatic compressibility, β, of the immiscible liquid mixture 0.52 LiCl+0.48 AgBr (the top of the miscibility gap) was experimentally investigated in the temperature range from the melting point to the critical mixing temperature using the sound velocity values, u, measured by the pulse method, and the density quantities, ρ, which were determined using the hydrostatic weight procedure based on the relationship β=u- 2ρ- 1. It is shown that the coefficients of the temperature dependencies for the compressibility and density of the upper and lower equilibrium phases have opposite signs because of the superposition of the intensity of the thermal motion of the ions and the change in the composition of the phases. The differences, ∆β and ∆ρ, in the magnitudes of the compressibility and density for the equilibrium phases decrease with temperature elevation. The temperature dependencies of the compressibility and density difference are described using the empirical equations ∆β≈(Tc-T)0.438 and ∆ρ≈(Tc-T)0.439.

  17. Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, W.-C.; Sposito, G.; Majer, E.

    2007-02-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the low-frequency behavior of dilatational waves propagating through a homogeneous elastic porous medium containing two immiscible fluids. The theory is based on the Berryman-Thigpen-Chin (BTC) model, in which capillary pressure effects are neglected. We show that the BTC model equations in the frequency domain can be transformed, at sufficiently low frequencies, into a dissipative wave equation (telegraph equation) and a propagating wave equation in the time domain. These partial differential equations describe two independent modes of dilatational wave motion that are analogous to the Biot fast and slow compressional waves in a single-fluid system. The equations can be solved analytically under a variety of initial and boundary conditions. The stipulation of 'low frequency' underlying the derivation of our equations in the time domain is shown to require that the excitation frequency of wave motions be much smaller than a critical frequency. This frequency is shown to be the inverse of an intrinsic time scale that depends on an effective kinematic shear viscosity of the interstitial fluids and the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium. Numerical calculations indicate that the critical frequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials containing water and a nonaqueous phase liquid ranges typically from kHz to MHz. Thus engineering problems involving the dynamic response of an unsaturated porous medium to low excitation frequencies (e.g. seismic wave stimulation) should be accurately modeled by our equations after suitable initial and boundary conditions are imposed.

  18. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spraying modes in coaxial jet electrospray with outer driving liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaopeng; Jia, Laibing; Yin, Xiezhen; Cheng, Jiusheng; Lu, Jian

    2005-03-01

    Coaxial jet electrospray is a technique to generate microencapsules, which uses electric forces to create a coaxial microjet from two immiscible liquids. Compound droplets with narrow size distribution are produced after the jet breaks up. In this paper, the spraying modes are investigated experimentally with proper flow rates of the inner and outer liquids. Ethanol/glycerol/tween mixture (outer liquid) and cooking oil (inner liquid) are fed into the gap between outer and inner capillaries and the inner capillary, respectively. The spraying modes presented in our experiments are "dripping mode," "dripping mode in spindle," "cone-jet mode," "pulse mode in cone," and "multijets mode" sequentially, as the applied voltage increases. The region of stable cone-jet mode extends with decrease of the outer liquid flow rate and increase of the inner one. It is found that the spray phenomena are mainly determined by properties of the outer liquid, which is viscous and electric conductive enough. A rudimentary physical model is developed, in which both the viscosity and liquid interface tension are taken into account.

  20. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  1. Computational study of ion distributions at the air/liquid methanol interface

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiuquan; Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2011-06-16

    Molecular dynamic simulations with polarizable potentials were performed to systematically investigate the distribution of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and SrCl2 at the air/liquid methanol interface. The density profiles indicated that there is no substantial enhancement of anions at the interface for the NaX systems in contrast to what was observed at the air/aqueous interface. The surfactant-like shape of the larger more polarizable halide anions is compensated by the surfactant nature of methanol itself. As a result, methanol hydroxy groups strongly interacted with one side of polarizable anions, in which their induced dipole points, and methanol methyl groups were more likely to be found near the positive pole of anion induced dipoles. Furthermore, salts were found to disrupt the surface structure of methanol, reducing the observed enhancement of methyl groups at the outer edge of the air/liquid methanol interface. With the additional of salts to methanol, the computed surface potentials increased, which is in contrast to what is observed in corresponding aqueous systems, where the surface potential decreases with the addition of salts. Both of these trends have been indirectly observed with experiments. This was found to be due to the propensity of anions for the air/water interface that is not present at the air/liquid methanol interface. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  2. Quasi-Immiscible Spreading of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions on Entangled Aqueous Polymer Solution Subphases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramankur; Corcoran, Timothy E.; Garoff, Stephen; Przybycien, Todd M.; Swanson, Ellen R.; Tilton, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility of enhancing aerosol drug delivery to mucus-obstructed lungs, the spreading of a drop of aqueous surfactant solution on a physically entangled aqueous poly(acrylamide) solution subphase that mimics lung airway surface liquid was investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was used as the surfactant. To visualize spreading of the drop and mimic the inclusion of a drug substance, fluorescein, a hydrophilic and non-surface active dye, was added to the surfactant solution. The spreading progresses through a series of events. Marangoni stresses initiate the convective spreading of the drop. Simultaneously, surfactant escapes across the drop’s contact line within a second of deposition and causes a change in subphase surface tension outside the drop on the order of 1 mN/m. Convective spreading of the drop ends within 2–3 seconds of drop deposition, when a new interfacial tension balance is achieved. Surfactant escape depletes the drop of surfactant and the residual drop takes the form of a static lens of non-zero contact angle. On longer time scales, the surfactant dissolves into the subphase. The lens formed by the water in the deposited drop persists for as long as 3 minutes after the convective spreading process ends due to the long diffusional timescales associated with the underlying entangled polymer solution. The persistence of the lens suggests that the drop phase behaves as if it were immiscible with the subphase during this time period. Whereas surfactant escapes the spreading drop and advances on the subphase/vapor interface, hydrophilic dye molecules in the drop do not escape, but remain with the drop throughout the convective spreading. The quasi-immiscible nature of the spreading event suggests that the chemical properties of the surfactant and subphase are much less important than their physical properties, consistent with prior qualitative studies of spreading of different types of surfactants on entangled polymer subphases: the

  3. Quasi-immiscible spreading of aqueous surfactant solutions on entangled aqueous polymer solution subphases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramankur; Corcoran, Timothy E; Garoff, Stephen; Przybycien, Todd M; Swanson, Ellen R; Tilton, Robert D

    2013-06-26

    Motivated by the possibility of enhancing aerosol drug delivery to mucus-obstructed lungs, the spreading of a drop of aqueous surfactant solution on a physically entangled aqueous poly(acrylamide) solution subphase that mimics lung airway surface liquid was investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was used as the surfactant. To visualize spreading of the drop and mimic the inclusion of a drug substance, fluorescein, a hydrophilic and non-surface-active dye, was added to the surfactant solution. The spreading progresses through a series of events. Marangoni stresses initiate the convective spreading of the drop. Simultaneously, surfactant escapes across the drop's contact line within a second of deposition and causes a change in subphase surface tension outside the drop on the order of 1 mN/m. Convective spreading of the drop ends within 2-3 s of drop deposition, when a new interfacial tension balance is achieved. Surfactant escape depletes the drop of surfactant, and the residual drop takes the form of a static lens of nonzero contact angle. On longer time scales, the surfactant dissolves into the subphase. The lens formed by the water in the deposited drop persists for as long as 3 min after the convective spreading process ends due to the long diffusional time scales associated with the underlying entangled polymer solution. The persistence of the lens suggests that the drop phase behaves as if it were immiscible with the subphase during this time period. Whereas surfactant escapes the spreading drop and advances on the subphase/vapor interface, hydrophilic dye molecules in the drop do not escape but remain with the drop throughout the convective spreading. The quasi-immiscible nature of the spreading event suggests that the chemical properties of the surfactant and subphase are much less important than their physical properties, consistent with prior qualitative studies of spreading of different types of surfactants on entangled polymer subphases: the selection of

  4. Digital Distributed Parameter Model for Analysis of Unsteady Flow in Liquid-Filled Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Don J.; Dorsch, Robert G.; Lightner, Charlene

    1965-01-01

    A distributed parameter model for computing unsteady flow conditions in liquid systems is presented. The model is adapted for use in conjunction with a digital computer. The analytical method employed is essentially a solution synthesized from the effects of incremental step pressure pulses. The pressure pulses are generated because of incremental flow-rate changes that originate in a fluid system from a variety of sources, including the mechanical motion of the system structure. The pressure pulses propagate throughout the system at sonic velocity and are partially transmitted and reflected at each discontinuity. The velocity change caused by each pressure pulse is obtained from the relation for the characteristic acoustic impedance. Pressure and velocity time histories at any point in the system are obtained by a timewise summation of the contributions of the incremental pressure pulses passing that point. The analysis is presented in a form general enough to be applied to a variety of liquid-filled fluid systems. To illustrate the application of the method to a specific system, the response of a long, straight propellant line to a sinusoidal inlet flow and pressure perturbation is computed. Both a constant-cross-section line and a tapered line are analyzed in the example.

  5. Water distribution at solid/liquid interfaces visualized by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Interfacial phenomena at solid/water interfaces play an important role in a wide range of industrial technologies and biological processes. However, it has been a great challenge to directly probe the molecular-scale behavior of water at solid/water interfaces. Recently, there have been tremendous advancements in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM), enabling its operation in liquids with atomic resolution. The high spatial and force resolutions of FM-AFM have enabled the visualization of one-dimensional (1D) profiles of the hydration force, two-dimensional (2D) images of hydration layers and three-dimensional (3D) images of the water distribution at solid/water interfaces. Here I present an overview of the recent advances in FM-AFM instrumentation and its applications to the study of solid/water interfaces. PMID:27877337

  6. Calculated distance distributions of energy transfer events in irradiated liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.; Wright, H.A.; Ritchie, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Histories from a Monte Carlo electron transport calculation in liquid water are analyzed to obtain the distance distribution functions, t(x) and T(x), of energy transfer events. These functions, which give the average energy transferred within a distance x from an arbitrary transfer event, are presented for irradiation by monoenergetic electrons of several energies between 500 eV and 1 MeV, for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, and 200 keV energy and for 65 kVp and 200 kVp x rays and /sup 60/Co..gamma.. rays. The dose average lineal energy in spherical sites as a function of site radius is also presented for these same photon spectra.

  7. EL2 distributions in doped and undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs. [deep donor concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, D. E.; Chen, R. T.; Yang, J.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal and radial distributions of EL2 in undoped semi-insulating and intentionally doped n-type GaAs crystals grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski technique are compared. Longitudinal profiles in undoped crystals are controlled by changes in melt stoichiometry as the crystal is pulled from the melt. EL2 profiles along crystals doped above about 1 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm, on the other hand, are controlled primarily by the carrier concentration as a result of the suppression of EL2 by free electrons. Radial EL2 profiles are typically W shaped and M shaped in undoped and doped (above threshold) crystals, respectively. The origin of these radial profiles is discussed in terms of residual stress, melt stoichiometry, and the suppresion of EL2 by electrons. The results are also discussed in the light of the antisite model for EL2.

  8. EL2 distributions in doped and undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs. [deep donor concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, D. E.; Chen, R. T.; Yang, J.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal and radial distributions of EL2 in undoped semi-insulating and intentionally doped n-type GaAs crystals grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski technique are compared. Longitudinal profiles in undoped crystals are controlled by changes in melt stoichiometry as the crystal is pulled from the melt. EL2 profiles along crystals doped above about 1 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm, on the other hand, are controlled primarily by the carrier concentration as a result of the suppression of EL2 by free electrons. Radial EL2 profiles are typically W shaped and M shaped in undoped and doped (above threshold) crystals, respectively. The origin of these radial profiles is discussed in terms of residual stress, melt stoichiometry, and the suppresion of EL2 by electrons. The results are also discussed in the light of the antisite model for EL2.

  9. Organic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal distributed feedback laser from different diffraction orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minghuan; Liu, Yonggang; Zhang, Guiyang; Peng, Zenghui; Li, Dayu; Ma, Ji; Xuan, Li

    2016-11-01

    Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) based distributed feedback (DFB) lasers were prepared with poly (-methoxy-5-(2‧-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) film as the active medium layer. The HPDLC grating film was fabricated via holographic induced photopolymerization. The pure film spectra of MEH-PPV and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum were investigated. The laser device was single-longitudinal mode operation. The tunability of the HPDLC DFB laser was achieved by selecting different grating periods. The lasing performances were also characterized and compared from different diffraction orders. The lasing threshold increased with the diffraction order and the third order laser possessed the largest conversion efficiency in this device. The experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  10. An Oil-Stream Photomicrographic Aeroscope for Obtaining Cloud Liquid-Water Content and Droplet Size Distributions in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Paul T.

    1956-01-01

    An airborne cloud aeroscope by which droplet size, size distribution, and liquid-water content of clouds can be determined has been developed and tested in flight and in wind tunnels with water sprays. In this aeroscope the cloud droplets are continuously captured in a stream of oil, which Is then photographed by a photomicrographic camera. The droplet size and size distribution can be determined directly from the photographs. With the droplet size distribution known, the liquid-water content of the cloud can be computed from the geometry of the aeroscope, the airspeed, and the oil-flow rate. The aeroscope has the following features: Data are obtained semi-automatically, and permanent data are taken in the form of photographs. A single picture usually contains a sufficient number of droplets to establish the droplet size distribution. Cloud droplets are continuously captured in the stream of oil, but pictures are taken at Intervals. The aeroscope can be operated in icing and non-icing conditions. Because of mixing of oil in the instrument, the droplet-distribution patterns and liquid-water content values from a single picture are exponentially weighted average values over a path length of about 3/4 mile at 150 miles per hour. The liquid-water contents, volume-median diameters, and distribution patterns obtained on test flights and in the Lewis icing tunnel are similar to previously published data.

  11. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  12. Effect of elongational flow on immiscible polymer blend/nanoparticle composites: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Shebert, George L; Lak Joo, Yong

    2016-07-13

    Using coarse-grained nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, the dynamics of a blend of the equal ratio of immiscible polymers mixed with nanoparticles (NP) are simulated. The simulations are conducted under planar elongational flow, which affects the dispersion of the NPs and the self-assembly morphology. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of planar elongational flow on the nanocomposite blend system as well as to thoroughly compare the blend to an analogous symmetric block copolymer (BCP) system to understand the role of the polymer structure on the morphology and NP dispersion. Two types of spherical NPs are considered: (1) selective NPs that are attracted to one of the polymer components and (2) nonselective NPs that are neutral to both components. A comparison of the blend and BCP systems reveals that for selective NP, the blend system shows a much broader NP distribution in the selective phase than the BCP phase. This is due to a more uniform distribution of polymer chain ends throughout the selective phase in the blend system than the BCP system. For nonselective NP, the blend and BCP systems show similar results for low elongation rates, but the NP peak in the BCP system broadens as elongation rates approach the order-disorder transition. In addition, the presence of NP is found to affect the morphology transitions of both the blend and BCP systems, depending on the NP type.

  13. Dynamics of liquid-liquid displacement.

    PubMed

    Fetzer, Renate; Ramiasa, Melanie; Ralston, John

    2009-07-21

    Capillary driven liquid-liquid displacement in a system with two immiscible liquids of comparable viscosity was investigated by means of optical high speed video microscopy. For the first time, the impact of substrate wettability on contact line dynamics in liquid-liquid systems was studied. On all substrates, qualitatively different dynamics, in two distinct velocity regimes, were found. Hydrodynamic models apply to the fast stage of initial spreading, while nonhydrodynamic dissipation dominates contact line motion in a final stage at low speed, where the molecular kinetic theory (MKT) successfully captured the dynamics. The MKT model parameter values showed no systematic dependence on substrate wettability. This unexpected result is interpreted in terms of local contact line pinning.

  14. Carbonate-silicate immiscibility and extremely peralkaline silicate glasses from Nasira cone and recent eruptions at Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Roger H.; Dawson, J. Barry

    2012-11-01

    Phenocrysts of garnet, pyroxene and nepheline in peralkaline nephelinite from the Nasira parasitic cones at Oldoinyo Lengai contain quenched immiscible silicate (peralkalinity = 2-13) and Na-Ca-carbonate melts. Their bulk compositions further define the limits of liquid immiscibility for peralkaline carbonated nephelinite magmas and confirm this process was operative at Oldoinyo Lengai during older stages of activity. Groundmass glasses in Nasira nephelinites are peralkaline (peralkalinity = 5.5-9.5) but less evolved than melt inclusion glasses (peralkalinity = 8-13) in nepheline phenocrysts, implying that these magmas are hybrids formed by magma mixing. Groundmass glass in diverse peralkaline combeite nephelinite ash clasts with and without melilite and/or wollastonite formed in the January-June 2008 eruptions of Oldoinyo Lengai are also exceptionally peralkaline. Two trends in their compositions are evident: (1) increasing peralkalinity from 6 to 10 with SiO2 decreasing from 42 to 33 wt.%; (2) increasing peralkalinity from 6 to 16 with SiO2 decreasing from 45 to 40 wt.%. All recent glasses are considered to be more evolved than groundmass glass in Nasira combeite nephelinite. These data indicate that several varieties of nephelinite exist at Oldoinyo Lengai. Their parental magmas are considered to have been initially enriched in alkalis during partial melting of their metasomatized asthenospheric sources and further by subsequent assimilation, or re-solution, of previously exsolved natrocarbonatite melt in the magma chamber(s) underlying Oldoinyo Lengai. On this basis, none of the bulk compositions of peralkaline stage II lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai, including Nasira, are considered to represent those of liquids as their compositions are determined by rheological factors (phenocryst accumulation; cumulate disruption) and assimilation processes. The formation of combeite is considered to be a consequence of natrocarbonatite melt assimilation.

  15. Reactions and Polymerizations at the Liquid-Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Piradashvili, Keti; Alexandrino, Evandro M; Wurm, Frederik R; Landfester, Katharina

    2016-02-24

    Reactions and polymerizations at the interface of two immiscible liquids are reviewed. The confinement of two reactants at the interface to form a new product can be advantageous in terms of improved reaction kinetics, higher yields, and selectivity. The presence of the liquid-liquid interface can accelerate the reaction, or a phase-transfer catalyst is employed to draw the reaction in one phase of choice. Furthermore, the use of immiscible systems, e.g., in emulsions, offers an easy means of efficient product separation and heat dissipation. A general overview on low molecular weight organic chemistry is given, and the applications of heterophase polymerization, occurring at or in proximity of the interface, (mostly) in emulsions are presented. This strategy can be used for the efficient production of nano- and microcarriers for various applications.

