Censored Distributed Space-Time Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiu, S.; Schober, R.
2007-12-01
We consider the application of distributed space-time coding in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In particular, sensors use a common noncoherent distributed space-time block code (DSTBC) to forward their local decisions to the fusion center (FC) which makes the final decision. We show that the performance of distributed space-time coding is negatively affected by erroneous sensor decisions caused by observation noise. To overcome this problem of error propagation, we introduce censored distributed space-time coding where only reliable decisions are forwarded to the FC. The optimum noncoherent maximum-likelihood and a low-complexity, suboptimum generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) FC decision rules are derived and the performance of the GLRT decision rule is analyzed. Based on this performance analysis we derive a gradient algorithm for optimization of the local decision/censoring threshold. Numerical and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed censoring scheme making distributed space-time coding a prime candidate for signaling in WSNs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenkeit, Florian; Wübben, Dirk; Dekorsy, Armin
2013-12-01
In this article, distributed interleave-division multiplexing space-time codes (dIDM-STCs) are applied for multi-user two-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks. In case of decoding errors at the relays which propagate to the destination, severe performance degradations can occur as the original detection scheme for common IDM-STCs does not take any reliability information about the first hop into account. Here, a novel reliability-aware iterative detection scheme (RAID) for dIDM-STCs is proposed. This new detection scheme takes the decoding reliability of the relays for each user into account for the detection at the destination. Performance evaluations show that the proposed RAID scheme clearly outperforms the original detection scheme and that in certain scenarios even a better performance than for adaptive relaying schemes can be achieved.
Coding space-time stimulus dynamics in auditory brain maps
Wang, Yunyan; Gutfreund, Yoram; Peña, José L.
2014-01-01
Sensory maps are often distorted representations of the environment, where ethologically-important ranges are magnified. The implication of a biased representation extends beyond increased acuity for having more neurons dedicated to a certain range. Because neurons are functionally interconnected, non-uniform representations influence the processing of high-order features that rely on comparison across areas of the map. Among these features are time-dependent changes of the auditory scene generated by moving objects. How sensory representation affects high order processing can be approached in the map of auditory space of the owl's midbrain, where locations in the front are over-represented. In this map, neurons are selective not only to location but also to location over time. The tuning to space over time leads to direction selectivity, which is also topographically organized. Across the population, neurons tuned to peripheral space are more selective to sounds moving into the front. The distribution of direction selectivity can be explained by spatial and temporal integration on the non-uniform map of space. Thus, the representation of space can induce biased computation of a second-order stimulus feature. This phenomenon is likely observed in other sensory maps and may be relevant for behavior. PMID:24782781
A High-Rate Space-Time Block Code with Full Diversity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Shihua; Zhong, Zhimeng
A new high-rate space-time block code (STBC) with full transmit diversity gain for four transmit antennas based on a generalized Alamouti code structure is proposed. The proposed code has lower Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoding complexity than the Double ABBA scheme does. Constellation rotation is used to maximize the diversity product. With the optimal rotated constellations, the proposed code significantly outperforms some known high-rate STBCs in the literature with similar complexity and the same spectral efficiency.
CoCoNuT: General relativistic hydrodynamics code with dynamical space-time evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimmelmeier, Harald; Novak, Jérôme; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo
2012-02-01
CoCoNuT is a general relativistic hydrodynamics code with dynamical space-time evolution. The main aim of this numerical code is the study of several astrophysical scenarios in which general relativity can play an important role, namely the collapse of rapidly rotating stellar cores and the evolution of isolated neutron stars. The code has two flavors: CoCoA, the axisymmetric (2D) magnetized version, and CoCoNuT, the 3D non-magnetized version.
Novel space-time trellis codes for free-space optical communications using transmit laser selection.
García-Zambrana, Antonio; Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz
2015-09-21
In this paper, the deployment of novel space-time trellis codes (STTCs) with transmit laser selection (TLS) for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels is presented. Combining TLS and STTC with rate 1 bit/(s · Hz), a new code design criterion based on the use of the largest order statistics is here proposed for multiple-input/single-output (MISO) FSO systems in order to improve the diversity order gain by properly chosing the transmit lasers out of the available L lasers. Based on a pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions in the range from low to high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to moderate-to-strong turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution, and pointing error effects, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Obtained results show diversity orders of 2L and 3L when simple two-state and four-state STTCs are considered, respectively. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results. PMID:26406626
A New Quaternion Design for Space-Time-Polarization Block Code with Full Diversity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Huanfei; Kan, Haibin; Imai, Hideki
Construction of quaternion design for Space-Time-Polarization Block Codes (STPBCs) is a hot but difficult topic. This letter introduces a novel way to construct high dimensional quaternion designs based on any existing low dimensional quaternion orthogonal designs(QODs) for STPBC, while preserving the merits of the original QODs such as full diversity and simple decoding. Furthermore, it also provides a specific schema to reach full diversity and maximized code gain by signal constellation rotation on the polarization plane.
A novel repetition space-time coding scheme for mobile FSO systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ming; Cao, Yang; Li, Shu-ming; Yang, Shao-wen
2015-03-01
Considering the influence of more random atmospheric turbulence, worse pointing errors and highly dynamic link on the transmission performance of mobile multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optics (FSO) communication systems, this paper establishes a channel model for the mobile platform. Based on the combination of Alamouti space-time code and time hopping ultra-wide band (TH-UWB) communications, a novel repetition space-time coding (RSTC) method for mobile 2×2 free-space optical communications with pulse position modulation (PPM) is developed. In particular, two decoding methods of equal gain combining (EGC) maximum likelihood detection (MLD) and correlation matrix detection (CMD) are derived. When a quasi-static fading and weak turbulence channel model are considered, simulation results show that whether the channel state information (CSI) is known or not, the coding system demonstrates more significant performance of the symbol error rate (SER) than the uncoding. In other words, transmitting diversity can be achieved while conveying the information only through the time delays of the modulated signals transmitted from different antennas. CMD has almost the same effect of signal combining with maximal ratio combining (MRC). However, when the channel correlation increases, SER performance of the coding 2×2 system degrades significantly.
Numerical relativity for D dimensional axially symmetric space-times: Formalism and code tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilhão, Miguel; Witek, Helvi; Sperhake, Ulrich; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Nerozzi, Andrea
2010-04-01
The numerical evolution of Einstein’s field equations in a generic background has the potential to answer a variety of important questions in physics: from applications to the gauge-gravity duality, to modeling black hole production in TeV gravity scenarios, to analysis of the stability of exact solutions, and to tests of cosmic censorship. In order to investigate these questions, we extend numerical relativity to more general space-times than those investigated hitherto, by developing a framework to study the numerical evolution of D dimensional vacuum space-times with an SO(D-2) isometry group for D≥5, or SO(D-3) for D≥6. Performing a dimensional reduction on a (D-4) sphere, the D dimensional vacuum Einstein equations are rewritten as a 3+1 dimensional system with source terms, and presented in the Baumgarte, Shapiro, Shibata, and Nakamura formulation. This allows the use of existing 3+1 dimensional numerical codes with small adaptations. Brill-Lindquist initial data are constructed in D dimensions and a procedure to match them to our 3+1 dimensional evolution equations is given. We have implemented our framework by adapting the Lean code and perform a variety of simulations of nonspinning black hole space-times. Specifically, we present a modified moving puncture gauge, which facilitates long-term stable simulations in D=5. We further demonstrate the internal consistency of the code by studying convergence and comparing numerical versus analytic results in the case of geodesic slicing for D=5, 6.
Mei, Zhe; Wu, Tsung-Feng; Pion-Tonachini, Luca; Qiao, Wen; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Zhiwen; Lo, Yu-Hwa
2011-09-01
An "optical space-time coding method" was applied to microfluidic devices to detect the forward and large angle light scattering signals for unlabelled bead and cell detection. Because of the enhanced sensitivity by this method, silicon pin photoreceivers can be used to detect both forward scattering (FS) and large angle (45-60°) scattering (LAS) signals, the latter of which has been traditionally detected by a photomultiplier tube. This method yields significant improvements in coefficients of variation (CV), producing CVs of 3.95% to 10.05% for FS and 7.97% to 26.12% for LAS with 15 μm, 10 μm, and 5 μm beads. These are among the best values ever demonstrated with microfluidic devices. The optical space-time coding method also enables us to measure the speed and position of each particle, producing valuable information for the design and assessment of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices such as flow cytometers and complete blood count devices. PMID:21915241
Space-Time Coded MC-CDMA: Blind Channel Estimation, Identifiability, and Receiver Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Wei; Li, Hongbin
2003-12-01
Integrating the strengths of multicarrier (MC) modulation and code division multiple access (CDMA), MC-CDMA systems are of great interest for future broadband transmissions. This paper considers the problem of channel identification and signal combining/detection schemes for MC-CDMA systems equipped with multiple transmit antennas and space-time (ST) coding. In particular, a subspace based blind channel identification algorithm is presented. Identifiability conditions are examined and specified which guarantee unique and perfect (up to a scalar) channel estimation when knowledge of the noise subspace is available. Several popular single-user based signal combining schemes, namely the maximum ratio combining (MRC) and the equal gain combining (EGC), which are often utilized in conventional single-transmit-antenna based MC-CDMA systems, are extended to the current ST-coded MC-CDMA (STC-MC-CDMA) system to perform joint combining and decoding. In addition, a linear multiuser minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) detection scheme is also presented, which is shown to outperform the MRC and EGC at some increased computational complexity. Numerical examples are presented to evaluate and compare the proposed channel identification and signal detection/combining techniques.
Efficient space-time sampling with pixel-wise coded exposure for high-speed imaging.
Liu, Dengyu; Gu, Jinwei; Hitomi, Yasunobu; Gupta, Mohit; Mitsunaga, Tomoo; Nayar, Shree K
2014-02-01
Cameras face a fundamental trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution. Digital still cameras can capture images with high spatial resolution, but most high-speed video cameras have relatively low spatial resolution. It is hard to overcome this trade-off without incurring a significant increase in hardware costs. In this paper, we propose techniques for sampling, representing, and reconstructing the space-time volume to overcome this trade-off. Our approach has two important distinctions compared to previous works: 1) We achieve sparse representation of videos by learning an overcomplete dictionary on video patches, and 2) we adhere to practical hardware constraints on sampling schemes imposed by architectures of current image sensors, which means that our sampling function can be implemented on CMOS image sensors with modified control units in the future. We evaluate components of our approach, sampling function and sparse representation, by comparing them to several existing approaches. We also implement a prototype imaging system with pixel-wise coded exposure control using a liquid crystal on silicon device. System characteristics such as field of view and modulation transfer function are evaluated for our imaging system. Both simulations and experiments on a wide range of scenes show that our method can effectively reconstruct a video from a single coded image while maintaining high spatial resolution. PMID:24356347
Robust image transmission over MIMO space-time coded wireless systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Daewon; Chen, Chang W.
2006-05-01
We present in this paper an integrated robust image transmission scheme using space-time block codes (STBC) over multi-input multi-output (MIMO) wireless systems. First, in order to achieve an excellent error resilient capability, multiple bitstreams are generated based on wavelet trees along the spatial orientations. The spatial-orientation trees in the wavelet domain are individually encoded using SPIHT. Error propagation is thus limited within each bitstreams. Then, Reed-Solomon (R-S) codes as forward error correction (FEC) are adopted to combat transmission errors over error-prone wireless channels and to detect residual errors so as to avoid error propagation in each bitstream. FEC can reduce the bit error rates at the expenses of increased data rate. However, it is often difficult to design an optimal FEC scheme for a time-varying multi-path fading channel that may fluctuate beyond the capacity of the adopted FEC scheme. Therefore, in order to overcome such difficulty, we propose an approach to alleviate the effect of multi-path fading by employing the STBC for spatial diversity with assumption that channel state information (CSI) is perfectly estimated at the receiver. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve much improved performance in terms of PSNR over Rayleigh flat fading channel as compared with a wireless system without spatial diversity.
Computer code for space-time diagnostics of nuclear safety parameters
Solovyev, D. A.; Semenov, A. A.; Gruzdov, F. V.; Druzhaev, A. A.; Shchukin, N. V.; Dolgenko, S. G.; Solovyeva, I. V.; Ovchinnikova, E. A.
2012-07-01
The computer code ECRAN 3D (Experimental and Calculation Reactor Analysis) is designed for continuous monitoring and diagnostics of reactor cores and databases for RBMK-1000 on the basis of analytical methods for the interrelation parameters of nuclear safety. The code algorithms are based on the analysis of deviations between the physically obtained figures and the results of neutron-physical and thermal-hydraulic calculations. Discrepancies between the measured and calculated signals are equivalent to obtaining inadequacy between performance of the physical device and its simulator. The diagnostics system can solve the following problems: identification of facts and time for inconsistent results, localization of failures, identification and quantification of the causes for inconsistencies. These problems can be effectively solved only when the computer code is working in a real-time mode. This leads to increasing requirements for a higher code performance. As false operations can lead to significant economic losses, the diagnostics system must be based on the certified software tools. POLARIS, version 4.2.1 is used for the neutron-physical calculation in the computer code ECRAN 3D. (authors)
Riemer, Martin; Diersch, Nadine; Bublatzky, Florian; Wolbers, Thomas
2016-04-01
The mental representations of space, time, and number magnitude are inherently linked. The right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has been suggested to contain a general magnitude system that underlies the overlap between various perceptual dimensions. However, comparative studies including spatial, temporal, and numerical dimensions are missing. In a unified paradigm, we compared the impact of right PPC inhibition on associations with spatial response codes (i.e., Simon, SNARC, and STARC effects) and on congruency effects between space, time, and numbers. Prolonged cortical inhibition was induced by continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS), a protocol for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), at the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Our results show that congruency effects, but not response code associations, are affected by right PPC inhibition, indicating different neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that interactions between space and time perception are reflected in congruency effects, but not in an association between time and spatial response codes. Taken together, these results implicate that the congruency between purely perceptual dimensions is processed in PPC areas along the IPS, while the congruency between percepts and behavioral responses is independent of this region. PMID:26808331
A new MIMO SAR system based on Alamouti space-time coding scheme and OFDM-LFM waveform design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yunhua
2015-10-01
In recent years, multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radar has attracted much attention of many researchers and institutions. MIMO radar transmits multiple signals, and receives the backscattered signals reflected from the targets. In contrast with conventional phased array radar and SAR system, MIMO radar system has significant potential advantages for achieving higher system SNR, more accurate parameter estimation, or high resolution of radar image. In this paper, we propose a new MIMO SAR system based on Alamouti space-time coding scheme and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing linearly frequency modulated (OFDM-LFM) for obtaining higher system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and better range resolution of SAR image.
Space-time signal processing for distributed pattern detection in sensor networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paffenroth, Randy C.; Du Toit, Philip C.; Scharf, Louis L.; Jayasumana, Anura P.; Banadara, Vidarshana; Nong, Ryan
2012-05-01
We present a theory and algorithm for detecting and classifying weak, distributed patterns in network data that provide actionable information with quantiable measures of uncertainty. Our work demonstrates the eectiveness of space-time inference on graphs, robust matrix completion, and second order analysis for the detection of distributed patterns that are not discernible at the level of individual nodes. Motivated by the importance of the problem, we are specically interested in detecting weak patterns in computer networks related to Cyber Situational Awareness. Our focus is on scenarios where the nodes (terminals, routers, servers, etc.) are sensors that provide measurements (of packet rates, user activity, central processing unit usage, etc.) that, when viewed independently, cannot provide a denitive determination of the underlying pattern, but when fused with data from across the network both spatially and temporally, the relevant patterns emerge. The approach is applicable to many types of sensor networks including computer networks, wireless networks, mobile sensor networks, and social networks, as well as in contexts such as databases and disease outbreaks.
C-Field Cosmological Model for Barotropic Fluid Distribution with Varying Λ in FRW Space Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bali, Raj; Saraf, Seema
2013-05-01
A cosmological model for barotropic fluid distribution in creation field cosmology with varying cosmological constant ( Λ) in FRW space-time is investigated. To get the deterministic model satisfying conservation equation, we have assumed \\varLambda = 1/R2 as considered by Chen and Wu (in Phys. Rev. D 41:695, 1990) where R is scale factor. We find that creation field ( C) increases with time, which matches with the result of HN Theory (in Hoyle and Narlikar, Proc. R. Astron. Soc. A 282:178, 1964), \\varLambda˜1/t2, the spatial volume increases with time and deceleration parameter q<0 which shows that universe is accelerating. This result matches with recent observations. The inflationary scenario exists in the models and the results so obtained match with astronomical observations. The various special cases of the model (21) viz. dust filled universe ( γ=0) and radiation dominated era ( ρ=3 p), ρ= p (stiff fluid universe) are also discussed. The models are free from horizon.
Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaib, Alam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2014-12-01
This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.
2011-01-01
Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantavirus, with characteristics of fever, hemorrhage, kidney damage, and hypotension. HFRS is recognized as a notifiable public health problem in China, and Liaoning Province is one of the most seriously affected areas with the most cases in China. It is necessary to investigate the spatial, temporal, and space-time distribution of confirmed cases of HFRS in Liaoning Province, China for future research into risk factors. Methods A cartogram map was constructed; spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial, temporal, and space-time cluster analysis were conducted in Liaoning Province, China over the period 1988-2001. Results When the number of permutation test was set to 999, Moran's I was 0.3854, and was significant at significance level of 0.001. Spatial cluster analysis identified one most likely cluster and four secondary likely clusters. Temporal cluster analysis identified 1998-2001 as the most likely cluster. Space-time cluster analysis identified one most likely cluster and two secondary likely clusters. Conclusions Spatial, temporal, and space-time scan statistics may be useful in supervising the occurrence of HFRS in Liaoning Province, China. The result of this study can not only assist health departments to develop a better prevention strategy but also potentially increase the public health intervention's effectiveness. PMID:21867563
Angular distribution of cosmological parameters as a probe of space-time inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, C. Sofia; Marques, Katrine
2016-08-01
We develop a method based on the angular distribution on the sky of cosmological parameters to probe the inhomogeneity of large-scale structure and cosmic acceleration. We demonstrate this method on the largest type Ia supernova (SN) data set available to date, as compiled by the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA) collaboration and, hence, consider the cosmological parameters that affect the luminosity distance. We divide the SN sample into equal surface area pixels and estimate the cosmological parameters that minimize the chi-square of the fit to the distance modulus in each pixel, hence producing maps of the cosmological parameters {ΩM,ΩΛ,H0} . In poorly sampled pixels, the measured fluctuations are mostly due to an inhomogeneous coverage of the sky by the SN surveys; in contrast, in well-sampled pixels, the measurements are robust enough to suggest a real fluctuation. We also measure the anisotropy of the parameters by computing the power spectrum of the corresponding maps of the parameters up to ℓ = 3. For an analytical toy model of an inhomogeneous ensemble of homogeneous pixels, we derive the backreaction term in the deceleration parameter due to the fluctuations of H0 across the sky and measure it to be of order 10-3 times the corresponding average over the pixels in the absence of backreaction. We conclude that, for the toy model considered, backreaction is not a viable dynamical mechanism to emulate cosmic acceleration.
Seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey: from space-time distribution to repeating events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel
2016-04-01
The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) poses a significant hazard for the large cities surrounding the Marmara Sea region particularly the megalopolis of Istanbul. Indeed, the NAF is presently hosting a long unruptured segment below the Sea of Marmara. This seismic gap is approximately 150 km long and corresponds to the Main Marmara Fault (MMF). The seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) below the Marmara Sea is analyzed here during the 2007-2012 period to provide insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. High precision locations show that seismicity is strongly varying along strike and depth providing fine details of the fault behavior that are inaccessible from geodetic inversions. The activity strongly clusters at the regions of transition between basins. The Central basin shows significant seismicity located below the shallow locking depth inferred from GPS measurements. Its b-value is low and the average seismic slip is high. Interestingly we found also several long term repeating earthquakes in this domain. Using a template matching technique, we evidenced two new families of repeaters: a first family that typically belongs to aftershock sequences and a second family of long lasting repeaters with a multi-month recurrence period. All observations are consistent with a deep creep of this segment. On the contrary, the Kumburgaz basin at the center of the fault shows sparse seismicity with the hallmarks of a locked segment. In the eastern Marmara Sea, the seismicity distribution along the Princes Island segment in the Cinarcik basin, is consistent with the geodetic locking depth of 10km and a low contribution to the regional seismic energy release. The assessment of the locked segment areas provide an estimate of the magnitude of the main forthcoming event to be about 7.3 assuming that the rupture will not enter significantly within creeping domains.
Space-time distribution of afterslip following the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Agostino, N.; Cheloni, D.; Fornaro, G.; Giuliani, R.; Reale, D.
2012-02-01
The inversion of multitemporal DInSAR and GPS measurements unravels the coseismic and postseismic (afterslip) slip distributions associated with the 2009 MW 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake and provides insights into the rheological properties and long-term behavior of the responsible structure, the Paganica fault. Well-resolved patches of high postseismic slip (10-20 cm) appear to surround the main coseismic patch (maximum slip ≈1 m) through the entire seismogenic layer above the hypocenter without any obvious depth-dependent control. Time series of postseismic displacement are well reproduced by an exponential function with best-fit decay constants in the range of 20-40 days. A sudden discontinuity in the evolution of released postseismic moment at ≈130 days after the main shock does not correlate with independent seismological and geodetic data and is attributed to residual noise in the InSAR time series. The data are unable to resolve migration of afterslip along the fault probably because of the time interval (six days) between the main shock and the first radar acquisition. Surface fractures observed along the Paganica fault follow the steepest gradients of postseismic line-of-sight satellite displacements and are consistent with a sudden and delayed failure of the shallow layer in response to upward tapering of slip. The occurrence of afterslip at various levels through the entire seismogenic layer argues against exclusive depth-dependent variations of frictional properties on the fault, supporting the hypothesis of significant horizontal frictional heterogeneities and/or geometrical complexities. We support the hypothesis that such heterogeneities and complexities may be at the origin of the long-term variable behavior suggested by the paleoseismological studies. Rupture of fault patches with dimensions similar to that activated in 2009 appears to have a ≈500 year recurrence time interval documented by paleoseismic and historical studies. In addition to that
UNIX code management and distribution
Hung, T.; Kunz, P.F.
1992-09-01
We describe a code management and distribution system based on tools freely available for the UNIX systems. At the master site, version control is managed with CVS, which is a layer on top of RCS, and distribution is done via NFS mounted file systems. At remote sites, small modifications to CVS provide for interactive transactions with the CVS system at the master site such that remote developers are true peers in the code development process.
Typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS analysis using RAMONA-3B code with space-time neutron kinetics
Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.
1984-01-01
A best-estimate analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS has been performed using the RAMONA-3B code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics. All safety features, namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure safety injections and the standby liquid control system (boron injection), were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. The results show a strong spatial dependence of reactor power during the transient. After the initial peak of pressure and reactor power, the reactor vessel pressure oscillated between the relief valve set points, and the reactor power oscillated between 20 to 50% of the steady state power until the hot shutdown condition was reached at approximately 1400 seconds. The suppression pool bulk water temperature at this time was predicted to be approx. 96/sup 0/C (205/sup 0/F). In view of code performance and reasonable computer running time, the RAMONA-3B code is recommended for further best-estimate analyses of ATWS-type events in BWRs.
Beal, Jacob; Viroli, Mirko
2015-07-28
Computation increasingly takes place not on an individual device, but distributed throughout a material or environment, whether it be a silicon surface, a network of wireless devices, a collection of biological cells or a programmable material. Emerging programming models embrace this reality and provide abstractions inspired by physics, such as computational fields, that allow such systems to be programmed holistically, rather than in terms of individual devices. This paper aims to provide a unified approach for the investigation and engineering of computations programmed with the aid of space-time abstractions, by bringing together a number of recent results, as well as to identify critical open problems. PMID:26078346
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James A.; Shelton, Robert O.
1992-01-01
Concept of space-time neural network affords distributed temporal memory enabling such network to model complicated dynamical systems mathematically and to recognize temporally varying spatial patterns. Digital filters replace synaptic-connection weights of conventional back-error-propagation neural network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandru, Andrei; Draper, Terrence; Horváth, Ivan; Streuer, Thomas
2011-08-01
We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of dynamical tendency for polarization in an arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given dynamics to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to the definition of a suitable correlation coefficient with clear statistical meaning. We apply the method to the dynamics induced by pure-glue lattice QCD in local left-right components of overlap Dirac eigenmodes. It is found that, in finite physical volume, there exists a non-zero physical scale in the spectrum of eigenvalues such that eigenmodes at smaller (fixed) eigenvalues exhibit convex X-distribution (positive correlation), while at larger eigenvalues the distribution is concave (negative correlation). This chiral polarization scale thus separates a regime where dynamics enhances chirality relative to statistical independence from a regime where it suppresses it, and gives an objective definition to the notion of "low" and "high" Dirac eigenmode. We propose to investigate whether the polarization scale remains non-zero in the infinite volume limit, in which case it would represent a new kind of low energy scale in QCD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diakogianni, Georgia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Fokaefs, Anna; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Triantafyllou, Ioanna
2015-04-01
We have compiled a new tsunami catalogue covering the entire European and Mediterranean (EM) region from pre-historical times up to the present. The catalogue is of increased completeness and homogeneity with respect to previous ones containing more than 370 events with reliability assignment to all the events listed. New historical events were inserted, while revised parameters of historical tsunamigenic earthquakes were extensively adopted particularly for the most active region of the eastern Mediterranean. In association to the catalogue, an inventory of tsunami impact was created with the main attributes being the numbers of people killed and injured, the damage to buildings, vessels, cultivated land and to other property. The inventory includes also a record of the tsunami environmental impact, such as soil erosion, geomorphological changes, boulder replacement and tsunami sediment deposits. Data on the tsunami impact were used to assign tsunami intensity in the 12-point Papadopoulos-Imamura (2001) scale for the majority of the events listed. The tsunami impact was studied as for its space and time distribution. In space, the tsunami impact was mapped in terms of tsunami intensity and impact zones were determined. The time distribution of the tsunami impact was examined for each one of the impact zones. Leaving aside large pre-historical tsunamis, such as the one produced by the LBA or Minoan eruption of Thera (Santorini) volcano, due to the lack of certain impact data, it has been found that the main impact comes from extreme, earthquake tsunamigenic events, such the ones of AD 365 in Crete, 551 in Lebanon, 1303 in Crete, 1755 in Lisbon. However, high impact may also occur from events of lower magnitude, such as the 1908 tsunami in Messina straits and the 1956 tsunami in the South Aegean, which underlines the strong dependence of the impact on the community exposure. Another important finding is that the cumulative impact of relatively moderate or even small
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scradeanu, Daniel; Mezincescu, Matei; Pagnejer, Mihaela
2010-05-01
The monitoring an control of the humidity distribution of unsaturated soil in time and space allow forecast of two processes, essential in the management of groundwater resources: • recharge of aquifers; • multiphase migration fluid associated with groundwater. In order to obtain a wide range of information on fluid migration in heterogeneous zones was developed a sensitive informatic system. The main components of the system are: • rain gauge to measure rainfall in the experiment area; • batteries of sensors for recording temperature and electrical conductivity of water, suction potential; • drip irrigation system; • pressure transducers installed in boreholes made for hydrostatic level monitoring of aquifers • software and adequate computer system. The experiment was conducted in an agricultural area, and wishes to use the results to be followed to optimize the irrigation system in terms of global climate change affecting water resources of surfaces and underground. Making and installing the monitoring system was preceded by the creation of a 3D lithologic model that allows differentiation processes on soil types. Placing batteries sensors was chosen based on preliminary results of a geophysical exploration that allowed assessment of the initial state of the monitored soil volume. Battery configuration of sensors ensures measurement of temperature, electrical conductivity, moisture and suction potential at various depths and in real time. The data were integrated in a stochastic model that allows forecasting of fluid dynamic in the unsaturated zone and to assess uncertainties associated with different areas and periods of time.
A distributed particle simulation code in C++
Forslund, D.W.; Wingate, C.A.; Ford, P.S.; Junkins, J.S.; Pope, S.C.
1992-01-01
Although C++ has been successfully used in a variety of computer science applications, it has just recently begun to be used in scientific applications. We have found that the object-oriented properties of C++ lend themselves well to scientific computations by making maintenance of the code easier, by making the code easier to understand, and by providing a better paradigm for distributed memory parallel codes. We describe here aspects of developing a particle plasma simulation code using object-oriented techniques for use in a distributed computing environment. We initially designed and implemented the code for serial computation and then used the distributed programming toolkit ISIS to run it in parallel. In this connection we describe some of the difficulties presented by using C++ for doing parallel and scientific computation.
Distribution Coding in the Visual Pathway
Sanderson, A. C.; Kozak, W. M.; Calvert, T. W.
1973-01-01
Although a variety of types of spike interval histograms have been reported, little attention has been given to the spike interval distribution as a neural code and to how different distributions are transmitted through neural networks. In this paper we present experimental results showing spike interval histograms recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the cat. These results exhibit a clear correlation between spike interval distribution and stimulus condition at the retinal ganglion cell level. The averaged mean rates of the cells studied were nearly the same in light as in darkness whereas the spike interval histograms were much more regular in light than in darkness. We present theoretical models which illustrate how such a distribution coding at the retinal level could be “interpreted” or recorded at some higher level of the nervous system such as the lateral geniculate nucleus. Interpretation is an essential requirement of a neural code which has often been overlooked in modeling studies. Analytical expressions are derived describing the role of distribution coding in determining the transfer characteristics of a simple interaction model and of a lateral inhibition network. Our work suggests that distribution coding might be interpreted by simply interconnected neural networks such as relay cell networks, in general, and the primary thalamic sensory nuclei in particular. PMID:4697235
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garattini, Remo
In the context of a model of space-time foam, made by N wormholes we discuss the possibility of having a foam formed by different configurations. An equivalence between Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter wormholes in terms of Casimir energy is shown. An argument to discriminate which configuration could represent a foamy vacuum coming from Schwarzschild black hole transition frequencies is used. The case of a positive cosmological constant is also discussed. Finally, a discussion involving charged wormholes leads to the conclusion that they cannot be used to represent a ground state of the foamy type.
Distributed transform coding via source-splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahampath, Pradeepa
2012-12-01
Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapline, George
It has been shown that a nonlinear Schrödinger equation in 2+1 dimensions equipped with an SU(N) Chern-Simons gauge field can provide an exact description of certain self-dual Einstein spaces in the limit N-=∞. Ricci flat Einstein spaces can then be viewed as arising from a quantum pairing of the classical self-dual and anti-self-dual solutions. In this chapter, we will outline how this theory of empty space-time might be generalized to include matter and vacuum energy by transplanting the nonlinear Schrödinger equation used to construct Einstein spaces to the 25+1-dimensional Lorentzian Leech lattice. If the distinguished 2 spatial dimensions underlying the construction of Einstein spaces are identified with a hexagonal lattice section of the Leech lattice, the wave-function becomes an 11 × 11 matrix that can represent fermion and boson degrees of freedom (DOF) associated with 2-form and Yang-Mills gauge symmetries. The resulting theory of gravity and matter in 3+1 dimensions is not supersymmetric, which provides an entry for a vacuum energy. Indeed, in the case of a Lemaitre cosmological model, the emergent space-time will naturally have a vacuum energy on the order of the observed cosmological constant.
Time coded distribution via broadcasting stations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leschiutta, S.; Pettiti, V.; Detoma, E.
1979-01-01
The distribution of standard time signals via AM and FM broadcasting stations presents the distinct advantages to offer a wide area coverage and to allow the use of inexpensive receivers, but the signals are radiated a limited number of times per day, are not usually available during the night, and no full and automatic synchronization of a remote clock is possible. As an attempt to overcome some of these problems, a time coded signal with a complete date information is diffused by the IEN via the national broadcasting networks in Italy. These signals are radiated by some 120 AM and about 3000 FM and TV transmitters around the country. In such a way, a time ordered system with an accuracy of a couple of milliseconds is easily achieved.
Maia, M.D.
1981-03-01
The concept of contact between manifolds is applied to space--times of general relativity. For a given background space--time a contact approximation of second order is defined and interpreted both from the point of view of a metric pertubation and of a higher order tangent manifold. In the first case, an application to the high frequency gravitational wave hypothesis is suggested. In the second case, a constant curvature tangent bundle is constructed and suggested as a means to define a ten parameter local space--time symmetry.
The weight distribution and randomness of linear codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, K.-M.
1989-01-01
Finding the weight distributions of block codes is a problem of theoretical and practical interest. Yet the weight distributions of most block codes are still unknown except for a few classes of block codes. Here, by using the inclusion and exclusion principle, an explicit formula is derived which enumerates the complete weight distribution of an (n,k,d) linear code using a partially known weight distribution. This expression is analogous to the Pless power-moment identities - a system of equations relating the weight distribution of a linear code to the weight distribution of its dual code. Also, an approximate formula for the weight distribution of most linear (n,k,d) codes is derived. It is shown that for a given linear (n,k,d) code over GF(q), the ratio of the number of codewords of weight u to the number of words of weight u approaches the constant Q = q(-)(n-k) as u becomes large. A relationship between the randomness of a linear block code and the minimum distance of its dual code is given, and it is shown that most linear block codes with rigid algebraic and combinatorial structure also display certain random properties which make them similar to random codes with no structure at all.
Adaptive Source Coding Schemes for Geometrically Distributed Integer Alphabets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, K-M.; Smyth, P.
1993-01-01
Revisit the Gallager and van Voorhis optimal source coding scheme for geometrically distributed non-negative integer alphabets and show that the various subcodes in the popular Rice algorithm can be derived from the Gallager and van Voorhis code.
Optimal source codes for geometrically distributed integer alphabets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallager, R. G.; Van Voorhis, D. C.
1975-01-01
An approach is shown for using the Huffman algorithm indirectly to prove the optimality of a code for an infinite alphabet if an estimate concerning the nature of the code can be made. Attention is given to nonnegative integers with a geometric probability assignment. The particular distribution considered arises in run-length coding and in encoding protocol information in data networks. Questions of redundancy of the optimal code are also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.; Tunick, Arnold
2013-09-01
We report on an experimental demonstration of quantum imaging where the images are stored in both space and time. Quantum images of remote objects are produced with rotating ground glass induced chaotic laser light and two sensors measuring at different space-time points. Quantum images are observed to move depending on the time delay between the sensor measurements. The experiments provide a new testbed for exploring the time and space scale fundamental physics of quantum imaging and suggest new pathways for quantum information storage and processing. The moved quantum images are in fact new images that are stored in a space-time virtual memory process. The images are stored within the same quantum imaging data sets and thus quantum imaging can produce more information per photon measured than was previously realized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Wing-Chun Godwin
This dissertation focused on Kant's conception of physical matter in the Opus postumum. In this work, Kant postulates the existence of an ether which fills the whole of space and time with its moving forces. Kant's arguments for the existence of an ether in the so-called Ubergang have been acutely criticized by commentators. Guyer, for instance, thinks that Kant pushes the technique of transcendental deduction too far in trying to deduce the empirical ether. In defense of Kant, I held that it is not the actual existence of the empirical ether, but the concept of the ether as a space-time filler that is subject to a transcendental deduction. I suggested that Kant is doing three things in the Ubergang: First, he deduces the pure concept of a space-time filler as a conceptual hybrid of the transcendental object and permanent substance to replace the category of substance in the Critique. Then he tries to prove the existence of such a space-time filler as a reworking of the First Analogy. Finally, he takes into consideration the empirical determinations of the ether by adding the concept of moving forces to the space -time filler. In reconstructing Kant's proofs, I pointed out that Kant is absolutely committed to the impossibility of action-at-a-distance. If we add this new principle of no-action-at-a-distance to the Third Analogy, the existence of a space-time filler follows. I argued with textual evidence that Kant's conception of ether satisfies the basic structure of a field: (1) the ether is a material continuum; (2) a physical quantity is definable on each point in the continuum; and (3) the ether provides a medium to support the continuous transmission of action. The thrust of Kant's conception of ether is to provide a holistic ontology for the transition to physics, which can best be understood from a field-theoretical point of view. This is the main thesis I attempted to establish in this dissertation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giménez-Forcada, Elena
2014-09-01
A new method has been developed to recognize and understand the temporal and spatial evolution of seawater intrusion in a coastal alluvial aquifer. The study takes into account that seawater intrusion is a dynamic process, and that seasonal and inter-annual variations in the balance of the aquifer cause changes in groundwater chemistry. Analysis of the main processes, by means of the Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram (HFE-Diagram), provides essential knowledge about the main hydrochemical processes. Subsequently, analysis of the spatial distribution of hydrochemical facies using heatmaps helps to identify the general state of the aquifer with respect to seawater intrusion during different sampling periods. This methodology has been applied to the pilot area of the Vinaroz Plain, on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. The results appear to be very successful for differentiating variations through time in the salinization processes caused by seawater intrusion into the aquifer, distinguishing the phase of seawater intrusion from the phase of recovery, and their respective evolutions. The method shows that hydrochemical variations can be read in terms of the pattern of seawater intrusion, groundwater quality status, aquifer behaviour and hydrodynamic conditions. This leads to a better general understanding of the aquifers and a potential for improvement in the way they are managed.
Binary weight distributions of some Reed-Solomon codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pollara, F.; Arnold, S.
1992-01-01
The binary weight distributions of the (7,5) and (15,9) Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and their duals are computed using the MacWilliams identities. Several mappings of symbols to bits are considered and those offering the largest binary minimum distance are found. These results are then used to compute bounds on the soft-decoding performance of these codes in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. These bounds are useful for finding large binary block codes with good performance and for verifying the performance obtained by specific soft-coding algorithms presently under development.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, Hai; Olsen, Edward; Cressie, Noel
2011-01-01
Space-time Data Fusion (STDF) is a methodology for combing heterogeneous remote sensing data to optimally estimate the true values of a geophysical field of interest, and obtain uncertainties for those estimates. The input data sets may have different observing characteristics including different footprints, spatial resolutions and fields of view, orbit cycles, biases, and noise characteristics. Despite these differences all observed data can be linked to the underlying field, and therefore the each other, by a statistical model. Differences in footprints and other geometric characteristics are accounted for by parameterizing pixel-level remote sensing observations as spatial integrals of true field values lying within pixel boundaries, plus measurement error. Both spatial and temporal correlations in the true field and in the observations are estimated and incorporated through the use of a space-time random effects (STRE) model. Once the models parameters are estimated, we use it to derive expressions for optimal (minimum mean squared error and unbiased) estimates of the true field at any arbitrary location of interest, computed from the observations. Standard errors of these estimates are also produced, allowing confidence intervals to be constructed. The procedure is carried out on a fine spatial grid to approximate a continuous field. We demonstrate STDF by applying it to the problem of estimating CO2 concentration in the lower-atmosphere using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Japanese Greenhouse Gasses Observing Satellite (GOSAT) over one year for the continental US.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, F.; Goodbun, J.; Watson, V.
Architects have a role to play in interplanetary space that has barely yet been explored. The architectural community is largely unaware of this new territory, for which there is still no agreed method of practice. There is moreover a general confusion, in scientific and related fields, over what architects might actually do there today. Current extra-planetary designs generally fail to explore the dynamic and relational nature of space-time, and often reduce human habitation to a purely functional problem. This is compounded by a crisis over the representation (drawing) of space-time. The present work returns to first principles of architecture in order to realign them with current socio-economic and technological trends surrounding the space industry. What emerges is simultaneously the basis for an ecological space architecture, and the representational strategies necessary to draw it. We explore this approach through a work of design-based research that describes the construction of Ocean; a huge body of water formed by the collision of two asteroids at the Translunar Lagrange Point (L2), that would serve as a site for colonisation, and as a resource to fuel future missions. Ocean is an experimental model for extra-planetary space design and its representation, within the autonomous discipline of architecture.
Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes
Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz
2016-01-01
In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick’s hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C3 and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C3 codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes. PMID:26999215
Error resiliency of distributed video coding in wireless video communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Shuiming; Ouaret, Mourad; Dufaux, Frederic; Ansorge, Michael; Ebrahimi, Touradj
2008-08-01
Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new paradigm in video coding, based on the Slepian-Wolf and Wyner-Ziv theorems. DVC offers a number of potential advantages: flexible partitioning of the complexity between the encoder and decoder, robustness to channel errors due to intrinsic joint source-channel coding, codec independent scalability, and multi-view coding without communications between the cameras. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DVC in an error-prone wireless communication environment. We also present a hybrid spatial and temporal error concealment approach for DVC. Finally, we perform a comparison with a state-of-the-art AVC/H.264 video coding scheme in the presence of transmission errors.
Distributed Turbo Product Codes with Multiple Vertical Parities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obiedat, Esam A.; Chen, Guotai; Cao, Lei
2009-12-01
We propose a Multiple Vertical Parities Distributed Turbo Product Code (MVP-DTPC) over cooperative network using block Bose Chaudhuri Hochquenghem (BCH) codes as component codes. The source broadcasts extended BCH coded frames to the destination and nearby relays. After decoding the received sequences, each relay constructs a product code by arranging the corrected bit sequences in rows and re-encoding them vertically using BCH as component codes to obtain an Incremental Redundancy (IR) for source's data. To obtain independent vertical parities from each relay in the same code space, we propose a new Circular Interleaver for source's data; different circular interleavers are used to interleave BCH rows before re-encoding vertically. The Maximum A posteriori Probability (MAP) decoding is achieved by applying maximum transfer of extrinsic information between the multiple decoding stages. This is employed in the modified turbo product decoder, which is proposed to cope with multiple parities. The a posteriori output from a vertical decoding stage is used to derive the soft extrinsic information, that are used as a priori input for the next horizontal decoding stage. Simulation results in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using network scenarios show 0.3-0.5 dB gain improvement in Bit Error Rate (BER) performance over the non-cooperative Turbo Product Codes (TPC).
Distributed Inference in Tree Networks Using Coding Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kailkhura, Bhavya; Vempaty, Aditya; Varshney, Pramod K.
2015-07-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of distributed inference in tree based networks. In the framework considered in this paper, distributed nodes make a 1-bit local decision regarding a phenomenon before sending it to the fusion center (FC) via intermediate nodes. We propose the use of coding theory based techniques to solve this distributed inference problem in such structures. Data is progressively compressed as it moves towards the FC. The FC makes the global inference after receiving data from intermediate nodes. Data fusion at nodes as well as at the FC is implemented via error correcting codes. In this context, we analyze the performance for a given code matrix and also design the optimal code matrices at every level of the tree. We address the problems of distributed classification and distributed estimation separately and develop schemes to perform these tasks in tree networks. The proposed schemes are of practical significance due to their simple structure. We study the asymptotic inference performance of our schemes for two different classes of tree networks: fixed height tree networks, and fixed degree tree networks. We show that the proposed schemes are asymptotically optimal under certain conditions.
Static spherically symmetric space-times with six Killing vectors
Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.
1988-11-01
It had been proved earlier that spherically symmetric, static space-times have ten, seven, six, or four independent Killing vectors (KV's), but there are no cases in between. The case of six KV's is investigated here. It is shown that the space-time corresponds to a hyperboloid cross a sphere, reminiscent of Kaluza--Klein theory, with a compactification from four down to two dimensions. In effect, there is a unique metric for this space-time corresponding to a uniform mass distribution over all space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steyn, J. J.; Born, U.
1970-01-01
A FORTRAN code was developed for the Univac 1108 digital computer to unfold lithium-drifted germanium semiconductor spectrometers, polyenergetic gamma photon experimental distributions. It was designed to analyze the combination continuous and monoenergetic gamma radiation field of radioisotope volumetric sources. The code generates the detector system response matrix function and applies it to monoenergetic spectral components discretely and to the continuum iteratively. It corrects for system drift, source decay, background, and detection efficiency. Results are presented in digital form for differential and integrated photon number and energy distributions, and for exposure dose.
Streamlined Genome Sequence Compression using Distributed Source Coding
Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Feng; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel
2014-01-01
We aim at developing a streamlined genome sequence compression algorithm to support alternative miniaturized sequencing devices, which have limited communication, storage, and computation power. Existing techniques that require heavy client (encoder side) cannot be applied. To tackle this challenge, we carefully examined distributed source coding theory and developed a customized reference-based genome compression protocol to meet the low-complexity need at the client side. Based on the variation between source and reference, our protocol will pick adaptively either syndrome coding or hash coding to compress subsequences of changing code length. Our experimental results showed promising performance of the proposed method when compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm (GRS). PMID:25520552
Distributed wavefront coding for wide angle imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larivière-Bastien, Martin; Zhang, Hu; Thibault, Simon
2011-10-01
The emerging paradigm of imaging systems, known as wavefront coding, which employs joint optimization of both the optical system and the digital post-processing system, has not only increased the degrees of design freedom but also brought several significant system-level benefits. The effectiveness of wavefront coding has been demonstrated by several proof-of-concept systems in the reduction of focus-related aberrations and extension of depth of focus. While previous research on wavefront coding was mainly targeted at imaging systems having a small or modest field of view (FOV), we present a preliminary study on wavefront coding applied to panoramic optical systems. Unlike traditional wavefront coding systems, which only require the constancy of the modulation transfer function (MTF) over an extended focus range, wavefront-coded panoramic systems particularly emphasize the mitigation of significant off-axis aberrations such as field curvature, coma, and astigmatism. The restrictions of using a traditional generalized cubic polynomial pupil phase mask for wide angle systems are studied in this paper. It is shown that a traditional approach can be used when the variation of the off-axis aberrations remains modest. Consequently, we propose to study how a distributed wavefront coding approach, where two surfaces are used for encoding the wavefront, can be applied to wide angle lenses. A few cases designed using Zemax are presented and discussed
Affine conformal vectors in space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coley, A. A.; Tupper, B. O. J.
1992-05-01
All space-times admitting a proper affine conformal vector (ACV) are found. By using a theorem of Hall and da Costa, it is shown that such space-times either (i) admit a covariantly constant vector (timelike, spacelike, or null) and the ACV is the sum of a proper affine vector and a conformal Killing vector or (ii) the space-time is 2+2 decomposable, in which case it is shown that no ACV can exist (unless the space-time decomposes further). Furthermore, it is proved that all space-times admitting an ACV and a null covariantly constant vector (which are necessarily generalized pp-wave space-times) must have Ricci tensor of Segré type {2,(1,1)}. It follows that, among space-times admitting proper ACV, the Einstein static universe is the only perfect fluid space-time, there are no non-null Einstein-Maxwell space-times, and only the pp-wave space-times are representative of null Einstein-Maxwell solutions. Otherwise, the space-times can represent anisotropic fluids and viscous heat-conducting fluids, but only with restricted equations of state in each case.
Space-time formulation of quantum transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosky, T.; Ordonez, G.; Prigogine, I.
2001-12-01
In a previous paper we have studied dressed excited states in the Friedrichs model, which describes a two-level atom interacting with radiation. In our approach, excited states are distributions (or generalized functions) in the Liouville space. These states decay in a strictly exponential way. In contrast, the states one may construct in the Hilbert space of wave functions always present deviations from exponential decay. We have considered the momentum representation, which is applicable to global quantities (trace, energy transfer). Here we study the space-time description of local quantities associated with dressed unstable states, such as, the intensity of the photon field. In this situation the excited states become factorized in Gamow states. To go from local quantities to global quantities, we have to proceed to an integration over space, which is far from trivial. There are various elements that appear in the space-time evolution of the system: the unstable cloud that surrounds the bare atom, the emitted real photons and the ``Zeno photons,'' which are associated with deviations from exponential decay. We consider a Hilbert space approximation to our dressed excited state. This approximation leads already to decay close to exponential in the field surrounding the atom, and to a line shape different from the Lorentzian line shape. Our results are compared with numerical simulations. We show that the time evolution of an unstable state satisfies a Boltzmann-like H theorem. This is applied to emission and absorption as well as scattering. The existence of a microscopic H theorem is not astonishing. The excited states are ``nonequilibrium'' states and their time evolution leads to the emission of photons, which distributes the energy of the unstable state among the field modes.
An introduction to curved space-times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, R. M.
1991-07-01
These lectures focus on understanding relativity from a geometrical viewpoint, based on the use of space-time diagrams and without the tools of tensor calculus. After a brief discussion of flat space-times, curved space-times are introduced and it is shown how many of their properties may be deduced from their metric interval. The space-time around a spherically symmetric star and its possible collapse to form a black hole is described. Finally, some simple cosmological models are discussed, with emphasis on their causal properties and the existence of horizons. The titles of the lectures are: I. Flat space-times. II. Curved space-times. III. Spherical stars and stellar collapse. IV. Some simple cosmological models.
A Model of Classical Space-Times.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maudlin, Tim
1989-01-01
Discusses some historically important reference systems including those by Newton, Leibniz, and Galileo. Provides models illustrating space-time relationship of the reference systems. Describes building models. (YP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, C. K.; Selker, J. S.; Zeeman, M. J.
2011-12-01
We present a novel approach to observing the two-dimensional thermal structure of atmospheric near-surface turbulent and non-turbulent flows by measuring air temperatures in a vertical plane at a high resolution (0.25 m, every approximately 2 s) using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). Air temperature observations obtained from a fiber optics array of approximate dimensions 8 by 8 m and sonic anemometer data from two levels were collected for a period of 23 days over a short grass field located in the flat bottom of a wide valley with moderate surface heterogeneity. In addition to evaluating the DTS technique to resolve the rapidly changing gradients and small-scale perturbations associated with turbulence in the atmosphere for convective and stable boundary layers, the objective was to analyze the space-time dynamics of transient cold-air pools in the stable boundary layer. The time response and precision of the fiber temperatures were adequate to resolve individual sub-meter sized turbulent and non-turbulent structures of time scales >= 3 s and enabled calculation of meaningful sensible heat fluxes when combined with vertical wind observations. The small turbulence scales associated with strong vertical shear and low measurement heights pose limitations to the technique. The top of the transient cold-air pool was highly non-stationary. The thermal structure of the near-surface air is generally a superposition of various perturbations of different time and length scales, whereas no preferred scales were identified. Vertical length scales for turbulence in the strongly stratified transient cold-air pool directly derived from the DTS data agreed well with buoyancy length scales parameterized using the vertical velocity variance and the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, while scales for weak stratification disagreed. The high-resolution DTS technique opens a new window into spatially sampling geophysical fluid flows including turbulent energy exchange with a broad
Space-time disarray and visual awareness
Koenderink, Jan; Richards, Whitman; van Doorn, Andrea J
2012-01-01
Local space-time scrambling of optical data leads to violent jerks and dislocations. On masking these, visual awareness of the scene becomes cohesive, with dislocations discounted as amodally occluding foreground. Such cohesive space-time of awareness is technically illusory because ground truth is jumbled whereas awareness is coherent. Apparently the visual field is a construction rather than a (veridical) perception. PMID:23145276
Pseudo-Z symmetric space-times
Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Suh, Young Jin
2014-04-15
In this paper, we investigate Pseudo-Z symmetric space-time manifolds. First, we deal with elementary properties showing that the associated form A{sub k} is closed: in the case the Ricci tensor results to be Weyl compatible. This notion was recently introduced by one of the present authors. The consequences of the Weyl compatibility on the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor are pointed out. This determines the Petrov types of such space times. Finally, we investigate some interesting properties of (PZS){sub 4} space-time; in particular, we take into consideration perfect fluid and scalar field space-time, and interesting properties are pointed out, including the Petrov classification. In the case of scalar field space-time, it is shown that the scalar field satisfies a generalized eikonal equation. Further, it is shown that the integral curves of the gradient field are geodesics. A classical method to find a general integral is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek
2016-04-01
of land, the 4 digit postal code area or neighbourhood of a persons' home, circular areas around the home, and spatial probability distributions of space-time paths during commuting. Personal exposure was estimated by averaging concentrations over these space-time paths, for each individual in a cohort. Preliminary results show considerable differences of a persons' exposure using these various approaches of space-time path aggregation, presumably because air pollution shows large variation over short distances.
Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.
Energy efficient wireless sensor networks using asymmetric distributed source coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Murlidhar
2013-01-01
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of sensor nodes deployed over a geographical area to perform a specific task. WSNs pose many design challenges. Energy conservation is one such design issue. In literature a wide range of solutions addressing this issue have been proposed. Generally WSNs are densely deployed. Thus the nodes with the close proximity are more likely to have the same data. Transmission of such non-aggregated data may lead to an inefficient energy management. Hence the data fusion has to be performed at the nodes so as to combine the edundant information into a single data unit. Distributed Source Coding is an efficient approach in achieving this task. In this paper an attempt has been made in modeling such a system. Various energy efficient codes were considered for the analysis. System performance in terms of energy efficiency has been made.
Parallelization of Finite Element Analysis Codes Using Heterogeneous Distributed Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozguner, Fusun
1996-01-01
Performance gains in computer design are quickly consumed as users seek to analyze larger problems to a higher degree of accuracy. Innovative computational methods, such as parallel and distributed computing, seek to multiply the power of existing hardware technology to satisfy the computational demands of large applications. In the early stages of this project, experiments were performed using two large, coarse-grained applications, CSTEM and METCAN. These applications were parallelized on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. It was found that the overall speedup was very low, due to large, inherently sequential code segments present in the applications. The overall execution time T(sub par), of the application is dependent on these sequential segments. If these segments make up a significant fraction of the overall code, the application will have a poor speedup measure.
