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Sample records for distributedgeneration system solution

  1. Solution of Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L. R.

    1960-01-01

    The problem of solving systems of nonlinear equations has been relatively neglected in the mathematical literature, especially in the textbooks, in comparison to the corresponding linear problem. Moreover, treatments that have an appearance of generality fail to discuss the nature of the solutions and the possible pitfalls of the methods suggested. Probably it is unrealistic to expect that a unified and comprehensive treatment of the subject will evolve, owing to the great variety of situations possible, especially in the applied field where some requirement of human or mechanical efficiency is always present. Therefore we attempt here simply to pose the problem and to describe and partially appraise the methods of solution currently in favor.

  2. Finite solutions of fully fuzzy linear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghassan; Ahmad, Nazihah; Ibrahim, Haslinda

    2014-12-01

    The solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS) is normally categorized as unique, finite and infinitely many solutions. However, in the case of more than one solution, the finite or alternative solution is not detected when linear programming is considered. Therefore this paper aims to provide a method of using min-max system and absolute system to append new concept for the consistency of FFLS, which is called finite solution of FFLS, where the FFLS have more than two solutions, and not only an infinite solution.

  3. Knee System Utilizing Personalized Solutions Instrumentation

    MedlinePlus

    ATTUNE® Knee System utilizing the TRUMATCH® Personalized Solutions Instrumentation Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Solution of Coulomb system in momentum space

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.-H.

    2008-02-15

    The solution of D-dimensional Coulomb system is solved in momentum space by path integral. From which the topological effect of a magnetic flux in the system is given. It is revealed that the flux effect represented by the two-dimensional field of Aharonov-Bohm covers any space-dimensions.

  5. EOS for critical slurry and solution systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiPeso, G; Peterson, P

    1998-10-27

    In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios

  6. Flexible solution for interoperable cloud healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mihaela Marcella; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernad, Elena

    2012-01-01

    It is extremely important for the healthcare domain to have a standardized communication because will improve the quality of information and in the end the resulting benefits will improve the quality of patients' life. The standards proposed to be used are: HL7 CDA and CCD. For a better access to the medical data a solution based on cloud computing (CC) is investigated. CC is a technology that supports flexibility, seamless care, and reduced costs of the medical act. To ensure interoperability between healthcare information systems a solution creating a Web Custom Control is presented. The control shows the database tables and fields used to configure the two standards. This control will facilitate the work of the medical staff and hospital administrators, because they can configure the local system easily and prepare it for communication with other systems. The resulted information will have a higher quality and will provide knowledge that will support better patient management and diagnosis.

  7. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  8. Rational Solutions for the Fokas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Ji-Guang; Wang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Yu; He, Jing-Song

    2015-12-01

    Fokas system is the simplest (2+1)-dimensional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (Eq. (2), Inverse Problems 10 (1994) L19-L22). By using the bilinear transformation method, general rational solutions for the Fokas system are given explicitly in terms of two order-N determinants τn (n = 0, 1) whose elements m(n)i,j (n = 0, 1; 1 ≤ i, j ≤ N) are involved with order-ni and order-nj derivatives. When N = 1, three kinds of rational solution, i.e., fundamental lump and fundamental rogue wave (RW) with n1 = 1, and higher-order rational solution with n1 ≥ 2, are illustrated by explicit formulas from τn (n = 0, 1) and pictures. The fundamental RW is a line RW possessing a line profile on (x, y)-plane, which arises from a constant background with at t ≪ 0 and then disappears into the constant background gradually at t ≫ 0. The fundamental lump is a traveling wave, which can preserve its profile during the propagation on (x, y)-plane. When N ≥ 2 and n1 = n2 = · · · = nN = 1, several specific multi-rational solutions are given graphically. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11271210, the K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  9. Microfluidic System for Solution Array Based Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, G M; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Rose, K A

    2006-02-10

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate new enabling technology for multiplex biodetection systems that are flexible, miniaturizable, highly automated, low cost, and high performance. It builds on prior successes at LLNL with particle-based solution arrays, such as those used in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) successfully field deployed to multiple locations nationwide. We report the development of a multiplex solution array immunoassay based upon engineered metallic nanorod particles. Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} particles are fabricated by sequential electrodeposition of dissimilar metals within porous alumina templates, yielding optically encoded striping patterns that can be read using standard laboratory microscope optics and PC-based image processing software. The addition of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings and target-specific antibodies allows each encoded class of nanorod particles to be directed against a different antigen target. A prototype assay panel directed against bacterial, viral, and soluble protein targets demonstrates simultaneous detection at sensitivities comparable to state of the art immunoassays, with minimal cross-reactivity. Studies have been performed to characterize the colloidal properties (zeta potential) of the suspended nanorod particles as a function of pH, the ionic strength of the suspending solution, and surface functionalization state. Additional studies have produced means for the non-contact manipulation of the particles, including the insertion of magnetic nickel stripes within the encoding pattern, and control via externally applied electromagnetic fields. Using the results of these studies, the novel Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} based assay was implemented in a prototype automated system with the sample processing functions and optical readout performed on a microfluidic card. The unique physical properties of the nanorod particles enable the development of integrated microfluidic systems for

  10. The solution for RPR over MSTP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiyong; Yang, JiuMin; Liu, Guohui

    2004-04-01

    The rapid development of the data service has brought great challenge to the traditional telecommunication network. The integrated broadband MAN with large information capability, high subscriber density and multiple sorts of services, is becoming the hot point and competitive focus of the telecommunication field. Resilient packet ring (RPR) is a new metropolitan area network (MAN) technology supporting data transfer among stations interconnected in a dual-ring configuration. Key features of RPR include: Low-delay guaranteed rate, bounded delay committed rate, and best effort service classes; 50 millisecond service restoration following a single station or link failure; Ring capacity reuse downstream of unicast destination (spatial reuse); Weighted fair access to available ring capacity; Point-of-congestion aware flow control (allowing per destination queuing in client). But RPR is belong to layer 2 technology. SDH have already become the dominant optical transport network technology, and it is considered to be one of foundation for the physical layer of the broadband IP network. But SDH is taken as a voice-fit technology. This paper fully make use of RPR & SDH advantages to provide The integrated broadband MAN solution, this is the RPR over MSTP System. The architecture of RPR over MSTP and key technologies of realization of RPR over MSTP node is provided. The main technical specification of RPR over MSTP node is also provided.

  11. Optimal parallel solution of sparse triangular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, Fernando L.; Schreiber, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A method for the parallel solution of triangular sets of equations is described that is appropriate when there are many right-handed sides. By preprocessing, the method can reduce the number of parallel steps required to solve Lx = b compared to parallel forward or backsolve. Applications are to iterative solvers with triangular preconditioners, to structural analysis, or to power systems applications, where there may be many right-handed sides (not all available a priori). The inverse of L is represented as a product of sparse triangular factors. The problem is to find a factored representation of this inverse of L with the smallest number of factors (or partitions), subject to the requirement that no new nonzero elements be created in the formation of these inverse factors. A method from an earlier reference is shown to solve this problem. This method is improved upon by constructing a permutation of the rows and columns of L that preserves triangularity and allow for the best possible such partition. A number of practical examples and algorithmic details are presented. The parallelism attainable is illustrated by means of elimination trees and clique trees.

  12. Simplified solution of diffraction from a Lyot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaujen; Vaughan, Arthur H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of a simplified analytical solution of diffraction from a Lyot (1939) system designed for observation of the solar corona outside of eclipses. Applying the theorem of Papoulis (1986) to simplify the calculations, a simplified solution is derived which is found to be in reasonable agreement with the exact solution. The simplified solution suffices for the preliminary evaluation of the amount of diffraction reduction needed to meet certain system requirements and also serves as a guideline for further apodization.

  13. Positive solutions of quasilinear parabolic systems with nonlinear boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, C. V.; Ruan, W. H.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic behavior of solutions for a coupled system of quasilinear parabolic equations under nonlinear boundary conditions, including a system of quasilinear parabolic and ordinary differential equations. Also investigated is the existence of positive maximal and minimal solutions of the corresponding quasilinear elliptic system as well as the uniqueness of a positive steady-state solution. The elliptic operators in both systems are allowed to be degenerate in the sense that the density-dependent diffusion coefficients Di(ui) may have the property Di(0)=0 for some or all i. Our approach to the problem is by the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterations. It is shown that the time-dependent solution converges to the maximal solution for one class of initial functions and it converges to the minimal solution for another class of initial functions; and if the maximal and minimal solutions coincide then the steady-state solution is unique and the time-dependent solution converges to the unique solution. Applications of these results are given to three model problems, including a porous medium type of problem, a heat-transfer problem, and a two-component competition model in ecology. These applications illustrate some very interesting distinctive behavior of the time-dependent solutions between density-independent and density-dependent diffusions.

  14. Solution of linear systems by a singular perturbation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    An approximate solution is obtained for a singularly perturbed system of initial valued, time invariant, linear differential equations with multiple boundary layers. Conditions are stated under which the approximate solution converges uniformly to the exact solution as the perturbation parameter tends to zero. The solution is obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Use of the results for obtaining approximate solutions of general linear systems is discussed. An example is considered to illustrate the method and it is shown that the formulas derived give a readily computed uniform approximation.

  15. Positive solutions of quasilinear parabolic systems with Dirichlet boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, C. V.; Ruan, W. H.

    Coupled systems for a class of quasilinear parabolic equations and the corresponding elliptic systems, including systems of parabolic and ordinary differential equations are investigated. The aim of this paper is to show the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic behavior of time-dependent solutions. Also investigated is the existence of positive maximal and minimal solutions of the corresponding quasilinear elliptic system. The elliptic operators in both systems are allowed to be degenerate in the sense that the density-dependent diffusion coefficients D(u) may have the property D(0)=0 for some or all i=1,…,N, and the boundary condition is u=0. Using the method of upper and lower solutions, we show that a unique global classical time-dependent solution exists and converges to the maximal solution for one class of initial functions and it converges to the minimal solution for another class of initial functions; and if the maximal and minimal solutions coincide then the steady-state solution is unique and the time-dependent solution converges to the unique solution. Applications of these results are given to three model problems, including a scalar polynomial growth problem, a coupled system of polynomial growth problem, and a two component competition model in ecology.

  16. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Bernardin, John David; Kimpland, Robert Herbert; Spernjak, Dusan

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  17. Oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tong; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Lihe

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system. The convective part of this system changes its type when crossing a parabola in the phase space. The oscillatory nature of the traveling wave comes from the fact that one far-field state is in the elliptic region and another in the hyperbolic region. Such traveling wave solutions are shown to be linearly unstable. Detailed construction of some traveling wave solutions is presented.

  18. L1 limit solutions for control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronna, M. Soledad; Rampazzo, Franco

    2015-02-01

    For a control Cauchy problemsolutions, we believe that various theoretical issues call for a unified notion of trajectory. For instance, this is the case of optimal control problems, possibly with state and endpoint constraints, for which no extra assumptions (like e.g. coercivity, bounded variation, commutativity) are made in advance.

  19. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS): Solutions Facilitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Tom

    2011-01-01

    National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) "Solutions" plans to enable our nation's future in rocket propulsion systems by leveraging existing skills and capabilities to support industry's future needs

  20. Microfluidic-Based Robotic Sampling System for Radioactive Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Julia L. Tripp; Tara E. Smith; Veronica J. Rutledge; Troy G. Garn; John Svoboda; Larry Macaluso

    2014-02-01

    A novel microfluidic based robotic sampling system has been developed for sampling and analysis of liquid solutions in nuclear processes. This system couples the use of a microfluidic sample chip with a robotic system designed to allow remote, automated sampling of process solutions in-cell and facilitates direct coupling of the microfluidic sample chip with analytical instrumentation. This system provides the capability for near real time analysis, reduces analytical waste, and minimizes the potential for personnel exposure associated with traditional sampling methods. A prototype sampling system was designed, built and tested. System testing demonstrated operability of the microfluidic based sample system and identified system modifications to optimize performance.

  1. Minimal Solution of Singular LR Fuzzy Linear Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nikuie, M.; Ahmad, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the singular LR fuzzy linear system is introduced. Such systems are divided into two parts: singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems and singular inconsistent LR fuzzy linear systems. The capability of the generalized inverses such as Drazin inverse, pseudoinverse, and {1}-inverse in finding minimal solution of singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems is investigated. PMID:24737977

  2. Periodic Solutions of Hamiltonian Systems: A Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    auto - nomous Hamiltonian system has the form: (0.) aH 8Hp -S-(p,q) q ( where d denotes This system can be represented more concisely as (HS) z = ZHz(Z...oscillazioni periodiche d’une sistema dinamico, Atti. Accad. Naz. Lincei Rend. Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Natur., 19, (1934), 234-237. [15] Arnold, V. I

  3. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  4. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J

    2017-03-16

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals.

  5. Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems & solutions.

    PubMed

    Marran, L; Schor, C

    1997-09-01

    Virtual reality environments can introduce multiple and sometimes conflicting accommodative stimuli. For instance, with the high-powered lenses commonly used in head-mounted displays, small discrepancies in screen lens placement, caused by manufacturer error or user adjustment focus error, can change the focal depths of the image by a couple of diopters. This can introduce a binocular accommodative stimulus or, if the displacement between the two screens is unequal, an unequal (anisometropic) accommodative stimulus for the two eyes. Systems that allow simultaneous viewing of virtual and real images can also introduce a conflict in accommodative stimuli: When real and virtual images are at different focal planes, both cannot be in focus at the same time, though they may appear to be in similar locations in space. In this paper four unique designs are described that minimize the range of accommodative stimuli and maximize the visual system's ability to cope efficiently with the focus conflicts that remain: pinhole optics, monocular lens addition combined with aniso-accommodation, chromatic bifocal, and bifocal lens system. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are described and recommendation for design choice is given after consideration of the end use of the virtual reality system (e.g., low or high end, entertainment, technical, or medical use). The appropriate design modifications should allow greater user comfort and better performance.

  6. More Student Success: A Systemic Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This book tells how to build a system leading to more student success beginning in elementary school and continuing through high school and postsecondary education. It identifies the key elements, describes effective practices, and shows how they come together to help students and educators succeed. "More Student Success" is an updated and…

  7. Crystallization in solid solution-aqueous solution systems: Thermodynamic and kinetic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Shtukenberg, A. G. Punin, Yu. O.; Azimov, P. Ya.

    2010-03-15

    A new phenomenological approach is proposed to describe the crystallization kinetics in solid solution-aqueous solution binary systems. The phase diagrams, equilibria, and quasie-quilibria are considered within this approach. The crystallization kinetics near the true equilibrium and the crystallization features at large deviations from equilibrium are discussed on this basis. Special attention is paid to possible interactions in a solution with a seed crystal placed in it. In particular, the interactions leading to the seed's crystal growth or dissolution and to a possible exchange or metasomatic reactions are considered. In addition, the effect of the generated mismatch stress on the crystal growth rate and composition is analyzed.

  8. Boundedness of solutions for reversible system via Moser's twist theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daxiong; Li, Wenling

    2008-05-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the boundedness of all solutions for the reversible system It is shown that all the solutions are bounded provided that the ai(t) (0[less-than-or-equals, slant]i[less-than-or-equals, slant][(n-1)/2]) are of bounded variation in [0,1] and the derivatives of bj(t) and ai(t) are Lipschitzian. It is also shown that there exist ai's being discontinuous everywhere such that all solutions of the equation are bounded. This implies that the continuity of ai's is not necessary for the boundedness of solutions of the equation.

  9. Analytical solutions for systems of partial differential-algebraic equations.

    PubMed

    Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the application of the power series method (PSM) to find solutions of partial differential-algebraic equations (PDAEs). Two systems of index-one and index-three are solved to show that PSM can provide analytical solutions of PDAEs in convergent series form. What is more, we present the post-treatment of the power series solutions with the Laplace-Padé (LP) resummation method as a useful strategy to find exact solutions. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that the procedure is based on a few straightforward steps and it does not generate secular terms or depends of a perturbation parameter.

  10. Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.

  11. Iterative solution of high order compact systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, W.F.; Carey, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    We have recently developed a class of finite difference methods which provide higher accuracy and greater stability than standard central or upwind difference methods, but still reside on a compact patch of grid cells. In the present study we investigate the performance of several gradient-type iterative methods for solving the associated sparse systems. Both serial and parallel performance studies have been made. Representative examples are taken from elliptic PDE`s for diffusion, convection-diffusion, and viscous flow applications.

  12. The Triple Value Model: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Solutions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unintended environmental impacts of economic development threaten the continued availability of ecosystem services that are critical to human well being. An integrated systems approach is needed to characterize sustainability problems and evaluate potential solutions. The T...

  13. Asymptotic Growth of Solutions of Neutral Type Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sklyar, G. M. Polak, P.

    2013-06-15

    We consider a differential system of neutral type with distributed delay. We obtain a precise norm estimation of semigroup generated by the operator corresponding to the system in question. Our result is based on a spectral analysis of the operator and some uniform estimation of norms of the exponentials of matrices. We also discuss the stability properties of corresponding solutions and the existence of the fastest growing solution.

  14. Solvent recovery system provides timely compliance solution

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Hoechst Celanese Corp. (Coventry, Rhode Island) faced the challenge of meeting an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deadline for solvent recovery within one year. The company also had to ensure that a new solvent recovery system would satisfy Rhode Island state requirements. An initial search for the required technology was fruitless. Finally, MG Industries (Saint Charles, Missouri), an industrial gas supplier, was chosen for the job. Using CRYOSOLV, as the waste stream cools in the cryogenic condenser (heat exchanger), the solvents condense at temperatures below the dewpoint. The recovered solvent can be recycled into the process, while clean gas is vented to the atmosphere.

  15. Parallel solution of closely coupled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, S.; Salama, M.

    1986-01-01

    The odd-even permutation and associated unitary transformations for reordering the matrix coefficient A are employed as means of breaking the strong seriality which is characteristic of closely coupled systems. The nested dissection technique is also reviewed, and the equivalence between reordering A and dissecting its network is established. The effect of transforming A with odd-even permutation on its topology and the topology of its Cholesky factors is discussed. This leads to the construction of directed graphs showing the computational steps required for factoring A, their precedence relationships and their sequential and concurrent assignment to the available processors. Expressions for the speed-up and efficiency of using N processors in parallel relative to the sequential use of a single processor are derived from the directed graph. Similar expressions are also derived when the number of available processors is fewer than required.

  16. Modeling Complex Chemical Systems: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas in complex gas mixtures are at the heart of numerous contemporary technologies. They typically contain dozens to hundreds of species, involved in hundreds to thousands of reactions. Chemists and physicists have always been interested in what are now called chemical reduction techniques (CRT's). The idea of such CRT's is that they reduce the number of species that need to be considered explicitly without compromising the validity of the model. This is usually achieved on the basis of an analysis of the reaction time scales of the system under study, which identifies species that are in partial equilibrium after a given time span. The first such CRT that has been widely used in plasma physics was developed in the 1960's and resulted in the concept of effective ionization and recombination rates. It was later generalized to systems in which multiple levels are effected by transport. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in tools for chemical reduction and reaction pathway analysis. An example of the latter is the PumpKin tool. Another trend is that techniques that have previously been developed in other fields of science are adapted as to be able to handle the plasma state of matter. Examples are the Intrinsic Low Dimension Manifold (ILDM) method and its derivatives, which originate from combustion engineering, and the general-purpose Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. In this contribution we will provide an overview of the most common reduction techniques, then critically assess the pros and cons of the methods that have gained most popularity in recent years. Examples will be provided for plasmas in argon and carbon dioxide.

  17. [The CORBA solution of medical imaging and communication system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Lü, Yangsheng; Yu, Hui

    2005-02-01

    Due to the difficulty of communication and information share between Medical information systems, the Object Management Group issued the software specification of CORBAMed, defining the interfaces of services, and specifying the software architecture of Medical Information System. This paper attempts to use CORBA in Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), provides a system model of CORBA solution of PACS, and analyzes the view layers structure of system, finally we discuss the related services of CORBAMed.

  18. Numerical solution of multiscale electromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon Llano, Luis Eduardo

    The Discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method is promising in modeling of realistic multiscale electromagnetic systems. This method defines the basic concept for implementing the communication between multiple domains with different scales. Constructing a DGTD system consists of several careful choices: (a) governing equations; (b) element shape and corresponding basis functions for the spatial discretization of each subdomain; (c) numerical fluxes onto interfaces to bond all subdomains together; and (d) time stepping scheme based on properties of a discretized system. This work present the advances in each one of these steps. First, a unified framework based on the theory of differential forms and the finite element method is used to analyze the discretization of the Maxwell's equations. Based on this study, field intensities (E and H) are associated to 1-forms and curl-conforming basis functions; flux densities (D and B) are associated to 2-forms and divergence-conforming basis functions; and the constitutive relations are defined by Hodge operators. A different approach is the study of numerical dispersion. Semidiscrete analysis is the traditional method, but for high order elements modal analysis is prefered. From these analyses, we conclude that a correct discretization of fields belonging to different p-form (e.g., E and B ) uses basis functions with same order of interpolation; however, different order of interpolation must be used if two fields belong to the same p-form (e.g., E and H). An alternative method to evaluate numerical dispersion based on evaluation of dispersive Hodge operators is also presented. Both dispersion analyses are equivalent and reveal same fundamental results. Eigenvalues, eigenvector and transient results are studied to verify accuracy and computational costs of different schemes. Two different approaches are used for implementing the DG Method. The first is based on E and H fields, which use curl-conforming basis functions

  19. Parallel preconditioning for the solution of nonsymmetric banded linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Amodio, P.; Mazzia, F.

    1994-12-31

    Many computational techniques require the solution of banded linear systems. Common examples derive from the solution of partial differential equations and of boundary value problems. In particular the authors are interested in the parallel solution of block Hessemberg linear systems Gx = f, arising from the solution of ordinary differential equations by means of boundary value methods (BVMs), even if the considered preconditioning may be applied to any block banded linear system. BVMs have been extensively investigated in the last few years and their stability properties give promising results. A new class of BVMs called Reverse Adams, which are BV-A-stable for orders up to 6, and BV-A{sub 0}-stable for orders up to 9, have been studied.

  20. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-09-14

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument’s LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  1. Integrated Learning Systems: The Problems with the Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discusses problems with integrated learning systems (ILSs) in the schools, noting they are still an unproven solution to problems in education plagued by many serious limitations. The article recommends dealing with the fundamental problems of the educational system before investing time and money in ILS. (SM)

  2. Solution of a system of dual integral equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, J.; Kagiwada, H.; Kalaba, R.; Ruspini, E.; Zagustin, E.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of a presented system of differential equations with initial values is shown to satisfy a system of dual integral equations of a type appearing in the study of axisymmetric problems of potential theory. Of practical interest are possible applications in biomechanics, particularly, for the case of trauma due to impact.

  3. Global stability and exact solution of an arbitrary-solute nonlinear cellular mass transport system.

    PubMed

    Benson, James D

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of the cellular state as a function of extracellular concentrations and temperatures has been of interest to physiologists for nearly a century. One of the most widely used models in the field is one where mass flux is linearly proportional to the concentration difference across the membrane. These fluxes define a nonlinear differential equation system for the intracellular state, which when coupled with appropriate initial conditions, define the intracellular state as a function of the extracellular concentrations of both permeating and nonpermeating solutes. Here we take advantage of a reparametrization scheme to extend existing stability results to a more general setting and to a develop analytical solutions to this model for an arbitrary number of extracellular solutes.

  4. Asymptotics of solutions of some nonlinear elliptic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bidaut-Veron, M.F.; Raoux, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the local and global behaviour of the positive solutions of the semilinear elliptic system in R{sup N} (N{ge}3) {Delta}u+{vert_bar}x{vert_bar}{sup {sigma}}u{sup q}v{sup p+1} =0, {Delta}v+{vert_bar}x{vert_bar}{sup {sigma}}u{sup q+1}v{sup p}=0, where {sigma},p,q{epsilon}R, and p,q>0. Our main results in the fact that the solutions satisfy Harnack inequality when Q = p+q+1<(N+2)/(N-2), which gives local estimates. Without this assumption on Q, we give the precise behaviour of the solutions, provided that these estimates are true. When Q < (N+2)/(N-2), the solutions can also present an anisotropic behaviour. 34 refs.

  5. Preprocessing Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations. Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  6. Systems Building; A Solution to the Cost Squeeze?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1969-01-01

    A suggestion that the solution to today's high construction costs for library buildings is through systems building, the key to which is dimensional coordination - relating all the elements that go to make up a building in such a way that the parts will fit together with little or no alteration at the construction site. A supplementary…

  7. Coherent pulsed excitation of degenerate multistate systems: Exact analytic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoseva, E. S.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2006-02-15

    We show that the solution of a multistate system composed of N degenerate lower (ground) states and one upper (excited) state can be reduced by using the Morris-Shore transformation to the solution of a two-state system involving only the excited state and a (bright) superposition of ground states. In addition, there are N-1 dark states composed of ground states. We use this decomposition to derive analytical solutions for degenerate extensions of the most popular exactly soluble models: the resonance solution, the Rabi, Landau-Zener, Rosen-Zener, Allen-Eberly, and Demkov-Kunike models. We suggest various applications of the multistate solutions, for example, as tools for creating multistate coherent superpositions by generalized resonant {pi} pulses. We show that such generalized {pi} pulses can occur even when the upper state is far off resonance, at specific detunings, which makes it possible to operate in the degenerate ground-state manifold without populating the (possibly lossy) upper state, even transiently.

  8. Similarity solutions for systems arising from an Aedes aegypti model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    In a recent paper a new model for the Aedes aegypti mosquito dispersal dynamics was proposed and its Lie point symmetries were investigated. According to the carried group classification, the maximal symmetry Lie algebra of the nonlinear cases is reached whenever the advection term vanishes. In this work we analyze the family of systems obtained when the wind effects on the proposed model are neglected. Wide new classes of solutions to the systems under consideration are obtained.

  9. Problems and solutions of the IFSMTF power and switch system

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.J.; Wintenberg, R.E.; Googe, J.M.; Nickels, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Solutions have been found for the problems encountered with the coil power and switching systems of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF). The coil power system provides the filtered dc sources (+- 12 V dc; 25,000 A) for charging and discharging the coils of the IFSMTF experiment. The switching system provides the means of transferring the coil current into a dump resistor when a rapid discharge of a coil is required due to a coil failure (quench) or other system abnormalities.

  10. Systemic solutions for multi-benefit water and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Everard, Mark; McInnes, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The environmental and financial costs of inputs to, and unintended consequences arising from narrow consideration of outputs from, water and environmental management technologies highlight the need for low-input solutions that optimise outcomes across multiple ecosystem services. Case studies examining the inputs and outputs associated with several ecosystem-based water and environmental management technologies reveal a range from those that differ little from conventional electro-mechanical engineering techniques through methods, such as integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs), designed explicitly as low-input systems optimising ecosystem service outcomes. All techniques present opportunities for further optimisation of outputs, and hence for greater cumulative public value. We define 'systemic solutions' as "…low-input technologies using natural processes to optimise benefits across the spectrum of ecosystem services and their beneficiaries". They contribute to sustainable development by averting unintended negative impacts and optimising benefits to all ecosystem service beneficiaries, increasing net economic value. Legacy legislation addressing issues in a fragmented way, associated 'ring-fenced' budgets and established management assumptions represent obstacles to implementing 'systemic solutions'. However, flexible implementation of legacy regulations recognising their primary purpose, rather than slavish adherence to detailed sub-clauses, may achieve greater overall public benefit through optimisation of outcomes across ecosystem services. Systemic solutions are not a panacea if applied merely as 'downstream' fixes, but are part of, and a means to accelerate, broader culture change towards more sustainable practice. This necessarily entails connecting a wider network of interests in the formulation and design of mutually-beneficial systemic solutions, including for example spatial planners, engineers, regulators, managers, farming and other businesses, and

  11. A new two-component integrable system with peakon solutions

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Baoqiang; Qiao, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    A new two-component system with cubic nonlinearity and linear dispersion: mt=bux+12[m(uv−uxvx)]x−12m(uvx−uxv),nt=bvx+12[n(uv−uxvx)]x+12n(uvx−uxv),m=u−uxx,n=v−vxx,where b is an arbitrary real constant, is proposed in this paper. This system is shown integrable with its Lax pair, bi-Hamiltonian structure and infinitely many conservation laws. Geometrically, this system describes a non-trivial one-parameter family of pseudo-spherical surfaces. In the case b=0, the peaked soliton (peakon) and multi-peakon solutions to this two-component system are derived. In particular, the two-peakon dynamical system is explicitly solved and their interactions are investigated in details. Moreover, a new integrable cubic nonlinear equation with linear dispersion mt=bux+12[m(|u|2−|ux|2)]x−12m(uux∗−uxu∗),m=u−uxx,is obtained by imposing the complex conjugate reduction v=u* to the two-component system. The complex-valued N-peakon solution and kink wave solution to this complex equation are also derived. PMID:25792956

  12. Segregation of solutes and gases in experimental freezing of dilute solutions: implications for natural glacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killawee, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Tison, J.-L.; Janssens, L.; Lorrain, R.