  16. Efficient co-delivery of immiscible hydrophilic/hydrophobic chemotherapeutics by lipid emulsions for improved treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Song, Yunmei; Wang, Tianqi; Yang, Shaomei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Na; Garg, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Combinational nanomedicine is becoming a topic of much interest in cancer therapy, although its translation into the clinic remains extremely challenging. One of the main obstacles lies in the difficulty to efficiently co-deliver immiscible hydrophilic/hydrophobic drugs into tumor sites. The aim of this study was to develop co-loaded lipid emulsions (LEs) to co-deliver immiscible hydrophilic/hydrophobic drugs to improve cancer therapy and to explore the co-delivery abilities between co-loaded LEs and mixture formulation. Multiple oxaliplatin/irinotecan drug-phospholipid complexes (DPCs) were formulated. Co-loaded LEs were prepared using DPC technique to efficiently encapsulate both drugs. Co-loaded LEs exhibited uniform particle size distribution, desired stability and synchronous release profiles in both drugs. Co-loaded LEs demonstrated superior anti-tumor activity compared with the simple solution mixture and the mixture of single-loaded LEs. Furthermore, co-loaded nanocarriers could co-deliver both drugs into the same cells more efficiently and exhibited the optimized synergistic effect. These results indicate that co-loaded LEs could be a desired formulation for enhanced cancer therapy with potential application prospects. The comparison between co-loaded LEs and mixture formulation is significant for pharmaceutical designs aimed at co-delivery of multiple drugs.

  17. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface through the influence of capillary, viscous and buoyancy forces. Four experimental methods were employed. First, quantitative displacement experiments using short soil columns; second, add...

  18. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface through the influence of capillary, viscous and buoyancy forces. Four experimental methods were employed. First, quantitative displacement experiments using short soil columns; second, add...

  19. Nanodroplets of immiscible fluid pairs adopt nonspherical shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilemski, Gerald; Hrahsheh, Fawaz

    2015-03-01

    To help understand recent experimental results for nonane/water condensation [Pathak, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 140, 224318 (2014)], the structure of water/nonane nanodroplets was investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of SPC/E water and a unified atom model of nonane. Because nonane and water are essentially immiscible fluids that only partially wet each other, one might expect unusual nanodroplet structures to arise. Indeed, nonspherical, phase-separated Russian Doll (RD) structures were found to occur for these nanodroplets over the entire temperature range studied in the MD simulations, 220K - 300K. An idealized, but realistic lens-on-sphere model for the observed RD structures consists of a spherical nonane lens that partially wets a spherical water droplet. This model was used to analyze the experimental small angle x-ray scattering measurements. The simulated contact angle of nonane on water was found to be quite sensitive to the value of the Lennard-Jones energy parameter ɛOC for the cross-interaction between oxygen and carbon atoms. The standard geometric mean approximation for ɛOCyielded contact angles in the range 70o- 80o, while a 19% increase in ɛOCreduced the simulated contact angle close to the experimental value of 33.6o at 295 K. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET-1033387.

  20. The immiscibility of InAlN ternary alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guijuan; Xu, Xiaoqing; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Ji, Zesheng; Meng, Yulin; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    We have used two models based on the valence force field and the regular solution model to study the immiscibility of InAlN ternary alloy, and have got the spinodal and binodal curves of InAlN. Analyzing the spinodal decomposition curves, we obtain the appropriate concentration region for the epitaxial growth of the InN-AlN pseudobinary alloy. At a temperature most common for the epitaxial growth of InAlN (1000 K), the solubility of InN is about 10%. Then we introduce the mismatch strain item into the Gibbs free energy, and the effect of different substrates is taken into consideration. Considering Si, Al2O3, InN, GaN, AlN as a substrate respectively, it is found that all the five systems are stabilized with the upper critical solution temperature largely reduced. Finally, InN and GaN are potential substrates for In-rich InAlN, while AlN and GaN substrates are recommended in the Al-rich region. Si and Al2O3 may be ideal substrates for thin InAlN film. PMID:27221345

  1. Cylindrical waves at the interface of viscous immiscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ratul; Farsoiya, Palas Kumar

    2016-11-01

    We conduct Navier-Stokes simulations of cylindrical, axisymmetric standing gravity waves at the interface of radially unbounded, immiscible viscous fluids. The fluid motion generated by these oscillations are studied. Results from the numerical solutions are compared to the analytical solution of an integro-differential equation representing the amplitude of motion of the interface. Standing waves are initiated at the interface as zeroth order Bessel's mode at rest i.e. h (r , 0) =H0 1 + ɛJ0 (kr) where H0 is the undisturbed fluid depth in the simulation, chosen to be large enough for deep water approximation to hold. For small initial amplitudes (compared to 2 πk-1), we obtain good agreement with the analytical solution at early times. As we increase initial amplitude, the time period of the first oscillation is found to increase. Diffusion of vorticity from the interface is studied as a function of initial amplitude. We compare our results to the analytical solution obtained from the corresponding planar problem (Prosperetti, 1981). We will discuss these results in the framework of the viscous Cauchy-Poisson (initial-value) problem between two fluids, and also compare our results to the viscous, single fluid case (Miles, 1968). We thank IRCC, IIT Bombay for financial support.

  2. Wettability controls slow immiscible displacement through local interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Michael; Brinkmann, Martin; Seemann, Ralf; Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Immiscible fluid displacement with average front velocities in the capillary-dominated regime is studied in a transparent Hele-Shaw cell with cylindrical posts. Employing various combinations of fluids and wall materials allows us to cover a range of advancing contact angles 46∘≤θa≤180∘ of the invading fluid in our experiments. In parallel, we study the displacement process in particle-based simulations that account for wall wettability. Considering the same arrangement of posts in experiments and simulation, we find a consistent crossover between stable interfacial displacement at θa≲80∘ and capillary fingering at high contact angles θa≳120∘ . The position of the crossover is quantified through the evolution of the interface length and the final saturation of the displaced fluid. A statistical analysis of the local displacement processes demonstrates that the shape evolution of the fluid front is governed by local instabilities as proposed by Cieplak and Robbins for a quasistatic interfacial displacement [Cieplak and Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2042 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.2042]. The regime of stable front advances coincides with a corresponding region of contact angles where cooperative interfacial instabilities prevail. Capillary fingering, however, is observed only for large θa, where noncooperative instabilities dominate the invasion process.

  3. Immiscibility in the Nickel Ferrite-Zinc Ferrite Spinel Binary

    SciTech Connect

    SE Ziemniak; AR Gaddipati; PC Sander; SB Rice

    2006-06-21

    Immiscibility in the trevorite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) - franklinite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel binary is investigated by reacting 1:1:2 molar ratio mixtures of NiO, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a molten salt solvent at temperatures in the range 400-1000 C. Single phase stability is demonstrated down to about 730 C (the estimated consolute solution temperature, T{sub cs}). A miscibility gap/solvus exists below Tcs. The solvus becomes increasingly asymmetric at lower temperatures and extrapolates to n - values = 0.15, 0.8 at 300 C. A thermodynamic analysis, which accounts for changes in configurational and magnetic ordering entropies during cation mixing, predicts solvus phase compositions at room temperature in reasonable agreement with those determined by extrapolation of experimental results. The delay between disappearance of magnetic ordering above T{sub C} = 590 C (for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and disappearance of a miscibility gap at T{sub cs} is explained by the persistence of long-range ordering correlations in a quasi-paramagnetic region above T{sub C}.

  4. Immiscibility in the nickel ferrite zinc ferrite spinel binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemniak, S. E.; Gaddipati, A. R.; Sander, P. C.; Rice, S. B.

    2007-08-01

    Immiscibility in the trevorite (NiFe2O4) franklinite (ZnFe2O4) spinel binary is investigated by reacting 1:1:2 molar ratio mixtures of NiO, ZnO and Fe2O3 in a molten salt solvent at temperatures in the range 400 1000 °C. Single phase stability is demonstrated down to about 730 °C (the estimated consolute solution temperature, Tcs). A miscibility gap/solvus exists below Tcs. The solvus becomes increasingly asymmetric at lower temperatures and extrapolates to stoichiometric parameters = 0.15, 0.8 at 300 °C. A thermodynamic analysis, which accounts for changes in configurational and magnetic ordering entropies during cation mixing, predicts solvus phase compositions at room temperature in reasonable agreement with those determined by extrapolation of experimental results. The delay between disappearance of magnetic ordering above TC=590C (for NiFe2O4) and disappearance of a miscibility gap at Tcs is explained by the persistence of long-range ordering correlations in a quasi-paramagnetic region above TC.

  5. Phase Change Effects on Immiscible Flow Displacements in Radial Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin

    2014-11-01

    We report a systematic simulation of immiscible fluid-fluid displacements in radial injection in the presence of phase change. Due to the presence of two fluid-fluid interfaces in the system, a special treatment has been adopted. To track the leading interface position, two highly accurate methods including Level Set and Immersed Interface Method were used, while for locating the trailing interface an energy equation was adopted assuming the existence of a constant thin condensate layer. Dimensional analysis led to three important dimensionless groups including capillary number (Ca), Jacob number (Ja) and viscosity ratios (M) of the three fluids. Simulation results indicate significant influences of these parameters on the development of the instability and the interfacial morphology of fingers. Increasing Ca or M tends to amplify the interfacial instability, fingertip splitting, and results in longer fingers. In contrast, increasing Ja has stabilizing effects due to an increase of the thickness of the condensate layer. On the other hand at lower viscosity ratios as well as lower Ca, because of compensation effects of the phase change, both leading and trailing interfaces are found to be less unstable. Moreover accumulated condensate and oil saturation depletion curves show increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, when the Ca increases. Although viscosity ratio and Ja have similar effects on the accumulated condensate, they do not show any effect on the oil depletion saturation.

  6. Characteristic impedance of a microchannel with two immiscible microfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo Raquejo, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Consider the case of a microcapillary of radius R with two microfluidic immiscible. The micro-capillary region 0 < r < R1 is occupied by the microfluidic less dense and less viscous; while the microcapillary region R1 <0 < R is occupied by the microfluidic more dense and more viscous. Determine the characteristic impedance of the microcapillary in this case when both microfluidics are driven by the same pressure gradient as the boundary condition at the wall of the microcapillary is of the non-Newtonian slip. The Navier Stokes equation is solved for both microfluidic methods using the Laplace transform. The velocity profiles are expressed in terms of Bessel functions. Similarly, the characteristic impedance of the microcapillary is expressed by a complex formula Bessel functions. Obtain the analytical results are important for designing engineering microdevices with applications in pharmaceutical, food engineering, nanotechnology and biotechnology in general in particular. For future research it is interesting to consider the case of boundary conditions with memory effects.

  7. The distribution of partial melt in a granitic system: The application of liquid phase sintering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Watson, E. Bruce

    1985-05-01

    Two series of experiments, four crystallization and four partial melting, were performed at 1000°C and 10 kilobars in the quartz-alkali feldspar-granitic melt system in order to determine the equilibrium melt distribution and textural adjustment processes. The melt distribution in both types of experiments was characterized by melt residing at grain edge intersections and in a few large pools scattered throughout the sample. Wetting angle measurements from both sets of experiments gave values of 44, 49, and 59 degrees for the feldspar/feldspar, feldspar/quartz, and quartz/quartz wetting angles, respectively. Interparticle welding, a process consistent with the measured wetting angles, resulted in the formation of a skeleton of solid grains with very few unattached grains in any sample. Analysis of wetting angle distributions indicates that the longest duration experiments closely approached textural equilibrium and that the distributions of observed wetting angles from both sets of experiments were nearly identical. Measurement of quartz grain sizes from the 2, 4, 7, and 14-day crystallization experiments revealed: 1) a probable cube root of time dependence for the quartz growth rate; 2) a decrease in the number of quartz grains per square micron with increasing time; 3) a normalized distribution of grain sizes that appeared stationary in time. These results were shown to be consistent with the processes observed during the liquid phase sintering of ceramic materials and suggest that identical processes may occur in natural partially-molten systems. Finally, it was shown that interfacial energy considerations lead to a model of interparticle welding (clustering) in which it is discovered that there is an equilibrium melt fraction stable along grain edges of a partially-molten crystalline aggregate. This melt fraction may be greater, equal to, or less than the equilibrium fraction of melt dictated by the pressure, temperature, and chemical potential conditions. If

  8. Distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within experimental microcosms treated with liquid creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Bestari, K.T.J.; Solomon, K.R.; Steele, T.S.; Sibley, P.K.; Robinson, R.D.; Day, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    Temporal changes in the distribution and relative composition of 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, sediment, and absorbed to polyvinylchloride (PVC) strips were assessed following direct application of liquid creosote to aquatic microcosms. Fourteen microcosms were treated with nominal creosote concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 109 mg/L and two microcosms served as controls. Quantitative analysis of PAHs was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. Post-treatment concentration of PAHs in water decreased exponentially with time. At 2 d posttreatment, total PAHs ({Sigma} PAH) ranged from 7.3 {micro}g/L to 5,803.2 {micro}g/L; by 84 d, {Sigma} PAH in the same microcosms was reduced to between 0.8 {micro}g/L and 13.9 {micro}g/L, respectively. The relative composition of PAHs in the water also changed with time; at 2 d posttreatment, {Sigma} PAH in the lowest treatment reflected contribution from nine PAHs, whereas only two PAHs contributed to this concentration at 84 d. Low and high molecular weight PAHs were lost first from the water column, followed by PAHs of intermediate mol wt. In sediments, a dose-dependent increase in {Sigma} PAH was observed above 0.59 mg/L creosote up to 28 d, followed by a decline thereafter in all but the highest treatment. Total PAHs in sediment ranged from 0.91 {micro}g/g to 63.9 {micro}g/g at 28 d. A dose-dependent relationship was also observed in PVC strips, with {Sigma}PAH on PVC ranging from 0.05 to 88 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} at 31 d and 0.04 to 18.4 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} at 58 d posttreatment. A mass balance evaluation showed that 88.3% of PAHs was lost from the system after 1 month, indicating that liquid creosote is attenuated relatively quickly in aquatic environments.

  9. Deposition-rate dependence of granular size distribution in Cu aggregate on liquid substrate studied by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Miao-Gen; Yu, Sen-Jiang; Jiao, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Ming-Zhou; Bao, Fu-Bing

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we report an atomic force microscopy study on the microstructure and the deposition-rate dependence of granular size distribution in copper (Cu) ramified aggregates on a liquid substrate. This study shows that the ramified Cu aggregates are composed of Gaussian size distribution granules, which form immediately after the Cu atoms are deposited. The interesting phenomenon is that the mean diameter Φm of the granules exponentially decays and approaches a stable value Φc with an increase in the deposition rate f. The granular mean diameter Φm slightly changes with the time interval Δt during which the film is kept in the vacuum chamber, owing to the large diffusion coefficient of the Cu granules on the liquid substrates. The experimental behavior strongly depends on the properties of the liquid substrate.

  10. Solidification of Liquid Distributed in its Primary Matrix Phase of Al-10Cu-Fe Alloy and Their Tribological Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Sankara; Jha, A. K.; Ojha, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    Solidification behavior of liquid phase entrained in its primary solid has been investigated. A hypoeutectic alloy based on Al-Cu-Fe system containing Fe and Si was thermal cycled between semisolid regions to low temperatures. The freezing characteristics of the liquid were recorded in inverse rate cooling curves. The continuous network of the liquid phase progressively changed into isolated droplets with their different size and size distribution. Such droplets revealed undercooling of the melt varying from 20 to 35 °C below the eutectic temperature of the alloy. This behavior of melt undercooling is discussed in light of independent nucleation events associated with freezing of droplets. Solidification structure of droplets revealed particulate eutectic phases in contrast to lamellar eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region of the as-cast alloy. The droplet distribution and their solidification structure resulted in an improvement in tribological characteristics of the alloy. This effect is correlated with features of wear surfaces generated on the matting surfaces.

  11. A novel approach to the uniform distribution of liquid in multi-channel (electrochemical) flow-through cells.

    PubMed

    Lacina, Karel; Vondál, Jiří; Skládal, Petr

    2012-05-21

    Four-channel flow-through electrochemical cell working in thin-layer regime was designed, fabricated and characterized experimentally and in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The new principle of operation allows reproducible splitting of a stream of liquid into multiple flow channels. Systems comprising of 2-, 3-, 4- and 8-channels were tested. The proper function of the cell is given by the ratio of the cross-sections of the fluidic element collecting chamber and the particular flow paths among which the liquid is distributed. Suitable flow rates providing uniform liquid distribution were evaluated and the results were compared to CFD modeling. The flow-through cells designed according to the proposed principle can be simply incorporated in automated routine analysis as only one inlet and one common outlet are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative time-averaged gas and liquid distributions using x-ray fluorescence and radiography in atomizing sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, Christopher D.; McManamen, Patrick J.; Kastengren, Alan L.; Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.

    2015-05-01

    A method for quantitative measurements of gas and liquid distributions is demonstrated using simultaneous x-ray fluorescence and radiography of both phases in an atomizing coaxial spray. Synchrotron radiation at 10.1 keV from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is used for x-ray fluorescence of argon gas and two tracer elements seeded into the liquid stream. Simultaneous time-resolved x-ray radiography combined with time-averaged dual-tracer fluorescence measurements enabled corrections for reabsorption of x-ray fluorescence photons for accurate, line-of-sight averaged measurements of the distribution of the gas and liquid phases originating from the atomizing nozzle.

  13. Solidification of Liquid Distributed in its Primary Matrix Phase of Al-10Cu-Fe Alloy and Their Tribological Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Sankara; Jha, A. K.; Ojha, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Solidification behavior of liquid phase entrained in its primary solid has been investigated. A hypoeutectic alloy based on Al-Cu-Fe system containing Fe and Si was thermal cycled between semisolid regions to low temperatures. The freezing characteristics of the liquid were recorded in inverse rate cooling curves. The continuous network of the liquid phase progressively changed into isolated droplets with their different size and size distribution. Such droplets revealed undercooling of the melt varying from 20 to 35 °C below the eutectic temperature of the alloy. This behavior of melt undercooling is discussed in light of independent nucleation events associated with freezing of droplets. Solidification structure of droplets revealed particulate eutectic phases in contrast to lamellar eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region of the as-cast alloy. The droplet distribution and their solidification structure resulted in an improvement in tribological characteristics of the alloy. This effect is correlated with features of wear surfaces generated on the matting surfaces.

  14. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be determined without regard...

  15. 26 CFR 1.332-5 - Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minority interests. 1.332-5 Section 1.332-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... liquidation as affecting minority interests. Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be determined without regard...

  16. A force field for guanidinium-based ionic liquids that utilizes the electron charge distribution of the actual liquid: a molecular simulation study.