Selective video encryption of a distributed coded bitstream using LDPC codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Um, Hwayoung; Delp, Edward J.
2006-02-01
Selective encryption is a technique that is used to minimizec omputational complexity or enable system functionality by only encrypting a portion of a compressed bitstream while still achieving reasonable security. For selective encryption to work, we need to rely not only on the beneficial effects of redundancy reduction, but also on the characteristics of the compression algorithm to concentrate important data representing the source in a relatively small fraction of the compressed bitstream. These important elements of the compressed data become candidates for selective encryption. In this paper, we combine encryption and distributed video source coding to consider the choices of which types of bits are most effective for selective encryption of a video sequence that has been compressed using a distributed source coding method based on LDPC codes. Instead of encrypting the entire video stream bit by bit, we encrypt only the highly sensitive bits. By combining the compression and encryption tasks and thus reducing the number of bits encrypted, we can achieve a reduction in system complexity.
MEST- avoid next extinction by a space-time effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Dayong
2013-03-01
Sun's companion-dark hole seasonal took its dark comets belt and much dark matter to impact near our earth. And some of them probability hit on our earth. So this model kept and triggered periodic mass extinctions on our earth every 25 to 27 million years. After every impaction, many dark comets with very special tilted orbits were arrested and lurked in solar system. When the dark hole-Tyche goes near the solar system again, they will impact near planets. The Tyche, dark comet and Oort Cloud have their space-time center. Because the space-time are frequency and amplitude square of wave. Because the wave (space-time) can make a field, and gas has more wave and fluctuate. So they like dense gas ball and a dark dense field. They can absorb the space-time and wave. So they are ``dark'' like the dark matter which can break genetic codes of our lives by a dark space-time effect. So the upcoming next impaction will cause current ``biodiversity loss.'' The dark matter can change dead plants and animals to coal, oil and natural gas which are used as energy, but break our living environment. According to our experiments, which consciousness can use thought waves remotely to change their systemic model between Electron Clouds and electron holes of P-N Junction and can change output voltages of solar cells by a life information technology and a space-time effect, we hope to find a new method to the orbit of the Tyche to avoid next extinction. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17 and BAPS.2012.MAR.P33.14) Support by AEEA
Weight distributions for turbo codes using random and nonrandom permutations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.
1995-01-01
This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as the square root of (2N), where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are 'semirandom' permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.
Distributed Coding/Decoding Complexity in Video Sensor Networks
Cordeiro, Paulo J.; Assunção, Pedro
2012-01-01
Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality. PMID:22736972
Practical distributed video coding in packet lossy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qing, Linbo; Masala, Enrico; He, Xiaohai
2013-07-01
Improving error resilience of video communications over packet lossy channels is an important and tough task. We present a framework to optimize the quality of video communications based on distributed video coding (DVC) in practical packet lossy network scenarios. The peculiar characteristics of DVC indeed require a number of adaptations to take full advantage of its intrinsic robustness when dealing with data losses of typical real packet networks. This work proposes a new packetization scheme, an investigation of the best error-correcting codes to use in a noisy environment, a practical rate-allocation mechanism, which minimizes decoder feedback, and an improved side-information generation and reconstruction function. Performance comparisons are presented with respect to a conventional packet video communication using H.264/advanced video coding (AVC). Although currently the H.264/AVC rate-distortion performance in case of no loss is better than state-of-the-art DVC schemes, under practical packet lossy conditions, the proposed techniques provide better performance with respect to an H.264/AVC-based system, especially at high packet loss rates. Thus the error resilience of the proposed DVC scheme is superior to the one provided by H.264/AVC, especially in the case of transmission over packet lossy networks.
Space--Time from Topos Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flori, Cecilia
One of the main challenges in theoretical physics in the past 50 years has been to define a theory of quantum gravity, i.e. a theory which consistently combines general relativity and quantum theory in order to define a theory of space-time itself seen as a fluctuating field. As such, a definition of space-time is of paramount importance, but it is precisely the attainment of such a definition which is one of the main stumbling blocks in quantum gravity. One of the striking features of quantum gravity is that although both general relativity and quantum theory treat space-time as a four-dimensional (4D) manifold equipped with a metric, quantum gravity would suggest that, at the microscopic scale, space-time is somewhat discrete. Therefore the continuum structure of space-time suggested by the two main ingredients of quantum gravity seems to be thrown into discussion by quantum gravity itself. This seems quite an odd predicament, but it might suggest that perhaps a different mathematical structure other than a smooth manifold should model space-time. These considerations seem to shed doubts on the use of the continuum in general in a possible theory of quantum gravity. An alternative would be to develop a mathematical formalism for quantum gravity in which no fundamental role is played by the continuum and where a new concept of space-time, not modeled on a differentiable manifold, will emerge. This is precisely one of the aims of the topos theory approach to quantum theory and quantum gravity put forward by Isham, Butterfield, and Doering and subsequently developed by other authors. The aim of this article is to precisely elucidate how such an approach gives rise to a new definition of space-time which might be more appropriate for quantum gravity.
Sparsey™: event recognition via deep hierarchical sparse distributed codes
Rinkus, Gerard J.
2014-01-01
The visual cortex's hierarchical, multi-level organization is captured in many biologically inspired computational vision models, the general idea being that progressively larger scale (spatially/temporally) and more complex visual features are represented in progressively higher areas. However, most earlier models use localist representations (codes) in each representational field (which we equate with the cortical macrocolumn, “mac”), at each level. In localism, each represented feature/concept/event (hereinafter “item”) is coded by a single unit. The model we describe, Sparsey, is hierarchical as well but crucially, it uses sparse distributed coding (SDC) in every mac in all levels. In SDC, each represented item is coded by a small subset of the mac's units. The SDCs of different items can overlap and the size of overlap between items can be used to represent their similarity. The difference between localism and SDC is crucial because SDC allows the two essential operations of associative memory, storing a new item and retrieving the best-matching stored item, to be done in fixed time for the life of the model. Since the model's core algorithm, which does both storage and retrieval (inference), makes a single pass over all macs on each time step, the overall model's storage/retrieval operation is also fixed-time, a criterion we consider essential for scalability to the huge (“Big Data”) problems. A 2010 paper described a nonhierarchical version of this model in the context of purely spatial pattern processing. Here, we elaborate a fully hierarchical model (arbitrary numbers of levels and macs per level), describing novel model principles like progressive critical periods, dynamic modulation of principal cells' activation functions based on a mac-level familiarity measure, representation of multiple simultaneously active hypotheses, a novel method of time warp invariant recognition, and we report results showing learning/recognition of spatiotemporal
Robust video transmission with distributed source coded auxiliary channel.
Wang, Jiajun; Majumdar, Abhik; Ramchandran, Kannan
2009-12-01
We propose a novel solution to the problem of robust, low-latency video transmission over lossy channels. Predictive video codecs, such as MPEG and H.26x, are very susceptible to prediction mismatch between encoder and decoder or "drift" when there are packet losses. These mismatches lead to a significant degradation in the decoded quality. To address this problem, we propose an auxiliary codec system that sends additional information alongside an MPEG or H.26x compressed video stream to correct for errors in decoded frames and mitigate drift. The proposed system is based on the principles of distributed source coding and uses the (possibly erroneous) MPEG/H.26x decoder reconstruction as side information at the auxiliary decoder. The distributed source coding framework depends upon knowing the statistical dependency (or correlation) between the source and the side information. We propose a recursive algorithm to analytically track the correlation between the original source frame and the erroneous MPEG/H.26x decoded frame. Finally, we propose a rate-distortion optimization scheme to allocate the rate used by the auxiliary encoder among the encoding blocks within a video frame. We implement the proposed system and present extensive simulation results that demonstrate significant gains in performance both visually and objectively (on the order of 2 dB in PSNR over forward error correction based solutions and 1.5 dB in PSNR over intrarefresh based solutions for typical scenarios) under tight latency constraints. PMID:19703801
Behavioral correlates of the distributed coding of spatial context.
Anderson, Michael I; Killing, Sarah; Morris, Caitlin; O'Donoghue, Alan; Onyiagha, Dikennam; Stevenson, Rosemary; Verriotis, Madeleine; Jeffery, Kathryn J
2006-01-01
Hippocampal place cells respond heterogeneously to elemental changes of a compound spatial context, suggesting that they form a distributed code of context, whereby context information is shared across a population of neurons. The question arises as to what this distributed code might be useful for. The present study explored two possibilities: one, that it allows contexts with common elements to be disambiguated, and the other, that it allows a given context to be associated with more than one outcome. We used two naturalistic measures of context processing in rats, rearing and thigmotaxis (boundary-hugging), to explore how rats responded to contextual novelty and to relate this to the behavior of place cells. In experiment 1, rats showed dishabituation of rearing to a novel reconfiguration of familiar context elements, suggesting that they perceived the reconfiguration as novel, a behavior that parallels that of place cells in a similar situation. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place preference task on an open-field arena. A change in the arena context triggered renewed thigmotaxis, and yet navigation continued unimpaired, indicating simultaneous representation of both the altered contextual and constant spatial cues. Place cells similarly exhibited a dual population of responses, consistent with the hypothesis that their activity underlies spatial behavior. Together, these experiments suggest that heterogeneous context encoding (or "partial remapping") by place cells may function to allow the flexible assignment of associations to contexts, a faculty that could be useful in episodic memory encoding. PMID:16921500
Metastring theory and modular space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje
2015-06-01
String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an a priori space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This metastring theory is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a modular space-time. This concept embodies the standard tenets of quantum theory and implements in a precise way a notion of relative locality. The usual string backgrounds (non-compact space-time along with some toroidally compactified spatial directions) are obtained from modular space-time by a limiting procedure that can be thought of as a correspondence limit.
Pressure distribution based optimization of phase-coded acoustical vortices
Zheng, Haixiang; Gao, Lu; Dai, Yafei; Ma, Qingyu; Zhang, Dong
2014-02-28
Based on the acoustic radiation of point source, the physical mechanism of phase-coded acoustical vortices is investigated with formulae derivations of acoustic pressure and vibration velocity. Various factors that affect the optimization of acoustical vortices are analyzed. Numerical simulations of the axial, radial, and circular pressure distributions are performed with different source numbers, frequencies, and axial distances. The results prove that the acoustic pressure of acoustical vortices is linearly proportional to the source number, and lower fluctuations of circular pressure distributions can be produced for more sources. With the increase of source frequency, the acoustic pressure of acoustical vortices increases accordingly with decreased vortex radius. Meanwhile, increased vortex radius with reduced acoustic pressure is also achieved for longer axial distance. With the 6-source experimental system, circular and radial pressure distributions at various frequencies and axial distances have been measured, which have good agreements with the results of numerical simulations. The favorable results of acoustic pressure distributions provide theoretical basis for further studies of acoustical vortices.
Dynamic algorithm for correlation noise estimation in distributed video coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thambu, Kuganeswaran; Fernando, Xavier; Guan, Ling
2010-01-01
Low complexity encoders at the expense of high complexity decoders are advantageous in wireless video sensor networks. Distributed video coding (DVC) achieves the above complexity balance, where the receivers compute Side information (SI) by interpolating the key frames. Side information is modeled as a noisy version of input video frame. In practise, correlation noise estimation at the receiver is a complex problem, and currently the noise is estimated based on a residual variance between pixels of the key frames. Then the estimated (fixed) variance is used to calculate the bit-metric values. In this paper, we have introduced the new variance estimation technique that rely on the bit pattern of each pixel, and it is dynamically calculated over the entire motion environment which helps to calculate the soft-value information required by the decoder. Our result shows that the proposed bit based dynamic variance estimation significantly improves the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stachel, John
2003-01-01
A brief survey of the space-time structures used in theoretical physics from Newton to Einstein is followed by a discussion of the ways in which the space-time structure of general relativity differs radically from that of all previous theories by virtue of its dynamization of chrono-geometry and the consequent loss of any possibility of a kinematical coordinatization of the points of space-time. After a discussion of the extent to which these features of general relativity can be generalized and extended to any future fundamental theory, a principle of general permutation invariance is proposed and used to evaluate some current attempts to develop a theory of quantum gravity.
Space-time framework of internal measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuno, Koichiro
1998-07-01
Measurement internal to material bodies is ubiquitous. The internal observer has its own local space-time framework that enables the observer to distinguish, even to a slightest degree, those material bodies fallen into that framework. Internal measurement proceeding among the internal observers come to negotiate a construction of more encompassing local framework of space and time. The construction takes place through friction among the internal observers. Emergent phenomena are related to an occurrence of enlarging the local space-time framework through the frictional negotiation among the material participants serving as the internal observers. Unless such a negotiation is obtained, the internal observers would have to move around in the local space-time frameworks of their own that are mutually incommensurable. Enhancement of material organization as demonstrated in biological evolutionary processes manifests an inexhaustible negotiation for enlarging the local space-time framework available to the internal observers. In contrast, Newtonian space-time framework, that remains absolute and all encompassing, is an asymptote at which no further emergent phenomena could be expected. It is thus ironical to expect something to emerge within the framework of Newtonian absolute space and time. Instead of being a complex and organized configuration of interaction to appear within the global space-time framework, emergent phenomena are a consequence of negotiation among the local space-time frameworks available to internal measurement. Most indicative of the negotiation of local space-time frameworks is emergence of a conscious self grounding upon the reflexive nature of perceptions, that is, a self-consciousness in short, that certainly goes beyond the Kantian transcendental subject. Accordingly, a synthetic discourse on securing consciousness upon the ground of self-consciousness can be developed, though linguistic exposition of consciousness upon self
Non-coding RNAs and complex distributed genetic networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, Vladimir P.
2011-08-01
In eukaryotic cells, the mRNA-protein interplay can be dramatically influenced by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Although this new paradigm is now widely accepted, an understanding of the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks is lacking. To clarify what may happen in this case, we propose a mean-field kinetic model describing the influence of ncRNA on a complex genetic network with a distributed architecture including mutual protein-mediated regulation of many genes transcribed into mRNAs. ncRNA is considered to associate with mRNAs and inhibit their translation and/or facilitate degradation. Our results are indicative of the richness of the kinetics under consideration. The main complex features are found to be bistability and oscillations. One could expect to find kinetic chaos as well. The latter feature has however not been observed in our calculations. In addition, we illustrate the difference in the regulation of distributed networks by mRNA and ncRNA.
Space, Time, Matter:. 1918-2012
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veneziano, Gabriele
2013-12-01
Almost a century has elapsed since Hermann Weyl wrote his famous "Space, Time, Matter" book. After recalling some amazingly premonitory writings by him and Wolfgang Pauli in the fifties, I will try to asses the present status of the problematics they were so much concerned with.
Relativistic positioning in Schwarzschild space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchades, Neus; Sáez, Diego
2015-04-01
In the Schwarzschild space-time created by an idealized static spherically symmetric Earth, two approaches -based on relativistic positioning- may be used to estimate the user position from the proper times broadcast by four satellites. In the first approach, satellites move in the Schwarzschild space-time and the photons emitted by the satellites follow null geodesics of the Minkowski space-time asymptotic to the Schwarzschild geometry. This assumption leads to positioning errors since the photon world lines are not geodesics of any Minkowski geometry. In the second approach -the most coherent one- satellites and photons move in the Schwarzschild space-time. This approach is a first order one in the dimensionless parameter GM/R (with the speed of light c=1). The two approaches give different inertial coordinates for a given user. The differences are estimated and appropriately represented for users located inside a great region surrounding Earth. The resulting values (errors) are small enough to justify the use of the first approach, which is the simplest and the most manageable one. The satellite evolution mimics that of the GALILEO global navigation satellite system.
Adaptive distributed video coding with correlation estimation using expectation propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Lijuan; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel
2012-10-01
Distributed video coding (DVC) is rapidly increasing in popularity by the way of shifting the complexity from encoder to decoder, whereas no compression performance degrades, at least in theory. In contrast with conventional video codecs, the inter-frame correlation in DVC is explored at decoder based on the received syndromes of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frame and side information (SI) frame generated from other frames available only at decoder. However, the ultimate decoding performances of DVC are based on the assumption that the perfect knowledge of correlation statistic between WZ and SI frames should be available at decoder. Therefore, the ability of obtaining a good statistical correlation estimate is becoming increasingly important in practical DVC implementations. Generally, the existing correlation estimation methods in DVC can be classified into two main types: pre-estimation where estimation starts before decoding and on-the-fly (OTF) estimation where estimation can be refined iteratively during decoding. As potential changes between frames might be unpredictable or dynamical, OTF estimation methods usually outperforms pre-estimation techniques with the cost of increased decoding complexity (e.g., sampling methods). In this paper, we propose a low complexity adaptive DVC scheme using expectation propagation (EP), where correlation estimation is performed OTF as it is carried out jointly with decoding of the factor graph-based DVC code. Among different approximate inference methods, EP generally offers better tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the benchmark state-of-the-art DISCOVER codec and other cases without correlation tracking, and achieves comparable decoding performance but with significantly low complexity comparing with sampling method.
FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu
2015-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.
Space-time separation of electronic correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomczak, Jan M.; Schäfer, Thomas; Klebel, Benjamin; Toschi, Alessandro
While second-order phase transitions always cause strong nonlocal fluctuations, their effect on spectral properties crucially depends on the dimensionality. First, we show that for the important case of three dimensions the electron self-energy is well separable into a local dynamical part and static nonlocal contributions. In particular, using the dynamical vertex approximation for the doped 3D Hubbard model, we demonstrate that the quasiparticle weight remains essentially momentum independent, despite overall large nonlocal corrections to the self-energy when approaching the spin-ordered state. This generalizes earlier empirical findings of this property in the iron pnictides and transition metal oxides based on Hedin's GW approximation. With this insight, we here propose a ''space-time-separated'' scheme for many-body perturbation theory that is up to ten times more efficient than current implementations. Finally, we discuss limits of the space-time separation of correlation effects by studying the crossover from three to two dimensions.
Covariant non-commutative space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heckman, Jonathan J.; Verlinde, Herman
2015-05-01
We introduce a covariant non-commutative deformation of 3 + 1-dimensional conformal field theory. The deformation introduces a short-distance scale ℓp, and thus breaks scale invariance, but preserves all space-time isometries. The non-commutative algebra is defined on space-times with non-zero constant curvature, i.e. dS4 or AdS4. The construction makes essential use of the representation of CFT tensor operators as polynomials in an auxiliary polarization tensor. The polarization tensor takes active part in the non-commutative algebra, which for dS4 takes the form of so (5, 1), while for AdS4 it assembles into so (4, 2). The structure of the non-commutative correlation functions hints that the deformed theory contains gravitational interactions and a Regge-like trajectory of higher spin excitations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Géré, Antoine; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola
2016-05-01
We develop a renormalisation scheme for time-ordered products in interacting field theories on curved space-times that consists of an analytic regularisation of Feynman amplitudes and a minimal subtraction of the resulting pole parts. This scheme is directly applicable to space-times with Lorentzian signature, manifestly generally covariant, invariant under any space-time isometries present, and constructed to all orders in perturbation theory. Moreover, the scheme correctly captures the nongeometric state-dependent contribution of Feynman amplitudes, and it is well suited for practical computations. To illustrate this last point, we compute explicit examples on a generic curved space-time and demonstrate how momentum space computations in cosmological space-times can be performed in our scheme. In this work, we discuss only scalar fields in four space-time dimensions, but we argue that the renormalisation scheme can be directly generalised to other space-time dimensions and field theories with higher spin as well as to theories with local gauge invariance.
Hypermotion due to space-time deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fil'Chenkov, Michael; Laptev, Yuri
2016-03-01
A superluminal motion (hypermotion) via M. Alcubierre’s warp drive is considered. Parameters of the warp drive have been estimated. The equations of starship geodesics have been solved. The starship velocity have been shown to exceed the speed of light, with the local velocity relative to the deformed space-time being below it. Hawking’s radiation does not prove to affect the ship interior considerably. Difficulties related to a practical realization of the hypermotion are indicated.
The Space-Time Model According to Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-04-01
This article results from the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory for which the introductory theoretician was presented in [1]. A theoretical model of the Continuous Space-Time is presented. The wave equation of time into absolutely stationary empty space referential will be described in detail. The complex time, that is the time fixed on the infinite phase time speed referential, is deduced from the New View of Relativity Theory that is being submitted simultaneously with this article in this congress. Finally considering the inseparable Space-Time is presented the duality equation wave-particle.
Optical Properties of Quantum Vacuum. Space-Time Engineering
Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.
2011-03-28
The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) type stochastic differential equations. For a model of fluctuations, type of 'white noise', using ML equations a partial differential equation of second order is obtained which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the 'ground state' energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of quantum vacuum fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum, where 4D is Minkowski space-time and 2D is a compactified subspace. In detail is studied of vacuum's refraction indexes under the influence of external electromagnetic fields.
Space-time complexity in Hamiltonian dynamics.
Afraimovich, V; Zaslavsky, G M
2003-06-01
New notions of the complexity function C(epsilon;t,s) and entropy function S(epsilon;t,s) are introduced to describe systems with nonzero or zero Lyapunov exponents or systems that exhibit strong intermittent behavior with "flights," trappings, weak mixing, etc. The important part of the new notions is the first appearance of epsilon-separation of initially close trajectories. The complexity function is similar to the propagator p(t(0),x(0);t,x) with a replacement of x by the natural lengths s of trajectories, and its introduction does not assume of the space-time independence in the process of evolution of the system. A special stress is done on the choice of variables and the replacement t-->eta=ln t, s-->xi=ln s makes it possible to consider time-algebraic and space-algebraic complexity and some mixed cases. It is shown that for typical cases the entropy function S(epsilon;xi,eta) possesses invariants (alpha,beta) that describe the fractal dimensions of the space-time structures of trajectories. The invariants (alpha,beta) can be linked to the transport properties of the system, from one side, and to the Riemann invariants for simple waves, from the other side. This analog provides a new meaning for the transport exponent mu that can be considered as the speed of a Riemann wave in the log-phase space of the log-space-time variables. Some other applications of new notions are considered and numerical examples are presented. PMID:12777116
Null surfaces in static space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollick, Dan N.
2015-07-01
In this paper I consider surfaces in a space-time with a Killing vector ξ α that is time-like and hypersurface-orthogonal on one side of the surface. The Killing vector may be either time-like or space-like on the other side of the surface. It has been argued that the surface is null if ξ α ξ α → 0 as the surface is approached from the static region. This implies that, in a coordinate system adapted to ξ, surfaces with g tt = 0 are null. In spherically symmetric space-times the condition g rr = 0 instead of g tt = 0 is sometimes used to locate null surfaces. In this paper I examine the arguments that lead to these two different criteria and show that both arguments are incorrect. A surface ξ = const has a normal vector whose norm is proportional to ξ α ξ α . This lead to the conclusion that surfaces with ξ α ξ α = 0 are null. However, the proportionality factor generally diverges when g tt = 0, leading to a different condition for the norm to be null. In static spherically symmetric space-times this condition gives g rr = 0, not g tt = 0. The problem with the condition g rr = 0 is that the coordinate system is singular on the surface. One can either use a nonsingular coordinate system or examine the induced metric on the surface to determine if it is null. By using these approaches it is shown that the correct criteria is g tt = 0. I also examine the condition required for the surface to be nonsingular.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolami, Orfeu
Since the nineteenth century, it is known, through the work of Lobatchevski, Riemann, and Gauss, that spaces do not need to have a vanishing curvature. This was for sure a revolution on its own, however, from the point of view of these mathematicians, the space of our day to day experience, the physical space, was still an essentially a priori concept that preceded all experience and was independent of any physical phenomena. Actually, that was also the view of Newton and Kant with respect to time, even though, for these two space-time explorers, the world was Euclidean.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James A.; Shelton, Robert O.
1991-01-01
Introduced here is a novel technique which adds the dimension of time to the well known back propagation neural network algorithm. Cited here are several reasons why the inclusion of automated spatial and temporal associations are crucial to effective systems modeling. An overview of other works which also model spatiotemporal dynamics is furnished. A detailed description is given of the processes necessary to implement the space-time network algorithm. Several demonstrations that illustrate the capabilities and performance of this new architecture are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, José A.; Alvarez, Samantha; Flores, Alejandro; Govezensky, Tzipe; Bobadilla, Juan R.; José, Marco V.
2004-10-01
The genetic code is considered to be universal. In order to test if some statistical properties of the coding bacterial genome were due to inherent properties of the genetic code, we compared the autocorrelation function, the scaling properties and the maximum entropy of the distribution of distances of amino acids in sequences obtained by translating protein-coding regions from the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi, under different genetic codes. Overall our results indicate that these properties are very stable to perturbations made by altering the genetic code. We also discuss the evolutionary likely implications of the present results.
Emergence of space-time from topologically homogeneous causal networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Tosini, Alessandro
2013-08-01
In this paper we study the emergence of Minkowski space-time from a discrete causal network representing a classical information flow. Differently from previous approaches, we require the network to be topologically homogeneous, so that the metric is derived from pure event-counting. Emergence from events has an operational motivation in requiring that every physical quantity-including space-time-be defined through precise measurement procedures. Topological homogeneity is a requirement for having space-time metric emergent from the pure topology of causal connections, whereas physically homogeneity corresponds to the universality of the physical law. We analyze in detail the case of 1+1 dimensions. If we consider the causal connections as an exchange of classical information, we can establish coordinate systems via an Einsteinian protocol, and this leads to a digital version of the Lorentz transformations. In a computational analogy, the foliation construction can be regarded as the synchronization with a global clock of the calls to independent subroutines (corresponding to the causally independent events) in a parallel distributed computation. Thus the Lorentz time-dilation emerges as an increased density of leaves within a single tic-tac of a clock, whereas space-contraction results from the corresponding decrease of density of events per leaf. The operational procedure of building up the coordinate system introduces an in-principle indistinguishability between neighboring events, resulting in a network that is coarse-grained, the thickness of the event being a function of the observer's clock. The illustrated simple classical construction can be extended to space dimension greater than one, with the price of anisotropy of the maximal speed, due to the Weyl-tiling problem. This issue is cured if the causal network is quantum, as e.g. in a quantum cellular automaton, and isotropy is recovered by quantum coherence via superposition of causal paths. We thus argue
Syndrome Surveillance Using Parametric Space-Time Clustering
KOCH, MARK W.; MCKENNA, SEAN A.; BILISOLY, ROGER L.
2002-11-01
As demonstrated by the anthrax attack through the United States mail, people infected by the biological agent itself will give the first indication of a bioterror attack. Thus, a distributed information system that can rapidly and efficiently gather and analyze public health data would aid epidemiologists in detecting and characterizing emerging diseases, including bioterror attacks. We propose using clusters of adverse health events in space and time to detect possible bioterror attacks. Space-time clusters can indicate exposure to infectious diseases or localized exposure to toxins. Most space-time clustering approaches require individual patient data. To protect the patient's privacy, we have extended these approaches to aggregated data and have embedded this extension in a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) framework. The real-time and sequential nature of health data makes the SPRT an ideal candidate. The result of space-time clustering gives the statistical significance of a cluster at every location in the surveillance area and can be thought of as a ''health-index'' of the people living in this area. As a surrogate to bioterrorism data, we have experimented with two flu data sets. For both databases, we show that space-time clustering can detect a flu epidemic up to 21 to 28 days earlier than a conventional periodic regression technique. We have also tested using simulated anthrax attack data on top of a respiratory illness diagnostic category. Results show we do very well at detecting an attack as early as the second or third day after infected people start becoming severely symptomatic.
On the binary weight distribution of some Reed-Solomon codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, S.
1985-01-01
Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup M). If each code symbol is represented by a m-tuple over GF(2) using certain basis for GF(2 sup M), a binary (nm,km) linear code is obtained. The weight distribution of a binary linear code obtained in this manner is investigated. Weight enumerators for binary linear codes obtained from Reed-Solomon codes over GF(2 sup M) generated by polynomials, (X-alpha), (X-l)(X-alpha), (X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and (X-l)(X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and their extended codes are presented, where alpha is a primitive element of GF(2 sup M). Binary codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes are often used for correcting multiple bursts of errors.
Space-time geometry of topological phases
Burnell, F.J.; Simon, Steven H.
2010-11-15
The 2 + 1 dimensional lattice models of Levin and Wen (2005) provide the most general known microscopic construction of topological phases of matter. Based heavily on the mathematical structure of category theory, many of the special properties of these models are not obvious. In the current paper, we present a geometrical space-time picture of the partition function of the Levin-Wen models which can be described as doubles (two copies with opposite chiralities) of underlying anyon theories. Our space-time picture describes the partition function as a knot invariant of a complicated link, where both the lattice variables of the microscopic Levin-Wen model and the terms of the Hamiltonian are represented as labeled strings of this link. This complicated link, previously studied in the mathematical literature, and known as Chain-Mail, can be related directly to known topological invariants of 3-manifolds such as the so-called Turaev-Viro invariant and the Witten-Reshitikhin-Turaev invariant. We further consider quasi-particle excitations of the Levin-Wen models and we see how they can be understood by adding additional strings to the Chain-Mail link representing quasi-particle world-lines. Our construction gives particularly important new insight into how a doubled theory arises from these microscopic models.
Casimir energy in Kerr space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorge, F.
2014-10-01
We investigate the vacuum energy of a scalar massless field confined in a Casimir cavity moving in a circular equatorial orbit in the exact Kerr space-time geometry. We find that both the orbital motion of the cavity and the underlying space-time geometry conspire in lowering the absolute value of the (renormalized) Casimir energy ⟨ɛvac⟩ren , as measured by a comoving observer, with respect to whom the cavity is at rest. This, in turn, causes a weakening in the attractive force between the Casimir plates. In particular, we show that the vacuum energy density ⟨ɛvac⟩ren→0 when the orbital path of the Casimir cavity comes close to the corotating or counter-rotating circular null orbits (possibly geodesic) allowed by the Kerr geometry. Such an effect could be of some astrophysical interest on relevant orbits, such as the Kerr innermost stable circular orbits, being potentially related to particle confinement (as in some interquark models). The present work generalizes previous results obtained by several authors in the weak field approximation.
Space-time structure of climate variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laepple, Thomas; Reschke, Maria; Huybers, Peter; Rehfeld, Kira
2016-04-01
The spatial scale of climate variability is closely linked to the temporal scale. Whereas fast variations such as weather are regional, glacial-interglacial cycles appear to be globally coherent. Quantifying the relationship between local and large-scale climate variations is essential for mapping the extent of past climate changes. Larger spatial scales of climate variations on longer time scales are expected if one views the atmosphere and oceans as primarily diffusive with respect to heat. On the other hand, the interaction of a dynamical system with spatially variable boundary conditions --- for example: topography, gradients in insolation, and variations in rotational effects --- will lead to spatially heterogeneous structures that are largely independent of time scale. It has been argued that the increase in spatial scales continues across all time scales [Mitchell, 1976], but up to now, the space-time structure of variations beyond the decadal scale is basically unexplored. Here, we attempt to estimate the spatial extent of temperature changes up to millennial time-scales using instrumental observations, paleo-observations and climate model simulations. Although instrumental and climate model data show an increase in spatial scale towards slower variations, paleo-proxy data, if interpreted as temperature signals, lead to ambiguous results. An analysis of a global Holocene stack [Marcott et al., 2013], for example, suggests a jump towards more localized patterns when leaving the instrumental time scale. Localization contradicts physical expectations and may instead reflect the presence of various types of noise. Turning the problem around, and imposing a consistent space-time structure across instruments and proxy records allows us to constrain the interpretation of the climate signal in proxy records. In the case of the Holocene stack, preliminary results suggest that the time-uncertainty on the Holocene records would have to be much larger than published in
Space-time formulation for finite element modeling of superconductors
Ashworth, Stephen P; Grilli, Francesco; Sirois, Frederic; Laforest, Marc
2008-01-01
In this paper we present a new model for computing the current density and field distributions in superconductors by means of a periodic space-time formulation for finite elements (FE). By considering a space dimension as time, we can use a static model to solve a time dependent problem. This allows overcoming one of the major problems of FE modeling of superconductors: the length of simulations, even for relatively simple cases. We present our first results and compare them to those obtained with a 'standard' time-dependent method and with analytical solutions.
Space-Time in Quantum Gravity: Does Space-Time have Quantum Properties?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedrich, Reiner
The conceptual incompatibility between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics is generally seen as sufficient motivation for the development of a theory of Quantum Gravity. If--so a typical argument goes -- Quantum Mechanics gives a universally valid basis for the description of the dynamical behavior of all natural systems, then the gravitational field should have quantum properties, like all other fundamental interaction fields. And if General Relativity can be seen as an adequate description of the classical aspects of gravity and space-time -- and their mutual relation -- this leads, together with the rather convincing arguments against semi-classical theories of gravity, to a strategy which takes a quantization of General Relativity as the natural avenue to a theory of Quantum Gravity. And because in General Relativity, the gravitational field is represented by the space-time metric, a quantization of the gravitational field would in some sense correspond to a quantization of geometry. Space-time would have quantum properties...
Distributed Estimation, Coding, and Scheduling in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yu, Chao
2013-01-01
In this thesis, we consider estimation, coding, and sensor scheduling for energy efficient operation of wireless visual sensor networks (VSN), which consist of battery-powered wireless sensors with sensing (imaging), computation, and communication capabilities. The competing requirements for applications of these wireless sensor networks (WSN)…
Phantom space-times in fake supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu Taam, Maryam; Sabra, Wafic A.
2015-12-01
We discuss phantom metrics admitting Killing spinors in fake N = 2, D = 4 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. The Abelian U (1) gauge fields in the fake theory have kinetic terms with the wrong sign. We solve the Killing spinor equations for the standard and fake theories in a unified fashion by introducing a parameter which distinguishes between the two theories. The solutions found are fully determined in terms of algebraic conditions, the so-called stabilisation equations, in which the symplectic sections are related to a set of functions. These functions are harmonic in the case of the standard supergravity theory and satisfy the wave-equation in flat (2 + 1)-space-time in the fake theory. Explicit examples are given for the minimal models with quadratic prepotentials.
SAMDIST: A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters
Leal, L.C.
1995-01-01
The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
SAMDIST: A computer code for calculating statistical distributions for R-matrix resonance parameters
Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.
1995-09-01
The SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
A New Solution of Distributed Disaster Recovery Based on Raptor Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Kai; Wang, Kaiyun; Ma, Danyang
For the large cost, low data availability in the condition of multi-node storage and poor capacity of intrusion tolerance of traditional disaster recovery which is based on simple copy, this paper put forward a distributed disaster recovery scheme based on raptor codes. This article introduces the principle of raptor codes, and analyses its coding advantages, and gives a comparative analysis between this solution and traditional solutions through the aspects of redundancy, data availability and capacity of intrusion tolerance. The results show that the distributed disaster recovery solution based on raptor codes can achieve higher data availability as well as better intrusion tolerance capabilities in the premise of lower redundancy.
Joint Channel-Network Coding (JCNC) for Distributed Storage in Wireless Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ning; Lin, Jiaru
We propose to construct a joint channel-network coding (knosswn as Random Linear Coding) scheme based on improved turbo codes for the distributed storage in wireless communication network with k data nodes, s storage nodes (kdistributed storage with erasure channel to AWGN and fading channel scenario. We investigate the throughput performance of the Joint Channel-Network Coding (JCNC) system benefits from network coding, compared with that of system without network coding based only on store and forward (S-F) approach. Another helpful parameter: node degree (L) indicates how many storage nodes one data packet should fall onto. L characterizes the en/decoding complexity of the system. Moreover, this proposed framework can be extended to ad-hoc and sensor network easily.
Beyond Archimedean Space-Time Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosinger, Elemér E.; Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-03-01
It took two millennia after Euclid and until in the early 1880s, when we went beyond the ancient axiom of parallels, and inaugurated geometries of curved spaces. In less than one more century, General Relativity followed. At present, physical thinking is still beheld by the yet deeper and equally ancient Archimedean assumption. In view of that, it is argued with some rather easily accessible mathematical support that Theoretical Physics may at last venture into the non-Archimedean realms. In this introductory paper we stress two fundamental consequences of the non-Archimedean approach to Theoretical Physics: one of them for quantum theory and another for relativity theory. From the non-Archimedean viewpoint, the assumption of the existence of minimal quanta of light (of the fixed frequency) is an artifact of the present Archimedean mathematical basis of quantum mechanics. In the same way the assumption of the existence of the maximal velocity, the velocity of light, is a feature of the real space-time structure which is fundamentally Archimedean. Both these assumptions are not justified in corresponding non-Archimedean models.
Beyond Archimedean Space-Time Structure
Rosinger, Elemer E.; Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-03-28
It took two millennia after Euclid and until in the early 1880s, when we went beyond the ancient axiom of parallels, and inaugurated geometries of curved spaces. In less than one more century, General Relativity followed. At present, physical thinking is still beheld by the yet deeper and equally ancient Archimedean assumption. In view of that, it is argued with some rather easily accessible mathematical support that Theoretical Physics may at last venture into the non-Archimedean realms. In this introductory paper we stress two fundamental consequences of the non-Archimedean approach to Theoretical Physics: one of them for quantum theory and another for relativity theory. From the non-Archimedean viewpoint, the assumption of the existence of minimal quanta of light (of the fixed frequency) is an artifact of the present Archimedean mathematical basis of quantum mechanics. In the same way the assumption of the existence of the maximal velocity, the velocity of light, is a feature of the real space-time structure which is fundamentally Archimedean. Both these assumptions are not justified in corresponding non-Archimedean models.
Utilities for master source code distribution: MAX and Friends
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Felippa, Carlos A.
1988-01-01
MAX is a program for the manipulation of FORTRAN master source code (MSC). This is a technique by which one maintains one and only one master copy of a FORTRAN program under a program developing system, which for MAX is assumed to be VAX/VMS. The master copy is not intended to be directly compiled. Instead it must be pre-processed by MAX to produce compilable instances. These instances may correspond to different code versions (for example, double precision versus single precision), different machines (for example, IBM, CDC, Cray) or different operating systems (i.e., VAX/VMS versus VAX/UNIX). The advantage os using a master source is more pronounced in complex application programs that are developed and maintained over many years and are to be transported and executed on several computer environments. The version lag problem that plagues many such programs is avoided by this approach. MAX is complemented by several auxiliary programs that perform nonessential functions. The ensemble is collectively known as MAX and Friends. All of these programs, including MAX, are executed as foreign VAX/VMS commands and can easily be hidden in customized VMS command procedures.
Source coding with escort distributions and Rényi entropy bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bercher, J.-F.
2009-08-01
We discuss the interest of escort distributions and Rényi entropy in the context of source coding. We first recall a source coding theorem by Campbell relating a generalized measure of length to the Rényi-Tsallis entropy. We show that the associated optimal codes can be obtained using considerations on escort-distributions. We propose a new family of measure of length involving escort-distributions and we show that these generalized lengths are also bounded below by the Rényi entropy. Furthermore, we obtain that the standard Shannon codes lengths are optimum for the new generalized lengths measures, whatever the entropic index. Finally, we show that there exists in this setting an interplay between standard and escort distributions.
Quantum circuit for optimal eavesdropping in quantum key distribution using phase-time coding
Kronberg, D. A.; Molotkov, S. N.
2010-07-15
A quantum circuit is constructed for optimal eavesdropping on quantum key distribution proto- cols using phase-time coding, and its physical implementation based on linear and nonlinear fiber-optic components is proposed.
On Adler space-time extremes during ocean storms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romolo, Alessandra; Arena, Felice
2015-04-01
The paper concerns the statistical properties of extreme ocean waves in the space-time domain. In this regard, a solution for the exceedance probability of the maximum crest height during a sea state over a certain area is obtained. The approach is based on the Adler's solution for the extremal probability for Gaussian random processes in a multidimensional domain. The method is able to include the effects of spatial variability of three-dimensional sea waves on short-term prediction, both over an assigned area XY and in a given direction. Next, the storm-term predictions in the space-time are investigated. For this purpose, the exceedance probability of ηmaxfunc during an ocean storm over an assigned area A is derived. This solution gives a generalization to the space-time of the Borgman's time-based model for nonstationary processes. The validity of the model is assessed from wave data of two buoys of the NOOA-NDBC network located along the Pacific and the Atlantic U.S. coasts. The results show that the size of the spatial domain A remarkably influences the expected maximum crest height during a sea storm. Indeed, the exceedance probabilities of the maximum crest height during an ocean storm over a certain area significantly deviate from the classical Borgman's model in time for increasing area. Then, to account for the nonlinear contributions on crest height, the proposed model is exploited jointly with the Forristall's distribution for nonlinear crest amplitudes in a given sea state. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of a sea storm are performed showing a very good agreement with theoretical results.
Parameter Estimation for a Model of Space-Time Rainfall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, James A.; Karr, Alan F.
1985-08-01
In this paper, parameter estimation procedures, based on data from a network of rainfall gages, are developed for a class of space-time rainfall models. The models, which are designed to represent the spatial distribution of daily rainfall, have three components, one that governs the temporal occurrence of storms, a second that distributes rain cells spatially for a given storm, and a third that determines the rainfall pattern within a rain cell. Maximum likelihood and method of moments procedures are developed. We illustrate that limitations on model structure are imposed by restricting data sources to rain gage networks. The estimation procedures are applied to a 240-mi2 (621 km2) catchment in the Potomac River basin.
TEMPEST code simulations of hydrogen distribution in reactor containment structures. Final report
Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.
1985-03-01
The mass transport version of the TEMPEST computer code was used to simulate hydrogen distribution in geometric configurations relevant to reactor containment structures. Predicted results of Battelle-Frankfurt hydrogen distribution tests 1 to 6, and 12 are presented. Agreement between predictions and experimental data is good. Best agreement is obtained using the k-epsilon turbulence model in TEMPEST in flow cases where turbulent diffusion and stable stratification are dominant mechanisms affecting transport. The code's general analysis capabilities are summarized.
Parallel Processing of Distributed Video Coding to Reduce Decoding Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tonomura, Yoshihide; Nakachi, Takayuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Kiya, Hitoshi
This paper proposes a parallelized DVC framework that treats each bitplane independently to reduce the decoding time. Unfortunately, simple parallelization generates inaccurate bit probabilities because additional side information is not available for the decoding of subsequent bitplanes, which degrades encoding efficiency. Our solution is an effective estimation method that can calculate the bit probability as accurately as possible by index assignment without recourse to side information. Moreover, we improve the coding performance of Rate-Adaptive LDPC (RA-LDPC), which is used in the parallelized DVC framework. This proposal selects a fitting sparse matrix for each bitplane according to the syndrome rate estimation results at the encoder side. Simulations show that our parallelization method reduces the decoding time by up to 35[%] and achieves a bit rate reduction of about 10[%].
Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balankin, Alexander S.
2013-10-01
We construct three-dimensional space Rγ3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time Mγ,β4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in Rγ3 is developed. We state that Mγ,β4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ≪ℓ0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ≫ℓ0, where ℓ0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS≡4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.
Context-based lossless image compression with optimal codes for discretized Laplacian distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giurcaneanu, Ciprian Doru; Tabus, Ioan; Stanciu, Cosmin
2003-05-01
Lossless image compression has become an important research topic, especially in relation with the JPEG-LS standard. Recently, the techniques known for designing optimal codes for sources with infinite alphabets have been applied for the quantized Laplacian sources which have probability mass functions with two geometrically decaying tails. Due to the simple parametric model of the source distribution the Huffman iterations are possible to be carried out analytically, using the concept of reduced source, and the final codes are obtained as a sequence of very simple arithmetic operations, avoiding the need to store coding tables. We propose the use of these (optimal) codes in conjunction with context-based prediction, for noiseless compression of images. To reduce further the average code length, we design Escape sequences to be employed when the estimation of the distribution parameter is unreliable. Results on standard test files show improvements in compression ratio when comparing with JPEG-LS.
Computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution of cooled turbine blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tietz, Thomas A.; Koschel, Wolfgang W.
A generalized computer code for the calculation of the temperature distribution in a cooled turbine blade is presented. Using an iterative procedure, this program especially allows the coupling of the aerothermodynamic values of the internal flow with the corresponding temperature distribution of the blade material. The temperature distribution of the turbine blade is calculated using a fully three-dimensional finite element computer code, so that the radial heat flux is taken into account. This code was extended to 4-node tetrahedral elements enabling an adaptive grid generation. To facilitate the mesh generation of the usually complex blade geometries, a computer program was developed, which performs the grid generation of blades having basically arbitrary shape on the basis of two-dimensional cuts. The performance of the code is demonstrated with reference to a typical cooling configuration of a modern turbine blade.
Linear operation of PRIZ space-time light modulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryskin, L. I.; Korovin, L. I.; Petrov, M. P.
1984-08-01
A theory is presented for describing the dynamics of the field and charge distributions in a PRIZ space-time light modulator (STLM) using the internal transverse electrooptic effect. The PRIZ STLM consists of transparent electrodes deposited on the front and back sides of a photorefractive crystal wafer and operates at the writing (input) light wavelengths of 0.44 to 0.48 microns. The diffraction efficiency of the time-linear modulator is obtained for a case when the phase difference between the ordinary and the extraordinary rays is proportional to the exposure to the writing light. It is noted that a dielectric film placed between the sample and the metal electrode increases the diffraction efficiency at low frequencies, however requiring larger voltages to be applied. The efficiency is also analyzed with respect to the spatial modulation frequency of the writing light.
Analysis of a mixed space-time diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momoniat, Ebrahim
2015-06-01
An energy method is used to analyze the stability of solutions of a mixed space-time diffusion equation that has application in the unidirectional flow of a second-grade fluid and the distribution of a compound Poisson process. Solutions to the model equation satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions are proven to dissipate total energy and are hence stable. The stability of asymptotic solutions satisfying Neumann boundary conditions coincides with the condition for the positivity of numerical solutions of the model equation from a Crank-Nicolson scheme. The Crank-Nicolson scheme is proven to yield stable numerical solutions for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for positive values of the critical parameter. Numerical solutions are compared to analytical solutions that are valid on a finite domain.
High-capacity quantum Fibonacci coding for key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, David S.; Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2013-03-01
Quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution (QKD) have been the most successful applications of quantum information processing, highlighting the unique capability of quantum mechanics, through the no-cloning theorem, to securely share encryption keys between two parties. Here, we present an approach to high-capacity, high-efficiency QKD by exploiting cross-disciplinary ideas from quantum information theory and the theory of light scattering of aperiodic photonic media. We propose a unique type of entangled-photon source, as well as a physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. The key-sharing protocol combines entanglement with the mathematical properties of a recursive sequence to allow a realization of the physical conditions necessary for implementation of the no-cloning principle for QKD, while the source produces entangled photons whose orbital angular momenta (OAM) are in a superposition of Fibonacci numbers. The source is used to implement a particular physical realization of the protocol by randomly encoding the Fibonacci sequence onto entangled OAM states, allowing secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike in polarization-based protocols, reference frame alignment is unnecessary, while the required experimental setup is simpler than other OAM-based protocols capable of achieving the same capacity and its complexity grows less rapidly with increasing range of OAM used.
Complex phylogenetic distribution of a non-canonical genetic code in green algae
2010-01-01
Background A non-canonical nuclear genetic code, in which TAG and TAA have been reassigned from stop codons to glutamine, has evolved independently in several eukaryotic lineages, including the ulvophycean green algal orders Dasycladales and Cladophorales. To study the phylogenetic distribution of the standard and non-canonical genetic codes, we generated sequence data of a representative set of ulvophycean green algae and used a robust green algal phylogeny to evaluate different evolutionary scenarios that may account for the origin of the non-canonical code. Results This study demonstrates that the Dasycladales and Cladophorales share this alternative genetic code with the related order Trentepohliales and the genus Blastophysa, but not with the Bryopsidales, which is sister to the Dasycladales. This complex phylogenetic distribution whereby all but one representative of a single natural lineage possesses an identical deviant genetic code is unique. Conclusions We compare different evolutionary scenarios for the complex phylogenetic distribution of this non-canonical genetic code. A single transition to the non-canonical code followed by a reversal to the canonical code in the Bryopsidales is highly improbable due to the profound genetic changes that coincide with codon reassignment. Multiple independent gains of the non-canonical code, as hypothesized for ciliates, are also unlikely because the same deviant code has evolved in all lineages. Instead we favor a stepwise acquisition model, congruent with the ambiguous intermediate model, whereby the non-canonical code observed in these green algal orders has a single origin. We suggest that the final steps from an ambiguous intermediate situation to a non-canonical code have been completed in the Trentepohliales, Dasycladales, Cladophorales and Blastophysa but not in the Bryopsidales. We hypothesize that in the latter lineage an initial stage characterized by translational ambiguity was not followed by final
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muanenda, Yonas; Oton, Claudio J.; Faralli, Stefano; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio
2015-07-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a Distributed Acoustic Sensor exploiting cyclic Simplex coding in a phase-sensitive OTDR on standard single mode fibers based on direct detection. Suitable design of the source and use of cyclic coding is shown to improve the SNR of the coherent back-scattered signal by up to 9 dB, reducing fading due to modulation instability and enabling accurate long-distance measurement of vibrations with minimal post-processing.
Domain structure of black hole space-times
Harmark, Troels
2009-07-15
We introduce the domain structure for stationary black hole space-times. The domain structure lives on the submanifold of fixed points of the Killing vector fields. Depending on which Killing vector field has fixed points the submanifold is naturally divided into domains. The domain structure provides invariants of the space-time, both topological and continuous. It is defined for any space-time dimension and any number of Killing vector fields. We examine the domain structure for asymptotically flat space-times and find a canonical form for the metric of such space-times. The domain structure generalizes the rod structure introduced for space-times with D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We analyze in detail the domain structure for Minkowski space, the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the Myers-Perry black hole in six and seven dimensions. Finally, we consider the possible domain structures for asymptotically flat black holes in six and seven dimensio0008.
Space-time transformation sky brightness at a horizontal position of the sun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galileiskii, Viktor P.; Elizarov, Alexey I.; Kokarev, Dmitrii V.; Morozov, Aleksandr M.
2015-11-01
This report discusses some simulation results of the angular distribution of brightness of the sky in the case of molecular scattering in the atmosphere for the benefit of the study of space-time changes of this distribution during the civil twilight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Li; Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Rui
2007-11-01
The development of practical distributed video coding schemes is based on the consequence of information-theoretic bounds established in the 1970s by Slepian and Wolf for distributed lossless coding, and by Wyner and Ziv for lossy coding with decoder side information. In distributed video compression application, it is hard to accurately describe the non-stationary behavior of the virtual correlation channel between X and side information Y although it plays a very important role in overall system performance. In this paper, we implement a practical Slepian-Wolf asymmetric distributed video compression system using irregular LDPC codes. Moreover, based on exploiting the dependencies of previously decode bit planes from video frame X and side information Y, we present improvement schemes to divide different reliable regions. Our simulation results show improving schemes of exploiting the dependencies between previously decoded bit planes can get better overall encoding rate performance as BER approach zero. We also show, compared with BSC model, BC channel model is more suitable for distributed video compression scenario because of the non-stationary properties of the virtual correlation channel and adaptive detecting channel model parameters from previously adjacent decoded bit planes can provide more accurately initial belief messages from channel at LDPC decoder.
Space-time correlations in urban sprawl.
Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A
2014-02-01
Understanding demographic and migrational patterns constitutes a great challenge. Millions of individual decisions, motivated by economic, political, demographic, rational and/or emotional reasons underlie the high complexity of demographic dynamics. Significant advances in quantitatively understanding such complexity have been registered in recent years, as those involving the growth of cities but many fundamental issues still defy comprehension. We present here compelling empirical evidence of a high level of regularity regarding time and spatial correlations in urban sprawl, unravelling patterns about the inertia in the growth of cities and their interaction with each other. By using one of the world's most exhaustive extant demographic data basis--that of the Spanish Government's Institute INE, with records covering 111 years and (in 2011) 45 million people, distributed among more than 8000 population nuclei--we show that the inertia of city growth has a characteristic time of 15 years, and its interaction with the growth of other cities has a characteristic distance of 80 km. Distance is shown to be the main factor that entangles two cities (60% of total correlations). The power of our current social theories is thereby enhanced. PMID:24258159
Modelling dose distribution in tubing and cable using CYLTRAN and ACCEPT Monte Carlo simulation code
Weiss, D.E.; Kensek, R.P.
1993-12-31
One of the difficulties in the irradiation of non-slab geometries, such as a tube, is the uneven penetration of the electrons. A simple model of the distribution of dose in a tube or cable in relationship to voltage, composition, wall thickness and diameter can be mapped using the cylinder geometry provided for in the ITS/CYLTRAN code, complete with automatic subzoning. The reality of more complex 3D geometry to include effects of window foil, backscattering fixtures and beam scanning angles can be more completely accounted for by using the ITS/ACCEPT code with a line source update and a system of intersecting wedges to define input zones for mapping dose distributions in a tube. Thus, all of the variables that affect dose distribution can be modelled without the need to run time consuming and costly factory experiments. The effects of composition changes on dose distribution can also be anticipated.