    1998-12-01

    Low ionic strength waters containing significant calcium and bicarbonate are common in nature, but little literature exists on their behaviour during freezing. Modelling indicates that freezing-induced concentration of solutes (in a closed-system) would lead to progressive increase in calcite saturation index, despite rising partial pressure of CO 2 (PCO 2), but the consequences of CaCO 3 precipitation for the distribution of matter between solid, liquid, and gas phases required experimental investigation. We studied the effects of variations in the rate of advance of an ice-water interface and in the initial degree of saturation for calcite on the behaviour of the system. Downward growth of ice in a 24-cm diameter cylindrical vessel was achieved at a constant linear rate of 3 or 8 mm/h by the progressive cooling of an overlying alcohol reservoir, and the expansion of volume accommodated by regular water sampling through side ports, together with a small expansion chamber. Initial air-saturated solutions (initial PCO 2 in the range 10 -3 to 10 -3.2) were prepared to reflect a range from strongly undersaturated to supersaturated for calcite. Comparative blank experiments were run using deionized water. Ice growth led to enrichment in solutes at the ice-water interface and the creation of a diffusive boundary layer, calculated to be 0.6 mm thick, truncated below by convecting fluid. The first-formed ice (stage 1), was relatively solute-rich because of initial rapid ice nucleation. Where solutions were not strongly supersaturated for calcite this was followed by formation of a solute-poor (stage 2) ice. Ice-interface water segregation coefficients of stage 2 ice were calculated to be 0.0004-0.003 for various solute ions. The relative magnitude of segregation coefficients (Mg 2+ > Ca 2+ > Sr 2+) is attributed to interstitial incorporation (coupled with HCO 3-) in the ice lattice, and controlled by ion size. Air bubbles nucleated once nitrogen supersaturation had

  13. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Bifurcations from nondegenerate families of periodic solutions in Lipschitz systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buică, Adriana; Llibre, Jaume; Makarenkov, Oleg

    The paper addresses the problem of bifurcation of periodic solutions from a normally nondegenerate family of periodic solutions of ordinary differential equations under perturbations. The approach to solve this problem can be described as transforming (by a Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction) the initial system into one which is in the standard form of averaging, and subsequently applying the averaging principle. This approach encounters a fundamental problem when the perturbation is only Lipschitz (nonsmooth) as we do not longer have smooth Lyapunov-Schmidt projectors. The situation of Lipschitz perturbations has been addressed in the literature lately and the results obtained conclude the existence of the bifurcated branch of periodic solutions. Motivated by recent challenges in control theory, we are interested in the uniqueness problem. We achieve this in the case when the Lipschitz constant of the perturbation obeys a suitable estimate.

  15. Distributed heterogeneous inspecting system and its middleware-based solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-can; Wu, Zhao-hui; Pan, Yun-he

    2003-01-01

    There are many cases when an organization needs to monitor the data and operations of its supervised departments, especially those departments which are not owned by this organization and are managed by their own information systems. Distributed Heterogeneous Inspecting System (DHIS) is the system an organization uses to monitor its supervised departments by inspecting their information systems. In DHIS, the inspected systems are generally distributed, heterogeneous, and constructed by different companies. DHIS has three key processes-abstracting core data sets and core operation sets, collecting these sets, and inspecting these collected sets. In this paper, we present the concept and mathematical definition of DHIS, a metadata method for solving the interoperability, a security strategy for data transferring, and a middleware-based solution of DHIS. We also describe an example of the inspecting system at WENZHOU custom.

  16. The Felin soldier system: a tailored solution for networked operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sueur, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Sagem Defense Securite has been awarded a 800M euro contract for the French infantrymen modernisation programme. This programme covers the development, the qualification and the production of about 32 000 soldier systems to equip all the French infantry starting fielding in 2008. The FELIN soldier system provides the infantryman with an integrated system increasing dramatically the soldier capability in any dismounted close combat domains. Man remains at the centre of the system, which can interface equipments or systems already fielded and future equipments to match any customer's needs. Urban operations are carefully addressed thanks to a versatile and modular solution and a dedicated C4I system, Sagem Defense Securite is a European leader in defence electronics and takes part of this major French Army transformation programme, which will play a key role in the Info Centric Network initiatives promoted in France and other countries. This paper summarises the system solutions selected by the French Army with a focus on the networked capabilities and the optronic devices.

  17. Middle infrared optoelectronic absorption systems for monitoring physiological glucose solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, W. Blake

    Tight monitoring of the glucose levels for diabetic individuals is essential to control long-term complications. A definitive diabetes management system has yet to be developed for the diabetic. This research investigates the application of middle infrared absorption frequencies for monitoring glucose levels in biological solutions. Three frequencies were identified using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and correlated to changes in glucose concentrations. The 1035 +/- 1 cm-1 frequency was determined to be the best representative frequency. Other biological molecules contributed no significant interference to monitoring glucose absorption. A second frequency at 1193 cm-1 was suggested as a representative background absorption frequency, which could be used for more accurate glucose absorption values. Next, a quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system was designed and developed to monitor glucose. After careful alignment and design, the system was used to monitor physiological glucose concentrations. Correlation at 1036 cm-1 with glucose changes was comparable to the previous results. The use of the background absorption frequency was verified. This frequency essentially acts as a calibrating frequency to adjust in real-time to any changes in the background absorption that may alter the accuracy of the predicted glucose value. An evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique was explored to monitor molecules in a biological solution. Visible light at 425 nm was used to monitor hemoglobin in control urine samples. An adsorption isotherm for hemoglobin was detectable to limit of 5.8 nM. Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy would be useful for a glucose solution. Given an equivalent system designed for the middle infrared, the molar extinction coefficient of glucose allows for a detectable limit of 45 mg/dl for a free-floating glucose solution, which is below normal physiological concentrations. The future use of a hydrophobic

  18. Wallpaper concept solution fabrication experiences in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.C.; Flasche, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the last few years, a concentrated research effort has led to a better understanding of the corrosion problems in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems of coal fired power plants. At first look, operation of a typical limestone FGD system appears very simple, hence the first generation scrubbers of early to mid 70's were designers inspiration. However, the designers inspiration soon turned into a utility's nightmare due to failures of metals and non-metals, both failing in a an embarrassingly short time. A solution was needed which had to be reliable, simple, and cost effective. This objective was met via the application of wallpaper concept, which now has been very well accepted in the industry and is becoming increasingly more popular due to the many successful case histories. This paper describes the wallpaper concept solution, the fabrication techniques, the experiences at certain utilities, the precautions which need to be followed, the associated economics, and some case histories.

  19. COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-06

    Bank n Scheduler ... Channel Scheduler Memory scheduler Read/ Write Buffers DRAM address/command buses Processor data bus DRAM data bus Memory...COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions Dionisio de Niz Bjorn Andersson and Lutz Wrage dionisio@sei.cmu.edu...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and

  20. Solution rheology of polyelectrolytes and polyelectrolyte-surfactant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucktaveesak, Nopparat

    The fundamental understanding of polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions is an important branch of polymer research. In this work, the rheological properties of polyelectrolytes and polyelectrolyte/surfactant systems are studied. Various synthetic poly electrolytes are chosen with varied hydrophobicity. We discuss the effects of adding various surfactants to aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)- b-polyethylene oxide)-g-poly(acrylic acid) (PEO-PPO-PAA) in the first chapter. Thermogelation in aqueous solutions of PEO-PPO-PAA is due to micellization caused by aggregation of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) blocks resulting from temperature-induced dehydration of PPO. When nonionic surfactants with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) parameter exceeding 11 or Cn alkylsulfates; n-octyl (C8), n-decyl (C 10) and n-dodecyl (C12) sulfates are added, the gelation threshold temperature (Tgel) of 1.0wt% PEO-PPO-PAA in aqueous solutions increases. In contrast, when nonionic surfactants with HLB below 11 are added, the gelation temperature decreases. On the other hand, alkylsulfates with n = 16 or 18 and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) do not affect the Tgel. The results imply that both hydrophobicity and tail length of the added surfactant play important roles in the interaction of PEO-PPO-PAA micelles and the surfactant. In the second chapter, the solution behavior of alternating copolymers of maleic acid and hydrophobic monomer is studied. The alternating structure of monomers with two-carboxylic groups and hydrophobic monomers make these copolymers unique. Under appropriate conditions, these carboxylic groups dissociate leaving charges on the chain. The potentiometric titrations of copolymer solutions with added CaCl2 reveal two distinct dissociation processes corresponding to the dissociation of the two adjacent carboxylic acids. The viscosity data as a function of polymer concentration of poly(isobutylene-alt-sodium maleate), poly

  1. Fusion solution for soldier wearable gunfire detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakiades, George; Desai, Sachi; Deligeorges, Socrates; Buckland, Bruce E.; George, Jemin

    2012-06-01

    Currently existing acoustic based Gunfire Detection Systems (GDS) such as soldier wearable, vehicle mounted, and fixed site devices provide enemy detection and localization capabilities to the user. However, the solution to the problem of portability versus performance tradeoff remains elusive. The Data Fusion Module (DFM), described herein, is a sensor/platform agnostic software supplemental tool that addresses this tradeoff problem by leveraging existing soldier networks to enhance GDS performance across a Tactical Combat Unit (TCU). The DFM software enhances performance by leveraging all available acoustic GDS information across the TCU synergistically to calculate highly accurate solutions more consistently than any individual GDS in the TCU. The networked sensor architecture provides additional capabilities addressing the multiple shooter/fire-fight problems in addition to sniper detection/localization. The addition of the fusion solution to the overall Size, Weight and Power & Cost (SWaP&C) is zero to negligible. At the end of the first-year effort, the DFM integrated sensor network's performance was impressive showing improvements upwards of 50% in comparison to a single sensor solution. Further improvements are expected when the networked sensor architecture created in this effort is fully exploited.

  2. The Solution Space Organization: Linking Information Systems Architecture and Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakhli, Salem Ben Dhaou

    Nowadays, improvement of software development productivity is among the main strategies proposed by academics and practitioners to deal with the chronic software crisis. As stressed by many authors during the last two decades, reuse of software artifacts provides efficient instruments to implement this strategy. Nevertheless, despite organizations high investments in defining software reuse plans, implementation of such plans has often failed. We think that the identification and description of the relationships between the areas of information systems architecture and software reuse are required to define a successful reuse approach which takes into account all the dimensions of information systems. In this chapter, we propose a structural and architecture-oriented description of the solution space associated with information systems development. We use such a description to build a reuse approach compliant with all the dimensions of information systems including the organizational, economic, and human dimensions.

  3. Simulator for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Day, Christy M.; Determan, John C.

    2015-09-14

    LANL has developed a process to generate a progressive family of system models for a fissile solution system. This family includes a dynamic system simulation comprised of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the time evolution of the system. Neutron kinetics, radiolytic gas generation and transport, and core thermal hydraulics are included in the DSS. Extensions to explicit operation of cooling loops and radiolytic gas handling are embedded in these systems as is a stability model. The DSS may then be converted to an implementation in Visual Studio to provide a design team the ability to rapidly estimate system performance impacts from a variety of design decisions. This provides a method to assist in optimization of the system design. Once design has been generated in some detail the C++ version of the system model may then be implemented in a LabVIEW user interface to evaluate operator controls and instrumentation and operator recognition and response to off-normal events. Taken as a set of system models the DSS, Visual Studio, and LabVIEW progression provides a comprehensive set of design support tools.

  4. Exact Solutions for a Coupled Korteweg-de Vries System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Da-Wei; Jia, Hui-Xian

    2016-11-01

    Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-type equation can be used to characterise the dynamic behaviours of the shallow water waves and interfacial waves in the two-layer fluid with gradually varying depth. In this article, by virtue of the bilinear forms, rational solutions and three kind shapes (soliton-like, kink and bell, anti-bell, and bell shapes) for the Nth-order soliton-like solutions of a coupled KdV system are derived. Propagation and interaction of the solitons are analyzed: (1) Potential u shows three kind of shapes (soliton-like, kink, and anti-bell shapes); Potential v exhibits two type of shapes (soliton-like and bell shapes); (2) Interaction of the potentials u and v both display the fusion phenomena.

  5. Scalable Library for the Parallel Solution of Sparse Linear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Mark; Plassmann, Paul E.

    1993-07-14

    BlockSolve is a scalable parallel software library for the solution of large sparse, symmetric systems of linear equations. It runs on a variety of parallel architectures and can easily be ported to others. BlockSovle is primarily intended for the solution of sparse linear systems that arise from physical problems having multiple degrees of freedom at each node point. For example, when the finite element method is used to solve practical problems in structural engineering, each node will typically have anywhere from 3-6 degrees of freedom associated with it. BlockSolve is written to take advantage of problems of this nature; however, it is still reasonably efficient for problems that have only one degree of freedom associated with each node, such as the three-dimensional Poisson problem. It does not require that the matrices have any particular structure other than being sparse and symmetric. BlockSolve is intended to be used within real application codes. It is designed to work best in the context of our experience which indicated that most application codes solve the same linear systems with several different right-hand sides and/or linear systems with the same structure, but different matrix values multiple times.

  6. Improved solution for system identification equations by Epsilon-Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojalvo, Irving U.

    1990-01-01

    Matrix eigenvalue theory is used to examine the source of ill-conditioning in linear algebraic equations. This approach highlights the crucial role played by the zero and near-zero eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of poorly conditioned systems. Insight gained from this approach is used to significantly improve a recently developed solution procedure called Epsilon-Decomposition (E-D). E-D is an efficient alternative to Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) for ill-conditioned systems arising in parameter estimation and system identification studies. The efficiency of the improved E-D over SVD resides in the need to only obtain the zero and near-zero eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix as opposed to all of its eigenvalues and vectors (as required by SVD). Thus, the efficiency of E-D is significant for large matrices with small rank deficiency.

  7. Analytical solutions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional solute transport in ground-water systems with uniform flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the advective-dispersive solute transport equation are useful in predicting the fate of solutes in groundwater. Analytical solutions compiled from available literature or derived by the author are presented in this report for a variety of boundary condition types and solute-source configuration in one-, two-, and three-dimensional systems with uniform groundwater flow. A set of user-oriented computer programs was created to evaluate these solutions and to display the results in tabular and computer-graphics format. These programs incorporate many features that enhance their accuracy, ease of use, and versatility. Documentation for the programs describes their operation and required input data, and presents the results of sample problems. Derivations of select solutions, source codes for the computer programs, and samples of program input and output also are described. (USGS)

  8. Analytical solutions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional solute transport in ground-water systems with uniform flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the advective-dispersive solute-transport equation are useful in predicting the fate of solutes in ground water. Analytical solutions compiled from available literature or derived by the author are presented for a variety of boundary condition types and solute-source configurations in one-, two-, and three-dimensional systems having uniform ground-water flow. A set of user-oriented computer programs was created to evaluate these solutions and to display the results in tabular and computer-graphics format. These programs incorporate many features that enhance their accuracy, ease of use, and versatility. Documentation for the programs describes their operation and required input data, and presents the results of sample problems. Derivations of selected solutions, source codes for the computer programs, and samples of program input and output also are included.

  9. Reaction paths and equilibrium end-points in solid-solution aqueous-solution systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, P.D.; Reardon, E.J.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are presented describing equilibrium in binary solid-solution aqueous-solution (SSAS) systems after a dissolution, precipitation, or recrystallization process, as a function of the composition and relative proportion of the initial phases. Equilibrium phase diagrams incorporating the concept of stoichiometric saturation are used to interpret possible reaction paths and to demonstrate relations between stoichiometric saturation, primary saturation, and thermodynamic equilibrium states. The concept of stoichiometric saturation is found useful in interpreting and putting limits on dissolution pathways, but there currently is no basis for possible application of this concept to the prediction and/ or understanding of precipitation processes. Previously published dissolution experiments for (Ba, Sr)SO4 and (Sr, Ca)C??O3orth. solids are interpreted using equilibrium phase diagrams. These studies show that stoichiometric saturation can control, or at least influence, initial congruent dissolution pathways. The results for (Sr, Ca)CO3orth. solids reveal that stoichiometric saturation can also control the initial stages of incongruent dissolution, despite the intrinsic instability of some of the initial solids. In contrast, recrystallisation experiments in the highly soluble KCl-KBr-H2O system demonstrate equilibrium. The excess free energy of mixing calculated for K(Cl, Br) solids is closely modeled by the relation GE = ??KBr??KClRT[a0 + a1(2??KBr-1)], where a0 is 1.40 ?? 0.02, a1, is -0.08 ?? 0.03 at 25??C, and ??KBr and ??KCl are the mole fractions of KBr and KCl in the solids. The phase diagram constructed using this fit reveals an alyotropic maximum located at ??KBr = 0.676 and at a total solubility product, ???? = [K+]([Cl-] + [Br-]) = 15.35. ?? 1990.

  10. JOVIAN STRATOSPHERE AS A CHEMICAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM: BENCHMARK ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xi; Shia Runlie; Yung, Yuk L.

    2013-04-20

    We systematically investigated the solvable analytical benchmark cases in both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) chemical-advective-diffusive systems. We use the stratosphere of Jupiter as an example but the results can be applied to other planetary atmospheres and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the 1D system, we show that CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are mainly in diffusive equilibrium, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} profile can be approximated by modified Bessel functions. In the 2D system in the meridional plane, analytical solutions for two typical circulation patterns are derived. Simple tracer transport modeling demonstrates that the distribution of a short-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is dominated by the local chemical sources and sinks, while that of a long-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is significantly influenced by the circulation pattern. We find that an equator-to-pole circulation could qualitatively explain the Cassini observations, but a pure diffusive transport process could not. For slowly rotating planets like the close-in extrasolar planets, the interaction between the advection by the zonal wind and chemistry might cause a phase lag between the final tracer distribution and the original source distribution. The numerical simulation results from the 2D Caltech/JPL chemistry-transport model agree well with the analytical solutions for various cases.

  11. Nonperturbative analytical approximate solutions in intrinsically nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindall, Kevin Gaylynn

    The basis for obtaining analytical approximations in this dissertation is a new nonperturbative iterative approach that preserves the intrinsic nonlinearity of the system. The traditional method for approaching nonlinear equations has been the small amplitude approximation of classical perturbation theory. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that intrinsic nonlinearity or persistence of the interaction is a primary feature of the solutions for the nonlinear equations that have been solved. Although perturbation theory may be useful in certain physical domains, it is a domain which excludes the effects of the persistent interaction, since perturbation theory nullifies any intrinsically nonlinear property. The method of solution used here proceeds by analogy to the well-known result that second order, linear ordinary differential equations can be transformed to a Riccati equation by a change in dependent variable. An analogous transformation for nonlinear partial differential equations leads to a set of integro- differential equations for which the basic structure is Riccati. Approximations are introduced in the integral part of the integro-differential equation which allow for systematic iteration while making no expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Two sets of differential equations are examined: the Maxwell-Bloch set and the Rossler set. The importance of the former lies in its importance to the phenomenon of optical bistability. The latter represents the minimal set necessary to display chaos. In each case, their intrinsic nonlinearity is demonstrated, and nonperturbative approximate solutions are constructed.

  12. SNS INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS ? ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Beam loss is higher than expected in the Ring injection section and in the injection dump beam line. The primary causes are fairly well understood, and we have made some equipment modifications to reduce the loss. In the ring extraction beam line the beam distribution exhibits cross-plane coupling (tilt), and the cause has been traced to a large skew-quadrupole component in the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we will discuss the issues surrounding the ring injection and extraction systems, the solutions we have implemented to date, and our plans for future improvements.

  13. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  14. Periodic Solutions of Hamiltonian Systems of 3-Body Type

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    at least once generalized T- peniodic solutions. Generalized solutions are necessary since collision orbits, i.e. solutions which pass through the...possibility as a collision. When collisions are possible, critical points of I need not be classical solutions of (HS) and a notion of a generalized ...solution of (HS) is needed. Following a related situation in [2], we say q E E is a generalized T-periodic solution of (KS) if: (i) = {t E 0, T] qi(t) = qj

  15. Thermal expansion of solid solutions in apatite binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, Alexander V.; Bulanov, Evgeny N. Korokin, Vitaly Zh.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Thermal dependencies of volume thermal expansion parameter for with thermal expansion diagrams for Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions in three apatitic binary systems were investigated via HT-XRD. • Thermal expansion coefficients of solid solutions in the systems were calculated. • Features of the thermal deformation of the apatites were described. • Termoroentgenography is a sensitive method for the investigation of isomorphism. - Abstract: High-temperature insitu X-ray diffraction was used to investigate isomorphism and the thermal expansion of apatite-structured compounds in three binary systems in the entire temperature range of the existence of its hexagonal modifications. Most of the studied compounds are highly expandable (α{sub l} > 8 × 10{sup 6} (K{sup −1})). In Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F–Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl system, volume thermal expansion coefficient is independence from the composition at 573 K. In Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl–Pb{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl, the compound with equimolar ratio of substituted atoms has constant volume thermal expansion coefficient in temperature range 298–973 K. Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl–Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl system is characterized by the most thermal sensitive composition, in which there is an equal ratio of isomorphic substituted atoms.

  16. Explicit solutions of the classical Calogero and Sutherland systems for any root system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, R.; Takasaki, K.

    2006-01-01

    Explicit solutions of the classical Calogero (rational with/without harmonic confining potential) and Sutherland (trigonometric potential) systems is obtained by diagonalization of certain matrices of simple time evolution. The method works for Calogero & Sutherland systems based on any root system. It generalizes the well-known results by Olshanetsky and Perelomov for the A type root systems. Explicit solutions of the (rational and trigonometric) higher Hamiltonian flows of the integrable hierarchy can be readily obtained in a similar way for those based on the classical root systems.

  17. Operational Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect

    Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    2016-11-28

    Operational characteristics represent the set of responses that a nuclear system exhibits during normal operation. Operators rely on this behavior to assess the status of the system and to predict the consequences of off-normal events. These characteristics largely refer to the relationship between power and system operating conditions. The static and dynamic behavior of a chain-reacting system, operating at sufficient power, is primarily governed by reactivity effects. The science of reactor physics has identified and evaluated a number of such effects, including Doppler broadening and shifts in the thermal neutron spectrum. Often these reactivity effects are quantified in the form of feedback coefficients that serve as coupling coefficients relating the neutron population and the physical mechanisms that drive reactivity effects, such as fissile material temperature and density changes. The operational characteristics of such nuclear systems usually manifest themselves when perturbations between system power (neutron population) and system operating conditions arise. Successful operation of such systems require the establishment of steady equilibrium conditions. However, prior to obtaining the desired equilibrium (steady-state) conditions, an approach from zero-power (startup) must occur. This operational regime may possess certain limiting system conditions that must be maintained to achieve effective startup. Once steady-state is achieved, a key characteristic of this operational regime is the level of stability that the system possesses. Finally, a third operational regime, shutdown, may also possess limiting conditions of operation that must be maintained. This report documents the operational characteristics of a “generic” Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution (ADFS) system during the various operational regimes of startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown. Typical time-dependent behavior for each operational regime will be illustrated, and key system

  18. Satellite power systems for Western Europe - Problems and solution proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, J.; Westphal, W.

    1980-08-01

    This paper deals with the potential utilization of solar satellite power systems (SPS) as baseload powerplants for Western European countries. There are significant differences compared with the U.S.A. for geographical, political, organizational, orbital, and industrial reasons. These differences have been analyzed and critically examined, but no unsurmountable problems have been found. There exist, however, a lot of challenging problems to be solved prior to a full scale SPS development. In this paper some of the most important problems are presented and some potential solutions are discussed. Finally, a research program is proposed, which could help to answer the following question: Is it possible to develop, construct and operate an SPS system which is (1) economically viable, (2) technically feasible, (3) environmentally compatible, and (4) politically acceptable.

  19. Darboux transformation of the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system and exact solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Xianguo; Li, Ruomeng

    2015-10-15

    A Darboux transformation for the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system of coupled equations is constructed with the aid of gauge transformations between the Lax pairs. As an application, several types of solutions of the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system are obtained, including soliton solutions, periodic solutions, rational solutions and others.

  20. Dynamics of electrons and explicit solutions of Dirac–Weyl systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnovich, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Explicit solutions of the Dirac–Weyl system, which are essential in graphene studies, are constructed using our recent approach to the construction of solutions of dynamical systems. The obtained classes of solutions are much wider than the ones which have been considered before. It is proved that neither the constructed potentials nor the corresponding solutions have singularities. Various examples are provided.

  1. VLT instruments: industrial solutions for non-scientific detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhoux, P.; Knudstrup, J.; Lilley, P.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Mannetta, M.

    2014-07-01

    . ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed, cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph that will be located in the Combined-Coudé Laboratory of the VLT in the Paranal Observatory in Chile. It will be able to operate either using the light of any of the UT's or using the incoherently combined light of up to four UT's. The stabilization of the incoming beam is achieved by dedicated piezo systems controlled via active loops closed on 4 + 4 dedicated TCCD's for the stabilization of the pupil image and of the field with a frequency goal of 3 Hz on a 2nd to 3rd magnitude star. An additional 9th TCCD system shall be used as an exposure-meter. In this paper we will present the technical CCD solution for future VLT instruments.

  2. [Decentralization: part of the health system problem or the solution?].

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, G; Rico, A

    2003-01-01

    The greatest change experienced by the Spanish health system in the last two decades has probably been the devolution of power to the autonomous communities composing the Spanish state. This may generate tensions in the status quo and poses questions of whether decentralization of the health system is compatible with a cohesive national health system and whether this devolution of power is part of the problem of the health system or part of its solution. Generalized devolution occurring as rapidly as that produced in Spain (negotiated in slightly less than 6 months, with minimal financial agreements, without explicit legal frameworks in the areas of coordination and development of basic norms, and with a new agreement of general financing of the autonomous communities which possibly contains lacunae, etc.) presents an uncertain panorama. The possible misuse of the wide powers recently transferred to the autonomous communities could easily be used by those who would like to see a restoration of pre-democratic centralism to sow fear of the collapse of the health service as the cornerstone of the welfare state among the general public. The present article briefly addresses these questions.

  3. A numerical solution for the diffusion equation in hydrogeologic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishii, A.L.; Healy, R.W.; Striegl, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The documentation of a computer code for the numerical solution of the linear diffusion equation in one or two dimensions in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates is presented. Applications of the program include molecular diffusion, heat conduction, and fluid flow in confined systems. The flow media may be anisotropic and heterogeneous. The model is formulated by replacing the continuous linear diffusion equation by discrete finite-difference approximations at each node in a block-centered grid. The resulting matrix equation is solved by the method of preconditioned conjugate gradients. The conjugate gradient method does not require the estimation of iteration parameters and is guaranteed convergent in the absence of rounding error. The matrixes are preconditioned to decrease the steps to convergence. The model allows the specification of any number of boundary conditions for any number of stress periods, and the output of a summary table for selected nodes showing flux and the concentration of the flux quantity for each time step. The model is written in a modular format for ease of modification. The model was verified by comparison of numerical and analytical solutions for cases of molecular diffusion, two-dimensional heat transfer, and axisymmetric radial saturated fluid flow. Application of the model to a hypothetical two-dimensional field situation of gas diffusion in the unsaturated zone is demonstrated. The input and output files are included as a check on program installation. The definition of variables, input requirements, flow chart, and program listing are included in the attachments. (USGS)

  4. Is the system really the solution? Operating costs in hospital systems.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawton Robert; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Wholey, Douglas R; Kruse, Gregory; Kralovec, Peter; Muller, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Hospital system formation has recently accelerated. Executives emphasize scale economies that lower operating costs, a claim unsupported in academic research. Do systems achieve lower costs than freestanding facilities, and, if so, which system types? We test hypotheses about the relationship of cost with membership in systems, larger systems, and centralized and local hub-and-spoke systems. We also test whether these relationships have changed over time. Examining 4,000 U.S. hospitals during 1998 to 2010, we find no evidence that system members exhibit lower costs. However, members of smaller systems are lower cost than larger systems, and hospitals in centralized systems are lower cost than everyone else. There is no evidence that the system's spatial configuration is associated with cost, although national system hospitals exhibit higher costs. Finally, these results hold over time. We conclude that while systems in general may not be the solution to lower costs, some types of systems are.

  5. Picture archiving and communications systems for integrated healthcare information solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldburgh, Mitchell M.; Glicksman, Robert A.; Wilson, Dennis L.