    PubMed

    Klähn, Marco; Seduraman, Abirami; Wu, Ping

    2008-09-04

    We propose a new all-atom force field for guanidinium-based ionic liquids (GILs) which is based on the charge distribution in the actual liquid. It comprises all cations that can be built by attaching alkyl chains of variable length to an acyclic or cyclic guanidinium compound and that are paired with nitrate or perchlorate anions. We based the parametrization of the force field on liquid-phase charge distributions to improve the prediction of energetic and dynamic properties of GILs. The impact of electron charge transfer and polarization on various properties of GILs is systematically assessed. A significant average electron charge transfer between -0.12 and -0.06 e from anions to the central guanidinium group of the cations and a strong polarization of acyclic cations are observed by applying a combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach. Molecular dynamics simulations of GILs are performed, utilizing the proposed force field. Derived structures approach the accuracy of QM/MM structures, and a previously reported crystal structure remains stable throughout the simulations. Mass densities are reproduced with a deviation of only 1.4% from experimental data. The calculated melting point of a GIL crystal deviates only 8% from the measured value. Self-diffusion coefficients of various GILs are reported, and a comparison with a diffusion coefficient derived from experimental data indicates that the values are within a reasonable range. We observe that the melting point of a GIL crystal was lowered up to 60 K and that diffusion coefficients are substantially increased by a factor of up to 3.5 upon consideration of charge transfer and polarization. The results demonstrate that liquid-phase partial charges are capable of improving the quality of ionic liquid force fields substantially and that their utilization led to a model that can be applied to predict structural, energetic, and dynamic properties of GILs.

  17. Experimental development of processes to produce homogenized alloys of immiscible metals, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reger, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental drop tower package was designed and built for use in a drop tower. This effort consisted of a thermal analysis, container/heater fabrication, and assembly of an expulsion device for rapid quenching of heated specimens during low gravity conditions. Six gallium bismuth specimens with compositions in the immiscibility region (50 a/o of each element) were processed in the experimental package: four during low gravity conditions and two under a one gravity environment. One of the one gravity processed specimens did not have telemetry data and was subsequently deleted for analysis since the processing conditions were not known. Metallurgical, Hall effect, resistivity, and superconductivity examinations were performed on the five specimens. Examination of the specimens showed that the gallium was dispersed in the bismuth. The low gravity processed specimens showed a relatively uniform distribution of gallium, with particle sizes of 1 micrometer or less, in contrast to the one gravity control specimen. Comparison of the cooling rates of the dropped specimens versus microstructure indicated that low cooling rates are more desirable.

  18. CO2-rich phonolitic melt and carbonatite immiscibility in melt inclusions in nephelinite (Hanang volcano, North Tanzanian Divergence, East African Rift).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudouin, C.; Parat, F.

    2016-12-01

    Hanang is the southern volcano of the East branch of the East African Rift and represents volcanic activity at early stage rifting (0.9 Ma). Lavas are highly alkaline Mg-poor nephelinites (Mg#=24.4-35.2) with cpx, garnet, nepheline, titanite, and apatite and result from fractional crystallisation of primary melilitite magmas (Parat et al. AGU2016). In this study, we investigate glassy melt inclusions at the rim of nepheline phenocrysts to constrain the late stage of nephelinite evolution and the behaviour of volatiles (CO2, H2O, S, F, Cl) during magma storage and ascent. The melt inclusions have a green silicate glass, a microcrystalline carbonate phase and a shrinkage bubble free of gas phase (Raman analyses) suggesting that carbonatite-silicate liquid immiscibility (85:15) occurred during nephelinite differentiation. The silicate glasses have trachytic composition (Na+K/Al=1.6-7.2, SiO2=54-65.5 wt%) with high CO2 (0.43 wt% CO2, SIMS analyses), sulfur (0.21-0.92 wt% S) and halogens (0.28-0.84 wt% Cl; 0.35-2.54 wt% F) content and very low H2O content (<0.1wt%, Raman analyses). The carbonate phase is an anhydrous Ca-Na±S,K- carbonate with 33 wt% CaO, 20 wt% Na2O, 3 wt% K2O, and 3 wt% S. The pre-immiscible silicate liquid (e.g. silicate melt + carbonatite) in equilibrium with nepheline and cpx phenocrysts has CO2-rich phonolitic composition (Na+K/Al=6.2-6.9) with 6 ± 1.5 wt% CO2 at pressure of 700-1100 MPa. The entrapped melt in nepheline corresponds to evolved interstitial silicate melt after crystallisation of cpx (16.7%), nepheline (40%) garnet (6.5%) and apatite (1.7%) from Mg-nephelinite magma. The immiscibility process leading to glassy silicate melt and microcrystalline carbonatitic melt occurred in closed system during rapid ascent at crustal level at 200-230 MPa. The absence of gas phase in shrinkage bubble in melt inclusions suggests CO2-undersaturated conditions during quenching. The absence of carbonatite lavas at Hanang volcano is then explained by

  19. Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew A; D'Auria, Raffaella; Kuo, I-F William; Krisch, Maria J; Starr, David E; Bluhm, Hendrik; Tobias, Douglas J; Hemminger, John C

    2008-08-28

    X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of X-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous-vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F(-) to K(+) atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air-water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, consistent with the depletion of F(-) at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous-vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at an aqueous potassium fluoride solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.

  20. Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M A; D'Auria, R; Kuo, I W; Krisch, M J; Starr, D E; Bluhm, H; Tobias, D J; Hemminger, J C

    2008-04-23

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of x-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous-vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F{sup -} to K{sup +} atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air-water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, and this is consistent with the depletion of F{sup -} at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous-vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at a potassium fluoride aqueous solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.

  1. Dynamic three-phase hollow fiber microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents with automated movement of the acceptor phase.

    PubMed

    Esrafili, Ali; Yamini, Yadollah; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Moradi, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic three-phase hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) based on two immiscible organic solvents, with automated movement of organic acceptor phase to facilitate mass transfer was introduced for the first time. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were used as model compounds and extracted from water and soil samples. The extraction involved filling an 8 cm length of hollow fiber with 25 μL of organic acceptor solvent using a microsyringe, followed by impregnation of the pores in the fiber wall with n-dodecane. The fiber was then immersed in 20 mL of aqueous sample solution. During extraction, the organic acceptor phase was repeatedly moved in the lumen of the hollow fiber by movement of the syringe plunger controlled by programmable syringe pump. Following this microextraction, 2 μL of organic acceptor phase was injected into gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. This new technique provided up to 554-fold preconcentration of the analytes under the optimized conditions. Good repeatabilities (with RSDs ≤8.4%) were obtained. Detection limits were in the range of 0.2-0.5 μg/L. The utilization of the proposed method for extraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from different real samples (such as water and soil samples) also gave good precision and recovery.

  2. Effect of partial liquid ventilation and nebulized perfluorocarbon on CT lung density distribution: randomized controlled study of experimental lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K P; Stenson, B J; Drummond, G B

    2005-05-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid can improve gas exchange in acute lung injury. How PFC aerosol is distributed in the lung is unknown. We induced lung injury in rabbits with saline lavage, followed by mechanical ventilation in the supine position. The animals were divided into three groups: a control group, a group treated with partial liquid ventilation and a group given nebulized perfluorocarbon (PF 5080). We made CT image slices of the excised lungs. In the apical, middle and caudal slices we defined three regions of interest, from anterior to posterior, and noted the mean attenuation of each area. We also studied two rabbits which had not received lung injury or mechanical ventilation. Group means were different between the normal rabbits and all three study groups. There was a difference between the control and partial liquid ventilation groups, and between the partial liquid ventilation and nebulized groups, but no difference between the nebulized and control groups. Within each treatment group, there was no regional difference in the distribution of density. PF 5080 is not deposited in large amounts by aerosol. Less PFC was found in the lungs after partial liquid ventilation than expected. Within treatment groups, lung densities indicate less gravitational and regional differences than found in other studies.

  3. Vortex distribution and mixed convection of liquid flow across micro-cylinders in a rectangular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ning; Luan, Tao; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Jiang, Guilin

    2016-03-01

    The impacts of heat flux ( q = 10, 15, 20 W/cm2), cylinder diameter ( D = 300, 600, 3000 μm), aspect ratio AR ( H/D = 1, 2, 4) and block ratio BR ( W/D = 2, 4, 16) on vortex distribution and mixed convection of liquid flow across single micro-cylinder and micro-cylinder-groups (3 × 3 cylinders) were numerically investigated. The separation angles, recirculation lengths ( Lv) and Nusselt numbers were calculated with Reynolds number ranging from 10 to 60. For the single micro-cylinder, the separation angle and the value of Lv/D both became large with the increase of heat flux, and the profiles of Lv/D versus z/H were asymmetrical, which is different from the cylinders with dimensions of millimeter-level. The discrepancies of Lv/D on the same plane of micro-cylinders with different AR in the region near end-walls were larger than those near the symmetry wall. For the 3 × 3 micro-cylinder-groups, the value of Lv/D was related to the location along the axial direction, while the separation angle became small along the flowing direction. The mixed heat transfer in rectangular channel with micro-cylinders could be enhanced by changing the dimensions of the cylinders and the channel.

  4. Experimentally Determined Interfacial Area Between Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, J; Hassanizadeh, S.M; Smith, Duane

    2008-01-01

    When multiple fluids flow through a porous medium, the interaction between the fluid interfaces can be of great importance. While this is widely recognized in practical applications, numerical models often disregard interactios between discrete fluid phases due to the computational complexity. And rightly so, for this level of detail is well beyond most extended Darcy Law relationships. A new model of two-phase flow including the interfacial area has been proposed by Hassarizadeh and Gray based upon thermodynamic principles. A version of this general equation set has been implemented by Nessner and Hassarizadeh. Many of the interfacial parameters required by this equation set have never been determined from experiments. The work presented here is a description of how the interfacial area, capillary pressure, interfacial velocity and interfacial permeability from two-phase flow experiments in porous media experiments can be used to determine the required parameters. This work, while on-going, has shown the possibility of digitizing images within translucent porous media and identifying the location and behavior of interfaces under dynamic conditions. Using the described methods experimentally derived interfacial functions to be used in larger scale simulations are currently being developed. In summary, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) by mapping a pore-throat geometry onto an image of immiscible fluid flow, the saturation of fluids and the individual interfaces between the fluids can be identified; (2) the resulting saturation profiles of the low velocity drainage flows used in this study are well described by an invasion percolation fractal scaling; (3) the interfacial area between fluids has been observed to increase in a linear fashion during the initial invasion of the non-wetting fluid; and (4) the average capillary pressure within the entire cell and representative elemental volumes were observed to plateau after a small portion of the volume was

  5. Three-dimensional (3D) evaluation of liquid distribution in shake flask using an optical fluorescence technique.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Amizon; Büchs, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Biotechnological development in shake flask necessitates vital engineering parameters e.g. volumetric power input, mixing time, gas liquid mass transfer coefficient, hydromechanical stress and effective shear rate. Determination and optimization of these parameters through experiments are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides the ability to predict and validate these parameters in bioprocess engineering. This work provides ample experimental data which are easily accessible for future validations to represent the hydrodynamics of the fluid flow in the shake flask. A non-invasive measuring technique using an optical fluorescence method was developed for shake flasks containing a fluorescent solution with a waterlike viscosity at varying filling volume (VL = 15 to 40 mL) and shaking frequency (n = 150 to 450 rpm) at a constant shaking diameter (do = 25 mm). The method detected the leading edge (LB) and tail of the rotating bulk liquid (TB) relative to the direction of the centrifugal acceleration at varying circumferential heights from the base of the shake flask. The determined LB and TB points were translated into three-dimensional (3D) circumferential liquid distribution plots. The maximum liquid height (Hmax) of the bulk liquid increased with increasing filling volume and shaking frequency of the shaking flask, as expected. The toroidal shapes of LB and TB are clearly asymmetrical and the measured TB differed by the elongation of the liquid particularly towards the torus part of the shake flask. The 3D liquid distribution data collected at varying filling volume and shaking frequency, comprising of LB and TB values relative to the direction of the centrifugal acceleration are essential for validating future numerical solutions using CFD to predict vital engineering parameters in shake flask.

  6. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  7. Quantitative imaging of single-shot liquid distributions in sprays using broadband flash x-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Halls, B. R.; Roy, S.; Gord, J. R.; Kastengren, A. L.; Meyer, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    Flash x-ray radiography is used to capture quantitative, two-dimensional line-of-sight averaged, single-shot liquid distribution measurements in impinging jet sprays. The accuracy of utilizing broadband x-ray radiation from compact flash tube sources is investigated for a range of conditions by comparing the data with radiographic high-speed measurements from a narrowband, high-intensity synchrotron x-ray facility at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. The path length of the liquid jets is varied to evaluate the effects of energy dependent x-ray attenuation, also known as spectral beam hardening. The spatial liquid distributions from flash x-ray and synchrotron-based radiography are compared, along with spectral characteristics using Taylor’s hypothesis. The results indicate that quantitative, single-shot imaging of liquid distributions can be achieved using broadband x-ray sources with nanosecond temporal resolution. Practical considerations for optimizing the imaging system performance are discussed, including the coupled effects of x-ray bandwidth, contrast, sensitivity, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and spectral beam hardening.

  8. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  9. Pore-scale Evaluation of Immiscible Fluid Characteristics and Displacements: Comparison Between Ambient- and Supercritical-Condition Experimental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, A. L.; Wildenschild, D.; Andersson, L.; Harper, E.; Sheppard, A.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of immiscible fluids within porous media is a topic of great importance for a wide range of subsurface processes; e.g. oil recovery, geologic sequestration of CO2, gas-water mass transfer in the vadose zone, and remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from groundwater. In particular, the trapping and mobilization of nonwetting phase fluids (e.g. oil, CO2, gas, or NAPL in water-wet media) is of significant concern; and has been well documented to be a function of both wetting and nonwetting fluid properties, morphological characteristics of the porous medium, and system history. However, generalization of empirical trends and results for application between different fluid-fluid-medium systems requires careful consideration and characterization of the relevant system properties. We present a comprehensive and cohesive description of nonwetting phase behaviour as observed via a suite of three dimensional x-ray microtomography imaging experiments investigating immiscible fluid flow, trapping, and interfacial interactions of wetting (brine) and nonwetting (air, oil, and supercritical CO2) phase in sandstones and synthetic media. Microtomographic images, acquired for drainage and imbibition flow processes, allow for precise and extensive characterization of nonwetting phase fluid saturation, topology, and connectivity; imaging results are paired with externally measured capillary pressure data to provide a comprehensive description of fluid states. Fluid flow and nonwetting phase trapping behaviour is investigated as a function of system history, morphological metrics of the geologic media, and nonwetting phase fluid characteristics; and particular emphasis is devoted to the differences between ambient condition (air-brine) and reservoir condition (supercritical CO2-brine) studies. Preliminary results provide insight into the applicability of using ambient condition experiments to explore reservoir condition processes, and also elucidate the

  10. Microenvironments created by liquid-liquid phase transition control the dynamic distribution of bacterial division FtsZ protein

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Zorrilla, Silvia; Sobrinos-Sanguino, Marta; Keating, Christine D.; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    The influence of membrane-free microcompartments resulting from crowding-induced liquid/liquid phase separation (LLPS) on the dynamic spatial organization of FtsZ, the main component of the bacterial division machinery, has been studied using several LLPS systems. The GTP-dependent assembly cycle of FtsZ is thought to be crucial for the formation of the septal ring, which is highly regulated in time and space. We found that FtsZ accumulates in one of the phases and/or at the interface, depending on the system composition and on the oligomerization state of the protein. These results were observed both in bulk LLPS and in lipid-stabilized, phase-separated aqueous microdroplets. The visualization of the droplets revealed that both the location and structural arrangement of FtsZ filaments is determined by the nature of the LLPS. Relocation upon depolymerization of the dynamic filaments suggests the protein may shift among microenvironments in response to changes in its association state. The existence of these dynamic compartments driven by phase transitions can alter the local composition and reactivity of FtsZ during its life cycle acting as a nonspecific modulating factor of cell function. PMID:27725777

  11. Simulation of three-dimensional flow of immiscible fluids within and below the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Charles R.; Guswa, John H.; Mercer, James W.

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents a two-phase flow model based on a three-dimensional, finite-difference formulation. As three-dimensional simulations can require substantial computer effort, a numerical technique that takes advantage of vector and parallel processing computer architecture is developed. The model is posed in terms of water saturation and nonwetting fluid pressure. It uses three-phase capillary pressure and relative permeability relationships to permit simulation within or below the unsaturated zone. A modified formulation of slice successive overtaxation (an iterative matrix solution technique) is introduced. This technique is designed to use parallel processing capabilities of new computers. The model is applied to immiscible fluid flow at two chemical waste landfills near Niagara Falls, New York. At both sites, denser than water, nonaqueous liquids (NAPLs) are present in the groundwater regimes in relatively large quantities. The model applications address several technical concerns at the two sites, including the effectiveness of clay as a geologic barrier to NAPL migration owing to capillary pressure forces, the three-dimensional aspects of dense NAPL flow, and the sensitivity of NAPL recovery in pumping wells due to various hydrogeologic and fluid properties. The results of the applications show that (1) even under a downward hydraulic gradient, natural differences in capillary pressure relationships for different lithologies can prevent downward migration of NAPL, (2) without any lithologic-capillary barrier, an upward hydraulic gradient induced by a de watering system can prevent downward migration of NAPL, (3) NAPL recovery at wells is sensitive to relative permeability, a relationship that requires field calibration in many settings, and (4) the three-dimensional aspects of two-phase flow and hydrogeologic heterogeneity require explicit treatment in many settings.

  12. Physical formulation and numerical algorithm for simulating N immiscible incompressible fluids involving general order parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, S.

    2015-02-15

    We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N−1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N−1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2(N−1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir–de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.

  13. A note on the visualization of wetting film structures and a nonwetting immiscible fluid in a pore network micromodel using a solvatochromic dye

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Orr, Galya; Oostrom, Martinus

    2010-11-23

    Nile Red is demonstrated as a single dye whose solvatochromism enables selective visualization of two immiscible liquid fluids in a micromodel containing a homogeneous array of pillars creating a porous network. Nile Red dissolves in and partitions between hexadecane as a nonwetting fluid and PEG200 as a hydrophilic fluid that wets the silicon oxide surfaces in the micromodel. Both the absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra are sensitive to the solvent environment, such that the two phases can be distinguished by the observed color or the fluorescence emission band. Bright field, hyperspectral, epifluorescence, and confocal fluorescence methods were used to image the micromodel after displacing PEG200 in the model with hexadecane. The use of Nile Red with these imaging methods facilitates visualization of phase identity at specific locations; the interfaces between the two immiscible liquid phases; wetting behavior of the wetting phase within the porous structure; and retention of the wetting phase as thin films around pillars and as bridges across the pore throats. The pillars and wetting phase bridges create a network of obstacles defining a tortuous preferential flow path for the nonwetting phase.