A distributed code for color in natural scenes derived from center-surround filtered cone signals
Kellner, Christian J.; Wachtler, Thomas
2013-01-01
In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes. PMID:24098289
Newman-Penrose constants of stationary electrovacuum space-times
Zhang Xiangdong; Gao Sijie; Wu Xiaoning
2009-05-15
A theorem related to the Newman-Penrose constants is proven. The theorem states that all the Newman-Penrose constants of asymptotically flat, stationary, asymptotically algebraically special electrovacuum space-times are zero. Straightforward application of this theorem shows that all the Newman-Penrose constants of the Kerr-Newman space-time must vanish.
Photoelectric Effect for Twist-deformed Space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daszkiewicz, M.
In this article, we investigate the impact of twisted space-time on the photoelectric effect, i.e., we derive the $\\theta$-deformed threshold frequency. In such a way we indicate that the space-time noncommutativity strongly enhances the photoelectric process.
Space-Time Characteristics of Rainfall Diurnal Variations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Song; Kummerow, Chris; Olson, Bill; Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The space-time features of rainfall diurnal variation of precipitation are systematically investigated by using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation products retrieved from TRMM microwave imager (TMI), precipitation radar (PR) and TMI/PR combined algorithms. Results demonstrate that diurnal variability of precipitation is obvious over tropical regions. The dominant feature of rainfall diurnal cycle over, ocean is that there is consistent rainfall peak in early morning, while there is a consistent rainfall peak in mid-late afternoon over land. The seasonal variation on intensity of rainfall diurnal cycle is clearly evidenced. Horizontal distributions of rainfall diurnal variations indicate that there is a clearly early-morning peak with a secondary peak in the middle-late afternoon in ocean rainfall at latitudes dominated by large-scale convergence and deep convection. There is also an analogous early-morning peak in land rainfall along with a stronger afternoon peak forced by surface heating. Amplitude analysis shows that the patterns and its evolution of rainfall diurnal cycle are very close to rainfall distribution pattern and its evolution. These results indicate that rainfall diurnal variations are strongly associated with large-scale convective systems and climate weather systems. Phase studies clearly present the regional and seasonal features of rainfall diurnal activities. Further studies on convective and stratiform rainfall show different characteristics of diurnal cycles. Their spatial and temporal variations of convective and stratiform rainfall indicate that mechanisms for rainfall diurnal variations vary with time and space.
Frequency-coded quantum key distribution using amplitude-phase modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, Oleg G.; Gabdulkhakov, Il'daris M.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Zagrieva, Aida R.; Sarvarova, Lutsia M.
2016-03-01
Design principals of universal microwave photonics system for quantum key distribution with frequency coding are concerned. Its concept is based on the possibility of creating the multi-functional units to implement the most commonly used technologies of frequency coding: amplitude, phase and combined amplitude-phase modulation and re-modulation of optical carrier. The characteristics of advanced systems based on classical approaches and prospects of their development using a combination of amplitude modulation and phase commutation are discussed. These are the valuations how to build advanced systems with frequency coding quantum key distribution, including at their symmetric and asymmetric constructions, using of the mechanisms of the photon polarization states passive detection, based on the filters for wavelength division multiplexing of modulated optical carrier side components.
Offset Manchester coding for Rayleigh noise suppression in carrier-distributed WDM-PONs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jing; Yu, Xiangyu; Lu, Weichao; Qu, Fengzhong; Deng, Ning
2015-07-01
We propose a novel offset Manchester coding in upstream to simultaneously realize Rayleigh noise suppression and differential detection in a carrier-distributed wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network. Error-free transmission of 2.5-Gb/s upstream signals over 50-km standard single mode fiber is experimentally demonstrated, with a 7-dB enhanced tolerance to Rayleigh noise.
Ricci collineation vectors in fluid space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamparlis, M.; Mason, D. P.
1990-07-01
The properties of fluid space-times that admit a Ricci collineation vector (RCV) parallel to the fluid unit four-velocity vector ua are briefly reviewed. These properties are expressed in terms of the kinematic quantities of the timelike congruence generated by ua. The cubic equation derived by Oliver and Davis [Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré 30, 339 (1979)] for the equation of state p=p(μ) of a perfect fluid space-time that admits an RCV, which does not degenerate to a Killing vector, is solved for physically realistic fluids. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a fluid space-time to admit a spacelike RCV parallel to a unit vector na orthogonal to ua are derived in terms of the expansion, shear, and rotation of the spacelike congruence generated by na. Perfect fluid space-times are studied in detail and analogues of the results for timelike RCVs parallel to ua are obtained. Properties of imperfect fluid space-times for which the energy flux vector qa vanishes and na is a spacelike eigenvector of the anisotropic stress tensor πab are derived. Fluid space-times with anisotropic pressure are discussed as a special case of imperfect fluid space-times for which na is an eigenvector of πab.
A Space-Time Adaptive Method for Simulating Complex Cardiac Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherry, E. M.; Greenside, H. S.; Henriquez, C. S.
2000-03-01
A new space-time adaptive mesh refinement algorithm (AMRA) is presented and analyzed which, by automatically adding and deleting local patches of higher-resolution Cartesian meshes, can simulate quantitatively accurate models of cardiac electrical dynamics efficiently in large domains. We find in two space dimensions that the AMRA is able to achieve a factor of 5 speedup and a factor of 5 reduction in memory while achieving the same accuracy compared to a code based on a uniform space-time mesh at the highest resolution of the AMRA method. We summarize applications of the code to the Luo-Rudy 1 cardiac model in large two- and three-dimensional domains and discuss the implications of our results for understanding the initiation of arrhythmias.
Performance and Application of Parallel OVERFLOW Codes on Distributed and Shared Memory Platforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Djomehri, M. Jahed; Rizk, Yehia M.
1999-01-01
The presentation discusses recent studies on the performance of the two parallel versions of the aerodynamics CFD code, OVERFLOW_MPI and _MLP. Developed at NASA Ames, the serial version, OVERFLOW, is a multidimensional Navier-Stokes flow solver based on overset (Chimera) grid technology. The code has recently been parallelized in two ways. One is based on the explicit message-passing interface (MPI) across processors and uses the _MPI communication package. This approach is primarily suited for distributed memory systems and workstation clusters. The second, termed the multi-level parallel (MLP) method, is simple and uses shared memory for all communications. The _MLP code is suitable on distributed-shared memory systems. For both methods, the message passing takes place across the processors or processes at the advancement of each time step. This procedure is, in effect, the Chimera boundary conditions update, which is done in an explicit "Jacobi" style. In contrast, the update in the serial code is done in more of the "Gauss-Sidel" fashion. The programming efforts for the _MPI code is more complicated than for the _MLP code; the former requires modification of the outer and some inner shells of the serial code, whereas the latter focuses only on the outer shell of the code. The _MPI version offers a great deal of flexibility in distributing grid zones across a specified number of processors in order to achieve load balancing. The approach is capable of partitioning zones across multiple processors or sending each zone and/or cluster of several zones into a single processor. The message passing across the processors consists of Chimera boundary and/or an overlap of "halo" boundary points for each partitioned zone. The MLP version is a new coarse-grain parallel concept at the zonal and intra-zonal levels. A grouping strategy is used to distribute zones into several groups forming sub-processes which will run in parallel. The total volume of grid points in each
Gravitation theory in a fractal space-time
Agop, M.; Gottlieb, I.
2006-05-15
Assimilating the physical space-time with a fractal, a general theory is built. For a fractal dimension D=2, the virtual geodesics of this space-time implies a generalized Schroedinger type equation. Subsequently, a geometric formulation of the gravitation theory on a fractal space-time is given. Then, a connection is introduced on a tangent bundle, the connection coefficients, the Riemann curvature tensor and the Einstein field equation are calculated. It results, by means of a dilation operator, the equivalence of this model with quantum Einstein gravity.
Quaternion wave equations in curved space-time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, J. D., Jr.
1974-01-01
The quaternion formulation of relativistic quantum theory is extended to include curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time in order to provide a framework for a unified quantum/gravity theory. Six basic quaternion fields are identified in curved space-time, the four-vector basis quaternions are identified, and the necessary covariant derivatives are obtained. Invariant field equations are derived, and a general invertable coordinate transformation is developed. The results yield a way of writing quaternion wave equations in curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time as well as a natural framework for solving the problem of second quantization for gravity.
Age-space-time CAR models in Bayesian disease mapping.
Goicoa, T; Ugarte, M D; Etxeberria, J; Militino, A F
2016-06-30
Mortality counts are usually aggregated over age groups assuming similar effects of both time and region, yet the spatio-temporal evolution of cancer mortality rates may depend on changing age structures. In this paper, mortality rates are analyzed by region, time period and age group, and models including space-time, space-age, and age-time interactions are considered. The integrated nested Laplace approximation method, known as INLA, is adopted for model fitting and inference in order to reduce computing time in comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) methods. The methodology provides full posterior distributions of the quantities of interest while avoiding complex simulation techniques. The proposed models are used to analyze prostate cancer mortality data in 50 Spanish provinces over the period 1986-2010. The results reveal a decline in mortality since the late 1990s, particularly in the age group [65,70), probably because of the inclusion of the PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test and better treatment of early-stage disease. The decline is not clearly observed in the oldest age groups. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26814019
A hybrid quantum key distribution protocol based on extended unitary operations and fountain codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Hong; Xue, Liyin; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Pieprzyk, Josef
2015-02-01
In 1984, Bennett and Brassard designed the first quantum key distribution protocol, whose security is based on quantum indeterminacy. Since then, there has been growing research activities, aiming in designing new, more efficient and secure key distribution protocols. The work presents a novel hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. The key distribution is derived from both quantum and classical data. This is why it is called hybrid. The protocol applies extended unitary operations derived from four basic unitary operations and distributed fountain codes. Compared to other protocols published so far, the new one is more secure (provides authentication of parties and detection of eavesdropping) and efficient. Moreover, our protocol still works over noisy and lossy channels.
Quantized Space-Time and Black Hole Entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Meng-Sen; Li, Huai-Fan; Zhao, Ren
2014-06-01
On the basis of Snyder’s idea of quantized space-time, we derive a new generalized uncertainty principle and a new modified density of states. Accordingly, we obtain a corrected black hole entropy with a logarithmic correction term by employing the new generalized uncertainty principle. In addition, we recalculate the entropy of spherically symmetric black holes using statistical mechanics. Because of the use of the minimal length in quantized space-time as a natural cutoff, the entanglement entropy we obtained does not have the usual form A/4 but has a coefficient dependent on the minimal length, which shows differences between black hole entropy in quantized space-time and that in continuous space-time.
Tensor analysis and curvature in quantum space-time
Namsrai, K.
1987-03-01
Introducing quantum space-time into physics by means of the transformation language of noncommuting coordinates gives a simple scheme of generalizing the tensor analysis. The general covariance principle for the quantum space-time case is discussed, within which one can obtain the covariant structure of basic tensor quantities and the motion equation for a particle in a gravitational field. Definitions of covariant derivatives and curvature are also generalized in the give case. It turns out that the covariant structure of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor is not preserved in quantum space-time. However, if the curvature tensor R/sub ..mu.. nu lambda chi/(z) is redetermined up to the value of the L/sup 2/ term, then its covariant structure is achieved, and it, in turn, allows them to reconstruct the Einstein equation in quantum space-time.
Geodesic Structure of Janis-Newman-Winicour Space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Ruanjing; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu
2015-08-01
In the present paper we study the geodesic structure of the Janis-Newman-Winicour(JNW) space-time which contains a strong curvature naked singularity. This metric is an extension of the Schwarzschild geometry included a massless scalar field. We find that the strength parameter μ of the scalar field takes affection on the geodesic structure of the JNW space-time. By solving the geodesic equation and analyzing the behavior of effective potential, we investigate all geodesic types of the test particle and the photon in the JNW space-time. At the same time we simulate all the geodesic orbits corresponding to the energy levels of the effective potential in the JNW space-time.
Electrodynamics on {kappa}-Minkowski space-time
Harikumar, E.; Juric, T.; Meljanac, S.
2011-10-15
In this paper, we derive Lorentz force and Maxwell's equations on kappa-Minkowski space-time up to the first order in the deformation parameter. This is done by elevating the principle of minimal coupling to noncommutative space-time. We also show the equivalence of minimal coupling prescription and Feynman's approach. It is shown that the motion in kappa space-time can be interpreted as motion in a background gravitational field, which is induced by this noncommutativity. In the static limit, the effect of kappa deformation is to scale the electric charge. We also show that the laws of electrodynamics depend on the mass of the charged particle, in kappa space-time.
Non-contact assessment of melanin distribution via multispectral temporal illumination coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.
2015-03-01
Melanin is a pigment that is highly absorptive in the UV and visible electromagnetic spectra. It is responsible for perceived skin tone, and protects against harmful UV effects. Abnormal melanin distribution is often an indicator for melanoma. We propose a novel approach for non-contact melanin distribution via multispectral temporal illumination coding to estimate the two-dimensional melanin distribution based on its absorptive characteristics. In the proposed system, a novel multispectral, cross-polarized, temporally-coded illumination sequence is synchronized with a camera to measure reflectance under both multispectral and ambient illumination. This allows us to eliminate the ambient illumination contribution from the acquired reflectance measurements, and also to determine the melanin distribution in an observed region based on the spectral properties of melanin using the Beer-Lambert law. Using this information, melanin distribution maps can be generated for objective, quantitative assessment of skin type of individuals. We show that the melanin distribution map correctly identifies areas with high melanin densities (e.g., nevi).
Differentiating space-time optical signals using resonant nanophotonics structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emelyanov, S. V.; Bykov, D. A.; Golovastikov, N. V.; Doskolovich, L. L.; Soifer, V. A.
2016-03-01
A theoretical description of the space-time transformations of an optical signal, which passes through resonant gratings and Bragg gratings with a defect, is proposed. The problem of differentiating a space-time optical signal using a resonant grating has been solved. The strict solution to the Maxwell equations using the Fourier modal method is involved to determine the parameters of the transfer function of the resonant diffraction structure and to carry out numerical modeling, which has confirmed the proposed theoretical description.
Building up Space-Time with Quantum Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Raamsdonk, Mark
In this essay, we argue that the emergence of classically connected space-times is intimately related to the quantum entanglement of degrees of freedom in a nonperturbative description of quantum gravity. Disentangling the degrees of freedom associated with two regions of space-time results in these regions pulling apart and pinching off from each other in a way that can be quantified by standard measures of entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reale, F.; Barbera, M.; Sciortino, S.
1992-11-01
We illustrate a general and straightforward approach to develop FORTRAN parallel two-dimensional data-domain applications on distributed-memory systems, such as those based on transputers. We have aimed at achieving flexibility for different processor topologies and processor numbers, non-homogeneous processor configurations and coarse load-balancing. We have assumed a master-slave architecture as basic programming model in the framework of a domain decomposition approach. After developing a library of high-level general network and communication routines, based on low-level system-dependent libraries, we have used it to parallelize some specific applications: an elementary 2-D code, useful as a pattern and guide for other more complex applications, and a 2-D hydrodynamic code for astrophysical studies. Code parallelization is achieved by splitting the original code into two independent codes, one for the master and the other for the slaves, and then by adding coordinated calls to network setting and message-passing routines into the programs. The parallel applications have been implemented on a Meiko Computing Surface hosted by a SUN 4 workstation and running CSTools software package. After the basic network and communication routines were developed, the task of parallelizing the 2-D hydrodynamic code took approximately 12 man hours. The parallel efficiency of the code ranges between 98% and 58% on arrays between 2 and 20 T800 transputers, on a relatively small computational mesh (≈3000 cells). Arrays consisting of a limited number of faster Intel i860 processors achieve a high parallel efficiency on large computational grids (> 10000 grid points) with performances in the class of minisupercomputers.
Further results on fault-tolerant distributed classification using error-correcting codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tsang-Yi; Han, Yunghsiang S.; Varshney, Pramod K.
2004-04-01
In this paper, we consider the distributed classification problem in wireless sensor networks. The DCFECC-SD approach employing the binary code matrix has recently been proposed to cope with the errors caused by both sensor faults and the effect of fading channels. The DCFECC-SD approach extends the DCFECC approach by using soft decision decoding to combat channel fading. However, the performance of the system employing the binary code matrix could be degraded if the distance between different hypotheses can not be kept large. This situation could happen when the number of sensor is small or the number of hypotheses is large. In this paper, we design the DCFECC-SD approach employing the D-ary code matrix, where D>2. Simulation results show that the performance of the DCFECC-SD approach employing the D-ary code matrix is better than that of the DCFECC-SD approach employing the binary code matrix. Performance evaluation of DCFECC-SD using different number of bits of local decision information is also provided when the total channel energy output from each sensor node is fixed.
Examination of nanoparticle dispersion using a novel GPU based radial distribution function code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosch, Thomas; Wade, Matthew; Phelan, Frederick
We have developed a novel GPU-based code that rapidly calculates radial distribution function (RDF) for an entire system, with no cutoff, ensuring accuracy. Built on top of this code, we have developed tools to calculate the second virial coefficient (B2) and the structure factor from the RDF, two properties that are directly related to the dispersion of nanoparticles in nancomposite systems. We validate the RDF calculations by comparison with previously published results, and also show how our code, which takes into account bonding in polymeric systems, enables more accurate predictions of g(r) than current state of the art GPU-based RDF codes currently available for these systems. In addition, our code reduces the computational time by approximately an order of magnitude compared to CPU-based calculations. We demonstrate the application of our toolset by the examination of a coarse-grained nanocomposite system and show how different surface energies between particle and polymer lead to different dispersion states, and effect properties such as viscosity, yield strength, elasticity, and thermal conductivity.
Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.
1982-09-01
In this study several aspects of simulating hydrogen distribution in geometric configurations relevant to reactor containment structures were investigated using the TEMPEST computer code. Of particular interest was the performance of the TEMPEST turbulence model in a density-stratified environment. Computed results illustrated that the TEMPEST numerical procedures predicted the measured phenomena with good accuracy under a variety of conditions and that the turbulence model used is a viable approach in complex turbulent flow simulation.
Kawamura, E.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.
1996-12-31
The goal is to obtain the ion angular and energy distributions at the wafer of inductive and capacitive discharges. To do this on a standard uniform mesh with particle codes alone would be impractical because of the long time scale nature of the problem (i.e., 10{sup 6} time steps). A solution is to use a fluid code to simulate the bulk source region, while using a particle-in-cell code to simulate the sheath region. Induct95 is a 2d fluid code which can simulate inductive and capacitive discharges. Though it does not resolve the sheath region near the wafer, it provides diagnostics for the collisional bulk plasma (i.e., potentials, temperatures, fluxes, etc.). Also, fluid codes converge to equilibrium much faster than particle codes in collisional regimes PDP1 is a 1d3v particle-in-cell code which can simulate rf discharges. It can resolve the sheath region and obtain the ion angular and energy distributions at the wafer target. The overall running time is expected to be that of the fluid code.
Ricci collineation vectors in fluid space-times
Tsamparlis, M. ); Mason, D.P. )
1990-07-01
The properties of fluid space-times that admit a Ricci collineation vector (RCV) parallel to the fluid unit four-velocity vector {ital u}{sup {ital a}} are briefly reviewed. These properties are expressed in terms of the kinematic quantities of the timelike congruence generated by {ital u}{sup {ital a}}. The cubic equation derived by Oliver and Davis (Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare {bold 30}, 339 (1979)) for the equation of state {ital p}={ital p}({mu}) of a perfect fluid space-time that admits an RCV, which does not degenerate to a Killing vector, is solved for physically realistic fluids. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a fluid space-time to admit a spacelike RCV parallel to a unit vector {ital n}{sup {ital a}} orthogonal to {ital u}{sup {ital a}} are derived in terms of the expansion, shear, and rotation of the spacelike congruence generated by {ital n}{sup {ital a}}. Perfect fluid space-times are studied in detail and analogues of the results for timelike RCVs parallel to {ital u}{sup {ital a}} are obtained. Properties of imperfect fluid space-times for which the energy flux vector {ital q}{sup {ital a}} vanishes and {ital n}{sup {ital a}} is a spacelike eigenvector of the anisotropic stress tensor {pi}{sub {ital ab}} are derived. Fluid space-times with anisotropic pressure are discussed as a special case of imperfect fluid space-times for which {ital n}{sup {ital a}} is an eigenvector of {pi}{sub {ital ab}}.
Kim, Steve M.; Ganguli, Surya; Frank, Loren M.
2012-01-01
Hippocampal place cells convey spatial information through a combination of spatially-selective firing and theta phase precession. The way in which this information influences regions like the subiculum that receive input from the hippocampus remains unclear. The subiculum receives direct inputs from area CA1 of the hippocampus and sends divergent output projections to many other parts of the brain, so we examined the firing patterns of rat subicular neurons. We found a substantial transformation in the subicular code for space from sparse to dense firing rate representations along a proximal-distal anatomical gradient: neurons in the proximal subiculum are more similar to canonical, sparsely firing hippocampal place cells, whereas neurons in the distal subiculum have higher firing rates and more distributed spatial firing patterns. Using information theory, we found that the more distributed spatial representation in the subiculum carries, on average, more information about spatial location and context than the sparse spatial representation in CA1. Remarkably, despite the disparate firing rate properties of subicular neurons, we found that neurons at all proximal-distal locations exhibit robust theta phase precession, with similar spiking oscillation frequencies as neurons in area CA1. Our findings suggest that the subiculum is specialized to compress sparse hippocampal spatial codes into highly informative distributed codes suitable for efficient communication to other brain regions. Moreover, despite this substantial compression, the subiculum maintains finer scale temporal properties that may allow it to participate in oscillatory phase coding and spike timing-dependent plasticity in coordination with other regions of the hippocampal circuit. PMID:22915100
Turbulence-free space-time quantum imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.; Tunick, Arnold
2013-09-01
We experimentally demonstrate turbulence-free space-time quantum imaging. Quantum images of remote objects are produced with two sensors measuring at different space-time points under turbulent conditions. The quantum images generated move depending on the time delay between the two sensor measurements and the speed of a rotating ground glass that is part of a chaotic laser light source. For small delay times turbulence has virtually no adverse affect on the moving quantum images. The experimental setup and findings contribute to understanding the fundamentals of multi-photon quantum interference in complex media. Furthermore, the space-time memory demonstrated in our research provides important new pathways for investigating quantum imaging, quantum information storage and quantum computing. The turbulence-free space-time quantum imaging procedure greatly increases the information content of each photon measured. The moved quantum images are in fact new images that are stored in a space-time virtual memory process. The images are stored within the same quantum imaging data sets and thus quantum imaging can produce more information per photon measured than was previously realized.
A Reparametrization Approach for Dynamic Space-Time Models
Lee, Hyeyoung; Ghosh, Sujit K.
2009-01-01
Researchers in diverse areas such as environmental and health sciences are increasingly working with data collected across space and time. The space-time processes that are generally used in practice are often complicated in the sense that the auto-dependence structure across space and time is non-trivial, often non-separable and non-stationary in space and time. Moreover, the dimension of such data sets across both space and time can be very large leading to computational difficulties due to numerical instabilities. Hence, space-time modeling is a challenging task and in particular parameter estimation based on complex models can be problematic due to the curse of dimensionality. We propose a novel reparametrization approach to fit dynamic space-time models which allows the use of a very general form for the spatial covariance function. Our modeling contribution is to present an unconstrained reparametrization method for a covariance function within dynamic space-time models. A major benefit of the proposed unconstrained reparametrization method is that we are able to implement the modeling of a very high dimensional covariance matrix that automatically maintains the positive definiteness constraint. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed reparametrized dynamic space-time models for a large data set of total nitrate concentrations. PMID:21593998
Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C.
2015-01-01
Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non-normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased type-I and type-II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally-technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in supplementary materials. PMID:26098126
Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C
2015-12-01
Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased Type I and Type II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in online supplemental materials. PMID:26098126
Reliability of Calderbank Shor Steane codes and security of quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Mitsuru
2004-08-01
After Mayers (1996 Advances in Cryptography: Proc. Crypto'96 pp 343-57 2001 J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 48 351-406) gave a proof of the security of the Bennett-Brassard (1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) pp 175-9) (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol, Shor and Preskill (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441-4) made a remarkable observation that a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) code had been implicitly used in the BB84 protocol, and suggested its security could be proved by bounding the fidelity, say Fn, of the incorporated CSS code of length n in the form 1-F_n \\le \\exp[-n E \\ {+}\\ o(n)] for some positive number E. This work presents such a number E = E(R) as a function of the rate of codes R, and a threshold R0 such that E(R) > 0 whenever R < R0, which is larger than the achievable rate based on the Gilbert-Varshamov bound that is essentially given by Shor and Preskill. The codes in the present work are robust against fluctuations of channel parameters, which fact is needed to establish the security rigorously and was not proved for rates above the Gilbert-Varshamov rate before in the literature. As a byproduct, the security of a modified BB84 protocol against any joint (coherent) attacks is proved quantitatively.
FLRW cosmology in Weyl-integrable space-time
Gannouji, Radouane; Nandan, Hemwati; Dadhich, Naresh E-mail: hntheory@yahoo.co.in
2011-11-01
We investigate the Weyl space-time extension of general relativity (GR) for studying the FLRW cosmology through focusing and defocusing of the geodesic congruences. We have derived the equations of evolution for expansion, shear and rotation in the Weyl space-time. In particular, we consider the Starobinsky modification, f(R) = R+βR{sup 2}−2Λ, of gravity in the Einstein-Palatini formalism, which turns out to reduce to the Weyl integrable space-time (WIST) with the Weyl vector being a gradient. The modified Raychaudhuri equation takes the form of the Hill-type equation which is then analysed to study the formation of the caustics. In this model, it is possible to have a Big Bang singularity free cyclic Universe but unfortunately the periodicity turns out to be extremely short.
Dynamic analysis of space time effects in the ISU RACE configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulik, Viktoriya V.; Lee, John C.; Beller, Denis E.
2006-06-01
We present reactor physics analyses for the accelerator-driven thermal reactor configuration of the Reactor-Accelerator Coupling Experiments Project (RACE) at Idaho State University. A full-core model is developed using the ERANOS deterministic code coupled with the JEF2.2 nuclear data library. A pulsed source experiment is simulated to test performance of the traditional point kinetics and space-time α-methods for reactivity determination. Analysis of the simulated 235U detector responses to a neutron source pulse indicates the inability of point kinetics theory to correctly determine the reactivity for the subcritical RACE configuration. The ERANOS simulation indicates that the traditional α-method overestimates keff by 4.5%, whereas the space-time α-method could yield significant improvements if sufficiently accurate simulations are available.
Visual Data Mining of Large, Multivariate Space-Time Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, D.
2001-12-01
Interest in understanding global climate change is generating monitoring efforts that yield a huge amount of multivariate space-time data. While analytical methods for univariate space-time data may be mature and substantial, methods for multivariate space-time data analysis are still in their infancy. The urgency of understanding climate change on a global scale begs for input from data analysts, and to work effectively they need new tools to explore multivariate aspects of climate. This talk describes interactive and dynamic visual tools for mining information from multivariate space-time data. Methods for small amounts of data will be discussed, followed by approaches to scaling up methods for large quantities of data. We focus on the ``multiple views'' approach for viewing multivariate data, and how these extend to include space-time contextual information. We also will describe dynamic graphics methods such as tours in the space-time context. Data mining is the current terminology for exploratory analyses of data, typically associated with large databases. Exploratory analysis has a goal of finding anomalies, quirks and deviations from a trend, and basically extracting unexpected information from data. It oft-times emphasizes model-free methods, although model-based approaches are also integral components to the analysis process. Visual data mining concentrates on the use of visual tools in the exploratory process. As such it often involves highly interactive and dynamic graphics environments which facilitate quick queries and visual responses. Visual methods are especially important in exploratory analysis because they provide an interface for using the human eye to digest complex information. A good plot can convey far more information than a numerical summary. Visual tools enhance the chances of discovering the unexpected, and detecting the anomalous events.
Partially Key Distribution with Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Error Control Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavallaei, Saeed Ebadi; Falahati, Abolfazl
Due to the low level of security in public key cryptosystems based on number theory, fundamental difficulties such as "key escrow" in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and a secure channel in ID-based cryptography, a new key distribution cryptosystem based on Error Control Codes (ECC) is proposed . This idea is done by some modification on McEliece cryptosystem. The security of ECC cryptosystem obtains from the NP-Completeness of block codes decoding. The capability of generating public keys with variable lengths which is suitable for different applications will be provided by using ECC. It seems that usage of these cryptosystems because of decreasing in the security of cryptosystems based on number theory and increasing the lengths of their keys would be unavoidable in future.
Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T
2007-08-30
Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.
Space-time curvature signatures in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matos, Tonatiuh; Gomez, Eduardo
2015-05-01
We derive a generalized Gross-Pitaevski (GP) equation for a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) immersed in a weak gravitational field starting from the covariant Complex Klein-Gordon field in a curved space-time. We compare it with the traditional GP equation where the gravitational field is added by hand as an external potential. We show that there is a small difference of order gz/c2 between them that could be measured in the future using Bose-Einstein Condensates. This represents the next order correction to the Newtonian gravity in a curved space-time.
Quantum Detectors in Generic Non Flat FLRW Space-Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabochaya, Yevgeniya; Zerbini, Sergio
2016-05-01
We discuss a quantum field theoretical approach, in which a quantum probe is used to investigate the properties of generic non-flat FLRW space-times. The probe is identified with a conformally coupled massless scalar field defined on a space-time with horizon and the procedure to investigate the local properties is realized by the use of Unruh-DeWitt detector and by the evaluation of the regularized quantum fluctuations. In the case of de Sitter space, the coordinate independence of our results is checked, and the Gibbons-Hawking temperature is recovered. A possible generalization to the electromagnetic probe is also briefly indicated.
LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.
Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng
2014-03-01
In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction. PMID:24474371
Complete Distributed Hyper-Entangled-Bell-State Analysis and Quantum Super Dense Coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Chunhong; Gu, Yongjian; Li, Wendong; Wang, Zhaoming; Zhang, Jiying
2016-02-01
We propose a protocol to implement the distributed hyper-entangled-Bell-state analysis (HBSA) for photonic qubits with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, QND photon-number-resolving detection, and some linear optical elements. The distinct feature of our scheme is that the BSA for two different degrees of freedom can be implemented deterministically and nondestructively. Based on the present HBSA, we achieve quantum super dense coding with double information capacity, which makes our scheme more significant for long-distance quantum communication.
Space-time metrical fluctuations induced by cosmic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, G.
1980-01-01
For a stochastic stress-energy tensor associated with cosmic turbulence, it is observed that Einstein's equations imply fluctuations in the space-time metric tensor. Such metrical fluctuations are shown to engender modified values for the average effective proper density and total pressure and thus to alter the solutions to the Friedman equations.
Parabosonic string and space-time non-commutativity
Seridi, M. A.; Belaloui, N.
2012-06-27
We investigate the para-quantum extension of the bosonic strings in a non-commutative space-time. We calculate the trilinear relations between the mass-center variables and the modes and we derive the Virasoro algebra where a new anomaly term due to the non-commutativity is obtained.
Confinement from gluodynamics in curved space-time
Gaete, Patricio; Spallucci, Euro
2008-01-15
We determine the static potential for a heavy quark-antiquark pair from gluodynamics in curved space-time. Our calculation is done within the framework of the gauge-invariant, path-dependent, variables formalism. The potential energy is the sum of a Yukawa and a linear potential, leading to the confinement of static charges.
Spin fluids in stationary axis-symmetric space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krisch, J. P.
1987-07-01
The relations establishing the equivalence of an ordinary perfect fluid stress-energy tensor and a spin fluid stress-energy tensor are derived for stationary axis-symmetric space-times in general relativity. Spin fluid sources for the Gödel cosmology and the van Stockum metric are given.
A proposal test of the space-time metricity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassi, A. M.; Strini, G.
Among the standard hypothesis about gravitational theories, there is the "metricity" hypothesis for the space-time metric. Hehl, McCrea, Ne'eman and others have proposed a non-metricity. With the help of simple additional hypothesis, based on a previous experiment by Harris et al., the authors propose a metricity test by means of spectroscopic tests on meteorites.
Confinement from gluodynamics in curved space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Spallucci, Euro
2008-01-01
We determine the static potential for a heavy quark-antiquark pair from gluodynamics in curved space-time. Our calculation is done within the framework of the gauge-invariant, path-dependent, variables formalism. The potential energy is the sum of a Yukawa and a linear potential, leading to the confinement of static charges.
Joint space-time geostatistical model for air quality surveillance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russo, A.; Soares, A.; Pereira, M. J.
2009-04-01
Air pollution and peoples' generalized concern about air quality are, nowadays, considered to be a global problem. Although the introduction of rigid air pollution regulations has reduced pollution from industry and power stations, the growing number of cars on the road poses a new pollution problem. Considering the characteristics of the atmospheric circulation and also the residence times of certain pollutants in the atmosphere, a generalized and growing interest on air quality issues led to research intensification and publication of several articles with quite different levels of scientific depth. As most natural phenomena, air quality can be seen as a space-time process, where space-time relationships have usually quite different characteristics and levels of uncertainty. As a result, the simultaneous integration of space and time is not an easy task to perform. This problem is overcome by a variety of methodologies. The use of stochastic models and neural networks to characterize space-time dispersion of air quality is becoming a common practice. The main objective of this work is to produce an air quality model which allows forecasting critical concentration episodes of a certain pollutant by means of a hybrid approach, based on the combined use of neural network models and stochastic simulations. A stochastic simulation of the spatial component with a space-time trend model is proposed to characterize critical situations, taking into account data from the past and a space-time trend from the recent past. To identify near future critical episodes, predicted values from neural networks are used at each monitoring station. In this paper, we describe the design of a hybrid forecasting tool for ambient NO2 concentrations in Lisbon, Portugal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ioan, M.-R.
2016-08-01
In ionizing radiation related experiments, precisely knowing of the involved parameters it is a very important task. Some of these experiments are involving the use of electromagnetic ionizing radiation such are gamma rays and X rays, others make use of energetic charged or not charged small dimensions particles such are protons, electrons, neutrons and even, in other cases, larger accelerated particles such are helium or deuterium nuclei are used. In all these cases the beam used to hit an exposed target must be previously collimated and precisely characterized. In this paper, a novel method to determine the distribution of the collimated beam involving Matlab coding is proposed. The method was implemented by using of some Pyrex glass test samples placed in the beam where its distribution and dimension must be determined, followed by taking high quality pictures of them and then by digital processing the resulted images. By this method, information regarding the doses absorbed in the exposed samples volume are obtained too.
3-D model-based frame interpolation for distributed video coding of static scenes.
Maitre, Matthieu; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce
2007-05-01
This paper addresses the problem of side information extraction for distributed coding of videos captured by a camera moving in a 3-D static environment. Examples of targeted applications are augmented reality, remote-controlled robots operating in hazardous environments, or remote exploration by drones. It explores the benefits of the structure-from-motion paradigm for distributed coding of this type of video content. Two interpolation methods constrained by the scene geometry, based either on block matching along epipolar lines or on 3-D mesh fitting, are first developed. These techniques are based on a robust algorithm for sub-pel matching of feature points, which leads to semi-dense correspondences between key frames. However, their rate-distortion (RD) performances are limited by misalignments between the side information and the actual Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames due to the assumption of linear motion between key frames. To cope with this problem, two feature point tracking techniques are introduced, which recover the camera parameters of the WZ frames. A first technique, in which the frames remain encoded separately, performs tracking at the decoder and leads to significant RD performance gains. A second technique further improves the RD performances by allowing a limited tracking at the encoder. As an additional benefit, statistics on tracks allow the encoder to adapt the key frame frequency to the video motion content. PMID:17491456
Wan, Jan; Xiong, Naixue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qinchao; Wan, Zheng
2012-01-01
The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be greatly affected by failures of sensor nodes due to energy exhaustion or the influence of brutal external environment conditions. Such failures seriously affect the data persistence and collection efficiency. Strategies based on network coding technology for WSNs such as LTCDS can improve the data persistence without mass redundancy. However, due to the bad intermediate performance of LTCDS, a serious ‘cliff effect’ may appear during the decoding period, and source data are hard to recover from sink nodes before sufficient encoded packets are collected. In this paper, the influence of coding degree distribution strategy on the ‘cliff effect’ is observed and the prioritized data storage and dissemination algorithm PLTD-ALPHA is presented to achieve better data persistence and recovering performance. With PLTD-ALPHA, the data in sensor network nodes present a trend that their degree distribution increases along with the degree level predefined, and the persistent data packets can be submitted to the sink node according to its degree in order. Finally, the performance of PLTD-ALPHA is evaluated and experiment results show that PLTD-ALPHA can greatly improve the data collection performance and decoding efficiency, while data persistence is not notably affected. PMID:23235451
Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.
Qi, Feng; Du, Fei
2013-01-01
It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubert Godoy, A.; Nykanen, D.
2003-04-01
Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation in mountainous terrain and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. Subtantiing a space-time statistical downscaling model for orographic convective precipitation based on the interplay between meteorological forcings and topographic influences on the scale-invariant properties of precipitation will be assessed.al progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of mid-western convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences. This study uses multi-scale statistical analysis to investigate the space-time scaling of organized thunderstorms that produced heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions. Focus is placed on the eastern and western slopes of the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Parameter estimates are analyzed over time and focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale parameters with meteorological forcings and orographic influences on the rainfall. Influences of geographic region (e.g., western versus eastern United States) and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing)on trends in multi-scale properties of precipitation are investigated. Spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours ae considered. This range of space-time scales is needed to bridge typical scale gaps between distributed hydrologic models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts and attempts to address the open research problem of scaling organized thunderstorms and convection in mountainous terrain down to 1-4 km scales. The potential for
Monte Carlo N Particle code - Dose distribution of clinical electron beams in inhomogeneous phantoms
Nedaie, H. A.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Allahverdi, M.
2013-01-01
Electron dose distributions calculated using the currently available analytical methods can be associated with large uncertainties. The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for dose calculation in electron beams. Most of the clinical electron beam simulation studies have been performed using non- MCNP [Monte Carlo N Particle] codes. Given the differences between Monte Carlo codes, this work aims to evaluate the accuracy of MCNP4C-simulated electron dose distributions in a homogenous phantom and around inhomogeneities. Different types of phantoms ranging in complexity were used; namely, a homogeneous water phantom and phantoms made of polymethyl methacrylate slabs containing different-sized, low- and high-density inserts of heterogeneous materials. Electron beams with 8 and 15 MeV nominal energy generated by an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator were investigated. Measurements were performed for a 10 cm × 10 cm applicator at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. Individual parts of the beam-defining system were introduced into the simulation one at a time in order to show their effect on depth doses. In contrast to the first scattering foil, the secondary scattering foil, X and Y jaws and applicator provide up to 5% of the dose. A 2%/2 mm agreement between MCNP and measurements was found in the homogenous phantom, and in the presence of heterogeneities in the range of 1-3%, being generally within 2% of the measurements for both energies in a "complex" phantom. A full-component simulation is necessary in order to obtain a realistic model of the beam. The MCNP4C results agree well with the measured electron dose distributions. PMID:23533162
Nedaie, H A; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A; Allahverdi, M
2013-01-01
Electron dose distributions calculated using the currently available analytical methods can be associated with large uncertainties. The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for dose calculation in electron beams. Most of the clinical electron beam simulation studies have been performed using non- MCNP [Monte Carlo N Particle] codes. Given the differences between Monte Carlo codes, this work aims to evaluate the accuracy of MCNP4C-simulated electron dose distributions in a homogenous phantom and around inhomogeneities. Different types of phantoms ranging in complexity were used; namely, a homogeneous water phantom and phantoms made of polymethyl methacrylate slabs containing different-sized, low- and high-density inserts of heterogeneous materials. Electron beams with 8 and 15 MeV nominal energy generated by an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator were investigated. Measurements were performed for a 10 cm × 10 cm applicator at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. Individual parts of the beam-defining system were introduced into the simulation one at a time in order to show their effect on depth doses. In contrast to the first scattering foil, the secondary scattering foil, X and Y jaws and applicator provide up to 5% of the dose. A 2%/2 mm agreement between MCNP and measurements was found in the homogenous phantom, and in the presence of heterogeneities in the range of 1-3%, being generally within 2% of the measurements for both energies in a "complex" phantom. A full-component simulation is necessary in order to obtain a realistic model of the beam. The MCNP4C results agree well with the measured electron dose distributions. PMID:23533162
Ultrafast Optical Signal Processing Based Upon Space-Time Dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Howe, James; Xu, Chris
2006-07-01
The last two decades have seen a wealth of optical instrumentation based upon the concepts of space-time duality. A historical overview of how this beautiful framework has been exploited to develop instruments for optical signal processing is presented. The power of this framework is then demonstrated by reviewing four devices in detail based upon space-time dualities that have been experimentally demonstrated: 1) a time-lens timing-jitter compensator for ultralong-haul dense-wavelength-division-multiplexed dispersion-managed soliton transmission, 2) a multiwavelength pulse generator using time-lens compression, 3) a programmable ultrafast optical delay line by use of a time-prism pair, and 4) an enhanced ultrafast optical delay line by use of soliton propagation between a time-prism pair.
Inflation on a non-commutative space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmet, Xavier; Fritz, Christopher
2015-07-01
We study inflation on a non-commutative space-time within the framework of enveloping algebra approach which allows for a consistent formulation of general relativity and of the standard model of particle physics. We show that within this framework, the effects of the non-commutativity of spacetime are very subtle. The dominant effect comes from contributions to the process of structure formation. We describe the bound relevant to this class of non-commutative theories and derive the tightest bound to date of the value of the non-commutative scale within this framework. Assuming that inflation took place, we get a model independent bound on the scale of space-time non-commutativity of the order of 19 TeV.
Measuring Space-Time Geometry over the Ages
Stebbins, Albert; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
Theorists are often told to express things in the 'observational plane'. One can do this for space-time geometry, considering 'visual' observations of matter in our universe by a single observer over time, with no assumptions about isometries, initial conditions, nor any particular relation between matter and geometry, such as Einstein's equations. Using observables as coordinates naturally leads to a parametrization of space-time geometry in terms of other observables, which in turn prescribes an observational program to measure the geometry. Under the assumption of vorticity-free matter flow we describe this observational program, which includes measurements of gravitational lensing, proper motion, and redshift drift. Only 15% of the curvature information can be extracted without long time baseline observations, and this increases to 35% with observations that will take decades. The rest would likely require centuries of observations. The formalism developed is exact, non-perturbative, and more general than the usual cosmological analysis.
Mediterranean space-time extremes of wind wave sea states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbariol, Francesco; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bonaldo, Davide; Bergamasco, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise
2014-05-01
Traditionally, wind wave sea states during storms have been observed, modeled, and predicted mostly in the time domain, i.e. at a fixed point. In fact, the standard statistical models used in ocean waves analysis rely on the implicit assumption of long-crested waves. Nevertheless, waves in storms are mainly short-crested. Hence, spatio-temporal features of the wave field are crucial to accurately model the sea state characteristics and to provide reliable predictions, particurly of wave extremes. Indeed, the experimental evidence provided by novel instrumentations, e.g. WASS (Wave Acquisition Stereo System), showed that the maximum sea surface elevation gathered in time over an area, i.e. the space-time extreme, is larger than that one measured in time at a point, i.e. the time extreme. Recently, stochastic models used to estimate maxima of multidimensional Gaussian random fields have been applied to ocean waves statistics. These models are based either on Piterbarg's theorem or Adler and Taylor's Euler Characteristics approach. Besides a probability of exceedance of a certain threshold, they can provide the expected space-time extreme of a sea state, as long as space-time wave features (i.e. some parameters of the directional variance density spectrum) are known. These models have been recently validated against WASS observation from fixed and moving platforms. In this context, our focus was modeling and predicting extremes of wind waves during storms. Thus, to intensively gather space-time extremes data over the Mediterranean region, we used directional spectra provided by the numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). Therefore, we set up a 6x6 km2 resolution grid entailing most of the Mediterranean Sea and we forced it with COSMO-I7 high resolution (7x7 km2) hourly wind fields, within 2007-2013 period. To obtain the space-time features, i.e. the spectral parameters, at each grid node and over the 6 simulated years, we developed a modified version
Static Isotropic Space-Times with Radially Imperfect Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopka, Tomasz
When one is solving the equations of general relativity in a symmetric sector, it is natural to consider the same symmetry for the geometry and stress-energy. This implies that for static and isotropic space-times, the most general natural stress-energy tensor is a sum of a perfect fluid and a radially imperfect fluid component. In the special situations where the perfect fluid component vanishes or is a space-time constant, the solutions to Einstein's equations can be thought of as modified Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spaces. Exact solutions of this type are derived and it is shown that whereas deviations from the unmodified solutions can be made small, among the manifestations of the imperfect fluid component is a shift in angular momentum scaling for orbiting test bodies at large radius. Based on this effect, the question of whether the imperfect fluid component can feasibly describe dark matter phenomenology is addressed.
k-Inflation in noncommutative space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou; Liu, Dao-Jun
2015-02-01
The power spectra of the scalar and tensor perturbations in the noncommutative k-inflation model are calculated in this paper. In this model, all the modes created when the stringy space-time uncertainty relation is satisfied, and they are generated inside the sound/Hubble horizon during inflation for the scalar/tensor perturbations. It turns out that a linear term describing the noncommutative space-time effect contributes to the power spectra of the scalar and tensor perturbations. Confronting the general noncommutative k-inflation model with latest results from Planck and BICEP2, and taking and as free parameters, we find that it is well consistent with observations. However, for the two specific models, i.e. the tachyon and DBI inflation models, it is found that the DBI model is not favored, while the tachyon model lies inside the contour, when the e-folding number is assumed to be around.
Effect of Heat on Space-Time Correlations in Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bridges, James
2006-01-01
Measurements of space-time correlations of velocity, acquired in jets from acoustic Mach number 0.5 to 1.5 and static temperature ratios up to 2.7 are presented and analyzed. Previous reports of these experiments concentrated on the experimental technique and on validating the data. In the present paper the dataset is analyzed to address the question of how space-time correlations of velocity are different in cold and hot jets. The analysis shows that turbulent kinetic energy intensities, lengthscales, and timescales are impacted by the addition of heat, but by relatively small amounts. This contradicts the models and assumptions of recent aeroacoustic theory trying to predict the noise of hot jets. Once the change in jet potential core length has been factored out, most one- and two-point statistics collapse for all hot and cold jets.
Micro-Macro Duality and Space-Time Emergence
Ojima, Izumi
2011-03-28
The microscopic origin of space-time geometry is explained on the basis of an emergence process associated with the condensation of infinite number of microscopic quanta responsible for symmetry breakdown, which implements the basic essence of 'Quantum-Classical Correspondence' and of the forcing method in physical and mathematical contexts, respectively. From this viewpoint, the space-time dependence of physical quantities arises from the 'logical extension' to change 'constant objects' into 'variable objects' by tagging the order parameters associated with the condensation onto ''constant objects''; the logical direction here from a value y to a domain variable x(to materialize the basic mechanism behind the Gel'fand isomorphism) is just opposite to that common in the usual definition of a function f : x->f(x) from its domain variable x to a value y = f(x).
Class of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion space-times
Matos, Tonatiuh; Miranda, Galaxia; Sanchez-Sanchez, Ruben; Wiederhold, Petra
2009-06-15
We use the harmonic maps ansatz to find exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion (EMDA) equations. The solutions are harmonic maps invariant to the symplectic real group in four dimensions Sp(4,R){approx}O(5). We find solutions of the EMDA field equations for the one- and two-dimensional subspaces of the symplectic group. Specially, for illustration of the method, we find space-times that generalize the Schwarzschild solution with dilaton, axion, and electromagnetic fields.
Corrected Hawking Temperature in Snyder's Quantized Space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Meng-Sen; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ren
2015-06-01
In the quantized space-time of Snyder, generalized uncertainty relation and commutativity are both included. In this paper we analyze the possible form for the corrected Hawking temperature and derive it from the both effects. It is shown that the corrected Hawking temperature has a form similar to the one of noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole, however with an requirement for the noncommutative parameter 𝜃 and the minimal length a.
Detecting space-time cancer clusters using residential histories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.
2007-04-01
Methods for analyzing geographic clusters of disease typically ignore the space-time variability inherent in epidemiologic datasets, do not adequately account for known risk factors (e.g., smoking and education) or covariates (e.g., age, gender, and race), and do not permit investigation of the latency window between exposure and disease. Our research group recently developed Q-statistics for evaluating space-time clustering in cancer case-control studies with residential histories. This technique relies on time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships to examine clustering at any moment in the life-course of the residential histories of cases relative to that of controls. In addition, in place of the widely used null hypothesis of spatial randomness, each individual's probability of being a case is instead based on his/her risk factors and covariates. Case-control clusters will be presented using residential histories of 220 bladder cancer cases and 440 controls in Michigan. In preliminary analyses of this dataset, smoking, age, gender, race and education were sufficient to explain the majority of the clustering of residential histories of the cases. Clusters of unexplained risk, however, were identified surrounding the business address histories of 10 industries that emit known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens. The clustering of 5 of these industries began in the 1970's and persisted through the 1990's. This systematic approach for evaluating space-time clustering has the potential to generate novel hypotheses about environmental risk factors. These methods may be extended to detect differences in space-time patterns of any two groups of people, making them valuable for security intelligence and surveillance operations.
Uniqueness of Kerr space-time near null infinity
Wu Xiaoning; Bai Shan
2008-12-15
We reexpress the Kerr metric in standard Bondi-Sachs coordinates near null infinity I{sup +}. Using the uniqueness result of the characteristic initial value problem, we prove the Kerr metric is the only asymptotically flat, stationary, axially symmetric, type-D solution of the vacuum Einstein equation. The Taylor series of Kerr space-time is expressed in terms of Bondi-Sachs coordinates, and the Newman-Penrose constants have been calculated.
Space-time structure of weak and electromagnetic interactions
Hestenes, D.
1982-02-01
The generator of electromagnetic gauge transformations in the Dirac equation has a unique geometric interpretation and a unique extension to the generators of the gauge group SU(2) x U(1) for the Weinberg--Salam theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions. It follows that internal symmetries of the weak interactions can be interpreted as space-time symmetries of spinor fields in the Dirac algebra. The possibilities for interpreting strong interaction symmetries in a similar way are highly restricted.
The wave equation on static singular space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayerhofer, Eberhard
2008-02-01
The first part of my thesis lays the foundations to generalized Lorentz geometry. The basic algebraic structure of finite-dimensional modules over the ring of generalized numbers is investigated. The motivation for this part of my thesis evolved from the main topic, the wave equation on singular space-times. The second and main part of my thesis is devoted to establishing a local existence and uniqueness theorem for the wave equation on singular space-times. The singular Lorentz metric subject to our discussion is modeled within the special algebra on manifolds in the sense of Colombeau. Inspired by an approach to generalized hyperbolicity of conical-space times due to Vickers and Wilson, we succeed in establishing certain energy estimates, which by a further elaborated equivalence of energy integrals and Sobolev norms allow us to prove existence and uniqueness of local generalized solutions of the wave equation with respect to a wide class of generalized metrics. The third part of my thesis treats three different point value resp. uniqueness questions in algebras of generalized functions
Review of software for space-time disease surveillance
2010-01-01
Disease surveillance makes use of information technology at almost every stage of the process, from data collection and collation, through to analysis and dissemination. Automated data collection systems enable near-real time analysis of incoming data. This context places a heavy burden on software used for space-time surveillance. In this paper, we review software programs capable of space-time disease surveillance analysis, and outline some of their salient features, shortcomings, and usability. Programs with space-time methods were selected for inclusion, limiting our review to ClusterSeer, SaTScan, GeoSurveillance and the Surveillance package for R. We structure the review around stages of analysis: preprocessing, analysis, technical issues, and output. Simulated data were used to review each of the software packages. SaTScan was found to be the best equipped package for use in an automated surveillance system. ClusterSeer is more suited to data exploration, and learning about the different methods of statistical surveillance. PMID:20226054
Space-time coordinated metadata for the Virtual Observatory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rots, A. H.
2007-08-01
Space-time coordinate metadata are at the very core of understanding astronomical data and information. This aspect of data description requires very careful consideration. The design needs to be sufficiently general that it can adequately represent the many coordinate systems and conventions that are in use in the community. On the other hand the most basic requirement is that the space-time metadata for queries, for resource descriptions, and for data be complete and self-consistent. It is important to keep in mind that space, time, redshift, and spectrum are strongly intertwined coordinates: time has little meaning without knowing the location, and vice-versa; redshift and spectral data require position and velocity for correct interpretation. The design of the metadata structure has been completed at this time and will support most, if not all, coordinate systems and transformations between them for the Virtual Observatory, either immediately or through extensions. This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center.
Relativistic helicity and link in Minkowski space-time
Yoshida, Z.; Kawazura, Y.; Yokoyama, T.
2014-04-15
A relativistic helicity has been formulated in the four-dimensional Minkowski space-time. Whereas the relativistic distortion of space-time violates the conservation of the conventional helicity, the newly defined relativistic helicity conserves in a barotropic fluid or plasma, dictating a fundamental topological constraint. The relation between the helicity and the vortex-line topology has been delineated by analyzing the linking number of vortex filaments which are singular differential forms representing the pure states of Banach algebra. While the dimension of space-time is four, vortex filaments link, because vorticities are primarily 2-forms and the corresponding 2-chains link in four dimension; the relativistic helicity measures the linking number of vortex filaments that are proper-time cross-sections of the vorticity 2-chains. A thermodynamic force yields an additional term in the vorticity, by which the vortex filaments on a reference-time plane are no longer pure states. However, the vortex filaments on a proper-time plane remain to be pure states, if the thermodynamic force is exact (barotropic), thus, the linking number of vortex filaments conserves.