    1997-05-01

    The rapid and dramatic shifts within the US healthcare industry have created unprecedented needs to implement changes in the delivery systems. These changes must not only address the access to healthcare, but the costs of delivery, and outcomes reporting. The resulting vision to address these needs has been called the Integrated Healthcare Solution whose core is the Electronic Patient Record. The integration of information by itself is not the issue, nor will it address the challenges in front of the healthcare providers. The process and business of healthcare delivery must adopt, apply and expand its use of technology which can assist in re-engineering the tools for healthcare. Imaging is becoming a larger part of the practice of healthcare both as a recorder of health status and as a defensive record for gatekeepers of healthcare. It is thus imperative that imaging specialists adopt technology which competitively integrates them into the process, reduces the risk, and positively effects the outcome.

  6. HEARTBEAT STARS: SPECTROSCOPIC ORBITAL SOLUTIONS FOR SIX ECCENTRIC BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.

    2015-08-01

    We present multi-epoch spectroscopy of “heartbeat stars,” eccentric binaries with dynamic tidal distortions and tidally induced pulsations originally discovered with the Kepler satellite. Optical spectra of six known heartbeat stars using the Wyoming Infrared Observatory 2.3 m telescope allow measurement of stellar effective temperatures and radial velocities from which we determine orbital parameters including the periods, eccentricities, approximate mass ratios, and component masses. These spectroscopic solutions confirm that the stars are members of eccentric binary systems with eccentricities e > 0.34 and periods P = 7–20 days, strengthening conclusions from prior works that utilized purely photometric methods. Heartbeat stars in this sample have A- or F-type primary components. Constraints on orbital inclinations indicate that four of the six systems have minimum mass ratios q = 0.3–0.5, implying that most secondaries are probable M dwarfs or earlier. One system is an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary with roughly equal-mass mid-A components (q = 0.95), while another shows double-lined behavior only near periastron, indicating that the F0V primary has a G1V secondary (q = 0.65). This work constitutes the first measurements of the masses of secondaries in a statistical sample of heartbeat stars. The good agreement between our spectroscopic orbital elements and those derived using a photometric model support the idea that photometric data are sufficient to derive reliable orbital parameters for heartbeat stars.

  7. On axisymmetric and stationary solutions of the self-gravitating Vlasov system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Ellery; Andréasson, Håkan; Logg, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Axisymmetric and stationary solutions are constructed to the Einstein-Vlasov and Vlasov-Poisson systems. These solutions are constructed numerically, using finite element methods and a fixed-point iteration in which the total mass is fixed at each step. A variety of axisymmetric stationary solutions are exhibited, including solutions with toroidal, disk-like, spindle-like, and composite spatial density configurations, as are solutions with non-vanishing net angular momentum. In the case of toroidal solutions, we show for the first time, solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system which contain ergoregions.

  8. Linear dynamic system approach to groundwater solute transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater pollution in the United States has been recognized in the 1980's to be extensive both in degree and geographic distribution. It has been recognized that in many cases groundwater pollution is essentially irreversible from the engineering or economic viewpoint. Under the best circumstance the problem is complicated by insufficient amounts of field data which is costly to obtain. In general, the governing partial differential equation of solute transport is spatially discretized either using finite difference or finite element scheme. The time derivative is also approximated by finite difference. In this study, only the spatial discretization is performed using finite element method and the time derivative is retained in continuous form. The advantage is that special features of finite element are maintained but most important of all is that the equation can be rearranged to be in a standard form of linear dynamic system. Two problems were studied in detail: one is the determination of the locatio of groundwater pollution source(s). The problem is equivalent to identifying an input to the dynamic system and is solved by using the sensitivity theorem. The other one is the prediction of pollutant concentration at a given time at a given location. The eigenvalue technique was employed to solve this problem and the detailed procedures of the computation were delineated.

  9. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  10. Teleradiology mobile internet system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an external storage system by using secret sharing scheme and tokenization for regional medical cooperation, PHR service and information preservation. The use of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets will be accelerated for a PHR service, and the confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of damage and intercept. We verified the transfer rate of the sending and receiving of data to and from the external storage system that connected it with PACS by the Internet this time. External storage systems are the data centers that exist in Okinawa, in Osaka, in Sapporo and in Tokyo by using secret sharing scheme. PACS continuously transmitted 382 CT images to the external data centers. Total capacity of the CT images is about 200MB. The total time that had been required to transmit was about 250 seconds. Because the preservation method to use secret sharing scheme is applied, security is strong. But, it also takes the information transfer time of this system too much. Therefore, DICOM data is masked to the header information part because it is made to anonymity in our method. The DICOM data made anonymous is preserved in the data base in the hospital. Header information including individual information is divided into two or more tallies by secret sharing scheme, and preserved at two or more external data centers. The token to relate the DICOM data anonymity made to header information preserved outside is strictly preserved in the token server. The capacity of header information that contains patient's individual information is only about 2% of the entire DICOM data. This total time that had been required to transmit was about 5 seconds. Other, common solutions that can protect computer communication networks from attacks are classified as cryptographic techniques or authentication techniques. Individual number IC card is connected with electronic certification authority of web medical image conference system. Individual number IC

  11. Optimal partial regularity of very weak solutions to nonhomogeneous A-harmonic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Chen, Shuhong

    2017-01-01

    We study partial regularity of very weak solutions to some nonhomogeneous A-harmonic systems. To obtain the reverse Hölder inequality of the gradient of a very weak solution, we construct a suitable test function by Hodge decomposition. With the aid of Gehring's lemma, we prove that these very weak solutions are weak solutions. Further, we show that these solutions are in fact optimal Hölder continuity based on A-harmonic approximation technique.

  12. A numerical method for solving systems of linear ordinary differential equations with rapidly oscillating solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Ira B.; Brookshaw, Leigh; Fox, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    The present numerical method for accurate and efficient solution of systems of linear equations proceeds by numerically developing a set of basis solutions characterized by slowly varying dependent variables. The solutions thus obtained are shown to have a computational overhead largely independent of the small size of the scale length which characterizes the solutions; in many cases, the technique obviates series solutions near singular points, and its known sources of error can be easily controlled without a substantial increase in computational time.

  13. Meso-/micro-optical system interface coupling solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Boye, Robert R.

    2005-10-01

    Optoelectronic microsystems are more and more prevalent as researchers seek to increase transmission bandwidths, implement electrical isolation, enhance security, or take advantage of sensitive optical sensing methods. Board level photonic integration techniques continue to improve, but photonic microsystems and fiber interfaces remain problematic, especially upon size reduction. Optical fiber is unmatched as a transmission medium for distances ranging from tens of centimeters to kilometers. The difficulty with using optical fiber is the small size of the core (approximately 9 {micro}m for the core of single mode telecommunications fiber) and the tight requirement on spot size and input numerical aperture (NA). Coupling to devices such as vertical cavity emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodetectors presents further difficulties since these elements work in a plane orthogonal to the electronics board and typically require additional optics. This leads to the need for a packaging solution that can incorporate dissimilar materials while maintaining the tight alignment tolerances required by the optics. Over the course of this LDRD project, we have examined the capabilities of components such as VCSELs and photodetectors for high-speed operation and investigated the alignment tolerances required by the optical system. A solder reflow process has been developed to help fulfill these packaging requirements and the results of that work are presented here.

  14. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original Equipment... of ] Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, including on-site...

  15. Perturbational Blowup Solutions to the Two-Component Dullin-Gottwald-Holm System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We construct a family of nonradially symmetric exact solutions for the two-component DGH system by the perturbational method. Depending on the parameters, the class of solutions includes both blowup type and global existence type. PMID:27127801

  16. Practical solutions to implementing "Born Semantic" data systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, A.; Buck, J. J. H.; Stacey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of data being "Born Semantic" has been proposed in recent years as a Semantic Web analogue to the idea of data being "born digital"[1], [2]. Within the "Born Semantic" concept, data are captured digitally and at a point close to the time of creation are annotated with markup terms from semantic web resources (controlled vocabularies, thesauri or ontologies). This allows heterogeneous data to be more easily ingested and amalgamated in near real-time due to the standards compliant annotation of the data. In taking the "Born Semantic" proposal from concept to operation, a number of difficulties have been encountered. For example, although there are recognised methods such as Header, Dictionary, Triples [3] for the compression, publication and dissemination of large volumes of triples these systems are not practical to deploy in the field on low-powered (both electrically and computationally) devices. Similarly, it is not practical for instruments to output fully formed semantically annotated data files if they are designed to be plugged into a modular system and the data to be centrally logged in the field as is the case on Argo floats and oceanographic gliders where internal bandwidth becomes an issue [2]. In light of these issues, this presentation will concentrate on pragmatic solutions being developed to the problem of generating Linked Data in near real-time systems. Specific examples from the European Commission SenseOCEAN project where Linked Data systems are being developed for autonomous underwater platforms, and from work being undertaken in the streaming of data from the Irish Galway Bay Cable Observatory initiative will be highlighted. Further, developments of a set of tools for the LogStash-ElasticSearch software ecosystem to allow the storing and retrieval of Linked Data will be introduced. References[1] A. Leadbetter & J. Fredericks, We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?, European Geophysical Union General Assembly, 2014

  17. Equilibrium solutions for microscopic stochastic systems in population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lachowicz, Mirosław; Ryabukha, Tatiana

    2013-06-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of existence of equilibrium solutions of equations describing the general population dynamics at the microscopic level of modified Liouville equation (individually--based model) corresponding to a Markov jump process. We show the existence of factorized equilibrium solutions and discuss uniqueness. The conditions guaranteeing uniqueness or non-uniqueness are proposed under the assumption of periodic structures.

  18. Abundant soliton solutions for the coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq system via an analytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manafian, Jalil; Aghdaei, Mehdi Fazli

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the improved tan(Φ(ξ)/2)-expansion method is proposed to find the exact soliton solutions of the coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq (SB) system. The exact particular solutions are of five types: hyperbolic function solution (exact soliton wave solution), trigonometric function solution (exact periodic wave solution), rational exponential solution (exact singular kink-type wave solution), logarithmic solution and rational solution (exact singular cupson wave solution). We obtained the further solutions comparing with other methods. The results demonstrate that the new tan(Φ(ξ)/2)-expansion method is more efficient than the Ansatz method applied by Bilige et al. (2013). Recently this method was developed for searching the exact travelling-wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. Abundant exact travelling-wave solutions including solitons, kink, periodic and rational solutions have been found. These solutions might play an important role in Laser and plasma. It is shown that this method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a straightforward and powerful mathematical tool for solving the nonlinear problems.

  19. Accelerating potential of mean force calculations for lipid membrane permeation: System size, reaction coordinate, solute-solute distance, and cutoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, Naomi; Atkovska, Kalina; Hub, Jochen S.

    2016-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are capable of predicting the permeability of lipid membranes for drug-like solutes, but the calculations have remained prohibitively expensive for high-throughput studies. Here, we analyze simple measures for accelerating potential of mean force (PMF) calculations of membrane permeation, namely, (i) using smaller simulation systems, (ii) simulating multiple solutes per system, and (iii) using shorter cutoffs for the Lennard-Jones interactions. We find that PMFs for membrane permeation are remarkably robust against alterations of such parameters, suggesting that accurate PMF calculations are possible at strongly reduced computational cost. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the definition of the membrane center of mass (COM), used to define the transmembrane reaction coordinate. Membrane-COM definitions based on all lipid atoms lead to artifacts due to undulations and, consequently, to PMFs dependent on membrane size. In contrast, COM definitions based on a cylinder around the solute lead to size-independent PMFs, down to systems of only 16 lipids per monolayer. In summary, compared to popular setups that simulate a single solute in a membrane of 128 lipids with a Lennard-Jones cutoff of 1.2 nm, the measures applied here yield a speedup in sampling by factor of ˜40, without reducing the accuracy of the calculated PMF.

  20. A Semiautomatic Protein Crystallization System with Preventing Evaporation of Drops and Surface Sensor of Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Niino, Ai; Ishizu, Takeshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2004-01-01

    We developed a simple, semiautomated protein crystallization system. The system performs crystallization-condition-screening experiments using commercial solution kits and crystallization plates. It is capable of dispensing a minimum of one microliter of protein solution into a protein well and a maximum of one milliliter of a mother liquor into a reservoir with high reproducibility using two syringes of different sizes. Several new instruments effective in preventing evaporation of solutions, a surface sensor of solutions, and a tube-holder box for solution kits are introduced.

  1. Systemic study on fluorescent switching systems composed of naphthopyran and benzimidazole in solution and film forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Wang, Guang; Wang, Mingxin

    2016-07-01

    The fluorescent photo-switching systems were prepared based on fluorescent benzimidazole and photochromic naphthopyran. Naphthopyran in this systems displayed excellent photochromic performance in tetrahydrofuran solutions and in PMMA films. The fluorescent emission of benzimidazole was modulated between "on" and "off" via the photoisomerization of naphthopyran in high-contrast due to the photoinduced energy transfer from benzimidazole to the open-form naphthopyran. Both the fluorescent photoswitching and the photochromism of benzimidazole-naphthopyran dyads in solutions and films displayed excellent fatigue resistance. The spaces between benzimidazole and naphthopyran affect the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of benzimidazole-naphthopyran dyads. The non-destructive readout ability of synthesized dyads in doped PMMA film was achieved.

  2. Existence of global solutions for a chemotaxis-fluid system with nonlinear diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yun-Sung; Kang, Kyungkeun

    2016-04-01

    We consider a coupled system consisting of the Navier-Stokes equations and a porous medium type of Keller-Segel system that model the motion of swimming bacteria living in fluid and consuming oxygen. We establish the global-in-time existence of weak solutions for the Cauchy problem of the system in dimension three. In addition, if the Stokes system, instead Navier-Stokes system, is considered for the fluid equation, we prove that bounded weak solutions exist globally in time.

  3. Completely Positive Approximate Solutions of Driven Open Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadfarshi, Farhang; Cui, Jian; Mintert, Florian

    2015-04-01

    We define a perturbative approximation for the solution of Lindblad master equations with time-dependent generators that satisfies the fundamental property of complete positivity, as essential for quantum simulations and optimal control. With explicit examples we show that ensuring this property substantially improves the accuracy of the perturbative approximation.

  4. Exact traveling wave solutions for system of nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Arnous, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, recently deduced generalized Kudryashov method is applied to the variant Boussinesq equations, and the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton equations. As a result a range of qualitative explicit exact traveling wave solutions are deduced for these equations, which motivates us to develop, in the near future, a new approach to obtain unsteady solutions of autonomous nonlinear evolution equations those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. It is uncomplicated to extend this method to higher-order nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. And it should be possible to apply the same method to nonlinear evolution equations having more general forms of nonlinearities by utilizing the traveling wave hypothesis.

  5. An efficient frequency response solution for nonproportionally damped systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Paul; Rule, William K.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented to accurately and economically calculate steady state frequency responses based on the analysis of large finite element models with nonproportional damping effects. The new method is a hybrid of the traditional nonproportional and proportional damping solution methods. It captures the advantages of each computational approach without the burden of their respective shortcomings, as demonstrated with comparative analysis performed on a large finite element model.

  6. Lubrication of space systems: Challenges and potential solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Future space missions will all require advanced mechanical moving components which will require wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used today are primarily based upon a technology base that is more than 20 years old. This paper will discuss NASA's future space missions and some of the mechanism tribology challenges that will be encountered. Potential solutions to these challenges using coatings technology will be assessed.

  7. Biogeochemistry of fluoride in a plant-solution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride (F-) pollutants can harm plants and the animals feeding on them. However, it is largely unknown how complexing and chelating agents affect F bioavailability. Two studies were conducted that measured F- bioavailability and uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the first study, rice was grown in solution culture (pH 5.0) with 0, 2, or 4 mM F- as KF to compare the interaction of F- with humic acid (HA) and with a conventional chelating agent, N-hydroxyethylenthylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA). In the second study, F was supplied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM KF with an additional 2 mM F- treatment containing solution Ca at 2x (2 mM Ca) the level used in the first study, to test the effect added Ca had on F- availability and uptake. Total biomass was greatest with HEDTA and F- < 1 mM. Leaf and stem F concentrations increased exponentially as solution F- increased linearly, with nearly no F partitioning into the seed. Results suggest that F was taken up as HF0 while F- uptake was likely restricted. Additionally, F- competed with HA for Ca, thus preventing the formation of Ca-HA flocculents. The addition of soluble Ca resulted in the precipitation of CaF2 solids on the root surface, as determined by tissue analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  8. Solution to problems of bacterial impurity of heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Zamaleev, M. M.

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the problems of the operation of open and closed district heating systems related to the bacteriological contamination of heating-system water. It is noted that district heating systems are basically safe in sanitary epidemiological terms. Data on the dangers of sulfide contamination of heating systems are given. It is shown that the main causes of the development of sulfate-reducing and iron bacteria in heating systems are a significant biological contamination of source water to fuel heating systems, which is determined by water oxidizability, and a low velocity of the motion of heating-system water in the heating system elements. A case of sulfide contamination of a part of the outdoor heat-supply system of the city of Ulyanovsk is considered in detail. Measures for cleaning pipelines and heating system equipment from the waste products of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron bacteria and for improving the quality of heating-system water by organizing the hydraulic and water-chemistry condition that makes it possible to avoid the bacteriological contamination of heating systems are proposed. The positive effect of sodium silicate on the prevention of sulfide contamination of heating systems is shown.

  9. Exact Solutions in the Invariant Manifolds of the Generalized Integrable Hénon-Heiles System and Exact Traveling Wave Solutions of Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jibin

    In this paper, we consider the exact explicit solutions for the famous generalized Hénon-Heiles (H-H) system. Corresponding to the three integrable cases, on the basis of the investigation of the dynamical behavior and level curves of the planar dynamical systems, we find all possible explicit exact parametric representations of solutions in the invariant manifolds of equilibrium points in the four-dimensional phase space. These solutions contain quasi-periodic solutions, homoclinic solutions, periodic solutions as well as blow-up solutions. Therefore, we answer the question: what are the flows in the center manifolds and homoclinic manifolds of the generalized Hénon-Heiles (H-H) system. As an application of the above results, we consider the traveling wave solutions for the coupled (n + 1)-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger Equations with quadratic power nonlinearity.

  10. Localized modulated wave solutions in diffusive glucose-insulin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvogo, Alain; Tambue, Antoine; Ben-Bolie, Germain H.; Kofané, Timoléon C.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate intercellular insulin dynamics in an array of diffusively coupled pancreatic islet β-cells. The cells are connected via gap junction coupling, where nearest neighbor interactions are included. Through the multiple scale expansion in the semi-discrete approximation, we show that the insulin dynamics can be governed by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The localized solutions of this equation are reported. The results suggest from the biophysical point of view that the insulin propagates in pancreatic islet β-cells using both temporal and spatial dimensions in the form of localized modulated waves.

  11. Solution of magnetometry problems related to monitoring remote pipeline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Andrey V.; Denisov, Alexey Y.; Narkhov, Eugene D.; Sapunov, Vladimir A.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve two fundamental tasks, i.e., to design the pipeline model with sufficient adequacy and reproducibility, and to solve the inverse problem for the transition from the experimental data on the magnetic field in the measurement area directly to the pipeline characteristics, which are necessary for mapping pipes location and finding coordinates of welds. The paper presents a mathematical ideal pipeline model in the geomagnetic field without considering the pipe material. The solution of the direct and inverse problems are described, and the directions of the model development and methods of data interpretation are presented.

  12. Multiple positive solutions to a coupled systems of nonlinear fractional differential equations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kamal; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we study existence, uniqueness and nonexistence of positive solution to a highly nonlinear coupled system of fractional order differential equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of positive solution are developed by using Perov's fixed point theorem for the considered problem. Further, we also established sufficient conditions for existence of multiplicity results for positive solutions. Also, we developed some conditions under which the considered coupled system of fractional order differential equations has no positive solution. Appropriate examples are also provided which demonstrate our results.

  13. Investigation of Propellant and Explosive Solid Solution Systems II X-Ray Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    A\\Yj* ^\\C/*^ ^ 1 tatf AD 7t ott w AD-E400 125 TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCD-TR-77066 INVESTIGATION OF PROPELLANT AND EXPLOSIVE SOLID SOLUTION SYSTEMS...Report ARLCD-TR-77066 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. *. TITLE (and Subtitle) INVESTIGATION OF PROPELLANT AND EXPLOSIVE SOLID SOLUTION SYSTEMS II X-RAY...Interplanar spacings and x-ray diffraction 9 intensities of AP, KP and their physical mixtures and solid solutions 4 X-ray data of 3 AN: KP solid solution and

  14. Solid-solution semiconductor nanowires in pseudobinary systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baodan; Bando, Yoshio; Liu, Lizhao; Zhao, Jijun; Masanori, Mitome; Jiang, Xin; Golberg, Dmitri

    2013-01-09

    Pseudobinary solid-solution semiconductor nanowires made of (GaP)(1-x)(ZnS)(x), (ZnS)(1-x)(GaP)(x) and (GaN)(1-x)(ZnO)(x) were synthesized based on an elaborative compositional, structural, and synthetic designs. Using analytical high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), we confirmed that the structure uniformity and a lattice match between the two constituting binary components play the key roles in the formation of quaternary solid-solution nanostructures. Electrical transport measurements on individual GaP and (GaP)(1-x)(ZnS)(x) nanowires indicated that a slight invasion of ZnS in the GaP host could lead to the abrupt resistance increase, resulting in the semiconductor-to-insulator transition. The method proposed here may be extended to the rational synthesis of many other multicomponent nanosystems with tunable and intriguing optoelectronic properties for specific applications.

  15. Turnpike solutions of control problems in quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, Vladimir I.

    2016-06-01

    The model of a quantum system of interacting spins based on the Shrödinger equation with unbounded linear control is transformed to an equivalent derived system (known from the degenerate problems theory). It consists of a regular differential system with new control and description of impulse control modes. This reveals the general turnpike structure of control processes and allows to propose some effective algorithms of their investigation.

  16. Singular perturbation solutions of steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Sheng; He, Dongdong; Wylie, Jonathan J; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-02-01

    We study the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system with an arbitrary number of ion species with arbitrary valences in the absence of fixed charges. Assuming point charges and that the Debye length is small relative to the domain size, we derive an asymptotic formula for the steady-state solution by matching outer and boundary layer solutions. The case of two ionic species has been extensively studied, the uniqueness of the solution has been proved, and an explicit expression for the solution has been obtained. However, the case of three or more ions has received significantly less attention. Previous work has indicated that the solution may be nonunique and that even obtaining numerical solutions is a difficult task since one must solve complicated systems of nonlinear equations. By adopting a methodology that preserves the symmetries of the PNP system, we show that determining the outer solution effectively reduces to solving a single scalar transcendental equation. Due to the simple form of the transcendental equation, it can be solved numerically in a straightforward manner. Our methodology thus provides a standard procedure for solving the PNP system and we illustrate this by solving some practical examples. Despite the fact that for three ions, previous studies have indicated that multiple solutions may exist, we show that all except for one of these solutions are unphysical and thereby prove the existence and uniqueness for the three-ion case.

  17. Spacecraft Power Systems Engineering: Solutions for NASA's Manned Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of spacecraft power systems is presented, with a focus on applications in the manned space program. The topics include: 1) History; 2) State-of-the-art; 3) Development directions; 4) Focus on applications in the manned space program led from JSC; 5) Power Systems Engineering Trade Space; 6) Power Generation and Energy Storage; 7) Power Distribution and Control; and 8) Actuation

  18. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Solute reactions indicate that calcite and silica are precipitated in the aquifer. Large amounts of sodium and chloride, relative to their concentration in the igneous rock, are being removed from the aquifer. Release of fluids from inclusions in the igneous rocks, and initial flushing of grain boundaries and pores of detrital marine sediments in interbeds are believed to be the source of the sodium chloride. Identification and quantification of reactions controlling solute concentrations in groundwater in the eastern plain indicate that the aquifer is not a large mixing vessel that simply stores and transmits water and solutes but is undergoing diagenesis and is both a source and sink for solutes. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake River basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake River Plain contains

  19. Analytical Solution to the Pneumatic Transient Rod System at ACRR

    SciTech Connect

    Fehr, Brandon Michael

    2016-01-08

    The ACRR pulse is pneumatically driven by nitrogen in a system of pipes, valves and hoses up to the connection of the pneumatic system and mechanical linkages of the transient rod (TR). The main components of the TR pneumatic system are the regulator, accumulator, solenoid valve and piston-cylinder assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to analyze the flow of nitrogen through the TR pneumatic system in order to develop a motion profile of the piston during the pulse and be able to predict the pressure distributions inside both the cylinder and accumulators. The predicted pressure distributions will be validated against pressure transducer data, while the motion profile will be compared to proximity switch data. By predicting the motion of the piston, pulse timing will be determined and provided to the engineers/operators for verification. The motion profile will provide an acceleration distribution to be used in Razorback to more accurately predict reactivity insertion into the system.

  20. Periodic solutions for nonlinear integro-differential systems with piecewise constant argument.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuo-Shou

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the existence of the periodic solutions of a nonlinear integro-differential system with piecewise alternately advanced and retarded argument of generalized type, in short DEPCAG; that is, the argument is a general step function. We consider the critical case, when associated linear homogeneous system admits nontrivial periodic solutions. Criteria of existence of periodic solutions of such equations are obtained. In the process we use Green's function for periodic solutions and convert the given DEPCAG into an equivalent integral equation. Then we construct appropriate mappings and employ Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem to show the existence of a periodic solution of this type of nonlinear differential equations. We also use the contraction mapping principle to show the existence of a unique periodic solution. Appropriate examples are given to show the feasibility of our results.

  1. Purification of uranothorite solid solutions from polyphase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavier, Nicolas; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Costin, Dan Tiberiu; Mesbah, Adel; Ravaux, Johann; Poinssot, Christophe; Dacheux, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    The mineral coffinite, nominally USiO4, and associated Th1-xUxSiO4 uranothorite solid solutions are of great interest from a geochemical point of view and in the case of the direct storage of spent nuclear fuels. Nevertheless, they clearly exhibit a lack in the evaluation of their thermodynamic data, mainly because of the difficulties linked with their preparation as pure phases. This paper thus presents physical and chemical methods aiming to separate uranothorite solid solutions from oxide additional phases such as amorphous SiO2 and nanometric crystallized Th1-yUyO2. The repetition of centrifugation steps envisaged in first place was rapidly dropped due to poor recovery yields, to the benefit of successive washings in acid then basic media. Under both static and dynamic flow rates (i.e. low or high rate of leachate renewal), ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) analyses revealed the systematic elimination of Th1-yUyO2 in acid media and of SiO2 in basic media. Nevertheless, two successive steps were always needed to reach pure samples. On this basis, a first cycle performed in static conditions was chosen to eliminate the major part of the accessory phases while a second one, in dynamic conditions, allowed the elimination of the residual impurities. The complete purification of the samples was finally evidenced through the characterization of the samples by the means of PXRD (Powder X-Ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations and X-EDS (X-Ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) analyses.

  2. Some exact solutions of a system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalyuk, S.S.

    1988-02-01

    Interactions that break the symmetry of systems of nonrelativistic Schroedinger equations but preserve their symmetry with respect to one-parameter subgroups of the Schroedinger group are described. Ansatzes for invariant solutions and the corresponding systems of reduced equations in invariant variables for Galileo-invariant Schroedinger equations are found. Exact solutions for the system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space for the generalized Hubbard model are obtained.

  3. Nutrient solution cooling and its effect on temperature of leaf lettuce in hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Nam, S W; Kim, M K; Son, J E

    1996-12-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of a hydroponic system were experimentally verified after theoretical establishment and the effect of nutrient solution cooling on the plant temperature was investigated. About 96 percent of the total heat flow transferred from culture bed to nutrient solution was the conductive heat through planting board and partitioning materials. The average and maximum temperatures of the leaf lettuce decreased 0.6 and 1.5 degrees C., respectively, with cooling of nutrient solution by 6 degrees C. A numerical model for prediction of cooling load of nutrient solution in a hydroponic greenhouse was developed, and the results from the simulation model showed a good agreement with those from experiments. A mechanical cooling system using the counter flow type with double pipes was developed for cooling the nutrient solution. Also the heat transfer characteristics of the system were analyzed experimentally and theoretically, and compared with the other existing cooling systems of nutrient solution. The cooling capacities of three different systems, which used polyethylene tube in solution tank, stainless tube in solution tank, and the counter flow type with double pipes, were comparatively evaluated.

  4. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems—univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425

  5. Properties of solutions of certain control problems associated with the Navier-Stokes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursikov, A. V.

    The paper examines the properties of solutions of certain problems involving the control of systems described by the Navier-Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions and without constraints on the controlling parameter. The uniqueness of the solutions is considered; necessary and sufficient conditions of the absolute minimum are obtained; and the smoothness of the solutions is demonstrated. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are also examined.