  14. Temperature Distribution and Critical Current of Long HTS Cables Cooled with Subcooled Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyatkin, V. S.; Ivanov, Y. V.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2017-07-01

    Cooling of the long HTS power transmission lines performs by pumping of subcooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) along the cable. The temperature of LN2 along the cable increases due to the heat losses of the cryostat and heat generation in the HTS cable. The experiment using test cable line in Ishikari shows that flow rate of 35 L/min retains increasing of LN2 temperature by 1 K per 1 km of length. The technology when the back flow of LN2 cools the radiation shield surrounding the cable pipe is also applied in Ishikari-2 project. In this case the ambient heat flow into cable pipe is 50 times less than that without radiation shield. Back flow of LN2 removes almost all heat coming from the environment. When transport current is close to the critical value the Joule heat of HTS cable is significant. This heat additionally increases the temperature of LN2 flowing along the HTS cable. Near the outlet the temperature of HTS cable is maximal and the local critical current is minimal. The current matching critical current criterion of average electrical field of E 0 = 10-4 V/m provides the voltage drop and significant Joule heat at the hot end of the cable. It can lead the damage of the cable. The present work contains analysis of temperature distribution along the cable and the way to achieve the fail-safe operation of long HTS cable cooled by subcooled LN2. We also performed extrapolation of obtained results for several times longer cable lines by decreasing the LN2 flow rate.

  15. A multi-flowpath model for the interpretation of immiscible displacement experiments in heterogeneous soil columns.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, C A; Tsakiroglou, C D

    2009-04-01

    This work focuses on the phenomenon of the immiscible two-phase flow of water and oil in saturated heterogeneous soil columns. The goal is to develop a fast and reliable method for quantifying soil heterogeneities for incorporation into the relevant capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. Such data are commonly used as input data in simulators of contaminant transport in the subsurface. Rate-controlled drainage experiments are performed on undisturbed soil columns and the transient response of the axial distribution of water saturation is determined from electrical measurements. The transient responses of the axial distribution of water saturation and total pressure drop are fitted with the multi-flowpath model (MFPM) where the pore space is regarded as a system of parallel paths of different permeability. The MFPM enables us to quantify soil heterogeneity at two scales: the micro-scale parameters describe on average the effects of pore network heterogeneities on the two-phase flow pattern; the macro-scale parameters indicate the variability of permeability at the scale of interconnected pore networks. The capillary pressure curve is consistent with that measured with mercury intrusion porosimetry over the low pressure range. The oil relative permeability increases sharply at a very low oil saturation (<10(-3)) and tends to a high end value. The water relative permeability decreases abruptly at a low oil saturation (~0.1), whereas the irreducible wetting phase saturation is quite high. The foregoing characteristics of the two-phase flow properties are associated with critical (preferential) flowpaths that comprise a very small percentage of the total pore volume, control the overall hydraulic conductivity, and are consistent with the very broad range of pore-length scales usually probed in soil porous matrix.

  16. Investigation on Effect of Gravity Level on Bubble Distribution and Liquid Turbulence Modification for Horizontal Channel Bubbly Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, M. J.; Wei, J. J.; Yu, B.

    2017-08-01

    Bubbly flows in the horizontal channel or pipe are often seen in industrial engineering fields, so it is very necessary to fully understand hydrodynamics of horizontal bubbly flows so as to improve industrial efficiency and to design an efficient bubbly system. In this paper, in order to fully understand mechanisms of phase distribution and liquid-phase turbulence modulation in the horizontal channel bubbly flow, the influence of gravity level on both of them were investigated in detail with the developed Euler-Lagrange two-way coupling method. For the present investigation, the buoyance on bubbles in both sides of the channel always points to the corresponding wall in order to study the liquid-phase turbulence modulation by bubbles under the symmetric physical condition. The present investigation shows that the gravity level has the important influence on the wall-normal distribution of bubbles and the liquid-phase turbulence modulation; the higher the gravity level is, the more bubbles can overcome the wall-normal resistance to accumulate near the wall, and the more obvious the liquid-phase turbulence modulation is. It is also discovered that interphase forces on the bubbles are various along the wall-normal direction, which leads to the fact that the bubble located in different wall-normal places has a different wall-normal velocity.

  17. Synthesis of new metastable nanoalloys of immiscible metals with a pulse laser technique

    PubMed Central

    Swiatkowska-Warkocka, Zaneta; Pyatenko, Alexander; Krok, Franciszek; Jany, Benedykt R.; Marszalek, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The generation of nanoalloys of immiscible metals is still a challenge using conventional methods. However, because these materials are currently attracting much attention, alternative methods are needed. In this article, we demonstrate a simple but powerful strategy for the generation of a new metastable alloy of immiscible metals. Au1−xNix 3D structures with 56 at% of nickel in gold were successfully manufactured by the pulsed laser irradiation of colloidal nanoparticles. This technology can be used for preparing different metastable alloys of immiscible metals. We hypothesise that this technique leads to the formation of alloy particles through the agglomerations of nanoparticles, very fast heating, and fast cooling/solidification. Thus, we expect that our approach will be applicable to a wide range of inorganic solids, yielding even new metastable solids that fail to be stable in the bulk systems, and therefore do not exist in Nature. PMID:25952016

  18. Are water-immiscibility and apolarity of the solvent relevant to enzyme efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, V.S.; Klibanov, A.M. )

    1993-02-05

    The question of whether the solvent's water-immiscibility is relevant to enzymatic activity was addressed by assaying four different hydrolases (three lipases and one protease) in nine anhydrous solvents of similar hydrophobicities of which four were infinitely miscible with water and five were not. For no enzyme was a jump in activity observed upon a transition from water-miscible to water-immiscible solvents. The relevance of solvent apolarity to enzymatic efficiency was also examined. To this end, three groups of isomeric anhydrous solvents were selected where within each group one solvent was apolar. For none of the four enzymes studied was activity significantly higher in apolar solvents than in their polar counterparts. Thus the authors conclude that often-cited solvent's immiscibility with water and apolarity by themselves are irrelevant to enzymatic activity.

  19. Progress on the MICE Liquid Absorber Cooling and CryogenicDistribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Drumm, P.; Ivanyushenkov,Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Lau, W.W.; Yang, S.Q.

    2005-05-13

    This report describes the progress made on the design of the cryogenic cooling system for the liquid absorber for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The absorber consists of a 20.7-liter vessel that contains liquid hydrogen (1.48 kg at 20.3 K) or liquid helium (2.59 kg at 4.2 K). The liquid cryogen vessel is located within the warm bore of the focusing magnet for the MICE. The purpose of the magnet is to provide a low beam beta region within the absorber. For safety reasons, the vacuum vessel for the hydrogen absorber is separated from the vacuum vessel for the superconducting magnet and the vacuum that surrounds the RF cavities or the detector. The absorber thin windows separate the liquid in the absorber from the absorber vacuum. The absorber vacuum vessel also has thin windows that separate the absorber vacuum space from adjacent vacuum spaces. Because the muon beam in MICE is of low intensity, there is no beam heating in the absorber. The absorber can use a single 4 K cooler to cool either liquid helium or liquid hydrogen within the absorber.

  20. Using Lorentz forces to control the distribution of bubbles in a vertical tube filled with liquid metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitkam, S.; Tschisgale, S.; Krull, B.; Wetzel, T.; Baake, E.; Fröhlich, J.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a method to increase the residence time of bubbles in tubes or pipes filled with liquid metal is investigated. Imposing a horizontal electric current and a perpendicular horizontal magnetic field generates an upward-directed Lorentz force. This force can counteract gravity and cause floating of bubbles. Even with homogeneous electric fields these float in the mean but fluctuate randomly within the swarm due to mutual interactions. In the present case the cylindrical shape of the container furthermore creates inhomogeneous electric currents and an inhomogeneous force distribution resulting in a macroscopic convection pattern stirring the bubbles and further homogenising the spatial distribution of the bubbles.

  1. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion studies of l-isocorypalmine using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihui; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoning; Peng, Yan; Wang, Nannan; Lee, David Y W; Dai, Ronghua

    2017-03-01

    l-Isocorypalmine is a newly identified metabolite of l-tetrahydropalmatine with a unique dual pharmacological profile as a partial dopamine receptor 1 agonist and dopamine receptor 2 antagonist properties for treating cocaine use disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and excretion of l-isocorypalmine in Sprague-Dawley rats. A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for determination of l-isocorypalmine in biological samples. The biological samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Bonshell ASB C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.7 μm, Agela) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed by positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring mode. Satisfactory linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, and acceptable matrix effect were achieved. The quantitative method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion study of l-isocorypalmine. The results showed that l-isocorypalmine was rapidly distributed, and eliminated from rat plasma and manifested linear dynamics in a dose range of 7.5-15 mg/kg. In addition, the results would be helpful for further clinical reference of l-isocorypalmine as a potential candidate drug for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

  2. Immiscible experiments on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokler, Matthew; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    Incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments are presented in which two stratified liquids having Atwood number of 0.2 are accelerated in a vertical linear induction motor driven drop tower. A test sled having only vertical freedom of motion contains the experiment tank and visualization equipment. The sled is positioned at the top of the tower within the linear induction motors and accelerated downward causing the initially stable interface to be unstable and allowing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Forced and unforced experiments are conducted using an immiscible liquid combination. Forced initial perturbations are produced by vertically oscillating the test sled prior to the start of acceleration. The interface is visualized using a 445 nm laser light source that illuminates a fluorescent dye mixed in one of the fluids and aluminum oxide particles dispersed in both fluids. The laser beam is synchronously swept across the fluorescent fluid, at the frame rate of the camera, exposing a single plane of the interface. The resulting images are recorded using a monochromatic high speed video camera. Time dependent velocity and density fields are obtained from the recorded images allowing for 2D full field measurements of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent mass transport.

  3. Ternary Liquid-Liquid Equilibria for Mixtures of {Ionic Liquid + Thiophene or Benzothiophene + Heptane} at T = 308.15 K.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Walczak, Klaudia

    In this work, the desulfurization ability of alkyl-piperidinium-based and phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) for (thiophene or benzothiophene + heptane) mixtures are studied. With this aim, ternary liquid-liquid phase equilibrium data (LLE) have been obtained for mixtures of {IL (1) + thiophene, or benzothiophene (2) + heptane (3)} at T = 308.15 K and p = 101.33 kPa. For this study 1-pentyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, [C1C5PIP][NTf2], and tributylethylphosphonium diethylphosphate, [P2,4,4,4][DEP], were used. The suitability of these ILs as solvents for extractive desulfurization has been evaluated in terms of the solute distribution ratio and selectivity. Immiscibility was observed in the binary liquid systems of (thiophene, or benzothiophene + heptane) with both ILs. One of the studied ILs, [C1C5PIP][NTf2], shows high distribution ratios and high selectivities for extraction of sulfur compounds. The data obtained have been correlated with the non-random two liquid NRTL model. The experimental tie-lines and the phase compositions in mole fractions in the ternary systems were calculated with an average root mean square deviation of 0.0052.

  4. Accelerated deflation promotes homogeneous airspace liquid distribution in the edematous lung.

    PubMed

    Wu, You; Nguyen, Tam L; Perlman, Carrie E

    2016-12-15

    Edematous lungs contain regions with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. Liquid is trapped in flooded alveoli by a pressure barrier--higher liquid pressure at the border than in the center of flooded alveoli--that is proportional to surface tension, T Stress is concentrated between aerated and flooded alveoli, to a degree proportional to T Mechanical ventilation, by cyclically increasing T, injuriously exacerbates stress concentrations. Overcoming the pressure barrier to redistribute liquid more homogeneously between alveoli should reduce stress concentration prevalence and ventilation injury. In isolated rat lungs, we test whether accelerated deflation can overcome the pressure barrier and catapult liquid out of flooded alveoli. We generate a local edema model with normal T by microinfusing liquid into surface alveoli. We generate a global edema model with high T by establishing hydrostatic edema, which does not alter T, and then gently ventilating the edematous lungs, which increases T at 15 cmH2O transpulmonary pressure by 52%. Thus ventilation of globally edematous lungs increases T, which should increase stress concentrations and, with positive feedback, cause escalating ventilation injury. In the local model, when the pressure barrier is moderate, accelerated deflation causes liquid to escape from flooded alveoli and redistribute more equitably. Flooding heterogeneity tends to decrease. In the global model, accelerated deflation causes liquid escape, but--due to elevated T--the liquid jumps to nearby, aerated alveoli. Flooding heterogeneity is unaltered. In pulmonary edema with normal T, early ventilation with accelerated deflation might reduce the positive feedback mechanism through which ventilation injury increases over time.

  5. Distributed temperature monitoring for liquid sodium leakage detection using OFDR-based Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyreva, E.; Cotillard, R.; Laffont, G.; Ferdinand, P.; Cambet, D.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Charvet, P.; Albaladéjo, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time, a gold coated single mode optical fiber has been used to detect a liquid sodium leakage on a pipe of secondary circuit pipe mock-up of nuclear fast reactor (Gen IV) by means of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry-based on Rayleigh backscattering. During 150 min of the experiment we were able to detect and monitor the evolution of a liquid sodium leakage on the surface of the pipe.

  6. [Pneumocystosis distribution among accident liquidators in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in remote period].

    PubMed

    Meĭmarian, M A

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to discover etiological role of Pneumocystis carini/jiroveci and to determine frequency of pneumocystic infection in the structure of bronchopulmonary pathology among armenians-liquidators of accident consequences in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. For the study, 65 patients-liquidators with diagnosed pneumonia, 44 liquidators with chronic bronchitis and 34 with bronchial asthma were examined. The control group was included 65 patients with pneumonia, 44 with chronic bronchitis, 34 with bronchial asthma which were unlinked with radionucleotide aggression. Mean age in main group was 46,9 and in control group- 47,6 years old. Main and control groups were randomized by sexual characteristics also. Serologic examinations were performed by the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoSorbent assay) and method of immunofluorescent detection of P.carinii. Circulation of pneumocystosis etiologic agent among patients-liquidators of accident consequences in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant with different bronchopulmonary pathology was established and high percentage of seropositivity was revealed. Overall these data revealed high probability of Pneumocystis carini/jiroveci in the etiology of bronchopulmonary pathology among liquidators of accident consequences in the the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even among immunocompromised patients, liquidators of accident consequences, represent an exclusive group, that is in risk for activation of latent infection or new infection with P. carini/jiroveci. Therefore these findings suggest that there is a need for regular complex epidemiological monitoring of these patients.

  7. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  8. The use of rheology to elucidate the granulation mechanisms of a miscible and immiscible system during continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Heeze, Liza; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Oldörp, Klaus; Nopens, Ingmar; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-08-20

    Twin-screw hot melt granulation (TS HMG) is a valuable, but still unexplored alternative to granulate temperature and moisture sensitive drugs in a continuous way. Recently, the material behavior of an immiscible drug-binder blend during TS HMG was unraveled by using a rheometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, vibrational spectroscopic techniques proved the link between TS HMG and rheology since equal interactions at molecular level did occur in both processes. This allowed to use a rheometer to gain knowledge of the material behavior during hot melt processing of an immiscible drug-binder blend. However, miscibility of a drug-binder formulation and drug-binder interactions appear to influence the rheological properties and, hence conceivably also the granulation mechanism. The aim of this research was to examine if the TS HMG process of a miscible formulation system is comparable with the mechanism of an immiscible system and to evaluate whether rheology still serves as a useful tool to understand and optimize the hot melt granulation (HMG) process. The executed research (thermal analysis, rheological parameters and spectroscopic data) demonstrated the occurrence of a high and broad tan(δ) curve without a loss peak during the rheological temperature ramp which implies a higher material deformability without movement of the softened single polymer chains. Spectroscopic analysis revealed drug-polymer interactions which constrain the polymer to flow independently. As a result, the binder distribution step, which generally follows the immersion step, was hindered. This insight assisted the understanding of the granule properties. Inhomogeneous granules were produced due to large initial nuclei or adhesion of multiple smaller nuclei. Consequently, a higher granulation temperature was required in order to get the binder more homogeneously distributed within the granules.

  9. Comparison of gamma-densitometry tomography and electrical-impedance tomography for determining material distribution in liquid-solid flows

    SciTech Connect

    Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Ceccio, S.L.; George, D.L.

    1997-03-01

    The spatial distribution of materials in multiphase flows is of importance to many industrial processes. For example, in indirect coal liquefaction, a reactive gas is bubbled through a catalyst-laden liquid (slurry), and a spatially nonuniform gas distribution can reduce process efficiency by inducing large-scale buoyancy-driven recirculating flows. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) and electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) are techniques with the potential of providing spatially resolved information on material distribution in multiphase flows. GDT and EIT have both been applied to a liquid-solid flow for comparison purposes. The experiment consisted of a cylinder (19 cm diameter) filled with water, in which 80 {micro}m glass spheres were suspended by a mixer to achieve solid volume fractions of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. Both GDT and EIT revealed a relatively uniform distribution of solids in the measurement plane, and the average solid volume fractions from both techniques were in good agreement.

  10. A polymer microgel at a liquid-liquid interface: theory vs. computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Rumyantsev, Artem M; Gumerov, Rustam A; Potemkin, Igor I

    2016-08-10

    We propose a mean-field theory and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations of swelling and collapse of a polymer microgel adsorbed at the interface of two immiscible liquids (A and B). The microgel reveals surface activity and lowers A-B interfacial tension. Attempting to occupy as large an interfacial area as possible, the microgel undergoes anisotropic deformation and adopts a flattened shape. Spreading over the interface is restricted by polymer subchain elasticity. The equilibrium shape of the microgel at the interface depends on its size. Small microgels are shown to be more oblate than the larger microgels. Increasing microgel cross-link density results in stronger reduction of the surface tension and weaker flattening. As the degree of immiscibility of A and B liquids increases, the microgel volume changes in a non-monotonous fashion: the microgel contraction at moderate immiscibility of A and B liquids is followed by its swelling at high incompatibility of the liquids. The segregation regime of the liquids within and outside the microgel is different. Being segregated outside the microgel, the liquids can be fully (homogeneously) mixed or weakly segregated within it. The density profiles of the liquids and the polymer were plotted under different conditions. The theoretical and the DPD simulation results are in good agreement. We hope that our findings will be useful for the design of stimuli responsive emulsions, which are stabilized by the microgel particles, as well as for their practical applications, for instance, in biocatalysis.

  11. Tomographic analysis of neutron and gamma pulse shape distributions from liquid scintillation detectors at Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Conroy, S.; Gorini, G.; Horton, L.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, D. B.

    2014-02-15

    The Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D)/Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutrons produced in these plasmas are measured using various types of neutron detectors and spectrometers. Two of these instruments on JET make use of organic liquid scintillator detectors. The neutron emission profile monitor implements 19 liquid scintillation counters to detect the 2.45 MeV neutron emission from D plasmas. A new compact neutron spectrometer is operational at JET since 2010 to measure the neutron energy spectra from both D and DT plasmas. Liquid scintillation detectors are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation but give light responses of different decay time such that pulse shape discrimination techniques can be applied to identify the neutron contribution of interest from the data. The most common technique consists of integrating the radiation pulse shapes within different ranges of their rising and/or trailing edges. In this article, a step forward in this type of analysis is presented. The method applies a tomographic analysis of the 3-dimensional neutron and gamma pulse shape and pulse height distribution data obtained from liquid scintillation detectors such that n/γ discrimination can be improved to lower energies and additional information can be gained on neutron contributions to the gamma events and vice versa.