Space-time modeling of a rainfall field ; Application to daily rainfall in the Loire basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepioufle, Jean-Marie; Leblois, Etienne; Creutin, Jean-Dominique
2010-05-01
Water resources management for a watershed necessitates to assess both high flow volumes and the impact of the management practice for different stakeholders (hydropower, irrigation, ecology...). To test different management strategies, hydrologists have developed hydrological distributed models incorporating several computational objects such as digital elevation model, sub-basins, and distances to the basin outlet. A good characterization of rainfall variability in space and time is crucial for the relevance of a hydrological model as a basis for the choice of water management strategy. Climatological references of rainfall hazard must be built from observation over decades. Daily rainfall measurements from raingauge networks are therefore still an invaluable source of information for a precise representation of precipitation hazard despite the recent availability of radar estimates. Based on either raingauge or radar observations, it is possible to mathematically model rainfall field as a space-time intermittent process (superposition of inner variability field and rainfall indicator field, both influenced by advection). Geostatistics enables to investigate the link between an instantaneous process space-time structure and the evolution of spatial structure with time aggregation.. A method is proposed to infer a relevant instantaneous process from observed rainfall statistics. After fitting the parameters of the instantaneous space-time variogram with the simplex method, spatial variograms for different duration respecting time aggregated variograms is calculated. With this basis, an avenue is open to simulate homogeneous rainfall fields which respect major statistical characteristics for hydrologists: expectation and variance of rainfall distribution and spatial variogram for different durations. Benefits and limits of this approach are investigated using daily rainfall data from the Loire basin in France. Two sub-regions are highlighted. A downstream zone
A MAPLE Package for Energy-Momentum Tensor Assessment in Curved Space-Time
Murariu, Gabriel; Praisler, Mirela
2010-01-21
One of the most interesting problem which remain unsolved, since the birth of the General Theory of Relativity (GR), is the energy-momentum localization. All our reflections are within the Lagrange formalism of the field theory. The concept of the energy-momentum tensor for gravitational interactions has a long history. To find a generally accepted expression, there have been different attempts. This paper is dedicated to the investigation of the energy-momentum problem in the theory of General Relativity. We use Einstein [1], Landau-Lifshitz [2], Bergmann-Thomson [3] and Moller's [4] prescriptions to evaluate energy-momentum distribution. In order to cover the huge volume of computation and, bearing in mind to make a general approaching for different space-time configurations, a MAPLE application to succeed in studying the energy momentum tensor was built. In the second part of the paper for two space-time configuration, the comparative results were presented.
Inter-bit prediction based on maximum likelihood estimate for distributed video coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klepko, Robert; Wang, Demin; Huchet, Grégory
2010-01-01
Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is an emerging video coding paradigm for the systems that require low complexity encoders supported by high complexity decoders. A typical real world application for a DVC system is mobile phones with video capture hardware that have a limited encoding capability supported by base-stations with a high decoding capability. Generally speaking, a DVC system operates by dividing a source image sequence into two streams, key frames and Wyner-Ziv (W) frames, with the key frames being used to represent the source plus an approximation to the W frames called S frames (where S stands for side information), while the W frames are used to correct the bit errors in the S frames. This paper presents an effective algorithm to reduce the bit errors in the side information of a DVC system. The algorithm is based on the maximum likelihood estimation to help predict future bits to be decoded. The reduction in bit errors in turn reduces the number of parity bits needed for error correction. Thus, a higher coding efficiency is achieved since fewer parity bits need to be transmitted from the encoder to the decoder. The algorithm is called inter-bit prediction because it predicts the bit-plane to be decoded from previously decoded bit-planes, one bitplane at a time, starting from the most significant bit-plane. Results provided from experiments using real-world image sequences show that the inter-bit prediction algorithm does indeed reduce the bit rate by up to 13% for our test sequences. This bit rate reduction corresponds to a PSNR gain of about 1.6 dB for the W frames.
Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-01-01
We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust. PMID:24402550
Photoplus: auxiliary information for printed images based on distributed source coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samadani, Ramin; Mukherjee, Debargha
2008-01-01
A printed photograph is difficult to reuse because the digital information that generated the print may no longer be available. This paper describes a mechanism for approximating the original digital image by combining a scan of the printed photograph with small amounts of digital auxiliary information kept together with the print. The auxiliary information consists of a small amount of digital data to enable accurate registration and color-reproduction, followed by a larger amount of digital data to recover residual errors and lost frequencies by distributed Wyner-Ziv coding techniques. Approximating the original digital image enables many uses, including making good quality reprints from the original print, even when they are faded many years later. In essence, the print itself becomes the currency for archiving and repurposing digital images, without requiring computer infrastructure.
2010-01-01
HGT and intra-genomic shuffling. Conclusions We describe novel features of PARCELs (Palindromic Amphipathic Repeat Coding ELements), a set of widely distributed repeat protein domains and coding sequences that were likely acquired through HGT by diverse unicellular microbes, further mobilized and diversified within genomes, and co-opted for expression in the membrane proteome of some taxa. Disseminated by multiple gene-centric vehicles, ORFs harboring these elements enhance accessory gene pools as part of the "mobilome" connecting genomes of various clades, in taxa sharing common niches. PMID:20626840
Space-time investigation of the effects of fishing on fish populations.
Ono, Kotaro; Shelton, Andrew O; Ward, Eric J; Thorson, James T; Feist, Blake E; Hilborn, Ray
2016-03-01
Species distribution models (SDMs) are important statistical tools for obtaining ecological insight into species-habitat relationships and providing advice for natural resource management. Many SDMs have been developed over the past decades, with a focus on space- and more recently, time-dependence. However, most of these studies have been on terrestrial species and applications to marine species have been limited. In this study, we used three large spatio-temporal data sources (habitat maps, survey-based fish density estimates, and fishery catch data) and a novel space-time model to study how the distribution of fishing may affect the seasonal dynamics of a commercially important fish species (Pacific Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus) off the west coast of the USA. Dover sole showed a large scale change in seasonal and annual distribution of biomass, and its distribution shifted from mid-depth zones to inshore or deeper waters during late summer/early fall. In many cases, the scale of fishery removal was small compared to these broader changes in biomass, suggesting that seasonal dynamics were primarily driven by movement and not by fishing. The increasing availability of appropriate data and space-time modeling software should facilitate extending this work to many other species, particularly those in marine ecosystems, and help tease apart the role of growth, natural mortality, recruitment, movement, and fishing on spatial patterns of species distribution in marine systems. PMID:27209782
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Kayll
2010-12-01
The title immediately brings to mind a standard reference of almost the same title [1]. The authors are quick to point out the relationship between these two works: they are complementary. The purpose of this work is to explain what is known about a selection of exact solutions. As the authors state, it is often much easier to find a new solution of Einstein's equations than it is to understand it. Even at first glance it is very clear that great effort went into the production of this reference. The book is replete with beautifully detailed diagrams that reflect deep geometric intuition. In many parts of the text there are detailed calculations that are not readily available elsewhere. The book begins with a review of basic tools that allows the authors to set the notation. Then follows a discussion of Minkowski space with an emphasis on the conformal structure and applications such as simple cosmic strings. The next two chapters give an in-depth review of de Sitter space and then anti-de Sitter space. Both chapters contain a remarkable collection of useful diagrams. The standard model in cosmology these days is the ICDM model and whereas the chapter on the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times contains much useful information, I found the discussion of the currently popular a representation rather too brief. After a brief but interesting excursion into electrovacuum, the authors consider the Schwarzschild space-time. This chapter does mention the Swiss cheese model but the discussion is too brief and certainly dated. Space-times related to Schwarzschild are covered in some detail and include not only the addition of charge and the cosmological constant but also the addition of radiation (the Vaidya solution). Just prior to a discussion of the Kerr space-time, static axially symmetric space-times are reviewed. Here one can find a very interesting discussion of the Curzon-Chazy space-time. The chapter on rotating black holes is rather brief and, for
Re-Examination of Globally Flat Space-Time
Feldman, Michael R.
2013-01-01
In the following, we offer a novel approach to modeling the observed effects currently attributed to the theoretical concepts of “dark energy,” “dark matter,” and “dark flow.” Instead of assuming the existence of these theoretical concepts, we take an alternative route and choose to redefine what we consider to be inertial motion as well as what constitutes an inertial frame of reference in flat space-time. We adopt none of the features of our current cosmological models except for the requirement that special and general relativity be local approximations within our revised definition of inertial systems. Implicit in our ideas is the assumption that at “large enough” scales one can treat objects within these inertial systems as point-particles having an insignificant effect on the curvature of space-time. We then proceed under the assumption that time and space are fundamentally intertwined such that time- and spatial-translational invariance are not inherent symmetries of flat space-time (i.e., observable clock rates depend upon both relative velocity and spatial position within these inertial systems) and take the geodesics of this theory in the radial Rindler chart as the proper characterization of inertial motion. With this commitment, we are able to model solely with inertial motion the observed effects expected to be the result of “dark energy,” “dark matter,” and “dark flow.” In addition, we examine the potential observable implications of our theory in a gravitational system located within a confined region of an inertial reference frame, subsequently interpreting the Pioneer anomaly as support for our redefinition of inertial motion. As well, we extend our analysis into quantum mechanics by quantizing for a real scalar field and find a possible explanation for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter within the framework of these redefined inertial systems. PMID:24250790
Re-examination of globally flat space-time.
Feldman, Michael R
2013-01-01
In the following, we offer a novel approach to modeling the observed effects currently attributed to the theoretical concepts of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." Instead of assuming the existence of these theoretical concepts, we take an alternative route and choose to redefine what we consider to be inertial motion as well as what constitutes an inertial frame of reference in flat space-time. We adopt none of the features of our current cosmological models except for the requirement that special and general relativity be local approximations within our revised definition of inertial systems. Implicit in our ideas is the assumption that at "large enough" scales one can treat objects within these inertial systems as point-particles having an insignificant effect on the curvature of space-time. We then proceed under the assumption that time and space are fundamentally intertwined such that time- and spatial-translational invariance are not inherent symmetries of flat space-time (i.e., observable clock rates depend upon both relative velocity and spatial position within these inertial systems) and take the geodesics of this theory in the radial Rindler chart as the proper characterization of inertial motion. With this commitment, we are able to model solely with inertial motion the observed effects expected to be the result of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." In addition, we examine the potential observable implications of our theory in a gravitational system located within a confined region of an inertial reference frame, subsequently interpreting the Pioneer anomaly as support for our redefinition of inertial motion. As well, we extend our analysis into quantum mechanics by quantizing for a real scalar field and find a possible explanation for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter within the framework of these redefined inertial systems. PMID:24250790
High Resolution Space-Time Ozone Modeling for Assessing Trends
Sahu, Sujit K.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.
2008-01-01
The assessment of air pollution regulatory programs designed to improve ground level ozone concentrations is a topic of considerable interest to environmental managers. To aid this assessment, it is necessary to model the space-time behavior of ozone for predicting summaries of ozone across spatial domains of interest and for the detection of long-term trends at monitoring sites. These trends, adjusted for the effects of meteorological variables, are needed for determining the effectiveness of pollution control programs in terms of their magnitude and uncertainties across space. This paper proposes a space-time model for daily 8-hour maximum ozone levels to provide input to regulatory activities: detection, evaluation, and analysis of spatial patterns of ozone summaries and temporal trends. The model is applied to analyzing data from the state of Ohio which has been chosen because it contains a mix of urban, suburban, and rural ozone monitoring sites in several large cities separated by large rural areas. The proposed space-time model is auto-regressive and incorporates the most important meteorological variables observed at a collection of ozone monitoring sites as well as at several weather stations where ozone levels have not been observed. This problem of misalignment of ozone and meteorological data is overcome by spatial modeling of the latter. In so doing we adopt an approach based on the successive daily increments in meteorological variables. With regard to modeling, the increment (or change-in-meteorology) process proves more attractive than working directly with the meteorology process, without sacrificing any desired inference. The full model is specified within a Bayesian framework and is fitted using MCMC techniques. Hence, full inference with regard to model unknowns is available as well as for predictions in time and space, evaluation of annual summaries and assessment of trends. PMID:19759840
Re-Examination of Globally Flat Space-Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Michael R.
2013-11-01
In the following, we offer a novel approach to modeling the observed effects currently attributed to the theoretical concepts of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." Instead of assuming the existence of these theoretical concepts, we take an alternative route and choose to redefine what we consider to be inertial motion as well as what constitutes an inertial frame of reference in flat space-time. We adopt none of the features of our current cosmological models except for the requirement that special and general relativity be local approximations within our revised definition of inertial systems. Implicit in our ideas is the assumption that at "large enough" scales one can treat objects within these inertial systems as point-particles having an insignificant effect on the curvature of space-time. We then proceed under the assumption that time and space are fundamentally intertwined such that time- and spatial-translational invariance are not inherent symmetries of flat space-time (i.e., observable clock rates depend upon both relative velocity and spatial position within these inertial systems) and take the geodesics of this theory in the radial Rindler chart as the proper characterization of inertial motion. With this commitment, we are able to model solely with inertial motion the observed effects expected to be the result of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." In addition, we examine the potential observable implications of our theory in a gravitational system located within a confined region of an inertial reference frame, subsequently interpreting the Pioneer anomaly as support for our redefinition of inertial motion. As well, we extend our analysis into quantum mechanics by quantizing for a real scalar field and find a possible explanation for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter within the framework of these redefined inertial systems.
Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times
Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh
2001-08-15
We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.
MAPLE Procedures For Boson Fields System On Curved Space - Time
Murariu, Gabriel
2007-04-23
Systems of interacting boson fields are an important subject in the last years. From the problem of dark matter to boson stars' study, boson fields are involved. In the general configuration, it is considered a Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein fields system for a complex scalar field minimally coupled to a gravitational one. The necessity of studying a larger number of space-time configurations and the huge volume of computations for each particular situation are some reasons for building a MAPLE procedures set for this kind of systems.
Canonical quantization of general relativity in discrete space-times.
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2003-01-17
It has long been recognized that lattice gauge theory formulations, when applied to general relativity, conflict with the invariance of the theory under diffeomorphisms. We analyze discrete lattice general relativity and develop a canonical formalism that allows one to treat constrained theories in Lorentzian signature space-times. The presence of the lattice introduces a "dynamical gauge" fixing that makes the quantization of the theories conceptually clear, albeit computationally involved. The problem of a consistent algebra of constraints is automatically solved in our approach. The approach works successfully in other field theories as well, including topological theories. A simple cosmological application exhibits quantum elimination of the singularity at the big bang. PMID:12570532
Spatial and Lorentzian surfaces in Robertson-Walker space times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bang-Yen; Van der Veken, Joeri
2007-07-01
Let L14(f,c)=(I×fS,gfc) be a Robertson-Walker space time which does not contain any open subset of constant curvature. In this paper, we provide a general study of nondegenerate surfaces in L14(f,c). First, we prove the nonexistence of marginally trapped surfaces with positive relative nullity. Then, we classify totally geodesic submanifolds. Finally, we classify the family of surfaces with parallel second fundamental form and the family of totally umbilical surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector.
Space-Time Cluster Analysis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease
de Melker, Hester; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Dankert, Jacob; Nagelkerke, Nico
2004-01-01
Clusters are recognized when meningococcal cases of the same phenotypic strain (markers: serogroup, serotype, and subtype) occur in spatial and temporal proximity. The incidence of such clusters was compared to the incidence that would be expected by chance by using space-time nearest-neighbor analysis of 4,887 confirmed invasive meningococcal cases identified in the 9-year surveillance period 1993–2001 in the Netherlands. Clustering beyond chance only occurred among the closest neighboring cases (comparable to secondary cases) and was small (3.1%, 95% confidence interval 2.1%–4.1%). PMID:15498165
Particle propagation and effective space-time in gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garattini, Remo; Mandanici, Gianluca
2012-01-01
Based on the results obtained in our previous study on gravity’s rainbow, we determine the quantum corrections to the space-time metric for the Schwarzschild and the de Sitter background, respectively. We analyze how quantum fluctuations alter these metrics, inducing modifications on the propagation of test particles. Significantly enough, we find that quantum corrections can become relevant not only for particles approaching the Planck energy but, due to the one-loop contribution, even for low-energy particles as far as Planckian length scales are considered. We briefly compare our results with others obtained in similar studies and with the recent experimental OPERA announcement of superluminal neutrino propagation.
Fuzzy Space-Time Geometry and Particle's Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayburov, S. N.
2010-12-01
The quantum space-time with Dodson-Zeeman topological structure is studied. In its framework, the states of massive particle m correspond to the elements of fuzzy ordered set (Foset), i.e. the fuzzy points. Due to their partial ordering, m space coordinate x acquires principal uncertainty σ x . Schroedinger formalism of Quantum Mechanics is derived from consideration of m evolution in fuzzy phase space with minimal number of additional axioms. The possible particle’s interactions on fuzzy manifold are studied and shown to be gauge invariant.
Energy-momentum localization in Marder space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saygün, S.; Saygün, M.; Tarhan, I.
2007-01-01
Considering the Einstein, Møller, Bergmann--Thomson, Landau--Lifshitz (LL), Papapetrou, Qadir--Sharif and Weinberg's definitions in general relativity, we find the momentum four-vector of the closed Universe based on Marder space--time. The momentum four-vector (due to matter plus field) is found to be zero. These results support the viewpoints of Banerjee--Sen, Xulu and Aydogdu--Salti. Another point is that our study agrees with the previous works of Cooperstock--Israelit, Rosen, Johri et al.
Numerical Relativity in Higher-Dimensional Space-Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witek, Helvi
2013-09-01
Black holes are among the most exciting phenomena predicted by General Relativity and play a key role in fundamental physics. Many interesting phenomena involve dynamical black hole configurations in the high curvature regime of gravity. In these lecture notes I will summarize the main numerical relativity techniques to explore highly dynamical phenomena, such as black hole collisions, in generic D-dimensional space-times. The present notes are based on my lectures given at the NR/HEP2 spring school at IST/Lisbon (Portugal) from March 11-14, 2013.
Founding Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry
Winkler, Franz-Guenter
2010-11-24
The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity which has been suggested by the author is a formulation of special relativity in ordinary 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. The natural and geometrically intuitive generalization of this view involves variations of the speed of light (depending on location and direction) and a Euclidean principle of general covariance. In this article, a gravitation model by Jan Broekaert, which implements a view of relativity theory in the spirit of Lorentz and Poincare, is reconstructed and shown to fulfill the principles of the Euclidean approach after an appropriate reinterpretation.
Iodine photodissociation laser with an intracavity space - time light modulator
Kachalin, G N; Pevny, S N; Pivkin, A N; Safronov, A S
2012-08-31
A scheme of an iodine laser with two different intracavity space - time modulators based on electrooptic PLZT ceramics is experimentally studied. It is shown that lasing can occur in different angular directions with the use of both modulators. The output laser energy is 10 mJ with a pulse duration of 200 {mu}s and a beam divergence of 6.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} rad. The laser field of view (5.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} rad) consists of a discrete set of 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 directions. (control of laser radiation parameters)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanekamp, S. B.; Oliver, B. V.; Grossmann, J. M.; Smithe, D.; Ludeking, L.
1996-11-01
The current understanding of plasma opening switch (POS) operation is as follows. During the conduction phase the switch plasma is redistributed by MHD forces. This redistribution of mass leads to the formation of a low density region in the switch where a 1-3 mm gap in the plasma is believed to form as the switch opens and magnetic energy is transferred between the primary storage inductor and the load. The processes of gap formation and power delivery are not very well understood. It is generally accepted that the assumptions of MHD theory are not valid during the gap formation and power delivery processes because electron inertia and the lack of space-charge neutrality are expected to play a key role. To study non-MHD processes during the gap formation process and power delivery phase of the POS, we have developed a technique for importing an arbitrary state of an MHD code into the PIC code MAGIC. At present the plasma kinetic pressure is ignored during the initialization of particles. Work supported by Defense Nuclear Agency. ^ JAYCOR, Vienna, VA 22102. ^ NRL-NRC Research Associate.
Space-time reference with an optical link
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berceau, P.; Taylor, M.; Kahn, J.; Hollberg, L.
2016-07-01
We describe a concept for realizing a high performance space-time reference using a stable atomic clock in a precisely defined orbit and synchronizing the orbiting clock to high-accuracy atomic clocks on the ground. The synchronization would be accomplished using a two-way lasercom link between ground and space. The basic approach is to take advantage of the highest-performance cold-atom atomic clocks at national standards laboratories on the ground and to transfer that performance to an orbiting clock that has good stability and that serves as a ‘frequency-flywheel’ over time-scales of a few hours. The two-way lasercom link would also provide precise range information and thus precise orbit determination. With a well-defined orbit and a synchronized clock, the satellite could serve as a high-accuracy space-time reference, providing precise time worldwide, a valuable reference frame for geodesy, and independent high-accuracy measurements of GNSS clocks. Under reasonable assumptions, a practical system would be able to deliver picosecond timing worldwide and millimeter orbit determination, and could serve as an enabling subsystem for other proposed space-gravity missions, which are briefly reviewed.
Space time neural networks for tether operations in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles
1993-01-01
A space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992 will attempt to prove the feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit. due to the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether, the tethered system may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation referred to as the 'skiprope' phenomenon. Effective damping of skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of skiprope magnitude and phase. Because of non-linear dynamic coupling, the satellite attitude behavior has characteristic oscillations during the skiprope motion. Since the satellite attitude motion has many other perturbations, the relationship between the skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very involved and non-linear. We propose a Space-Time Neural Network implementation for filtering satellite rate gyro data to rapidly detect and predict skiprope magnitude and phase. Training and testing of the skiprope detection system will be performed using a validated Orbital Operations Simulator and Space-Time Neural Network software developed in the Software Technology Branch at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.
Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person
Peer, Michael; Salomon, Roy; Goldberg, Ilan; Blanke, Olaf; Arzy, Shahar
2015-01-01
Orientation is a fundamental mental function that processes the relations between the behaving self to space (places), time (events), and person (people). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have hinted at interrelations between processing of these three domains. To unravel the neurocognitive basis of orientation, we used high-resolution 7T functional MRI as 16 subjects compared their subjective distance to different places, events, or people. Analysis at the individual-subject level revealed cortical activation related to orientation in space, time, and person in a precisely localized set of structures in the precuneus, inferior parietal, and medial frontal cortex. Comparison of orientation domains revealed a consistent order of cortical activity inside the precuneus and inferior parietal lobes, with space orientation activating posterior regions, followed anteriorly by person and then time. Core regions at the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe were activated for multiple orientation domains, suggesting also common processing for orientation across domains. The medial prefrontal cortex showed a posterior activation for time and anterior for person. Finally, the default-mode network, identified in a separate resting-state scan, was active for all orientation domains and overlapped mostly with person-orientation regions. These findings suggest that mental orientation in space, time, and person is managed by a specific brain system with a highly ordered internal organization, closely related to the default-mode network. PMID:26283353
Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person.
Peer, Michael; Salomon, Roy; Goldberg, Ilan; Blanke, Olaf; Arzy, Shahar
2015-09-01
Orientation is a fundamental mental function that processes the relations between the behaving self to space (places), time (events), and person (people). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have hinted at interrelations between processing of these three domains. To unravel the neurocognitive basis of orientation, we used high-resolution 7T functional MRI as 16 subjects compared their subjective distance to different places, events, or people. Analysis at the individual-subject level revealed cortical activation related to orientation in space, time, and person in a precisely localized set of structures in the precuneus, inferior parietal, and medial frontal cortex. Comparison of orientation domains revealed a consistent order of cortical activity inside the precuneus and inferior parietal lobes, with space orientation activating posterior regions, followed anteriorly by person and then time. Core regions at the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe were activated for multiple orientation domains, suggesting also common processing for orientation across domains. The medial prefrontal cortex showed a posterior activation for time and anterior for person. Finally, the default-mode network, identified in a separate resting-state scan, was active for all orientation domains and overlapped mostly with person-orientation regions. These findings suggest that mental orientation in space, time, and person is managed by a specific brain system with a highly ordered internal organization, closely related to the default-mode network. PMID:26283353
Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis
Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may
Extreme wave analysis in the space-time domain: from observations to applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbariol, Francesco; Alves, Jose-Henrique; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Filippo; Carniel, Sandro; Chao, Yung Y.; Chawla, Arun; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro
2016-04-01
this end, analytical directional spectra that explicitly depend upon the wind forcing (e.g. Pierson-Moskowitz or JONSWAP frequency spectra, combined with a cos2 directional distribution) have been integrated to provide kinematic and geometric parameters of the sea state as a function of the wind speed and fetch length. Then, the SWAN numerical wave model has been modified in order to compute kinematic and geometric properties of the sea state, and run under different wave-current conditions and bathymetric gradients. In doing so, it has been possible to estimate the contribution to the space-time extremes variation due to the wind inputs, to current speed and to depth gradients. Weather forecasting applications consist of using spectra simulated by wave forecasting models to compute space-time extremes. In this context, we have recently implemented the space-time extremes computation (according to the second order Fedele model) within the WAVEWATCH III numerical wave model. New output products (i.e. the maximum expected crest and wave heights) have been validated using space-time stereo-photogrammetric measurements, proving the concept that powerful tools that provide space-time extremes forecasts over extended domains may be developed for applications beneficial to the marine community.
Recursive evaluation of space-time lattice Green's functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Hon, Bastiaan P.; Arnold, John M.
2012-09-01
Up to a multiplicative constant, the lattice Green's function (LGF) as defined in condensed matter physics and lattice statistical mechanics is equivalent to the Z-domain counterpart of the finite-difference time-domain Green's function (GF) on a lattice. Expansion of a well-known integral representation for the LGF on a ν-dimensional hyper-cubic lattice in powers of Z-1 and application of the Chu-Vandermonde identity results in ν - 1 nested finite-sum representations for discrete space-time GFs. Due to severe numerical cancellations, these nested finite sums are of little practical use. For ν = 2, the finite sum may be evaluated in closed form in terms of a generalized hypergeometric function. For special lattice points, that representation simplifies considerably, while on the other hand the finite-difference stencil may be used to derive single-lattice-point second-order recurrence schemes for generating 2D discrete space-time GF time sequences on the fly. For arbitrary symbolic lattice points, Zeilberger's algorithm produces a third-order recurrence operator with polynomial coefficients of the sixth degree. The corresponding recurrence scheme constitutes the most efficient numerical method for the majority of lattice points, in spite of the fact that for explicit numeric lattice points the associated third-order recurrence operator is not the minimum recurrence operator. As regards the asymptotic bounds for the possible solutions to the recurrence scheme, Perron's theorem precludes factorial or exponential growth. Along horizontal lattices directions, rapid initial growth does occur, but poses no problems in augmented dynamic-range fixed precision arithmetic. By analysing long-distance wave propagation along a horizontal lattice direction, we have concluded that the chirp-up oscillations of the discrete space-time GF are the root cause of grid dispersion anisotropy. With each factor of ten increase in the lattice distance, one would have to roughly double
The application of the phase space time evolution method to electron shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cordaro, M. C.; Zucker, M. S.
1972-01-01
A computer technique for treating the motion of charged and neutral particles and called the phase space time evolution method was developed. This technique employs the computer's bookkeeping capacity to keep track of the time development of a phase space distribution of particles. This method was applied to a study of the penetration of electrons. A 1 MeV beam of electrons normally incident on a semi-infinite slab of aluminum was used. Results of the calculation were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results. Time-dependent PSTE electron penetration results for the same problem are presented.
The Monte Carlo SRNA-VOX code for 3D proton dose distribution in voxelized geometry using CT data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilic, Radovan D.; Spasic-Jokic, Vesna; Belicev, Petar; Dragovic, Milos
2005-03-01
This paper describes the application of the SRNA Monte Carlo package for proton transport simulations in complex geometry and different material compositions. The SRNA package was developed for 3D dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry and it was based on the theory of multiple scattering. The decay of proton induced compound nuclei was simulated by the Russian MSDM model and our own using ICRU 63 data. The developed package consists of two codes: the SRNA-2KG, which simulates proton transport in combinatorial geometry and the SRNA-VOX, which uses the voxelized geometry using the CT data and conversion of the Hounsfield's data to tissue elemental composition. Transition probabilities for both codes are prepared by the SRNADAT code. The simulation of the proton beam characterization by multi-layer Faraday cup, spatial distribution of positron emitters obtained by the SRNA-2KG code and intercomparison of computational codes in radiation dosimetry, indicate immediate application of the Monte Carlo techniques in clinical practice. In this paper, we briefly present the physical model implemented in the SRNA package, the ISTAR proton dose planning software, as well as the results of the numerical experiments with proton beams to obtain 3D dose distribution in the eye and breast tumour.
The Monte Carlo SRNA-VOX code for 3D proton dose distribution in voxelized geometry using CT data.
Ilić, Radovan D; Spasić-Jokić, Vesna; Belicev, Petar; Dragović, Milos
2005-03-01
This paper describes the application of the SRNA Monte Carlo package for proton transport simulations in complex geometry and different material compositions. The SRNA package was developed for 3D dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry and it was based on the theory of multiple scattering. The decay of proton induced compound nuclei was simulated by the Russian MSDM model and our own using ICRU 63 data. The developed package consists of two codes: the SRNA-2KG, which simulates proton transport in combinatorial geometry and the SRNA-VOX, which uses the voxelized geometry using the CT data and conversion of the Hounsfield's data to tissue elemental composition. Transition probabilities for both codes are prepared by the SRNADAT code. The simulation of the proton beam characterization by multi-layer Faraday cup, spatial distribution of positron emitters obtained by the SRNA-2KG code and intercomparison of computational codes in radiation dosimetry, indicate immediate application of the Monte Carlo techniques in clinical practice. In this paper, we briefly present the physical model implemented in the SRNA package, the ISTAR proton dose planning software, as well as the results of the numerical experiments with proton beams to obtain 3D dose distribution in the eye and breast tumour. PMID:15798273
On distributed memory MPI-based parallelization of SPH codes in massive HPC context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oger, G.; Le Touzé, D.; Guibert, D.; de Leffe, M.; Biddiscombe, J.; Soumagne, J.; Piccinali, J.-G.
2016-03-01
Most of particle methods share the problem of high computational cost and in order to satisfy the demands of solvers, currently available hardware technologies must be fully exploited. Two complementary technologies are now accessible. On the one hand, CPUs which can be structured into a multi-node framework, allowing massive data exchanges through a high speed network. In this case, each node is usually comprised of several cores available to perform multithreaded computations. On the other hand, GPUs which are derived from the graphics computing technologies, able to perform highly multi-threaded calculations with hundreds of independent threads connected together through a common shared memory. This paper is primarily dedicated to the distributed memory parallelization of particle methods, targeting several thousands of CPU cores. The experience gained clearly shows that parallelizing a particle-based code on moderate numbers of cores can easily lead to an acceptable scalability, whilst a scalable speedup on thousands of cores is much more difficult to obtain. The discussion revolves around speeding up particle methods as a whole, in a massive HPC context by making use of the MPI library. We focus on one particular particle method which is Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), one of the most widespread today in the literature as well as in engineering.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry
1998-01-01
This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance and overhead of parallelizing sequential code using compiler directives for multiprocessing on distributed shared memory (DSM) systems. With increasing popularity of shared address space architectures, it is essential to understand their performance impact on programs that benefit from shared memory multiprocessing. We present a simple model to characterize the performance of programs that are parallelized using compiler directives for shared memory multiprocessing. We parallelized the sequential implementation of NAS benchmarks using native Fortran77 compiler directives for an Origin2000, which is a DSM system based on a cache-coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (ccNUMA) architecture. We report measurement based performance of these parallelized benchmarks from four perspectives: efficacy of parallelization process; scalability; parallelization overhead; and comparison with hand-parallelized and -optimized version of the same benchmarks. Our results indicate that sequential programs can conveniently be parallelized for DSM systems using compiler directives but realizing performance gains as predicted by the performance model depends primarily on minimizing architecture-specific data locality overhead.
Entanglement distribution over quantum code-division multiple-access networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Chang-long; Yang, Nan; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco; Zhang, Jing
2015-10-01
We present a method for quantum entanglement distribution over a so-called code-division multiple-access network, in which two pairs of users share the same quantum channel to transmit information. The main idea of this method is to use different broadband chaotic phase shifts, generated by electro-optic modulators and chaotic Colpitts circuits, to encode the information-bearing quantum signals coming from different users and then recover the masked quantum signals at the receiver side by imposing opposite chaotic phase shifts. The chaotic phase shifts given to different pairs of users are almost uncorrelated due to the randomness of chaos and thus the quantum signals from different pair of users can be distinguished even when they are sent via the same quantum channel. It is shown that two maximally entangled states can be generated between two pairs of users by our method mediated by bright coherent lights, which can be more easily implemented in experiments compared with single-photon lights. Our method is robust under the channel noises if only the decay rates of the information-bearing fields induced by the channel noises are not quite high. Our study opens up new perspectives for addressing and transmitting quantum information in future quantum networks.
The spatial distribution of fixed mutations within genes coding for proteins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmquist, R.; Goodman, M.; Conroy, T.; Czelusniak, J.
1983-01-01
An examination has been conducted of the extensive amino acid sequence data now available for five protein families - the alpha crystallin A chain, myoglobin, alpha and beta hemoglobin, and the cytochromes c - with the goal of estimating the true spatial distribution of base substitutions within genes that code for proteins. In every case the commonly used Poisson density failed to even approximate the experimental pattern of base substitution. For the 87 species of beta hemoglobin examined, for example, the probability that the observed results were from a Poisson process was the minuscule 10 to the -44th. Analogous results were obtained for the other functional families. All the data were reasonably, but not perfectly, described by the negative binomial density. In particular, most of the data were described by one of the very simple limiting forms of this density, the geometric density. The implications of this for evolutionary inference are discussed. It is evident that most estimates of total base substitutions between genes are badly in need of revision.
Clustering space-time interest points for action representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Sou-Young; Choi, Ho-Jin
2013-12-01
This paper presents a novel approach to represent human actions in a video. Our approach deals with the limitation of local representation, i.e. space-time interest points, which cannot adequately represent actions in a video due to lack of global information about geometric relationships among interest points. It adds the geometric relationships to interest points by clustering interest points using squared Euclidean distances, followed by using a minimum hexahedron to represent each cluster. Within each video, we build a multi-dimensional histogram based on the characteristics of hexahedrons in the video for recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed representation is powerful to include the global information on top of local interest points and it successfully increases the accuracy of action recognition.
Emergent space-time and the supersymmetric index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benjamin, Nathan; Kachru, Shamit; Keller, Christoph A.; Paquette, Natalie M.
2016-05-01
It is of interest to find criteria on a 2d CFT which indicate that it gives rise to emergent gravity in a macroscopic 3d AdS space via holography. Symmetric orbifolds in the large N limit have partition functions which are consistent with an emergent space-time string theory with L string ˜ L AdS. For supersymmetric CFTs, the elliptic genus can serve as a sensitive probe of whether the SCFT admits a large radius gravity description with L string ≪ L AdS after one deforms away from the symmetric orbifold point in moduli space. We discuss several classes of constructions whose elliptic genera strongly hint that gravity with L Planck ≪ L string ≪ L AdS can emerge at suitable points in moduli space.
Euclidean space-time diffeomorphisms and their Fueter subgroups
Guersey, F.; Jiang, W. )
1992-02-01
Holomorphic Fueter functions of the position quaternion form a subgroup of Euclidean space-time diffeomorphisms. An {ital O}(4) covariant treatment of such mappings is presented with the quaternionic argument {ital x} being replaced by either {ital {bar p}x} or {ital x{bar p}} involving self-dual and anti-self-dual structures and {ital p} denoting an arbitrary Euclidean time direction. An infinite group (the quasiconformal group) is exhibited that admits the conformal group SO(5,1) as a subgroup, in analogy to the two-dimensional case in which the Moebius group SO(3,1) is a subgroup of the infinite Virasoro group. The ensuing (3+1) covariant decomposition of diffeomorphisms suggests covariant gauges that throw the metric and the stress tensors in standard forms suitable for canonical quantization, leading to improved'' energy-momentum tensors. Other possible applications to current algebra and gravity will be mentioned.
Entropic force, holography and thermodynamics for static space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konoplya, R. A.
2010-10-01
Recently Verlinde has suggested a new approach to gravity which interprets gravitational interaction as a kind of entropic force. The new approach uses the holographic principle by stating that the information is kept on the holographic screens which coincide with equipotential surfaces. Motivated by this new interpretation of gravity (but not being limited by it) we study equipotential surfaces, the Unruh-Verlinde temperature, energy and acceleration for various static space-times: generic spherically symmetric solutions, axially symmetric black holes immersed in a magnetic field, traversable spherically symmetric wormholes of an arbitrary shape function, system of two and more extremely charged black holes in equilibrium. In particular, we have shown that the Unruh-Verlinde temperature of the holographic screen reaches absolute zero on the wormhole throat independently of the particular form of the wormhole solution.
The quantum space-time of c = -2 gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K.; Ichihara, T.; Jensen, L.; Kawamoto, N.; Watabiki, Y.; Yotsuji, K.
1998-02-01
We study the fractal structure of space-time of two-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to c = -2 conformal matter by means of computer simulations. We find that the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension dH = 3.58 ± 0.04. This result supports the conjecture dH = -2 α1/ α-1, where αn is the gravitational dressing exponent of a spinless primary field of conformal weight ( n + 1, n + 1), and it disfavours the alternative prediction dH = 2/| γ|. On the other hand, < ln> ˜ r2 n for n > 1 with good accuracy, i.e. the boundary length l has an anomalous dimension relative to the area of the surface.
A space-time discretization procedure for wave propagation problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford
1989-01-01
Higher order compact algorithms are developed for the numerical simulation of wave propagation by using the concept of a discrete dispersion relation. The dispersion relation is the imprint of any linear operator in space-time. The discrete dispersion relation is derived from the continuous dispersion relation by examining the process by which locally plane waves propagate through a chosen grid. The exponential structure of the discrete dispersion relation suggests an efficient splitting of convective and diffusive terms for dissipative waves. Fourth- and eighth-order convection schemes are examined that involve only three or five spatial grid points. These algorithms are subject to the same restrictions that govern the use of dispersion relations in the constructions of asymptotic expansions to nonlinear evolution equations. A new eighth-order scheme is developed that is exact for Courant numbers of 1, 2, 3, and 4. Examples are given of a pulse and step wave with a small amount of physical diffusion.
Space-time resolved wave turbulence in a vibrating plate.
Cobelli, Pablo; Petitjeans, Philippe; Maurel, Agnès; Pagneux, Vincent; Mordant, Nicolas
2009-11-13
Wave turbulence in a thin elastic plate is experimentally investigated. By using a Fourier transform profilometry technique, the deformation field of the plate surface is measured simultaneously in time and space. This enables us to compute the wave-vector-frequency (k, omega) Fourier spectrum of the full space-time deformation velocity. In the 3D (k, omega) space, we show that the energy of the motion is concentrated on a 2D surface that represents a nonlinear dispersion relation. This nonlinear dispersion relation is close to the linear dispersion relation. This validates the usual wave-number-frequency change of variables used in many experimental studies of wave turbulence. The deviation from the linear dispersion, which increases with the input power of the forcing, is attributed to weak nonlinear effects. Our technique opens the way for many new extensive quantitative comparisons between theory and experiments of wave turbulence. PMID:20365984
Representations of space, time, and number in neonates.
de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Izard, Véronique; Coubart, Aurélie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette
2014-04-01
A rich concept of magnitude--in its numerical, spatial, and temporal forms--is a central foundation of mathematics, science, and technology, but the origins and developmental relations among the abstract concepts of number, space, and time are debated. Are the representations of these dimensions and their links tuned by extensive experience, or are they readily available from birth? Here, we show that, at the beginning of postnatal life, 0- to 3-d-old neonates reacted to a simultaneous increase (or decrease) in spatial extent and in duration or numerical quantity, but they did not react when the magnitudes varied in opposite directions. The findings provide evidence that representations of space, time, and number are systematically interrelated at the start of postnatal life, before acquisition of language and cultural metaphors, and before extensive experience with the natural correlations between these dimensions. PMID:24639511
Deconstructing events: The neural bases for space, time, and causality
Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Lehet, Matthew; Chatterjee, Anjan
2013-01-01
Space, time, and causality provide a natural structure for organizing our experience. These abstract categories allow us to think relationally in the most basic sense; understanding simple events require one to represent the spatial relations among objects, the relative durations of actions or movements, and links between causes and effects. The present fMRI study investigates the extent to which the brain distinguishes between these fundamental conceptual domains. Participants performed a one-back task with three conditions of interest (SPACE, TIME and CAUSALITY). Each condition required comparing relations between events in a simple verbal narrative. Depending on the condition, participants were instructed to either attend to the spatial, temporal, or causal characteristics of events, but between participants, each particular event relation appeared in all three conditions. Contrasts compared neural activity during each condition against the remaining two and revealed how thinking about events is deconstructed neurally. Space trials recruited neural areas traditionally associated with visuospatial processing, primarily bilateral frontal and occipitoparietal networks. Causality trials activated areas previously found to underlie causal thinking and thematic role assignment, such as left medial frontal, and left middle temporal gyri, respectively. Causality trials also produced activations in SMA, caudate, and cerebellum; cortical and subcortical regions associated with the perception of time at different timescales. The TIME contrast however, produced no significant effects. This pattern, indicating negative results for TIME trials, but positive effects for CAUSALITY trials in areas important for time perception, motivated additional overlap analyses to further probe relations between domains. The results of these analyses suggest a closer correspondence between time and causality than between time and space. PMID:21861674
Detecting Climate Signals Using Space-Time EOFs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
North, Gerald R.; Wu, Qigang
2001-04-01
Estimates of the amplitudes of the forced responses of the surface temperature field over the last century are provided by a signal processing scheme utilizing space-time empirical orthogonal functions for several combinations of station sites and record intervals taken from the last century. These century-long signal fingerprints come mainly from energy balance model calculations, which are shown to be very close to smoothed ensemble average runs from a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Hadley Centre Model). The space-time lagged covariance matrices of natural variability come from 100-yr control runs from several well-known coupled ocean-atmosphere models as well as a 10000-yr run from the stochastic energy balance climate model (EBCM). Evidence is found for robust, but weaker than expected signals from the greenhouse [amplitude 65% of that expected for a rather insensitive model (EBCM: T2×CO2 2.3°C)], volcanic (also about 65% expected amplitude), and even the 11-yr component of the solar signal (a most probable value of about 2.0 times that expected). In the analysis the anthropogenic aerosol signal is weak and the null hypothesis for this signal can only be rejected in a few sampling configurations involving the last 50 yr of the record. During the last 50 yr the full strength value (1.0) also lies within the 90% confidence interval. Some amplitude estimation results based upon the (temporally smoothed) Hadley fingerprints are included and the results are indistinguishable from those based on the EBCM. In addition, a geometrical derivation of the multiple regression formula from the filter point of view is provided, which shows how the signals `not of interest' are removed from the data stream in the estimation process. The criteria for truncating the EOF sequence are somewhat different from earlier analyses in that the amount of the signal variance accounted for at a given level of truncation is explicitly taken into account.
Relativistic positioning: four-dimensional numerical approach in Minkowski space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchades, Neus; Sáez, Diego
2012-10-01
We simulate the satellite constellations of two Global Navigation Satellite Systems: Galileo (EU) and GPS (USA). Satellite motions are described in the Schwarzschild space-time produced by an idealized spherically symmetric non rotating Earth. The trajectories are then circumferences centered at the same point as Earth. Photon motions are described in Minkowski space-time, where there is a well known relation, (Coll et al. in Class. Quantum Gravit. 27:065013, 2010a), between the emission and inertial coordinates of any event. Here, this relation is implemented in a numerical code, which is tested and applied. The first application is a detailed numerical four-dimensional analysis of the so-called emission coordinate region and co-region. In a second application, a GPS (Galileo) satellite is considered as the receiver and its emission coordinates are given by four Galileo (GPS) satellites. The bifurcation problem (double localization) in the positioning of the receiver satellite is then pointed out and discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Česenek, Jan
2016-03-01
In this article we deal with numerical simulation of the non-stationary compressible turbulent flow. Compressible turbulent flow is described by the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This RANS system is equipped with two-equation k-omega turbulence model. These two systems of equations are solved separately. Discretization of the RANS system is carried out by the space-time discontinuous Galerkin method which is based on piecewise polynomial discontinuous approximation of the sought solution in space and in time. Discretization of the two-equation k-omega turbulence model is carried out by the implicit finite volume method, which is based on piecewise constant approximation of the sought solution. We present some numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability of the method using own-developed code.
Lovejoy, S.; Lima, M. I. P. de
2015-07-15
Over the range of time scales from about 10 days to 30–100 years, in addition to the familiar weather and climate regimes, there is an intermediate “macroweather” regime characterized by negative temporal fluctuation exponents: implying that fluctuations tend to cancel each other out so that averages tend to converge. We show theoretically and numerically that macroweather precipitation can be modeled by a stochastic weather-climate model (the Climate Extended Fractionally Integrated Flux, model, CEFIF) first proposed for macroweather temperatures and we show numerically that a four parameter space-time CEFIF model can approximately reproduce eight or so empirical space-time exponents. In spite of this success, CEFIF is theoretically and numerically difficult to manage. We therefore propose a simplified stochastic model in which the temporal behavior is modeled as a fractional Gaussian noise but the spatial behaviour as a multifractal (climate) cascade: a spatial extension of the recently introduced ScaLIng Macroweather Model, SLIMM. Both the CEFIF and this spatial SLIMM model have a property often implicitly assumed by climatologists that climate statistics can be “homogenized” by normalizing them with the standard deviation of the anomalies. Physically, it means that the spatial macroweather variability corresponds to different climate zones that multiplicatively modulate the local, temporal statistics. This simplified macroweather model provides a framework for macroweather forecasting that exploits the system's long range memory and spatial correlations; for it, the forecasting problem has been solved. We test this factorization property and the model with the help of three centennial, global scale precipitation products that we analyze jointly in space and in time.
Electronically-controlled optical tweezing using space-time-wavelength mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Shah; Torun, Rasul; Zhao, Qiancheng; Atasever, Tuva; Boyraz, Ozdal
2015-08-01
We propose electronically controlled optical tweezing based on space-time-wavelength mapping technology. By using time-domain modulation, the location and the polarity of force hot-spots created by Lorentz force (gradient force) can be controlled. In this preliminary study we use 150 fs optical pulses that are dispersed in time and space to achieve a focused elliptical beam that is ~20 μm long and ~2 μm wide. We use an electro-optic modulator to modulate power spectral distribution of the femtosecond beam after temporal dispersion and hence change the intensity gradient along the beam at the focal spot. We present a theoretical model, and simulation results from a proposed experimental setup. The results show that we can achieve ±200 pN forces on nano objects (~100 nm) without mechanical beam steering. The intensity of wavelengths along the spectrum can be manipulated by using different RF waveforms to create a desired intensity gradient profile at the focal plane. By choosing the appropriate RF waveform it is possible to create force fields for cell stretching and compression as well as multiple hot spots for attractive or repulsive forces. 2D space-time-wavelength mapping can also be utilized to create tunable 2D force field distribution.
Observation of quantum particles on a large space-time scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landau, L. J.
1994-10-01
A quantum particle observed on a sufficiently large space-time scale can be described by means of classical particle trajectories. The joint distribution for large-scale multiple-time position and momentum measurements on a nonrelativistic quantum particle moving freely in R v is given by straight-line trajectories with probabilities determined by the initial momentum-space wavefunction. For large-scale toroidal and rectangular regions the trajectories are geodesics. In a uniform gravitational field the trajectories are parabolas. A quantum counting process on free particles is also considered and shown to converge in the large-space-time limit to a classical counting process for particles with straight-line trajectories. If the quantum particle interacts weakly with its environment, the classical particle trajectories may undergo random jumps. In the random potential model considered here, the quantum particle evolves according to a reversible unitary one-parameter group describing elastic scattering off static randomly distributed impurities (a quantum Lorentz gas). In the large-space-time weak-coupling limit a classical stochastic process is obtained with probability one and describes a classical particle moving with constant speed in straight lines between random jumps in direction. The process depends only on the ensemble value of the covariance of the random field and not on the sample field. The probability density in phase space associated with the classical stochastic process satisfies the linear Boltzmann equation for the classical Lorentz gas, which, in the limit h→0, goes over to the linear Landau equation. Our study of the quantum Lorentz gas is based on a perturbative expansion and, as in other studies of this system, the series can be controlled only for small values of the rescaled time and for Gaussian random fields. The discussion of classical particle trajectories for nonrelativistic particles on a macroscopic spacetime scale applies also to
Horizons versus singularities in spherically symmetric space-times
Bronnikov, K. A.; Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S. D.; Zaslavskii, O. B.
2008-09-15
We discuss different kinds of Killing horizons possible in static, spherically symmetric configurations and recently classified as 'usual', 'naked', and 'truly naked' ones depending on the near-horizon behavior of transverse tidal forces acting on an extended body. We obtain the necessary conditions for the metric to be extensible beyond a horizon in terms of an arbitrary radial coordinate and show that all truly naked horizons, as well as many of those previously characterized as naked and even usual ones, do not admit an extension and therefore must be considered as singularities. Some examples are given, showing which kinds of matter are able to create specific space-times with different kinds of horizons, including truly naked ones. Among them are fluids with negative pressure and scalar fields with a particular behavior of the potential. We also discuss horizons and singularities in Kantowski-Sachs spherically symmetric cosmologies and present horizon regularity conditions in terms of an arbitrary time coordinate and proper (synchronous) time. It turns out that horizons of orders 2 and higher occur in infinite proper times in the past or future, but one-way communication with regions beyond such horizons is still possible.
Space-time resolved kinetics of low-pressure breakdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marić, D.; Malović, G.; Radmilović-Radenović, M.; Petrović, Z. L.
2008-05-01
A review of diagnostics of low-current low-pressure discharges is given with an aim to illustrate how such discharges are used to determine swarm parameters and also how such data may be applied to model and understand the discharges. We have revised how comprehensive modelling of breakdown has led to agreement between binary collision data and the data that may be inferred from the breakdown (Paschen) curves by including processes such as space charge (current) effect on the local field in front of the cathode, photoemission, heavy particle gas phase ionization and backdiffusion. It is also discussed how modelling of Volt-Ampere characteristics in addition to Paschen curves is necessary to establish models of secondary electron emission and how these models may be applied in high current discharges. Finally we show how space time resolved anatomy of the breakdown can lead to understanding of the physics of the initial stages of gas breakdown and formation of Townsend regime, glow and abnormal glow discharges.
Langevin Dynamics with Space-Time Periodic Nonequilibrium Forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joubaud, R.; Pavliotis, G. A.; Stoltz, G.
2015-01-01
We present results on the ballistic and diffusive behavior of the Langevin dynamics in a periodic potential that is driven away from equilibrium by a space-time periodic driving force, extending some of the results obtained by Collet and Martinez in (J Math Biol, 56(6):765-792 2008). In the hyperbolic scaling, a nontrivial average velocity can be observed even if the external forcing vanishes in average. More surprisingly, an average velocity in the direction opposite to the forcing may develop at the linear response level—a phenomenon called negative mobility. The diffusive limit of the non-equilibrium Langevin dynamics is also studied using the general methodology of central limit theorems for additive functionals of Markov processes. To apply this methodology, which is based on the study of appropriate Poisson equations, we extend recent results on pointwise estimates of the resolvent of the generator associated with the Langevin dynamics. Our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations of a two-dimensional system.
Beyond Peaceful Coexistence: The Emergence of Space, Time and Quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licata, Ignazio
A physical theory consists of a formal structure and one or more interpretations. The latter can come out from cultural and cognitive tension going far beyond any sound operational pact between theoretical constructs and empirical data. We have no reason to doubt about the consistency and efficacy of syntaxes if properly used in the right range. The formal side of Physics has grown in a strongly connected and stratified way through an almost autopoietic, self-dual procedure (let's think of the extraordinary success of the gauge theories), whereas the foundational debate is still blustering about the two pillars of such monumental construction. The general relativity (GR) and the quantum mechanics (QM), which still appear to be greatly incompatible and stopped in a limited peaceful coexistence between local causality in space-time and quantum non-locality [1]. The formidable challenges waiting for us beyond the Standard Model seem to require a new semantic consistency [2] within the two theories, so as to build a new way to look at them, to work and to relate them...
Fundamental radar properties. II. Coherent phenomena in space-time.