  6. FELIN: tailored optronics and systems solutions for dismounted combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcent, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    The FELIN French modernization program for dismounted combat provides the Armies with info-centric systems which dramatically enhance the performances of the soldier and the platoon. Sagem now has available a portfolio of various equipments, providing C4I, data and voice digital communication, and enhanced vision for day and night operations, through compact high performance electro-optics. The FELIN system provides the infantryman with a high-tech integrated and modular system which increases significantly their detection, recognition, identification capabilities, their situation awareness and information sharing, and this in any dismounted close combat situation. Among the key technologies used in this system, infrared and intensified vision provide a significant improvement in capability, observation performance and protection of the ground soldiers. This paper presents in detail the developed equipments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from the technical and operational feedback from dismounted close combat field tests.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  8. A fast solution switching system with temperature control for single cell measurements

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Duk-Su; Chen, Liangyi; Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen A.; Jung, Seung-Ryoung

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a perfusion system for biophysical single cell experiments at the physiological temperature. Our system regulates temperature of test solutions using a small heat exchanger that includes several capillaries. Water circulating inside the heat exchanger warms or cools test solutions flowing inside the capillaries. Temperature-controlled solutions are delivered directly to a single cell(s) through a multibarreled manifold that switches solutions bathing a cell in less than 1 s. This solution exchange is optimal for patch clamp, single-cell microamperometry, and microfluorometry experiments. Using this system, we demonstrate that exocytosis from pancreatic β cells and activation of TRPV1 channels are temperature sensitive. We also discuss how to measure local temperature near a single cell under investigation. PMID:21536068

  9. A real time monitoring system of ringer's solution residual amount for automatic nursing in hopsitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jong-Won; Ha, Kwan-Yong; Nam, Chul; Ayurzana, Odgelral; Kim, Hie-Sik

    2005-12-01

    A real-time embedded system was developed for remote monitoring and checking the residual quantity and changing of Ringer's solution. It is monitored nurses' room. A Load Cell was applied as a sensor to check the residual quantity of Ringer's solution. This Load Cell detects the physical changes of Ringer's solution and transfers electronic signal to the amplifier. Amplified analog signal is converted into digital signal by A/D converter. Developed Embedded system, which computes these data with microprocess (8052) then makes it possible to monitor the residual quantity of Ringer's solution real-time on a server computer. A Checking system on Residual Quantity of Ringer's Solution Using Load cell cut costs using a simple design for a circuit.

  10. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  11. Methods of construction and study of Frankl system self-similar solutions in the hyperbolic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemyakina, T.; Alekseenkκo, S.

    2016-11-01

    Self-similar solution of the Frankl system in the hyperbolic case was found. The Frankl system is a system of mixed type equations. Under certain conditions, it describes a model of the membrane theory of shells. The Frankl system describes a stationary irrotational motion of an ideal gas in the transition vicinity from subsonic to supersonic speeds. We find a sufficient condition on the initial data that guarantees existence of a global classical solution continued from a local solution. The proof of the nonlocal solvability of the problem in the original variables is based on the additional argument method. It allowed justify and construct a numerical solution. Numerical experiments were carried out for model examples of the Frankl system.

  12. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  13. Teleradiology network system using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-02-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme and the tokenization as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of automatic backup. With automatic backup technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged due to the large area disaster like the great earthquake of Japan, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. Moreover, by using tokenization, the history information of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies is prevented from lying scattered by replacing the history information with another character string (Make it to powerlessness). As a result, information is available only to those who have rightful access it and the sender of a message and the message itself are verified at the receiving point. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  14. Global small solutions of 2-D incompressible MHD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fanghua; Xu, Li; Zhang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the global wellposedness of 2-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamical system with smooth initial data which is close to some non-trivial steady state. It is a coupled system between the Navier-Stokes equations and a free transport equation with a universal nonlinear coupling structure. The main difficulty of the proof lies in exploring the dissipative mechanism of the system. To achieve this and to avoid the difficulty of propagating anisotropic regularity for the free transport equation, we first reformulate our system (1.1) in the Lagrangian coordinates (2.19). Then we employ anisotropic Littlewood-Paley analysis to establish the key a prioriL1 (R+ ; Lip (R2)) estimate for the Lagrangian velocity field Yt. With this estimate, we can prove the global wellposedness of (2.19) with smooth and small initial data by using the energy method. We emphasize that the algebraic structure of (2.19) is crucial for the proofs to work. The global wellposedness of the original system (1.1) then follows by a suitable change of variables.

  15. Particular transcendent solution of the Ernst system generalized on n fields

    SciTech Connect

    Leaute, B.; Marcilhacy, G.

    1986-03-01

    A particular solution, a function of a particular form of the fifth Painleve transcendent, of the Ernst system generalized to n fields is determined, which characterizes both the stationary axially symmetric fields, the solution of the Einstein (n-1) Maxwell equations, and one class of axially symmetric static self-dual SU(n+1) Yang--Mills fields.

  16. Quasistationary Solution of a Two-Component Hyperbolic System on an Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, K. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    A quasistationary solution of a two-component system of first-order telegraph equations on an interval with time-dependent conditions is constructed, where these conditions are prescribed at interior points of the interval. Application of the obtained solution as a criterion for leakage detection is considered.

  17. Expanding the Space of Plausible Solutions in a Medical Tutoring System for Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Hameedullah; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2009-01-01

    In well-defined domains such as Physics, Mathematics, and Chemistry, solutions to a posed problem can objectively be classified as correct or incorrect. In ill-defined domains such as medicine, the classification of solutions to a patient problem as correct or incorrect is much more complex. Typical tutoring systems accept only a small set of…

  18. The Singular Set of Solutions to Non-Differentiable Elliptic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingione, Giuseppe

    We estimate the Hausdorff dimension of the singular set of solutions to elliptic systems of the type If the vector fields a and b are Hölder continuous with respect to the variable x with exponent α, then the Hausdorff dimension of the singular set of any weak solution is at most n-2α.

  19. Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green's function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1-9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126-140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.

  20. Distributed Cooperation Solution Method of Complex System Based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijin, Jiang; Yuhui, Xu

    To adapt the model in reconfiguring fault diagnosing to dynamic environment and the needs of solving the tasks of complex system fully, the paper introduced multi-Agent and related technology to the complicated fault diagnosis, an integrated intelligent control system is studied in this paper. Based on the thought of the structure of diagnostic decision and hierarchy in modeling, based on multi-layer decomposition strategy of diagnosis task, a multi-agent synchronous diagnosis federation integrated different knowledge expression modes and inference mechanisms are presented, the functions of management agent, diagnosis agent and decision agent are analyzed, the organization and evolution of agents in the system are proposed, and the corresponding conflict resolution algorithm in given, Layered structure of abstract agent with public attributes is build. System architecture is realized based on MAS distributed layered blackboard. The real world application shows that the proposed control structure successfully solves the fault diagnose problem of the complex plant, and the special advantage in the distributed domain.

  1. Periodic solutions of a spring-pendulum system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.; Baxa, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A study has been made of a dynamical system composed of a pendulum and a harmonic oscillator, in order to show the remarkable resemblance with many classical celestial mechanics problems, in particular, the restricted three-body problem. It is shown that the well-known investigations of periodic orbits can be applied to the present dynamics problem.

  2. Solution of quantum integrable systems from quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorey, Nick; Zhao, Peng

    2017-02-01

    We construct new integrable systems describing particles with internal spin from four-dimensional N = 2 quiver gauge theories. The models can be quantized and solved exactly using the quantum inverse scattering method and also using the Bethe/Gauge correspondence.

  3. Subharmonic Solutions Near an Equilibrium Point for Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Thus A = 0 will be continued as A,(6) = A+ + ... j = 1,2. (2.5) Since the matrix V is invertible, W is nilpotent and, V and W commute, the matrix (eV...Hamiltonian system z JA(t)z + JHt..(z, t) where A(t) is a matrix , fl,(z,t) = o(I z 1) and both A and H are periodic in t. On the linear part of the system we...write the Hamiltonian as H(z, t) = 1(A(t)z, z) + II(z, t) (0.2) where A(t) denotes the Hessian matrix of H at z = 0 and ft(z, t) = o(Iz12) represents the

  4. An effective system to produce smoke solutions from dried plant tissue for seed germination studies1

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Janice; Coutant, Nancy; Lawrence, Barbara; Finn, Daniel; Finn, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. • Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch) were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g) of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. • Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process. PMID:25202613

  5. Continuous countercurrent membrane column for the separation of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent systems

    DOEpatents

    Nerad, Bruce A.; Krantz, William B.

    1988-01-01

    A reverse osmosis membrane process or hybrid membrane - complementary separator process for producing enriched product or waste streams from concentrated and dilute feed streams for both solvent/solvent and solute/solvent systems is described.

  6. Effects of solvent on solution prepregging of the resin system LaRC{trademark}-IAX-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cano, R.J.; Massey, C.P.; St. Clair, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    This work assesses the feasibility of using an alternative solvent for the production of composites from polyimide resin systems via solution prepregging. Previous work on solution prepregging of polyimide systems at NASA Langley Research Center has concentrated on the use of the solvent N-methylpyrrolidinone. An alternative solvent with a similar boiling point, -{gamma}-Butyrolactone, was used to prepare the poly(amide acid) version of LaRC{trademark}-IAX-2. These solutions were subsequently used to prepare prepreg and graphite-reinforced composites. Mechanical properties are presented for the resin system LaRC{trademark}-IAX-2 (4% and 5% offset in stoichiometry and endcapped with phthalic anhydride) impregnated onto Hercules IM7 carbon fiber. Results from this work were compared to data obtained on the same resin system which had been solution prepregged with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidinone.

  7. Closed-form solutions of performability. [modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Methods which yield closed form performability solutions for continuous valued variables are developed. The models are similar to those employed in performance modeling (i.e., Markovian queueing models) but are extended so as to account for variations in structure due to faults. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. To avoid known difficulties associated with exact transient solutions, an approximate decomposition of the model is employed permitting certain submodels to be solved in equilibrium. These solutions are then incorporated in a model with fewer transient states and by solving the latter, a closed form solution of the system's performability is obtained. In conclusion, some applications of this solution are discussed and illustrated, including an example of design optimization.

  8. Generalized solutions of initial-boundary value problems for second-order hyperbolic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyeva, L. A.; Zakir'yanova, G. K.

    2011-07-01

    The method of boundary integral equations is developed as applied to initial-boundary value problems for strictly hyperbolic systems of second-order equations characteristic of anisotropic media dynamics. Based on the theory of distributions (generalized functions), solutions are constructed in the space of generalized functions followed by passing to integral representations and classical solutions. Solutions are considered in the class of singular functions with discontinuous derivatives, which are typical of physical problems describing shock waves. The uniqueness of the solutions to the initial-boundary value problems is proved under certain smoothness conditions imposed on the boundary functions. The Green's matrix of the system and new fundamental matrices based on it are used to derive integral analogues of the Gauss, Kirchhoff, and Green formulas for solutions and solving singular boundary integral equations.

  9. Advanced Metalworking Solutions For Naval Systems That Go In Harm’s Way

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Metalworking Solutions For Naval Systems That Go In Harm’s Way 2015 Annual Report Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Metalworking Solutions For Naval Systems That Go In Harm’s Way: 2015 Annual Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and enable this technology in other applications going forward. NMC understands that a smooth sea never made a skilled mariner. Whether the

  10. Interoperability of a mobile health care solution with electronic healthcare record systems.

    PubMed

    De Toledo, P; Lalinde, W; Del Pozo, F; Thurber, D; Jimenez-Fernandez, S

    2006-01-01

    Mobile health care solutions involving patient monitoring are an increasingly accepted element in chronic disease management strategies. When used in healthcare systems with different providers, it is essential that the information gathered from the patient is available at each of these providers information repositories. This paper describes the design of a connectivity interface based on the HL7 standard that allows the MOTOHEALTH mobile health care solution to communicate with external electronic healthcare record systems supporting HL7.

  11. Existence of almost periodic solutions for forced perturbed systems with piecewise constant argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yonghui; Huang, Zhenkun; Han, Maoan

    2007-09-01

    Certain almost periodic forced perturbed systems with piecewise argument are considered in this paper. By using the contraction mapping principle and some new analysis technique, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solution of these systems. Furthermore, we study the harmonic and subharmonic solutions of these systems. The obtained results generalize the previous known results such as [A.M. Fink, Almost Periodic Differential Equation, Lecture Notes in Math., volE 377, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1974; C.Y. He, Almost Periodic Differential Equations, Higher Education Press, Beijing, 1992 (in Chinese); Z.S. Lin, The existence of almost periodic solution of linear system, Acta Math. Sinica 22 (5) (1979) 515-528 (in Chinese); C.Y. He, Existence of almost periodic solutions of perturbation systems, Ann. Differential Equations 9 (2) (1992) 173-181; Y.H. Xia, M. Lin, J. Cao, The existence of almost periodic solutions of certain perturbation system, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 310 (1) (2005) 81-96]. Finally, a tangible example and its numeric simulations show the feasibility of our results, the comparison between non-perturbed system and perturbed system, the relation between systems with and without piecewise argument.

  12. Global Solution of Dynamical Systems a Report to Z. Kopal, on what Followed Since

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudas, C. L.; Papadakis, K. E.

    2005-04-01

    Two basic problems of dynamics, one of which was tackled in the extensive work of Z. Kopal (see e.g. Kopal, 1978, Dynamics of Close Binary Systems, D. Reidel Publication, Dordrecht, Holland.), are presented with their approximate general solutions. The ‘penetration’ into the space of solution of these non-integrable autonomous and conservative systems is achieved by application of ‘ The Last Geometric Theorem of Poincaré’ (Birkhoff, 1913, Am. Math. Soc. (rev. edn. 1966)) and the calculation of sub-sets of ‘solutions précieuses’ that are covering densely the spaces of all solutions (non-periodic and periodic) of these problems. The treated problems are: 1. The two-dimensional Duffing problem, 2. The restricted problem around the Roche limit. The approximate general solutions are developed by applying known techniques by means of which all solutions re-entering after one, two, three, etc, revolutions are, first, located and then calculated with precision. The properties of these general solutions, such as the morphology of their constituent periodic solutions and their stability for both problems are discussed. Calculations of Poincaré sections verify the presence of chaos, but this does not bear on the computability of the general solutions of the problems treated. The procedure applied seems efficient and sufficient for developing approximate general solutions of conservative and autonomous dynamical systems that fulfil the PoincaréBirkhoff theorems. The same procedure does not apply to the sub-set of unbounded solutions of these problems.

  13. Satellite and Ground System Solutions at Your Fingertips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In the summer of 1998, the blockbuster action movie Armageddon captivated audiences with a thrilling doomsday plot about a meteor the size of Texas that was racing towards the Earth. Though the premise of the movie was purely fictional, the unfortunate reality is that near-Earth asteroids such as the one portrayed in the film do exist. On December 23, 2004, NASA announced that an asteroid it anticipated to pass near the Earth on April 13, 2029, had been assigned the highest score to date on the universally used Torino Impact Hazard Scale. At first, the flyby distance for the asteroid, dubbed MN4, was uncertain and an Earth impact could not be ruled out. The odds of impact were initially believed to be 1 in 300, high enough to merit special monitoring by astronomers around the world, but were then escalated to 1 in 37 on December 27. NASA officials noted, however, that these odds should not be of public concern, since they were likely to change on a day-to-day basis as new data were received. The officials were correct in their assertion, as any chances of an impact with Earth in 2029 were completely ruled out later that same day. Integral Systems, Inc., a leading provider of satellite ground systems and the first company to offer an integrated suite of commercial-off-the-shelf software products for satellite command and control, is helping NASA keep a careful watch for any close-encountering asteroids with its tracking technology. The company supported the first NASA Discovery mission, the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program, back in 1996, and has expanded its business by building more ground systems for a greater variety of satellites than any other company in the world. (NASA has since launched seven more Discovery missions, with the eighth lifting off earlier this year.) The experience gained from the company s participation in developing satellite command and control ground systems for the NEAR program has bolstered its flagship product line, the

  14. A general method for the existence of periodic solutions of differential systems in the plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Alessandro; Sfecci, Andrea

    We propose a general method to prove the existence of periodic solutions for planar systems of ordinary differential equations, which can be used in many different circumstances. Applications are given to some nonresonant cases, even for systems with superlinear growth in some direction, or with a singularity. Systems "at resonance" are also considered, provided a Landesman-Lazer type of condition is assumed.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the normal leakage paths through the building envelope disappear. Researchers from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. In this project, the CARB team evaluated the four different strategies for providing make-up air to multifamily residential buildings and developed guidelines to help contractors and building owners choose the best ventilation systems.

  16. Privacy Management and Networked PPD Systems - Challenges Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pharow, Peter; Petersen, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Modern personal portable health devices (PPDs) become increasingly part of a larger, inhomogeneous information system. Information collected by sensors are stored and processed in global clouds. Services are often free of charge, but at the same time service providers' business model is based on the disclosure of users' intimate health information. Health data processed in PPD networks is not regulated by health care specific legislation. In PPD networks, there is no guarantee that stakeholders share same ethical principles with the user. Often service providers have own security and privacy policies and they rarely offer to the user possibilities to define own, or adapt existing privacy policies. This all raises huge ethical and privacy concerns. In this paper, the authors have analyzed privacy challenges in PPD networks from users' viewpoint using system modeling method and propose the principle "Personal Health Data under Personal Control" must generally be accepted at global level. Among possible implementation of this principle, the authors propose encryption, computer understandable privacy policies, and privacy labels or trust based privacy management methods. The latter can be realized using infrastructural trust calculation and monitoring service. A first step is to require the protection of personal health information and the principle proposed being internationally mandatory. This requires both regulatory and standardization activities, and the availability of open and certified software application which all service providers can implement. One of those applications should be the independent Trust verifier.

  17. A Uniqueness Criterion for Unbounded Solutions to the Vlasov-Poisson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miot, Evelyne

    2016-09-01

    We prove uniqueness for the Vlasov-Poisson system in two and three dimensions under the condition that the L p norms of the macroscopic density grow at most linearly with respect to p. This allows for solutions with logarithmic singularities. We provide explicit examples of initial data that fulfill the uniqueness condition and that exhibit a logarithmic blow-up. In the gravitational two-dimensional case, such states are intimately related to radially symmetric steady solutions of the system. Our method relies on the Lagrangian formulation for the solutions, exploiting the second-order structure of the corresponding ODE.

  18. On global classical solutions of the three dimensional relativistic Vlasov-Darwin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuting; Zhang, Xianwen

    2016-08-01

    We study the Cauchy problem of the relativistic Vlasov-Darwin system with generalized variables proposed by Sospedra-Alfonso et al. ["Global classical solutions of the relativistic Vlasov-Darwin system with small Cauchy data: the generalized variables approach," Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 205, 827-869 (2012)]. We prove global existence of a non-negative classical solution to the Cauchy problem in three space variables under small perturbation of the initial datum, and as a consequence, we obtain that nearly spherically symmetric solutions with required regularity exist globally in time.

  19. Solution of underdetermined systems of equations with gridded a priori constraints.

    PubMed

    Stiros, Stathis C; Saltogianni, Vasso

    2014-01-01

    The TOPINV, Topological Inversion algorithm (or TGS, Topological Grid Search) initially developed for the inversion of highly non-linear redundant systems of equations, can solve a wide range of underdetermined systems of non-linear equations. This approach is a generalization of a previous conclusion that this algorithm can be used for the solution of certain integer ambiguity problems in Geodesy. The overall approach is based on additional (a priori) information for the unknown variables. In the past, such information was used either to linearize equations around approximate solutions, or to expand systems of observation equations solved on the basis of generalized inverses. In the proposed algorithm, the a priori additional information is used in a third way, as topological constraints to the unknown n variables, leading to an R(n) grid containing an approximation of the real solution. The TOPINV algorithm does not focus on point-solutions, but exploits the structural and topological constraints in each system of underdetermined equations in order to identify an optimal closed space in the R(n) containing the real solution. The centre of gravity of the grid points defining this space corresponds to global, minimum-norm solutions. The rationale and validity of the overall approach are demonstrated on the basis of examples and case studies, including fault modelling, in comparison with SVD solutions and true (reference) values, in an accuracy-oriented approach.

  20. Droplet-based lipid bilayer system integrated with microfluidic channels for solution exchange.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yutaro; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-04-21

    This paper proposes a solution exchange of a droplet-based lipid bilayer system, in which the inner solution of a droplet is replaced for the purpose of efficient ion channel analyses. In our previous report, we successfully recorded the channel conductance of alpha-hemolysin in a bilayer lipid membrane using a droplet contact method that can create a spontaneous lipid bilayer at the interface of contacting droplets; this method is widely used as highly efficient method for preparing planar lipid membranes. When only pipetting droplets of the solution, this method is highly efficient for preparing lipid membranes. However, the drawback of droplet-based systems is their inability to exchange the solution within the droplets. To study the effect of inhibitors and promoters of ion channels in drug discovery, it would be beneficial to conduct a solution exchange of droplets to introduce membrane proteins and to apply or wash-out the chemicals. In this study, we propose a droplet contact method that allows for the solution exchange of droplets via microfluidic channels. We experimentally and numerically investigated the bilayer stability with respect to exchanging flow rates, and then demonstrated a binding assay of an alpha-hemolysin using one of its blockers. The solution exchange in this system was conducted in less than 20 s without rupturing the membrane. We believe that the proposed system will enhance the efficiency of ion channel analyses.

  1. A Functional-Phylogenetic Classification System for Transmembrane Solute Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional

  2. Iterative solutions to the steady-state density matrix for optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nation, P. D.; Johansson, J. R.; Blencowe, M. P.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sparse matrix permutation from graph theory that gives stable incomplete lower-upper preconditioners necessary for iterative solutions to the steady-state density matrix for quantum optomechanical systems. This reordering is efficient, adding little overhead to the computation, and results in a marked reduction in both memory and runtime requirements compared to other solution methods, with performance gains increasing with system size. Either of these benchmarks can be tuned via the preconditioner accuracy and solution tolerance. This reordering optimizes the condition number of the approximate inverse and is the only method found to be stable at large Hilbert space dimensions. This allows for steady-state solutions to otherwise intractable quantum optomechanical systems.

  3. Applications of isotopes to tracing sources of solutes and water in shallow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Carol; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    1995-01-01

    New awareness of the potential danger to water supplies posed by the use of agricultural chemicals has focused attention on the nature of groundwater recharge and the mobility of various solutes, especially nitrate and pesticides, in shallow systems. A better understanding of hydrologic flowpaths and solute sources is required to determine the potential impact of sources of contamination on water supplies, to develop management practices for preserving water quality, and to develop remediation plans for sites that are already contaminated. In many cases, environmental isotopes can be employed as 'surgical tools' for answering very specific questions about water and solute sources. Isotopic data can often provide more accurate information about the system than hydrologic measurements or complicated hydrologic models. This note focuses on practical and cost-effective examples of how naturally-occurring isotopes can be used to track water and solutes as they move through shallow systems.

  4. Open architecture controller solution for custom machine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ronald L.; Reagin, J. M.; Garner, T. D.; Sweeny, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    In today's marketplace, product quality and price have become requirements for entry and are no longer sufficient to differentiate one's product and gain a competitive advantage. A key to competition in the future will be a company's ability to respond quickly to a rapidly-changing global marketplace. Developers of manufacturing equipment must play a role in the reduction of the product development cycle time by increasing the flexibility of their equipment and decreasing its cost and time to market. This paper will discuss the implementation of an open-architecture machine controller on a flip-chip placement machine and how this implementation supports the goals of reduced development time and increased equipment flexibility. The following subjects are discussed: 1) Issues related to the selection of a standard operating system, including real-time performance, preemptive multi-tasking, multi-threaded applications, and development tools. 2) The use of a common API for motion, and I/O. 3) Use of a rapid application development and object-oriented programming techniques on the machine controller to shorten development time and support code reuse. 4) Specific hardware and software issues related to the implementation of the flip chip controller. This includes hardware and software implementation details, controller performance, and human interface issues.

  5. An Accurate Heading Solution using MEMS-based Gyroscope and Magnetometer Integrated System (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, M.

    2014-11-01

    An accurate heading solution is required for many applications and it can be achieved by high grade (high cost) gyroscopes (gyros) which may not be suitable for such applications. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems-based (MEMS) is an emerging technology, which has the potential of providing heading solution using a low cost MEMS-based gyro. However, MEMS-gyro-based heading solution drifts significantly over time. The heading solution can also be estimated using MEMS-based magnetometer by measuring the horizontal components of the Earth magnetic field. The MEMS-magnetometer-based heading solution does not drift over time, but are contaminated by high level of noise and may be disturbed by the presence of magnetic field sources such as metal objects. This paper proposed an accurate heading estimation procedure based on the integration of MEMS-based gyro and magnetometer measurements that correct gyro and magnetometer measurements where gyro angular rates of changes are estimated using magnetometer measurements and then integrated with the measured gyro angular rates of changes with a robust filter to estimate the heading. The proposed integration solution is implemented using two data sets; one was conducted in static mode without magnetic disturbances and the second was conducted in kinematic mode with magnetic disturbances. The results showed that the proposed integrated heading solution provides accurate, smoothed and undisturbed solution when compared with magnetometerbased and gyro-based heading solutions.

  6. Management of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Caroline L; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease predominantly affecting women, particularly those of childbearing age. SLE provides challenges in the prepregnancy, antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods for these women, and for the medical, obstetric, and midwifery teams who provide their care. As with many medical conditions in pregnancy, the best maternal and fetal–neonatal outcomes are obtained with a planned pregnancy and a cohesive multidisciplinary approach. Effective prepregnancy risk assessment and counseling includes exploration of factors for poor pregnancy outcome, discussion of risks, and appropriate planning for pregnancy, with consideration of discussion of relative contraindications to pregnancy. In pregnancy, early referral for hospital-coordinated care, involvement of obstetricians and rheumatologists (and other specialists as required), an individual management plan, regular reviews, and early recognition of flares and complications are all important. Women are at risk of lupus flares, worsening renal impairment, onset of or worsening hypertension, preeclampsia, and/or venous thromboembolism, and miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and/or neonatal lupus syndrome (congenital heart block or neonatal lupus erythematosus). A cesarean section may be required in certain obstetric contexts (such as urgent preterm delivery for maternal and/or fetal well-being), but vaginal birth should be the aim for the majority of women. Postnatally, an ongoing individual management plan remains important, with neonatal management where necessary and rheumatology followup. This article explores the challenges at each stage of pregnancy, discusses the effect of SLE on pregnancy and vice versa, and reviews antirheumatic medications with the latest guidance about their use and safety in pregnancy. Such information is required to effectively and safely manage each stage of pregnancy in women with SLE

  7. Management of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Knight, Caroline L; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease predominantly affecting women, particularly those of childbearing age. SLE provides challenges in the prepregnancy, antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods for these women, and for the medical, obstetric, and midwifery teams who provide their care. As with many medical conditions in pregnancy, the best maternal and fetal-neonatal outcomes are obtained with a planned pregnancy and a cohesive multidisciplinary approach. Effective prepregnancy risk assessment and counseling includes exploration of factors for poor pregnancy outcome, discussion of risks, and appropriate planning for pregnancy, with consideration of discussion of relative contraindications to pregnancy. In pregnancy, early referral for hospital-coordinated care, involvement of obstetricians and rheumatologists (and other specialists as required), an individual management plan, regular reviews, and early recognition of flares and complications are all important. Women are at risk of lupus flares, worsening renal impairment, onset of or worsening hypertension, preeclampsia, and/or venous thromboembolism, and miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and/or neonatal lupus syndrome (congenital heart block or neonatal lupus erythematosus). A cesarean section may be required in certain obstetric contexts (such as urgent preterm delivery for maternal and/or fetal well-being), but vaginal birth should be the aim for the majority of women. Postnatally, an ongoing individual management plan remains important, with neonatal management where necessary and rheumatology followup. This article explores the challenges at each stage of pregnancy, discusses the effect of SLE on pregnancy and vice versa, and reviews antirheumatic medications with the latest guidance about their use and safety in pregnancy. Such information is required to effectively and safely manage each stage of pregnancy in women with SLE.

  8. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  9. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  10. Multiple solutions to dense systems in radar scattering using a preconditioned block GMRES solver

    SciTech Connect

    Boyse, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Multiple right-hand sides occur in radar scattering calculations in the computation of the simulated radar return from a body at a large number of angles. Each desired angle requires a right-hand side vector to be computed and the solution generated. These right-hand sides are naturally smooth functions of the angle parameters and this property is utilized in a novel way to compute solutions an order of magnitude faster than LINPACK The modeling technique addressed is the Method of Moments (MOM), i.e. a boundary element method for time harmonic Maxwell`s equations. Discretization by this method produces general complex dense systems of rank 100`s to 100,000`s. The usual way to produce the required multiple solutions is via LU factorization and solution routines such as found in LINPACK. Our method uses the block GMRES iterative method to directly iterate a subset of the desired solutions to convergence.