  12. Tomographic analysis of neutron and gamma pulse shape distributions from liquid scintillation detectors at Joint European Torus.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, L; Conroy, S; Gorini, G; Horton, L; Murari, A; Popovichev, S; Syme, D B

    2014-02-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D)/Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutrons produced in these plasmas are measured using various types of neutron detectors and spectrometers. Two of these instruments on JET make use of organic liquid scintillator detectors. The neutron emission profile monitor implements 19 liquid scintillation counters to detect the 2.45 MeV neutron emission from D plasmas. A new compact neutron spectrometer is operational at JET since 2010 to measure the neutron energy spectra from both D and DT plasmas. Liquid scintillation detectors are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation but give light responses of different decay time such that pulse shape discrimination techniques can be applied to identify the neutron contribution of interest from the data. The most common technique consists of integrating the radiation pulse shapes within different ranges of their rising and/or trailing edges. In this article, a step forward in this type of analysis is presented. The method applies a tomographic analysis of the 3-dimensional neutron and gamma pulse shape and pulse height distribution data obtained from liquid scintillation detectors such that n/γ discrimination can be improved to lower energies and additional information can be gained on neutron contributions to the gamma events and vice versa.

  13. Fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility and its role in REE ore formation: Evidence from the Strange Lake rare metal deposit, Québec-Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, Olga; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2014-08-01

    , arfvedsonite and zirconosilicate minerals dominate to a core where the immiscible fluoride liquid collected and crystallized fluorite and REE minerals. Fluid exsolved from the silicate melt reacted with the products of both the silicate and fluoride melts, remobilizing most of the HFSE including the REE. This study reports a rare example of silicate-fluoride melt immiscibility and the first in which such immiscibility played a role in concentrating the REE to potentially economic levels.

  14. Morphology Evolution of Polypropylene in Immiscible Polymer Blends for Fabrication of Nanofibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs) with different melting index were extruded through a two-strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios by controlling the drawing speed. The morphologies of iPP fibers e...

  15. Morphological development of polypropylene in immiscible blends with cellulose acetate butyrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes were melt blended with cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and then prepared into microspheres or nanofibers following a novel process of producing well dispersed CAB/iPP immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The morp...

  16. Size effect on alloying ability and phase stability of immiscible bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, S.; Hu, W.; Luo, W.; Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Deng, H.

    2006-12-01

    In the present paper, the surface and size effects on the alloying ability and phase stability of immiscible alloy nanoparticles have been studied with calculating the heats of formation of Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles from the single element nanoparticles of their constituents (Au and Pt) with a simple thermodynamic model and an analytic embedded atom method. The results indicated that, besides the similar compositional dependence of heat of formation as in bulk alloys, the heat of formation of alloy nanoparticles exhibits notable size-dependence, and there exists a competition between size effect and compositional effect on the heat of formation of immiscible system. Contrary to the positive heat of formation for bulk-immiscible alloys, a negative heat of formation may be obtained for the alloy nanoparticles with a small size or dilute solute component, which implies a promotion of the alloying ability and phase stability of immiscible system on a nanoscale. The surface segregation results in an extension of the size range of particles with a negative heat of formation. The molecular dynamics simulations have indicated that the structurally and compositionally homogeneous AuPt nanoparticles tend to form a core-shell structure with temperature increasing.

  17. Effects of injection pressure difference on droplet size distribution and spray cone angle in spray cooling of liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiufang; Xue, Rong; Ruan, Yixiao; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xingqun; Hou, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Spray cooling with liquid nitrogen as the working fluid has been widely employed in a plenty of fields requiring cooling at cryogenic temperature, such as the cryogenic wind tunnels and cooling super-conducting magnets. In this study, we built a liquid nitrogen spray system and experimentally investigated the influence of injection pressure difference on the droplet size distribution and the spray cone angle. The measurements using particle size analyser show increasing the injection pressure difference improves the atomization, as indicated by the homogenization and reduction of the droplet size. The initial spray cone angle is insensitive to the injection pressure difference. However, the far-field spray cone angle decreases dramatically with increasing the injection pressure difference. The results could enrich our knowledge of spray cooling of cryogenic fluids and benefit the design of cryogenic spray cooling systems.

  18. Measurement and Estimation of Organic-Liquid/Water Interfacial Areas for Several Natural Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M.L.; Narter, M.; Schnaar, G.; Marble, J.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area between immiscible organic liquid and water residing within natural porous media. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional images of solid and liquid phases in packed columns. The image data were processed to generate quantitative measurements of organic-liquid/water interfacial area and of organic-liquid blob sizes. Ten porous media, comprising a range of median grain sizes, grain-size distributions, and geochemical properties, were used to evaluate the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area. The results show that fluid-normalized specific interfacial area (A{sub f}) and maximum specific interfacial area (A{sub m}) correlate very well to inverse median grain diameter. These functionalities were shown to result from a linear relationship between effective organic-liquid blob diameter and median grain diameter. These results provide the basis for a simple method for estimating specific organic-liquid/water interfacial area as a function of fluid saturation for a given porous medium. The availability of a method for which the only parameter needed is the simple-to-measure median grain diameter should be of great utility for a variety of applications.

  19. Liquid rocket combustion computer model with distributed energy release. DER computer program documentation and user's guide, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combs, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for analyzing rocket engine performance was developed. The program is concerned with the formation, distribution, flow, and combustion of liquid sprays and combustion product gases in conventional rocket combustion chambers. The capabilities of the program to determine the combustion characteristics of the rocket engine are described. Sample data code sheets show the correct sequence and formats for variable values and include notes concerning options to bypass the input of certain data. A seperate list defines the variables and indicates their required dimensions.

  20. Effect of an electric field on the orientation of a liquid crystal in a cell with a nonuniform director distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, E. V. Karetnikov, A. A.; Karetnikov, N. A.; Kovshik, A. P.; Ryumtsev, E. I.; Sakhatskii, A. S.; Svanidze, A. V.

    2016-05-15

    The electric field-induced reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal in cells with a planar helicoidal or a homeoplanar structure of a director field is studied theoretically and experimentally. The dependences of the capacitances of these systems on the voltage in an applied electric field below and above the Fréedericksz threshold are experimentally obtained and numerically calculated. The calculations use the director distribution in volume that is obtained by direct minimization of free energy at various voltages. The inhomogeneity of the electric field inside a cell is taken into account. The calculation results are shown to agree with the experimental data.

  1. Swift heavy ion induced nano-dimensional phase separation in liquid immiscible binary Mn-Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Khan, S. A.; Sudheer Babu, P.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed laser deposited 60 nm thin film of homogeneous Mn0.82Bi0.18 composite has been irradiated by 100 MeV Au ions at fluence 1 × 1013 ions/cm2, and investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic hysteresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation measurements. Dispersed nanostructures of soft Bi-rich phase of about 20 nm diameter emerged in a hard Mn-rich matrix on irradiation. Such structures, as synthesized by the present novel swift heavy ion irradiation approach, are usable as self-lubricating thin films.

  2. Method for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2015-06-02

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  3. Method for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2017-02-28

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  4. Apparatus for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; Colston, Bill W [San Ramon, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2012-05-08

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  5. Three-Phase Dynamic Displacement Measurements of Relative Permeability in Porous Media Using Three Immiscible Liquids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    0.0 write (3,101) ci, c2 do 40 j = 1 ,nsamp write (3, 101) pvioj), Rooj ) 40 continue write (3,110) ndsamp write (3,101) ci, c2 do 50 j = l,nsamp...nsamp write (3, 101) pvioj), Rooj ) 40 continue write (3,110) ndsamp write (3,101) ci, c2 do 50 j = l,nsamp write (3, 101) pvioj), Rdoj) 50 continue write...I) / ctime(l) 30 continue ndsamp = nsamp + 1 write (3,100) ndsamp ci = 0.0 c2 = 0.0 write (3,101) ci, c2 do 40 j = ,nsamp write (3, 101) pvioj), Rooj

  6. Apparatus for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2012-05-08

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  7. Liquid-impregnated porous polypropylene surfaces for liquid repellency.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2017-02-01

    Polypropylene is a popular plastic material used in consumer packaging. It would be desirable if such plastic containers were liquid repellent and not so easily fouled by their contents. Superomniphobic surfaces typically work by keeping the fouling liquid in a metastable state, with trapped pockets of air between the substrate and the liquid. An alternative method with greater long-term stability utilizes liquid-impregnated surfaces, where the liquid being repelled slides over an immiscible liquid immobilized on a porous surface. Here, we report a method for creating porous polypropylene surfaces amenable to liquid-impregnation. A solvent-nonsolvent polypropylene solution was deposited at high temperature to achieve the necessary porosity. Such surfaces were further functionalized with fluorosilane and dipped in the lubricating liquid to result in a durable, liquid-repellent surface. It is believed these liquid-impregnated surfaces will be more industrially viable than previous examples due to the ease of fabrication and their durability. These surfaces were found to exhibit repellency towards water, oils, shampoo, and laundry detergent with extremely low tilt angles due to the smooth liquid-liquid contact between the lubricating liquid and the liquid being repelled.

  8. Spatially Resolved Distribution Function and the Medium-Range Order in Metallic Liquid and Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X. W.; Wang, C. Z.; Hao, S. G.; Kramer, M. J.; Yao, Y. X.; Mendelev, M. I.; Ding, Z. J.; Napolitano, R. E.; Ho, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu64.5Zr35.5 alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe ``Bergman triacontahedron'' packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  9. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xiaowei; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hao, Shaogang; Kramer, Matthew; Yao, Yongxin; Mendelev, Mikhail; Napolitano, Ralph; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2011-12-23

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe 'Bergman triacontahedron' packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  10. Measurements of the Distribution of Solutes between Liquid Water and Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Ho, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    Direct measurements of the concentration of solutes in both liquid and steam phases in equilibrium with each other have been made in a static mode utilizing a platinum-lined autoclave to a maximum of 350 deg C. Partitioning constants were derived from these measurements based on existing experimental or estimated values of the stoichiometric mean activity coefficients for the solutes in the liquid phase. Independent measurements of the conductance of some of the solutes in dilute aqueous solutions to 600 deg C and 300MPa were also made. The combined results are discussed in terms of a speciated model and the implications of these results to industrial and natural hydrothermal processes are presented. PARTITIONING CONSTANT, ION-ASSOCIATION, CONDUCTIVITY, SPECIATION, CORROSION.

  11. Interfacial instabilities in two immiscible flows in an annular duct: Shear-thinning fluids surrounded with Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zijing; Liu, Rong; Liu, Zhou

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the stability of two co-axial immiscible fluids flowing in an annular duct is investigated. The inner layer consists of a shear-thinning fluid, which is surrounded by a Newtonian liquid annulus in the outer layer. A constant pressure gradient is applied to drive the flow in the annular channel. Linear stability analysis is employed to investigate the shear-thinning effect on the Rayleigh-Plateau instability and the interface wave instability. Results show that the Rayleigh-Plateau mode can be enhanced and the topological structures of the marginal stability curve of the Rayleigh-Plateau mode can be significantly changed by the shear-thinning effect. When the shear-thinning effect is strong, a case study shows that the Rayleigh-Plateau instability can be slightly suppressed by the viscosity stratification in the inner layer. The shear-thinning effect has a dual influence on the interface wave instability. It can either enhance or suppress the interface wave instability, depending on the thickness ratio and viscosity ratio between the outer layer and the inner layer.

  12. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Measurements of Phytoplankton Pigment Distributions of Ocean Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    coccolithophorids 19. ABSTRACT (CanMyw on rviosfe Inhcesway aM den*t byblock nmber) Until the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to... phycocyanin , has a maximum 0 01 absorption peak. The spectra for the 008 chlorophyll degradation products (chlo- 0.06 rophyllides, phaeophorbides and...phaeo- phytins) which are not shown in Figure z I have similar absorption maxima as their associated chlorophylls, 002 , Until the application of high

  13. Droplet Size Distribution and Liquid Volume Concentration in a Water Spray: Predictions and Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    liquid volume copcentration at different distances from the injector have been measured. The predictions showed good agreement with experimental results...11,2,3,4,5,91, however their validation with experimental data has not often been attempted, mainly due to the difficulty _ in getting experimental results...The droplet velocity at the beginning is not measured, but the atomizer used in the experiments was a twin- -fluid atomizer, described in 18T, and

  14. Formation of Immiscible Alloy Powders with Egg-Type Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Ohnuma, I.; Kainuma, R.; Ishida, K.

    2002-08-01

    The egg-type core microstructure where one alloy encases another has previously been obtained during experiments in space. Working with copper-iron base alloys prepared by conventional gas atomization, we were able to obtain this microstructure under gravity conditions. The minor liquid phase always formed the core of the egg, and it sometimes also formed a shell layer. The origin of the formation of this core microstructure can be explained by Marangoni motion on the basis of the temperature dependence of the interfacial energy, which shows that this type of powder can be formed even if the cooling rate is very high.

  15. 26 CFR 1.6043-2 - Return of information respecting distributions in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... money, the return on such form shall in addition show the amount of money distributed, if any, and shall list separately each class of property other than money distributed, giving a description of the... benefit of such section, the return on Form 1096 shall show: (1) The amount of earnings and profits of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6043-2 - Return of information respecting distributions in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of property other than money, the return on such form shall in addition show the amount of money distributed, if any, and shall list separately each class of property other than money distributed, giving a... benefit of such section, the return on Form 1096 shall show: (1) The amount of earnings and profits of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6043-2 - Return of information respecting distributions in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of property other than money, the return on such form shall in addition show the amount of money distributed, if any, and shall list separately each class of property other than money distributed, giving a... benefit of such section, the return on Form 1096 shall show: (1) The amount of earnings and profits of...

  18. Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kihoon; Koh, Hyeonseok; Yoon, Youngbin

    2003-08-01

    The planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence (PLLIF) technique has been known to be a useful tool for the measurement of the spray mass distributions for various spray injectors because it can obtain two-dimensional images with high spatial resolutions without any intrusion on the spray field. In the cases of dense sprays, however, it has been known that the extinctions of the incident laser beam or fluorescence signal and the secondary emission can cause errors in quantifying the spray mass distributions. Since a like-doublet injector, which is commonly used in liquid rocket engines, has a locally concentrated spray zone at the spray centre, we investigated the applicability of the PLLIF technique for this injector. From the experimental results, we found out that the extinctions of the incident laser beam and fluorescence signal are not significant because the concentrated spray zone is narrow. Also, we found out an optimal incident laser power which can avoid a nonlinear increase of fluorescence signal at the spray centre as well as obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio, and we measured the spray mass concentration of the like-doublet injector spray using the optimal laser power. In order to assess the accuracy of the PLLIF data, we converted the spray mass concentration into the mass flux distribution and compared it with the data obtained by a mechanical patternator and phase Doppler particle analyser. From the result that the PLLIF data showed good agreement with those of the mechanical patternator, we concluded that the PLLIF technique can be successfully applied to measuring the mass distributions of the like-doublet injectors.

  19. Forming Nanoparticle Monolayers at Liquid-Air Interfaces by Using Miscible Liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Datong; Hu, Jiayang; Kennedy, Kathleen M; Herman, Irving P

    2016-08-23

    One standard way of forming monolayers (MLs) of nanoparticles (NPs) is to drop-cast a NP dispersion made using one solvent onto a second, immiscible solvent; after this upper solvent evaporates, the NP ML can be transferred to a solid substrate by liftoff. We show that this previously universal use of only immiscible solvent pairs can be relaxed and close-packed, hexagonally ordered NP monolayers can self-assemble at liquid-air interfaces when some miscible solvent pairs are used instead. We demonstrate this by drop-casting an iron oxide NP dispersion in toluene on a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) liquid substrate. The NPs are energetically stable at the DMSO surface and remain there even with solvent mixing. Excess NPs coagulate and precipitate in the DMSO, and this limits NPs at the surface to approximately 1 ML. The ML domains at the surface nucleate independently, which is in contrast to ML growth at the receding edge of the drying drop, as is common in immiscible solvent pair systems and seen here for the toluene/diethylene glycol immiscible solvent pair system. This new use of miscible solvent pairs can enable the formation of MLs for a wider range of NPs.

  20. Influence of Particle Size Distribution on the Performance of Ionic Liquid-based Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Anthony J. R.; Martins, Vitor L.; Smith, Rachel M.; Hall, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) employing ionic liquid electrolytes are the subject of much research as they promise increased operating potentials, and hence energy densities, when compared with currently available devices. Herein we report on the influence of the particle size distribution of activated carbon material on the performance of ionic liquid based EDLCs. Mesoporous activated carbon was ball-milled for increasing durations and the resultant powders characterized physically (using laser diffraction, nitrogen sorption and SEM) and investigated electrochemically in the form of composite EDLC electrodes. A bi-modal particle size distribution was found for all materials demonstrating an increasing fraction of smaller particles with increased milling duration. In general, cell capacitance decreased with increased milling duration over a wide range of rates using CV and galvanostatic cycling. Reduced coulombic efficiency is observed at low rates (<25 mVs−1) and the efficiency decreases as the volume fraction of the smaller particles increases. Efficiency loss was attributed to side reactions, particularly electrolyte decomposition, arising from interactions with the smaller particles. The effect of reduced efficiency is confirmed by cycling for over 15,000 cycles, which has the important implication that diminished performance and reduced cycle life is caused by the presence of submicron-sized particles. PMID:26911531

  1. Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation.

    PubMed

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.

  2. Laser-assisted fabrication and size distribution modification of colloidal gold nanostructures by nanosecond laser ablation in different liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikov, R. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.; Karashanova, D. B.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents results on pulsed laser ablation of gold target immersed in different liquids. In the experiments chloroform, toluene and ethanol are used as liquid media for the laser ablation. Two different wavelengths: the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser, are utilized to produce various colloids. The optical properties of the colloids were evaluated by optical transmittance measurements in the UV-Vis spectral range. The morphology of the colloidal nanoparticles created and the evaluation of their size distribution are investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The selected area electron diffraction is employed for chemical phase identification of the created nanostructures. Ablation in chloroform resulted in formation of spherical and spheroidal gold nanoparticles with the similar mean size at both laser wavelengths used—11.5 nm at 1064 and 9.3 nm at 532 nm. Nanoparticles with smaller mean size (below 5 nm) in the case of ablation in toluene were observed. Spherical nanoparticles with mean diameter of 7.7 nm produced by 1064 nm and thin elongated nanostructures with thickness of about 5 nm using 532 nm are observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. An additional laser irradiation of the colloids demonstrated the changing of the optical properties and size distribution of the nanostructures produced by ablation in ethanol and chloroform. The irradiation of toluene-based colloid does not induce observable change of the colloid properties.