Gabriel, Andrew K
2008-01-01
A previous publication [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 946-956 (2002)] presented a general formulation of radiative systems based on special relativity, and properties of imaging radar were derived as examples. Complex and diverse properties of radar images were shown to have a simple and unified origin when viewed as lower-dimensional (temporal) projections of the space-time structure of a radar observation. A diagram was developed that could be manipulated for a simple, intuitive view of the underlying structure of radar observations and phenomena. That treatment is here extended to include coherent phenomena as they appear in the lower time dimensions of the image. Various known coherent properties of imaging radar and interferometry are derived. The formulation is shown to be a generalization of a conventional echo correlation and is extended to a second spatial dimension. From this perspective, coherent properties also have a surprisingly simple and unified structure; their observed complexity is somewhat illusory, also a consequence of projection onto the lower temporal dimension of the receiver. While this formulation and the rules governing it are quite different from the standard treatments, they have the considerable advantage of providing a much simpler, intuitive, and unified description of radiative (radar and optical) systems that is rooted in fundamental physics. PMID:18157218
Earthquake networks based on space-time influence domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xuan; Zhao, Hai; Cai, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Si, Shuai-Zong
2014-08-01
A new construction method of earthquake networks based on the theory of complex networks is presented in this paper. We propose a space-time influence domain for each earthquake to quantify the subsequence of earthquakes which are directly influenced by the former earthquake. The size of the domain is according to the magnitude of earthquake. In this way, the seismic data in the region of California are mapped to a topology of earthquake network. It is discovered that the earthquake networks in different time spans behave as scale-free networks. This result can be interpreted in terms of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Discovery of small-world characteristic is also reported on the earthquake network constructed by our method. The Omori law emerges as a feature of seismicity for the out-going links of the network. These characteristics highlight a novel aspect of seismicity as a complex phenomenon and will help us to reveal the internal mechanism of seismic system.
Augmenting synthetic aperture radar with space time adaptive processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riedl, Michael; Potter, Lee C.; Ertin, Emre
2013-05-01
Wide-area persistent radar video offers the ability to track moving targets. A shortcoming of the current technology is an inability to maintain track when Doppler shift places moving target returns co-located with strong clutter. Further, the high down-link data rate required for wide-area imaging presents a stringent system bottleneck. We present a multi-channel approach to augment the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) modality with space time adaptive processing (STAP) while constraining the down-link data rate to that of a single antenna SAR system. To this end, we adopt a multiple transmit, single receive (MISO) architecture. A frequency division design for orthogonal transmit waveforms is presented; the approach maintains coherence on clutter, achieves the maximal unaliased band of radial velocities, retains full resolution SAR images, and requires no increase in receiver data rate vis-a-vis the wide-area SAR modality. For Nt transmit antennas and N samples per pulse, the enhanced sensing provides a STAP capability with Nt times larger range bins than the SAR mode, at the cost of O(log N) more computations per pulse. The proposed MISO system and the associated signal processing are detailed, and the approach is numerically demonstrated via simulation of an airborne X-band system.
Voluble: a space-time diagram of the solar system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilera, Julieta C.; SubbaRao, Mark U.
2008-02-01
Voluble is a dynamic space-time diagram of the solar system. Voluble is designed to help users understand the relationship between space and time in the motion of the planets around the sun. Voluble is set in virtual reality to relate these movements to our experience of immediate space. Beyond just the visual, understanding dynamic systems is naturally associated to the articulation of our bodies as we perform a number of complex calculations, albeit unconsciously, to deal with simple tasks. Such capabilities encompass spatial perception and memory. Voluble investigates the balance between the visually abstract and the spatially figurative in immersive development to help illuminate phenomena that are beyond the reach of human scale and time. While most diagrams, even computer-based interactive ones, are flat, three-dimensional real-time virtual reality representations are closer to our experience of space. The representation can be seen as if it was "really there," engaging a larger number of cues pertaining to our everyday spatial experience.
Implicit Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung; Himansu, Ananda; Wang, Xiao-Yen
1999-01-01
Artificial numerical dissipation is in important issue in large Reynolds number computations. In such computations, the artificial dissipation inherent in traditional numerical schemes can overwhelm the physical dissipation and yield inaccurate results on meshes of practical size. In the present work, the space-time conservation element and solution element method is used to construct new and accurate implicit numerical schemes such that artificial numerical dissipation will not overwhelm physical dissipation. Specifically, these schemes have the property that numerical dissipation vanishes when the physical viscosity goes to zero. These new schemes therefore accurately model the physical dissipation even when it is extremely small. The new schemes presented are two highly accurate implicit solvers for a convection-diffusion equation. The two schemes become identical in the pure convection case, and in the pure diffusion case. The implicit schemes are applicable over the whole Reynolds number range, from purely diffusive equations to convection-dominated equations with very small viscosity. The stability and consistency of the schemes are analysed, and some numerical results are presented. It is shown that, in the inviscid case, the new schemes become explicit and their amplification factors are identical to those of the Leapfrog scheme. On the other hand, in the pure diffusion case, their principal amplification factor becomes the amplification factor of the Crank-Nicolson scheme.
Fundamental radar properties: hidden variables in space-time.
Gabriel, Andrew K
2002-05-01
A derivation of the properties of pulsed radiative imaging systems is presented with examples drawn from conventional, synthetic aperture, and interferometric radar. A geometric construction of the space and time components of a radar observation yields a simple underlying structural equivalence among many of the properties of radar, including resolution, range ambiguity, azimuth aliasing, signal strength, speckle, layover, Doppler shifts, obliquity and slant range resolution, finite antenna size, atmospheric delays, and beam- and pulse-limited configurations. The same simple structure is shown to account for many interferometric properties of radar: height resolution, image decorrelation, surface velocity detection, and surface deformation measurement. What emerges is a simple, unified description of the complex phenomena of radar observations. The formulation comes from fundamental physical concepts in relativistic field theory, of which the essential elements are presented. In the terminology of physics, radar properties are projections of hidden variables--curved worldlines from a broken symmetry in Minkowski space-time--onto a time-serial receiver. PMID:11999969
Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, T.; Williams, D.
2012-07-01
Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.
Space-time adaptive numerical methods for geophysical applications.
Castro, C E; Käser, M; Toro, E F
2009-11-28
In this paper we present high-order formulations of the finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin finite-element methods for wave propagation problems with a space-time adaptation technique using unstructured meshes in order to reduce computational cost without reducing accuracy. Both methods can be derived in a similar mathematical framework and are identical in their first-order version. In their extension to higher order accuracy in space and time, both methods use spatial polynomials of higher degree inside each element, a high-order solution of the generalized Riemann problem and a high-order time integration method based on the Taylor series expansion. The static adaptation strategy uses locally refined high-resolution meshes in areas with low wave speeds to improve the approximation quality. Furthermore, the time step length is chosen locally adaptive such that the solution is evolved explicitly in time by an optimal time step determined by a local stability criterion. After validating the numerical approach, both schemes are applied to geophysical wave propagation problems such as tsunami waves and seismic waves comparing the new approach with the classical global time-stepping technique. The problem of mesh partitioning for large-scale applications on multi-processor architectures is discussed and a new mesh partition approach is proposed and tested to further reduce computational cost. PMID:19840984
A global conformal extension theorem for perfect fluid Bianchi space-times
Luebbe, Christian Tod, Paul
2008-12-15
A global extension theorem is established for isotropic singularities in polytropic perfect fluid Bianchi space-times. When an extension is possible, the limiting behaviour of the physical space-time near the singularity is analysed.
Solving Space-Time Fractional Differential Equations by Using Modified Simple Equation Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, Melike; Akbulut, Arzu; Bekir, Ahmet
2016-05-01
In this article, we establish new and more general traveling wave solutions of space-time fractional Klein–Gordon equation with quadratic nonlinearity and the space-time fractional breaking soliton equations using the modified simple equation method. The proposed method is so powerful and effective to solve nonlinear space-time fractional differential equations by with modified Riemann–Liouville derivative.
Space-time dynamics estimation from space mission tracking data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dirkx, D.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.
2016-03-01
Aims: Many physical parameters that can be estimated from space mission tracking data influence both the translational dynamics and proper time rates of observers. These different proper time rates cause a variability of the time transfer observable beyond that caused by their translational (and rotational) dynamics. With the near-future implementation of transponder laser ranging, these effects will become increasingly important, and will require a re-evaluation of the common data analysis practice of using a priori time ephemerides, which is the goal of this paper. Methods: We develop a framework for the simultaneous estimation of the initial translational state and the initial proper time of an observer, with the goal of facilitating robust tracking data analysis from next-generation space missions carrying highly accurate clocks and tracking equipment. Using our approach, the influence of physical parameters on both translational and time dynamics are considered at the same level in the analysis, and mutual correlations between the signatures of the two are automatically identified. We perform a covariance analysis using our proposed method with simulated laser data from Earth-based stations to both a Mars and Mercury lander. Results: Using four years of tracking data for the Mars lander simulations, we find a difference between our results using the simultaneous space-time dynamics estimation and the classical analysis technique (with an a priori time ephemeris) of around 0.1% in formal errors and correlation coefficients. For a Mercury lander this rises to around 1% for a one-month mission and 10% for a four-year mission. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we find that using an a priori time ephemeris of representative accuracy will result in estimation errors that are orders of magnitude above the formal error when processing highly accurate laser time transfer data.
Surviving in a metastable de Sitter space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Mondal, Swapnamay; Sen, Ashoke; Verma, Mritunjay
2015-09-01
In a metastable de Sitter space any object has a finite life expectancy beyond which it undergoes vacuum decay. However, by spreading into different parts of the universe which will fall out of causal contact of each other in future, a civilization can increase its collective life expectancy, defined as the average time after which the last settlement disappears due to vacuum decay. We study in detail the collective life expectancy of two comoving objects in de Sitter space as a function of the initial separation, the horizon radius and the vacuum decay rate. We find that even with a modest initial separation, the collective life expectancy can reach a value close to the maximum possible value of 1.5 times that of the individual object if the decay rate is less than 1% of the expansion rate. Our analysis can be generalized to any number of objects, general trajectories not necessarily at rest in the comoving coordinates and general FRW space-time. As part of our analysis we find that in the current state of the universe dominated by matter and cosmological constant, the vacuum decay rate is increasing as a function of time due to accelerated expansion of the volume of the past light cone. Present decay rate is about 3.7 times larger than the average decay rate in the past and the final decay rate in the cosmological constant dominated epoch will be about 56 times larger than the average decay rate in the past. This considerably weakens the lower bound on the half-life of our universe based on its current age.
High-Order Space-Time Methods for Conservation Laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, H. T.
2013-01-01
Current high-order methods such as discontinuous Galerkin and/or flux reconstruction can provide effective discretization for the spatial derivatives. Together with a time discretization, such methods result in either too small a time step size in the case of an explicit scheme or a very large system in the case of an implicit one. To tackle these problems, two new high-order space-time schemes for conservation laws are introduced: the first is explicit and the second, implicit. The explicit method here, also called the moment scheme, achieves a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition of 1 for the case of one-spatial dimension regardless of the degree of the polynomial approximation. (For standard explicit methods, if the spatial approximation is of degree p, then the time step sizes are typically proportional to 1/p(exp 2)). Fourier analyses for the one and two-dimensional cases are carried out. The property of super accuracy (or super convergence) is discussed. The implicit method is a simplified but optimal version of the discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to time. It reduces to a collocation implicit Runge-Kutta (RK) method for ordinary differential equations (ODE) called Radau IIA. The explicit and implicit schemes are closely related since they employ the same intermediate time levels, and the former can serve as a key building block in an iterative procedure for the latter. A limiting technique for the piecewise linear scheme is also discussed. The technique can suppress oscillations near a discontinuity while preserving accuracy near extrema. Preliminary numerical results are shown
Witek, Helvi; Nerozzi, Andrea; Zilhao, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Cardoso, Vitor; Sperhake, Ulrich
2010-11-15
Higher dimensional black holes play an exciting role in fundamental physics, such as high energy physics. In this paper, we use the formalism and numerical code reported in [1] to study the head-on collision of two black holes. For this purpose we provide a detailed treatment of gravitational wave extraction in generic D dimensional space-times, which uses the Kodama-Ishibashi formalism. For the first time, we present the results of numerical simulations of the head-on collision in five space-time dimensions, together with the relevant physical quantities. We show that the total radiated energy, when two black holes collide from rest at infinity, is approximately (0.089{+-}0.006)% of the center of mass energy, slightly larger than the 0.055% obtained in the four-dimensional case, and that the ringdown signal at late time is in very good agreement with perturbative calculations.
Space-time LAI variability in Northern Puglia (Italy) from SPOT VGT data.
Balacco, Gabriella; Figorito, Benedetto; Tarantino, Eufemia; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito
2015-07-01
The vegetation space-time variability during 1999-2010 in the North of the Apulian region (Southern Italy) was analysed using SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) sensor data. Three bands of VEGETATION (RED, NIR and SWIR) were used to implement the vegetation index named reduced simple ratio (RSR) to derive leaf area index (LAI). The monthly average LAI is an indicator of biomass and canopy cover, while the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. The space-time distribution of LAI at the catchment scale was analysed over the examined period to detect the consistency of vegetation dynamics in the study area. A diffuse increase of LAI was observed in the examined years that cannot be directly explained only in terms of increasing water availability. Thus, in order to explain such a general behaviour in terms of climatic factors, the analysis was performed upon stratification of land cover classes, focusing on the most widespread species: forest and wheat. An interesting ascending-descending behaviour was observed in the relationship between inter-annual increments of maximum LAI and rainfall, and in particular, a strong negative correlation was found when the rainfall amount in January and February exceeded a critical threshold of about 100 mm. PMID:26077022
World-sheet stability, space-time horizons and cosmic censorship
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollock, M. D.
2014-11-01
Previously, we have analyzed the stability and supersymmetry of the heterotic superstring world sheet in the background Friedmann space-time generated by a perfect fluid with energy density ρ and pressure p = ( γ - 1) ρ. The world sheet is tachyon-free within the range 2/3 ≤ γ ≤ ∞, and globally supersymmetric in the Minkowski-space limit ρ = ∞, or when γ = 2/3, which is the equation of state for stringy matter and corresponds to the Milne universe, that expands along its apparent horizon. Here, this result is discussed in greater detail, particularly with regard to the question of horizon structure, cosmic censorship, the TCP theorem, and local world-sheet supersymmetry. Also, we consider the symmetric background space-time generated by a static, electrically (or magnetically) charged matter distribution of total mass and charge Q, and containing a radially directed macroscopic string. We find that the effective string mass m satisfies the inequality m 2 ≥ 0, signifying stability, provided that , which corresponds to the Reissner-Nordström black hole. The case of marginal string stability, m 2 = 0, is the extremal solution , which was shown by Gibbons and Hull to be supersymmetric, and has a marginal horizon. If , the horizon disappears, m 2 < 0, and the string becomes unstable.
Linking and Causality in Globally Hyperbolic Space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernov (Tchernov), Vladimir V.; Rudyak, Yuli B.
2008-04-01
The classical linking number lk is defined when link components are zero homologous. In [15] we constructed the affine linking invariant alk generalizing lk to the case of linked submanifolds with arbitrary homology classes. Here we apply alk to the study of causality in Lorentzian manifolds. Let M m be a spacelike Cauchy surface in a globally hyperbolic space-time ( X m+1, g). The spherical cotangent bundle ST * M is identified with the space mathcal N of all null geodesics in ( X, g). Hence the set of null geodesics passing through a point xin X gives an embedded ( m-1)-sphere mathfrak S_x in mathcal N=ST^*M called the sky of x. Low observed that if the link (mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is nontrivial, then x,yin X are causally related. This observation yielded a problem (communicated by R. Penrose) on the V. I. Arnold problem list [3,4] which is basically to study the relation between causality and linking. Our paper is motivated by this question. The spheres mathfrak S_x are isotopic to the fibers of (ST^*M)^{2m-1}to M^m. They are nonzero homologous and the classical linking number lk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is undefined when M is closed, while alk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is well defined. Moreover, alk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y)in {mathbb{Z}} if M is not an odd-dimensional rational homology sphere. We give a formula for the increment of alk under passages through Arnold dangerous tangencies. If ( X, g) is such that alk takes values in {mathbb{Z}} and g is conformal to widehat{g} that has all the timelike sectional curvatures nonnegative, then x, yin X are causally related if and only if alk (mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y)neq 0 . We prove that if alk takes values in {mathbb{Z}} and y is in the causal future of x, then alk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is the intersection number of any future directed past inextendible timelike curve to y and of the future null cone of x. We show that x, y in a nonrefocussing ( X, g) are causally unrelated if and only if
Purifying selection shapes the coincident SNP distribution of primate coding sequences.
Chen, Chia-Ying; Hung, Li-Yuan; Wu, Chan-Shuo; Chuang, Trees-Juen
2016-01-01
Genome-wide analysis has observed an excess of coincident single nucleotide polymorphisms (coSNPs) at human-chimpanzee orthologous positions, and suggested that this is due to cryptic variation in the mutation rate. While this phenomenon primarily corresponds with non-coding coSNPs, the situation in coding sequences remains unclear. Here we calculate the observed-to-expected ratio of coSNPs (coSNPO/E) to estimate the prevalence of human-chimpanzee coSNPs, and show that the excess of coSNPs is also present in coding regions. Intriguingly, coSNPO/E is much higher at zero-fold than at nonzero-fold degenerate sites; such a difference is due to an elevation of coSNPO/E at zero-fold degenerate sites, rather than a reduction at nonzero-fold degenerate ones. These trends are independent of chimpanzee subpopulation, population size, or sequencing techniques; and hold in broad generality across primates. We find that this discrepancy cannot fully explained by sequence contexts, shared ancestral polymorphisms, SNP density, and recombination rate, and that coSNPO/E in coding sequences is significantly influenced by purifying selection. We also show that selection and mutation rate affect coSNPO/E independently, and coSNPs tend to be less damaging and more correlated with human diseases than non-coSNPs. These suggest that coSNPs may represent a "signature" during primate protein evolution. PMID:27255481
Purifying selection shapes the coincident SNP distribution of primate coding sequences
Chen, Chia-Ying; Hung, Li-Yuan; Wu, Chan-Shuo; Chuang, Trees-Juen
2016-01-01
Genome-wide analysis has observed an excess of coincident single nucleotide polymorphisms (coSNPs) at human-chimpanzee orthologous positions, and suggested that this is due to cryptic variation in the mutation rate. While this phenomenon primarily corresponds with non-coding coSNPs, the situation in coding sequences remains unclear. Here we calculate the observed-to-expected ratio of coSNPs (coSNPO/E) to estimate the prevalence of human-chimpanzee coSNPs, and show that the excess of coSNPs is also present in coding regions. Intriguingly, coSNPO/E is much higher at zero-fold than at nonzero-fold degenerate sites; such a difference is due to an elevation of coSNPO/E at zero-fold degenerate sites, rather than a reduction at nonzero-fold degenerate ones. These trends are independent of chimpanzee subpopulation, population size, or sequencing techniques; and hold in broad generality across primates. We find that this discrepancy cannot fully explained by sequence contexts, shared ancestral polymorphisms, SNP density, and recombination rate, and that coSNPO/E in coding sequences is significantly influenced by purifying selection. We also show that selection and mutation rate affect coSNPO/E independently, and coSNPs tend to be less damaging and more correlated with human diseases than non-coSNPs. These suggest that coSNPs may represent a “signature” during primate protein evolution. PMID:27255481
Surveying Multidisciplinary Aspects in Real-Time Distributed Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks
Braccini, Carlo; Davoli, Franco; Marchese, Mario; Mongelli, Maurizio
2015-01-01
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where a multiplicity of sensors observe a physical phenomenon and transmit their measurements to one or more sinks, pertain to the class of multi-terminal source and channel coding problems of Information Theory. In this category, “real-time” coding is often encountered for WSNs, referring to the problem of finding the minimum distortion (according to a given measure), under transmission power constraints, attainable by encoding and decoding functions, with stringent limits on delay and complexity. On the other hand, the Decision Theory approach seeks to determine the optimal coding/decoding strategies or some of their structural properties. Since encoder(s) and decoder(s) possess different information, though sharing a common goal, the setting here is that of Team Decision Theory. A more pragmatic vision rooted in Signal Processing consists of fixing the form of the coding strategies (e.g., to linear functions) and, consequently, finding the corresponding optimal decoding strategies and the achievable distortion, generally by applying parametric optimization techniques. All approaches have a long history of past investigations and recent results. The goal of the present paper is to provide the taxonomy of the various formulations, a survey of the vast related literature, examples from the authors' own research, and some highlights on the inter-play of the different theories. PMID:25633597
Computer-games for gravitational wave science outreach: Black Hole Pong and Space Time Quest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, L.; Bond, C.; Brown, D.; Brückner, F.; Grover, K.; Lodhia, D.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Fulda, P.; Smith, R. J. E.; Unwin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Wang, M.; Whalley, L.; Freise, A.
2012-06-01
We have established a program aimed at developing computer applications and web applets to be used for educational purposes as well as gravitational wave outreach activities. These applications and applets teach gravitational wave physics and technology. The computer programs are generated in collaboration with undergraduates and summer students as part of our teaching activities, and are freely distributed on a dedicated website. As part of this program, we have developed two computer-games related to gravitational wave science: 'Black Hole Pong' and 'Space Time Quest'. In this article we present an overview of our computer related outreach activities and discuss the games and their educational aspects, and report on some positive feedback received.
Space-time properties of Gram-Schmidt vectors in classical Hamiltonian evolution.
Green, Jason R; Jellinek, Julius; Berry, R Stephen
2009-12-01
Not all tangent space directions play equivalent roles in the local chaotic motions of classical Hamiltonian many-body systems. These directions are numerically represented by basis sets of mutually orthogonal Gram-Schmidt vectors, whose statistical properties may depend on the chosen phase space-time domain of a trajectory. We examine the degree of stability and localization of Gram-Schmidt vector sets simulated with trajectories of a model three-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. Distributions of finite-time Lyapunov exponent and inverse participation ratio spectra formed from short-time histories reveal that ergodicity begins to emerge on different time scales for trajectories spanning different phase-space regions, in a narrow range of total energy and history length. Over a range of history lengths, the most localized directions were typically the most unstable and corresponded to atomic configurations near potential landscape saddles. PMID:20365252
Space-time variability of floods across Germany: Gradual trends, step changes and fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merz, Bruno; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Schröter, Kai
2015-04-01
The space-time variability of flood magnitude and frequency across Germany at the interannual and decadal time scale is analyzed and interpreted. The analyses are based on flood time series of 68 catchments for a joint period of 74 years. The catchments are distributed across Germany and show different flood regimes. Different statistical tests are applied to investigate different types of flood changes: gradual trends, step changes and fluctuations. In addition, changes in the mean behavior and in the variability are studied. A focus is placed on the spatial stability of changes, i.e. answering the question to which extent flood changes are coherent across Germany. The joint analysis of changes for a large number of catchments allows interpreting the causes of the observed changes. For instance, climate-related flood changes are expected to show a different behavior than changes caused by river training or land-use change.
Francis, Stephen S; Selvin, Steve; Yang, Wei; Buffler, Patricia A; Wiemels, Joseph L
2012-04-01
The town of Fallon within Churchill County, Nevada exhibited an unusually high incidence of childhood leukemia during the years 1997-2003. We examined the temporal and spatial patterning of the leukemia case homes in comparison to the distribution of the general population at risk, other cancer incidence, and features of land use. Leukemia cases were predominantly diagnosed during the early to mid summer, exhibiting a seasonal bias. Leukemia cases lived outside of the "developed/urban" area of Fallon, predominantly in the "agriculture/pasture" region of Churchill County, circumscribing downtown Fallon. This pattern was different from the distribution of the underlying population (p-value<0.01) and different from the distribution of other cancers, which were evenly distributed when compared to the population (p-value=0.74). The unusual space-time patterning of childhood leukemia is consistent with the involvement of an infectious disease. A possible mode of transmission for such an infectious disease is by means of a vector, and mosquitoes are abundant in Churchill County outside of the urban area of Fallon. This region harbors a US Navy base, and a temporally concordant increase in military wide childhood leukemia rates suggests the base a possible source of the virus. Taken together, our current understanding of the etiology of childhood leukemia, the rural structure combined with temporal and geospatial patterning of these leukemia cases, and the high degree of population mixing in Fallon, suggest a possible infectious cause. PMID:21352818
Francis, Stephen S.; Selvin, Steve; Yang, Wei; Buffler, Patricia A.; Wiemels, Joseph L.
2012-01-01
The town of Fallon within Churchill County, Nevada exhibited an unusually high incidence of childhood leukemia during the years 1997–2003. We examined the temporal and spatial patterning of the leukemia case homes in comparison to the distribution of the general population at risk, other cancer incidence, and features of land use. Leukemia cases were predominantly diagnosed during the early to mid summer, exhibiting a seasonal bias. Leukemia cases lived outside of the “developed/urban” area of Fallon, predominantly in the “agriculture/pasture” region of Churchill County, circumscribing downtown Fallon. This pattern was different from the distribution of the underlying population (p-value < 0.01) and different from the distribution of other cancers, which were evenly distributed when compared to the population (p-value = 0.74). The unusual space-time patterning of childhood leukemia is consistent with the involvement of an infectious disease. A possible mode of transmission for such an infectious disease is by means of a vector, and mosquitoes are abundant in Churchill County outside of the urban area of Fallon. This region harbors a US Navy base, and a temporally concordant increase in military wide childhood leukemia rates suggests the base a possible source of the virus. Taken together, our current understanding of the etiology of childhood leukemia, the rural structure combined with temporal and geospatial patterning of these leukemia cases, and the high degree of population mixing in Fallon, suggest a possible infectious cause. PMID:21352818
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yannian; Jiang, Zhuangde
2006-03-01
A new distributed optical fiber sensor system for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection is presented. A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is buried beneath the soil running along the oil pipeline, which is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation and vibration caused by leaking, tampering, and mechanical impacting. The region of additional attenuation can be located based on the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR), and the types of external disturbances can be identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power. The Golay codes are utilized to improve the range-resolution performance of the OTDR sub-system and offer a method to characterize the transmitted optical power in a wide range of frequency spectrum. Theoretic analysis and simulation experiment have shown that the application of Golay codes can overcome the shortcomings of the prototype based on the conventional single-pulse OTDR.
Cultural modulations of space-time compatibility effects.
Vallesi, Antonino; Weisblatt, Yael; Semenza, Carlo; Shaki, Samuel
2014-06-01
The representation of elapsing time may require spatial attention. In certain circumstances, this spatial representation develops from left to right. This is suggested by a performance advantage in responding short with the left hand and long with the right hand (spatial-temporal association between response codes [STEARC]). The present study tests whether one possible determinant of the directionality of the STEARC effect is cultural. In particular, we investigated whether reading/writing habits can affect STEARC direction by administering a visual time judgment task to Italian participants, who were exposed to a left-to-right reading/writing system, and Israeli participants, who mainly used a right-to-left system. The Italian participants showed a left-to-right STEARC effect, while this effect was not present in the Israeli group. The study demonstrates that cultural habits can influence the way in which spatial attention supports the representation of time, similar to the pattern found in other nonspatial domains such as numbers. PMID:24163172
Ralchenko, Yu.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Colgan, J.; Fontes, C. J.; Foster, M.; Zhang, H. L.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Bauche, J.; Bauche-Arnoult, C.; Bowen, C.; Faussurier, G.; Chung, H.-K.; Hansen, S. B.; Lee, R. W.; Scott, H.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de; Poirier, M.; Golovkin, I.; Novikov, V.
2009-09-10
We present calculations of ionization balance and radiative power losses for tungsten in magnetic fusion plasmas. The simulations were performed within the framework of Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) Code Comparison Workshops utilizing several independent collisional-radiative models. The calculations generally agree with each other; however, a clear disagreement with experimental ionization distributions at low temperatures 2 keV
Super-nodal methods for space-time kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertyurek, Ugur
The purpose of this research has been to develop an advanced Super-Nodal method to reduce the run time of 3-D core neutronics models, such as in the NESTLE reactor core simulator and FORMOSA nuclear fuel management optimization codes. Computational performance of the neutronics model is increased by reducing the number of spatial nodes used in the core modeling. However, as the number of spatial nodes decreases, the error in the solution increases. The Super-Nodal method reduces the error associated with the use of coarse nodes in the analyses by providing a new set of cross sections and ADFs (Assembly Discontinuity Factors) for the new nodalization. These so called homogenization parameters are obtained by employing consistent collapsing technique. During this research a new type of singularity, namely "fundamental mode singularity", is addressed in the ANM (Analytical Nodal Method) solution. The "Coordinate Shifting" approach is developed as a method to address this singularity. Also, the "Buckling Shifting" approach is developed as an alternative and more accurate method to address the zero buckling singularity, which is a more common and well known singularity problem in the ANM solution. In the course of addressing the treatment of these singularities, an effort was made to provide better and more robust results from the Super-Nodal method by developing several new methods for determining the transverse leakage and collapsed diffusion coefficient, which generally are the two main approximations in the ANM methodology. Unfortunately, the proposed new transverse leakage and diffusion coefficient approximations failed to provide a consistent improvement to the current methodology. However, improvement in the Super-Nodal solution is achieved by updating the homogenization parameters at several time points during a transient. The update is achieved by employing a refinement technique similar to pin-power reconstruction. A simple error analysis based on the relative
Establishing more truth in space-time integration of surface turbulent heat fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulev, Sergey; Belyaev, Konstantin
2016-04-01
Space-time integration of surface turbulent heat fluxes is important for obtaining area-averaged budget estimates and for producing climatologies of surface fluxes. Uncertainty of the integration or averaging of fluxes in space and in time are especially high when the data are sparse as in the case of the use of information from Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) which are characterized by inhomogeneous sampling density in contrast to NWP products and satellite data sets. In order to minimize sampling impact onto local and larger scale surface flux averages we suggest an approach based upon analysis of surface fluxes in the coordinates of steering parameters (vertical surface temperature and humidity gradients on one hand and wind speed on the other). These variables are distributed according to the Modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution (temperature and humidity gradients) and Weibull distribution (wind speed) which imply a 2-dimentional distribution for the fluxes. Since the fluxes in these coordinates are determined in a unique manner (within a chosen bulk transfer algorithm), they can be easily integrated in the space of 2-dimentional distribution in order to get the averaged values dependent on the parameters of the MFT and Weibull distributions. Conceptually, the approach is similar to that oceanographers apply for analysing volumetric T,S-diagrams of water mass properties. We developed an algorithm for applying this approach and also provided the analysis of integrated surface fluxes for different regions of the North Atlantic for which heat flux estimates can be obtained from oceanographic cross-sections. Analysis was performed for the last 5 decades. 2-dimensitonal diagrams also make it possible to analyse temporal variability of integrated surface fluxes in the dimension of steering parameters and to further compare estimates with changes in the ocean heat content.
Manz, Stephanie; Casandruc, Albert; Zhang, Dongfang; Zhong, Yinpeng; Loch, Rolf A; Marx, Alexander; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Liu, Lai Chung; Bayesteh, Shima; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Hoffmann, Matthias; Felber, Matthias; Hachmann, Max; Mayet, Frank; Hirscht, Julian; Keskin, Sercan; Hada, Masaki; Epp, Sascha W; Flöttmann, Klaus; Miller, R J Dwayne
2015-01-01
The long held objective of directly observing atomic motions during the defining moments of chemistry has been achieved based on ultrabright electron sources that have given rise to a new field of atomically resolved structural dynamics. This class of experiments requires not only simultaneous sub-atomic spatial resolution with temporal resolution on the 100 femtosecond time scale but also has brightness requirements approaching single shot atomic resolution conditions. The brightness condition is in recognition that chemistry leads generally to irreversible changes in structure during the experimental conditions and that the nanoscale thin samples needed for electron structural probes pose upper limits to the available sample or "film" for atomic movies. Even in the case of reversible systems, the degree of excitation and thermal effects require the brightest sources possible for a given space-time resolution to observe the structural changes above background. Further progress in the field, particularly to the study of biological systems and solution reaction chemistry, requires increased brightness and spatial coherence, as well as an ability to tune the electron scattering cross-section to meet sample constraints. The electron bunch density or intensity depends directly on the magnitude of the extraction field for photoemitted electron sources and electron energy distribution in the transverse and longitudinal planes of electron propagation. This work examines the fundamental limits to optimizing these parameters based on relativistic electron sources using re-bunching cavity concepts that are now capable of achieving 10 femtosecond time scale resolution to capture the fastest nuclear motions. This analysis is given for both diffraction and real space imaging of structural dynamics in which there are several orders of magnitude higher space-time resolution with diffraction methods. The first experimental results from the Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic
Rasanen, Okko J; Saarinen, Jukka P
2016-09-01
Modeling and prediction of temporal sequences is central to many signal processing and machine learning applications. Prediction based on sequence history is typically performed using parametric models, such as fixed-order Markov chains ( n -grams), approximations of high-order Markov processes, such as mixed-order Markov models or mixtures of lagged bigram models, or with other machine learning techniques. This paper presents a method for sequence prediction based on sparse hyperdimensional coding of the sequence structure and describes how higher order temporal structures can be utilized in sparse coding in a balanced manner. The method is purely incremental, allowing real-time online learning and prediction with limited computational resources. Experiments with prediction of mobile phone use patterns, including the prediction of the next launched application, the next GPS location of the user, and the next artist played with the phone media player, reveal that the proposed method is able to capture the relevant variable-order structure from the sequences. In comparison with the n -grams and the mixed-order Markov models, the sparse hyperdimensional predictor clearly outperforms its peers in terms of unweighted average recall and achieves an equal level of weighted average recall as the mixed-order Markov chain but without the batch training of the mixed-order model. PMID:26285224
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D. Simard, Alexandre; LaRochelle, Sophie
2009-06-01
As data traffic increases on telecommunication networks, optical communication systems must adapt to deal with this increasing bursty traffic. Packet switched networks are considered a good solution to provide efficient bandwidth management. We recently proposed the use of spectra amplitude codes (SAC) to implement all-optical label processing for packet switching and routing. The implementation of this approach requires agile photonic components including filters and lasers. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable source able to generate the routing codes, which are composed of two wavelengths on a 25 GHz grid. Our solution is to use a cascade of two chirped fibre Bragg gratings (CFBG) in a semiconductor fibre ring laser. The wavelength selection process comes from distributed phase shifts applied on the CFBG that is used in transmission. Those phase shifts are obtained via local thermal perturbations created by resistive chrome lines deposited on a glass plate. The filter resonances are influenced by four parameters: the chrome line positions, the temperature profile along the fibre, the neighbouring heater state (ON/OFF) and the grating itself. Through numerical modeling, these parameters are optimized to design the appropriate chrome line pattern. With this device, we demonstrate successful generation of reconfigurable SAC codes.
Gust Acoustic Response of a Single Airfoil Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James (Technical Monitor); Wang, X. Y.; Chang, S. C.; Himansu, A.; Jorgenson, P. C. E.
2003-01-01
A 2D parallel Euler code based on the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method is validated by solving the benchmark problem I in Category 3 of the Third CAA Workshop. This problem concerns the acoustic field generated by the interaction of a convected harmonic vortical gust with a single airfoil. Three gust frequencies, two gust configurations, and three airfoil geometries are considered. Numerical results at both near and far fields are presented and compared with the analytical solutions, a frequency-domain solver GUST3D solutions, and a time-domain high-order Discontinuous Spectral Element Method (DSEM) solutions. It is shown that the CE/SE solutions agree well with the GUST3D solution for the lowest frequency, while there are discrepancies between CE/SE and GUST3D solutions for higher frequencies. However, the CE/SE solution is in good agreement with the DSEM solution for these higher frequencies. It demonstrates that the CE/SE method can produce accurate results of CAA problems involving complex geometries by using unstructured meshes.
Slaughter, D.
1985-03-01
A computer code is described which estimates the energy spectrum or ''line-shape'' for the charged particles and ..gamma..-rays produced by the fusion of low-z ions in a hot plasma. The simulation has several ''built-in'' ion velocity distributions characteristic of heated plasmas and it also accepts arbitrary speed and angular distributions although they must all be symmetric about the z-axis. An energy spectrum of one of the reaction products (ion, neutron, or ..gamma..-ray) is calculated at one angle with respect to the symmetry axis. The results are shown in tabular form, they are plotted graphically, and the moments of the spectrum to order ten are calculated both with respect to the origin and with respect to the mean.
Aydogan, Fatih; Hochreiter, Lawrence E.; Ivanov, Kostadin; Rhee, Gene; Sartori, Enrico
2006-07-01
Good quality experimental data is needed to refine the thermal hydraulic models for the prediction of rod bundle void distribution and critical heat flux (CHF) or dry-out. The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has provided a valuable database to evaluate the thermal hydraulic codes [1]. Part of this database was selected for the NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT) benchmark sponsored by US NRC, METI-Japan, NEA/OECD and Nuclear Engineering Program of the Pennsylvania State University (PSU). Twenty-five organizations from ten countries have confirmed their intention to participate and will provide code predictions to be compared to the measured data for a series of defined exercises within the framework of the BFBT benchmark. This benchmark data includes both the fine-mesh high quality sub-channel void fraction and critical power data. Using a full BWR rod bundle test facility, the void distribution was measured at mesh sizes smaller than the sub-channel by using a state-of-the-art computer tomography (CT) technology [1]. Experiments were performed for different pressures, flow rates, exit qualities, inlet sub-cooling, power distributions, spacer types and assembly designs. There are microscopic and sub-channel averaged void fraction data from the CT scanner at the bundle exit as well as X-ray densitometer void distribution data at different elevation levels in the rod bundle. Each sub-channel's loss coefficient was calculated with using the Rehme method [2,3], and a COBRA-TF sub-channel model was developed for the NUPEC facility. The BWR assembly that was modeled with COBRA-TF includes two water rods at the center. The predicted sub-channel void fraction values from COBRA-TF are compared with the bundle exit void fraction values measured using the CT-scanner void fraction from the BFBT benchmark data. Different plots are used to examine the code prediction of the void distribution at a sub-channel level for the different sub-channels within
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Michael A.; Feenstra, Eliot; Ryon, Emily; McNeill, David
2011-01-01
Our research aims to identify children's communicative strategies when faced with the task of solving a geometric puzzle in CSCL contexts. We investigated how to identify and trace "distributed cognition" in problem-solving interactions based on discursive cohesion to objects, participants, and prior discursive content, and geometric and…
1991-01-25
Version 00 TPHEX calculates the multigroup neutron flux distribution in an assembly of hexagonal cells using a transmission probability (interface current) method. It is primarily intended for calculations on hexagonal LWR fuel assemblies but can be used for other purposes subject to the qualifications mentioned in Restrictions/Limitations.
Threshold exceedance risk assessment in complex space-time systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angulo, José M.; Madrid, Ana E.; Romero, José L.
2015-04-01
Environmental and health impact risk assessment studies most often involve analysis and characterization of complex spatio-temporal dynamics. Recent developments in this context are addressed, among other objectives, to proper representation of structural heterogeneities, heavy-tailed processes, long-range dependence, intermittency, scaling behavior, etc. Extremal behaviour related to spatial threshold exceedances can be described in terms of geometrical characteristics and distribution patterns of excursion sets, which are the basis for construction of risk-related quantities, such as in the case of evolutionary study of 'hotspots' and long-term indicators of occurrence of extremal episodes. Derivation of flexible techniques, suitable for both the application under general conditions and the interpretation on singularities, is important for practice. Modern risk theory, a developing discipline motivated by the need to establish solid general mathematical-probabilistic foundations for rigorous definition and characterization of risk measures, has led to the introduction of a variety of classes and families, ranging from some conceptually inspired by specific fields of applications, to some intended to provide generality and flexibility to risk analysts under parametric specifications, etc. Quantile-based risk measures, such as Value-at-Risk (VaR), Average Value-at-Risk (AVaR), and generalization to spectral measures, are of particular interest for assessment under very general conditions. In this work, we study the application of quantile-based risk measures in the spatio-temporal context in relation to certain geometrical characteristics of spatial threshold exceedance sets. In particular, we establish a closed-form relationship between VaR, AVaR, and the expected value of threshold exceedance areas and excess volumes. Conditional simulation allows us, by means of empirical global and local spatial cumulative distributions, the derivation of various statistics of
Constraints on Space-Time Manifold in Euclidean Supergravity in Terms of Dirac Eigenvalues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciuhu, C.; Vancea, Ion V.
We generalize a previous work on Dirac eigenvalues as dynamical variables of Euclidean supergravity. The most general set of constraints on the curvatures of the tangent bundle and on the spinor bundle of the space-time manifold, under which space-time admits Dirac eigenvalues as observables, are derived.
Is the shell-focusing singularity of Szekeres space-time visible?
Nolan, Brien C; Debnath, Ujjal
2007-11-15
The visibility of the shell-focusing singularity in Szekeres space-time--which represents quasispherical dust collapse--has been studied on numerous occasions in the context of the cosmic censorship conjecture. The various results derived have assumed that there exist radial null geodesics in the space-time. We show that such geodesics do not exist in general, and so previous results on the visibility of the singularity are not generally valid. More precisely, we show that the existence of a radial geodesic in Szekeres space-time implies that the space-time is axially symmetric, with the geodesic along the polar direction (i.e. along the axis of symmetry). If there is a second nonparallel radial geodesic, then the space-time is spherically symmetric, and so is a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi space-time. For the case of the polar geodesic in an axially symmetric Szekeres space-time, we give conditions on the free functions (i.e. initial data) of the space-time which lead to visibility of the singularity along this direction. Likewise, we give a sufficient condition for censorship of the singularity. We point out the complications involved in addressing the question of visibility of the singularity both for nonradial null geodesics in the axially symmetric case and in the general (nonaxially symmetric) case, and suggest a possible approach.
Reduction of space-time by a constraint for C(0) metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hortaçsu, M.; Özdemir, N.
1994-01-01
It is shown how a constraint imposed by the physical relevance of the solutions reduces the dimension of space-time. The C(0) metric given by Nutku is used to describe gravitational shock waves and the trivial case is looked at. It is found that imposing triviality on the solutions reduces the dimension of space-time by one.
Non-existence of perfect dark energy fluid in Bianchi type-IV space time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, B.; Sahoo, P. K.; Suresh, Srikanth
2015-07-01
In this paper, non-diagonal Bianchi type-IV space-time is investigated in Einstein general theory of relativity. The matter field is considered in the form of perfect dark energy fluid. It is interesting to observe that in this case, Bianchi type IV perfect dark energy fluid cosmological model does not exist. The space-time reduces to Minkowskian geometry.
Infinity of geodesics in a homogeneous and isotropic expanding space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adda, Fayçal Ben; Porchon, Hélène
2016-03-01
In this paper, we construct a discrete simulation of an expanding homogeneous and isotropic space-time that expands via expansion of its basic elements to figure out properties and characteristics of such a space-time and derive conclusions. We prove that in such an expanding space-time, the geodesics are curved and more precisely, they fluctuate on the boundaries of the expanding basic elements. The non-existence of privileged expansion direction leads to the existence of an infinity of fluctuating geodesics between any two locations in this space-time, that provides a prediction of polarization in geometric optics, and a prediction of an earlier acceleration of the expansion as for the cosmic inflation model. This simulation is a case study and an example of space-time with variable topology using the principle of variation of topology via a transformation that creates holes.
Smolyaninov, Igor I; Smolyaninova, Vera N; Smolyaninov, Alexei I
2015-08-28
In the presence of an external magnetic field, cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial. The wave equation, which describes propagation of extraordinary light inside the ferrofluid, exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective three-dimensional Minkowski space-time is played by the spatial coordinate directed along the periodic nanoparticle chains aligned by the magnetic field. Here, we present a microscopic study of point, linear, planar and volume defects of the nanoparticle chain structure and demonstrate that they may exhibit strong similarities with such Minkowski space-time defects as magnetic monopoles, cosmic strings and the recently proposed space-time cloaks. Experimental observations of such defects are described. PMID:26217055
Diverse and pervasive subcellular distributions for both coding and long noncoding RNAs.
Wilk, Ronit; Hu, Jack; Blotsky, Dmitry; Krause, Henry M
2016-03-01
In a previous analysis of 2300 mRNAs via whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization in cellularizing Drosophila embryos, we found that 70% of the transcripts exhibited some form of subcellular localization. To see whether this prevalence is unique to early Drosophila embryos, we examined ∼8000 transcripts over the full course of embryogenesis and ∼800 transcripts in late third instar larval tissues. The numbers and varieties of new subcellular localization patterns are both striking and revealing. In the much larger cells of the third instar larva, virtually all transcripts observed showed subcellular localization in at least one tissue. We also examined the prevalence and variety of localization mechanisms for >100 long noncoding RNAs. All of these were also found to be expressed and subcellularly localized. Thus, subcellular RNA localization appears to be the norm rather than the exception for both coding and noncoding RNAs. These results, which have been annotated and made available on a recompiled database, provide a rich and unique resource for functional gene analyses, some examples of which are provided. PMID:26944682
Diverse and pervasive subcellular distributions for both coding and long noncoding RNAs
Wilk, Ronit; Hu, Jack; Blotsky, Dmitry; Krause, Henry M.
2016-01-01
In a previous analysis of 2300 mRNAs via whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization in cellularizing Drosophila embryos, we found that 70% of the transcripts exhibited some form of subcellular localization. To see whether this prevalence is unique to early Drosophila embryos, we examined ∼8000 transcripts over the full course of embryogenesis and ∼800 transcripts in late third instar larval tissues. The numbers and varieties of new subcellular localization patterns are both striking and revealing. In the much larger cells of the third instar larva, virtually all transcripts observed showed subcellular localization in at least one tissue. We also examined the prevalence and variety of localization mechanisms for >100 long noncoding RNAs. All of these were also found to be expressed and subcellularly localized. Thus, subcellular RNA localization appears to be the norm rather than the exception for both coding and noncoding RNAs. These results, which have been annotated and made available on a recompiled database, provide a rich and unique resource for functional gene analyses, some examples of which are provided. PMID:26944682
Wohlin, Åsa
2015-03-21
The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system. PMID:25623487
Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Neves, Carlos F. H.
2010-06-01
Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system - the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain's activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time in the brain. This space-time is limited to the execution of brain operations of differing complexity. During each such brain operation a particular short-term spatio-temporal pattern of integrated activity of different brain areas emerges within related operational space-time. At the same time, to have a fully functional human brain one needs to have a subjective mental experience. Current research on the subjective mental experience offers detailed analysis of space-time organization of the mind. According to this research, subjective mental experience (subjective virtual world) has definitive spatial and temporal properties similar to many physical phenomena. Based on systematic review of the propositions and tenets of brain and mind space-time descriptions, our aim in this review essay is to explore the relations between the two. To be precise, we would like to discuss the hypothesis that via the brain operational space-time the mind subjective space-time is connected to otherwise distant physical space-time reality.
2013-01-01
Background Abattoir condemnation data show promise as a rich source of data for syndromic surveillance of both animal and zoonotic diseases. However, inherent characteristics of abattoir condemnation data can bias results from space-time cluster detection methods for disease surveillance, and may need to be accounted for using various adjustment methods. The objective of this study was to compare the space-time scan statistics with different abilities to control for covariates and to assess their suitability for food animal syndromic surveillance. Four space-time scan statistic models were used including: animal class adjusted Poisson, space-time permutation, multi-level model adjusted Poisson, and a weighted normal scan statistic using model residuals. The scan statistics were applied to monthly bovine pneumonic lung and “parasitic liver” condemnation data from Ontario provincial abattoirs from 2001–2007. Results The number and space-time characteristics of identified clusters often varied between space-time scan tests for both “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation data. While there were some similarities between isolated clusters in space, time and/or space-time, overall the results from space-time scan statistics differed substantially depending on the covariate adjustment approach used. Conclusions Variability in results among methods suggests that caution should be used in selecting space-time scan methods for abattoir surveillance. Furthermore, validation of different approaches with simulated or real outbreaks is required before conclusive decisions can be made concerning the best approach for conducting surveillance with these data. PMID:24246040
Jutla, Antarpreet S.; Akanda, Ali S.; Islam, Shafiqul
2012-01-01
Cholera bacteria exhibit strong association with coastal plankton. Characterization of space-time variability of chlorophyll, a surrogate for plankton abundance, in Northern Bay of Bengal is an essential first step to develop any methodology for predicting cholera outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region using remote sensing. This study quantifies the space-time distribution of chlorophyll, using data from SeaWiFS, in the Bay of Bengal region using ten years of satellite data. Variability of chlorophyll at daily scale, irrespective of spatial averaging, resembles white noise. At a monthly scale, chlorophyll shows distinct seasonality and chlorophyll values are significantly higher close to the coast than in the offshore regions. At pixel level (9 km) on monthly scale, on the other hand, chlorophyll does not exhibit much persistence in time. With increased spatial averaging, temporal persistence of chlorophyll increases and lag one autocorrelation stabilizes around 0.60 for 1296 km2 or larger areal averages. In contrast to the offshore regions, spatial analyses of chlorophyll suggest that only coastal region has a stable correlation length of 100 km. Presence (absence) of correlation length in the coastal (offshore) regions, indicate that the two regions may have two separate processes controlling the production a phytoplankton This study puts a lower limit on space-time averaging of satellite measured plankton at 1296 km2-monthly scale to establish relationships with cholera incidence in Bengal Delta. PMID:22544976
Solano, Rubén; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Simón, Fernando; Lafuente, Sarah; Simón, Pere; Rius, Cristina; Gorrindo, Pilar; Toledo, Diana; Caylà, Joan A
2014-05-01
A retrospective, space-time study of whooping cough cases reported to the Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Spain between the years 2000 and 2011 is presented. It is based on 633 individual whooping cough cases and the 2006 population census from the Spanish National Statistics Institute, stratified by age and sex at the census tract level. Cluster identification was attempted using space-time scan statistic assuming a Poisson distribution and restricting temporal extent to 7 days and spatial distance to 500 m. Statistical calculations were performed with Stata 11 and SatScan and mapping was performed with ArcGis 10.0. Only clusters showing statistical significance (P <0.05) were mapped. The most likely cluster identified included five census tracts located in three neighbourhoods in central Barcelona during the week from 17 to 23 August 2011. This cluster included five cases compared with the expected level of 0.0021 (relative risk = 2436, P <0.001). In addition, 11 secondary significant space-time clusters were detected with secondary clusters occurring at different times and localizations. Spatial statistics is felt to be useful by complementing epidemiological surveillance systems through visualizing excess in the number of cases in space and time and thus increase the possibility of identifying outbreaks not reported by the surveillance system. PMID:24893022
MCNP(TM) Release 6.1.1 beta: Creating and Testing the Code Distribution
Cox, Lawrence J.; Casswell, Laura
2014-06-12
This report documents the preparations for and testing of the production release of MCNP6™1.1 beta through RSICC at ORNL. It addresses tests on supported operating systems (Linux, MacOSX, Windows) with the supported compilers (Intel, Portland Group and gfortran). Verification and Validation test results are documented elsewhere. This report does not address in detail the overall packaging of the distribution. Specifically, it does not address the nuclear and atomic data collection, the other included software packages (MCNP5, MCNPX and MCNP6) and the collection of reference documents.
Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Sommerer, F; Paganetti, H
2008-01-01
Clinical investigations on post-irradiation PET/CT (positron emission tomography / computed tomography) imaging for in-vivo verification of treatment delivery and, in particular, beam range in proton therapy are underway at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Within this project we have developed a Monte Carlo framework for CT-based calculation of dose and irradiation induced positron emitter distributions. Initial proton beam information is provided by a separate Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation modeling the treatment head. Particle transport in the patient is performed in the CT voxel geometry using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The implementation uses a discrete number of different tissue types with composition and mean density deduced from the CT scan. Scaling factors are introduced to account for the continuous Hounsfield Unit dependence of the mass density and of the relative stopping power ratio to water used by the treatment planning system (XiO (Computerized Medical Systems Inc.)). Resulting Monte Carlo dose distributions are generally found in good correspondence with calculations of the treatment planning program, except few cases (e.g. in the presence of air/tissue interfaces). Whereas dose is computed using standard FLUKA utilities, positron emitter distributions are calculated by internally combining proton fluence with experimental and evaluated cross-sections yielding 11C, 15O, 14O, 13N, 38K and 30P. Simulated positron emitter distributions yield PET images in good agreement with measurements. In this paper we describe in detail the specific implementation of the FLUKA calculation framework, which may be easily adapted to handle arbitrary phase spaces of proton beams delivered by other facilities or include more reaction channels based on additional cross-section data. Further, we demonstrate the effects of different acquisition time regimes (e.g., PET imaging during or after irradiation) on the intensity and spatial distribution of the irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parodi, K.; Ferrari, A.; Sommerer, F.; Paganetti, H.
2007-07-01
Clinical investigations on post-irradiation PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) imaging for in vivo verification of treatment delivery and, in particular, beam range in proton therapy are underway at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Within this project, we have developed a Monte Carlo framework for CT-based calculation of dose and irradiation-induced positron emitter distributions. Initial proton beam information is provided by a separate Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation modelling the treatment head. Particle transport in the patient is performed in the CT voxel geometry using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The implementation uses a discrete number of different tissue types with composition and mean density deduced from the CT scan. Scaling factors are introduced to account for the continuous Hounsfield unit dependence of the mass density and of the relative stopping power ratio to water used by the treatment planning system (XiO (Computerized Medical Systems Inc.)). Resulting Monte Carlo dose distributions are generally found in good correspondence with calculations of the treatment planning program, except a few cases (e.g. in the presence of air/tissue interfaces). Whereas dose is computed using standard FLUKA utilities, positron emitter distributions are calculated by internally combining proton fluence with experimental and evaluated cross-sections yielding 11C, 15O, 14O, 13N, 38K and 30P. Simulated positron emitter distributions yield PET images in good agreement with measurements. In this paper, we describe in detail the specific implementation of the FLUKA calculation framework, which may be easily adapted to handle arbitrary phase spaces of proton beams delivered by other facilities or include more reaction channels based on additional cross-section data. Further, we demonstrate the effects of different acquisition time regimes (e.g., PET imaging during or after irradiation) on the intensity and spatial distribution of the irradiation
Space-time distribution of ignimbrite volcanism in the southern SMO: From Eocene to Pliocene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieto-Obregon, J.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.