  11. A novel web-enabled healthcare solution on health vault system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lingxia; Chen, Min; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Lai, Xiaorong; Vuong, Son

    2012-06-01

    Complicated Electronic Medical Records (EMR) systems have created problems in systems regarding an easy implementation and interoperability for a Web-enabled Healthcare Solution, which is normally provided by an independent healthcare giver with limited IT knowledge and interests. An EMR system with well-designed and user-friendly interface, such as Microsoft HealthVault System used as the back-end platform of a Web-enabled healthcare application will be an approach to deal with these problems. This paper analyzes the patient oriented Web-enabled healthcare service application as the new trend to delivery healthcare from hospital/clinic-centric to patient-centric, the current e-healthcare applications, and the main backend EMR systems. Then, we present a novel web-enabled healthcare solution based on Microsoft HealthVault EMR system to meet customers' needs, such as, low total cost, easily development and maintenance, and good interoperability. A sample system is given to show how the solution can be fulfilled, evaluated, and validated. We expect that this paper will provide a deep understanding of the available EMR systems, leading to insights for new solutions and approaches driven to next generation EMR systems.

  12. Time-periodic and stationary solutions to the compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ming

    2017-04-01

    We are concerned with the 3-D compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic system with a time-periodic external force in a periodic domain, and establish the existence of a strong time-periodic solution under some smallness and symmetry assumptions by adapting a new approach. The basic idea of the proof is the following. First, we prove the existence of a time-periodic solution to the linearized system by applying the Tychonoff fixed point theorem combined with the energy method and the decay estimates. From the details of the proof, we see that the initial data of the time-periodic solution to the linearized system lies in some convex hull. Then, we construct a set-value function, such that the fixed point of this function is a time-periodic solution of the compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic system. The existence of the fixed point is obtained by the Kakutani fixed point theorem. Moreover, we establish the uniqueness of the time-periodic solution and the existence of the stationary solution.

  13. General Mixed Multi-Soliton Solutions to One-Dimensional Multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we derive a general mixed (bright-dark) multi-soliton solution to a one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa (YO) system, i.e., the (M + 1)-component YO system comprised of M-component short waves (SWs) and one-component long wave (LW) for all possible combinations of nonlinearity coefficients including positive, negative and mixed types. With the help of the KP-hierarchy reduction method, we firstly construct two types of general mixed N-soliton solution (two-bright-one-dark soliton and one-bright-two-dark one for SW components) to the (3+1)-component YO system in detail. Then by extending the corresponding analysis to the (M + 1)-component YO system, a general mixed N-soliton solution in Gram determinant form is obtained. The expression of the mixed soliton solution also contains the general all bright and all dark N-soliton solution as special cases. Besides, the dynamical analysis shows that the inelastic collision can only take place among SW components when at least two SW components have bright solitons in mixed type soliton solution. Whereas, the dark solitons in SW components and the bright soliton in LW component always undergo usual elastic collision.

  14. Numerical Solutions of the Nonlinear Fractional-Order Brusselator System by Bernstein Polynomials

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rahmat Ali; Tajadodi, Haleh; Johnston, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose the Bernstein polynomials to achieve the numerical solutions of nonlinear fractional-order chaotic system known by fractional-order Brusselator system. We use operational matrices of fractional integration and multiplication of Bernstein polynomials, which turns the nonlinear fractional-order Brusselator system to a system of algebraic equations. Two illustrative examples are given in order to demonstrate the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed techniques. PMID:25485293

  15. Rheological behaviors and miscibility of mixture solution of polyaniline and cellulose dissolved in an aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingwei; Lu, Ang; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hongming; Li, Ji; Wang, Xianhong

    2012-08-13

    In our previous work, supramolecular films composed of hydrophilic cellulose and hydrophobic polyaniline (PANI) dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous solution at low temperature through rearrangement of hydrogen bonds have been constructed. To further understand the miscibility and processability of the complex solution, the dynamic rheological behaviors of the PANI/cellulose complex solution were investigated, for the first time, in the present work. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results demonstrated that the inclusion complexes consisted of PANI and cellulose, existed in the aqueous solution, showing a good miscibility. Time-temperatures superposition (tTs) results indicated that the PANI/cellulose solution exhibited a homogeneous system, and the complex solution was more stable than the cellulose solution in the temperature range from 5 to 25 °C. Winter-Chambon theory was proved to be capable of describing the gelation behavior of the PANI/cellulose complex solution. The relaxation exponent at the gel point was calculated to be 0.74, lower than the cellulose solution, indicating strong interactions between PANI and cellulose chains. Relatively larger flow activation energy of the PANI/cellulose solution suggested the formation and rupture of linkages in "junction zones" during the gelation processes. Furthermore, PANI/cellulose gels could form at elevated temperature as a result of the physical cross-linking and chain entanglement, and it was a thermoirreversible process. Moreover, the PANI/cellulose solution remained a liquid state for a long time at the temperature range from 0 to 8 °C, which is important for the industry process.

  16. System for creating at a site, remote from a sterile environment, a parenteral solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Mike (Inventor); Finley, Mike (Inventor); Veillon, Joe (Inventor); Kipp, Jim (Inventor); Dudar, Tom (Inventor); Owens, Jim (Inventor); Ogle, Jim (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a container, system, and method for creating parenteral solutions at a site, remote from sterile environments. The system includes a flexible container that is empty except for a prepackaged amount of a solute that is housed in the interior of the container. The container includes at least one port and a sterilizing filter in communication with an interior of the port. The container is so constructed and arranged that a fluid flow path is created from the port through the filter and into the interior of the container. A sterile water source including means for establishing fluid flow from the sterile water source into the port is provided. Accordingly, sterile water can flow from the sterile water source through the filter into the container where it is mixed with the solute to create a parenteral solution that can then be infused into a patient. A method and container are also provided.

  17. Hodograph transformation and differential constraints for wave solutions to 2 × 2 quasilinear hyperbolic nonhomogeneous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curró, C.; Fusco, D.; Manganaro, N.

    2012-05-01

    The differential constraint method is used to work out a reduction approach to determine solutions in a closed form to the highly nonlinear hodograph system arising from 2 × 2 hyperbolic nonhomogeneous models. These solutions inherit all of the features of the standard wave solutions obtainable via the classical hodograph transformation and in the meantime incorporate the dissipative effects induced on wave processes by the source-like term involved in the governing equations. Within such a theoretical framework the problem of integrating the standard linear hodograph system associated with 2 × 2 homogeneous models is also revisited and a number of results obtained elsewhere of relevant interest in wave problems are recovered as a particular case. Along the lines of the proposed reduction approach, different examples of 2 × 2 governing models are analysed thoroughly in order to highlight the flexibility of the provided solutions to describe hyperbolic dissipative wave processes.

  18. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2014-06-03

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  19. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-08-27

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  20. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2015-09-29

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  1. Global search of non-linear systems periodic solutions: A rotordynamics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrouy, E.; Thouverez, F.

    2010-08-01

    Introducing non-linearities into models contributes towards a better reality description but leads to systems having multiple solutions. It is then legitimate to look for all the solutions of such systems, that is to have a global analysis approach. However no effective method can be found in literature for systems described by more than two or three degrees of freedom. We propose in this paper a way to find all T-periodic solutions—where T is known—of a non-linear dynamical system. This method is compared to three other approaches and is shown to be the most efficient on a Duffing oscillator. As a more complex example, a rotor model including a squeeze-film damper is studied and a second branch of solutions is exhibited.

  2. Development of Three-Layer Simulation Model for Freezing Process of Food Solution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminishi, Koji; Araki, Tetsuya; Shirakashi, Ryo; Ueno, Shigeaki; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    A numerical model has been developed for simulating freezing phenomena of food solution systems. The cell model was simplified to apply to food solution systems, incorporating with the existence of 3 parts such as unfrozen, frozen and moving boundary layers. Moreover, the moving rate of freezing front model was also introduced and calculated by using the variable space network method proposed by Murray and Landis (1957). To demonstrate the validity of the model, it was applied to the freezing processes of coffee solutions. Since the model required the phase diagram of the material to be frozen, the initial freezing temperatures of 1-55 % coffee solutions were measured by the DSC method. The effective thermal conductivity for coffee solutions was determined as a function of temperature and solute concentration by using the Maxwell - Eucken model. One-dimensional freezing process of 10 % coffee solution was simulated based on its phase diagram and thermo-physical properties. The results were good agreement with the experimental data and then showed that the model could accurately describe the change in the location of the freezing front and the distributions of temperature as well as ice fraction during a freezing process.

  3. The microbubble mediated surface probe and the ice-antifreeze glycoprotein solution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesenka, J. P.; Feeney, R. E.; Yeh, Y.

    1993-05-01

    Microbubble growth and its apparent "shrinkage" during the transient approach to steady-state crystal growth have been monitored by dynamic light scattering in the region immediately ahead of ice crystals growing into aqueous solutions containing dilute concentrations of macromolecules. This interfacial bubble growth occurs in the presence of a solution of globular macromolecules, and is independent of the crystal growth direction. In contrast, bubble growth becomes crystal-facet dependent when the solution contains a biological antifreeze molecule, the antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP-4). This solution elicited an immediate, 100 x increase in bubble size above the prismatic surface of ice, followed by a gradual decrease in the averaged bubble size concomitant with a large increase in the size polydispersity. Furthermore, when the steady-state crystal growth condition is reached (in approximately one hour), the average bubble size was still ˜ 80x the size of those found in the pure ice-water system. However, when the same solution is above the basal facet, after the steady-state growth condition is attained, the microbubble diameter is unchanged from that found in the pure ice-water system. The difference in microbubble growth in the vicinity of the dynamic ice-solution interface between solutions of AFGP-4 samples and that of other molecules suggests facet-specific affinity of AFGP by ice, a condition necessary for facet-specific crystal growth inhibition.

  4. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  5. Reactive silica transport in fractured porous media: Analytical solutions for a system of parallel fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianwen

    2012-04-01

    A general analytical solution is derived by using the Laplace transformation to describe transient reactive silica transport in a conceptualized 2-D system involving a set of parallel fractures embedded in an impermeable host rock matrix, taking into account of hydrodynamic dispersion and advection of silica transport along the fractures, molecular diffusion from each fracture to the intervening rock matrix, and dissolution of quartz. A special analytical solution is also developed by ignoring the longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion term but remaining other conditions the same. The general and special solutions are in the form of a double infinite integral and a single infinite integral, respectively, and can be evaluated using Gauss-Legendre quadrature technique. A simple criterion is developed to determine under what conditions the general analytical solution can be approximated by the special analytical solution. It is proved analytically that the general solution always lags behind the special solution, unless a dimensionless parameter is less than a critical value. Several illustrative calculations are undertaken to demonstrate the effect of fracture spacing, fracture aperture and fluid flow rate on silica transport. The analytical solutions developed here can serve as a benchmark to validate numerical models that simulate reactive mass transport in fractured porous media.

  6. Existence of travelling wave solutions for a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with applications in oncology Pérez-García et al. (2015). Of interest is the question of the existence of travelling front solutions of the system. When the speed of the travelling wave is sufficiently large, existence of such fronts is shown using singular geometric perturbation theory.

  7. Cyber-Security Holism: A System of Solutions for a Distributed Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    SUBTITLE CYCBER-SECURITY HOLISM: A SYSTEM OF SOLUTIONS FOR A DISTRIBUTED PROBLEM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Simple Dynamic Programing Example .....................................................................18...organism of the parts. Facing this complexity, I turned to holism, to systems theory, and to dynamic programming used to understand complexity in

  8. Three semi-discrete integrable systems related to orthogonal polynomials and their generalized determinant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Min; Chang, Xiang-Ke; Sun, Jian-Qing; Hu, Xing-Biao; Yeh, Yeong-Nan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized Toeplitz determinant solution for the generalized Schur flow and propose a mixed form of the two known relativistic Toda chains together with its generalized Toeplitz determinant solution. In addition, we also give a Hankel type determinant solution for a nonisospectral Toda lattice. All these results are obtained by technical determinant operations. As a bonus, we finally obtain some new combinatorial numbers based on the moment relations with respect to these semi-discrete integrable systems and give the corresponding combinatorial interpretations by means of the lattice paths.

  9. Optimal Solution for an Engineering Applications Using Modified Artificial Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ganesan, S.; patan, Mahamed Naveed Khan; Navakanth, Polina

    2017-03-01

    An Engineering optimization leads a essential role in several engineering application areas like process design, product design, re-engineering and new product development, etc. In engineering, an awfully best answer is achieved by comparison to some completely different solutions by utilization previous downside information. An optimization algorithms provide systematic associate degreed economical ways that within which of constructing and comparison new design solutions so on understand at best vogue, thus on best solution efficiency and acquire the foremost wonderful design impact. In this paper, a new evolutionary based Modified Artificial Immune System (MAIS) algorithm used to optimize an engineering application of gear drive design. The results are compared with existing design.

  10. The remarkable agreement between the oscillation and wandering characteristics of solutions of differential systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeev, Igor N

    2013-01-31

    Lyapunov-type oscillation and wandering indicators are defined for solutions of systems of differential equations; these are the average frequency of zeros for the projection of a solution onto some line and the average angular velocity of rotation of a solution about the origin in some basis, respectively. An integral equality relating these indicators is obtained. The indicators introduced are shown to coincide if, prior to averaging, the oscillation indicators are minimized over all possible lines, and the wandering indicators over all possible bases. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  11. Solutions of the Strominger System via Stable Bundles on Calabi-Yau Threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Björn; Garcia-Fernandez, Mario

    2012-10-01

    We prove that a given Calabi-Yau threefold with a stable holomorphic vector bundle can be perturbed to a solution of the Strominger system provided that the second Chern class of the vector bundle is equal to the second Chern class of the tangent bundle. If the Calabi-Yau threefold has strict SU(3) holonomy then the equations of motion derived from the heterotic string effective action are also satisfied by the solutions we obtain.

  12. Existence of periodic travelling wave solutions for a regularized Benjamin-Ono system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipicano, Felipe Alexander; Muñoz Grajales, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of periodic travelling wave solutions of a regularized Benjamin-Ono system by using the topological-degree theory of positive operators on Banach spaces. Furthermore, we use a high-accuracy pseudospectral solver based on a Fourier decomposition to construct numerical approximations of these stationary solutions. The numerical simulations are in perfect agreement with the theoretical results.

  13. A System for Managing Replenishment of a Nutrient Solution Using an Electrical Conductivity Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Control of nutrient solution parameters is very important for the growth and development of plants grown hydroponically. Protocols involving different nutrient solution replenishment times (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day replenishment) provide manual periodic control of the nutrient solution's electrical conductivity (EC). Since plants take-up nutrients as they grow, manual control has a drawback in that EC is not held constant between replenishments. In an effort to correct this problem the Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space at Tuskegee University has developed a system for managing and controlling levels of EC over a plant's entire growing cycle. A prototype system is being tested on sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT), and it is being compared to a system in which sweetpotatoes are grown using NFT with manual control. NASA has played an important role in the development of environmental control systems. They have become a forerunner in growing plants hydroponically with some control systems through the use of networked data acquisition and control using environmental growth chambers. Data acquisition systems which involve the use of real-time, calibration, set points, user panel, and graphical representation programming provide a good method of controlling nutrient solution parameters such as EC and pH [Bledsoe, 19931]. In NASA's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center, control is provided by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This is an industrial controller which combines ladder computer logic which has the ability to handle various levels of electrical power. The controller controls temperature, light and other parameters that affect the plant's environment, in the BPC, the Nutrient Delivery System (NIX), a sub-system of the PLC, controls nutrient solution parameters such as EC, pH, and solution levels. When the nutrient EC measurement goes outside a preset range (120

  14. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  15. Novel solutions to low-frequency problems with geometrically designed beam-waveguide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Esquivel, M. S.; Manshadi, F.

    1995-01-01

    The poor low-frequency performance of geometrically designed beam-waveguide (BWG) antennas is shown to be caused by the diffraction phase centers being far from the geometrical optics mirror focus, resulting in substantial spillover and defocusing loss. Two novel solutions are proposed: (1) reposition the mirrors to focus low frequencies and redesign the high frequencies to utilize the new mirror positions, and (2) redesign the input feed system to provide an optimum solution for the low frequency. A novel use of the conjugate phase-matching technique is utilized to design the optimum low-frequency feed system, and the new feed system has been implemented in the JPL research and development BWG as part of a dual S-/X-band (2.3 GHz/8.45 GHz) feed system. The new S-band feed system is shown to perform significantly better than the original geometrically designed system.

  16. BV weak solutions to Gauss-Codazzi system for isometric immersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoforou, Cleopatra

    The isometric immersion problem for surfaces embedded into R is studied via the fluid dynamic framework introduced in Chen et al. (2010) [6] as a system of balance laws of mixed-type. The techniques developed in the theory of weak solutions of bounded variation in continuum physics are employed to deal with the isometric immersions in the setting of differential geometry. The so-called BV framework is formed that establishes convergence of approximate solutions of bounded variation to the Gauss-Codazzi system and yields the C isometric realization of two-dimensional surfaces into R. Local and global existence results are established for weak solutions of small bounded variation to the Gauss-Codazzi system for negatively curved surfaces that admit equilibrium configurations. As an application, the case of catenoidal shell of revolution is provided.

  17. Automated pH Control of Nutrient Solution in a Hydroponic Plant Growth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Over, the years, NASA has played an important role in providing to and the development of automated nutrient delivery and monitoring, systems for growing crops hydroponically for long term space missions. One example are the systems used in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current KSC monitoring system is based on an engineering workstation using standard analog/digital input/output hardware and custom written software. The monitoring system uses completely separate sensors to provide a check of control sensor accuracy and has the ability to graphically display and store data form past experiment so that they are available for data analysis [Fortson, 1992]. In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. The Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space (CFESH) located on the campus of Tuskegee University, has effectively grown sweetpotatoes and peanuts hydroponically for the past five years. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day cycle). But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle. To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT) has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system, which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT.

  18. The global smooth symmetric solution to 2-D full compressible Euler system of Chaplygin gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bingbing; Witt, Ingo; Yin, Huicheng

    2015-01-01

    For one dimensional or multidimensional compressible Euler system of polytropic gases, it is well known that the smooth solution will generally develop singularities in finite time. However, for three dimensional Chaplygin gases, due to the crucial role of "null condition" in the potential equation which is derived by the irrotational and isentropic flow, P. Godin in [9] has proved the global existence of a smooth 3-D spherically symmetric flow with variable entropy when the initial data are of small smooth perturbations with compact supports to a constant state. It is noted that there are some clear differences for the global solution or blowup problems between 2-D and 3-D hyperbolic equations or systems. In this paper, we will focus on the global symmetric solution problem of 2-D full compressible Euler system of Chaplygin gases. Through carrying out involved analysis and finding an appropriate weight we can derive some uniform weighted energy estimates on the small symmetric solution to 2-D compressible Euler system of Chaplygin gases and further establish the global existence of the smooth solution by the continuous induction method.

  19. Analysis of cloud-based solutions on EHRs systems in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cardeñosa, Gonzalo; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays with the growing of the wireless connections people can access all the resources hosted in the Cloud almost everywhere. In this context, organisms can take advantage of this fact, in terms of e-Health, deploying Cloud-based solutions on e-Health services. In this paper two Cloud-based solutions for different scenarios of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) management system are proposed. We have researched articles published between the years 2005 and 2011 about the implementation of e-Health services based on the Cloud in Medline. In order to analyze the best scenario for the deployment of Cloud Computing two solutions for a large Hospital and a network of Primary Care Health centers have been studied. Economic estimation of the cost of the implementation for both scenarios has been done via the Amazon calculator tool. As a result of this analysis two solutions are suggested depending on the scenario: To deploy a Cloud solution for a large Hospital a typical Cloud solution in which are hired just the needed services has been assumed. On the other hand to work with several Primary Care Centers it's suggested the implementation of a network, which interconnects these centers with just one Cloud environment. Finally it's considered the fact of deploying a hybrid solution: in which EHRs with images will be hosted in the Hospital or Primary Care Centers and the rest of them will be migrated to the Cloud.

  20. Irradiating or autoclaving chitosan/polyol solutions: effect on thermogelling chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate systems.

    PubMed

    Jarry, Claire; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Haeck, Jonathan; Chaput, Cyril

    2002-10-01

    The effects of steam sterilization and gamma-irradiation on chitosan and thermogelling chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate (GP) solutions containing polyol additives were investigated. The selected polyols were triethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, glucose and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). They were incorporated to chitosan solutions prior to sterilization in a proportion ranging from 1 to 5% (w/v). The solutions were characterized with respect to their viscosity, thermogelling properties, compressive stress relaxation behavior and chitosan degradation. All polyols reduced the autoclaving-induced viscosity loss and had a positive impact on the solution thermogelling properties and compressive performance of the gels. Steam sterilization in the presence of glucose resulted in a substantial increase in the solution viscosity and gel strength. This was associated with a strong discoloration suggesting chemical alteration of the system. PEG was the most effective agent in preventing hydrolytic degradation of chitosan chains. Gamma-irradiation strongly decreased the chitosan solution viscosity regardless of the presence of additives, even when sterilization was carried out at -80 degrees C. Moreover, the thermogelling properties were dramatically altered, and thus, gamma-irradiation would not be an appropriate method to sterilize chitosan solutions. In conclusion, polyols are potentially useful additive to maximise the viscoelastic and mechanical properties of chitosan-GP after steam sterilization.

  1. Variational solutions and random dynamical systems to SPDEs perturbed by fractional Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Caibin; Yang, Qigui; Cao, Junfei

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the following type of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) perturbed by an infinite dimensional fractional Brownian motion with a suitable volatility coefficient Φ: dX(t) = A(X(t))dt+Φ(t)dB (H) (t), where A is a nonlinear operator satisfying some monotonicity conditions. Using the variational approach, we prove the existence and uniqueness of variational solutions to such system. Moreover, we prove that this variational solution generates a random dynamical system. The main results are applied to a general type of nonlinear SPDEs and the stochastic generalized p-Laplacian equation.

  2. A frequency averaging framework for the solution of complex dynamic systems

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    A frequency averaging framework is proposed for the solution of complex linear dynamic systems. It is remarkable that, while the mid-frequency region is usually very challenging, a smooth transition from low- through mid- and high-frequency ranges is possible and all ranges can now be considered in a single framework. An interpretation of the frequency averaging in the time domain is presented and it is explained that the average may be evaluated very efficiently in terms of system solutions. PMID:24910518

  3. Variational Solutions and Random Dynamical Systems to SPDEs Perturbed by Fractional Gaussian Noise

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Caibin; Yang, Qigui; Cao, Junfei

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the following type of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) perturbed by an infinite dimensional fractional Brownian motion with a suitable volatility coefficient Φ: dX(t) = A(X(t))dt+Φ(t)dBH(t), where A is a nonlinear operator satisfying some monotonicity conditions. Using the variational approach, we prove the existence and uniqueness of variational solutions to such system. Moreover, we prove that this variational solution generates a random dynamical system. The main results are applied to a general type of nonlinear SPDEs and the stochastic generalized p-Laplacian equation. PMID:24574903

  4. A Two Stage Solution Procedure for Production Planning System with Advance Demand Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kadomoto, Kiyotaka; Hasuike, Takashi; Okuhara, Koji

    We model for ‘Naiji System’ which is a unique corporation technique between a manufacturer and suppliers in Japan. We propose a two stage solution procedure for a production planning problem with advance demand information, which is called ‘Naiji’. Under demand uncertainty, this model is formulated as a nonlinear stochastic programming problem which minimizes the sum of production cost and inventory holding cost subject to a probabilistic constraint and some linear production constraints. By the convexity and the special structure of correlation matrix in the problem where inventory for different periods is not independent, we propose a solution procedure with two stages which are named Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) and Variable Mesh Neighborhood Search (VMNS) based on meta-heuristics. It is shown that the proposed solution procedure is available to get a near optimal solution efficiently and practical for making a good master production schedule in the suppliers.

  5. Nonadiabatic dynamics in open quantum-classical systems: forward-backward trajectory solution.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond

    2012-12-14

    A new approximate solution to the quantum-classical Liouville equation is derived starting from the formal solution of this equation in forward-backward form. The time evolution of a mixed quantum-classical system described by this equation is obtained in a coherent state basis using the mapping representation, which expresses N quantum degrees of freedom in a 2N-dimensional phase space. The solution yields a simple dynamics in which a set of N coherent state coordinates evolves in forward and backward trajectories, while the bath coordinates evolve under the influence of the mean potential that depends on these forward and backward trajectories. It is shown that the solution satisfies the differential form of the quantum-classical Liouville equation exactly. Relations to other mixed quantum-classical and semi-classical schemes are discussed.

  6. Global existence of solutions of a strongly coupled quasilinear parabolic system with applications to electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Huan, Zhongdan; Lui, Roger

    2003-11-01

    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, we proved the global existence of weak solutions of a strongly coupled quasilinear parabolic system in Rn using weak compactness method. In the second part, we considered the electrochemistry model studied in Choi and Lui (J. Differential Equations 116 (1995) 306) where the Poisson equation governing the electric potential is replaced by a local electro-neutrality condition. In one space dimension, the equations for the model is of the form considered in the first part of this paper except that the coefficient matrix is discontinuous at places where all the charged ions vanish. We approximate the equations by nicer operators and pass to the limit to obtain global existence of weak solutions. The non-negativity of weak solutions and L2-stability of the steady-state solutions are also shown under additional hypotheses.

  7. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    . The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

  8. Residence time distributions for hydrologic systems: Mechanistic foundations and steady-state analytical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Sarah; Engdahl, Nicholas B.; Massoudieh, Arash; Bresciani, Etienne; McCallum, James

    2016-12-01

    This review presents the physical mechanisms generating residence time distributions (RTDs) in hydrologic systems with a focus on steady-state analytical solutions. Steady-state approximations of the RTD in hydrologic systems have seen widespread use over the last half-century because they provide a convenient, simplified modeling framework for a wide range of problems. The concept of an RTD is useful anytime that characterization of the timescales of flow and transport in hydrologic systems is important, which includes topics like water quality, water resource management, contaminant transport, and ecosystem preservation. Analytical solutions are often adopted as a model of the RTD and a broad spectrum of models from many disciplines has been applied. Although these solutions are typically reduced in dimensionality and limited in complexity, their ease of use makes them preferred tools, specifically for the interpretation of tracer data. Our review begins with the mechanistic basis for the governing equations, highlighting the physics for generating a RTD, and a catalog of analytical solutions follows. This catalog explains the geometry, boundary conditions and physical aspects of the hydrologic systems, as well as the sampling conditions, that altogether give rise to specific RTDs. The similarities between models are noted, as are the appropriate conditions for their applicability. The presentation of simple solutions is followed by a presentation of more complicated analytical models for RTDs, including serial and parallel combinations, lagged systems, and non-Fickian models. The conditions for the appropriate use of analytical solutions are discussed, and we close with some thoughts on potential applications, alternative approaches, and future directions for modeling hydrologic residence time.

  9. Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2016-10-01

    Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.

  10. Preprocessing in Matlab Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Symal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the . minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  11. Acceleration of multiple solution of a boundary value problem involving a linear algebraic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.; Surovtsev, Roman S.

    2016-06-01

    Multiple solution of a boundary value problem that involves a linear algebraic system is considered. New approach to acceleration of the solution is proposed. The approach uses the structure of the linear system matrix. Particularly, location of entries in the right columns and low rows of the matrix, which undergo variation due to the computing in the range of parameters, is used to apply block LU decomposition. Application of the approach is considered on the example of multiple computing of the capacitance matrix by method of moments used in numerical electromagnetics. Expressions for analytic estimation of the acceleration are presented. Results of the numerical experiments for solution of 100 linear systems with matrix orders of 1000, 2000, 3000 and different relations of variated and constant entries of the matrix show that block LU decomposition can be effective for multiple solution of linear systems. The speed up compared to pointwise LU factorization increases (up to 15) for larger number and order of considered systems with lower number of variated entries.

  12. Aquifer Heterogeneity and Solute-Transport Modeling in the Floridan Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.; Maliva, R. G.; Missimer, T. M.