  3. Impact of enhanced-flushing reagents and organic-liquid distribution on mass removal and mass-flux reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyol, N. H.; Russo, A. E.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to investigate the impact of nonuniform organic-liquid distribution and flow-field heterogeneity on the relationship between source zone mass removal and mass flux reduction under conditions of enhanced-solubilization flushing. Sudan IV dyed trichloroethene was used as the model organic liquid, and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and ethanol were used as representative enhanced-flushing reagents. The results were compared to those of water-flood control experiments. Natural sand media with different median particle diameters and natural soils were used for these experiments to represent various pyhsically heterogeneous systems. Photographs were obtained throughout the course of the experiments to observe changes in source-zone distributions. The results showed that the heterogeneous systems exhibited multi-step mass-flux reduction/mass-removal behavior. This nonideal behavior was observed for both the water-flood and enhanced-flushing experiments. For all cases, the later stage of mass removal was controlled by the more poorly-accessible mass associated with higher-saturation zones.

  4. Influence of Particle Size Distribution on the Performance of Ionic Liquid-based Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Anthony J R; Martins, Vitor L; Smith, Rachel M; Hall, Peter J

    2016-02-25

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) employing ionic liquid electrolytes are the subject of much research as they promise increased operating potentials, and hence energy densities, when compared with currently available devices. Herein we report on the influence of the particle size distribution of activated carbon material on the performance of ionic liquid based EDLCs. Mesoporous activated carbon was ball-milled for increasing durations and the resultant powders characterized physically (using laser diffraction, nitrogen sorption and SEM) and investigated electrochemically in the form of composite EDLC electrodes. A bi-modal particle size distribution was found for all materials demonstrating an increasing fraction of smaller particles with increased milling duration. In general, cell capacitance decreased with increased milling duration over a wide range of rates using CV and galvanostatic cycling. Reduced coulombic efficiency is observed at low rates (<25 mVs(-1)) and the efficiency decreases as the volume fraction of the smaller particles increases. Efficiency loss was attributed to side reactions, particularly electrolyte decomposition, arising from interactions with the smaller particles. The effect of reduced efficiency is confirmed by cycling for over 15,000 cycles, which has the important implication that diminished performance and reduced cycle life is caused by the presence of submicron-sized particles.

  5. Analyzing the effect on heat transfer due to nonuniform distribution of liquid flow among the tubes of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkevich, A. I.; Sharifullin, V. N.; Sharifullin, A. V.

    2010-09-01

    A method is proposed using which nonuniform distribution of liquid flow among the tubes of a shell-and-tube apparatus can be taken into account by means of a statistical distribution function. A formula showing interrelation of this function with the indicator of heat transfer intensity in the apparatus tube space is given.

  6. Wave-propagation in rocks saturated by two immiscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Chapman, M.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate modelling of the dependence of seismic wave speed from frequency and fluid content is crucial to the quantitative interpretation of seismic data. Dispersive effects such as squirt flow become important at a critical frequency that is proportional to fluid mobility. When a porous medium is partially saturated it is not clear how the respective fluid mobilities are to be averaged. Building on previous work, we use a nonzero, static capillary pressure parameter and a relative permeability model to simulate the effects of squirt flow in a realistic sand saturated by water and CO2 where the CO2 can be in either the liquid or supercritical phase. We show that the effective fluid follows a mixing law similar to Brie's empirical model and the effective frequency depends both on the relative permeability model and the capillary pressure parameter which can potentially lead to a dispersive effect in the seismic band.

  7. Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon display based optical set-up for the generation of polarization spatial distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Irene; Lizana, Angel; Zheng, Xuejie; Peinado, Alba; Ramírez, Claudio; Martínez, Jose Luis; Márquez, Andrés.; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation. The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.

  8. Distribution study of cisplatin in rat kidney and liver cancer tissues by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination and distribution of cisplatin (CP) in kidney and liver tissues after intravenous administration of drug to adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin (OXP) was used as an internal standard. The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using conventional liquid-liquid extraction method with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and then subjected to LC-MS analysis. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C-18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) using the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water (Solvent A) : methanol (Solvent B) (40 : 60; v/v) in an isocratic elution followed by detection with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using the transitions of m/z 301 > 265 for CP and m/z 398 > 310 for OXP in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5.0-7000 and 10.0-6000 ng/ml for kidney and liver tissue homogenates, respectively. The method revealed good performances in terms of within-batch, between-batch precision (1.31-5.70%) and accuracy (97.0-102.24%) for CP in both kidney and liver tissue homogenates including lower and upper limits of quantification. The recoveries from spiked control samples were >81.0% and >87.0 % for CP and OXP, respectively. Matrix effect was found to be negligible, and the stability data were within the acceptable limits. Further, the validated LC/ES-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the distribution of CP in kidney and liver tissues after intravenous administration of CP to male Sprague Dawley rats. The results showed that the higher amount of CP was distributed in kidney followed by liver, which indicated that CP mainly accumulated in kidney tissues and renal excretion might be a primary and

  9. Liquid K-Na Alloy Anode Enables Dendrite-Free Potassium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xue, Leigang; Gao, Hongcai; Zhou, Weidong; Xin, Sen; Park, Kyusung; Li, Yutao; Goodenough, John B

    2016-11-01

    A K-Na liquid alloy allows a dendrite-free high-capacity anode; its immiscibility with an organic liquid electrolyte offers a liquid-liquid anode-electrolyte interface. Working with a sodiated Na2 MnFe(CN)6 cathode, the working cation becomes K(+) to give a potassium battery of long cycle life with an acceptable capacity at high charge/discharge rates.

  10. Electrochemical reduction of aromatic ketones in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in the presence of carbon dioxide: the influence of the ketone substituent and the ionic liquid anion on bulk electrolysis product distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Feng; Horne, Mike; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-07-15

    Electrochemical reduction of aromatic ketones, including acetophenone, benzophenone and 4-phenylbenzophenone, has been undertaken in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids containing tetrafluoroborate ([BF4](-)), trifluoromethanesulfonate ([TfO](-)) and tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([FAP](-)) anions in the presence of carbon dioxide in order to investigate the ketone substituent effect and the influence of the acidic proton on the imidazolium cation (C2-H) on bulk electrolysis product distribution. For acetophenone, the minor products were dimers (<10%) in all ionic liquids, which are the result of acetophenone radical anion coupling. For benzophenone and 4-phenylbenzophenone, no dimers were formed due to steric hindrance. In these cases, even though carboxylic acids were obtained, the main products generated were alcohols (>50%) derived from proton coupled electron transfer reactions involving the electrogenerated radical anions and C2-H. In the cases of both acetophenone and benzophenone, the product distribution is essentially independent of the ionic liquid anion. By contrast, 4-phenylbenzophenone shows a product distribution that is dependent on the ionic liquid anion. Higher yields of carboxylic acids (∼40%) are obtained with [TfO](-) and [FAP](-) anions because in these ionic liquids the C2-H is less acidic, making the formation of alcohol less favourable. In comparison with benzophenone, a higher yield of carboxylic acid (>30% versus ∼15%) was obtained with 4-phenylbenzophenone in all ionic liquids due to the weaker basicity of 4-phenylbenzophenone radical anion.

  11. Effect of using miscible and immiscible healing agent on solid state self-healing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makenan, Siti Mastura; Jamil, Mohd Suzeren Md.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using various healing agent which are miscible; poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin), and immiscible; poly(ethylene-co-acetate) and poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid), on self-healing resin system. The specimens were analysed by Fourier-transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), and izod test. Optical image of the sample morphology was observed using optical microscope. Healing efficiencies (HE) were evaluated using izod test. The concept of healing recovery was proved based on the use of miscible and immiscible healing agent. From the results, it can be concluded that the healable resin with miscible healing agent has the highest HE within the third healing cycle.

  12. Self-Forming Interlocking Interfaces on the Immiscible Polymer Bilayers via Gelation-Mediated Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaozhuang; Ma, Guoqiang; Zhao, Huaixia; Cui, Jiaxi

    2017-09-01

    Gelation-mediated phase separation is applied to prepare immiscible polymer bilayer films with an interlocking interface structure. Polymer systems consisting of copolymer of urea and polydimethylsiloxane and epoxy are selected to demonstrate the feasibility. When the epoxy fraction exceeds 25 wt%, well-defined bilayer structures self-form by a one-pot casting method in which the phase separation state is fixed by an evaporation-induced gelation. Microscopy studies of the resulting bilayers clearly reveal that interlocking structures form during the bilayer films construct. The interlocking structures lead to an enhanced interfacial adhesion and higher fracture energy. The current strategy might offer a facile way to in situ create an interlocking interface between immiscible polymer systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mussel adhesion-employed water-immiscible fluid bioadhesive for urinary fistula sealing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Lim, Seonghye; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Kang, Seok Ho; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-12-01

    Urinary fistulas, abnormal openings of a urinary tract organ, are serious complications and conventional management strategies are not satisfactory. For more effective and non-invasive fistula repair, fluid tissue adhesives or sealants have been suggested. However, conventional products do not provide a suitable solution due to safety problems and poor underwater adhesion under physiological conditions. Herein, we proposed a unique water-immiscible mussel protein-based bioadhesive (WIMBA) exhibiting strong underwater adhesion which was employed by two adhesion strategies of marine organisms; 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA)-mediated strong adhesion and water-immiscible coacervation. The developed biocompatible WIMBA successfully sealed ex vivo urinary fistulas and provided good durability and high compliance. Thus, WIMBA could be used as a promising sealant for urinary fistula management with further expansion to diverse internal body applications.

  14. The Atomic scale structure of liquid metal-electrolyte interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. M.; Festersen, S.; Magnussen, O. M.

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical interfaces between immiscible liquids have lately received renewed interest, both for gaining fundamental insight as well as for applications in nanomaterial synthesis. In this feature article we demonstrate that the atomic scale structure of these previously inaccessible interfaces nowadays can be explored by in situ synchrotron based X-ray scattering techniques. Exemplary studies of a prototypical electrochemical system - a liquid mercury electrode in pure NaCl solution - reveal that the liquid metal is terminated by a well-defined atomic layer. This layering decays on length scales of 0.5 nm into the Hg bulk and displays a potential and temperature dependent behaviour that can be explained by electrocapillary effects and contributions of the electronic charge distribution on the electrode. In similar studies of nanomaterial growth, performed for the electrochemical deposition of PbFBr, a complex nucleation and growth behaviour is found, involving a crystalline precursor layer prior to the 3D crystal growth. Operando X-ray scattering measurements provide detailed data on the processes of nanoscale film formation.

  15. Oxygen isotope partitioning between immiscible silicate melts with H2O, P and S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Gregory W.; Kyser, T. K.; Clark, Alan H.

    2013-05-01

    Differences between the δ18O values of immiscible Si- and Fe-rich melts in the systems Fe2SiO4-Fe3O4-KAlSi2O6-SiO2, Fe3O4-KAlSi2O6-SiO2, and Fe3O4-Fe2O3-KAlSi2O6-SiO2, with H2O, H2O + P or H2O + S have been determined in isothermal, isobaric experiments at 1100 and 1200 °C and 200 MPa. The Δ18O values for conjugate Fe2SiO4-Fe3O4-KAlSi2O6-SiO2 + H2O and, Fe3O4-KAlSi2O6-SiO2·KAlSi2O6-SiO2 + H2O melts are only 0.4-0.6‰ and do not differ significantly from those for anhydrous melts of similar composition. The Δ18O values for melts with added H2O + P or S are more variable, ranging from 0.0 to 0.8‰. Partitioning of 18O between the immiscible melts is 0.6-1‰ less than the partitioning reported for melt-mineral and mineral-mineral pairs. The partitioning of 18O in the network modifier-bearing immiscible melts is not controlled by the relative degree of polymerization in the melts or fO2. The upper limit of the range of Δ18O values (<1‰), and the variation in the δ18O values of conjugate melts that occurs with the inclusion of network modifying constituents, suggest that in some cases, oxygen isotope ratios might be useful to distinguish lithologies evolved from coexisting immiscible silicate melts, from lithologies that have evolved by crystal fractionation only.

  16. Structures of immiscible Al-In alloys solidified under microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potard, C.

    1981-01-01

    Four samples of the immiscible Al-In system having monotectic and hypermonotectic compositions were solidified under microgravity during the NASA-SPAR IX flight of January 20th, 1981. The experimental thermal and physico-chemical conditions actually achieved have been analysed. Radiographic and metallographic observations of the samples show a non-regular dispersed primary phase inside the monotectic matrix. These observations are commented on the basis of capillarity and solidification aspects.

  17. Buoyant displacement flow of immiscible fluids in inclined ducts: A theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, A.; Alba, K.

    2017-05-01

    We study the buoyant displacement flow of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in an inclined duct (two-dimensional channel) theoretically. The fluids may have different viscosities. The displacing fluid is denser than the displaced one, i.e., a density-unstable configuration. For simplicity, the fluids are assumed to behave as neutrally wetting in the vicinity of duct walls. The small diameter-to-length ratio of the duct considered (δ ≪1 ) has been used as the perturbation parameter in developing a lubrication model (negligible inertia). Appropriate Navier-slip conditions have been applied at the walls to overcome contact-line problem singularity. The lubrication model developed has then been numerically solved using a robust total variation diminishing finite difference scheme. Completely different flow patterns have been observed compared to the miscible limit. Fluids immiscibility is found to cause a capillary ridge in the vicinity of the displacing front, which diminishes as the surface tension is increased. For small values of surface tension parameter, the fluids immiscibility is found to decelerate the advancement of interpenetrating heavy and light layers. More efficient displacement (less fingering within the displacing layer) has been observed at small density differences and when the displacing fluid is more viscous than the displaced one. The limit of zero imposed velocity corresponding to the exchange flow has further been considered in the lubrication model. An interesting jump in the interface height occurs close to the vicinity of the gate region due to the immiscibility, which has been similarly reported in other recent computational works. Detailed mathematical notes on the similarity solution of the flow at long times are moreover provided. Investigating the short-time dynamics of the flow reveals the dominance of diffusive surface tension effects over buoyancy.

  18. Gas Separation Membranes Derived from High-Performance Immiscible Polymer Blends Compatibilized with Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Panapitiya, Nimanka P; Wijenayake, Sumudu N; Nguyen, Do D; Huang, Yu; Musselman, Inga H; Balkus, Kenneth J; Ferraris, John P

    2015-08-26

    An immiscible polymer blend comprised of high-performance copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA(3:2) (6FDD) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) was compatibilized using 2-methylimidazole (2-MI), a commercially available small molecule. Membranes were fabricated from blends of 6FDD:PBI (50:50) with and without 2-MI for H2/CO2 separations. The membranes demonstrated a matrix-droplet type microstructure as evident with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging where 6FDD is the dispersed phase and PBI is the continuous phase. In addition, membranes with 2-MI demonstrated a uniform microstructure as observed by smaller and more uniformly dispersed 6FDD domains in contrast to 6FDD:PBI (50:50) blend membranes without 2-MI. This compatibilization effect of 2-MI was attributed to interfacial localization of 2-MI that lowers the interfacial energy similar to a surfactant. Upon the incorporation of 2-MI, the H2/CO2 selectivity improved remarkably, compared to the pure blend, and surpassed the Robeson's upper bound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a small molecule to compatibilize a high-performance immiscible polymer blend. This approach could afford a novel class of membranes in which immiscible polymer blends can be compatibilized in an economical and convenient fashion.

  19. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Rabia; Ahmed, Sohail; Mazhar, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad; Khan, Nawazish Ali; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2}, and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals.

  20. Molecular orientation distributions during injection molding of liquid crystalline polymers: Ex situ investigation of partially filled moldings

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Bubeck, Robert A.

    2013-01-10

    The development of molecular orientation in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) during injection molding has been investigated using two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray scattering coordinated with numerical computations employing the Larson-Doi polydomain model. Orientation distributions were measured in 'short shot' moldings to characterize structural evolution prior to completion of mold filling, in both thin and thick rectangular plaques. Distinct orientation patterns are observed near the filling front. In particular, strong extension at the melt front results in nearly transverse molecular alignment. Far away from the flow front shear competes with extension to produce complex spatial distributions of orientation. The relative influence of shear is stronger in the thin plaque, producing orientation along the filling direction. Exploiting an analogy between the Larson-Doi model and a fiber orientation model, we test the ability of process simulation tools to predict TLCP orientation distributions during molding. Substantial discrepancies between model predictions and experimental measurements are found near the flow front in partially filled short shots, attributed to the limits of the Hele-Shaw approximation used in the computations. Much of the flow front effect is however 'washed out' by subsequent shear flow as mold filling progresses, leading to improved agreement between experiment and corresponding numerical predictions.

  1. Size distribution of associated clusters in liquid alcohols: Interpretation of simulation results in the frame of SAFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeček, Jiří; Paricaud, Patrice

    2013-11-01

    The size distribution and topology of associated clusters for primary alcohols is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, and octanol are simulated at pressure P = 1 bar and temperatures T = 300 K, T = 350 K, and T = 400 K. The fractions of molecules with different sets of hydrogen bonded partners, the size of associated cluster and the site-site distribution functions between atoms participating on hydrogen bonding are extracted from simulated trajectories. For all alcohols longer than ethanol, the length of the alkyl chain has only a marginal effect on the association. Consequently, related properties like coordination numbers of hydroxyl group, size distribution of associates, or fractions of differently coordinated alcohol molecules are independent on the molecular size. Although we employed a force-field without involved polarizability, we observe a positive cooperativity of hydrogen bonding simply as a consequence of steric and electrostatic interactions. The size and topology of associates is analyzed within the frame of 3B model of statistical association fluid theory. Although this approach enables good thermodynamic description of systems containing associating compounds, several insufficiencies appear in the description at molecular level.

  2. Spreading of miscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Daniel J.; Haward, Simon J.; Shen, Amy Q.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2016-05-01

    Miscible liquids commonly contact one another in natural and technological situations, often in the proximity of a solid substrate. In the scenario where a drop of one liquid finds itself on a solid surface and immersed within a second, miscible liquid, it will spread spontaneously across the surface. We show experimental findings of the spreading of sessile drops in miscible environments that have distinctly different shape evolution and power-law dynamics from sessile drops that spread in immiscible environments, which have been reported previously. We develop a characteristic time to scale radial data of the spreading sessile drops based on a drainage flow due to gravity. This time scale is effective for a homologous subset of the liquids studied. However, it has limitations when applied to significantly chemically different, yet miscible, liquid pairings; we postulate that the surface energies between each liquid and the solid surface becomes important for this other subset of the liquids studied. Initial experiments performed with pendant drops in miscible environments support the drainage flow observed in the sessile drop systems.

  3. Functional requirements for the Liquid Waste Transfer and Distribution Station at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tulay, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    A new facility will be constructed near the Bethel Valley storage tanks to receive process waste liquids generated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory during closure activities at Waste Area Grouping 6. The facility will unload trucks and distribute the liquid waste to other treatment facilities. It will be able to handle eight 5000-gal transfers per 8-h shift. No waste categorized as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or liquid low-level is expected, but is such waste is encountered, it will cause transfer rate restrictions.