2004-12-01
A distinct variation in the age of the ignimbrites of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is observed in the southern portion, which includes the area between Tepic, Nayarit (-105° W) and Aguascalientes, Ags (-102° W). Older, high-grade ignimbrites are Eocene and occur as scattered outcrops. These are in turn covered by a widespread and voluminous sequence of high-grade ignimbrites and silicic to intermediate lavas that ranges in age from Middle Oligocene to Middle Miocene. The peak of this ignimbrite volcanism was at about 21 Ma to 22 Ma, but there is evidence showing that it initiated since about 30 Ma and ended at about 17.5 Ma. This ignimbrite and lava sequence is in turn covered by another series of lavas, predominantly mafic to intermediate, in the southern part of the area. This latest volcanism represents the initiation of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Ignimbrite volcanism apparently initiated at the NE part of the study area, and migrated to the SW with time, that is from the area Presa Calles to the valley of Bolaños. Isotopic ages reported on these rocks, cluster in various groups reflecting the time evolution of volcanism. Rocks older than 30 Ma tend to occur on the raised blocks of Sierra de El Laurel and Northern Sierra de Morones, in the eastern part of the area. The interval from 30 to 20 Ma comprises a discontinuous set of ages that are concentrated in the blocks of Southern Sierra de Morones, Tlaltenango, Bolaños and the area around Cinco Minas-San Pedro Analco-Hostotipaquillo. An apparent gap of ages occurs between 12 to 18 Ma, followed by a predominantly mafic volcanism scattered mainly to the south of the area, that represents the transition of SMO to MVB. Finally mafic volcanism of the MVB of 3 to 4 Ma is present in the south, in the area excavated on the vicinity of Rio Grande de Santiago. A similar migration pattern has been reported in general for the whole SMO by Aguirre-Diaz and Labarthe-Hernandez (2003), from NE Chihuahua to SW Nayarit between ca. 50 Ma to 18 Ma. Thus, in this study we confirm this pattern in a more local scale. These authors also mention that such large ignimbrite units may have been produced by the extrusion of pyroclastic material through linear conduits. In the Aguascalientes area, we have found linear fissure vents for the local ignimbrites, confirming this fact in this area.
Fine-tuning the space, time, and host distribution of mycobacteria in wildlife
2011-01-01
Background We describe the diversity of two kinds of mycobacteria isolates, environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium bovis collected from wild boar, fallow deer, red deer and cattle in Doñana National Park (DNP, Spain), analyzing their association with temporal, spatial and environmental factors. Results High diversity of environmental mycobacteria species and M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) were found. When assessing the factors underlying the presence of the most common types of both environmental mycobacteria and M. bovis TPs in DNP, we evidenced (i) host species differences in the occurrence, (ii) spatial structuration and (iii) differences in the degree of spatial association of specific types between host species. Co-infection of a single host by two M. bovis TPs occurred in all three wild ungulate species. In wild boar and red deer, isolation of one group of mycobacteria occurred more frequently in individuals not infected by the other group. While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007. The opposite was observed in cattle. Belonging to an M. bovis-infected social group was a significant risk factor for mycobacterial infection in red deer and wild boar, but not for fallow deer. M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT. Conclusions The diversity of mycobacteria described herein is indicative of multiple introduction events and a complex multi-host and multi-pathogen epidemiology in DNP. Significant changes in the mycobacterial isolate community may have taken place, even in a short time period (1998 to 2007). Aspects of host social organization should be taken into account in wildlife epidemiology. Wildlife in DNP is frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, which could interact with the immune response to pathogenic mycobacteria, although the effects are unknown. This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales. PMID:21288321
Fire flame detection using color segmentation and space-time analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruchanurucks, Miti; Saengngoen, Praphin; Sajjawiso, Theeraphat
2011-10-01
This paper presents a fire flame detection using CCTV cameras based on image processing. The scheme relies on color segmentation and space-time analysis. The segmentation is performed to extract fire-like-color regions in an image. Many methods are benchmarked against each other to find the best for practical CCTV camera. After that, the space-time analysis is used to recognized fire behavior. A space-time window is generated from contour of the threshold image. Feature extraction is done in Fourier domain of the window. Neural network is used for behavior recognition. The system will be shown to be practical and robust.
Mobile phone usage in complex urban systems: a space-time, aggregated human activity study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tranos, Emmanouil; Nijkamp, Peter
2015-04-01
The present study aims to demonstrate the importance of digital data for investigating space-time dynamics of aggregated human activity in urban systems. Such dynamics can be monitored and modelled using data from mobile phone operators regarding mobile telephone usage. Using such an extensive dataset from the city of Amsterdam, this paper introduces space-time explanatory models of aggregated human activity patterns. Various modelling experiments and results are presented, which demonstrate that mobile telephone data are a good proxy of the space-time dynamics of aggregated human activity in the city.
Exponential rational function method for space-time fractional differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksoy, Esin; Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet
2016-04-01
In this paper, exponential rational function method is applied to obtain analytical solutions of the space-time fractional Fokas equation, the space-time fractional Zakharov Kuznetsov Benjamin Bona Mahony, and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers' equations. As a result, some exact solutions for them are successfully established. These solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. The exact solutions obtained by the proposed method indicate that the approach is easy to implement and effective.
Separability of Gravitational Perturbation in Generalized Kerr-Nut Sitter Space-Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oota, Takeshi; Yasui, Yukinori
Generalized Kerr-NUT-de Sitter space-time is the most general space-time which admits a rank-2 closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor. It contains the higher-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter black holes with partially equal angular momenta. We study the separability of gravitational perturbations in the generalized Kerr-NUT-de Sitter space-time. We show that a certain type of tensor perturbations admits the separation of variables. The linearized perturbation equations for the Einstein condition are transformed into the ordinary differential equations of Fuchs type.
Black holes in loop quantum gravity: the complete space-time.
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2008-10-17
We consider the quantization of the complete extension of the Schwarzschild space-time using spherically symmetric loop quantum gravity. We find an exact solution corresponding to the semiclassical theory. The singularity is eliminated but the space-time still contains a horizon. Although the solution is known partially numerically and therefore a proper global analysis is not possible, a global structure akin to a singularity-free Reissner-Nordström space-time including a Cauchy horizon is suggested. PMID:18999656
An Approach to Integrate a Space-Time GIS Data Model with High Performance Computers
Wang, Dali; Zhao, Ziliang; Shaw, Shih-Lung
2011-01-01
In this paper, we describe an approach to integrate a Space-Time GIS data model on a high performance computing platform. The Space-Time GIS data model has been developed on a desktop computing environment. We use the Space-Time GIS data model to generate GIS module, which organizes a series of remote sensing data. We are in the process of porting the GIS module into an HPC environment, in which the GIS modules handle large dataset directly via parallel file system. Although it is an ongoing project, authors hope this effort can inspire further discussions on the integration of GIS on high performance computing platforms.
Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories: A Danish case–control study
2014-01-01
Background A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups, and for 66% of the study population we also conducted analyses adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators. Results In the crude analyses a cluster in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen was consistently found throughout the study period (1971–2003) with both control groups. When analyses were adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators, the cluster area became smaller and less evident. Conclusions The breast cancer cluster area that persisted after adjustment might be explained by factors that were not accounted for such as alcohol consumption and use of hormone replacement therapy. However, we cannot exclude environmental pollutants as a contributing cause, but no pollutants specific to this area seem obvious. PMID:24725434
Space-time resolved measurements of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma
Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Borodziuk, S.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.; Golasowski, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Demchenko, N. N.; Korneev, Ph.; Kalal, M.; Renner, O.; Smid, M.; Pisarczyk, P.
2015-10-15
The first space-time resolved spontaneous magnetic field (SMF) measurements realized on Prague Asterix Laser System are presented. The SMF was generated as a result of single laser beam (1.315 μm) interaction with massive planar targets made of materials with various atomic numbers (plastic and Cu). Measured SMF confirmed azimuthal geometry and their maximum amplitude reached the value of 10 MG at the laser energy of 250 J for both target materials. It was demonstrated that spatial distributions of these fields are associated with the character of the ablative plasma expansion which clearly depends on the target material. To measure the SMF, the Faraday effect was employed causing rotation of the vector of polarization of the linearly polarized diagnostic beam. The rotation angle was determined together with the phase shift using a novel design of a two-channel polaro-interferometer. To obtain sufficiently high temporal resolution, the polaro-interferometer was irradiated by Ti:Sa laser pulse with the wavelength of 808 nm and the pulse duration of 40 fs. The results of measurements were compared with theoretical analysis.
Space-time resolved measurements of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pisarczyk, T.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Dudzak, R.; Chodukowski, T.; Dostal, J.; Demchenko, N. N.; Korneev, Ph.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kalal, M.; Renner, O.; Smid, M.; Borodziuk, S.; Krousky, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.; Golasowski, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.
2015-10-01
The first space-time resolved spontaneous magnetic field (SMF) measurements realized on Prague Asterix Laser System are presented. The SMF was generated as a result of single laser beam (1.315 μm) interaction with massive planar targets made of materials with various atomic numbers (plastic and Cu). Measured SMF confirmed azimuthal geometry and their maximum amplitude reached the value of 10 MG at the laser energy of 250 J for both target materials. It was demonstrated that spatial distributions of these fields are associated with the character of the ablative plasma expansion which clearly depends on the target material. To measure the SMF, the Faraday effect was employed causing rotation of the vector of polarization of the linearly polarized diagnostic beam. The rotation angle was determined together with the phase shift using a novel design of a two-channel polaro-interferometer. To obtain sufficiently high temporal resolution, the polaro-interferometer was irradiated by Ti:Sa laser pulse with the wavelength of 808 nm and the pulse duration of 40 fs. The results of measurements were compared with theoretical analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerushev, Alexander F.; Vasiliev, Victor I.
1994-01-01
An analysis of specific features of space-time variations of ozone in the tropical areas which has been performed on the basis of processing of the results of special expedition studies in the Atlantic and Pacific in 1987-1990 and the data of observations at the stations of the world ozonometric network over the 25-year period. The existence of a cause-and-effect relation has been revealed between the processes determining tropical cyclone (TC) development, and specific features of variations of the total content of ozone (TCO) and the vertical distribution of ozone (VDO) in the regions of TC action. Characteristic features of day-to-day and daily variations of TCO during TC development have been found. On the periphery of a developing TC, 1-4 days before it reaches the stage of storm, TCO increases, on average, by 5-8 percent, and a substantial increase in the concentration of ozone occurs in the middle and upper troposphere. The most probable physical mechanisms relating the observed specific features of ozone variations to TC evolution have been suggested. A hypothesis of the possibility of using ozone as an indicator for early prediction of TC development has been substantiated.
Xu, Jinhua; Yang, Zhiyong; Tsien, Joe Z.
2010-01-01
Visual saliency is the perceptual quality that makes some items in visual scenes stand out from their immediate contexts. Visual saliency plays important roles in natural vision in that saliency can direct eye movements, deploy attention, and facilitate tasks like object detection and scene understanding. A central unsolved issue is: What features should be encoded in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes? To explore this important issue, we propose a hypothesis that visual saliency is based on efficient encoding of the probability distributions (PDs) of visual variables in specific contexts in natural scenes, referred to as context-mediated PDs in natural scenes. In this concept, computational units in the model of the early visual system do not act as feature detectors but rather as estimators of the context-mediated PDs of a full range of visual variables in natural scenes, which directly give rise to a measure of visual saliency of any input stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model of the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes using a modified algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA) and derived a measure of visual saliency based on these PDs estimated from a set of natural scenes. We demonstrated that visual saliency based on the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes effectively predicts human gaze in free-viewing of both static and dynamic natural scenes. This study suggests that the computation based on the context-mediated PDs of visual variables in natural scenes may underlie the neural mechanism in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes. PMID:21209963
Space-Time Controls on Carbon Sequestration Over Large-Scale Amazon Basin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Gu, Jiujing; Grose, Andrew; Norman, John; daRocha, Humberto R.; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A major research focus of the LBA Ecology Program is an assessment of the carbon budget and the carbon sequestering capacity of the large scale forest-pasture system that dominates the Amazonia landscape, and its time-space heterogeneity manifest in carbon fluxes across the large scale Amazon basin ecosystem. Quantification of these processes requires a combination of in situ measurements, remotely sensed measurements from space, and a realistically forced hydrometeorological model coupled to a carbon assimilation model, capable of simulating details within the surface energy and water budgets along with the principle modes of photosynthesis and respiration. Here we describe the results of an investigation concerning the space-time controls of carbon sources and sinks distributed over the large scale Amazon basin. The results are derived from a carbon-water-energy budget retrieval system for the large scale Amazon basin, which uses a coupled carbon assimilation-hydrometeorological model as an integrating system, forced by both in situ meteorological measurements and remotely sensed radiation fluxes and precipitation retrieval retrieved from a combination of GOES, SSM/I, TOMS, and TRMM satellite measurements. Brief discussion concerning validation of (a) retrieved surface radiation fluxes and precipitation based on 30-min averaged surface measurements taken at Ji-Parana in Rondonia and Manaus in Amazonas, and (b) modeled carbon fluxes based on tower CO2 flux measurements taken at Reserva Jaru, Manaus and Fazenda Nossa Senhora. The space-time controls on carbon sequestration are partitioned into sets of factors classified by: (1) above canopy meteorology, (2) incoming surface radiation, (3) precipitation interception, and (4) indigenous stomatal processes varied over the different land covers of pristine rainforest, partially, and fully logged rainforests, and pasture lands. These are the principle meteorological, thermodynamical, hydrological, and biophysical
Influence of the input database in detecting fire space-time clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Mário; Costa, Ricardo; Tonini, Marj; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana
2015-04-01
Fire incidence variability is influenced by local environmental variables such as topography, land use, vegetation and weather conditions. These induce a cluster pattern of the fire events distribution. The space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) method developed by Kulldorff et al. (2005) and implemented in the SaTScanTM software (http://www.satscan.org/) proves to be able to detect space-time clusters in many different fields, even when using incomplete and/or inaccurate input data. Nevertheless, the dependence of the STPSS method on the different characteristics of different datasets describing the same environmental phenomenon has not been studied yet. In this sense, the objective of this study is to assess the robustness of the STPSS for detecting real clusters using different input datasets and to justify the obtained results. This study takes advantage of the existence of two very different official fire datasets currently available for Portugal, both provided by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests. The first one is the aggregated Portuguese Rural Fire Database PRFD (Pereira et al., 2011), which is based on ground measurements and provides detailed information about the ignition and extinction date/time and the area burnt by each fire in forest, scrubs and agricultural areas. However, in the PRFD, the fire location of each fire is indicated by the name of smallest administrative unit (the parish) where the ignition occurred. Consequently, since the application of the STPSS requires the geographic coordinates of the events, the centroid of the parishes was considered. The second fire dataset is the national mapping burnt areas (NMBA), which is based on satellite measurements and delivered in shape file format. The NMBA provides a detailed spatial information (shape and size of each fire) but the temporal information is restricted to the year of occurrence. Besides these differences, the two datasets cover different periods, they
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Howe, James William
-speed operation, and electronic control of signals. Finally, we devote much attention to the paradigm of space-time duality and temporal imaging which allows the electro-optic phase modulators used in our instrumentation to be framed as temporal analogs of diffractive optical elements such as lenses and prisms. We show how the concepts of "time-lenses" and "time-prisms" give an intuitive understanding of our work as well as insight for the general development of optical instrumentation.
Einstein--Weyl space-times with geodesic and shear-free neutrino rays: asymptotic behaviour
Kolassis, C.A.; Santos, N.O.
1987-02-15
We consider a neutrino field with geodesic and shear-free rays, in interaction with a gravitational field according to the Einstein--Weyl field equations. Furthermore we suppose that there exists a Killing vector r/sup ..mu../ whose magnitude is almost everywhere bounded at the future and past endpoints of the neutrino rays. The implications of the asymptotic behavior of r/sup ..mu../ on the structure of space-time are investigated and a useful set of reduced equations is obtained. It is found that under these hypothes the space-time cannot be asymptotically flat if the neutrino field is nonvanishing. All the Demianski--Kerr--NUT-like space-times as well as the space-times which admit a covariantly constant null vector are explicity obtained. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.
Ghodoosian, N.
1984-05-01
An analytical model leading to the pressure distribution on the cross section of a Darrieus Rotor Blade (airfoil) has veen constructed. The model is based on the inviscid flow theory and the contribution of the nonsteady wake vortices was neglected. The analytical model was translated into a computer code in order to study a variety of boundary conditions encountered by the rotating blades of the Darrieus Rotor. Results indicate that, for a pitching airfoil, lift can be adequately approximated by the Kutta-Joukowski forces, despite notable deviations in the pressure distribution on the airfoil. These deviations are most significant at the upwind half of the Darrieus Rotor where higher life is accompanied by increased adverse pressure gradients. The effect of pitching on lift can be approximated by a linear shift in the angle of attack proportional to the blade angular velocity. Tabulation of the fluid velocity about the pitching-only NACA 0015 allowed the principle of superposition to be used to determine the fluid velocity about a translating and pitching airfoil.
Federated Space-Time Query for Earth Science Data Using OpenSearch Conventions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lynnes, Chris; Beaumont, Bruce; Duerr, Ruth; Hua, Hook
2009-01-01
This slide presentation reviews a Space-time query system that has been developed to assist the user in finding Earth science data that fulfills the researchers needs. It reviews the reasons why finding Earth science data can be so difficult, and explains the workings of the Space-Time Query with OpenSearch and how this system can assist researchers in finding the required data, It also reviews the developments with client server systems.
Stationary axisymmetric four dimensional space-time endowed with Einstein metric
Hasanuddin; Azwar, A.; Gunara, B. E.
2015-04-16
In this paper, we construct Ernst equation from vacuum Einstein field equation for both zero and non-zero cosmological constant. In particular, we consider the case where the space-time admits axisymmetric using Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. This is called Kerr-Einstein solution describing a spinning black hole. Finally, we give a short discussion about the dynamics of photons on Kerr-Einstein space-time.
Tectonic implications of space-time patterns of Cenozoic magmatism in the western United States
Snyder, W.S.; Dickinson, W.R.; Silberman, M.L.
1976-01-01
Locations of 2,100 radiometrically dated igneous rocks were plotted on a series of 20 maps, each representing an interval within the period 80 m.y. B.P. to present. Derivative maps showing the distributions in space and time of dated granitic intrusive rocks, silicic lavas and domes, ash-flow tuffs, andesitic-dacitic rocks, and basalts depict well the two main petrogenetic assemblages noted previously by others: (1) mainly intermediate andesitic-dacitic suites, including associated granitic intrusive rocks, silicic extrusive rocks, and minor basaltic lavas, are interpreted as reflecting plate interactions related to subduction along the continental margin; and (2) bimodal suites, dominantly basaltic but with minor silicic extrusive rocks, are interpreted as reflecting extensional tectonics. Space-time distribution of the two assemblages suggests that magmatic arcs extended continously parallel to the continental margin from Canada to Mexico in latest Mesozoic and in Oligocene times. An early Cenozoic null in magmatism in the Great Basin may delineate the region where subduction was arrested temporarily by development of the proto-San Andreas fault as a transform in coastal California or, alternatively, may reflect complex subsurface configurations of subducted plates. The late Cenozoic transition from subduction-related magmatism to extention-related basaltic volcanism in the southern Cordillera occurred at different times in different areas in harmony with current concepts about the migration of the Mendocino triple junction as the modern San Andreas transform fault was formed. The plots also reveal the existence of several discrete magmatic loci where igneous activity of various kinds was characteristically more intense and long-lived than elsewhere. ?? 1976.
Space-time scan statistics of 2007-2013 dengue incidence in Cimahi City, Indonesia.
Dhewantara, Pandji Wibawa; Ruliansyah, Andri; Fuadiyah, M Ezza Azmi; Astuti, Endang Puji; Widawati, Mutiara
2015-01-01
Four dengue serotypes threatened more than 200 million people and has spread to over 400 districts in Indonesia. Furthermore, 26 districts in most densely populated province, West Java, have been declared as hyperendemic areas. Cimahi is an endemic city with the highest population (14,969 people per square kilometer). Evidence on distribution pattern of dengue cases is required to discover the spread of dengue cases in Cimahi. A study has been conducted to detect clusters of dengue incidence during 2007-2013. A temporal spatial analysis was performed using SaTScan™ software incorporated confirmed dengue monthly data from the Municipality Health Office and population data from a local Bureau of Statistics. A retrospective space-time analysis with a Poisson distribution model and monthly precision was performed. Our results revealed a significant most likely cluster (p<0.001) throughout period of study. The most likely cluster was detected in the centre of the city and moved to the northern region of Cimahi. Cimahi, Karangmekar, and Cibabat village were most likely cluster in 2007-2010 (p <0.001; RR = 2.16-2.98; pop at risk 12% total population); Citeureup were detected as the most likely cluster in 2011-2013 (p <0.001; RR 5.77), respectively. Temporaly, clusters were detected in the first quarter of each year each. In conclusion, a dynamic spread of dengue initiated from the centre to its surrounding areas during the period 2007-2013. Our study suggests the use of GIS to strengthen case detection and surveillance. An in-depth investigation to relevant risk factors in high-risk areas in Cimahi city is encouraged. PMID:26618319
Schoenball, Martin; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Glen, Jonathan M.
2015-01-01
A remarkable characteristic of earthquakes is their clustering in time and space, displaying their self-similarity. It remains to be tested if natural and induced earthquakes share the same behavior. We study natural and induced earthquakes comparatively in the same tectonic setting at the Coso Geothermal Field. Covering the preproduction and coproduction periods from 1981 to 2013, we analyze interevent times, spatial dimension, and frequency-size distributions for natural and induced earthquakes. Individually, these distributions are statistically indistinguishable. Determining the distribution of nearest neighbor distances in a combined space-time-magnitude metric, lets us identify clear differences between both kinds of seismicity. Compared to natural earthquakes, induced earthquakes feature a larger population of background seismicity and nearest neighbors at large magnitude rescaled times and small magnitude rescaled distances. Local stress perturbations induced by field operations appear to be strong enough to drive local faults through several seismic cycles and reactivate them after time periods on the order of a year.
A Method for Counting Multidirection Passer-by by Using Circular Space-Time Image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terada, Kenji; Matsubara, Kazutaka
Recently, the importance of understanding the number of people and the flow of the persons at public accommodation or department stores have increased more and more. This information is useful for congestion reducing, efficient promotion of the institution management and sales improvement, etc. The conventional methods of counting number of people are carried out by human viewing and by a machine of rotary stick-type counter. Therefore, we have already proposed an automatic system for counting number of people by the image processing to use a straight measurement line and a space-time image. However, these methods are not suitable for the counting at a wide place. In this paper, we propose a method of counting multidirection passer-by by using circular space-time image. In this method, a circular measurment line is set on a sequence of the background subtraction images. All pixels on this line is transformed to the space-time image. The number of passer-by can be counted by using this space-time image. But the direction information of passer-by cannot be obtained from this space-time image. Therefore, two circular measurment lines are set on a sequence of the background subtraction images. Two space-time images are generated from the outside line and the inside line. The directions of passer-by can be obtained by detecting which line passer-by passed previously.
Real-time Space-time Integration in GIScience and Geography
Richardson, Douglas B.
2013-01-01
Space-time integration has long been the topic of study and speculation in geography. However, in recent years an entirely new form of space-time integration has become possible in GIS and GIScience: real-time space-time integration and interaction. While real-time spatiotemporal data is now being generated almost ubiquitously, and its applications in research and commerce are widespread and rapidly accelerating, the ability to continuously create and interact with fused space-time data in geography and GIScience is a recent phenomenon, made possible by the invention and development of real-time interactive (RTI) GPS/GIS technology and functionality in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This innovation has since functioned as a core change agent in geography, cartography, GIScience and many related fields, profoundly realigning traditional relationships and structures, expanding research horizons, and transforming the ways geographic data is now collected, mapped, modeled, and used, both in geography and in science and society more broadly. Real-time space-time interactive functionality remains today the underlying process generating the current explosion of fused spatiotemporal data, new geographic research initiatives, and myriad geospatial applications in governments, businesses, and society. This essay addresses briefly the development of these real-time space-time functions and capabilities; their impact on geography, cartography, and GIScience; and some implications for how discovery and change can occur in geography and GIScience, and how we might foster continued innovation in these fields. PMID:24587490
Real-time Space-time Integration in GIScience and Geography.
Richardson, Douglas B
2013-01-01
Space-time integration has long been the topic of study and speculation in geography. However, in recent years an entirely new form of space-time integration has become possible in GIS and GIScience: real-time space-time integration and interaction. While real-time spatiotemporal data is now being generated almost ubiquitously, and its applications in research and commerce are widespread and rapidly accelerating, the ability to continuously create and interact with fused space-time data in geography and GIScience is a recent phenomenon, made possible by the invention and development of real-time interactive (RTI) GPS/GIS technology and functionality in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This innovation has since functioned as a core change agent in geography, cartography, GIScience and many related fields, profoundly realigning traditional relationships and structures, expanding research horizons, and transforming the ways geographic data is now collected, mapped, modeled, and used, both in geography and in science and society more broadly. Real-time space-time interactive functionality remains today the underlying process generating the current explosion of fused spatiotemporal data, new geographic research initiatives, and myriad geospatial applications in governments, businesses, and society. This essay addresses briefly the development of these real-time space-time functions and capabilities; their impact on geography, cartography, and GIScience; and some implications for how discovery and change can occur in geography and GIScience, and how we might foster continued innovation in these fields. PMID:24587490
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Athanasopoulos, Stavros; Karamanos, Kostas; Almirantis, Yannis
2010-11-01
Statistical methods, including block entropy based approaches, have already been used in the study of long-range features of genomic sequences seen as symbol series, either considering the full alphabet of the four nucleotides or the binary purine or pyrimidine character set. Here we explore the alternation of short protein-coding segments with long noncoding spacers in entire chromosomes, focusing on the scaling properties of block entropy. In previous studies, it has been shown that the sizes of noncoding spacers follow power-law-like distributions in most chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms from distant taxa. We have developed a simple evolutionary model based on well-known molecular events (segmental duplications followed by elimination of most of the duplicated genes) which reproduces the observed linearity in log-log plots. The scaling properties of block entropy H(n) have been studied in several works. Their findings suggest that linearity in semilogarithmic scale characterizes symbol sequences which exhibit fractal properties and long-range order, while this linearity has been shown in the case of the logistic map at the Feigenbaum accumulation point. The present work starts with the observation that the block entropy of the Cantor-like binary symbol series scales in a similar way. Then, we perform the same analysis for the full set of human chromosomes and for several chromosomes of other eukaryotes. A similar but less extended linearity in semilogarithmic scale, indicating fractality, is observed, while randomly formed surrogate sequences clearly lack this type of scaling. Genomic sequences always present entropy values much lower than their random surrogates. Symbol sequences produced by the aforementioned evolutionary model follow the scaling found in genomic sequences, thus corroborating the conjecture that “segmental duplication-gene elimination” dynamics may have contributed to the observed long rangeness in the coding or noncoding alternation in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2014-04-01
Planck and other recent data in Cosmology and Particle Physics can open the way to controversial analyses concerning the early Universe and its possible ultimate origin. Alternatives to standard cosmology include pre-Big Bang approaches, new space-time geometries and new ultimate constituents of matter. Basic issues related to a possible new cosmology along these lines clearly deserve further exploration. The Planck collaboration reports an age of the Universe t close to 13.8 Gyr and a present ratio H between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale around 67.3 km/s/Mpc. The product of these two measured quantities is then slightly below 1 (about 0.95), while it can be exactly 1 in the absence of matter and cosmological constant in patterns based on the spinorial space-time we have considered in previous papers. In this description of space-time we first suggested in 1996-97, the cosmic time t is given by the modulus of a SU(2) spinor and the Lundmark-Lemaître-Hubble (LLH) expansion law turns out to be of purely geometric origin previous to any introduction of standard matter and relativity. Such a fundamental geometry, inspired by the role of half-integer spin in Particle Physics, may reflect an equilibrium between the dynamics of the ultimate constituents of matter and the deep structure of space and time. Taking into account the observed cosmic acceleration, the present situation suggests that the value of 1 can be a natural asymptotic limit for the product H t in the long-term evolution of our Universe up to possible small corrections. In the presence of a spinorial space-time geometry, no ad hoc combination of dark matter and dark energy would in any case be needed to get an acceptable value of H and an evolution of the Universe compatible with observation. The use of a spinorial space-time naturally leads to unconventional properties for the space curvature term in Friedmann-like equations. It therefore suggests a major modification of the standard
Theory of quantum gravity beyond Einstein and space-time dynamics with quantum inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2015-10-01
In this talk, I present a theory of quantum gravity beyond Einstein. The theory is established based on spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries by treating the gravitational force on the same footing as the electroweak and strong forces. A bi-frame space-time is initiated to describe the laws of nature. One frame space-time is a globally flat coordinate Minkowski space-time that acts as an inertial reference frame for the motions of fields, the other is a locally flat non-coordinate Gravifield space-time that functions as an interaction representation frame for the degrees of freedom of fields. The Gravifield is sided on both the globally flat coordinate space-time and locally flat non-coordinate space-time and characterizes the gravitational force. Instead of the principle of general coordinate invariance in Einstein theory of general relativity, some underlying principles with the postulates of coordinate independence and gauge invariance are motivated to establish the theory of quantum gravity. When transmuting the Gravifield basis into the coordinate basis in Minkowski space-time, it enables us to obtain equations of motion for all quantum fields and derive basic conservation laws for all symmetries. The gravity equation is found to be governed by the total energy-momentum tensor defined in the flat Minkowski space-time. When the spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries are broken down to a background structure that possesses the global Lorentz and scaling symmetries, we arrive at a Lorentz invariant and conformally flat background Gravifield space-time that is characterized by a cosmic vector with a non-zero cosmological mass scale. We also obtain the massless graviton and massive spinnon. The resulting universe is in general not isotropic in terms of conformal proper time and turns out to be inflationary in light of cosmic proper time. The conformal size of the universe has a singular at the cosmological horizon to which the cosmic proper time must be infinitely
Optimal search strategies of space-time coupled random walkers with finite lifetimes.
Campos, D; Abad, E; Méndez, V; Yuste, S B; Lindenberg, K
2015-05-01
We present a simple paradigm for detection of an immobile target by a space-time coupled random walker with a finite lifetime. The motion of the walker is characterized by linear displacements at a fixed speed and exponentially distributed duration, interrupted by random changes in the direction of motion and resumption of motion in the new direction with the same speed. We call these walkers "mortal creepers." A mortal creeper may die at any time during its motion according to an exponential decay law characterized by a finite mean death rate ω(m). While still alive, the creeper has a finite mean frequency ω of change of the direction of motion. In particular, we consider the efficiency of the target search process, characterized by the probability that the creeper will eventually detect the target. Analytic results confirmed by numerical results show that there is an ω(m)-dependent optimal frequency ω=ω(opt) that maximizes the probability of eventual target detection. We work primarily in one-dimensional (d=1) domains and examine the role of initial conditions and of finite domain sizes. Numerical results in d=2 domains confirm the existence of an optimal frequency of change of direction, thereby suggesting that the observed effects are robust to changes in dimensionality. In the d=1 case, explicit expressions for the probability of target detection in the long time limit are given. In the case of an infinite domain, we compute the detection probability for arbitrary times and study its early- and late-time behavior. We further consider the survival probability of the target in the presence of many independent creepers beginning their motion at the same location and at the same time. We also consider a version of the standard "target problem" in which many creepers start at random locations at the same time. PMID:26066127
Optimal search strategies of space-time coupled random walkers with finite lifetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, D.; Abad, E.; Méndez, V.; Yuste, S. B.; Lindenberg, K.
2015-05-01
We present a simple paradigm for detection of an immobile target by a space-time coupled random walker with a finite lifetime. The motion of the walker is characterized by linear displacements at a fixed speed and exponentially distributed duration, interrupted by random changes in the direction of motion and resumption of motion in the new direction with the same speed. We call these walkers "mortal creepers." A mortal creeper may die at any time during its motion according to an exponential decay law characterized by a finite mean death rate ωm. While still alive, the creeper has a finite mean frequency ω of change of the direction of motion. In particular, we consider the efficiency of the target search process, characterized by the probability that the creeper will eventually detect the target. Analytic results confirmed by numerical results show that there is an ωm-dependent optimal frequency ω =ωopt that maximizes the probability of eventual target detection. We work primarily in one-dimensional (d =1 ) domains and examine the role of initial conditions and of finite domain sizes. Numerical results in d =2 domains confirm the existence of an optimal frequency of change of direction, thereby suggesting that the observed effects are robust to changes in dimensionality. In the d =1 case, explicit expressions for the probability of target detection in the long time limit are given. In the case of an infinite domain, we compute the detection probability for arbitrary times and study its early- and late-time behavior. We further consider the survival probability of the target in the presence of many independent creepers beginning their motion at the same location and at the same time. We also consider a version of the standard "target problem" in which many creepers start at random locations at the same time.
Space-time evolution of ejected plasma for the triggering of gas switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shanhong; Liu, Xuandong; Shen, Xi; Feng, Lei; Tie, Weihao; Zhang, Qiaogen
2016-06-01
Ejected plasma has been widely applied to the discharge process of gas spark switches as a trigger technology, and the development process of ejected plasma has a direct and important effect on the discharge characteristics of gas switches. In this paper, both the injection characteristics and space-time evolution of ejected plasma for the triggering of gas spark switch with different stored energies, pulse polarities, and pressures are studied. The discharge characteristics and breakdown process of a gas switch ignited by ejected plasma under different working coefficients are also discussed briefly. The results show that stored energy has significant influence on the characteristics of ejected plasma. With the increase of stored energy, the propulsion mode of ejected plasma in the axial direction transforms from "plasmoid" to "plasma flow," and the distribution of the ejected plasma goes through "cloud," "core-cloud," and "branch" in sequence. The velocity of ejected plasma under negative pulse polarity is obviously higher than that under positive pulse polarity, especially at the very beginning time. The radial dimensions of ejected plasma under two kinds of pulse polarities follow the similar varying pattern over time, which increase first and then decrease, assuming an inverted "U"-shaped curve. With the increase of pressure, the velocity of ejected plasma significantly decreases and the "branch" channels droop earlier. Applying the ejected plasma to the triggering of a gas switch, the switch can be triggered reliably in a much wide working coefficient range of 10%-90%. With the increase of working coefficient, the breakdown process of the switch translates from slow working mode to fast working mode, and the delay time reduces from tens of μs to hundreds of ns.
Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Almeida, Jonas S
2006-01-01
Background Matlab, a powerful and productive language that allows for rapid prototyping, modeling and simulation, is widely used in computational biology. Modeling and simulation of large biological systems often require more computational resources then are available on a single computer. Existing distributed computing environments like the Distributed Computing Toolbox, MatlabMPI, Matlab*G and others allow for the remote (and possibly parallel) execution of Matlab commands with varying support for features like an easy-to-use application programming interface, load-balanced utilization of resources, extensibility over the wide area network, and minimal system administration skill requirements. However, all of these environments require some level of access to participating machines to manually distribute the user-defined libraries that the remote call may invoke. Results mGrid augments the usual process distribution seen in other similar distributed systems by adding facilities for user code distribution. mGrid's client-side interface is an easy-to-use native Matlab toolbox that transparently executes user-defined code on remote machines (i.e. the user is unaware that the code is executing somewhere else). Run-time variables are automatically packed and distributed with the user-defined code and automated load-balancing of remote resources enables smooth concurrent execution. mGrid is an open source environment. Apart from the programming language itself, all other components are also open source, freely available tools: light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server. Conclusion Transparent, load-balanced distribution of user-defined Matlab toolboxes and rapid prototyping of many simple parallel applications can now be done with a single easy-to-use Matlab command. Because mGrid utilizes only Matlab, light-weight PHP scripts and the Apache web server, installation and configuration are very simple. Moreover, the web-based infrastructure of mGrid allows for it
Space-time models based on random fields with local interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Tsantili, Ivi C.
2016-08-01
The analysis of space-time data from complex, real-life phenomena requires the use of flexible and physically motivated covariance functions. In most cases, it is not possible to explicitly solve the equations of motion for the fields or the respective covariance functions. In the statistical literature, covariance functions are often based on mathematical constructions. In this paper, we propose deriving space-time covariance functions by solving “effective equations of motion”, which can be used as statistical representations of systems with diffusive behavior. In particular, we propose to formulate space-time covariance functions based on an equilibrium effective Hamiltonian using the linear response theory. The effective space-time dynamics is then generated by a stochastic perturbation around the equilibrium point of the classical field Hamiltonian leading to an associated Langevin equation. We employ a Hamiltonian which extends the classical Gaussian field theory by including a curvature term and leads to a diffusive Langevin equation. Finally, we derive new forms of space-time covariance functions.
Impact of space-time mesh adaptation on solute transport modeling in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esfandiar, Bahman; Porta, Giovanni; Perotto, Simona; Guadagnini, Alberto
2015-02-01
We implement a space-time grid adaptation procedure to efficiently improve the accuracy of numerical simulations of solute transport in porous media in the context of model parameter estimation. We focus on the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) for the interpretation of nonreactive transport experiments in laboratory-scale heterogeneous porous media. When compared to a numerical approximation based on a fixed space-time discretization, our approach is grounded on a joint automatic selection of the spatial grid and the time step to capture the main (space-time) system dynamics. Spatial mesh adaptation is driven by an anisotropic recovery-based error estimator which enables us to properly select the size, shape, and orientation of the mesh elements. Adaptation of the time step is performed through an ad hoc local reconstruction of the temporal derivative of the solution via a recovery-based approach. The impact of the proposed adaptation strategy on the ability to provide reliable estimates of the key parameters of an ADE model is assessed on the basis of experimental solute breakthrough data measured following tracer injection in a nonuniform porous system. Model calibration is performed in a Maximum Likelihood (ML) framework upon relying on the representation of the ADE solution through a generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE). Our results show that the proposed anisotropic space-time grid adaptation leads to ML parameter estimates and to model results of markedly improved quality when compared to classical inversion approaches based on a uniform space-time discretization.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghorai, S. K.
1983-01-01
The purpose of this project was to use a one-dimensional discrete coordinates transport code called ANISN in order to determine the energy-angle-spatial distribution of neutrons in a 6-feet cube rock box which houses a D-T neutron generator at its center. The project was two-fold. The first phase of the project involved adaptation of the ANISN code written for an IBM 360/75/91 computer to the UNIVAC system at JSC. The second phase of the project was to use the code with proper geometry, source function and rock material composition in order to determine the neutron flux distribution around the rock box when a 14.1 MeV neutron generator placed at its center is activated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorai, S. K.
1983-09-01
The purpose of this project was to use a one-dimensional discrete coordinates transport code called ANISN in order to determine the energy-angle-spatial distribution of neutrons in a 6-feet cube rock box which houses a D-T neutron generator at its center. The project was two-fold. The first phase of the project involved adaptation of the ANISN code written for an IBM 360/75/91 computer to the UNIVAC system at JSC. The second phase of the project was to use the code with proper geometry, source function and rock material composition in order to determine the neutron flux distribution around the rock box when a 14.1 MeV neutron generator placed at its center is activated.
Bosse, Stefan
2015-01-01
Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550
Bosse, Stefan
2015-01-01
Multi-agent systems (MAS) can be used for decentralized and self-organizing data processing in a distributed system, like a resource-constrained sensor network, enabling distributed information extraction, for example, based on pattern recognition and self-organization, by decomposing complex tasks in simpler cooperative agents. Reliable MAS-based data processing approaches can aid the material-integration of structural-monitoring applications, with agent processing platforms scaled to the microchip level. The agent behavior, based on a dynamic activity-transition graph (ATG) model, is implemented with program code storing the control and the data state of an agent, which is novel. The program code can be modified by the agent itself using code morphing techniques and is capable of migrating in the network between nodes. The program code is a self-contained unit (a container) and embeds the agent data, the initialization instructions and the ATG behavior implementation. The microchip agent processing platform used for the execution of the agent code is a standalone multi-core stack machine with a zero-operand instruction format, leading to a small-sized agent program code, low system complexity and high system performance. The agent processing is token-queue-based, similar to Petri-nets. The agent platform can be implemented in software, too, offering compatibility at the operational and code level, supporting agent processing in strong heterogeneous networks. In this work, the agent platform embedded in a large-scale distributed sensor network is simulated at the architectural level by using agent-based simulation techniques. PMID:25690550
Even perturbations of the self-similar Vaidya space-time
Nolan, Brien C.; Waters, Thomas J.
2005-05-15
We study even parity metric and matter perturbations of all angular modes in self-similar Vaidya space-time. We focus on the case where the background contains a naked singularity. Initial conditions are imposed, describing a finite perturbation emerging from the portion of flat space-time preceding the matter-filled region of space-time. The most general perturbation satisfying the initial conditions is allowed to impinge upon the Cauchy horizon (CH), where the perturbation remains finite: There is no 'blue-sheet' instability. However, when the perturbation evolves through the CH and onto the second future similarity horizon of the naked singularity, divergence necessarily occurs: This surface is found to be unstable. The analysis is based on the study of individual modes following a Mellin transform of the perturbation. We present an argument that the full perturbation remains finite after resummation of the (possibly infinite number of) modes.
Black-and-white hole as a space-time with integrable singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strokov, Vladimir N.; Lukash, Vladimir N.; Mikheeva, Elena V.
2016-01-01
We discuss the problem of singularities in general relativity and emphasize the distinction that should be made between what is understood to be mathematical and physical singularities. We revise examples of space-times that conventionally contain a singularity which, in a sense, does not manifest itself physically. A special attention is paid to the case of integrable singularities for which we propose a well-defined mathematical procedure used to extend the space-time beyond the singularity. We argue that this type of singularity may connect the interior of a black hole with a newly born universe (a space-time referred to as black-and-white hole) giving a resolution to the problem of initial high density and symmetry of the universe. We exemplify by presenting toy models of eternal and astrophysical black-and-white holes.
Mathematical Formalism for an Experimental Test of Space-Time Anisotropy
Voicu-Brinzei, Nicoleta; Siparov, Sergey
2010-01-01
Some specific astrophysical data collected during the last decade suggest the need of a modification of the expression for the Einstein-Hilbert action, and several attempts are known in this respect. The modification suggested in this paper stems from a possible anisotropy of space-time--which leads to a dependence on directional variables of the simplest scalar in the least action principle. In order to provide a testable support to this idea, the optic-metrical parametric resonance is regarded - an experiment on a galactic scale, based on the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation of cosmic masers and periodical gravitational waves emitted by close double systems or pulsars. Since the effect depends on the space-time metric, a possible anisotropy could be revealed through observations. We prove that if space-time is anisotropic, then the orientation of the astrophysical systems suitable for observations would show it.
Space-Time Error Representation and Estimation in Navier-Stokes Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.
2006-01-01
The mathematical framework for a-posteriori error estimation of functionals elucidated by Eriksson et al. [7] and Becker and Rannacher [3] is revisited in a space-time context. Using these theories, a hierarchy of exact and approximate error representation formulas are presented for use in error estimation and mesh adaptivity. Numerical space-time results for simple model problems as well as compressible Navier-Stokes flow at Re = 300 over a 2D circular cylinder are then presented to demonstrate elements of the error representation theory for time-dependent problems.
The space time variety of the hyperradiance from phase-locked soliton oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chang; Lin, Mai-mai
2008-12-01
The hyperradiance from phase-locked soliton oscillators is investigated by using the numerical simulation method for the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. Space-time variety for the emitted power from phase-locked soliton oscillators have been diffusely exhibited for the two magnetically coupled long Josephson junctions, operated in singlefluxon modes and involving the family of solutions. We derive some simulation results of space-time character, having the extensive physics meaning, for the theory for superradiance from phase-locked oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiti, M. F.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.
2015-08-01
The noncommutative Bianchi I curved space-time vierbeins and spin connections are derived. Moreover, the corresponding noncommutative Dirac equation as well as its solutions are presented. As an application within the quantum field theory approach using Bogoliubov transformations, the von Neumann fermion-antifermion pair creation quantum entanglement entropy is studied. It is shown that its behavior is strongly dependent on the value of the noncommutativity θ parameter, k⊥-modes frequencies and the structure of the curved space-time. Various discussions of the obtained features are presented.
Classification of Plane Symmetric Static Space-Times According to Their Noether Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Farhad; Feroze, Tooba
2013-09-01
In this paper we give a classification of plane symmetric static space-times using symmetry method. For this purpose we consider the Lagrangian corresponding to the general plane symmetric static metric in the Noether symmetry equation. This provides a system of determining equations. Solutions of this system give us classification of the plane symmetric static space-times according to their Noether symmetries. During this classification we recover all the results listed in Feroze et al. (J. Math. Phys. 42:4947, 2001) and Bashir and Ehsan (Il Nuovo Cimento B 123:1, 2008).
A multi-element cosmological model with a complex space-time topology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kardashev, N. S.; Lipatova, L. N.; Novikov, I. D.; Shatskiy, A. A.
2015-02-01
Wormhole models with a complex topology having one entrance and two exits into the same space-time of another universe are considered, as well as models with two entrances from the same space-time and one exit to another universe. These models are used to build a model of a multi-sheeted universe (a multi-element model of the "Multiverse") with a complex topology. Spherical symmetry is assumed in all the models. A Reissner-Norström black-hole model having no singularity beyond the horizon is constructed. The strength of the central singularity of the black hole is analyzed.
Impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a wormhole space-time with horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Puente, A.
2016-06-01
The impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a black hole space-time, which, nonetheless, is geodesically complete is investigated. This space-time is an exact solution of certain extensions of general relativity coupled to Maxwell’s electrodynamics and, roughly speaking, consists of two Reissner-Nordström (or Schwarzschild or Minkowski) geometries connected by a spherical wormhole near the center. We find that, despite the existence of infinite tidal forces, causal contact is never lost among the elements making up the observer. This suggests that curvature divergences may not be as pathological as traditionally thought.
Twisted fermionic oscillator algebra in κ-minkowski space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Ravikant
2015-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the twisted algebra of the fermionic oscillators associated with Dirac field defined in κ-Minkowski space-time. Starting from κ-deformed Dirac theory, which is invariant under the undeformed κ-Poincaré algebra, using the twisted flip operator, we derive the deformed algebra of the creation and annihilation operators corresponding to the Dirac field quanta in κ-Minkowski space-time. In the limit a → 0, the deformed algebra reduces to the commutative result.
Linton, Sabriya L; Jennings, Jacky M; Latkin, Carl A; Gomez, Marisela B; Mehta, Shruti H
2014-10-01
Knowledge of the geographic and temporal clustering of drug activity can inform where health and social services are needed and can provide insight on the potential impact of local policies on drug activity. This ecologic study assessed the spatial and temporal distribution of drug activity in Baltimore, Maryland, prior to and following the implementation of a large urban redevelopment project in East Baltimore, which began in 2003. Drug activity was measured by narcotic calls for service at the neighborhood level. A space-time scan statistic approach was used to identify statistically significant clusters of narcotic calls for service across space and time, using a discrete Poisson model. After adjusting for economic deprivation and housing vacancy, clusters of narcotic calls for service were identified among neighborhoods located in Southeast, Northeast, Northwest, and West Baltimore from 2001 to 2010. Clusters of narcotic calls for service were identified among neighborhoods located in East Baltimore from 2001 to 2003, indicating a decrease in narcotic calls thereafter. A large proportion of clusters occurred among neighborhoods located in North and Northeast Baltimore after 2003, which indicated a potential spike during this time frame. These findings suggest potential displacement of drug activity coinciding with the initiation of urban redevelopment in East Baltimore. Space-time scan statistics should be used in future research to describe the potential implications of local policies on drug activity. PMID:25078036
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Kai Wai; Curatolo, Susana; Dreschhoff, Gisela
The distribution of masses in the galaxy have been investigated within the frame of the 5D space-time field theory [1,2; also see www.google groups/group/5Duniverse/]. Here we will focus on one of the results which is related to the exponentially time increasing outward spiral speed of stars in the galaxy. The solution of the centripetal force equation leading to this result also indicates that this hypervelocity may be present only during the early stage after the galaxy's creation. However, it can also be shown, that, as the outward spiral rate of this star depends on the motion of all the galactic masses within the galaxy, the star must slow down with aging as the other masses spiral outward. For this reason it is suggested that the 5D space-time field theory may be applicable to the recent findings of some runaway stars, such as HD 271791, seemingly escaping from the galaxy [3]. [1] K.W. Wong, Nova Sciences, in press [2] K.W. Wong, Nova science, in press [3] N. Przybilla et al., Ap. J., 684, L103-l106, 2008
Analytical Solution of the Space-Time Fractional Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Salam, Emad A.-B.; Yousif, Eltayeb A.; El-Aasser, Mostafa A.
2016-02-01
The space-time fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved by mean of on the fractional Riccati expansion method. These solutions include generalized trigonometric and hyperbolic functions which could be useful for further understanding of mechanisms of the complicated nonlinear physical phenomena and fractional differential equations. Among these solutions, some are found for the first time.
Least squares estimation of Generalized Space Time AutoRegressive (GSTAR) model and its properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruchjana, Budi Nurani; Borovkova, Svetlana A.; Lopuhaa, H. P.
2012-05-01
In this paper we studied a least squares estimation parameters of the Generalized Space Time AutoRegressive (GSTAR) model and its properties, especially in consistency and asymptotic normality. We use R software to estimate the GSTAR parameter and apply the model toward real phenomena of data, such as an oil production data at volcanic layer.
Geometrical properties of an internal local octonionic space in curved space time
Marques, S.; Oliveira, C.G.
1986-04-01
A geometrical treatment on a flat tangent space local to a generalized complex, quaternionic, and octonionic space-time is constructed. It is shown that it is possible to find an Einstein-Maxwell-Yang-Mills correspondence in this generalized (Minkowskian) tangent space. 9 refs.
Einstein-Weyl field equations in a Bianchi type-IX space-time
Kolassis, C.A.; Le Denmat, G.
1984-07-15
It is proved that there exists no solution of the combined gravitational-neutrino field equations in general relativity if the space-time metric admits a group of isometries of Bianchi type IX and the neutrino field has geodesic and shearfree rays.
Quantum field theory in the space-time of a cosmic string
Linet, B.
1987-01-15
For a massive scalar field in the static cylindrically symmetric space-time describing a cosmic string, we determine explicitly the Euclidean Green's function. We obtain also an alternative local form which allows us to calculate the vacuum energy-momentum tensor. In the case of a conformal scalar field, we carry out completely the calculations.
Space-time aspects of hadronic cascading in lepton nucleus scattering
Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.
1989-05-01
A Monte Carlo model of hadronic cascading in inelastic lepton nucleus scattering is constructed to investigate space-time scenarios consistent with the momentum space description of string models of multiparticle production. The prospects for resolving the ambiguity inherent in the definition of a formation length for composite hadrons are emphasized. 15 refs., 13 figs.
A bootstrap based space-time surveillance model with an application to crime occurrences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngho; O'Kelly, Morton
2008-06-01
This study proposes a bootstrap-based space-time surveillance model. Designed to find emerging hotspots in near-real time, the bootstrap based model is characterized by its use of past occurrence information and bootstrap permutations. Many existing space-time surveillance methods, using population at risk data to generate expected values, have resulting hotspots bounded by administrative area units and are of limited use for near-real time applications because of the population data needed. However, this study generates expected values for local hotspots from past occurrences rather than population at risk. Also, bootstrap permutations of previous occurrences are used for significant tests. Consequently, the bootstrap-based model, without the requirement of population at risk data, (1) is free from administrative area restriction, (2) enables more frequent surveillance for continuously updated registry database, and (3) is readily applicable to criminology and epidemiology surveillance. The bootstrap-based model performs better for space-time surveillance than the space-time scan statistic. This is shown by means of simulations and an application to residential crime occurrences in Columbus, OH, year 2000.