    2008-05-01

    The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) is one of the most prolific aquifers in the world and is widely used for public and irrigation water supply. The FAS is also increasingly being used as a storage zone for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems, including a 333-well system that is planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). The FAS is highly heterogeneous with respect to hydraulic conductivity, with meter- scale inter-bed variation exceeding seven orders of magnitude in some cases, even in South Florida where mega-karst is not well developed. Aquifer heterogeneity can have a major impact on ASR system performance because of its affects on the movement and mixing of stored water. Aquifer heterogeneity poses challenges for accurate modeling of the FAS, including solute transport modeling of ASR systems and variable density flow modeling of the freshwater/saltwater interface along coastal areas. Dispersivity is an important parameter in solute transport modeling, which is associated with aquifer heterogeneity. Commonly the values of dispersivity used in solute-transport modeling are derived from literature review and adjusted during model calibration process. Artificially large dispersivity values are often used in solute-transport models of ASR systems as a "fudge factor" to simulate the apparent greater mixing caused by inter-bed heterogeneity. This approach is problematic because the use of artificial hydraulic parameters for calibration opens the results of predictive simulations to question. The use of large dispersivity values to simulate aquifer heterogeneity also does not incorporate other impacts of aquifer heterogeneity, such as differential flow rates and migration distances between beds. The technical challenge is to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity into groundwater models at a scale that is sufficient to adequately simulate its effect on ASR system performance and coastal groundwater flow, while maintaining acceptable

  13. Water wave solutions of the coupled system Zakharov-Kuznetsov and generalized coupled KdV equations.

    PubMed

    Seadawy, A R; El-Rashidy, K

    2014-01-01

    An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable.

  14. A first principle particle mesh method for solution SAXS of large bio-molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    This paper will show that the solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensity of globular and membrane proteins can be efficiently and accurately computed from molecular dynamics trajectories using 3D fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). A suitable particle meshing interpolation, similar to the one used in smooth particle mesh Ewald for electrostatic energies and forces, was combined with a uniform solvent density FFT padding scheme to obtain a convenient SAXS spectral resolution. The CPU time scaling of the method, as a function of system size, is highly favorable and its application to large systems such as solutions of solvated membrane proteins is computationally undemanding. Differently from other approaches, all contributions from the simulation cell are included. This means that the subtraction of the buffer from the solution scattering intensity is straightforward and devoid of artifact due to ad hoc definitions of proximal and distal solvent intensity contributions.

  15. Numerical solution of flow problems using body-fitted coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with numerically generated boundary-fitted coordinate systems. This procedure eliminates the shape of the boundaries as a complicating factor and allows the flow about arbitrary boundaries to be treated essentially as easily as that about simple boundaries. The technique of boundary-fitted coordinate systems is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system having a coordinate line coincident with each boundary of a general multiconnected region involving any number of arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Once the curvilinear coordinate system is generated, any partial differential system of interest may be solved on the coordinate system by transforming the equations and solving the resulting system in finite-difference approximation on the rectangular transformed plane. Attention is given to the types of boundary-fitted coordinate systems, coordinate system control, operation of the coordinate codes, solution of partial differential equations, application to free-surface flow, and other applications of interest.

  16. Fock space, symbolic algebra, and analytical solutions for small stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Fernando A. N.; Gadêlha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn A.

    2015-12-01

    Randomness is ubiquitous in nature. From single-molecule biochemical reactions to macroscale biological systems, stochasticity permeates individual interactions and often regulates emergent properties of the system. While such systems are regularly studied from a modeling viewpoint using stochastic simulation algorithms, numerous potential analytical tools can be inherited from statistical and quantum physics, replacing randomness due to quantum fluctuations with low-copy-number stochasticity. Nevertheless, classical studies remained limited to the abstract level, demonstrating a more general applicability and equivalence between systems in physics and biology rather than exploiting the physics tools to study biological systems. Here the Fock space representation, used in quantum mechanics, is combined with the symbolic algebra of creation and annihilation operators to consider explicit solutions for the chemical master equations describing small, well-mixed, biochemical, or biological systems. This is illustrated with an exact solution for a Michaelis-Menten single enzyme interacting with limited substrate, including a consideration of very short time scales, which emphasizes when stiffness is present even for small copy numbers. Furthermore, we present a general matrix representation for Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an arbitrary number of enzymes and substrates that, following diagonalization, leads to the solution of this ubiquitous, nonlinear enzyme kinetics problem. For this, a flexible symbolic maple code is provided, demonstrating the prospective advantages of this framework compared to stochastic simulation algorithms. This further highlights the possibilities for analytically based studies of stochastic systems in biology and chemistry using tools from theoretical quantum physics.

  17. Fock space, symbolic algebra, and analytical solutions for small stochastic systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernando A N; Gadêlha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn A

    2015-12-01

    Randomness is ubiquitous in nature. From single-molecule biochemical reactions to macroscale biological systems, stochasticity permeates individual interactions and often regulates emergent properties of the system. While such systems are regularly studied from a modeling viewpoint using stochastic simulation algorithms, numerous potential analytical tools can be inherited from statistical and quantum physics, replacing randomness due to quantum fluctuations with low-copy-number stochasticity. Nevertheless, classical studies remained limited to the abstract level, demonstrating a more general applicability and equivalence between systems in physics and biology rather than exploiting the physics tools to study biological systems. Here the Fock space representation, used in quantum mechanics, is combined with the symbolic algebra of creation and annihilation operators to consider explicit solutions for the chemical master equations describing small, well-mixed, biochemical, or biological systems. This is illustrated with an exact solution for a Michaelis-Menten single enzyme interacting with limited substrate, including a consideration of very short time scales, which emphasizes when stiffness is present even for small copy numbers. Furthermore, we present a general matrix representation for Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an arbitrary number of enzymes and substrates that, following diagonalization, leads to the solution of this ubiquitous, nonlinear enzyme kinetics problem. For this, a flexible symbolic maple code is provided, demonstrating the prospective advantages of this framework compared to stochastic simulation algorithms. This further highlights the possibilities for analytically based studies of stochastic systems in biology and chemistry using tools from theoretical quantum physics.

  18. Development of a measurement system for certifying ethanol mass fraction in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Daniel G; Mackay, Lindsey G; Myors, Richard; Cuthbertson, Judith; Richardson, Jeremy; Sousou, Nigel; Saxby, David; Askew, Shane; O'Brien, Rebecca

    2009-07-15

    In response to the sovereign requirement for national standards the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA) has developed a measuring system using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) to certify forensic aqueous ethanol solutions. NMIA participated in an international study, CCQM-K27, organized under the auspices of the International Committee for Weights and Measures to compare our measuring system with the techniques being used for certifying aqueous ethanol solutions in other metrology institutes. This comparison provided objective evidence that the measuring system developed was fit for the purpose of certifying aqueous ethanol solutions that ranged in concentration from 0.8 mg/g to 120 mg/g. A complete measurement uncertainty budget is presented and shows that the largest contribution to measurement uncertainty was from method precision followed by the contribution from the calibration solution. The fundamental technology of the measuring system was gas chromatography of the aqueous ethanol solutions using porous layer open tubular columns, and this effectively produced peak area measurements with both GC/MS and GC-FID. It was found that deactivation of the chromatographic system was critical for obtaining reproducible peak shapes and peak area measurements. A range of measuring systems, all using this gas chromatographic technology, was investigated. When conditions were carefully controlled there was no difference in measurement results from GC-IDMS, GC/MS or GC-FID. There was also no difference in results from on-column or split injection systems. A significant issue with the IDMS system was the fragmentation of 13C2-ethanol to produce an ion with the same mass as the molecular ion of ethanol which lead to isobaric interference; careful measurement of this fragmentation ratio was necessary to calculate accurate mass fraction values. NMIA has adopted the GC-IDMS split measuring system to certify aqueous ethanol solutions for Australian legal

  19. Stability of the solitary wave solutions to a coupled BBM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongqiu; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a stability criteria for the solitary wave solutions to a BBM system that contains coupled nonlinear terms. Using the idea by Bona, Chen and Karakashian [5] and exploiting the accurate point spectrum information of the associated Schrödinger operator, we improve the stability results previously gotten by Pereira [15].

  20. Lines of Eigenvectors and Solutions to Systems of Linear Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Keynes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an instructional sequence where students invent a method for locating lines of eigenvectors and corresponding solutions to systems of two first order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. The significance of this paper is two-fold. First, it represents an innovative alternative…

  1. Feedback Stabilization Methods for the Numerical Solution of Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karafyllis, Iasson; Grüne, Lars

    2009-09-01

    In this work we study the problem of step size selection for numerical schemes, which guarantees that the numerical solution presents the same qualitative behavior as the original system of ordinary differential equations, by means of tools from nonlinear control theory. Lyapunov-based stabilization methods are exploited.

  2. Fostering Solutions: Bringing Brief-Therapy Principles and Practices to the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemons, Douglas; Liscio, Michele; Gordon, Arlene Brett; Hibel, James; Gutierrez-Hersh, Annette; Rebholz, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a 15-month university-community collaboration that was designed to fast-track children out of foster care. The developers of the project initiated resource-oriented "systems facilitations," allowing wraparound professionals and families to come together in large meetings to solve problems and find solutions. Families also…

  3. The Challenge of Multiple Perspectives: Multiple Solution Tasks for Students Incorporating Diverse Tools and Representation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of multiple solution tasks (MST) incorporating multiple learning tools and representation systems (MTRS) in encouraging each student to develop multiple perspectives on the learning concepts under study and creativity of thought. Specifically, two types of MST were used, namely tasks that allowed and demanded…

  4. Asymptotic behaviour of the solution of the two-dimensional Dirac system with rapidly oscillating coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, O M

    1999-02-28

    An asymptotic expansion is constructed and substantiated for the solution of the boundary-value problem for the two-dimensional elliptic system of Dirac equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients, which holds uniformly with respect to the complex variable and the two real variables.

  5. Exact Solution of the Two-Level System and the Einstein Solid in the Microcanonical Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoldi, Dalia S.; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Miranda, E. N.

    2011-01-01

    The two-level system and the Einstein model of a crystalline solid are taught in every course of statistical mechanics and they are solved in the microcanonical formalism because the number of accessible microstates can be easily evaluated. However, their solutions are usually presented using the Stirling approximation to deal with factorials. In…

  6. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  7. The equation of state for solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarov, M. M.; Abdukhamidova, Z.

    1995-11-01

    The article presents the results of an experimental investigation into the density of solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system (from 23 to 75%) at temperatures of from 293 to 450 K and pressures of from 0.101 to 98.1 MPa. An equation of state is obtained.

  8. Optoelectronically automated system for carbon nanotubes synthesis via arc-discharge in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Debasis; Brinley, Erik; Kuiry, Suresh C.; McCutchen, Matthew; Seal, Sudipta; Heinrich, Helge; Kabes, Bradley

    2005-03-01

    The method of arc discharge in the solution is unique and inexpensive route for synthesis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon onions, and other carbon nanostructures. Such a method can be used for in situ synthesis of CNTs decorated with nanoparticles. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive optoelectronically automated system for arc discharge in solution synthesis of CNTs. The optoelectronic system maintains a constant gap between the two electrodes allowing a continuous synthesis of the carbon nanostructures. The system operates in a feedback loop consisting of an electrode-gap detector and an analog electronic unit, as controller. This computerized feeding system of the anode was used for in situ nanoparticles incorporated CNTs. For example, we have successfully decorated CNTs with ceria, silica, and palladium nanoparticles. Characterizations of nanostructures are performed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Stationary distribution and periodic solution for stochastic predator-prey systems with nonlinear predator harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wenjie; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of the stochastic autonomous and non-autonomous predator-prey systems with nonlinear predator harvesting respectively. For the autonomous system, we first give the existence of the global positive solution. Then, in the case of persistence, we prove that there exists a unique stationary distribution and it has ergodicity by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function. The result shows that, the relatively weaker white noise will strengthen the stability of the system, but the stronger white noise will result in the extinction of one or two species. Particularly, for the non-autonomous periodic system, we show that there exists at least one nontrivial positive periodic solution according to the theory of Khasminskii. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate our theoretical results.

  10. System for creating on site, remote from a sterile environment, parenteral solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Mike (Inventor); Scharf, Mike (Inventor); Packard, Jeff (Inventor); Kipp, Jim (Inventor); Dudar, Tom (Inventor); Owens, Jim (Inventor); Bindokas, Al (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a system and method for creating on site, remote from a sterile environment, parenteral solutions in large volume parenteral containers for intravenous administration to a patient. In an embodiment, this system comprises an empty large volume container including at least one port for accessing an interior of the container. The port includes a sterilizing filter for sterilizing a fluid fed through the port into the container. A second container is provided including a solute and having means for coupling the second container to the large volume container and thereby providing fluid communication therebetween allowing the solute to be received within the interior of the container. A sterile water source is also provided including means for placing the sterile water source in fluid communication with the port and allowing water to flow from the sterile water source into the interior of the container. This allows the solute, and sterile water that has been fed through the filter, to create a parenteral solution in the large volume parenteral container.

  11. Appearance of self-excitation and its description in a sarcomere-solution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhotnikov, S. A.; Bystrai, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to the complete description of chemical reactions in the sarcomere-solution system with the addition of adenosine triphosphate and the corresponding kinetic equations, the self-excitation in this system has been revealed by numerical methods. This self-excitation is manifested in the transition to chaotic states with the Lyapunov exponents λ > 0 and the subsequent development of unstable low-frequency pulsations.

  12. Comparison of Hydrogen Peroxide Contact Lens Disinfection Systems and Solutions against Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Reanne; Kilvington, Simon

    2001-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba causing a potentially blinding infection of the cornea. Contact lens wearers are most at risk and account for some 95% of cases. Hydrogen peroxide is used for contact lens disinfection due to its broad antimicrobial activity. Lenses must be neutralized before use to avoid pronounced stinging and possible corneal damage. Neutralization is achieved by adding a catalyst during the disinfection process (one-step) or afterwards (two-step). Here, the activities of commercial peroxide systems and individual solutions against trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga were compared. All disinfection systems were active against trophozoites, giving a ≥3-log (99.9%) kill within 1 h. Of the four one-step systems, only one showed some cysticidal activity, giving a 1.28 ± 0.41-log reduction. Both two-step systems were cysticidal, giving a ≥3-log kill at 4 h. All system peroxide solutions were cysticidal, giving a ≥3-log kill by 4 to 6 h. Variation in the cysticidal rate was observed with two solutions that gave a 1.8- to 2.1-log kill at 4 h compared with 3.0 to 4.0 for the rest (P < 0.05). No cysticidal activity was found with the peroxigen sodium perborate or the contact lens protein remover subtilisin A. Two-step systems are cysticidal providing contact times of at least 4 h are employed. Variation in cyst killing occurs between peroxide solutions, possibly due to formulation differences. One-step systems are less effective against Acanthamoeba cysts due to rapid peroxide neutralization. The cysticidal activity of one-step systems could be improved if neutralization rates were retarded. PMID:11408220

  13. Reorienting health systems to meet the demand for consumer health solutions.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, David L

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and pronounced gap between the demand for and access to consumer health solutions. Existing health information systems and broader health system factors such as funding models are reasons for this gap. There are strong arguments from the perspectives of the consumer and population health for closing this gap, but the case from the perspective of the current health system is mixed. Closing the gap will require a concerted effort to reorient health information systems and funding models to support online access by consumers to health information and health services.

  14. System for absolute measurement of electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions based on van der Pauw's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Lin, Zhen; Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Xiang; Wei, Jiali; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-05-01

    Based on an innovative application of van der Pauw's theory, a system was developed for the absolute measurement of electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions. An electrolytic conductivity meter was designed that uses a four-electrode system with an axial-radial two-dimensional adjustment structure coupled to an ac voltage excitation source and signal collecting circuit. The measurement accuracy, resolution and repeatability of the measurement system were examined through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement system and a high-precision electrolytic conductivity meter were compared using some actual water samples.

  15. Strong solutions and instability for the fitness gradient system in evolutionary games between two populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiuju; Belmonte, Andrew; deForest, Russ; Liu, Chun; Tan, Zhong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study a fitness gradient system for two populations interacting via a symmetric game. The population dynamics are governed by a conservation law, with a spatial migration flux determined by the fitness. By applying the Galerkin method, we establish the existence, regularity and uniqueness of global solutions to an approximate system, which retains most of the interesting mathematical properties of the original fitness gradient system. Furthermore, we show that a Turing instability occurs for equilibrium states of the fitness gradient system, and its approximations.

  16. Solution and dynamics of a fractional-order 5-D hyperchaotic system with four wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Limin; Sun, Kehui; He, Shaobo; Wang, Huihai; Xu, Yixin

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Adomian decomposition method (ADM), the numerical solution of a fractional-order 5-D hyperchaotic system with four wings is investigated. Dynamics of the system are analyzed by means of phase diagram, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponents spectrum and chaos diagram. The method of one-dimensional linear path through the multidimensional parameter space is proposed to observe the evolution law of the system dynamics with parameters varying. The results illustrate that the system has abundant dynamical behaviors. Both the system order and parameters can be taken as bifurcation parameters. The phenomenon of multiple attractors is found, which means that some attractors are generated simultaneously from different initial values. The spectral entropy (SE) algorithm is applied to estimate the fractional-order system complexity, and we found that the complexity decreases with the increasing of system order. In order to verify the reliability of numerical solution, the fractional-order 5-D system with four wings is implemented on a DSP platform. The phase portraits of fractional-order system generated on DSP agree well with those obtained by computer simulations. It is shown that the fractional-order hyperchaotic system is a potential model for application in the field of chaotic secure communication.

  17. Solution of the inverse Langevin problem for open dissipative systems with anisotropic interparticle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisin, E. A.; Lisina, I. I.; Vaulina, O. S.; Petrov, O. F.

    2015-03-01

    Solution of the inverse Langevin problem is presented for open dissipative systems with anisotropic interparticle interaction. Possibility of applying this solution for experimental determining the anisotropic interaction forces between dust particles in complex plasmas with ion flow is considered. For this purpose, we have tested the method on the results of numerical simulation of chain structures of particles with quasidipole-dipole interaction, similar to the one occurring due to effects of ion focusing in gas discharges. Influence of charge spatial inhomogeneity and fluctuations on the results of recovery is also discussed.

  18. Piecewise smooth dynamical systems: Persistence of periodic solutions and normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Márcio R. A.; Llibre, Jaume; Novaes, Douglas D.; Pessoa, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    We consider an n-dimensional piecewise smooth vector field with two zones separated by a hyperplane Σ which admits an invariant hyperplane Ω transversal to Σ containing a period annulus A fulfilled by crossing periodic solutions. For small discontinuous perturbations of these systems we develop a Melnikov-like function to control the persistence of periodic solutions contained in A. When n = 3 we provide normal forms for the piecewise linear case. Finally we apply the Melnikov-like function to study discontinuous perturbations of the given normal forms.

  19. Modeling expected solute concentration in randomly heterogeneous flow systems with multicomponent reactions.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Maria E; Destouni, Georgia; Martinet, Philippe

    2004-05-01

    Many environmental problems require assessment of extensive reaction systems within natural subsurface flow systems exhibiting large physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity. We present an approach to couple stochastic advective-reactive modeling of physical solute transport (LaSAR) with the geochemical model PHREEQC for modeling solute concentrations in systems with variable flow velocity and multicomponent reactions. PHREEQC allows for general and flexible quantification of a multitude of linear and nonlinear geochemical processes, while LaSAR efficiently handles field-scale solute spreading in stochastic heterogeneous flow fields. The combined LaSAR-PHREEQC approach requires very modest computational efforts, thereby allowing a large number of reactive transport problems to be readily assessed and facilitating handling of quantifiable uncertainty in environmental model applications. Computational efficiency and explicit handling of field-scale dispersion without introduction of excessive fluid mixing that may impair model results are general advantages of the LaSAR compared with alternative solute transport modeling approaches. The LaSAR-PHREEQC approach is restricted to steady or unidirectional flow fields, and our specific application examples are limited to homogeneous reaction systems without local or transverse dispersion-diffusion, although these are not general methodological limitations. As a comprehensive application example, we simulate the spreading of acid mine drainage in a groundwater focusing on Zn2+ and including relevant, major-component geochemistry. Model results show that Zn2+ may be substantially attenuated by both sorption and precipitation, with flow heterogeneity greatly affecting expected solute concentrations downstream of the mine waste deposit in both cases.

  20. An Explicit Linear Filtering Solution for the Optimization of Guidance Systems with Statistical Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Elwood C.

    1961-01-01

    The determination of optimum filtering characteristics for guidance system design is generally a tedious process which cannot usually be carried out in general terms. In this report a simple explicit solution is given which is applicable to many different types of problems. It is shown to be applicable to problems which involve optimization of constant-coefficient guidance systems and time-varying homing type systems for several stationary and nonstationary inputs. The solution is also applicable to off-design performance, that is, the evaluation of system performance for inputs for which the system was not specifically optimized. The solution is given in generalized form in terms of the minimum theoretical error, the optimum transfer functions, and the optimum transient response. The effects of input signal, contaminating noise, and limitations on the response are included. From the results given, it is possible in an interception problem, for example, to rapidly assess the effects on minimum theoretical error of such factors as target noise and missile acceleration. It is also possible to answer important questions regarding the effect of type of target maneuver on optimum performance.

  1. Application of the Cramer rule in the solution of sparse systems of linear algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, R. C.; Al-Kurdi, Ahmad

    2001-11-01

    In this work, the solution of a sparse system of linear algebraic equations is obtained by using the Cramer rule. The determinants are computed with the help of the numerical structure approach defined in Suchkov (Graphs of Gearing Machines, Leningrad, Quebec, 1983) in which only the non-zero elements are used. Cramer rule produces the solution directly without creating fill-in problem encountered in other direct methods. Moreover, the solution can be expressed exactly if all the entries, including the right-hand side, are integers and if all products do not exceed the size of the largest integer that can be represented in the arithmetic of the computer used. The usefulness of Suchkov numerical structure approach is shown by applying on seven examples. Obtained results are also compared with digraph approach described in Mittal and Kurdi (J. Comput. Math., to appear). It is shown that the performance of the numerical structure approach is better than that of digraph approach.

  2. HOW ECCENTRIC ORBITAL SOLUTIONS CAN HIDE PLANETARY SYSTEMS IN 2:1 RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Chambers, John E.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes E-mail: mercedes@dtm.ciw.ed

    2010-01-20

    The Doppler technique measures the reflex radial motion of a star induced by the presence of companions and is the most successful method to detect exoplanets. If several planets are present, their signals will appear combined in the radial motion of the star, leading to potential misinterpretations of the data. Specifically, two planets in 2:1 resonant orbits can mimic the signal of a single planet in an eccentric orbit. We quantify the implications of this statistical degeneracy for a representative sample of the reported single exoplanets with available data sets, finding that (1) around 35% of the published eccentric one-planet solutions are statistically indistinguishable from planetary systems in 2:1 orbital resonance, (2) another 40% cannot be statistically distinguished from a circular orbital solution, and (3) planets with masses comparable to Earth could be hidden in known orbital solutions of eccentric super-Earths and Neptune mass planets.

  3. A loudspeaker-driven system for rapid and multiple solution exchanges in patch-clamp experiments.

    PubMed

    Méry, P F; Lechêne, P; Fischmeister, R

    1992-04-01

    A new and inexpensive system allowing rapid and synchronized changes of solutions around a membrane patch or a cell under voltage-clamp conditions is described. Four plastic capillary tubings (OD 640 microns; ID 430 microns) were glued together horizontally and attached to a coil of a commercially available loudspeaker. Servo-control of the position of the coil allowed the mouth of any of the capillaries to be positioned near the pipette tip within 6 ms. A high flow speed of the test solution was crucial to achieve rapid solution exchange. At a flow speed of 5 cm/s, complete exchange of the external environment of a frog ventricular cell was achieved within 20-30 ms. The time course of solution change was found to be 3-5 times faster at the tip of an open patch pipette. To preserve the physical integrity of the cell, the cell was usually perfused by a control capillary at a slow velocity (0.2-0.4 cm/s) and test solutions flowing out of adjacent capillaries at high velocity (4-5 cm/s) were applied to the cell only for short periods. Determination of the three-dimensional contamination profile around the mouth of the control capillary allowed the optimal conditions for the use of the system to be established and possible sources of contamination to be avoided between adjacent capillaries with unmatched flow speeds. Successive and multiple changes in external solutions could be easily synchronized with voltage-clamp depolarizations to examine the time course of the effect of drugs on voltage-operated ion channels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Wash Solution Bath Life Extension for the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor Aqueous Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Chad; Evans, Kurt; Sagers, Neil

    1999-01-01

    A spray-in-air aqueous cleaning system, which replaced 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) vapor degreasing, is used for critical cleaning of Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) metal parts. Small-scale testing demonstrated that the alkaline-based wash solution possesses adequate soil loading and cleaning properties. However, full-scale testing exhibited unexpected depletion of some primary components of the wash solution. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the concentration of sodium metasilicate which forced change-out of the wash solution after eight days. Extension of wash solution bath life was necessary to ease the burden of frequent change-out on manufacturing. A laboratory study supports a depletion mechanism that is initiated by the hydrolysis of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) lowering the pH of the solution. The decrease in pH causes polymerization and subsequent precipitation of sodium metasilicate (SM). Further investigation showed that maintaining the pH was the key to preventing the precipitation of the sodium metasilicate. Implementation to the full scale operation demonstrated that periodic additions of potassium hydroxide (KOH) extended the useful bath life to more than four months.

  5. Various power quality challenges and solution techniques using FACTS technology for power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, J. Sandeep; Jangalwa, N. K.; Gupta, R.; Palwalia, D. K.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review on the various power quality problems and various solution techniques using FACTS in Power system. The term "Power Quality" is a broad concept and its meaning is taken different by different peoples. It is associated with electrical transmission, distribution and utilization systems those are having experience of any Voltage, current or frequency divergence from normal operation. Due to power quality problems industries have to invest large amount for mitigation of Voltage sags, distortions, harmonics and short term interruptions/disturbances etc. In paper authors tried to cover various possible sources and compensation methods of reactive power in power system.

  6. Numerical solution of stiff systems of ordinary differential equations with applications to electronic circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Systems of ordinary differential equations in which the magnitudes of the eigenvalues (or time constants) vary greatly are commonly called stiff. Such systems of equations arise in nuclear reactor kinetics, the flow of chemically reacting gas, dynamics, control theory, circuit analysis and other fields. The research reported develops an A-stable numerical integration technique for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations. The method, which is called the generalized trapezoidal rule, is a modification of the trapezoidal rule. However, the method is computationally more efficient than the trapezoidal rule when the solution of the almost-discontinuous segments is being calculated.

  7. A Solution Space for a System of Null-State Partial Differential Equations: Part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Steven M.; Kleban, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article is the third of four that completely and rigorously characterize a solution space for a homogeneous system of 2 N + 3 linear partial differential equations (PDEs) in 2 N variables that arises in conformal field theory (CFT) and multiple Schramm-Löwner evolution (SLE κ ). The system comprises 2 N null-state equations and three conformal Ward identities that govern CFT correlation functions of 2 N one-leg boundary operators. In the first two articles (Flores and Kleban, in Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1212.2301, 2012; Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1404.0035, 2014), we use methods of analysis and linear algebra to prove that dim , with C N the Nth Catalan number. Extending these results, we prove in this article that dim and entirely consists of (real-valued) solutions constructed with the CFT Coulomb gas (contour integral) formalism. In order to prove this claim, we show that a certain set of C N such solutions is linearly independent. Because the formulas for these solutions are complicated, we prove linear independence indirectly. We use the linear injective map of Lemma 15 in Flores and Kleban (Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1212.2301, 2012) to send each solution of the mentioned set to a vector in , whose components we find as inner products of elements in a Temperley-Lieb algebra. We gather these vectors together as columns of a symmetric matrix, with the form of a meander matrix. If the determinant of this matrix does not vanish, then the set of C N Coulomb gas solutions is linearly independent. And if this determinant does vanish, then we construct an alternative set of C N Coulomb gas solutions and follow a similar procedure to show that this set is linearly independent. The latter situation is closely related to CFT minimal models. We emphasize that, although the system of PDEs arises in CFT in away that is typically non-rigorous, our treatment of this system here and in Flores and Kleban (Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1212.2301, 2012; Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1404

  8. SUPPORT OF NEW COMPUTER HARDWARE AT LUCH'S MC&A SYSTEM: PROBLEMS AND A SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, Victor; Shanin, Oleg

    2009-07-14

    Abstract Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 operating system is the only software product certified in Russia for using in MC&A systems. In the paper a solution for allowing the installation of this outdated operating system on new computers is discussed. The solution has been successfully tested and has been in use at Luch's network since March 2008. Furthermore, it is being recommended for other Russian enterprises for the same purpose. Introduction Typically, the software part of a nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) system consists of an operating system (OS), database management systems (DBMS), accounting program itself and database of nuclear materials. Russian regulations require the operating system and database for MC&A be certified for information security, and the whole system must pass an accreditation. Historically, the only certified operating system for MC&A still continues to be Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 Server/Workstation. Attempts to certify newer versions of Windows failed. Luch, like most other Russian sites, uses Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 and SQL Server 6.5. Luch's specialists have developed an application (LuchMAS) for accounting purposes. Starting from about 2004, some problems appeared in Luch's accounting system. They were related to the complexity of installing Windows NT 4.0 on new computers. At first, it was possible to solve the problem choosing computer equipment that is compatible with Windows NT 4.0 or selecting certain operating system settings. Over time, the problem worsened and now it is almost impossible to install Windows NT 4.0 on new computers. The reason is the lack of hardware drivers in the outdated operating system. The problem was serious enough that it could have affected the long-term sustainability of Luch's MC&A system if adequate alternate measures were not developed.