  4. Impact of enhanced-flushing reagents and organic-liquid distribution on mass removal and mass-discharge reduction

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Nihat Hakan; Lee, Ann Russo; Brusseau, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    A series of column and flow-cell experiments was conducted to investigate the impact of non-uniform organic-liquid distribution on the relationship between reductions in contaminant mass discharge and reductions in source zone mass under conditions of enhanced-solubilization flushing. Trichloroethene was used as the model organic liquid, and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and ethanol were used as representative enhanced-flushing reagents. The results were compared to those of water-flood control experiments. Concentrations of trichloroethene in the effluent exhibited multi-step behavior with time, wherein multiple secondary periods of quasi steady state were observed. This non-ideal behavior was observed for both the water-flood and enhanced-flushing experiments. For all flow-cell experiments, the later stage of mass removal was controlled by the more poorly- accessible mass associated with higher-saturation zones. The profiles relating reductions in contaminant mass discharge and reductions in mass exhibited generally similar behavior for both the water-flood and enhanced-flushing experiments. This indicates that while the rates and magnitudes of mass removal are altered by the presence of a solubilization-reagent solution, the fundamental mass-removal process is not. The profiles obtained for the flow-cell systems differed from those obtained for the column systems, highlighting the impact of source-zone heterogeneity on mass-removal behavior. PMID:24563557

  5. Impact of enhanced-flushing reagents and organic-liquid distribution on mass removal and mass-discharge reduction.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Nihat Hakan; Lee, Ann Russo; Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    A series of column and flow-cell experiments was conducted to investigate the impact of non-uniform organic-liquid distribution on the relationship between reductions in contaminant mass discharge and reductions in source zone mass under conditions of enhanced-solubilization flushing. Trichloroethene was used as the model organic liquid, and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and ethanol were used as representative enhanced-flushing reagents. The results were compared to those of water-flood control experiments. Concentrations of trichloroethene in the effluent exhibited multi-step behavior with time, wherein multiple secondary periods of quasi steady state were observed. This non-ideal behavior was observed for both the water-flood and enhanced-flushing experiments. For all flow-cell experiments, the later stage of mass removal was controlled by the more poorly- accessible mass associated with higher-saturation zones. The profiles relating reductions in contaminant mass discharge and reductions in mass exhibited generally similar behavior for both the water-flood and enhanced-flushing experiments. This indicates that while the rates and magnitudes of mass removal are altered by the presence of a solubilization-reagent solution, the fundamental mass-removal process is not. The profiles obtained for the flow-cell systems differed from those obtained for the column systems, highlighting the impact of source-zone heterogeneity on mass-removal behavior.

  6. The glass transition and the distribution of voids in room-temperature ionic liquids: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero-Martinez, N. C.; Cortes-Huerto, R.; Ballone, P.

    2012-05-01

    The glass transition in prototypical room temperature ionic liquids has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations based on an Amber-like empirical force field. Samples of [C4mim][PF6], [C4mim][Tf2N], and [C3mim][Tf2N] have been quenched from the liquid phase at T = 500 to a glassy state at T ˜ 0 K in discontinuous steps of 20 K every 1.2 ns. The glass temperature estimated by simulation (Tg = 209 K for [C4mim][PF6], Tg = 204 K for [C4mim][Tf2N], and Tg = 196 K for [C3mim][Tf2N]) agrees semi-quantitatively with the experimental values (Tg = 193÷196 K for [C4mim][PF6], Tg = 186÷189 K for [C4mim][Tf2N], and Tg = 183 K for [C3mim][Tf2N]). A model electron density is introduced to identify voids in the system. The temperature dependence of the size distribution of voids provided by simulation reproduce well the experimental results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy reported in G. Dlubek, Y. Yu, R. Krause-Rehberg, W. Beichel, S. Bulut, N. Pogodina, I. Krossing, and Ch. Friedrich, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 124502 (2010), with only one free parameter needed to fit the experimental data.

  7. Influence of an amorphous wall on the distribution of localized excitations in a colloidal glass-forming liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Shreyas; Hima Nagamanasa, K.; Sood, A. K.; Ganapathy, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Elucidating the nature of the glass transition has been the holy grail of condensed matter physics and statistical mechanics for several decades. A phenomenological aspect that makes glass formation a conceptually formidable problem is that structural and dynamic correlations in glass-forming liquids are too subtle to be captured at the level of conventional two-point functions. As a consequence, a host of theoretical techniques, such as quenched amorphous configurations of particles, have been devised and employed in simulations and colloid experiments to gain insights into the mechanisms responsible for these elusive correlations. Very often, though, the analysis of spatio-temporal correlations is performed in the context of a single theoretical framework, and critical comparisons of microscopic predictions of competing theories are thereby lacking. Here, we address this issue by analysing the distribution of localized excitations, which are building blocks of relaxation as per the dynamical facilitation (DF) theory, in the presence of an amorphous wall, a construct motivated by the random first-order transition theory (RFOT). We observe that spatial profiles of the concentration of excitations exhibit complex features such as non-monotonicity and oscillations. Moreover, the smoothly varying part of the concentration profile yields a length scale {ξc} , which we compare with a previously computed length scale {ξ\\text{dyn}} . Our results suggest a method to assess the role of dynamical facilitation in governing structural relaxation in glass-forming liquids.

  8. Local density corrected three-body distribution functions for probing local structure reorganization in liquids.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Hofer, Thomas S; Rode, Bernd M

    2008-11-28

    Three-body distribution functions are calculated for metal ions in an aqueous medium in order to investigate and characterise solvent structure reorganization. Based on the existing formulation of three body correlation function, a local density correction is introduced to enable a comparison of different sub-regions within a solvate as well as different systems, thus taking into account the varying density arising from the influence of the solute.

  9. Nonlinear ultrasonic waves in bubbly liquids with nonhomogeneous bubble distribution: Numerical experiments.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé

    2009-06-01

    This paper deals with the nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in mixtures of air bubbles in water, but for which the bubble distribution is nonhomogeneous. The problem is modelled by means of a set of differential equations which describes the coupling of the acoustic field and bubbles vibration, and solved in the time domain via the use and adaptation of the SNOW-BL code. The attenuation and nonlinear effects are assumed to be due to the bubbles exclusively. The nonhomogeneity of the bubble distribution is introduced by the presence of bubble layers (or clouds) which can act as acoustic screens, and alters the behaviour of the ultrasonic waves. The effect of the spatial distribution of bubbles on the nonlinearity of the acoustic field is analyzed. Depending on the bubble density, dimension, shape, and position of the layers, its effects on the acoustic field change. Effects such as shielding and resonance of the bubbly layers are especially studied. The numerical experiments are carried out in two configurations: linear and nonlinear, i.e. for low and high excitation pressure amplitude, respectively, and the features of the phenomenon are compared. The parameters of the medium are chosen such as to reproduce air bubbly water involved in the stable cavitation process.

  10. Internal Stress Distribution Estimation in Liquid-Encapsulated Czochralski Grown GaAs Single Crystals Using Measured Temperature on Dummy Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Johji; Yasunaga, Toshio; Nakata, Yuhji

    1993-02-01

    The surface temperature on BN dummy crystals was measured under the same conditions as those for the actual liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth of GaAs single crystal. The solid-liquid interface shapes in the computation models were determined by the striations in the GaAs single crystal. Temperature and stress distributions inside the crystals were analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) using these data as the boundary conditions. By comparing the temperature distribution and the stress distribution, we have concluded that the reason for the high dislocation density in the crystal periphery is different from that in the center region, i.e., a kink in the axial temperature gradient versus the nature of the radial temperature gradient (solid-liquid interface shape is not flat), respectively.

  11. Oxygen distribution and potential ammonia oxidation in floating, liquid manure crusts.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Daniel Aa; Nielsen, Lars P; Schramm, Andreas; Revsbech, Niels P

    2010-01-01

    Floating, organic crusts on liquid manure, stored as a result of animal production, reduce emission of ammonia (NH3) and other volatile compounds during storage. The occurrence of NO2- and NO3- in the crusts indicate the presence of actively metabolizing NH3-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which may be partly responsible for this mitigation effect. Six manure tanks with organic covers (straw and natural) were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and potential activity ofAOB and its dependence on the O2 availability in the crust matrix as studied by electrochemical profiling. Oxygen penetration varied from <1 mm in young, poorly developed natural crusts and old straw crusts, to several centimeters in the old natural crusts. The AOB were ubiquitously present in all crusts investigated, but nitrifying activity could only be detected in old natural crusts and young straw crust with high O2 availability. In old natural crusts, total potential NH3 oxidation rates were similar to reported fluxes of NH3 from slurry without surface crust. These results indicate that old, natural surface crusts may develop into a porous matrix with high O2 availability that harbors an active population of aerobic microorganisms, including AOB. The microbial activity may thus contribute to a considerable reduction of ammonia emissions from slurry tanks with well-developed crusts.

  12. Visualization and Measurement of Surface Shear Stress Vector Distributions Using Liquid Crystal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.; Wilder, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    When a shear-sensitive liquid crystal coating is illuminated from the normal direction by white light and observed from an oblique above-plane view angle, its color-change response to shear depends on both shear stress vector magnitude and the direction of the applied shear vector relative to the observer's in-plane line of sight. At any point, the maximum color change is always seen or measured when the local shear vector is aligned with, and directed away from, the observer; the magnitude of the color change at this vector/observer aligned orientation scales directly with shear stress magnitude. Conversely, any point exposed to a shear vector with a component directed toward the observer exhibits a noncolor-change response, always characterized by a rusty red or brown color, independent of both shear magnitude and direction. Based on this knowledge, full-surface shear stress vector visualization and measurement methodologies were formulated and successfully demonstrated. The present paper reviews the observations and measurements that led to the development of these methodologies and applications of both are discussed.

  13. Modeling of collision and coalescence of droplets during microgravity processing of Zn-Bi immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. H.; Rogers, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    A population balance model is presented for the coarsening of the dispersed phase of liquid-liquid two-phase mixtures in microgravity due to gravity sedimentation and Marangoni migration, which lead to the collision and coalescence of droplets. The model is used to predict the evolution of the size distribution of the dispersed phase in a liquid-phase miscibility gap system, Zn-Bi, which has been used in a number of experimental microgravity processing studies in which significant phase segregation has been observed. The analysis shows that increasing the temperature gradient, gravity level, volume fraction of the dispersed phase, initial average drop radius, initial standard deviation of droplet radii, or the temperature coefficient of the interfacial tension leads to an increase in the rate of droplet growth due to collision and coalescence. Comparison of the distribution evolutions for unimodal and bimodal initial distributions shows that the latter yield significantly more rapid droplet growth. Finally, it is shown that droplet growth can be dramatically reduced with antiparallel orientation of the gravity vector and the temperature gradient, provided that the relative magnitude of these two vectors is properly chosen.

  14. Electrovariable gold nanoparticle films at liquid-liquid interfaces: from redox electrocatalysis to Marangoni-shutters.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, Grégoire C; Smirnov, Evgeny; Peljo, Pekka; Girault, Hubert H

    2017-07-01

    Control over the physical properties of nanoparticle assemblies at a liquid-liquid interface is a key technological advancement to realize the dream of smart electrovariable nanosystems. Electrified interfaces, such as the interface between two immiscible electrolytes solutions (ITIES), are almost an ideal platform for realizing this dream. Here, we show that the Galvani potential difference across soft interfaces can be effectively used to manipulate: (i) the reactivity of gold nanoparticle assemblies through varying the Fermi level (both chemically and electrochemically); (ii) the location distribution of the nanoparticles at the liquid-liquid interface. In the first case, in addition to our previous studies on electron transfer reactions (ET) across the ITIES, we used intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) to study the kinetics of photo-induced electrochemical reactions at the ITIES. As expected, the direct adsorption of gold nanoparticles at the interface modifies the kinetics of the ET reaction (so-called, interfacial redox electrocatalysis), however it did not lead to an increased photocurrent by "plasmonic enhancement". Rather, we found that the product separation depends on double layer effects while the product recombination is controlled by the Galvani potential difference between the two phases. In the second case, we demonstrated that polarizing the ITIES caused migration of gold nanoparticles from the middle region of the cell to its periphery. We called such systems "Marangoni-type shutters". This type of electrovariable plasmonic system did not experience diffusion limitation in terms of the adsorption/desorption of nanoparticles and the entire movement of nanoparticle assemblies happened almost instantly (within a second). It opens a fresh view on electrovariable plasmonics and presents new opportunities to create smart nanosystems at the ITIES driven with an electric field.

  15. Method and apparatus for selectively detecting one of two immiscible liquids in the presence of the other liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Cry, John W.; Kirkham, Randy R.; McBride, John F.; Simmons, Carver S.; Gee, Glendon W.

    1990-01-01

    Oil is detected in the presence of water by placing a translucent, porous body of hydrophobic material in contact with the oil and water and detecting the amount by which light incident on the body is attenuated on propagation through the body.

  16. Method and apparatus for selectively detecting one of two immiscible liquids in the presence of the other liquid

    DOEpatents

    Cry, J.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; McBride, J.F.; Simmons, C.S.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-02-06

    Oil is detected in the presence of water by placing a translucent, porous body of hydrophobic material in contact with the oil and water and detecting the amount by which light incident on the body is attenuated on propagation through the body. 4 figs.

  17. Prediction of the vapor-liquid distribution constants for volatile nonelectrolytes in water up to its critical temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyasunov, Andrey V.; Shock, Everett L.

    2003-12-01

    The distribution of solutes between coexisting liquid and vapor phases of water can be expressed by the distribution constant, K D, defined as K D= limitlim x→0y/x, where y and x stand for the mole fraction concentrations of a solute in vapor and liquid phases, respectively. Research reported here is concerned with the prediction of this property, K D, for volatile nonelectrolytes, over the whole temperature range of existence of the vapor-liquid equilibrium for water, i.e. from 273 K to the critical temperature at 647.1 K. A simple empirical method is proposed to extrapolate the values of K D from 298 K to 500-550 K. Calculations at higher temperatures are based on the theoretical relation that establishes the proportionality between RTlnK D and the Krichevskii parameter, A Kr, which is the single most important property of a solute at near-critical conditions, and can be evaluated using the method proposed here. The comparison of predicted and experimental values of K D and A Kr for a few well-studied solutes reveals the satisfactory performance of the proposed method. It appears that the accuracy of predictions in the framework of this method is limited mainly by the accuracy of the values of the thermodynamic functions of hydration of solutes at 298 K, and that the best way to improve the quality of predictions of K D and A Kr is to increase the inventory of accurate calorimetric enthalpy and heat capacity data for aqueous solutes at 298 K. We stress that the values of the Krichevskii parameter, such as those generated in this study, are of crucial importance for reliable predictions of the chemical potential and its derivatives (V 2o, Cp 2o) for aqueous solutes at near-critical and supercritical conditions. Values of K D and A Kr are predicted for many inorganic volatile nonelectrolytes and some halogenated derivatives of methane and ethene. We show that both ln K D and A Kr for aqueous organic solutes follow group additivity systematics, and we derive a set

  18. The distribution of chromium among orthopyroxene, spinel and silicate liquid at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cr distributions for a synthetic silicate melt equilibrated with bronzitic orthopyroxene and chromite spinel between 1334 and 1151 C over a range of oxygen fugacities between the nickel-nickel oxide and iron-wuestite buffers are studied. The occurrence, chemical composition, and structure of the orthopyroxene-silicate melt and the spinel-silicate melt are described. It is observed that the Cr content between bronzite and the melt increases with falling temperature along a given oxygen buffer and decreases with falling oxygen fugacity at a given temperature; however, the Cr content of the melt in equilibrium with spinel decreases with falling temperature and increases with lower oxygen fugacity.

  19. The distribution of chromium among orthopyroxene, spinel and silicate liquid at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cr distributions for a synthetic silicate melt equilibrated with bronzitic orthopyroxene and chromite spinel between 1334 and 1151 C over a range of oxygen fugacities between the nickel-nickel oxide and iron-wuestite buffers are studied. The occurrence, chemical composition, and structure of the orthopyroxene-silicate melt and the spinel-silicate melt are described. It is observed that the Cr content between bronzite and the melt increases with falling temperature along a given oxygen buffer and decreases with falling oxygen fugacity at a given temperature; however, the Cr content of the melt in equilibrium with spinel decreases with falling temperature and increases with lower oxygen fugacity.

  20. Effect of Humic Acid on Migration, Distribution and Remediation of Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids: A laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Wu, J.; Xu, H.; Gao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) contamination in the subsurface increases with the rapid development of oil industry and becomes the focus of many studies. The migration, distribution and remediation efficiency of DNAPLs in the subsurface environment are greatly affected by the solution chemistry besides the physical heterogeneities of aquifers. Humic acid (HA), which is ubiquitous in natural environments, is a surface active substance exhibiting solubility enhancement behavior for hydrophobic organic compounds such as DNAPLs. Here we reported a laboratory investigation to study the effects of HA on the infiltration, immobilization and subsequent recovery of DNAPL in porous media. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was selected as the representative DNAPL in this study. Two-dimensional (2-D) sandbox experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different HA concentrations on the transport, distribution of PCE and the remediation of PCE using surfactant (Tween 80) flushing in a saturated porous media system. The surfactant flushing of PCE was performed after the PCE transport and distribution had reached equilibrium. A light transmission visualization method with charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was adopted to visualize PCE distribution and quantify its saturation. In addition, the experiments were also designed to gather data for the validation of multiphase flow models. Effluent samples were collected to determine dissolved PCE concentrations. PCE solubilization and PCE-water interfacial tension were experimentally determined in aqueous solutions of varying HA concentrations. The experimental results showed that the presence of HA can have a dramatic impact on PCE flow and entrapment, and significantly improved the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR). The findings are of use for better understanding of the migration and entrapment of DNAPLs and developing of SEAR technology.

  1. Prediction of acute toxicity of chemicals in mixtures: worms Tubifex tubifex and gas/liquid distribution.

    PubMed

    Tichý, M; Borek-Dohalský, V; Matousová, D; Rucki, M; Feltl, L; Roth, Z

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this contribution is to support our proposal of the procedure for predicting acute toxicity of binary mixtures by QSAR analysis techniques. The changes of a mixture composition are described by molar ratio R and visualized in the R-plot (QCAR--quantitative composition-activity relationships). The approach was inspired by Rault and Dalton's laws, their positive and negative deviations in the behavior of a mixture of real gases, by Loewe and Muischnek isoboles and by the Finney test of additivity. Acute toxicity was determined by the laboratory test with woms Tubifex tubifex. The additivity of the acute toxicity in the binary mixture benzene + nitrobenzene was confirmed and a new interaction is described: "mixed interaction" with the binary mixture aniline + ethanol. The "mixed interaction" means that depending on mixture composition, both potentiation and inhibition can occur. As the first physicochemical descriptor of the changes caused by the changing composition of binary mixtures, the gas/liquid equilibrium was studied and a composition of the gaseous phase was determined by a gas chromatographic method. The method for determination of concentrations in the gaseous phase was described. The gaseous phase composition of benzene + nitrobenzene. benzene + ethanol, benzene + aniline and ethanol + aniline mixtures was analyzed. It was found that if the concentrations of the mixture's components in the gaseous phase behave nonideally (they are not additive), the acute toxicity of the same mixture is not additive as well. Another descriptor to distinguish between potentiation and inhibition will be, however, necessary. The properties, both gaseous phase composition and the acute toxicity, of the benzene + nitrobenzene mixture are additive. In mixtures with the mixed interaction, the R-plot of the composition of the gaseous phase is complex with a large variation of results.