Quantized space-time and its influence on two physical problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Hui-Hua
2014-04-01
Based on Snyder's idea of quantized space-time, we derive a new generalized uncertainty principle and new modified density of states. Accordingly, we discuss the influence of the modified generalized uncertainty principle on the black hole entropy and the influence of the modified density of states on the Stefan-Boltzman law.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Wen, Lihua; Naboulsi, Sam; Eason, Thomas; Vasudevan, Vijay K.; Qian, Dong
2016-05-01
A multiscale space-time finite element method based on time-discontinuous Galerkin and enrichment approach is presented in this work with a focus on improving the computational efficiencies for high cycle fatigue simulations. While the robustness of the TDG-based space-time method has been extensively demonstrated, a critical barrier for the extensive application is the large computational cost due to the additional temporal dimension and enrichment that are introduced. The present implementation focuses on two aspects: firstly, a preconditioned iterative solver is developed along with techniques for optimizing the matrix storage and operations. Secondly, parallel algorithms based on multi-core graphics processing unit are established to accelerate the progressive damage model implementation. It is shown that the computing time and memory from the accelerated space-time implementation scale with the number of degree of freedom N through {˜ }{O}(N^{1.6}) and {˜ }{O}(N) , respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the accelerated space-time FEM simulation through benchmark problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Wen, Lihua; Naboulsi, Sam; Eason, Thomas; Vasudevan, Vijay K.; Qian, Dong
2016-08-01
A multiscale space-time finite element method based on time-discontinuous Galerkin and enrichment approach is presented in this work with a focus on improving the computational efficiencies for high cycle fatigue simulations. While the robustness of the TDG-based space-time method has been extensively demonstrated, a critical barrier for the extensive application is the large computational cost due to the additional temporal dimension and enrichment that are introduced. The present implementation focuses on two aspects: firstly, a preconditioned iterative solver is developed along with techniques for optimizing the matrix storage and operations. Secondly, parallel algorithms based on multi-core graphics processing unit are established to accelerate the progressive damage model implementation. It is shown that the computing time and memory from the accelerated space-time implementation scale with the number of degree of freedom N through ˜ O(N^{1.6}) and ˜ O(N), respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the accelerated space-time FEM simulation through benchmark problems.
Abstract Quantum Theory and Space-Time Structure. I. Ur Theory and Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Görnitz, Thomas
1988-05-01
We discuss the close connection between a quantum theory of binary alternatives and the local Lorentzian structure of space-time, and outline v. Weizsäcker's concept of the “ur”-the quantized binary alternative. Then space-time is introduced mathematically as a symmetric space of the invariance group of the ur. It is physically interpreted as “the” cosmological space-time, the universe. In our model spacelike structures rest on the concept of “hypermembranes”—dynamical manifolds of codimension 1 in space-time. For a given number of urs a smallest length is introduced in this cosmic model by group-theoretic arguments. Already before introducing a dynamics the concept of isolated noncomposite objects can be given. They can be understood as simple models either for elementary particles or for black holes. Identifying the maximal localized states of many urs with a localized state of a particle, we get a good description of the large cosmological numbers and also a lower bound for a neutrino mass. A simple counting of the particle states given from the ur-theoretic ansatz allows an easy explanation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Bayesian Space-Time Patterns and Climatic Determinants of Bovine Anaplasmosis
Hanzlicek, Gregg A.; Raghavan, Ram K.; Ganta, Roman R.; Anderson, Gary A.
2016-01-01
The space-time pattern and environmental drivers (land cover, climate) of bovine anaplasmosis in the Midwestern state of Kansas was retrospectively evaluated using Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal models and publicly available, remotely-sensed environmental covariate information. Cases of bovine anaplasmosis positively diagnosed at Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (n = 478) between years 2005–2013 were used to construct the models, which included random effects for space, time and space-time interaction effects with defined priors, and fixed-effect covariates selected a priori using an univariate screening procedure. The Bayesian posterior median and 95% credible intervals for the space-time interaction term in the best-fitting covariate model indicated a steady progression of bovine anaplasmosis over time and geographic area in the state. Posterior median estimates and 95% credible intervals derived for covariates in the final covariate model indicated land surface temperature (minimum), relative humidity and diurnal temperature range to be important risk factors for bovine anaplasmosis in the study. The model performance measured using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) value indicated a good performance for the covariate model (> 0.7). The relevance of climatological factors for bovine anaplasmosis is discussed. PMID:27003596
Living in Space: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stonebarger, Bill
The idea of flight and space travel are not new, but the technologies which make them possible are very recent. This booklet considers time, space, and spirit related to living in space. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several chapters on the history and concepts of flight and…
Improved Space-Time Forecasting of next Day Ozone Concentrations in the Eastern U.S.
There is an urgent need to provide accurate air quality information and forecasts to the general public and environmental health decision-makers. This paper develops a hierarchical space-time model for daily 8-hour maximum ozone concentration (O3) data covering much of the easter...
Metric emerging to massive modes in quantum cosmological space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dapor, Andrea; Lewandowski, Jerzy
2013-03-01
We consider a massive quantum test Klein-Gordon field probing a homogeneous isotropic quantum cosmological space-time in the background. In particular, we derive a semiclassical space-time which emerges to a mode of the field. The method consists of a comparison between quantum field theory on a quantum background and quantum field theory on a classical curved space-time, giving rise to an emergent metric tensor (its components being computed from the equation of propagation of the quantum Klein-Gordon field in the test field approximation). If the field is massless the emergent metric is of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker form, but if a mass term is considered it turns out that the simplest emergent metric that displays the symmetries of the system is of the Bianchi I type, deformed in the direction of propagation of the particle. This anisotropy is of a quantum nature: it is proportional to ℏ and “dresses” the isotropic classical space-time obtained in the classical limit.
Texturing Space-Times in the Australian Curriculum: Cross-Curriculum Priorities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peacock, David; Lingard, Robert; Sellar, Sam
2015-01-01
The Australian curriculum, as a policy imagining what learning should take place in schools, and what that learning should achieve, involves the imagining and rescaling of social relations amongst students, their schools, the nation-state and the globe. Following David Harvey's theorisations of space-time and Norman Fairclough's operationalisation…
The Space-Time CE/SE Method for Solving Maxwell's Equations in Time-Domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, X. Y.; Chen, C. L.; Liu, Yen
2002-01-01
An innovative finite-volume-type numerical method named as the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method is applied to solve time-dependent Maxwell's equations in this paper. Test problems of electromagnetics scattering and antenna radiation are solved for validations. Numerical results are presented and compared with the analytical solutions, showing very good agreements.
Self-Energy in the Gott-Hiscock Space-Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khusnutdinov, Nail R.; Bezerra, Valdir B.
We calculate the self-energy for an electrically charged particle at rest in the background of Gott-Hiscock cosmic string space-time. The self-energy continuously falls down out-ward from string's with maximum at the origin of the string. The plots of the numerical of the self-energy and the height of barrier are shown.
Bayesian Space-Time Patterns and Climatic Determinants of Bovine Anaplasmosis.
Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Raghavan, Ram K; Ganta, Roman R; Anderson, Gary A
2016-01-01
The space-time pattern and environmental drivers (land cover, climate) of bovine anaplasmosis in the Midwestern state of Kansas was retrospectively evaluated using Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal models and publicly available, remotely-sensed environmental covariate information. Cases of bovine anaplasmosis positively diagnosed at Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (n = 478) between years 2005-2013 were used to construct the models, which included random effects for space, time and space-time interaction effects with defined priors, and fixed-effect covariates selected a priori using an univariate screening procedure. The Bayesian posterior median and 95% credible intervals for the space-time interaction term in the best-fitting covariate model indicated a steady progression of bovine anaplasmosis over time and geographic area in the state. Posterior median estimates and 95% credible intervals derived for covariates in the final covariate model indicated land surface temperature (minimum), relative humidity and diurnal temperature range to be important risk factors for bovine anaplasmosis in the study. The model performance measured using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) value indicated a good performance for the covariate model (> 0.7). The relevance of climatological factors for bovine anaplasmosis is discussed. PMID:27003596
On an origin of numerical diffusion: Violation of invariance under space-time inversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung
1992-01-01
The invariant properties of the convection equation du/dt + adu/dx = 0 (where d is the partial differential operator) with respect to spatial reflection, time reversal, and space-time inversion are studied. Generally, a finite-difference analog of this equation may possess some or none of these properties. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the von Neumann amplification factor of an analog satisfies a special relation for each invariant property this analog possesses. Particularly, an analog is neutrally stable and thus free of numerical diffusion if it possesses the invariant property related to space-time inversion. It is also explained why generally (1) an upwind scheme possesses neither the invariant property related to spatial reflection nor that related to space-time inversion, and (2) an explicit scheme possesses neither the invariant property related to time reversal nor that related to space-time inversion. Extension to the viscous case and a remarkable connection between the current work and a new numerical framework for solving conservation laws are also discussed.
Asymptotic quasinormal frequencies for black holes in nonasymptotically flat space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Natário, José; Schiappa, Ricardo
2004-12-01
The exact computation of asymptotic quasinormal frequencies is a technical problem which involves the analytic continuation of a Schrödinger-type equation to the complex plane and then performing a method of monodromy matching at several poles in the plane. While this method was successfully used in asymptotically flat space-time, as applied to both the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrøm solutions, its extension to nonasymptotically flat space-times has not been achieved yet. In this work it is shown how to extend the method to this case, with the explicit analysis of Schwarzschild-de Sitter and large Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes, both in four dimensions. We obtain, for the first time, analytic expressions for the asymptotic quasinormal frequencies of these black hole space-times, and our results match previous numerical calculations with great accuracy. We also list some results concerning the general classification of asymptotic quasinormal frequencies in d-dimensional space-times.
A general zone theory of color and brightness vision. II. The space-time field.
Bird, J F; Massof, R W
1978-11-01
The elements of vision are brightness and color varying in time and space, constituting a vector space-time function: the visual sensation field. The sensory-field generated from the light-field variations on the retina is analyzed here in terms of elemental space-time responses (Green's functions). Both chromaticity and intensity variations in either time or space are included in a unified theory, to bridge the existing gap between color theory and analyses of spatial and temporal brightness. Sensory Green's functions are here related to standard color models and to familiar responses for special stimuli, and are shown to be advantageous for nonhomogeneous and/or nonstationary visual conditions. The theory is first applied for intensity space-time variations, to elucidate existing intensity-contrast analyses. Then the general theory including chromatic contrast is illustrated by deriving color vision generalizations of the Bloch and Ricco laws and a general space-time reciprocity law, by analyses of wavelength-pulse and color-flicker experiments, and by derivation of Abney's law of luminance additivity for heterochromoatic flicker and minimally distinct borders. PMID:755855
TRPIV investigation of space-time correlation in turbulent flows over flat and wavy walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei; Guan, Xin-Lei; Jiang, Nan
2014-08-01
The present experimental work is devoted to investigate a new space-time correlation model for the turbulent boundary layer over a flat and a wavy walls. A turbulent boundary layer flow at Re θ = 2 460 is measured by tomographic time-resolved particle image velocimetry (Tomo-TRPIV). The space-time correlations of instantaneous streamwise fluctuation velocity are calculated at 3 different wall-normal locations in logarithmic layer. It is found that the scales of coherent structure increase with moving far away from the wall. The growth of scales is a manifestation of the growth of prevalent coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer like hairpin vortex or hairpin packets when they lift up. The resulting contours of the space-time correlation exhibit elliptic-like shapes rather than straight lines. It is suggested that, instead of Taylor hypothesis, the elliptic model of the space-time correlation is valid for the wallbounded turbulent flow over either a flat wall or a wavy wall. The elliptic iso-correlation curves have a uniform preferred orientation whose slope is determined by the convection velocity. The convection velocity derived from the space-time correlation represents the velocity at which the large-scale eddies carry small-scale eddies. The sweep velocity represents the distortions of the small-scale eddies and is intimately associated with the fluctuation velocity in the logarithmic layer of turbulent boundary layers. The nondimensionalized correlation curves confirm that the elliptic model is more proper for approximating the space-time correlation than Taylor hypothesis, because the latter can not embody the small-scale motions which have non-negligible distortions. A second flow over a wavy wall is also recorded using TRPIV. Due to the combined effect of shear layers and the adverse pressure gradient, the space-time correlation does not show an elliptic-like shape at some specific heights over the wavy wall, but in the outer region of the
The Evolution of Universe as Splitting of the ``Non Existing'' and Space-Time Expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nassikas, A. A.
2010-09-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that the creation of Universe can be regarded as a splitting process of the ``non existing'', ``where'' there is no space-time and that the expansion of Universe is due to the compatibility between the stochastic-quantum space-time created and the surrounding ``non existing''. In this way it is not required that space time should pre-exist in contrast, as it can be shown, to the Universe creation from vacuum theory. The present point of view can be derived on the basis of a Minimum Contradictions Physics according to which stochastic-quantum space-time is matter itself; there are (g)-mass and (em)-charge space-time which interact-communicate through photons [(g) or (em) particles with zero rest mass]. This point of view is compatible to the present knowledge of CERN and Fermi Lab experiments as well as to the neutron synthesis according to Rutherford, experimentally verified and theoretically explained through Hadronic Mechanics by R. M. Santilli. On the basis of the Minimum Contradictions Physics a quantum gravity formula is derived which implies either positive or negative gravitational acceleration; thus, bodies can be attracted while Universe can be expanded. Minimum Contradictions Physics, under certain simplifications, is compatible to Newton Mechanics, Relativity Theory and QM. This physics is compatible to language through which it is stated. On this basis the physical laws are the principles of language i.e.: the Classical Logic, the Sufficient Reason Principle the Communication Anterior-Posterior Axiom and the Claim for Minimum Contradictions; according to a theorem contradictions cannot be vanished.
Crossing the Digital Divide: Connecting GIS, Time Series and Space-Time Arrays (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maidment, D. R.; Salas, F.; Domenico, B.; Nativi, S.
2010-12-01
Hydrologic information science requires several different kinds of information: GIS coverages of water features of the land surface and subsurface; time series of observations of streamflow, water quality, groundwater levels and climate; and space-time arrays of weather, climate and remotely sensed information. Increasingly, such information is being published as web services, in standardized data structures that transmit smoothly through the internet. A large "Digital Divide" exists between the world of discrete spatial objects in GIS and associated time series, and the world of continuous space-time arrays as is used weather and climate science. In order to cross this divide, it should be possible to search for quantities such as “precipitation” and to find the information no matter whether it comprises time series of precipitation at gage sites, or space-time arrays of precipitation from Nexrad radar rainfall measurements. This means that servers of discrete space-time hydrologic data, such as the CUAHSI HydroServer, and servers of continuous space-time weather and climate data, such as the Unidata THREDDS server, should be able to be indexed in a unified manner that will permit discovery of common information types across different classes of information services. This paper will explore options for accomplishing this goal using the CUAHSI HydroServer and the Unidata THREDDS server as representative examples of information service providers. Among the options to be explored is GI-cat, a federated, standards-based catalog service developed at the Earth and Space Science Informatics Laboratory of the University of Florence.
Is space-time symmetry a suitable generalization of parity-time symmetry?
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier
2014-11-15
We discuss space-time symmetric Hamiltonian operators of the form H=H{sub 0}+igH{sup ′}, where H{sub 0} is Hermitian and g real. H{sub 0} is invariant under the unitary operations of a point group G while H{sup ′} is invariant under transformation by elements of a subgroup G{sup ′} of G. If G exhibits irreducible representations of dimension greater than unity, then it is possible that H has complex eigenvalues for sufficiently small nonzero values of g. In the particular case that H is parity-time symmetric then it appears to exhibit real eigenvalues for all 0
A Simple Cooperative Relaying with Alamouti Coded Transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaoka, Tomoya; Hara, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Noriyuki; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yamazato, Takaya
Cooperative diversity using space-time codes offers effective space diversity with low complexity, but the scheme needs the space-time coding process in the relay nodes. We propose a simple cooperative relay scheme that uses space-time coding. In the scheme, the source node transmits the Alamouti coded signal sequences and the sink node receives the signal sequence via the two coordinated relay nodes. At the relay nodes, the operation procedure is just permutation and forwarding of the signal sequence. In the proposed scheme, none of the relay nodes need quadrature detection and space-time coding and the simple relay process offers effective space diversity. Moreover, simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed relay process by some simulations.
Quantification of space/time explicit fossil fuel CO2 emissions in urban domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.
2013-05-01
Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in development of a carbon monitoring system. A space/time explicit emissions data product can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements and offer practical information to authorities in order to optimize mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing in Los Angeles. The work in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort, INFLUX, aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions. The work in Los Angeles with JPL colleagues is aimed at building an operational carbon monitoring system with focus on global megacities. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate using Hestia to distribute emissions in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model constrained with multiple local data streams. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In collaboration with our JPL colleagues, we are testing the feasibility of quantifying a megacity domain and how it might integrate with remote sensing and in situ measurement systems. The Hestia effort also holds promise for a useable policy tool at the city scale. With detailed information on energy consumption and emissions with process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zecca, Antonio
2016-02-01
The Dirac equation with nonlinear terms induced by torsion is studied in Robertson-Walker (RW) space-time. An extension of a separation method of the equation, based on the Newman-Penrose formalism and previously applied to the nonlinear case, is considered. Accordingly the angular dependence of the Dirac spinor solution is separated, under a special assumption, in the general time-dependent RW metric. In the case of static RW metric the time dependence of the Dirac spinor factors out and one is left with a pair of two coupled nonlinear radial equations. The radial equations are disentangled by a suitable substitution of the spinor solution. The problem amounts then to the solution of a single second-order highly nonlinear differential equation. Some elementary considerations are done on the asymptotic behavior of the solution of the equation.
McGuire, Austen B; Rafi, Syed K; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G
2016-01-01
Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD. PMID:27164088
McGuire, Austen B.; Rafi, Syed K.; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.
2016-01-01
Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD. PMID:27164088
Wick rotation for quantum field theories on degenerate Moyal space(-time)
Grosse, Harald; Lechner, Gandalf; Ludwig, Thomas; Verch, Rainer
2013-02-15
In this paper the connection between quantum field theories on flat noncommutative space(-times) in Euclidean and Lorentzian signature is studied for the case that time is still commutative. By making use of the algebraic framework of quantum field theory and an analytic continuation of the symmetry groups which are compatible with the structure of Moyal space, a general correspondence between field theories on Euclidean space satisfying a time zero condition and quantum field theories on Moyal Minkowski space is presented ('Wick rotation'). It is then shown that field theories transferred to Moyal space(-time) by Rieffel deformation and warped convolution fit into this framework, and that the processes of Wick rotation and deformation commute.
Ensemble Space-Time Correlation of Plasma Turbulence in the Solar Wind.
Matthaeus, W H; Weygand, J M; Dasso, S
2016-06-17
Single point measurement turbulence cannot distinguish variations in space and time. We employ an ensemble of one- and two-point measurements in the solar wind to estimate the space-time correlation function in the comoving plasma frame. The method is illustrated using near Earth spacecraft observations, employing ACE, Geotail, IMP-8, and Wind data sets. New results include an evaluation of both correlation time and correlation length from a single method, and a new assessment of the accuracy of the familiar frozen-in flow approximation. This novel view of the space-time structure of turbulence may prove essential in exploratory space missions such as Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter for which the frozen-in flow hypothesis may not be a useful approximation. PMID:27367391
Space-time wiring specificity supports direction selectivity in the retina
Zlateski, Aleksandar; Lee, Kisuk; Richardson, Mark; Turaga, Srinivas C.; Purcaro, Michael; Balkam, Matthew; Robinson, Amy; Behabadi, Bardia F.; Campos, Michael; Denk, Winfried; Seung, H. Sebastian
2014-01-01
How does the mammalian retina detect motion? This classic problem in visual neuroscience has remained unsolved for 50 years. In search of clues, we reconstructed Off-type starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and bipolar cells (BCs) in serial electron microscopic images with help from EyeWire, an online community of “citizen neuroscientists.” Based on quantitative analyses of contact area and branch depth in the retina, we found evidence that one BC type prefers to wire with a SAC dendrite near the SAC soma, while another BC type prefers to wire far from the soma. The near type is known to lag the far type in time of visual response. A mathematical model shows how such “space-time wiring specificity” could endow SAC dendrites with receptive fields that are oriented in space-time and therefore respond selectively to stimuli that move in the outward direction from the soma. PMID:24805243
SO(10) GUTs with large tensor representations on noncommutative space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín, C. P.
2014-03-01
We construct a noncommutative version of a general renormalizable SO(10) GUT with Higgses in the 210, 126¯, 45, 10 and 120 irreps of SO(10) and a Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Thus, we formulate the noncommutative counterpart of a nonsupersymmetric SO(10) GUT which has recently been shown to be consistent with all the physics below MGUT. The simplicity of our construction—the simplicity of the Yukawa terms, in particular—stems from the fact that the Higgses of our GUT can be viewed as elements of the Clifford algebra Cl10(C); elements on which the SO(10) gauge transformations act by conjugation. The noncommutative GUT we build contains tree-level interactions among different Higgs species that are absent in their ordinary counterpart as they are forbidden by SO(10) and Lorentz invariance. The existence of these interactions helps to clearly distinguish noncommutative Minkowski space-time from ordinary Minkowski space-time.
Zeta-function regularization approach to finite temperature effects in Kaluza-Klein space-times
Bytsenko, A.A. ); Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S. )
1992-09-21
In the framework of heat-kernel approach to zeta-function regularization, in this paper the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature for scalar and spinor fields on Kaluza-Klein space-time of the form M[sup p] [times] M[sub c][sup n], where M[sup p] is p-dimensional Minkowski space-time is evaluated. In particular, when the compact manifold is M[sub c][sup n] = H[sup n]/[Gamma], the Selberg tracer formula associated with discrete torsion-free group [Gamma] of the n-dimensional Lobachevsky space H[sup n] is used. An explicit representation for the thermodynamic potential valid for arbitrary temperature is found. As a result a complete high temperature expansion is presented and the roles of zero modes and topological contributions is discussed.
Ensemble Space-Time Correlation of Plasma Turbulence in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthaeus, W. H.; Weygand, J. M.; Dasso, S.
2016-06-01
Single point measurement turbulence cannot distinguish variations in space and time. We employ an ensemble of one- and two-point measurements in the solar wind to estimate the space-time correlation function in the comoving plasma frame. The method is illustrated using near Earth spacecraft observations, employing ACE, Geotail, IMP-8, and Wind data sets. New results include an evaluation of both correlation time and correlation length from a single method, and a new assessment of the accuracy of the familiar frozen-in flow approximation. This novel view of the space-time structure of turbulence may prove essential in exploratory space missions such as Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter for which the frozen-in flow hypothesis may not be a useful approximation.
Space-time delta-sigma modulation for reception of multiple simultaneous independent RF beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, Guoguang; Black, Bruce A.; Siahmakoun, Azad Z.
2005-09-01
In this paper we introduce and analyze a multiple-RF-beam beamformer in receive mode utilizing the principle of space-time delta-sigma modulation. This principle is based on sampling input signals in both time and space and converting the sampled signals into a digital format by delta-sigma conversion. Noise shaping is achieved in 2D frequency domain. We show that the modulator can receive signals of narrow and wide bandwidths with steering capability, can receive multiple beams, and establish tradeoffs between sampling in time and in space. The ability of the modulator to trade off between time and space provides an effective way to sample high frequency RF signals without down conversion. In addition, a space-time delta-sigma modulator has better performance than a solely temporal delta-sigma modulator (for the same filter order), as is typically used in communication systems to digitize the down-converted analog signals.
Fuzzy geometry via the spinor bundle, with applications to holographic space-time and matrix theory
Banks, Tom; Kehayias, John
2011-10-15
We present a new framework for defining fuzzy approximations to geometry in terms of a cutoff on the spectrum of the Dirac operator, and a generalization of it that we call the Dirac-flux operator. This framework does not require a symplectic form on the manifold, and is completely rotation invariant on an arbitrary n-sphere. The framework is motivated by the formalism of holographic space-time, whose fundamental variables are sections of the spinor bundle over a compact Euclidean manifold. The strong holographic principle requires the space of these sections to be finite dimensional. We discuss applications of fuzzy spinor geometry to holographic space-time and to matrix theory.
Quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Huei; Wang, Chih-Hung
2008-10-01
In general relativity, quasi-local energy-momentum expressions have been constructed from various formulae. However, Newtonian theory of gravity gives a well known and an unique quasi-local mass expression (surface integration). Since geometrical formulation of Newtonian gravity has been established in the covariant Newtonian space-time, it provides a covariant approximation from relativistic to Newtonian theories. By using this approximation, we calculate Komar integral, Brown-York quasi-local energy and Dougan-Mason quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian space-time. It turns out that Komar integral naturally gives the Newtonian quasi-local mass expression, however, further conditions (spherical symmetry) need to be made for Brown-York and Dougan-Mason expressions.
Homoclinic accretion solutions in the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mach, Patryk
2015-04-01
The aim of this paper is to clarify the distinction between homoclinic and standard (global) Bondi-type accretion solutions in the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter space-time. The homoclinic solutions have recently been discovered numerically for polytropic equations of state. Here I show that they exist also for certain isothermal (linear) equations of state, and an analytic solution of this type is obtained. It is argued that the existence of such solutions is generic, although for sufficiently relativistic matter models (photon gas, ultrahard equation of state) there exist global solutions that can be continued to infinity, similarly to standard Michel's solutions in the Schwarzschild space-time. In contrast to that global solutions should not exist for matter models with a nonvanishing rest-mass component, and this is demonstrated for polytropes. For homoclinic isothermal solutions I derive an upper bound on the mass of the black hole for which stationary transonic accretion is allowed.
Space-time interface-tracking with topology change (ST-TC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Buscher, Austin; Asada, Shohei
2014-10-01
To address the computational challenges associated with contact between moving interfaces, such as those in cardiovascular fluid-structure interaction (FSI), parachute FSI, and flapping-wing aerodynamics, we introduce a space-time (ST) interface-tracking method that can deal with topology change (TC). In cardiovascular FSI, our primary target is heart valves. The method is a new version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method, and we call it ST-TC. It includes a master-slave system that maintains the connectivity of the "parent" mesh when there is contact between the moving interfaces. It is an efficient, practical alternative to using unstructured ST meshes, but without giving up on the accurate representation of the interface or consistent representation of the interface motion. We explain the method with conceptual examples and present 2D test computations with models representative of the classes of problems we are targeting.
Space-time versus particle-hole symmetry in quantum Enskog equations.
Spicka, V; Morawetz, K; Lipavský, P
2001-10-01
The nonlocal scattering-in and scattering-out integrals of the Enskog equation have reversed displacements of colliding particles reflecting that the scattering-in and -out processes are conjugated by the space and time inversions. Generalizations of the Enskog equation to Fermi liquid systems are hindered by the need for particle-hole symmetry which contradicts the reversed displacements. We resolve this problem with the help of the optical theorem. It is found that space-time and particle-hole symmetry can be fulfilled simultaneously only for the Bruckner type of internal Pauli blocking while the Feynman-Galitskii form allows only for particle-hole symmetry but not for space-time symmetry due to a stimulated emission of bosons. PMID:11690090
Hoffman, A. J.; Lee, J. C.
2013-07-01
A new time-dependent neutron transport method based on the method of characteristics (MOC) has been developed. Whereas most spatial kinetics methods treat time dependence through temporal discretization, this new method treats time dependence by defining the characteristics to span space and time. In this implementation regions are defined in space-time where the thickness of the region in time fulfills an analogous role to the time step in discretized methods. The time dependence of the local source is approximated using a truncated Taylor series expansion with high order derivatives approximated using backward differences, permitting the solution of the resulting space-time characteristic equation. To avoid a drastic increase in computational expense and memory requirements due to solving many discrete characteristics in the space-time planes, the temporal variation of the boundary source is similarly approximated. This allows the characteristics in the space-time plane to be represented analytically rather than discretely, resulting in an algorithm comparable in implementation and expense to one that arises from conventional time integration techniques. Furthermore, by defining the boundary flux time derivative in terms of the preceding local source time derivative and boundary flux time derivative, the need to store angularly-dependent data is avoided without approximating the angular dependence of the angular flux time derivative. The accuracy of this method is assessed through implementation in the neutron transport code DeCART. The method is employed with variable-order local source representation to model a TWIGL transient. The results demonstrate that this method is accurate and more efficient than the discretized method. (authors)
Dynamic Modelling of Aquifer Level Using Space-Time Kriging and Sequential Gaussian Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Hristopulos, Dionisis T.
2016-04-01
Geostatistical models are widely used in water resources management projects to represent and predict the spatial variability of aquifer levels. In addition, they can be applied as surrogate to numerical hydrological models if the hydrogeological data needed to calibrate the latter are not available. For space-time data, spatiotemporal geostatistical approaches can model the aquifer level variability by incorporating complex space-time correlations. A major advantage of such models is that they can improve the reliability of predictions compared to purely spatial or temporal models in areas with limited spatial and temporal data availability. The identification and incorporation of a spatiotemporal trend model can further increase the accuracy of groundwater level predictions. Our goal is to derive a geostatistical model of dynamic aquifer level changes in a sparsely gauged basin on the island of Crete (Greece). The available data consist of bi-annual (dry and wet hydrological period) groundwater level measurements at 11 monitoring locations for the time period 1981 to 2010. We identify a spatiotemporal trend function that follows the overall drop of the aquifer level over the study period. The correlation of the residuals is modeled using a non-separable space-time variogram function based on the Spartan covariance family. The space-time Residual Kriging (STRK) method is then applied to combine the estimated trend and the residuals into dynamic predictions of groundwater level. Sequential Gaussian Simulation is also employed to determine the uncertainty of the spatiotemporal model (trend and covariance) parameters. This stochastic modelling approach produces multiple realizations, ranks the prediction results on the basis of specified criteria, and captures the range of the uncertainty. The model projections recommend that in 2032 a part of the basin will be under serious threat as the aquifer level will approximate the sea level boundary.
A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen J.
2015-01-01
The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.
Divergence identities in curved space-time a resolution of the stress-energy problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, Hüseyin
1989-03-01
It is noted that the joint use of two basic differential identities in curved space-time, namely, 1) the Einstein-Hilbert identity (1915), and 2) the identity of P. Freud (1939), permits a viable alternative to general relativity and a resolution of the "field stress-energy" problem of the gravitational theory. (A tribute to Eugene P. Wigner's 1957 presidential address to the APS)
Space-time clustering of childhood cancers in Switzerland: A nationwide study.
Kreis, Christian; Grotzer, Michael; Hengartner, Heinz; Spycher, Ben Daniel
2016-05-01
The aetiology of childhood cancers remains largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that infections may be involved and that mini-epidemics thereof could result in space-time clustering of incident cases. Most previous studies support spatio-temporal clustering for leukaemia, while results for other diagnostic groups remain mixed. Few studies have corrected for uneven regional population shifts which can lead to spurious detection of clustering. We examined whether there is space-time clustering of childhood cancers in Switzerland identifying cases diagnosed at age <16 years between 1985 and 2010 from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. Knox tests were performed on geocoded residence at birth and diagnosis separately for leukaemia, acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL), lymphomas, tumours of the central nervous system, neuroblastomas and soft tissue sarcomas. We used Baker's Max statistic to correct for multiple testing and randomly sampled time-, sex- and age-matched controls from the resident population to correct for uneven regional population shifts. We observed space-time clustering of childhood leukaemia at birth (Baker's Max p = 0.045) but not at diagnosis (p = 0.98). Clustering was strongest for a spatial lag of <1 km and a temporal lag of <2 years (Observed/expected close pairs: 124/98; p Knox test = 0.003). A similar clustering pattern was observed for ALL though overall evidence was weaker (Baker's Max p = 0.13). Little evidence of clustering was found for other diagnostic groups (p > 0.2). Our study suggests that childhood leukaemia tends to cluster in space-time due to an etiologic factor present in early life. PMID:26650335
Space-Time Coordinate Metadata for the Virtual Observatory Version 1.33
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rots, A. H.; Rots, A. H.
2007-10-01
This document provides a complete design description of the Space-Time Coordinate (STC) metadata for the Virtual Observatory. It explains the various components, highlights some implementation considerations, presents a complete set of UML diagrams, and discusses the relation between STC and certain other parts of the Data Model. Two serializations are discussed: XML Schema (STC-X) and String (STC-S); the former is an integral part of this Recommendation.
Twisting space-time: relativistic origin of seed magnetic field and vorticity.
Mahajan, S M; Yoshida, Z
2010-08-27
We demonstrate that a purely ideal mechanism, originating in the space-time distortion caused by the demands of special relativity, can break the topological constraint (leading to helicity conservation) that would forbid the emergence of a magnetic field (a generalized vorticity) in an ideal nonrelativistic dynamics. The new mechanism, arising from the interaction between the inhomogeneous flow fields and inhomogeneous entropy, is universal and can provide a finite seed even for mildly relativistic flows. PMID:20868171
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun
2016-04-01
The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to
Wang, Jiaojiao; Cao, Zhidong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Wang, Quanyi; Wang, Xiaoli; Qian, Haikun
2014-01-01
Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mostly affects the health of infants and preschool children. Many studies of HFMD in different regions have been published. However, the epidemiological characteristics and space-time patterns of individual-level HFMD cases in a major city such as Beijing are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate epidemiological features and identify high relative risk space-time HFMD clusters at a fine spatial scale. Methods Detailed information on age, occupation, pathogen and gender was used to analyze the epidemiological features of HFMD epidemics. Data on individual-level HFMD cases were examined using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) analysis to identify the spatial autocorrelation of HFMD incidence. Spatial filtering combined with scan statistics methods were used to detect HFMD clusters. Results A total of 157,707 HFMD cases (60.25% were male, 39.75% were female) reported in Beijing from 2008 to 2012 included 1465 severe cases and 33 fatal cases. The annual average incidence rate was 164.3 per 100,000 (ranged from 104.2 in 2008 to 231.5 in 2010). Male incidence was higher than female incidence for the 0 to 14-year age group, and 93.88% were nursery children or lived at home. Areas at a higher relative risk were mainly located in the urban-rural transition zones (the percentage of the population at risk ranged from 33.89% in 2011 to 39.58% in 2012) showing High-High positive spatial association for HFMD incidence. The most likely space-time cluster was located in the mid-east part of the Fangshan district, southwest of Beijing. Conclusions The spatial-time patterns of Beijing HFMD (2008–2012) showed relatively steady. The population at risk were mainly distributed in the urban-rural transition zones. Epidemiological features of Beijing HFMD were generally consistent with the previous research. The findings generated computational insights useful for disease surveillance, risk assessment and
Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim
2005-01-01
With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications. PMID:15923766
Methods of approaching decoherence in the flavor sector due to space-time foam
Mavromatos, N. E.; Sarkar, Sarben
2006-08-01
In the first part of this work we discuss possible effects of stochastic space-time foam configurations of quantum gravity on the propagation of ''flavored'' (Klein-Gordon and Dirac) neutral particles, such as neutral mesons and neutrinos. The formalism is not the usually assumed Lindblad one, but it is based on random averages of quantum fluctuations of space-time metrics over which the propagation of the matter particles is considered. We arrive at expressions for the respective oscillation probabilities between flavors which are quite distinct from the ones pertaining to Lindblad-type decoherence, including in addition to the (expected) Gaussian decay with time, a modification to oscillation behavior, as well as a power-law cutoff of the time-profile of the respective probability. In the second part we consider space-time foam configurations of quantum-fluctuating charged-black holes as a way of generating (parts of) neutrino mass differences, mimicking appropriately the celebrated Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects of neutrinos in stochastically fluctuating random media. We pay particular attention to disentangling genuine quantum-gravity effects from ordinary effects due to the propagation of a neutrino through ordinary matter. Our results are of interest to precision tests of quantum-gravity models using neutrinos as probes.
Space-Time Hierarchical-Graph Based Cooperative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Tiejun; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaopeng; Yang, Shaoshi; Hanzo, Lajos
2016-01-01
It has been shown that cooperative localization is capable of improving both the positioning accuracy and coverage in scenarios where the global positioning system (GPS) has a poor performance. However, due to its potentially excessive computational complexity, at the time of writing the application of cooperative localization remains limited in practice. In this paper, we address the efficient cooperative positioning problem in wireless sensor networks. A space-time hierarchical-graph based scheme exhibiting fast convergence is proposed for localizing the agent nodes. In contrast to conventional methods, agent nodes are divided into different layers with the aid of the space-time hierarchical-model and their positions are estimated gradually. In particular, an information propagation rule is conceived upon considering the quality of positional information. According to the rule, the information always propagates from the upper layers to a certain lower layer and the message passing process is further optimized at each layer. Hence, the potential error propagation can be mitigated. Additionally, both position estimation and position broadcasting are carried out by the sensor nodes. Furthermore, a sensor activation mechanism is conceived, which is capable of significantly reducing both the energy consumption and the network traffic overhead incurred by the localization process. The analytical and numerical results provided demonstrate the superiority of our space-time hierarchical-graph based cooperative localization scheme over the benchmarking schemes considered.
Baryogenesis via Hawking-like radiation in the FRW space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modak, Sujoy K.; Singleton, Douglas
2015-05-01
We present a phenomenological model for baryogenesis based on particle creation in the Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time. This study is a continuation of our proposal that Hawking-like radiation in FRW space-time explains several physical aspects of the early Universe including inflation. In this model we study a coupling between the FRW space-time, in the form of the derivative of the Ricci scalar, and the current, , which leads to a different chemical potential between baryons and anti-baryons, resulting in an excess of baryons over anti-baryons with the right order of magnitude. In this model the generation of baryon asymmetry, in principle, occurs over the entire history of the Universe, starting from the beginning of the radiation phase. However, in practice, almost the entire contribution to the baryon asymmetry only comes from the very beginning of the Universe and is negligible thereafter. There is a free parameter in our model which can be interpreted as defining the boundary between the unknown quantum gravity regime and the inflation/baryogenesis regime covered by our model. When this parameter is adjusted to give the observed value of baryon asymmetry we get a higher than usual energy scale for our inflation model which, however, may be in line with the Grand Unified Theory scale for inflation in view of the BICEP2 and Planck results. In addition our model provides the correct temperature for the CMB photons at the time of decoupling.
Multilevel space-time aggregation for bright field cell microscopy segmentation and tracking.
Inglis, Tiffany; De Sterck, Hans; Sanders, Geoffrey; Djambazian, Haig; Sladek, Robert; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Hudson, Thomas J
2010-01-01
A multilevel aggregation method is applied to the problem of segmenting live cell bright field microscope images. The method employed is a variant of the so-called "Segmentation by Weighted Aggregation" technique, which itself is based on Algebraic Multigrid methods. The variant of the method used is described in detail, and it is explained how it is tailored to the application at hand. In particular, a new scale-invariant "saliency measure" is proposed for deciding when aggregates of pixels constitute salient segments that should not be grouped further. It is shown how segmentation based on multilevel intensity similarity alone does not lead to satisfactory results for bright field cells. However, the addition of multilevel intensity variance (as a measure of texture) to the feature vector of each aggregate leads to correct cell segmentation. Preliminary results are presented for applying the multilevel aggregation algorithm in space time to temporal sequences of microscope images, with the goal of obtaining space-time segments ("object tunnels") that track individual cells. The advantages and drawbacks of the space-time aggregation approach for segmentation and tracking of live cells in sequences of bright field microscope images are presented, along with a discussion on how this approach may be used in the future work as a building block in a complete and robust segmentation and tracking system. PMID:20467468
Of magnitudes and metaphors: explaining cognitive interactions between space, time, and number.
Winter, Bodo; Marghetis, Tyler; Matlock, Teenie
2015-03-01
Space, time, and number are fundamental to how we act within and reason about the world. These three experiential domains are systematically intertwined in behavior, language, and the brain. Two main theories have attempted to account for cross-domain interactions. A Theory of Magnitude (ATOM) posits a domain-general magnitude system. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) maintains that cross-domain interactions are manifestations of asymmetric mappings that use representations of space to structure the domains of number and time. These theories are often viewed as competing accounts. We propose instead that ATOM and CMT are complementary, each illuminating different aspects of cross-domain interactions. We argue that simple representations of magnitude cannot, on their own, account for the rich, complex interactions between space, time and number described by CMT. On the other hand, ATOM is better at accounting for low-level and language-independent associations that arise early in ontogeny. We conclude by discussing how magnitudes and metaphors are both needed to understand our neural and cognitive web of space, time and number. PMID:25437376
"simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics I. Cw Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.
2014-06-01
Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. * We first ask, "What is the simplest molecule?" Hydrogen H2 is the simplest, stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-)-pair. An even simpler "molecule" or "radical" is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-)-pair. * To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. * Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c=299,792,458m/s by proving "Evenson's Axiom" named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision-renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology. * The following Talk II applies this approach to relativistic quantum mechanics.
Space-time adaptive approach to variational data assimilation using wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souopgui, Innocent; Wieland, Scott A.; Yousuff Hussaini, M.; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2016-02-01
This paper focuses on one of the main challenges of 4-dimensional variational data assimilation, namely the requirement to have a forward solution available when solving the adjoint problem. The issue is addressed by considering the time in the same fashion as the space variables, reformulating the mathematical model in the entire space-time domain, and solving the problem on a near optimal computational mesh that automatically adapts to spatio-temporal structures of the solution. The compressed form of the solution eliminates the need to save or recompute data for every time slice as it is typically done in traditional time marching approaches to 4-dimensional variational data assimilation. The reduction of the required computational degrees of freedom is achieved using the compression properties of multi-dimensional second generation wavelets. The simultaneous space-time discretization of both the forward and the adjoint models makes it possible to solve both models either concurrently or sequentially. In addition, the grid adaptation reduces the amount of saved data to the strict minimum for a given a priori controlled accuracy of the solution. The proposed approach is demonstrated for the advection diffusion problem in two space-time dimensions.
A Stochastic Fractional Dynamics Model of Space-time Variability of Rain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kundu, Prasun K.; Travis, James E.
2013-01-01
Rainfall varies in space and time in a highly irregular manner and is described naturally in terms of a stochastic process. A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend strongly on the space-time scales over which rain data are averaged. A spectral model of precipitation has been developed based on a stochastic differential equation of fractional order for the point rain rate, that allows a concise description of the second moment statistics of rain at any prescribed space-time averaging scale. The model is thus capable of providing a unified description of the statistics of both radar and rain gauge data. The underlying dynamical equation can be expressed in terms of space-time derivatives of fractional orders that are adjusted together with other model parameters to fit the data. The form of the resulting spectrum gives the model adequate flexibility to capture the subtle interplay between the spatial and temporal scales of variability of rain but strongly constrains the predicted statistical behavior as a function of the averaging length and times scales. We test the model with radar and gauge data collected contemporaneously at the NASA TRMM ground validation sites located near Melbourne, Florida and in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands in the tropical Pacific. We estimate the parameters by tuning them to the second moment statistics of radar data. The model predictions are then found to fit the second moment statistics of the gauge data reasonably well without any further adjustment.
Spatiotemporal Domain Decomposition for Massive Parallel Computation of Space-Time Kernel Density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohl, A.; Delmelle, E. M.; Tang, W.
2015-07-01
Accelerated processing capabilities are deemed critical when conducting analysis on spatiotemporal datasets of increasing size, diversity and availability. High-performance parallel computing offers the capacity to solve computationally demanding problems in a limited timeframe, but likewise poses the challenge of preventing processing inefficiency due to workload imbalance between computing resources. Therefore, when designing new algorithms capable of implementing parallel strategies, careful spatiotemporal domain decomposition is necessary to account for heterogeneity in the data. In this study, we perform octtree-based adaptive decomposition of the spatiotemporal domain for parallel computation of space-time kernel density. In order to avoid edge effects near subdomain boundaries, we establish spatiotemporal buffers to include adjacent data-points that are within the spatial and temporal kernel bandwidths. Then, we quantify computational intensity of each subdomain to balance workloads among processors. We illustrate the benefits of our methodology using a space-time epidemiological dataset of Dengue fever, an infectious vector-borne disease that poses a severe threat to communities in tropical climates. Our parallel implementation of kernel density reaches substantial speedup compared to sequential processing, and achieves high levels of workload balance among processors due to great accuracy in quantifying computational intensity. Our approach is portable of other space-time analytical tests.
A stochastic fractional dynamics model of space-time variability of rain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, Prasun K.; Travis, James E.
2013-09-01
varies in space and time in a highly irregular manner and is described naturally in terms of a stochastic process. A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend strongly on the space-time scales over which rain data are averaged. A spectral model of precipitation has been developed based on a stochastic differential equation of fractional order for the point rain rate, which allows a concise description of the second moment statistics of rain at any prescribed space-time averaging scale. The model is thus capable of providing a unified description of the statistics of both radar and rain gauge data. The underlying dynamical equation can be expressed in terms of space-time derivatives of fractional orders that are adjusted together with other model parameters to fit the data. The form of the resulting spectrum gives the model adequate flexibility to capture the subtle interplay between the spatial and temporal scales of variability of rain but strongly constrains the predicted statistical behavior as a function of the averaging length and time scales. We test the model with radar and gauge data collected contemporaneously at the NASA TRMM ground validation sites located near Melbourne, Florida and on the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands in the tropical Pacific. We estimate the parameters by tuning them to fit the second moment statistics of radar data at the smaller spatiotemporal scales. The model predictions are then found to fit the second moment statistics of the gauge data reasonably well at these scales without any further adjustment.
``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William
2015-05-01
Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoenball, Martin; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.
2016-04-01
A remarkable characteristic of earthquakes is their clustering in time and space, displaying their self-similarity. It remains to be tested if natural and induced earthquakes share the same behavior. The Coso Geothermal Field is one of the most seismically active areas in California and features an abundance of natural seismicity due to active tectonics and a large number of induced earthquakes resulting from geothermal power production since 1987. We study natural and induced earthquakes comparatively in the same tectonic setting at the Coso Geothermal Field. Covering the pre- and co-production periods from 1981 to 2013, we analyze inter-event times, spatial dimension, and frequency-size distributions for natural and induced earthquakes. Individually, these distributions are statistically indistinguishable. Determining the distribution of nearest-neighbor distances in a combined space-time-magnitude metric lets us identify the triggering relationship of an earthquake pair. Nearest-neighbors pairs naturally fall into two populations that categorize it as either clustered (triggered) or background (independent) events. Compared to natural earthquakes, induced earthquakes feature a larger fraction of background seismicity. Furthermore, they contain a population of independent pairs at large magnitude-rescaled times and small magnitude-rescaled distances. Unlike tectonic processes, stress changes by the field operations occur on much smaller time scale and appear strong enough to drive small-scale faults through several seismic cycles. As a result, we record seismicity close to previous hypocenters after a period on the order of a year.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, Shaun; Elias, Lydia
2014-05-01
Climate models are evaluated by comparing them with other models and (when possible), with climate data: one attempts to match the data and numerics as closely as possible pixel by pixel, time step by time step- i.e. deterministically. As a consequence very little attention has been paid to understanding the space-time statistical properties of the models and data. There is little understanding of the convergence of the model and data to their 'climates' and to each other. In the time domain, there is no objective definition of the distinction between weather and climate in the spatial domain, there is corresponding lack of understanding of climate regions. In order to overcome this, we systematically study the statistics of fluctuations (primarily of temperature but also precipitation and pressure) as function of space and time. For both data and models, we find that in space, that fluctuations increase up to about 5000 km before starting to decrease; this quantitatively defines the typical size of regional climates. In time, we find that fluctuations decrease out to about 10-30 years in the industrial epoch, out to 50 -100 years in the pre-industrial epoch and then starts to increase; this defines the difference between 'macroweather' and the climate. Applying fluctuation analysis to longer time scales, we examine last millennium simulations from four GCMs, we show that control runs only reproduce macroweather. When various (reconstructed) climate forcings are included, in the recent (industrial) period they show global fluctuations strongly increasing at scales >_10-30 yr, which is quite close to the observations. However, in the preindustrial period we find that the multicentennial variabilities are too weak and by analysing the scale dependence of solar and volcanic forcings, we argue that these forcings are unlikely to be sufficiently strong to account for the multicentennial and longer-scale temperature variability. A likely explanation is that the models
Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding
Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong
2016-01-01
In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741
Wave extremes off the Catalan coast: time and space-time domains analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbariol, Francesco; Sànchez-Arcilla, Agustin; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro; Pau Sierra, Joan; Benetazzo, Alvise
2014-05-01
The occurrence of extreme wave conditions at sea represents a frequent and severe hazard for human activities in the marine environment (e.g. ships in navigation and coastal or off-shore structures). Therefore, it is of crucial importance to accurately predict extremes of sea states. In this context, wave observations represent at the same time the starting point of the analysis and the sea truth to validate theoretical prediction models. Extreme waves are usually searched for by looking at the sea surface elevation recorded by point instruments in time domain (e.g. buoys, wave gauges). Alternatively, the likelihood of extremes occurrence within a sea state can be controlled through nonlinear wave parameters. Recently, measuring systems capable of observing the wave field in the space-time domain, i.e. over an area and during a certain period, offered a novel perspective for extreme value analysis. In fact, it was proved that the maximum sea surface elevation gathered in time over an area, i.e. the space-time extreme, is larger than that one measured in time at a point, i.e. the time extreme. Lately, theoretical stochastic models for the evaluation of maxima of multidimensional Gaussian random fields (i.e. Piterbarg's theorem or the Adler and Taylor's Euler Characteristics approach, further developed by Fedele) have been applied to ocean wave statistics. Using such models, the space-time extreme of a sea state can be estimated from the directional wave variance density spectrum, which collects space-time features of the sea state. In this context, measurements gathered by a directional buoy (XIOM network of the Catalan Government) were analyzed by searching for extremes of sea states, during 25 days of March 2012. Since this study relied on a relatively small sample (1195 30-minutes sea states), the aim was to propose a methodology rather than to characterize the buoy location. The buoy was deployed in the North-West Mediterranean Sea, off the Catalan coast, at 50
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, R. W. (Bob); Petrov, Yu. V.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.
2015-11-01
A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed ICRF power is made calculating minority hydrogen ion distribution functions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. ICRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code, and RF diffusion coefficients are obtained from these fields using the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, in general agreement with experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these effects on the the NPA synthetic diagnostic time-dependence. The new NPA results give increased agreement with experiment, particularly in the ramp-down time after the ICRF pulse. Funded, through subcontract with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by USDOE sponsored SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metaxas, Dimitrios
2007-02-01
I show that an application of renormalization group arguments may lead to significant corrections to the vacuum decay rate for phase transitions in flat and curved space-time. It can also give some information regarding its dependence on the parameters of the theory, including the cosmological constant in the case of decay in curved space-time.
Space-time extreme wind waves: Observation and analysis of shapes and heights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bergamasco, Filippo; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro
2016-04-01
We analyze here the temporal shape and the maximal height of extreme wind waves, which were obtained from an observational space-time sample of sea surface elevations during a mature and short-crested sea state (Benetazzo et al., 2015). Space-time wave data are processed to detect the largest waves of specific 3-D wave groups close to the apex of their development. First, maximal elevations of the groups are discussed within the framework of space-time (ST) extreme statistical models of random wave fields (Adler and Taylor, 2007; Benetazzo et al., 2015; Fedele, 2012). Results of ST models are also compared with observations and predictions of maxima based on time series of sea surface elevations. Second, the time profile of the extreme waves around the maximal crest height is analyzed and compared with the expectations of the linear (Boccotti, 1983) and second-order nonlinear extension (Arena, 2005) of the Quasi-Determinism (QD) theory. Main purpose is to verify to what extent, using the QD model results, one can estimate the shape and the crest-to-trough height of large waves in a random ST wave field. From the results presented, it emerges that, apart from the displacements around the crest apex, sea surface elevations of very high waves are greatly dispersed around a mean profile. Yet the QD model furnishes, on average, a fair prediction of the wave height of the maximal waves, especially when nonlinearities are taken into account. Moreover, the combination of ST and QD model predictions allow establishing, for a given sea condition, a framework for the representation of waves with very large crest heights. The results have also the potential to be implemented in a phase-averaged numerical wave model (see abstract EGU2016-14008 and Barbariol et al., 2015). - Adler, R.J., Taylor, J.E., 2007. Random fields and geometry. Springer, New York (USA), 448 pp. - Arena, F., 2005. On non-linear very large sea wave groups. Ocean Eng. 32, 1311-1331. - Barbariol, F., Alves, J
Federated Space-Time Query for Earth Science Data Using OpenSearch Conventions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynnes, C.; Beaumont, B.; Duerr, R. E.; Hua, H.
2009-12-01
The past decade has seen a burgeoning of remote sensing and Earth science data providers, as evidenced in the growth of the Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP) federation. At the same time, the need to combine diverse data sets to enable understanding of the Earth as a system has also grown. While the expansion of data providers is in general a boon to such studies, the diversity presents a challenge to finding useful data for a given study. Locating all the data files with aerosol information for a particular volcanic eruption, for example, may involve learning and using several different search tools to execute the requisite space-time queries. To address this issue, the ESIP federation is developing a federated space-time query framework, based on the OpenSearch convention (www.opensearch.org), with Geo and Time extensions. In this framework, data providers publish OpenSearch Description Documents that describe in a machine-readable form how to execute queries against the provider. The novelty of OpenSearch is that the space-time query interface becomes both machine callable and easy enough to integrate into the web browser's search box. This flexibility, together with a simple REST (HTTP-get) interface, should allow a variety of data providers to participate in the federated search framework, from large institutional data centers to individual scientists. The simple interface enables trivial querying of multiple data sources and participation in recursive-like federated searches--all using the same common OpenSearch interface. This simplicity also makes the construction of clients easy, as does existing OpenSearch client libraries in a variety of languages. Moreover, a number of clients and aggregation services already exist and OpenSearch is already supported by a number of web browsers such as Firefox and Internet Explorer.
Revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity: Space-time structure and dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, José G.; Torr, Douglas G.