  9. Community of solution for the U.S. health care system: lessons from the U.S. educational system.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The Folsom Group asserts that radical changes are needed to fix the health care system in the United States. The U.S. education system is one potential model to emulate. Could a future health care system-level community of solution be modeled after the U.S. education system? Could community health care services be planned, organized, and delivered at the neighborhood level by district, similar to the structure for delivering public education? Could community health centers, governed by community boards, serve every neighborhood? This essay imagines how U.S. health care system reforms could be designed using our public school system as a roadmap. Our intention is to challenge readers to recognize the urgent need for radical reform in the U.S. health care system, to introduce one potential model for reform, and to encourage creative thinking about other system-level communities of solution that could lead to profound change and improvements in the U.S. health care system.

  10. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent.

    PubMed

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J; Creasy, William R; Morrissey, Kevin M; Hendrickson, David M; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Greentrade mark, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO(4)(-2)) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t(1/2) < or = 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t(1/2) < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t(1/2) < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  11. Stochastic coalescence in finite systems: an algorithm for the numerical solution of the multivariate master equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Lester; Zamora, Jose; Cruz, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The stochastic approach to coagulation considers the coalescence process going in a system of a finite number of particles enclosed in a finite volume. Within this approach, the full description of the system can be obtained from the solution of the multivariate master equation, which models the evolution of the probability distribution of the state vector for the number of particles of a given mass. Unfortunately, due to its complexity, only limited results were obtained for certain type of kernels and monodisperse initial conditions. In this work, a novel numerical algorithm for the solution of the multivariate master equation for stochastic coalescence that works for any type of kernels and initial conditions is introduced. The performance of the method was checked by comparing the numerically calculated particle mass spectrum with analytical solutions obtained for the constant and sum kernels, with an excellent correspondence between the analytical and numerical solutions. In order to increase the speedup of the algorithm, software parallelization techniques with OpenMP standard were used, along with an implementation in order to take advantage of new accelerator technologies. Simulations results show an important speedup of the parallelized algorithms. This study was funded by a grant from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Mexico SEP-CONACYT CB-131879. The authors also thanks LUFAC® Computacion SA de CV for CPU time and all the support provided.

  12. ARAS: an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Carroll, Lewis; Collins, Jeffrey; ...

    2016-03-09

    Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing a safe environment for radiation workers but also to ensure accuracy of dispensed radioactivity and an efficient workflow. For this purpose, we have designed ARAS, an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes with particular focus on fluorine-18 (18F). The key to the system is the combination of a radiation detector measuring radioactivity concentration, in line with a peristaltic pump dispensing known volumes. Results show the combined system demonstrates volume variation to be within 5 % for dispensing volumes of 20 μLmore » or greater. When considering volumes of 20 μL or greater, the delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested amount as measured independently with a dose calibrator to within 2 % on average. In conclusion, the integration of the detector and pump in an in-line system leads to a flexible and compact approach that can accurately dispense solutions containing radioactivity concentrations ranging from the high values typical of [18F]fluoride directly produced from a cyclotron (~0.1-1 mCi μL-1) to the low values typical of batches of [18F]fluoride-labeled radiotracers intended for preclinical mouse scans (~1-10 μCi μL-1).« less

  13. ARAS: an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Carroll, Lewis; Collins, Jeffrey; van Dam, R. Michael; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2016-03-09

    Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing a safe environment for radiation workers but also to ensure accuracy of dispensed radioactivity and an efficient workflow. For this purpose, we have designed ARAS, an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes with particular focus on fluorine-18 (18F). The key to the system is the combination of a radiation detector measuring radioactivity concentration, in line with a peristaltic pump dispensing known volumes. Results show the combined system demonstrates volume variation to be within 5 % for dispensing volumes of 20 μL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 μL or greater, the delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested amount as measured independently with a dose calibrator to within 2 % on average. In conclusion, the integration of the detector and pump in an in-line system leads to a flexible and compact approach that can accurately dispense solutions containing radioactivity concentrations ranging from the high values typical of [18F]fluoride directly produced from a cyclotron (~0.1-1 mCi μL-1) to the low values typical of batches of [18F]fluoride-labeled radiotracers intended for preclinical mouse scans (~1-10 μCi μL-1).

  14. Macropore system characteristics controls on non-reactive solute transport at different flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsbo, Mats; Koestel, John

    2014-05-01

    Preferential flow and transport in macroporous soils are important pathways for the leaching of agrochemicals through soils. Preferential solute transport in soil is to a large extent determined by the macropore system characteristics and the water flow conditions. The importance of different characteristics of the macropore system is likely to vary with the flow conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which properties of the macropore system that control the shape of non-reactive tracer solute breakthrough curves at different steady-state flow rates. We sampled five undisturbed columns (20 cm high, 20 cm diameter) from the soil surface of four soils with clay contents between 21 and 50 %. Solute transport experiments were carried out under unsaturated conditions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mm h-1 flow rates. For each flow rate a pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the soil surface and the electrical conductivity was measured with high temporal resolution in the column effluent. We used the 5 % arrival time and the holdback factor to estimate the degree of preferential transport from the resulting breakthrough curves. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were measured at the soil surface of the columns using a tension disc infiltrometer. The macropore system was imaged by industrial X-ray computed tomography at a resolution of 125 μm in all directions. Measures of the macropore system characteristics including measures of pore continuity were calculated from these images using the ImageJ software. Results show that the degree of preferential transport is generally increasing with flow rate when larger pores become active in the transport. The degree of preferential flow was correlated to measures of macropore topology. This study show that conclusions drawn from experiments carried out at one flow rate should generally not be extrapolated to other flow rates.

  15. Global solution to a hyperbolic problem arising in the modeling of blood flow in circulatory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Weihua; Clark, M. E.; Zhao, Meide; Curcio, Anthony

    2007-07-01

    This paper considers a system of first-order, hyperbolic, partial differential equations in the domain of a one-dimensional network. The system models the blood flow in human circulatory systems as an initial-boundary-value problem with boundary conditions of either algebraic or differential type. The differential equations are nonhomogeneous with frictional damping terms and the state variables are coupled at internal junctions. The existence and uniqueness of the local classical solution have been established in our earlier work [W. Ruan, M.E. Clark, M. Zhao, A. Curcio, A hyperbolic system of equations of blood flow in an arterial network, J. Appl. Math. 64 (2) (2003) 637-667; W. Ruan, M.E. Clark, M. Zhao, A. Curcio, Blood flow in a network, Nonlinear Anal. Real World Appl. 5 (2004) 463-485; W. Ruan, M.E. Clark, M. Zhao, A. Curcio, A quasilinear hyperbolic system that models blood flow in a network, in: Charles V. Benton (Ed.), Focus on Mathematical Physics Research, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 2004, pp. 203-230]. This paper continues the analysis and gives sufficient conditions for the global existence of the classical solution. We prove that the solution exists globally if the boundary data satisfy the dissipative condition (2.3) or (3.2), and the norms of the initial and forcing functions in a certain Sobolev space are sufficiently small. This is only the first step toward establishing the global existence of the solution to physiologically realistic models, because, in general, the chosen dissipative conditions (2.3) and (3.2) do not appear to hold for the originally proposed boundary conditions (1.3)-(1.12).

  16. Adsorption of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and wettability in polytetrafluoroethylene solution air system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkot, Joanna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2007-06-01

    The role of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) adsorption at water-air and polytetrafluoroethylene-water (PTFE) interfaces in wetting of low energy PTFE was established from measurements of the contact angle of aqueous AOT solutions in PTFE-solution drop-air systems and the aqueous AOT solution surface tension measurements. For calculations of the adsorption at these interfaces the relationship between adhesion tension ( γLV cos θ) and surface tension ( γLV), and the Gibbs and Young equations were taken into account. On the basis of the measurements and calculations the slope of the γLV cos θ- γLV curve was found to be constant and equal -1 over the whole range of surfactant concentration in solution. It means that the amount of surfactant adsorbed at the PTFE-water interface, ΓSL, is essentially equal to its amount adsorbed at water-air interface, ΓLV. By extrapolating the linear dependence between γLV cos θ and γLV to cos θ = 1 the determined value of critical surface tension of PTFE surface wetting, γC, was obtained (23.6 mN/m), and it was higher than the surface tension of PTFE (20.24 mN/m). Using the value of PTFE surface tension and the measured surface tension of aqueous AOT solution in Young equation, the PTFE-solution interface tension, γSL, was also determined. The shape of the γSL-log C curve occurred to be similar to the isotherm of AOT adsorption at water-air interface, and a linear dependence existed between the PTFE-solution interfacial tension and polar component of aqueous AOT solution. The dependence was found to be established by the fact that the work of adhesion of AOT solution to the PTFE surface was practically constant amounting 46.31 mJ/m 2 which was close to the work of water adhesion to PTFE surface.

  17. System and method for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2014-01-28

    A system and method for laser desorption of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a suspended solvent to form a testing solution are described. The method can include providing a specimen supported by a desorption region of a specimen stage and desorbing an analyte from a target site of the specimen with a laser beam centered at a radiation wavelength (.lamda.). The desorption region is transparent to the radiation wavelength (.lamda.) and the sampling probe and a laser source emitting the laser beam are on opposite sides of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The system can also be arranged where the laser source and the sampling probe are on the same side of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The testing solution can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  18. Exact multisolitonic solutions and their interactions in a (3+1)-dimensional system.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng-Lin

    2009-10-01

    Taking the approach via a special variable separation, some features of the (3+1)-dimensional multisolitonic solutions, including the embedded soliton, the taperlike soliton, the plateau-type soliton, and the rectangle soliton, were revealed in this study thanks to the intrusion of the appropriate boundary conditions and/or their initial qualifications. Some physical properties, such as the spatiotemporal evolution, wave form structure, and interactive phenomena with or without the background waves of multisolitons are discussed, especially in the two-soliton case. It is found that different interactive behaviors of solitary waves take place under different parameter conditions of collision in this system. It is verified that the elastic interaction phenomena exist in this (3+1)-dimensional integrable model. Furthermore, in other types of nonlinear systems, the abundant (3+1)-dimensional multisolitonic solutions were also investigated.

  19. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M.; Hradil, George

    2011-01-01

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  20. Everyday solutions for everyday problems: how mental health systems can support recovery.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike

    2012-07-01

    People who experience mental illness can be viewed as either fundamentally different than, or fundamentally like, everyone else in society. Recovery-oriented mental health systems focus on commonality. In practice, this involves an orientation toward supporting everyday solutions for everyday problems rather than providing specialist treatments for mental illness-related problems. This change is evident in relation to help offered with housing, employment, relationships, and spirituality. Interventions may contribute to the process of striving for a life worth living, but they are a means, not an end. Mental health systems that offer treatments in support of an individual's life goals are very different than those that treat patients in their best interests. The strongest contribution of mental health services to recovery is to support everyday solutions to everyday problems.

  1. A note on the solution of the variational equations of a class of dynamical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.; Lass, H.; Boggs, D.

    1976-01-01

    Some properties are derived for the solutions of the variational equations of a class of dynamical systems. It is shown that under rather general conditions, the matrix of the linearized Lagrangian equations of motion have an important property for which the word 'skew-symplectic' has been introduced. It is also shown that the fundamental matrix of solutions is 'symplectic', the word symplectic being used here in a more general sense than in the classical literature. Two consequences of the symplectic property are that the fundamental matrix is easily invertible and that the eigenvalues appear in reciprocal pairs. The effect of coordinate transformations is also analyzed; in particular, the change from Lagrangian to canonical systems.

  2. Exact solution of the two-level system and the Einstein solid in the microcanonical formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Dalía S.; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Miranda, E. N.

    2011-11-01

    The two-level system and the Einstein model of a crystalline solid are taught in every course of statistical mechanics and they are solved in the microcanonical formalism because the number of accessible microstates can be easily evaluated. However, their solutions are usually presented using the Stirling approximation to deal with factorials. In this paper, those two models are solved without any approximation, using the gamma function and its derivatives. Exact values are calculated for the entropy, temperature and specific heat, and the relative error between our exact solution and the approximate one using the Stirling approximation. This error is significant for small systems, with a number of particles N ~ 100, as in studies of atomic clusters or nanoscale structures.

  3. Nonlocal symmetry and explicit solutions for Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bo; Lou, Zhi-Mei; Liang, Zu-Feng; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-12-01

    Based on the truncated Painlevé method and the Möbius (conformal) invariant form, the nonlocal symmetry for the Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation is derived. To use symmetry reductions related with nonlocal symmetry, the nonlocal symmetry is localized to the Lie point symmetry by introducing three dependent variables. Thanks to the localization procedure, many group-invariant solutions of the enlarged systems are constructed with similar reductions.

  4. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. In this project, Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent).

  5. An analytical solution for predicting the transient seepage from a subsurface drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Dan, Han-Cheng; Zhou, Tingzhang; Lu, Chunhui; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Subsurface drainage systems have been widely used to deal with soil salinization and waterlogging problems around the world. In this paper, a mathematical model was introduced to quantify the transient behavior of the groundwater table and the seepage from a subsurface drainage system. Based on the assumption of a hydrostatic pressure distribution, the model considered the pore-water flow in both the phreatic and vadose soil zones. An approximate analytical solution for the model was derived to quantify the drainage of soils which were initially water-saturated. The analytical solution was validated against laboratory experiments and a 2-D Richards equation-based model, and found to predict well the transient water seepage from the subsurface drainage system. A saturated flow-based model was also tested and found to over-predict the time required for drainage and the total water seepage by nearly one order of magnitude, in comparison with the experimental results and the present analytical solution. During drainage, a vadose zone with a significant water storage capacity developed above the phreatic surface. A considerable amount of water still remained in the vadose zone at the steady state with the water table situated at the drain bottom. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that effects of the vadose zone were intensified with an increased thickness of capillary fringe, capillary rise and/or burying depth of drains, in terms of the required drainage time and total water seepage. The analytical solution provides guidance for assessing the capillary effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of subsurface drainage systems for combating soil salinization and waterlogging problems.

  6. CRC Clinical Trials Management System (CTMS): An Integrated Information Management Solution for Collaborative Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Greaves, Andrew W.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Research Consortium (CRC) consists of 9 geographically distributed sites conducting a program of research including both basic science and clinical components. To enable the CRC’s clinical research efforts, a system providing for real-time collaboration was required. CTMS provides such functionality, and demonstrates that the use of novel data modeling, web-application platforms, and management strategies provides for the deployment of an extensible, cost effective solution in such an environment. PMID:14728471

  7. Solutions to the Inverse LQR Problem with Application to Biological Systems Analysis.

    PubMed

    Priess, M Cody; Conway, Richard; Choi, Jongeun; Popovich, John M; Radcliffe, Clark

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a set of techniques for finding a cost function to the time-invariant Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem in both continuous- and discrete-time cases. Our methodology is based on the solution to the inverse LQR problem, which can be stated as: does a given controller K describe the solution to a time-invariant LQR problem, and if so, what weights Q and R produce K as the optimal solution? Our motivation for investigating this problem is the analysis of motion goals in biological systems. We first describe an efficient Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) method for determining a solution to the general case of this inverse LQR problem when both the weighting matrices Q and R are unknown. Our first LMI-based formulation provides a unique solution when it is feasible. Additionally, we propose a gradient-based, least-squares minimization method that can be applied to approximate a solution in cases when the LMIs are infeasible. This new method is very useful in practice since the estimated gain matrix K from the noisy experimental data could be perturbed by the estimation error, which may result in the infeasibility of the LMIs. We also provide an LMI minimization problem to find a good initial point for the minimization using the proposed gradient descent algorithm. We then provide a set of examples to illustrate how to apply our approaches to several different types of problems. An important result is the application of the technique to human subject posture control when seated on a moving robot. Results show that we can recover a cost function which may provide a useful insight on the human motor control goal.

  8. Solutions to the Inverse LQR Problem with Application to Biological Systems Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Priess, M Cody; Conway, Richard; Choi, Jongeun; Popovich, John M; Radcliffe, Clark

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a set of techniques for finding a cost function to the time-invariant Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem in both continuous- and discrete-time cases. Our methodology is based on the solution to the inverse LQR problem, which can be stated as: does a given controller K describe the solution to a time-invariant LQR problem, and if so, what weights Q and R produce K as the optimal solution? Our motivation for investigating this problem is the analysis of motion goals in biological systems. We first describe an efficient Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) method for determining a solution to the general case of this inverse LQR problem when both the weighting matrices Q and R are unknown. Our first LMI-based formulation provides a unique solution when it is feasible. Additionally, we propose a gradient-based, least-squares minimization method that can be applied to approximate a solution in cases when the LMIs are infeasible. This new method is very useful in practice since the estimated gain matrix K from the noisy experimental data could be perturbed by the estimation error, which may result in the infeasibility of the LMIs. We also provide an LMI minimization problem to find a good initial point for the minimization using the proposed gradient descent algorithm. We then provide a set of examples to illustrate how to apply our approaches to several different types of problems. An important result is the application of the technique to human subject posture control when seated on a moving robot. Results show that we can recover a cost function which may provide a useful insight on the human motor control goal. PMID:26640359

  9. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  10. Exact Solutions for the Integrable Sixth-Order Drinfeld-Sokolov-Satsuma-Hirota System by the Analytical Methods.

    PubMed

    Manafian Heris, Jalil; Lakestani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    We establish exact solutions including periodic wave and solitary wave solutions for the integrable sixth-order Drinfeld-Sokolov-Satsuma-Hirota system. We employ this system by using a generalized (G'/G)-expansion and the generalized tanh-coth methods. These methods are developed for searching exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. It is shown that these methods, with the help of symbolic computation, provide a straightforward and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

  11. The discussion of crucial techniques in the emergency solution of special equipment security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Liu, Renyi; Liu, Nan

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of the supervision of special equipment security. The emergency solution of special equipment security system aims to integrate the emergency response department, such as police security, fire control, first aid, and traffic police and so on, to conduct the disaster rescue jointly under the command of the government departments. China Special Equipment Inspection and Research Center launched a GIS based system that manages the special equipment security. It designs the database, software and hardware structure, and functional module of the emergency solution of special equipment security based on WebGIS and GPS techniques. This paper analyzes three key issues of this system is explosion model, security patrol vehicles and special vehicles GPS positioning and special equipment monitoring. This system uses the information sharing technology based on Web Service. Transplanting GIS to Internet, designs special equipment spatial data WebGIS web site. B/S architecture is used in the system, and the software SuperMap IS Java of SuperMap Company is used as the GIS server for the spatial data publishing. This system also contains a PDA platform that provide for fieldwork.

  12. On travelling wave solutions of a generalized Davey-Stewartson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Alp; Erbay, Saadet

    2005-02-01

    The generalized Davey-Stewartson (GDS) equations, as derived by Babaoglu & Erbay (2004, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., 39, 941-949), is a system of three coupled equations in (2 + 1) dimensions modelling wave propagation in an infinite elastic medium. The physical parameters ({gamma}, m1, m2, {lambda} and n) of the system allow one to classify the equations as elliptic-elliptic-elliptic (EEE), elliptic-elliptic-hyperbolic (EEH), elliptic-hyperbolic-hyperbolic (EHH), hyperbolic-elliptic-elliptic (HEE), hyperbolic-hyperbolic-hyperbolic (HHH) and hyperbolic-elliptic-hyperbolic (HEH) (Babaoglu et alE, 2004, preprint). In this note, we only consider the EEE and HEE cases and seek travelling wave solutions to GDS systems. By deriving Pohozaev-type identities we establish some necessary conditions on the parameters for the existence of travelling waves, when solutions satisfy some integrability conditions. Using the explicit solutions given in Babaoglu & Erbay (2004) we also show that the parameter constraints must be weaker in the absence of such integrability conditions.

  13. Controls of carbonate mineralogy and solid-solution of Mg in calcite: evidence from spelean systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, L.A.; Lohmann, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation of carbonate minerals in spelean systems occurs under a wide range of fluid chemistry, Mg-Ca ratios, alkalinities, pH and temperatures; thus, spelean systems provide ideal settings to determine factors controlling the mineralogy of precipitated carbonates and solid-solution of Mg in calcite. Cave waters and actively-precipitating carbonate speleothems were collected from Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico and the Mammoth-Flint Cave System, Kentucky. Carbonate mineralogy of precipitated phases was determined by x-ray diffraction, and major and minor element composition of waters and accompanying minerals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results demonstrate that at a constant CO3 concentration the precipitation threshold for calcite to aragonite is controlled dominantly by the Mg/Ca ratio of the ambient fluid. Aragonite precipitation is favored by high Mg/Ca ratios. Conversely, with increasing CO3 concentration at constant fluid Mg/Ca ratios, calcite is preferentially precipitated. Solid-solution of Mg in calcite is positively correlated with both increased Mg/Ca ratios and CO3 concentrations. These data suggest that Mg contents of calcite can not be defined solely in terms of a homogeneous distribution coefficient. Rather, Mg concentrations can be also be affected by the CO3 concentration and degree of calcite saturation, suggesting that the rate of crystal growth also plays and important role in Mg solid-solution in calcites.

  14. Undergraduate Research to Obtain Preliminary Solutions for New Eclipsing Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterer, Charles J.; Walker, A. C.; Izzo, D. M.; Bloomer, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing research program using the 0.61-m telescope at the US Air Force Academy (AFA) Observatory strives to identify, conduct multi-filter photometry, and obtain preliminary model solutions to new eclipsing binary systems. The new candidate systems currently come from the recent list of over 1800 suspected variable stars in the original CCD/Transit Instrument (CTI-I) survey. The undergraduate students involved in the program are AFA cadets in academic research courses and visiting students from the Appalachian College Association's Consortium for Astronomy Research and Teaching (CART) who conduct observations over the summer at the AFA Observatory and continue collaborative interactions with AFA cadets during the following academic year. The goal is to increase the number of known eclipsing variable star systems and identify interesting systems for follow-up research. This is an ideal small telescope research program in which to involve undergraduate students. Hundreds of potential eclipsing systems remaining to be explored.

  15. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Seth W.; Lin, Yupo J.; Hestekin' Jamie A.; Henry, Michael P.; Pujado, Peter; Oroskar, Anil; Kulprathipanja, Santi; Randhava, Sarabjit

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  16. Electrolysis-assisted mitigation of reverse solute flux in a three-chamber forward osmosis system.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiqiang; He, Zhen

    2017-05-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has been widely studied for desalination or water recovery from wastewater, and one of its key challenges for practical applications is reverse solute flux (RSF). RSF can cause loss of draw solutes, salinity build-up and undesired contamination at the feed side. In this study, in-situ electrolysis was employed to mitigate RSF in a three-chamber FO system ("e-FO") with Na2SO4 as a draw solute and deionized (DI) water as a feed. Operation parameters including applied voltage, membrane orientation and initial draw concentrations were systematically investigated to optimize the e-FO performance and reduce RSF. Applying a voltage of 1.5 V achieved a RSF of 6.78 ± 0.55 mmol m(-2) h(-1) and a specific RSF of 0.138 ± 0.011 g L(-1) in the FO mode and with 1 M Na2SO4 as the draw, rendering ∼57% reduction of solute leakage compared to the control without the applied voltage. The reduced RSF should be attributed to constrained ion migration induced by the coactions of electric dragging force (≥1.5 V) and high solute rejection of the FO membrane. Reducing the intensity of the solution recirculation from 60 to 10 mL min(-1) significantly reduced specific energy consumption of the e-FO system from 0.693 ± 0.127 to 0.022 ± 0.004 kWh m(-3) extracted water or from 1.103 ± 0.059 to 0.044 ± 0.002 kWh kg(-1) reduced reversed solute. These results have demonstrated that the electrolysis-assisted RSF mitigation could be an energy-efficient method for controlling RSF towards sustainable FO applications.

  17. Reversible hydrogel-solution system of silk with high beta-sheet content.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shumeng; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Qiang; Sheng, Weiqin; Liu, Lijie; Dong, Boju; Kaplan, David L; Zhu, Hesun

    2014-08-11

    Silkworm silk has been widely used as a textile fiber, as biomaterials and in optically functional materials due to its extraordinary properties. The β-sheet-rich natural nanofiber units of about 10-50 nm in diameter are often considered the origin of these properties, yet it remains unclear how silk self-assembles into these hierarchical structures. A new system composed of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers about 10-20 nm in diameter is reported here, where these nanofibers formed into "flowing hydrogels" at 0.5-2% solutions and could be transformed back into the solution state at lower concentrations, even with a high β-sheet content. This is in contrast with other silk processed materials, where significant β-sheet content negates reversibility between solution and solid states. These fibers are formed by regulating the self-assembly process of silk in aqueous solution, which changes the distribution of negative charges while still supporting β-sheet formation in the structures. Mechanistically, there appears to be a shift toward negative charges along the outside of the silk nanofibers in our present study, resulting in a higher zeta potential (above -50 mV) than previous silk materials which tend to be below -30 mV. The higher negative charge on silk nanofibers resulted in electrostatic repulsion strong enough to negate further assembly of the nanofibers. Changing silk concentration changed the balance between hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers, resulting in reversible hydrogel-solution transitions. Furthermore, the silk nanofibers could be disassembled into shorter fibers and even nanoparticles upon ultrasonic treatment following the transition from hydrogel to solution due to the increased dispersion of hydrophobic smaller particles, without the loss of β-sheet content, and with retention of the ability to transition between hydrogel and solution states through reversion to longer nanofibers during self

  18. Solar-powered saline sorbent-solution heat pump/storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robison, H.; Houston, S.

    Coastal Energy Laboratory Chemical Heat Pump (CEL-CHEAP) is a redesigned open-cycle liquid desiccant air conditioner. Heat is discharged to shallow-well water by dehumidification-humidification for cooling and extracted by humidification-dehumidification for heating. Direct solar radiation concentrates the desiccant. For continuous operation, a small uninsulated tank stores concentrated solution. This chemical heat pump needs no mechanical compressor, condenser, vacuum system, or pressure system. The collector-regenerators are inexpensive. The refrigerant is water and the desiccant is calcium chloride. First cost and operating expenses are very low.

  19. A hybrid disturbance rejection control solution for variable valve timing system of gasoline engines.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Song, Kang; He, Yu

    2014-07-01

    A novel solution for electro-hydraulic variable valve timing (VVT) system of gasoline engines is proposed, based on the concept of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). Disturbances, such as oil pressure and engine speed variations, are all estimated and mitigated in real-time. A feed-forward controller was added to enhance the performance of the system based on a simple and static first principle model, forming a hybrid disturbance rejection control (HDRC) strategy. HDRC was validated by experimentation and compared with an existing manually tuned proportional-integral (PI) controller. The results show that HDRC provided a faster response and better tolerance of engine speed and oil pressure variations.

  20. Composition-insensitive highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions formed in anionic and cationic surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Kenji; Iemoto, Suzuka; Ikeda, Naoaki; Saito, Keitaro

    2010-01-01

    We investigated phase behavior and rheological properties of aqueous micellar phase formed in water/cocoyl glutamate neutralized with triethanol amine (CGT-n)/hexadecyl trimethylammonium salt (CTAB or CTAC) systems, where n is a degree of neutralization. Micellar phase appears in wide composition range with respect to the surfactant mixing fraction in ternary phase diagrams at 25 degrees C. At high mixing fraction of cationic surfactant in the water/CGT-n/CTAB systems, one can observe a highly viscous micellar phase in which worm-like micelles are expected to form. Contrary to conventional systems in which worm-like micelles are formed, the zero-shear viscosity of the micellar solution in the water/CGT-n/CTAB system with n=1.2 increases with the addition of cationic cosurfactant and once decreases after a maximum, then increases again and decreases after the second maximum. At n=1.5 and 2, highly viscous solution is observed in the relatively wide range of surfactant mixing fraction instead of two maxima of the viscosity curve observed at n=1.2. In the case of CTAC instead of CTAB we can observe narrow composition range for the maximum viscosity. Frequency sweep measurements were performed on the highly viscous samples in the water/CGT-1.5/CTAB system. Typical viscoelastic behavior of worm-like micellar solutions is observed; i.e. the curves of storage (G') and loss (G") moduli make a crossover and the data points of G' and G" can be fitted to the Maxwell model. Relaxation time against the mixing fraction of two surfactants behaves similarly to the zero-shear viscosity change, whereas the plateau modulus continuously increases in the plateau region for the zero-shear viscosity curve.