  2. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  3. Carbonate-silicate melt immiscibility, REE mineralising fluids, and the evolution of the Lofdal Intrusive Suite, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeving, Sarah; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; Swinden, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Lofdal Intrusive Suite, Namibia, consists of calcio-carbonatite and silica-undersaturated alkaline intrusive rocks ranging in composition from phono-tephrite to phonolite (and nepheline syenite). The most primitive of these rocks is the phono-tephrite, which, on the basis of its Y/Ho and Nb/Ta ratios, is interpreted to have formed by partial melting of the mantle. Roughly linear trends in major and trace element contents from phono-tephrite to phonolite and nepheline syenite indicate that the latter two rock types evolved from the phono-tephrite by fractional crystallisation. The nepheline syenite, however, has a lower rare earth element (REE) content than the phonolite. The carbonatite has a primitive mantle-normalised REE profile roughly parallel to that of the silica-undersaturated alkaline igneous rocks, although the absolute REE concentrations are higher. Like the phono-tephrite, it also has a mantle Y/Ho ratio. However, the Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios are significantly higher. Moreover, the carbonatite displays strong negative Ta, Zr and Hf anomalies on spidergrams, whereas the silicate rocks display positive anomalies for these elements. Significantly, this behaviour is predicted by the corresponding carbonatite-silicate melt partition coefficients, as is the behaviour of the REE. Based on these observations, we interpret the carbonatite to represent an immiscible liquid that exsolved from the phono-tephrite or possibly the phonolite melt. The result was a calcio-carbonatite that is enriched in the heavy REE (HREE) relative to most other carbonatites. Fluids released from the corresponding magma are interpreted to have been the source of the REE mineralisation that is currently the target of exploration.

  4. A Distributed Computing Infrastructure for Computational Thermodynamic Calculations of Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, M. S.; Kress, V. C.

    2004-12-01

    Software tools like MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995, CMP 119:197) and its derivatives (Ghiorso et al., 2002, G3 3:10.1029/2001GC000217) are sophisticated calculators used by geoscientists to quantify the chemistry of melt production, transport and storage. These tools utilize computational thermodynamics to evaluate the equilibrium state of the system under specified external conditions by minimizing a suitably constructed thermodynamic potential. Like any thermodynamically based tool, the principal advantage in employing these techniques to model igneous processes is the intrinsic ability to couple the chemistry and energetics of the evolution of the system in a self consistent and rigorous formalism. Access to MELTS is normally accomplished via a standalone X11-based executable or as a Java-based web applet. The latter is a dedicated client-server application rooted at the University of Chicago. Our on-going objective is the development of a distributed computing infrastructure to provide "MELTS-like" computations on demand to remote network users by utilizing a language independent client-server protocol based on CORBA. The advantages of this model are numerous. First, the burden of implementing and executing MELTS computations is centralized with a software implementation optimized to a compute cluster dedicated for that purpose. Improvements and updates to MELTS software are handled locally on the server side without intervention of the user and the server-model lessens the burden of supporting the computational code on a variety of hardware and OS platforms. Second, the client hardware platform does not incur the computational cost of performing a MELTS simulation and the remote user can focus on the task of incorporating results into their model. Third, the client user can write software in a computer language of their choosing and procedural calls to the MELTS library can be executed transparently over the network as if a local language-compatible library of

  5. A comparative flow visualization study of thermocapillary flow in drops in liquid-liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are performed to visualize thermocapillary flow in drops in an immiscible host liquid. The host liquid used is silicone oil. Drops of three different liquids are used, viz, vegetable oil, water-methanol mixture anad pure methanol. Clear evidence of thermocapillary flow is seen in vegetable oil drops. For a mixture of water and methanol (approximately 50-50 by weight), natural convection is seen to dominate the flow outside the drop. Pure methanol drops exhibit thermocapillary flow, but dissolve in silicone oil. A small amount of water added to pure methanol significantly reduces the dissolution. Flow oscillations occur in this system for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  6. Pressure drop in fully developed, duct flow of dispersed liquid-vapor mixture at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of steady, fully developed dispersed liquid-vapor flow in a straight duct at 0-g is simulated by flowing water containing n-butyl benzoate droplets. Water and benzoate are immiscible and have identical density at room temperature. The theoretical basis of the simulation is given. Experiments showed that, for a fixed combined flow rate of water and benzoate, the frictional pressure drop is unaffected by large changes in the volume fraction of benzoate drops and their size distribution. Measured power spectra of the static wall pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent water-benzoate flow also revealed that their dynamics is essentially unaltered by the presence of the droplets. These experimental findings, together with the theoretical analysis, led to the conclusion that the pressure drop in fully developed, dispersed liquid-vapor flow in straight ducts of constant cross section at 0-g is identical to that due to liquid flowing alone at the same total volumetric flow rate of the liquid-vapor mixture and, therefore, can be readily determined.

  7. Pressure drop in fully developed, duct flow of dispersed liquid-vapor mixture at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of steady, fully developed dispersed liquid-vapor flow in a straight duct at 0-g is simulated by flowing water containing n-butyl benzoate droplets. Water and benzoate are immiscible and have identical density at room temperature. The theoretical basis of the simulation is given. Experiments showed that, for a fixed combined flow rate of water and benzoate, the frictional pressure drop is unaffected by large changes in the volume fraction of benzoate drops and their size distribution. Measured power spectra of the static wall pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent water-benzoate flow also revealed that their dynamics is essentially unaltered by the presence of the droplets. These experimental findings, together with the theoretical analysis, led to the conclusion that the pressure drop in fully developed, dispersed liquid-vapor flow in straight ducts of constant cross section at 0-g is identical to that due to liquid flowing alone at the same total volumetric flow rate of the liquid-vapor mixture and, therefore, can be readily determined.

  8. Thin-finger growth and droplet pinch-off in miscible and immiscible displacements in a periodic network of microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budek, Agnieszka; Garstecki, Piotr; Samborski, Adam; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of experimental and numerical studies of two-phase flow in a periodic, rectangular network of microfluidic channels. This geometry promotes the formation of anisotropic, dendrite-like structures during viscous fingering experiments. The dendrites then compete with each other for the available flow, which leads to the appearance of hierarchical growth pattern. Combining experiments and numerical simulations, we analyze different growth regimes in such a system, depending on the network geometry and fluid properties. For immiscible fluids, a high degree of screening is present which results in a power-law distribution of finger lengths. Contrastingly, for miscible fluids, strong lateral currents of displaced fluid lead to the detachment of the heads of the longest fingers from their roots, thus preventing their further growth.

  9. Carbonatitic and granitic melts produced under conditions of primary immiscibility during anatexis in the lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Silvio; Wunder, Bernd; Ziemann, Martin A.; Wälle, Markus; O'Brien, Patrick J.

    2016-11-01

    Carbonatites are peculiar magmatic rocks with mantle-related genesis, commonly interpreted as the products of melting of CO2-bearing peridotites, or resulting from the chemical evolution of mantle-derived magmas, either through extreme differentiation or secondary immiscibility. Here we report the first finding of anatectic carbonatites of crustal origin, preserved as calcite-rich polycrystalline inclusions in garnet from low-to-medium pressure migmatites of the Oberpfalz area, SW Bohemian Massif (Central Europe). These inclusions originally trapped a melt of calciocarbonatitic composition with a characteristic enrichment in Ba, Sr and LREE. This interpretation is supported by the results of a detailed microstructural and microchemical investigation, as well as re-melting experiments using a piston cylinder apparatus. Carbonatitic inclusions coexist in the same cluster with crystallized silicate melt inclusions (nanogranites) and COH fluid inclusions, suggesting conditions of primary immiscibility between two melts and a fluid during anatexis. The production of both carbonatitic and granitic melts during the same anatectic event requires a suitable heterogeneous protolith. This may be represented by a sedimentary sequence containing marble lenses of limited extension, similar to the one still visible in the adjacent central Moldanubian Zone. The presence of CO2-rich fluid inclusions suggests furthermore that high CO2 activity during anatexis may be required to stabilize a carbonate-rich melt in a silica-dominated system. This natural occurrence displays a remarkable similarity with experiments on carbonate-silicate melt immiscibility, where CO2 saturation is a condition commonly imposed. In conclusion, this study shows how the investigation of partial melting through melt inclusion studies may unveil unexpected processes whose evidence, while preserved in stiff minerals such as garnet, is completely obliterated in the rest of the rock due to metamorphic re

  10. Macroscopic laws for immiscible two-phase flow in porous media: Results From numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Daniel H.

    1990-06-01

    Flow through porous media may be described at either of two length scales. At the scale of a single pore, fluids flow according to the Navier-Stokes equations and the appropriate boundary conditions. At a larger, volume-averaged scale, the flow is usually thought to obey a linear Darcy law relating flow rates to pressure gradients and body forces via phenomenological permeability coefficients. Aside from the value of the permeability coefficient, the slow flow of a single fluid in a porous medium is well-understood within this framework. The situation is considerably different, however, for the simultaneous flow of two or more fluids: not only are the phenomenological coefficients poorly understood, but the form of the macroscopic laws themselves is subject to question. I describe a numerical study of immiscible two-phase flow in an idealized two-dimensional porous medium constructed at the pore scale. Results show that the macroscopic flow is a nonlinear function of the applied forces for sufficiently low levels of forcing, but linear thereafter. The crossover, which is not predicted by conventional models, occurs when viscous forces begin to dominate capillary forces; i.e., at a sufficiently high capillary number. In the linear regime, the flow may be described by the linear phenomenological law ui = ΣjLijfj, where the flow rate ui of the ith fluid is related to the force fj applied to the jth fluid by the matrix of phenomenological coefficients Lij which depends on the relative concentrations of the two fluids. The diagonal terms are proportional to quantities commonly referred to as "relative permeabilities." The cross terms represent viscous coupling between the two fluids; they are conventionally assumed to be negligible and require special experimental procedures to observe in a laboratory. In contrast, in this numerical study the cross terms are straightforward to measure and are found to be of significant size. The cross terms are additionally observed to

  11. Fabrication and magnetic properties of glass-coated microwires from immiscible elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, A.; Sinnecker, E. H. C. P.; Paramo, D.; Guerrero, F.; Larin, V.; González, J.; Vázquez, M.

    1999-04-01

    The Taylor-Ulitovski technique has been successfully employed to fabricate glass-coated microwires having internal nucleus made of alloys of various immiscible elements. Series of alloys CoxCu100-x, Co29Ni25Mn1Cu45, and (FeSiBC)50Cu50 have been studied from structural and magnetic points of view. The influence of thermal treatments on the structure and magnetic properties has been moreover studied with a final aim to obtain such type of microwires with enhanced hard magnetic properties. A maximum coercivity of around 750 Oe is achieved in the optimum conditions.

  12. Non-axisymmetric shapes of a rotating drop in an immiscible system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Tagg, R.; Cammack, L.; Croonquist, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    The nonaxisymmetric shapes of a rotating drop in an immiscible system were studied. Five basic families of shapes (axisymmetric, two-lobed, three-lobed, four-lobed, and toroidal) were observed. The sequence (axisymmetric to two-lobed to three-lobed to four-lobed to toroidal) seems to be linked to increasing spin-up velocity. For the axisymmetric case, direct comparisons of experiments with the theory of a free rotating drop were surprisingly good the equatorial area differs from theory by only 30%. Furthermore, the non-axisymmetric shapes are in good qualitative agreement with the theory, although the theory does not address the presence of an outer fluid.

  13. Instabilities of an immiscible reactive micellar interface in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroobakhsh, Zahra; Litman, Matthew; Belmonte, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    We present the case of a micellar reaction involving two immiscible fluids, which results in the growth of a thin viscoelastic layer between them. A Hele-Shaw cell is initially filled with different oils, including oleic acid, which acts as a cosurfactant. The oil is displaced by an aqueous solution of the surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride. A rich variety of viscous fingering patterns are observed, which are different from classic Saffman-Taylor patterns. We discuss how they change with concentration, surfactant injection rate and type of oil. We also measure the viscoelastic properties of this material using an interfacial rheometer.

  14. Tin-carbon clusters and the onset of microscopic level immiscibility: Experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J; Landau, A; Zemel, E; Kolodney, E

    2015-09-21

    We report the experimental observation and computational analysis of the binary tin-carbon gas phase species. These novel ionic compounds are generated by impact of C60(-) anions on a clean tin target at some kiloelectronvolts kinetic energies. Positive Sn(m)C(n)(+) (m = 1-12, 1 ≤ n ≤ 8) ions were detected mass spectrometrically following ejection from the surface. Impact induced shattering of the C60(-) ion followed by sub-surface penetration of the resulting atomic carbon flux forces efficient mixing between target and projectile atoms even though the two elements (Sn/C) are completely immiscible in the bulk. This approach of C60(-) ion beam induced synthesis can be considered as an effective way for producing novel metal-carbon species of the so-called non-carbide forming elements, thus exploring the possible onset of molecular level miscibility in these systems. Sn2C2(+) was found to be the most abundant carbide cluster ion. Its instantaneous formation kinetics and its measured kinetic energy distribution while exiting the surface demonstrate a single impact formation/emission event (on the sub-ps time scale). Optimal geometries were calculated for both neutral and positively charged species using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for identifying global minima, followed by density functional theory (DFT) structure optimization and energy calculations at the coupled cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] level. The calculated structures reflect two distinct binding tendencies. The carbon rich species exhibit polyynic/cummulenic nature (tin end capped carbon chains) while the more stoichiometrically balanced species have larger contributions of metal-metal bonding, sometimes resulting in distinct tin and carbon moieties attached to each other (segregated structures). The Sn2C(n) (n = 3-8) and Sn2C(n)(+) (n = 2-8) are polyynic/cummulenic while all neutral Sn(m)C(n) structures (m = 3-4) could be described as small tin clusters (dimer

  15. Tin-carbon clusters and the onset of microscopic level immiscibility: Experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, J.; Landau, A.; Zemel, E.; Kolodney, E.

    2015-09-01

    We report the experimental observation and computational analysis of the binary tin-carbon gas phase species. These novel ionic compounds are generated by impact of C60 - anions on a clean tin target at some kiloelectronvolts kinetic energies. Positive SnmCn+ (m = 1-12, 1 ≤ n ≤ 8) ions were detected mass spectrometrically following ejection from the surface. Impact induced shattering of the C60 - ion followed by sub-surface penetration of the resulting atomic carbon flux forces efficient mixing between target and projectile atoms even though the two elements (Sn/C) are completely immiscible in the bulk. This approach of C60 - ion beam induced synthesis can be considered as an effective way for producing novel metal-carbon species of the so-called non-carbide forming elements, thus exploring the possible onset of molecular level miscibility in these systems. Sn2C2+ was found to be the most abundant carbide cluster ion. Its instantaneous formation kinetics and its measured kinetic energy distribution while exiting the surface demonstrate a single impact formation/emission event (on the sub-ps time scale). Optimal geometries were calculated for both neutral and positively charged species using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for identifying global minima, followed by density functional theory (DFT) structure optimization and energy calculations at the coupled cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] level. The calculated structures reflect two distinct binding tendencies. The carbon rich species exhibit polyynic/cummulenic nature (tin end capped carbon chains) while the more stoichiometrically balanced species have larger contributions of metal-metal bonding, sometimes resulting in distinct tin and carbon moieties attached to each other (segregated structures). The Sn2Cn (n = 3-8) and Sn2Cn+ (n = 2-8) are polyynic/cummulenic while all neutral SnmCn structures (m = 3-4) could be described as small tin clusters (dimer, trimer, and tetramer

  16. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    DOEpatents

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  17. Hybrid multiphase CFD simulation for liquid-liquid interfacial area prediction in annular centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, K.E.

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-liquid contacting equipment used in solvent extraction processes has the dual purpose of mixing and separating two immiscible fluids. Consequently, such devices inherently encompass a wide variety of multiphase flow regimes. A hybrid multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid method with VOF (volume of fluid) sharp interface capturing has been developed for application to annular centrifugal contactors. This solver has been extended to enable prediction of mean droplet size and liquid-liquid interfacial area through a single moment population balance method. Simulations of liquid-liquid mixing in a simplified geometry and a model annular centrifugal contactor are reported with droplet breakup/coalescence models being calibrated versus available experimental data. Quantitative comparison is made for two different housing vane geometries and it is found that the predicted droplet size is significantly smaller for vane geometries which result in higher annular liquid holdup.

  18. Instability arisen on liquid jet penetrated in flowing liquid bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Naoto; Ueno, Ichiro

    2009-11-01

    We carry out an experimental study with a special interest on a penetration process and an instability on a liquid jet impinged to a flowing liquid pool. The impinged jet penetrates into the flowing bath accompanying with an entrainment of the ambient immiscible gas without coalescing with the liquid in the pool until the air wrap around the jet collapses. The wrapping air controls instabilities arisen on the jet. We observe the dynamic behaviors of the penetrated jet and the departure of the bubble of the wrapping gas at the tip of the collapsing jet by use of a high-speed camera in order to categorize the behaviors as functions of the velocities of the jet and flow in the pool. We also evaluate an averaged thickness of the wrapping gas through the observation.

  19. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Liquid Water and Ice Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, S.; Gray, M. A.; Hubanks, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODE) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18,1999 and the Aqua spacecraft on April 26,2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from each polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 pm with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper, we describe the radiative properties of clouds as currently determined from satellites (cloud fraction, optical thickness, cloud top pressure, and cloud effective radius), and highlight the global and regional cloud microphysical properties currently available for assessing climate variability and forcing. These include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the globe.

  20. Equilibrium distribution of Fe, Ni, Sb, and Sn between liquid Cu and a CaO-rich slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gortais, J.; Hodaj, F.; Allibert, M.; Welter, J. M.

    1994-10-01

    Equilibrium measurements of the distribution of Fe, Ni, Sb, and Sn between a liquid Cu-O solution and a CaF2-CaO-MgO-SiO2 were carried out at 1500 K in a magnesia crucible. The results show that the studied solutes were in the states Fe(III), Ni(II), Sb(III), and Sn(IV), in the slag, for metal O contents ranging from 100 ppm to saturation at 2.1 pct. The Cu oxide solubility in the slag was also measured in absence of the solute elements. Its maximum solubility is about 4 ± 1 mass pct Cu2O. The compositions at equilibrium allow determination of the activity coefficients (referred to pure oxide) of the four solute oxides in the slag. These values, expressed in round figures to take into account the experimental uncertainties, are 10 for Fe2O3, 20 for NiO, 10 for SnO2, 1.6 10-2 for SbO1.5, and 60 for Cu2O.