1986-11-01
The experimental testing of the Lorentz transformations is based on a family of sets of coordinate transformations that do not comply in general with the principle of equivalence of the inertial frames. The Lorentz and Galilean sets of transformations are the only member sets of the family that satisfy this principle. In the neighborhood of regular points of space-time, all members in the family are assumed to comply with local homogeneity of space-time and isotropy of space in at least one free-falling elevator, to be denoted as Robertson's ab initio rest frame [H. P. Robertson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 378 (1949)]. Without any further assumptions, it is shown that Robertson's rest frame becomes a preferred frame for all member sets of the Robertson family except for, again, Galilean and Einstein's relativities. If one now assumes the validity of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics in the preferred frame, a different electrodynamics spontaneously emerges for each set of transformations. The flat space-time of relativity retains its relevance, which permits an obvious generalization, in a Robertson context, of Dirac's theory of the electron and Einstein's gravitation. The family of theories thus obtained constitutes a covering theory of relativistic physics. A technique is developed to move back and forth between Einstein's relativity and the different members of the family of theories. It permits great simplifications in the analysis of relativistic experiments with relevant “Robertson's subfamilies.” It is shown how to adapt the Clifford algebra version of standard physics for use with the covering theory and, in particular, with the covering Dirac theory.
Exact solutions of (n+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations in curved space-time
Sanchez-Monroy, J.A.; Quimbay, C.J.
2012-09-15
In the context of a semiclassical approach where vectorial gauge fields can be considered as classical fields, we obtain exact static solutions of the SU(N) Yang-Mills equations in an (n+1)-dimensional curved space-time, for the cases n=1,2,3. As an application of the results obtained for the case n=3, we consider the solutions for the anti-de Sitter and Schwarzschild metrics. We show that these solutions have a confining behavior and can be considered as a first step in the study of the corrections of the spectra of quarkonia in a curved background. Since the solutions that we find in this work are valid also for the group U(1), the case n=2 is a description of the (2+1) electrodynamics in the presence of a point charge. For this case, the solution has a confining behavior and can be considered as an application of the planar electrodynamics in a curved space-time. Finally we find that the solution for the case n=1 is invariant under a parity transformation and has the form of a linear confining solution. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study exact static confining solutions of the SU(N) Yang-Mills equations in an (n+1)-dimensional curved space-time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solutions found are a first step in the study of the corrections on the spectra of quarkonia in a curved background. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A expression for the confinement potential in low dimensionality is found.
Information content of nonautonomous free fields in curved space-time
Parreira, J. E.; Nemes, M. C.; Fonseca-Romero, K. M.
2011-03-15
We show that it is possible to quantify the information content of a nonautonomous free field state in curved space-time. A covariance matrix is defined and it is shown that, for symmetric Gaussian field states, the matrix is connected to the entropy of the state. This connection is maintained throughout a quadratic nonautonomous (including possible phase transitions) evolution. Although particle-antiparticle correlations are dynamically generated, the evolution is isoentropic. If the current standard cosmological model for the inflationary period is correct, in absence of decoherence such correlations will be preserved, and could potentially lead to observable effects, allowing for a test of the model.
Conformally invariant spin-3/2 field equation in de Sitter space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatahi, N.
2015-09-01
In the previous paper (Behroozi et al., Phys Rev D 74:124014, 2006; Dehghani et al., Phys Rev D 77:064028, 2008), conformal invariance for massless tensor fields (scalar, vector and spin-2 fields) was studied and the solutions of their wave equations and two-point functions were obtained. In the present paper, conformally invariant wave equation for massless spinor field in de Sitter space-time has been obtained. For this propose, we use Dirac's six-cone formalism. The solutions of massless spin-1/2 and -3/2 equations, in the ambient space notation, have been calculated.
Coupling gravity, electromagnetism and space-time for space propulsion breakthroughs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Millis, Marc G.
1994-01-01
spaceflight would be revolutionized if it were possible to propel a spacecraft without rockets using the coupling between gravity, electromagnetism, and space-time (hence called 'space coupling propulsion'). New theories and observations about the properties of space are emerging which offer new approaches to consider this breakthrough possibility. To guide the search, evaluation, and application of these emerging possibilities, a variety of hypothetical space coupling propulsion mechanisms are presented to highlight the issues that would have to be satisfied to enable such breakthroughs. A brief introduction of the emerging opportunities is also presented.
Intuitive analysis of space-time focusing with double-ABCD calculation
Durfee, Charles G.; Greco, Michael; Block, Erica; Vitek, Dawn; Squier, Jeff A.
2012-01-01
We analyze the structure of space-time focusing of spatially-chirped pulses using a technique where each frequency component of the beam follows its own Gaussian beamlet that in turn travels as a ray through the system. The approach leads to analytic expressions for the axially-varying pulse duration, pulse-front tilt, and the longitudinal intensity profile. We find that an important contribution to the intensity localization obtained with spatial-chirp focusing arises from the evolution of the geometric phase of the beamlets. PMID:22714487
A topological-like model for gravity in 4D space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Ivan; Neves, Bruno; Oporto, Zui; Piguet, Olivier
2016-04-01
In this paper we consider a model for gravity in four-dimensional space-time originally proposed by Chamseddine, which may be derived by dimensional reduction and truncation from a five-dimensional Chern-Simons theory. Its topological origin makes it an interesting candidate for an easier quantization, e.g., in the loop quantization framework. The present paper is dedicated to a classical analysis of the model's properties. Cosmological solutions as well as wave solutions are found and compared with the corresponding solutions of Einstein's general relativity with cosmological constant.
Stringy models of modified gravity: space-time defects and structure formation
Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Yusaf, Muhammad Furqaan E-mail: mairi.sakellariadou@kcl.ac.uk
2013-03-01
Starting from microscopic models of space-time foam, based on brane universes propagating in bulk space-times populated by D0-brane defects (''D-particles''), we arrive at effective actions used by a low-energy observer on the brane world to describe his/her observations of the Universe. These actions include, apart from the metric tensor field, also scalar (dilaton) and vector fields, the latter describing the interactions of low-energy matter on the brane world with the recoiling point-like space-time defect (D-particle). The vector field is proportional to the recoil velocity of the D-particle and as such it satisfies a certain constraint. The vector breaks locally Lorentz invariance, which however is assumed to be conserved on average in a space-time foam situation, involving the interaction of matter with populations of D-particle defects. In this paper we clarify the role of fluctuations of the vector field on structure formation and galactic growth. In particular we demonstrate that, already at the end of the radiation era, the (constrained) vector field associated with the recoil of the defects provides the seeds for a growing mode in the evolution of the Universe. Such a growing mode survives during the matter dominated era, provided the variance of the D-particle recoil velocities on the brane is larger than a critical value. We note that in this model, as a result of specific properties of D-brane dynamics in the bulk, there is no issue of overclosing the brane Universe for large defect densities. Thus, in these models, the presence of defects may be associated with large-structure formation. Although our string inspired models do have (conventional, from a particle physics point of view) dark matter components, nevertheless it is interesting that the role of ''extra'' dark matter is also provided by the population of massive defects. This is consistent with the weakly interacting character of the D-particle defects, which predominantly interact only
Spin Entanglement with {PT} Symmetric Hamiltonian in a Curved Static Space-Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mebarki, N.; Morchedi, A.; Aissaoui, H.
2015-11-01
Entanglement of spin systems in a curved static space-time with {PT} symmetric Hamiltonian is studied. It turns out that although a bipartite initial state is non entangled, one can generate in general a non vanishing ebit of entanglement through an elapsed proper time evolution. To be more specific an application of a pure state time evolution of a wave packet in a circular geodesic motion in a Schwarchild metric and {PT} symmetric spin Hamiltonian is considered and the corresponding von Newman entanglement entropy is studied.
Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study
2013-01-01
Background Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Methods Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. Results When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting
Skeleton series and multivaluedness of the self-energy functional in zero space-time dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Riccardo; Werner, Félix
2015-12-01
Recently, Kozik, Ferrero and Georges discovered numerically that for a family of fundamental models of interacting fermions, the self-energy {{Σ }}[G] is a multi-valued functional of the fully dressed single-particle propagator G, and that the skeleton diagrammatic series {{{Σ }}}{{bold}}[G] converges to the wrong branch above a critical interaction strength. We consider the zero space-time dimensional case, where the same mathematical phenomena appear from elementary algebra. We also find a similar phenomenology for the fully bold formalism built on the fully dressed single-particle propagator and pair propagator.
Dezfooliyan, Amir; Weiner, Andrew M
2013-12-01
We employed photonic radio frequency (RF) arbitrary waveform generation to demonstrate space-time compression of ultrabroadband wireless signals through highly scattering multipath channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental report that explores an RF-photonic transmitter to both characterize channel dispersions in real wireless environments and generate predistorted waveforms to achieve focusing through the multipath channels. Our experiments span a three octave frequency range of 2-18 GHz, nearly an order of magnitude beyond the ~2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth reported in previous spatiotemporal focusing experiments relying on electronic waveform generators. PMID:24281479
Intuitive analysis of space-time focusing with double-ABCD calculation.
Durfee, Charles G; Greco, Michael; Block, Erica; Vitek, Dawn; Squier, Jeff A
2012-06-18
We analyze the structure of space-time focusing of spatially-chirped pulses using a technique where each frequency component of the beam follows its own Gaussian beamlet that in turn travels as a ray through the system. The approach leads to analytic expressions for the axially-varying pulse duration, pulse-front tilt, and the longitudinal intensity profile. We find that an important contribution to the intensity localization obtained with spatial-chirp focusing arises from the evolution of the geometric phase of the beamlets. PMID:22714487
Time-dependent gravitating solitons in five-dimensional warped space-times
Giovannini, Massimo
2007-12-15
Time-dependent soliton solutions are explicitly derived in a five-dimensional theory endowed with one (warped) extra dimension. Some of the obtained geometries, everywhere well defined and technically regular, smoothly interpolate between two five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-times for a fixed value of the conformal time coordinate. Time-dependent solutions containing both topological and nontopological sectors are also obtained. Supplementary degrees of freedom can be also included and, in this case, the resulting multisoliton solutions may describe time-dependent kink-antikink system000.
On the time-dependent extra spatial dimensions in six dimensional space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lien, Phan Hong; Hai, Do Thi Hong
2016-06-01
In this paper, we analyze the time-dependent extra spatial dimensions in six dimensional (6D) space-time. The 4-brane is assumed to be a de Sitter space. Based on the form of the brane-world energy-momentum tensor proposed by Shiromizu et al. and the five dimensions by Peter K. F. Kuhfittic, we extended the theory to the 2-codimension embedded in higher dimensions. The inflation scenario in 6D is investigated in two cases of cosmological constant: Ʌ > 0 and Ʌ < 0. The energy of two extra dimensions is calculated too.
Self-action of a point charge in a wormhole space-time
Khusnutdinov, Nail R.; Bakhmatov, Ilya V.
2007-12-15
We consider the self-energy and the self-force for an electrically charged particle at rest in the wormhole space-time. We develop a general approach to finding the self-force and apply it to the two specific profiles of the wormhole throat with singular and with smooth curvature. The self-force for these two profiles is found in manifest form; it turns out to be an attractive force. We also find an expression for the self-force in the case of arbitrary symmetric throat profile. Far from the throat the self-force is always attractive.
Preconditioned iterative methods for space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhi; Jin, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Matthew M.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we propose practical numerical methods for solving a class of initial-boundary value problems of space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations. First, we propose an implicit method based on two-sided Grünwald formulae and discuss its stability and consistency. Then, we develop the preconditioned generalized minimal residual (preconditioned GMRES) method and preconditioned conjugate gradient normal residual (preconditioned CGNR) method with easily constructed preconditioners. Importantly, because resulting systems are Toeplitz-like, fast Fourier transform can be applied to significantly reduce the computational cost. We perform numerical experiments to demonstrate the efficiency of our preconditioners, even in cases with variable coefficients.
Realization of Cohen-Glashow very special relativity on noncommutative space-time.
Sheikh-Jabbari, M M; Tureanu, A
2008-12-31
We show that the Cohen-Glashow very special relativity (VSR) theory [A. G. Cohen and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 021601 (2006)] can be realized as the part of the Poincaré symmetry preserved on a noncommutative Moyal plane with lightlike noncommutativity. Moreover, we show that the three subgroups relevant to VSR can also be realized in the noncommutative space-time setting. For all of these three cases, the noncommutativity parameter theta(mu upsilon) should be lightlike (theta(mu upsilon) theta mu upsilon = 0). We discuss some physical implications of this realization of the Cohen-Glashow VSR. PMID:19113767
Self-referenced characterization of space-time couplings in near-single-cycle laser pulses.
Witting, T; Austin, D R; Barillot, T; Greening, D; Matia-Hernando, P; Walke, D; Marangos, J P; Tisch, J W G
2016-05-15
We report on the characterization of space-time couplings in high-energy sub-2-cycle 770 nm laser pulses using a self-referencing single-frame method. Using spatially encoded arrangement filter-based spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction, we characterize few-cycle pulses with a wavefront rotation of 2.8×10^{11} rev/s (1.38 mrad per half-cycle) and pulses with pulse front tilts ranging from -0.33 fs/μm to -3.03 fs/μm in the focus. PMID:27177008
Learning characteristics of a space-time neural network as a tether skiprope observer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles
1992-01-01
The Software Technology Laboratory at JSC is testing a Space Time Neural Network (STNN) for observing tether oscillations present during retrieval of a tethered satellite. Proper identification of tether oscillations, known as 'skiprope' motion, is vital to safe retrieval of the tethered satellite. Our studies indicate that STNN has certain learning characteristics that must be understood properly to utilize this type of neural network for the tethered satellite problem. We present our findings on the learning characteristics including a learning rate versus momentum performance table.
Learning characteristics of a space-time neural network as a tether skiprope observer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles
1993-01-01
The Software Technology Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center is testing a Space Time Neural Network (STNN) for observing tether oscillations present during retrieval of a tethered satellite. Proper identification of tether oscillations, known as 'skiprope' motion, is vital to safe retrieval of the tethered satellite. Our studies indicate that STNN has certain learning characteristics that must be understood properly to utilize this type of neural network for the tethered satellite problem. We present our findings on the learning characteristics including a learning rate versus momentum performance table.
Lagrangian formalism for adiabatic fluids on five-dimensional space-time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Künzle, H. P.
1986-02-01
The recently developed Lagrangian formalism on extended five-dimensional space-time that permits a unified description of general relativistic and gravitating nonrelativistic classical fields is applied to a model of an adiabatic perfect fluid described in terms of Lagrangian coordinates. The Lagrangian density is chosen as an arbitrary Lorentz- (or Galilei-) invariant function of the 5-current vector and leads, by variation with respect to frame fields, to a 5-stress-energy tensor, whose additional components are naturally interpreted as an entropy-flux vector.
Connection of electromagnetic degrees of coherence in space-time and space-frequency domains.
Leppänen, Lasse-Petteri; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero
2016-04-15
We study the relationship between the electromagnetic degrees of coherence of stationary random fields in the space-time and space-frequency domains. In contrast to a known result on scalar fields, it appears that, due to the structure of the electromagnetic degree of coherence, no general closed-form relationship exists for the electromagnetic degrees in the two domains. However, relations that illustrate the similarities and differences between the two quantities can be established by specific considerations covering quasi-monochromatic and broadband situations of electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams and blackbody radiation. PMID:27082354
Some Remarks on Space-Time Decompositions, and Degenerate Metrics, in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bengtsson, Ingemar
Space-time decomposition of the Hilbert-Palatini action, written in a form which admits degenerate metrics, is considered. Simple numerology shows why D = 3 and 4 are singled out as admitting a simple phase space. The canonical structure of the degenerate sector turns out to be awkward. However, the real degenerate metrics obtained as solutions are the same as those that occur in Ashtekar's formulation of complex general relativity. An exact solution of Ashtekar's equations, with degenerate metric, shows that the manifestly four-dimensional form of the action, and its 3 + 1 form, are not quite equivalent.
A proposal of quantization in flat space-time with a minimal length present
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hess, P. O.
2015-11-01
The 4-dimensional space-time is extended to pseudo-complex coordinates. Proposing the standard quantization rules in this extended space, the ones for the 4-dimensional sub-space acquire, as one solution, the commutation relations with non-commuting coordinates. This demonstrates that the algebraic extension keeps the simple structure of Quantum Mechanics, while it also introduces an effective quite involved structure in the 4-dimensional sub-space. The first steps to pseudo-complex Quantum Mechanics in 1-dimension are outlined, awaiting still the interpretation of some new emerging structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plachenov, A. B.
An algorithm is proposed for the transition from the short-wave asymptotics of stationary problems to the space-time asymptotics of nonstationary problems of linear wave propagation. The relationship between this algorithm and constructs of the spatial-temporal ray tracing method is examined. As an example, the algorithm is applied to the problem of the detection of a diffraction wave in the deep shade behind a smooth convex obstacle in the case where the incident wave is specified by its spatial-temporal ray expansion.
QED{sub 3} on a space-time lattice: Compact versus noncompact formulation
Fiore, R.; Giudice, P.; Giuliano, D.; Marmottini, D.; Papa, A.; Sodano, P.
2005-11-01
We study quantum electrodynamics in a (2+1)-dimensional space-time with two flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations on the lattice. We discretize the theory using both the compact and the noncompact formulations and analyze the behavior of the chiral condensate and of the monopole density in the finite lattice regime as well as in the continuum limit. By comparing the results obtained with the two approaches, we draw some conclusions about the possible equivalence of the two lattice formulations in the continuum limit.
Mumot, Marta; Agapov, Alexey
2007-11-26
We have developed a new delivering system for hadron therapy which uses a multileaf collimator and a range shifter. We simulate our delivering beam system with the multi-particle transport code 'Fluka'. From these simulations we obtained information about the dose distributions, about stars generated in the delivering system elements and also information about the neutron flux. All the informations obtained were analyzed from the point of view of radiation protection, homogeneity of beam delivery to patient body, and also in order to improve some modifiers used.
Beckwith, A. L.; Phillips, J. T.
1990-06-10
Computing architectures using distributed processing and distributed databases are increasingly becoming considered acceptable solutions for advanced data processing systems. This is occurring even though there is still considerable professional debate as to what truly'' distributed computing actually is and despite the relative lack of advanced relational database management software (RDBMS) capable of meeting database and system integrity requirements for developing reliable integrated systems. This study investigates the functionally of ORACLE data base management software that is performing distributed processing between a MicroVAX/VMS minicomputer and three MS-DOS-based microcomputers. The ORACLE database resides on the MicroVAX and is accessed from the microcomputers with ORACLE SQL*NET, DECnet, and ORACLE PC TOOL PACKS. Data gathered during the study reveals that there is a demonstrable decrease in CPU demand on the MicroVAX, due to distributed processing'', when the ORACLE PC Tools are used to access the database as opposed to database access from dumb'' terminals. Also discovered were several hardware/software constraints that must be considered in implementing various software modules. The results of the study indicate that this distributed data processing architecture is becoming sufficiently mature, reliable, and should be considered for developing applications that reduce processing on central hosts. 33 refs., 2 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuragano, Tsurane; Fujii, Yosuke; Kamachi, Masafumi
2015-06-01
This study evaluates capability of the Argo observation network for monitoring ocean variation, especially for eddy-scale variation, by using an optimum interpolation (OI) procedure. Sea surface dynamic height anomalies (DHAs) are derived from Argo temperature and salinity profile data, and DHA fields are obtained by the OI based on the space-time correlation scales estimated from along-track sea level anomaly (SLA) data by satellite altimetry. The DHA fields are compared with the SLA fields derived from the same OI applied to the along-track SLA data. The results show that the equatorial Kelvin waves and tropical instability waves are well captured by Argo floats. Eddies are also monitored effectively in the subtropical western North Pacific. The OI results of DHA do not agree well with those of SLA in the high latitudes. A simple test of the space-time OI analysis shows that more than six data in the e-folding domain, where the correlation coefficient of ocean variation is above e-1, are required for the reliable analysis with 99% confidence level. Argo floats provide sufficient number of observations for the reliable analysis in the low latitudes and some areas in the North Pacific. Two to three times more Argo data would be required in most of midlatitudes and much more in high latitudes for capturing eddy-scale variation.
Self-similar space-time evolution of an initial density discontinuity
Rekaa, V. L.; Pécseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J. K.
2013-07-15
The space-time evolution of an initial step-like plasma density variation is studied. We give particular attention to formulate the problem in a way that opens for the possibility of realizing the conditions experimentally. After a short transient time interval of the order of the electron plasma period, the solution is self-similar as illustrated by a video where the space-time evolution is reduced to be a function of the ratio x/t. Solutions of this form are usually found for problems without characteristic length and time scales, in our case the quasi-neutral limit. By introducing ion collisions with neutrals into the numerical analysis, we introduce a length scale, the collisional mean free path. We study the breakdown of the self-similarity of the solution as the mean free path is made shorter than the system length. Analytical results are presented for charge exchange collisions, demonstrating a short time collisionless evolution with an ensuing long time diffusive relaxation of the initial perturbation. For large times, we find a diffusion equation as the limiting analytical form for a charge-exchange collisional plasma, with a diffusion coefficient defined as the square of the ion sound speed divided by the (constant) ion collision frequency. The ion-neutral collision frequency acts as a parameter that allows a collisionless result to be obtained in one limit, while the solution of a diffusion equation is recovered in the opposite limit of large collision frequencies.
Design and implementation of a Space-Time Intelligence System for disease surveillance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Greiling, Dunrie A.; Kaufmann, Andrew M.
2005-05-01
Modeling chronic and infectious diseases entails tracking and describing individuals and their attributes (such as disease status, date of diagnosis, risk factors and so on) as they move and change through space and time. Using Geographic Information Systems, researchers can model, visualize and query spatial data, but their ability to address time has been limited by the lack of temporal referencing in the underlying data structures. In this paper, we discuss issues in designing data structures, indexing, and queries for spatio-temporal data within the context of health surveillance. We describe a space-time object model that treats modeled individuals as a chain of linked observations comprised of an ID, space-time coordinate, and time-referenced attributes. Movement models for these modeled individuals are functions that may be simple (e.g. linear, using vector representation) or more complex. We present several spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and epidemiological queries emergent from the data model. We demonstrate this approach in a representative application, a simulation of the spread of influenza in a hospital ward.
Space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for two-fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sollie, W. E. H.; Bokhove, O.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.
2011-02-01
A novel numerical method for two-fluid flow computations is presented, which combines the space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element discretization with the level set method and cut-cell based interface tracking. The space-time discontinuous Galerkin (STDG) finite element method offers high accuracy, an inherent ability to handle discontinuities and a very local stencil, making it relatively easy to combine with local hp-refinement. The front tracking is incorporated via cut-cell mesh refinement to ensure a sharp interface between the fluids. To compute the interface dynamics the level set method (LSM) is used because of its ability to deal with merging and breakup. Also, the LSM is easy to extend to higher dimensions. Small cells arising from the cut-cell refinement are merged to improve the stability and performance. The interface conditions are incorporated in the numerical flux at the interface and the STDG discretization ensures that the scheme is conservative as long as the numerical fluxes are conservative. The numerical method is applied to one and two dimensional two-fluid test problems using the Euler equations.
Play estimation with motions and textures with automatic generation of template space-time map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Kyota; Aita, Ryo; Fukiba, Takuro
2015-07-01
It is easy to retrieve the small size parts from small videos. It is also easy to retrieve the middle size part from large videos. However, we have difficulties to retrieve the small size parts from large videos. We have large needs for estimating plays in sport videos. Plays in sports are described as the motions of players. This paper proposes the play retrieving method based on both motion compensation vectors and normal color frames in MPEG sports videos. This work uses the 1-dimensional degenerated descriptions of each motion image between two adjacent frames. Connecting the 1-dimensional degenerated descriptions on time direction, we have the space-time map. This spacetime map describes a sequence of frames as a 2-dimensional image. Using this space-time map on motion compensation vector frames and normal color frames, this work shows the method to create a new better template from a single template for retrieving a small number of plays in a huge number of frames. In an experiment, the resulting F-measure marks 0.955.
On the usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soffel, Michael; Frutos, Francisco
2016-07-01
The usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field is investigated. A variety of exact vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations (Schwarzschild, Erez and Rosen, Gutsunayev and Manko, Hernández-Pastora and Martín, Kerr, Quevedo, and Mashhoon) are investigated in that respect. It is argued that because of their multipole structure and influences from external bodies, all these exact solutions are not really useful for the central problem. Then, approximate space-times resulting from an MPM or post-Newtonian approximation are considered. Only in the DSX formalism that is of the first post-Newtonian order, all aspects of the problem can be tackled: a relativistic description (a) of the Earth's gravity field in a well-defined geocentric reference system (GCRS), (b) of the motion of solar system bodies in a barycentric reference system (BCRS), and (c) of inertial and tidal terms in the geocentric metric describing the external gravitational field. A relativistic SLR theory is also discussed with respect to our central problem. Orders of magnitude of many effects related to the Earth's gravitational field and SLR are given. It is argued that a formalism with accuracies better than of the first post-Newtonian order is not yet available.
A phenomenological description of space-time noise in quantum gravity.
Amelino-Camelia, G
2001-04-26
Space-time 'foam' is a geometric picture of the smallest size scales in the Universe, which is characterized mainly by the presence of quantum uncertainties in the measurement of distances. All quantum-gravity theories should predict some kind of foam, but the description of the properties of this foam varies according to the theory, thereby providing a possible means of distinguishing between such theories. I previously showed that foam-induced distance fluctuations would introduce a new source of noise to the measurements of gravity-wave interferometers, but the theories are insufficiently developed to permit detailed predictions that would be of use to experimentalists. Here I propose a phenomenological approach that directly describes space-time foam, and which leads naturally to a picture of distance fluctuations that is independent of the details of the interferometer. The only unknown in the model is the length scale that sets the overall magnitude of the effect, but recent data already rule out the possibility that this length scale could be identified with the 'string length' (10-34 m < Ls < 10-33 m). Length scales even smaller than the 'Planck length' (LP approximately 10-35 m) will soon be probed experimentally. PMID:11323663
Self-organization of laterally asymmetrical movements as a consequence of space-time optimization.
Mangalam, Madhur; Desai, Nisarg; Singh, Mewa
2016-02-01
Laterally asymmetrical movements are ubiquitous among organisms. A bilaterally symmetrical organism cannot maneuver through a two- or three-dimensional space unless and until one side of its body leads, because the forces that cause the movements of the body are generated within the body. One question follows: are there any costs or benefits of laterally asymmetrical movements? We test whether directionally consistent laterally asymmetrical movements at different levels of organization of movements (at the individual, and not the population level) can work synergistically. We show-by means of a hypothetical system resembling a humanoid robot-that a laterally asymmetrical movement at a lower level of organization of movements can stimulate laterally asymmetrical movements that are directionally consistent at consecutive higher levels. We show-by comparing two hypothetical systems, incorporating laterally symmetrical and asymmetrical movements, respectively-that the asymmetrical system outperforms the symmetrical system by optimizing space and time and that this space-time advantage increases with the increasing complexity of the task. Together, these results suggest that laterally asymmetrical movements can self-organize as a consequence of space-time optimization. PMID:26620631
The New Big Bang Theory according to Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-04-01
This New View of the Big Bang Theory results from the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory, for which the introduction was presented in [1]. This theory is based on the concept that the primitive Universe before the Big Bang was constituted only from elementary cells of potential energy disposed side by side. In the primitive Universe there were no particles, charges, movement and the Universe temperature was absolute zero Kelvin. The time was always present, even in the primitive Universe, time is the integral part of the empty space, it is the dynamic energy of space and it is responsible for the movement of matter and energy inside the Universe. The empty space is totally stationary; the primitive Universe was infinite and totally occupied by elementary cells of potential energy. In its event, the Big Bang started a production of matter, charges, energy liberation, dynamic movement, temperature increase and the conformation of galaxies respecting a specific formation law. This article presents the theoretical formation of the Galaxies starting from a basic equation of the Dimensional Continuous Space-time Theory.
On the space-time scales of the surface solar radiation field
Barnett, T.P.; Ritchie, J.; Foat, J.; Stokes, G.
1998-01-01
The characteristic space-time scales of surface solar radiation fields measured by the 111-instrument ME-SONET in Oklahoma are estimated after removal of the diurnal cycle. These estimates of {open_quotes}within-day{close_quotes} are used to deduce the representativeness of surface solar radiation measurements measurement site as a function of time-averaging interval. Nomograms of the relation between point measurements and area averages are given for different space-time-averaging intervals. Examples from the nomograms show, for instance, that under conditions of low mean radiation (cloudy days), the central site point measurements are representative of a spatial area the size of a T42 GCM grid box (280 km X 280 km) if one uses hourly averages and is willing to accept a correlation of 0.45 between area average and point measurement. The point data represent a 60 km X 60 km region at a 0.90 correlation level if a 5-min time average is used. The characteristic timescale for the within-day radiation variability was roughly 60 min. Estimates of scale lengths for days when the mean background radiation conditions are high are also given in the nomographs. 10 refs., 8 figs.
The space-time CE/SE method for solving ultra-relativistic Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qamar, Shamsul; Yousaf, Muhammad; Mudasser, Sidrah
2011-04-01
This paper reports the application of space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method for solving one- and two-dimensional special ultra-relativistic Euler equations. For a sufficiently large internal energy of fluid particles the rest-mass energy of the fluid can be ignored. Then, the fluid flow can be modeled by ultra-relativistic Euler equations consisting a pair of coupled first-order non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The governing equations describe the flow of a perfect fluid in terms of the particle density ρ, the spatial part of the four-velocity u and the pressure p. The CE/SE method is capable to accurately captures the sharp propagating wavefront of relativistic fluid without excessive numerical diffusion or spurious oscillations. In contrast to the existing upwind finite volume schemes, the Riemann solver and reconstruction procedure are not the building block of the suggested method. The method differs from the previous techniques because of global and local flux conservation in a space-time domain without resorting to interpolation or extrapolation. In order to reveal the efficiency and performance of the approach, several numerical test cases are presented in this manuscript. For validation, the results of current method are compared with other finite-volume schemes.
On the Space-Time Scales of the Surface Solar Radiation Field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnett, T. P.; Ritchie, J.; Foat, J.; Stokes, G.
1998-01-01
The characteristic space-time scales of surface solar radiation fields measured by the 111-instrument MESONET in Oklahoma are estimated after removal of the diurnal cycle. These estimates of `within-day' variability are used to deduce the representativeness of surface solar radiation measurements made at the central ARM measurement site as a function of time-averaging interval. Nomograms of the relation between point measurements and area averages are given for different space-time-averaging intervals. Examples from the nomograms show, for instance, that under conditions of low mean radiation (cloudy days), the central site point measurements are representative of a spatial area the size of a T42 GCM grid box (280 km × 280 km) if one uses hourly averages and is willing to accept a correlation of 0.45 between area average and point measurement. The point data represent a 60 km × 60 km region at a 0.90 correlation level if a 5-min time average is used. The characteristic timescale for the within-day radiation variability was roughly 60 min. Estimates of scale lengths for days when the mean background radiation conditions are high are also given in the nomographs.
Environmental Controls on Space-Time Biodiversity Patterns in the Amazon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porporato, A. M.; Bonetti, S.; Feng, X.
2014-12-01
The Amazon/Andes territory is characterized by the highest biodiversity on Earth and understanding how all these ecological niches and different species originated and developed is an open challenge. The niche perspective assumes that species have evolved and occupy deterministically different roles within its environment. This view differs from that of the neutral theories, which assume ecological equivalence between all species but incorporates stochastic demographic processes along with long-term migration and speciation rates. Both approaches have demonstrated tremendous power in predicting aspects species biodiversity. By combining tools from both approaches, we use modified birth and death processes to simulate plant species diversification in the Amazon/Andes and their space-time ecohydrological controls. By defining parameters related to births and deaths as functions of available resources, we incorporate the role of space-time resource variability on niche formation and community composition. We also explicitly include the role of a heterogeneous landscape and topography. The results are discussed in relation to transect datasets from neotropical forests.
Fitted Hanbury-Brown Twiss radii versus space-time variances in flow-dominated models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frodermann, Evan; Heinz, Ulrich; Lisa, Michael Annan
2006-04-01
The inability of otherwise successful dynamical models to reproduce the Hanbury-Brown Twiss (HBT) radii extracted from two-particle correlations measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is known as the RHIC HBT Puzzle. Most comparisons between models and experiment exploit the fact that for Gaussian sources the HBT radii agree with certain combinations of the space-time widths of the source that can be directly computed from the emission function without having to evaluate, at significant expense, the two-particle correlation function. We here study the validity of this approach for realistic emission function models, some of which exhibit significant deviations from simple Gaussian behavior. By Fourier transforming the emission function, we compute the two-particle correlation function, and fit it with a Gaussian to partially mimic the procedure used for measured correlation functions. We describe a novel algorithm to perform this Gaussian fit analytically. We find that for realistic hydrodynamic models the HBT radii extracted from this procedure agree better with the data than the values previously extracted from the space-time widths of the emission function. Although serious discrepancies between the calculated and the measured HBT radii remain, we show that a more apples-to-apples comparison of models with data can play an important role in any eventually successful theoretical description of RHIC HBT data.
Daneshmand, Saeed; Jahromi, Ali Jafarnia; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard
2015-01-01
The use of Space-Time Processing (STP) in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications is gaining significant attention due to its effectiveness for both narrowband and wideband interference suppression. However, the resulting distortion and bias on the cross correlation functions due to space-time filtering is a major limitation of this technique. Employing the steering vector of the GNSS signals in the filter structure can significantly reduce the distortion on cross correlation functions and lead to more accurate pseudorange measurements. This paper proposes a two-stage interference mitigation approach in which the first stage estimates an interference-free subspace before the acquisition and tracking phases and projects all received signals into this subspace. The next stage estimates array attitude parameters based on detecting and employing GNSS signals that are less distorted due to the projection process. Attitude parameters enable the receiver to estimate the steering vector of each satellite signal and use it in the novel distortionless STP filter to significantly reduce distortion and maximize Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). GPS signals were collected using a six-element antenna array under open sky conditions to first calibrate the antenna array. Simulated interfering signals were then added to the digitized samples in software to verify the applicability of the proposed receiver structure and assess its performance for several interference scenarios. PMID:26016909
Daneshmand, Saeed; Jahromi, Ali Jafarnia; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard
2015-01-01
The use of Space-Time Processing (STP) in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications is gaining significant attention due to its effectiveness for both narrowband and wideband interference suppression. However, the resulting distortion and bias on the cross correlation functions due to space-time filtering is a major limitation of this technique. Employing the steering vector of the GNSS signals in the filter structure can significantly reduce the distortion on cross correlation functions and lead to more accurate pseudorange measurements. This paper proposes a two-stage interference mitigation approach in which the first stage estimates an interference-free subspace before the acquisition and tracking phases and projects all received signals into this subspace. The next stage estimates array attitude parameters based on detecting and employing GNSS signals that are less distorted due to the projection process. Attitude parameters enable the receiver to estimate the steering vector of each satellite signal and use it in the novel distortionless STP filter to significantly reduce distortion and maximize Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). GPS signals were collected using a six-element antenna array under open sky conditions to first calibrate the antenna array. Simulated interfering signals were then added to the digitized samples in software to verify the applicability of the proposed receiver structure and assess its performance for several interference scenarios. PMID:26016909
Quantum-optical Space-time Wave Frames: When light coordinates itself coherently
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harter, William; Mitchell, Justin
2006-05-01
Careful re-examination of details of quantum and classical optical wave interference leads to a more precise and elegant logic for two of the foundations of modern physics, special relativity and quantum theory. This provides a transparent unified development of both subjects together in a few simple logical steps with improved intuition and fewer ``mysteries.'' The first step is an Occam razor reduction of Einstein's axiom to a spectral form based on linear dispersion or, ``All colors go c.'' Then wave nodal planes of interfering CW beams or optical cavity modes provide their own space-time coordinate frames with a reciprocal per-space-time lattice.[1] These clearly display Lorentz-Poincare symmetry and hyperbolic dispersion characteristic of quantum matter with very simple Compton recoil analyses. Accelerated coordinate frames made by cavity chirping are used to relate Compton effects to the relativistic shifts and horizons that are present in an Einstein elevator and shows them to be an elegant result of wave interference. [1] W. G. Harter, J. Mol. Spect. 210, 166 (2001)
Transverse Mode Dynamics of VCSELs Through Space-Time Domain Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goorjian, Peter M.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
Modeling and simulation are important to understand laser operation and to optimize and design device functions. Numerical simulation of VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers) has been largely based on solving time-independent Helmholtz equation or time dependent coupled mode equations. There are various advantages for choosing these approaches. However, the disadvantages are also apparent. The former cannot handle dynamical mode competition seen in VCSELs, while the latter assumes a given type and number of modes a priori. Furthermore, the microscopic physics of heterstructures and electron-hole plasma is very often represented by a few parameters such as linear gain coefficients and the linewidth enhancement factor. These are over simplification of space and frequency (wavelength) dependent gain and refractive index functions. When the space-time dynamical operation of VCSELs becomes important, these simple approximations become questionable. In this paper, we apply a recently developed model for edge-emitting lasers to a gain guided VCSEL for space-time domain simulation. This model takes into account the actual nonlinear dependence of gain and refractive index on frequency and carrier density within the frame work of the effective Bloch equations. The corresponding partial differential equations are solved directly by finite difference methods. Laser behavior with increasing pumping current is investigated in detail. Special attention is paid to the dynamical competition of the transverse modes.
Propagation velocity and space-time correlation of perturbations in turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, John; Hussain, Fazle
1992-01-01
A database obtained from direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow is analyzed to extract the propagation velocity V of velocity, vorticity, and pressure fluctuations from their space-time correlations. A surprising result is that V is approximately the same as the local mean velocity for most of the channel, except for the near-wall region. For y(+) is less than or equal to 15, V is virtually constant, implying that perturbations of all flow variables propagate like waves near the wall. In this region V is 55 percent of the centerline velocity U(sub c) for velocity and vorticity perturbations and 75 percent of U(sub c) for pressure perturbations. Scale-dependence of V is also examined by analyzing the bandpass filtered flow fields. Comprehensive documentation of the propagation velocities and space-time correlation data, which should prove useful in the evaluation of Taylor's hypothesis is presented. An attempt was made to explain some of the data in terms of our current understanding of organized structures, although not all of the data can be explained this way.
Dirac Hamiltonian and Reissner-Nordström metric: Coulomb interaction in curved space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noble, J. H.; Jentschura, U. D.
2016-03-01
We investigate the spin-1 /2 relativistic quantum dynamics in the curved space-time generated by a central massive charged object (black hole). This necessitates a study of the coupling of a Dirac particle to the Reissner-Nordström space-time geometry and the simultaneous covariant coupling to the central electrostatic field. The relativistic Dirac Hamiltonian for the Reissner-Nordström geometry is derived. A Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation reveals the presence of gravitational and electrogravitational spin-orbit coupling terms which generalize the Fokker precession terms found for the Dirac-Schwarzschild Hamiltonian, and other electrogravitational correction terms to the potential proportional to αnG , where α is the fine-structure constant and G is the gravitational coupling constant. The particle-antiparticle symmetry found for the Dirac-Schwarzschild geometry (and for other geometries which do not include electromagnetic interactions) is shown to be explicitly broken due to the electrostatic coupling. The resulting spectrum of radially symmetric, electrostatically bound systems (with gravitational corrections) is evaluated for example cases.
On magnitudes in memory: An internal clock account of space-time interaction.
Cai, Zhenguang G; Connell, Louise
2016-07-01
Traditionally, research on time perception has diverged into a representational approach that focuses on the interaction between time and non-temporal magnitude information like spatial distance, and a mechanistic approach that emphasizes the workings and timecourse of components within an internal clock. We combined these approaches in order to identify the locus of space-time interaction effects in the mechanistic framework of the internal clock model. In three experiments, we contrasted the effects of spatial distance (a long- vs. short-distance line) on time perception with those of visual flicker (a flickering vs. static stimulus) in a duration reproduction paradigm. We found that both a flickering stimulus and a long-distance line lengthened reproduced time when presented during time encoding. However, when presented during time reproduction, a flickering stimulus shortened reproduced time but a long-distance line had no effect. The results thus show that, while visual flickers affects duration accumulation itself, spatial distance instead biases the memory of the accumulated duration. These findings are consistent with a clock-magnitude account of space-time interaction whereby both temporal duration and spatial distance are represented as mental magnitudes that can interfere with each other while being kept in memory, and places the locus of interaction between temporal and non-temporal magnitude dimensions at the memory maintenance stage of the internal clock model. PMID:27116395
Fitted Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii versus space-time variances in flow-dominated models
Frodermann, Evan; Heinz, Ulrich; Lisa, Michael Annan
2006-04-15
The inability of otherwise successful dynamical models to reproduce the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii extracted from two-particle correlations measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is known as the RHIC HBT Puzzle. Most comparisons between models and experiment exploit the fact that for Gaussian sources the HBT radii agree with certain combinations of the space-time widths of the source that can be directly computed from the emission function without having to evaluate, at significant expense, the two-particle correlation function. We here study the validity of this approach for realistic emission function models, some of which exhibit significant deviations from simple Gaussian behavior. By Fourier transforming the emission function, we compute the two-particle correlation function, and fit it with a Gaussian to partially mimic the procedure used for measured correlation functions. We describe a novel algorithm to perform this Gaussian fit analytically. We find that for realistic hydrodynamic models the HBT radii extracted from this procedure agree better with the data than the values previously extracted from the space-time widths of the emission function. Although serious discrepancies between the calculated and the measured HBT radii remain, we show that a more apples-to-apples comparison of models with data can play an important role in any eventually successful theoretical description of RHIC HBT data.
Long-time asymptotics of a Bohmian scalar quantum field in de Sitter space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumulka, Roderich
2016-01-01
We consider a model quantum field theory with a scalar quantum field in de Sitter space-time in a Bohmian version with a field ontology, i.e., an actual field configuration \\varphi (x,t) guided by a wave function on the space of field configurations. We analyze the asymptotics at late times (t→ ∞ ) and provide reason to believe that for more or less any wave function and initial field configuration, every Fourier coefficient \\varphi _k(t) of the field is asymptotically of the form c_k√{1+k^2 exp (-2Ht)/H^2}, where the limiting coefficients c_k=\\varphi _k(∞) are independent of t and H is the Hubble constant quantifying the expansion rate of de Sitter space-time. In particular, every field mode \\varphi _k possesses a limit as t→ ∞ and thus "freezes." This result is relevant to the question whether Boltzmann brains form in the late universe according to this theory, and supports that they do not.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiang
2012-11-01
We investigate the net force on a rigid Casimir cavity generated by vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic field in three cases: de Sitter space-time, de Sitter space-time with weak gravitational field and Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time. In de Sitter space-time the resulting net force follows the square inverse law but unfortunately it is too weak to be measurable due to the large universe radius. By introducing a weak gravitational field into the de Sitter space-time, we find that the net force can now be split into two parts, one is the gravitational force due to the induced effective mass between the two plates and the other one is generated by the metric structure of de Sitter space-time. In order to investigate the vacuum fluctuation force on the rigid cavity under strong gravitational field, we perform a similar analysis in Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time and results are obtained in three different limits. The most interesting one is when the cavity gets closer to the horizon of a blackhole, square inverse law is recovered and the repulsive force due to negative energy/mass of the cavity now has an observable strength. More importantly the force changes from being repulsive to attractive when the cavity crosses the event horizon, so that the energy/mass of the cavity switches the sign, which suggests the unusual time direction inside the event horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoenball, M.; Davatzes, N. C.; Glen, J. M. G.
2015-12-01
A remarkable characteristic of earthquakes is their clustering in time and space, displaying their self-similarity. It remains to be tested if natural and induced earthquakes share the same behavior. The Coso Geothermal Field is one of the most seismically active areas in California and features an abundance of natural seismicity due to active tectonics and a large number of induced earthquakes resulting from geothermal power production since 1987. We study natural and induced earthquakes comparatively in the same tectonic setting at the Coso Geothermal Field. Covering the pre- and co-production periods from 1981 to 2013, we analyze inter-event times, spatial dimension, and frequency-size distributions for natural and induced earthquakes. Individually, these distributions are statistically indistinguishable. Determining the distribution of nearest-neighbor distances in a combined space-time-magnitude metric lets us identify the triggering relationship of an earthquake pair. Nearest-neighbor pairs naturally fall into two populations that are categorized as either clustered (triggered) or background (independent) events. At Coso, induced earthquakes feature a larger fraction of background seismicity compared to natural earthquakes. Furthermore, they contain a population of independent pairs at large magnitude-rescaled times and small magnitude-rescaled distances. This implies that unlike tectonic processes, stress changes induced by the field operations occur on much smaller time scales and appear to be large enough to drive small-scale faults through several seismic cycles during relatively short observation period. As a result, we record events close to previous hypocenters that occur up to a year after the preceding earthquake.
Modeling the space-time evolution of pore pressure in layered shallow covers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salciarini, Diana; Cuomo, Sabatino; Castorino, Giuseppe; Fanelli, Giulia; Tamagnini, Claudio
2015-04-01
In most of the available models for the prediction of shallow landslide susceptibility, the potentially unstable soil cover is considered uniform and homogeneous, over an impervious underlying bedrock (see, e.g., Baum et al. 2008; Salciarini et al. 2006, 2012). However, in several case studies, this was proven to be unlikely, for example in the case of pyroclastic soil covers, where two clearly separated layers are detectable (Cascini et al., 2008, 2011). The possibility of taking into account the detailed configuration of the soil cover allows having a more accurate estimate of the potentially unstable volumes, which significantly modify the intensity of the considered phenomena. To take into account the possibility of having layers in the soil cover with different permeability, the existing routines of the TRIGRS code (Baum et al. 2008) devoted to the hydrologic process modeling have been modified. The closed-form solution by Srivastava & Yeh (1991) implemented into TRIGRS was substituted with the numerical solution of the mass balance equation governing the infiltration process. A parametric analysis was carried out by varying the permeability ratio between the two layers, with the aim of examining the influence of such parameter on the pore-pressure distribution along the vertical profile. As expected, as the permeability ratio increases, the underlying layer tends to behave as an impervious boundary. This increases the chance that only the most superficial soil layer fails. An analysis of the routine performance and efficiency was also done to investigate the response of the model with different tolerances and different time steps of the integration procedure, and different spatial discretizations along the vertical profile.
Algorithms and Programs for Strong Gravitational Lensing In Kerr Space-time Including Polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie; Maddumage, Prasad
2015-05-01
Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.
Kurosaki, M; Demontis, S; Barzago, M M; Garattini, E; Terao, M
1999-01-01
The cDNA coding for mouse aldehyde oxidase (AO), a molybdoflavoprotein, has been isolated and characterized. The cDNA is 4347 nt long and consists of an open reading frame predicting a polypeptide of 1333 amino acid residues, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 13 and 335 nt respectively. The apparent molecular mass of the translation product in vitro derived from the corresponding cRNA is consistent with that of the monomeric subunit of the AO holoenzyme. The cDNA codes for a catalytically active form of AO, as demonstrated by transient transfection experiments conducted in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell line. The deduced primary structure of the AO protein contains consensus sequences for two distinct 2Fe-2S redox centres and a molybdopterin-binding site. The amino acid sequence of the mouse AO has a high degree of similarity with the human and bovine counterparts, and a significant degree of relatedness to AO proteins of plant origin. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate that hepatocytes, cardiocytes, lung endothelial or epithelial cells and oesophagus epithelial cells express high levels of AO mRNA. In the various tissues and organs considered, the level of AO mRNA expression is not strictly correlated with the amount of the corresponding protein, suggesting that the synthesis of the AO enzyme is under translational or post-translational control. In addition, we observed sex-related regulation of AO protein synthesis. In the liver of male animals, despite similar amounts of AO mRNA, the levels of the AO enzyme and corresponding polypeptide are significantly higher than those in female animals. Treatment of female mice with testosterone increases the amounts of AO mRNA and of the relative translation product to levels similar to those in male animals. PMID:10377246
On the uniqueness of space-time spectra and synoptic maps derived from polar-orbiting satellite data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salby, M. L.; Hayashi, Y.
1985-01-01
The frequency transform method of Hayashi (1983a) and the asynoptic space-time transform method of Salby (1982b) for deriving space-time spectra are compared. The comparison reveals that the Galilean transformation used by Hayashi and the asynoptic coordinate transformation used by Salby produce identical spectra. The mapping between asynoptic data and the space-time Fourier spectrum is examined. The operation which maps a series of asynoptic measurements into the correct sequence of synoptic maps is described. It is observed that this linear transformation is unique and recovers the correct spectrum over wavenumber and frequency for a satellite observed field.
Pompeiano, M; Palacios, J M; Mengod, G
1992-02-01
In order to localize the cells expressing 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain, we used in situ hybridization histochemistry to visualize the distribution of the mRNA coding for 5-HT1A receptors. Oligonucleotides derived from different parts of the coding region of the rat 5-HT1A receptor gene were used as hybridization probes. 5-HT1A binding sites were visualized on consecutive sections by receptor autoradiography using 3H-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin as ligand. The highest levels of hybridization were observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, septum, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and interpeduncular nucleus. Positive hybridization signals were also present in other areas, such as the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; some thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei; several nuclei of the brainstem, including all the remaining raphe nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, and nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminus; and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The distribution and abundance of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA in different rat brain areas generally correlate with those of the binding sites, suggesting that 5-HT1A receptors are predominantly somatodendritic receptors. PMID:1531498
Influence of rainfall space-time variability over the Ouémé basin in Benin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gascon, T.; Vischel, T.; Lebel, T.; Quantin, G.; Pellarin, T.; Quatela, V.; Leroux, D.; Galle, S.
2015-05-01
In West Africa, the concomitant occurrence of extreme droughts and damaging floods points to the urgent need for linking the climate variability at various time scales (daily to decadal) to its impact in terms of water related risks. While hydrological models are key tools to do so, their use in this part of the world is strongly limited by the scarcity of rainfall data. Satellite precipitation products can be used as rainfall input to models in order to make up for this shortage of appropriate surface data. However, these satellite products have their own weaknesses, both in terms of accuracy and resolution. While the accuracy of satellite rainfall estimates has already received a fair amount of attention, little published work deals with the resolution issue. The study presented here is motivated by this lack of attention to the resolution issue. It makes use of the data produced by a very dense rainfall network covering the Ouémé catchment in Benin (14 600 km2), to study the impact of varying the space-time resolution of input rainfields on the output produced by DHSVM (Distributed Hydrology Soils and Vegetation Model), thus mimicking the resolution-induced errors associated with using satellite rainfall input for such physically-based models. The major result of this sensitivity analysis is that the model output is much more sensitive to the time resolution than to the space resolution, at least for this region and for the range of resolutions tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.
extracted from the total vertical and hori- zontal gradient respectively, both shaded from the 5 northeast to 355 northwest. The dip of multi-layer surfaces indicates the down -"gradient" direction in the fields. The methodology of 3D STSI is based on the analysis of vertical and horizontal anisotropy of gravity and magnetic fields, as well as of multi-layer 3D space-time surface model (3D STSM) of the stress fields. The 3D STSM is multi-layer topology structure of 1 lineaments or gradients (edges) and surfaces calculated by uniform matrices of the geophysical fields. One of the information components of the stress fields character- istics is the aspects and slopes for compressive and tensile stresses. Overlaying of the 3D STSI and lineaments with maps of multi-layer gradients enables to create highly reliable 3D Space-Time Kinematic Model "3D STKM". The analysis of 3D STKM in- cluded: - the space-time reconstruct of forces direction and strain distribution scheme during formation of geological structures and structural paragenesis (lineaments) of potential fields; - predict the real location of expected tectonic dislocations, zones of rock fracturing and disintegration, and mass-stable blocks. Based on these data, the 3D STSM are drawn which reflect the geodynamics of territory development on the ground of paleotectonic reconstruction of successive activity stages having formed the present-day lithosphere. Thus three-dimensional STSM allows to construct an un- mixing geodynamic processes in any interval of fixed space-time in coordinates x, y, t(z). The integrated of the 3D STSM and 3D seismic models enables also to create structural-kinematic and geodynamic maps of the Earth's crust at different depth. As a result, the classification of CNPP areas is performed into zones of compressive and tensile stresses characterized by enhanced permeability of rocks, and zones of consoli- dation with minimal rocks permeability. In addition, the vertically alternating zones of
Nonparametric Bayesian Segmentation of a Multivariate Inhomogeneous Space-Time Poisson Process.
Ding, Mingtao; He, Lihan; Dunson, David; Carin, Lawrence
2012-12-01
A nonparametric Bayesian model is proposed for segmenting time-evolving multivariate spatial point process data. An inhomogeneous Poisson process is assumed, with a logistic stick-breaking process (LSBP) used to encourage piecewise-constant spatial Poisson intensities. The LSBP explicitly favors spatially contiguous segments, and infers the number of segments based on the observed data. The temporal dynamics of the segmentation and of the Poisson intensities are modeled with exponential correlation in time, implemented in the form of a first-order autoregressive model for uniformly sampled discrete data, and via a Gaussian process with an exponential kernel for general temporal sampling. We consider and compare two different inference techniques: a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, which has relatively high computational complexity; and an approximate and efficient variational Bayesian analysis. The model is demonstrated with a simulated example and a real example of space-time crime events in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. PMID:23741284