  1. Joule-Thomson Inversion in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Solution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichita, Dan Vladimir; Pauly, Jerome; Daridon, Jean-Luc

    2009-07-01

    Solid phase precipitation can greatly affect thermal effects in isenthalpic expansions; wax precipitation may occur in natural hydrocarbon systems in the range of operating conditions, the wax appearance temperature being significantly higher (as high as 350 K) for hyperbaric fluids. Recently, methods for calculating the Joule-Thomson inversion curve (JTIC) for two-phase mixtures, and for three-phase vapor-liquid-multisolid systems have been proposed. In this study, an approach for calculating the JTIC for the vapor-liquid-solid solution systems is presented. The JTIC is located by tracking extrema and angular points of enthalpy departure variations versus pressure at isothermal conditions. The proposed method is applied to several complex synthetic and naturally occurring hydrocarbon systems. The JTIC can exhibit several distinct branches (which may lie within two- or three-phase regions or follow phase boundaries), multiple inversion temperatures at fixed pressure, as well as multiple inversion pressures at given temperature.

  2. NOTE: A VMAT planning solution for prostate patients using a commercial treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan, C. J.; Golby, C.; Rowbottom, C. G.

    2010-07-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a rotational delivery technique which offers the potential of improved dose distributions and shorter treatment times when compared to fixed-beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This note describes the use of an existing treatment planning system (Philips Pinnacle3 v.8.0), supplemented by in-house software, to produce a single-arc VMAT prostate plan. While a number of planning systems for the Elekta VMAT platform are commercially available, the use of an in-house solution has allowed more detailed investigations of VMAT planning, as well as greater control over the optimization process. The solution presented here begins with a static step-and-shoot IMRT approach to provide initial segment shapes, which are then modified and sequenced into 60 equally spaced control points in a 360° arc. Dose-volume histogram comparisons demonstrate that this VMAT planning method offers multiple dose level target coverage comparable to that from a standard IMRT approach. The VMAT plans also show superior sparing of critical structures such as the rectum and bladder. Delivery times are reduced with the VMAT method, and the results of dosimetric verification, resilience and repeatability tests indicate that the solution is robust.

  3. An explicit solution for progress curve analysis in systems characterized by endogenous substrate production.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2012-05-01

    The Lambert W function was used to explicitly relate substrate concentration S, to time t, and the kinetic parameters V (m), K (m), and R in the modified Michaelis-Menten equation that accounts for endogenous substrate production. The applicability of this explicit formulation for kinetic parameter estimation by progress curve analysis was demonstrated using a combination of synthetic and experimental substrate depletion data. Synthetic substrate depletion data were generated using S (0) values of 1, 2, and 3 μM and V (m), K (m), and R values of 1.0 μM h(-1), 1.0 μM, and 0.1 μM h(-1), respectively, and contained 5% normally distributed error. Experimental data were obtained from two previously published studies on hydrogen depletion in four experimental systems. In all instances, experimental data were well described by the explicit solution presented in this study. Differential equation solution and iterative S estimation are eliminated with the explicit solution approach, thereby simplifying progress curve analysis in systems characterized by endogenous substrate production.

  4. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  5. Transfer of control system interface solutions from other domains to the thermal power industry.

    PubMed

    Bligård, L-O; Andersson, J; Osvalder, A-L

    2012-01-01

    In a thermal power plant the operators' roles are to control and monitor the process to achieve efficient and safe production. To achieve this, the human-machine interfaces have a central part. The interfaces need to be updated and upgraded together with the technical functionality to maintain optimal operation. One way of achieving relevant updates is to study other domains and see how they have solved similar issues in their design solutions. The purpose of this paper is to present how interface design solution ideas can be transferred from domains with operator control to thermal power plants. In the study 15 domains were compared using a model for categorisation of human-machine systems. The result from the domain comparison showed that nuclear power, refinery and ship engine control were most similar to thermal power control. From the findings a basic interface structure and three specific display solutions were proposed for thermal power control: process parameter overview, plant overview, and feed water view. The systematic comparison of the properties of a human-machine system allowed interface designers to find suitable objects, structures and navigation logics in a range of domains that could be transferred to the thermal power domain.

  6. Rational solutions to two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi

    2015-07-01

    Exact explicit rational solutions of two- and one-dimensional multicomponent Yajima-Oikawa (YO) systems, which contain multi-short-wave components and single long-wave one, are presented by using the bilinear method. For two-dimensional system, the fundamental rational solution first describes the localized lumps, which have three different patterns: bright, intermediate and dark states. Then, rogue waves can be obtained under certain parameter conditions and their behaviors are also classified to above three patterns with different definition. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line localized waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. In particular, two-dimensional intermediate and dark counterparts of rogue wave are found with the different parameter requirements. We demonstrate that multirogue waves describe the interaction of several fundamental rogue waves, in which interesting curvy wave patterns appear in the intermediate times. Different curvy wave patterns form in the interaction of different types fundamental rogue waves. Higher-order rogue waves exhibit the dynamic behaviors that the wave structures start from lump and then retreat back to it, and this transient wave possesses the patterns such as parabolas. Furthermore, different states of higher-order rogue wave result in completely distinguishing lumps and parabolas. Moreover, one-dimensional rogue wave solutions with three states are constructed through the further reduction. Specifically, higher-order rogue wave in one-dimensional case is derived under the parameter constraints.

  7. A General Closed-Form Solution for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Antenna Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Chen, J. Roger; Hashmall, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle into a direct insertion trajectory to the Moon LRO, designed, built, and operated by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, is gathering crucial data on the lunar environment that will help astronauts prepare for long-duration lunar expeditions. During the mission s nominal life of one year its six instruments and one technology demonstrator will find safe landing site, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment and test new technology. To date, LRO has been operating well within the bounds of its requirements and has been collecting excellent science data images taken from the LRO Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) of the Apollo landing sites have appeared on cable news networks. A significant amount of information on LRO s science instruments is provided at the LRO mission webpage. LRO s Attitude Control System (ACS), in addition to controlling the orientation of the spacecraft is also responsible for pointing the High Gain Antenna (HGA). A dual-axis (or double-gimbaled) antenna, deployed on a meter-long boom, is required to point at a selected Earth ground station. Due to signal loss over the distance from the Moon to Earth, pointing precision for the antenna system is very tight. Since the HGA has to be deployed in spaceflight, its exact geometry relative to the spacecraft body is uncertain. In addition, thermal distortions and mechanical errors/tolerances must be characterized and removed to realize the greatest gain from the antenna system. These reasons necessitate the need for an in-flight calibration. Once in orbit around the moon, a series of attitude maneuvers was conducted to provide data needed to determine optimal parameters to load onboard, which would account for the environmental and mechanical errors at any

  8. Note on Solutions of the Strominger System from Unitary Representations of Cocompact Lattices of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Bjorn; Garcia-Fernandez, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This note is motivated by a recently published paper (Biswas and Mukherjee in Commun Math Phys 322(2):373-384, 2013). We prove a no-go result for the existence of suitable solutions of the Strominger system in a compact complex parallelizable manifold . For this, we assume G to be non-abelian, the Hermitian metric to be induced from a right invariant metric on G, the Bianchi identity to be satisfied using the Chern connection and furthermore the gauge field to be flat. In Biswas and Mukherjee (Commun Math Phys 322(2):373-384, 2013) it is claimed that one such solution exists on . Our result contradicts the main result in Biswas and Mukherjee (Commun Math Phys 322(2):373-384, 2013).

  9. On the Shape of Meissner Solutions to a Limiting Form of Ginzburg-Landau Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xingfei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study a semilinear system involving the curl operator, which is a limiting form of the Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductors in R^3 for a large value of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We consider the locations of the maximum points of the magnitude of solutions, which are associated with the nucleation of instability of the Meissner state for superconductors when the applied magnetic field is increased in the transition between the Meissner state and the vortex state. For small penetration depth, we prove that the location is not only determined by the tangential component of the applied magnetic field, but also by the normal curvatures of the boundary in some directions. This improves the result obtained by Bates and Pan in Commun. Math. Phys. 276, 571-610 (2007). We also show that the solutions decay exponentially in the normal direction away from the boundary if the penetration depth is small.

  10. Hydrogen‐Bonded Macrocyclic Supramolecular Systems in Solution and on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, María J.; Bilbao, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyclization into closed assemblies is the most recurrent approach to realize the noncovalent synthesis of discrete, well‐defined nanostructures. This review article particularly focuses on the noncovalent synthesis of monocyclic hydrogen‐bonded systems that are self‐assembled from a single molecule with two binding‐sites. Taking advantage of intramolecular binding events, which are favored with respect to intermolecular binding in solution, can afford quantitative amounts of a given supramolecular species under thermodynamic control. The size of the assembly depends on geometric issues such as the monomer structure and the directionality of the binding interaction, whereas the fidelity achieved relies largely on structural preorganization, low degrees of conformational flexibility, and templating effects. Here, we discuss several examples described in the literature in which cycles of different sizes, from dimers to hexamers, are studied by diverse solution or surface characterization techniques. PMID:27308207

  11. Algebraic solution of the Lindblad equation for a collection of multilevel systems coupled to independent environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños, Marduk; Barberis-Blostein, Pablo

    2015-11-01

    We consider the Lindblad equation for a collection of multilevel systems coupled to independent environments. The equation is symmetric under the exchange of the labels associated with each system and thus the open-system dynamics takes place in the permutation-symmetric subspace of the operator space. The dimension of this space grows polynomially with the number of systems. We construct a basis of this space and a set of superoperators whose action on this basis is easily specified. For a given number of levels, M, these superoperators are written in terms of a bosonic realization of the generators of the Lie algebra {sl}({M}2). In some cases, these results enable finding an analytic solution of the master equation using known Lie-algebraic methods. To demonstrate this, we obtain an analytic expression for the state operator of a collection of three-level atoms coupled to independent radiation baths. When analytic solutions are difficult to find, the basis and the superoperators can be used to considerably reduce the computational resources required for simulations.

  12. Four Challenges, and a Proposed Solution, for Cognitive System Engineering - System Development Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    purposive information. The cognitive systems approach begins, therefore, with a consideration of work environment ecology: Its properties and...constraints as well as the “system’s “purpose space” within the work environment . This creates the work context within which all system activity is assumed...Hopcroft and Moylan, 2005). These range from text descriptions of work environment ecology to specifications of human performance parameters. However

  13. A Solution Space for a System of Null-State Partial Differential Equations: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Steven M.; Kleban, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article is the first of four that completely and rigorously characterize a solution space for a homogeneous system of 2 N + 3 linear partial differential equations (PDEs) in 2 N variables that arises in conformal field theory (CFT) and multiple Schramm-Löwner evolution (SLE). In CFT, these are null-state equations and conformal Ward identities. They govern partition functions for the continuum limit of a statistical cluster or loop-gas model, such as percolation, or more generally the Potts models and O( n) models, at the statistical mechanical critical point. (SLE partition functions also satisfy these equations.) For such a lattice model in a polygon with its 2 N sides exhibiting a free/fixed side-alternating boundary condition , this partition function is proportional to the CFT correlation function where the w i are the vertices of and where is a one-leg corner operator. (Partition functions for "crossing events" in which clusters join the fixed sides of in some specified connectivity are linear combinations of such correlation functions.) When conformally mapped onto the upper half-plane, methods of CFT show that this correlation function satisfies the system of PDEs that we consider. In this first article, we use methods of analysis to prove that the dimension of this solution space is no more than C N , the Nth Catalan number. While our motivations are based in CFT, our proofs are completely rigorous. This proof is contained entirely within this article, except for the proof of Lemma 14, which constitutes the second article (Flores and Kleban, in Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1404.0035, 2014). In the third article (Flores and Kleban, in Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1303.7182, 2013), we use the results of this article to prove that the solution space of this system of PDEs has dimension C N and is spanned by solutions constructed with the CFT Coulomb gas (contour integral) formalism. In the fourth article (Flores and Kleban, in Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1405

  14. Matrix equation decomposition and parallel solution of systems resulting from unstructured finite element problems in electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Cwik, T.; Katz, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Finite element modeling has proven useful for accurately simulating scattered or radiated electromagnetic fields from complex three-dimensional objects whose geometry varies on the scale of a fraction of an electrical wavelength. An unstructured finite element model of realistic objects leads to a large, sparse, system of equations that needs to be solved efficiently with regard to machine memory and execution time. Both factorization and iterative solvers can be used to produce solutions to these systems of equations. Factorization leads to high memory requirements that limit the electrical problem size of three-dimensional objects that can be modeled. An iterative solver can be used to efficiently solve the system without excessive memory use and in a minimal amount of time if the convergence rate is controlled.

  15. Stability of localized solutions in a subcritically unstable pattern-forming system under a global delayed control.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, B Y; Nepomnyashchy, A A; Golovin, A A

    2007-04-01

    The formation of spatially localized patterns in a system with subcritical instability under feedback control with delay is investigated within the framework of globally controlled Ginzburg-Landau equation. It is shown that feedback control can stabilize spatially localized solutions. With the increase of delay, these solutions undergo oscillatory instability that, for large enough control strength, results in the formation of localized oscillating pulses. With further increase of the delay the solution blows up.

  16. Secretory glands and microvascular systems imaged in aqueous solution by atmospheric scanning electron microscopy (ASEM).

    PubMed

    Yamazawa, Toshiko; Nakamura, Naotoshi; Sato, Mari; Sato, Chikara

    2016-12-01

    Exocrine glands, e.g., salivary and pancreatic glands, play an important role in digestive enzyme secretion, while endocrine glands, e.g., pancreatic islets, secrete hormones that regulate blood glucose levels. The dysfunction of these secretory organs immediately leads to various diseases, such as diabetes or Sjögren's syndrome, by poorly understood mechanisms. Gland-related diseases have been studied by optical microscopy (OM), and at higher resolution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of Epon embedded samples, which necessitates hydrophobic sample pretreatment. Here, we report the direct observation of tissue in aqueous solution by atmospheric scanning electron microscopy (ASEM). Salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and pancreas were fixed, sectioned into slabs, stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and inspected in radical scavenger d-glucose solution from below by an inverted scanning electron microscopy (SEM), guided by optical microscopy from above to target the tissue substructures. A 2- to 3-µm specimen thickness was visualized by the SEM. In secretory cells, cytoplasmic vesicles and other organelles were clearly imaged at high resolution, and the former could be classified according to the degree of PTA staining. In islets of Langerhans, the microvascular system used as an outlet by the secretory cells was also clearly observed. Microvascular system is also critically involved in the onset of diabetic complications and was clearly visible in subcutaneous tissue imaged by ASEM. The results suggest the use of in-solution ASEM for histology and to study vesicle secretion systems. Further, the high-throughput of ASEM makes it a potential tool for the diagnosis of exocrine and endocrine-related diseases.

  17. Analysis of Ecodesign Implementation and Solutions for Packaging Waste System by Using System Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzina, Alise; Dace, Elina; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research project which explored the packaging waste management system in Latvia. The paper focuses on identifying how the policy mechanisms can promote ecodesign implementation and material efficiency improvement and therefore reduce the rate of packaging waste accumulation in landfill. The method used for analyzing the packaging waste management policies is system dynamics modeling. The main conclusion is that the existing legislative instruments can be used to create an effective policy for ecodesign implementation but substantially higher tax rates on packaging materials and waste disposal than the existing have to be applied.

  18. An integrated high-throughput data acquisition system for biological solution X-ray scattering studies.

    PubMed

    Martel, Anne; Liu, Ping; Weiss, Thomas M; Niebuhr, Marc; Tsuruta, Hiro

    2012-05-01

    A fully automated high-throughput solution X-ray scattering data collection system has been developed for protein structure studies at beamline 4-2 of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. It is composed of a thin-wall quartz capillary cell, a syringe needle assembly on an XYZ positioning arm for sample delivery, a water-cooled sample rack and a computer-controlled fluid dispenser. It is controlled by a specifically developed software component built into the standard beamline control program Blu-Ice/DCS. The integrated system is intuitive and very simple to use, and enables experimenters to customize data collection strategy in a timely fashion in concert with an automated data processing program. The system also allows spectrophotometric determination of protein concentration for each sample aliquot in the beam via an in situ UV absorption spectrometer. A single set of solution scattering measurements requires a 20-30 µl sample aliquot and takes typically 3.5 min, including an extensive capillary cleaning cycle. Over 98.5% of measurements are valid and free from artefacts commonly caused by air-bubble contamination. The sample changer, which is compact and light, facilitates effortless switching with other sample-handling devices required for other types of non-crystalline X-ray scattering experiments.

  19. Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Liang, RongGuang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25 nM of indocyanine green at 27 fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use. PMID:25607724

  20. Unified semiclassical theory for the two-state system: Analytical solutions for scattering matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chaoyuan

    1996-09-01

    Unified semiclassical theory is established for general two-state system by employing an exactly analytical quantum solution [C. Zhu, J. Phys. A29, 1293 (1996)] for the Nikitin exponential-potential model which contains the two-state curve crossing and noncrossing cases as a whole. Analytical solutions for scattering matrices are found for both three- and two-channel cases within the time-independent treatment. This is made possible by introducing a very important parameter d(R0)=√)/[V22(R0)-V11(R0)]2 (V11(R), V22(R) and V12(R) are diabatic potentials and coupling, R0 is real part of complex crossing point between two adiabatic potentials) which represents a type of nonadiabatic transition for the two-state system. For instance, d=∞ represents the Landau-Zener type and d=√ represents Rosen-Zener type. Since d(R0) runs from unity to infinity, this parameter provides a quantitative description of nonadiabatic transition. The idea used here is the parameter comparison method which makes a unique link between the model and general potential system at the complex crossing point. This method is testified not only by numerical examples, but also by agreement of the present semiclassical formulas with all existing semiclassical formulas.

  1. Novel DC ring topology and protection system - a comprehensive solution for mega city power grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Maharsi, Mohamed Yassine

    2009-07-01

    The development of mega cities leads to increased load concentration and brings additional challenges to managing the electrical grid while keeping power available for critical loads. Techniques using FACTS devices are being applied to alleviate power management difficulties and to confine faults in their originating areas in order to limit the risk of cascading failures in the grid. The addition of many FACTS devices often results in control and protection coordination difficulties, power oscillations between connected networks, subsynchronous resonance problems, and torsional interactions with nearby generator units. The most effective solution is obtained when the individual AC subsystems representing sources and loads are decoupled so a fault in a given subsystem is not propagated to another subsystem. This solution can be achieved by the deployment of a DC system where power sources and loads are connected to the DC bus through voltage source converters. For a mega city, this would be conceived as a DC ring feeding multiple loads and connected to remote and local power sources. Unfortunately, the lack of fast DC circuit breakers has been one of the key issues affecting extensive applications of DC systems with common DC buses; a DC fault would discharge all the capacitors of the DC bus and cause delays in system recovery and possibly a wide system collapse. In this research, I provide a comprehensive solution to mega city power grid problems by proposing a DC system topology that enables grid expansions without affecting existing protection settings or changing existing AC breaker ratings. I also propose the means for protecting the DC system by designing a fast DC breaker and developing a control algorithm capable of isolating DC faults without blocking converter stations or depleting DC bus capacitors. My contribution is three folds: (1) I modeled and simulated Shanghai power grid and performed a study to identify short circuit and voltage stability problems

  2. Optimized design of recycle chromatography to isolate intermediate retained solutes in ternary mixtures: Langmuir isotherm systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Weon; Wankat, Phillip C

    2009-10-09

    Batch chromatography with a recycle stream is a popular and simple technique to separate a single target component in a complex mixture with moderate operating conditions. Design of recycle chromatography depends on the retention behaviors of the mixture components. In this work, four nucleosides were considered as solutes. Feed concentration and recycle methods were optimized to isolate only the intermediate retained solute in ternary and pseudo-ternary mixtures. Two recycle methods introduced in our previous work for linear isotherms, the desorbent and feed recycle methods, were compared in terms of productivity and desorbent to feed ratio, D/F, with various feed concentrations for competitive Langmuir isotherm systems. The simulation results show that the target (intermediate retained solute) was separated with over 99.76% purity and 99.88% yield. Productivity of the feed recycle method was increased by up to 162% and D/F was decreased by up to 59% compared to the desorbent recycle method. For the separation of nucleosides, recycle chromatography was compared to eight column simulated moving bed (SMB) cascades with a recycle stream and D/F of the SMB cascades was 58% lower than D/F of recycle chromatography at the same productivity. However, recycle chromatography is much simpler.

  3. Pyrene and phenanthrene sorption to model and natural geosorbents in single- and binary-solute systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-11-01

    Sorption of pyrene and phenanthrene to model (illite and charcoal) and natural (Yangtze sediment) geosorbents were investigated by batch techniques using fluorescence spectroscopy. A higher adsorption of phenanthrene was observed with all sorbents, which is related to the better accessibility of smaller molecules to micropores in the molecular sieve sorbents. In addition, pyrene sorption in binary-solute systems with a constant initial concentration of phenanthrene (0.1 μmol L(-1) or 2 μmol L(-1)) was studied. A 0.1 μmol L(-1) concentration of phenanthrene causes no competitive effect on the pyrene sorption. A 2 μmol L(-1) concentration of phenanthrene significantly suppresses the sorption of pyrene, especially in the low concentration range; nonlinearity of the pyrene sorption isotherms thus decreases. The competitive effect of 2 μmol L(-1) phenanthrene on the pyrene sorption is overestimated by the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) using the fitted single sorption results of both solutes. An adjustment of the IAST application by taking into account the molecular sieve effect is proposed, which notably improves the IAST prediction for the competitive effect.

  4. A recourse-based solution approach to the design of fuel cell aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taeyun Paul

    In order to formulate a nondeterministic solution approach that capitalizes on the practice of compensatory design, this research introduces the notion of recourse. Within the context of engineering an aerospace system, recourse is defined as a set of corrective actions that can be implemented in stages later than the current design phase to keep critical system-level figures of merit within the desired target ranges, albeit at some penalty. Recourse programs also introduce the concept of stages to optimization formulations, and allow each stage to encompass as many sequences or events as determined necessary to solve the problem at hand. A two-part strategy, which partitions the design activities into stages, is proposed to model the bi-phasal nature of recourse. The first stage is defined as the time period in which an a priori design is identified before the exact values of the uncertain parameters are known. In contrast, the second stage is a period occurring some time after the first stage, when an a posteriori correction can be made to the first-stage design, should the realization of uncertainties impart infeasibilities. Penalizing costs are attached to the second-stage corrections to reflect the reality that getting it done right the first time is almost always less costly than fixing it after the fact. Consequently, the goal of the second stage becomes identifying an optimal solution with respect to the second-stage penalty, given the first-stage design, as well as a particular realization of the random parameters. This two-stage model is intended as an analogue of the traditional practice of monitoring and managing key Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) in aerospace systems development settings. One obvious weakness of the two-stage strategy as presented above is its limited applicability as a forecasting tool. Not only cannot the second stage be invoked without a first-stage starting point, but also the second-stage solution differs from one specific

  5. An efficient parallel algorithm for the solution of a tridiagonal linear system of equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. S.

    1971-01-01

    Tridiagonal linear systems of equations are solved on conventional serial machines in a time proportional to N, where N is the number of equations. The conventional algorithms do not lend themselves directly to parallel computations on computers of the ILLIAC IV class, in the sense that they appear to be inherently serial. An efficient parallel algorithm is presented in which computation time grows as log sub 2 N. The algorithm is based on recursive doubling solutions of linear recurrence relations, and can be used to solve recurrence relations of all orders.

  6. Fault Estimation for Fuzzy Delay Systems: A Minimum Norm Least Squares Solution Approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Juan; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-07-18

    This paper mainly focuses on the problem of fault estimation for a class of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with state delays. A minimum norm least squares solution (MNLSS) approach is first introduced to establish a fault estimation compensator, which is able to optimize the fault estimator. Compared with most of the existing fault estimation methods, the MNLSS-based fault estimation method can effectively decrease the effect of state errors on the accuracy of fault estimation. Finally, three examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method.

  7. Boundedness of the solutions for certain classes of fractional differential equations with application to adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of three classes of fractional differential equations appearing in the field of fractional adaptive systems, for the case when the fractional order is in the interval α ∈(0,1] and the Caputo definition for fractional derivatives is used. The boundedness of the solutions is proved for all three cases, and the convergence to zero of the mean value of one of the variables is also proved. Applications of the obtained results to fractional adaptive schemes in the context of identification and control problems are presented at the end of the paper, including numerical simulations which support the analytical results.

  8. A comparative study of iterative solutions to linear systems arising in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Yanfei

    2010-11-01

    This study is mainly focused on iterative solutions with simple diagonal preconditioning to two complex-valued nonsymmetric systems of linear equations arising from a computational chemistry model problem proposed by Sherry Li of NERSC. Numerical experiments show the feasibility of iterative methods to some extent when applied to the problems and reveal the competitiveness of our recently proposed Lanczos biconjugate A-orthonormalization methods to other classic and popular iterative methods. By the way, experiment results also indicate that application specific preconditioners may be mandatory and required for accelerating convergence.

  9. Higher Integrability of Solutions to Generalized Stokes System Under Perfect Slip Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mácha, Václav; Tichý, Jakub

    2014-10-01

    We prove an L q theory result for generalized Stokes system in a {{C}^{2,1}} domain complemented with the perfect slip boundary conditions and under Φ-growth conditions. Since the interior regularity was obtained in Diening and Kaplický (Manu Math 141:336-361, 2013), a regularity up to the boundary is an aim of this paper. In order to get the main result, we use Calderón-Zygmund theory and the method developed in Caffarelli and Peral (Ann Math 130:189-213, 1989). We obtain higher integrability of the first gradient of a solution.

  10. Isotopic exchange of uranium. II. Exchange kinetics in solution-organic-ion exchanger systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhinskii, M.V.; Bronzov, P.A.; Vitinskii, M.Yu.

    1987-07-01

    The results of a study of the sorption of uranium and the kinetics of isotopic exchange between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) in systems consisting of a hydrochloric acid solution and the KU-2-8P and AV-17-10P ion-exchange resins have been studied. It has been shown that the sorption of uranium is limited by diffusion in the sorbent grains and that isotopic exchange is limited by the reaction between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI).

  11. Existence and boundedness of solutions for a singular phase field system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Elena; Colli, Pierluigi; Fabrizio, Mauro; Gilardi, Gianni

    This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of a thermo-mechanical model describing phase transitions in terms of the entropy and order structure balance law. We consider a macroscopic description of the phenomenon and make a presentation of the model. Then, the initial and boundary value problem is addressed for the related PDE system, which contains some nonlinear and singular terms with respect to the temperature variable. Existence of the solution is shown along with the boundedness of both phase variable χ and absolute temperature ϑ. Finally, uniqueness is proved in the framework of a source term depending Lipschitz continuously on ϑ.

  12. Thermodynamic characteristics of the heparin-leucine-CaCl2 system in a diluted physiological solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. S.; Belov, G. V.; Rulev, Yu. A.; Semenov, A. N.

    2013-03-01

    Chemical equilibria in aqueous solutions of high-molecular weight heparin (Na4hep) and leucine (HLeu) are calculated through the mathematical modeling of chemical equilibria based on representative experimental pH titration data. In addition, chemical equilibria in the CaCl2-Na4hep-HLeu-H2O-NaCl system in the presence of 0.154M NaCl background electrolyte at a temperature of 37°C in the range of 2.30 ≤ pH ≤ 10.50 and initial concentrations of basic components n × 10-3 M ( n ≤ 4).

  13. Global strong solution to the 3D incompressible magnetohydrodynamic system in the scaling invariant Besov-Sobolev-type spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haitao; Zhai, Xiaoping; Yan, Wei; Li, Yongsheng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the global well posedness of the 3D incompressible magnetohydrodynamic system with horizontal dissipation and horizontal magnetic diffusion in the scaling invariant Besov-Sobolev-type spaces. We first get a unique global solution to this system with small initial data by the classical Friedrich's regularization method. Then using a weighted Chemin-Lerner-type norm, we prove the system also can generate a global solution if the horizontal components of the initial data are small enough compared to the vertical components. In particular, our results imply the global large solutions with highly oscillating initial data.

  14. System design optimization for a Mars-roving vehicle and perturbed-optimal solutions in nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavarini, C.

    1974-01-01

    Work in two somewhat distinct areas is presented. First, the optimal system design problem for a Mars-roving vehicle is attacked by creating static system models and a system evaluation function and optimizing via nonlinear programming techniques. The second area concerns the problem of perturbed-optimal solutions. Given an initial perturbation in an element of the solution to a nonlinear programming problem, a linear method is determined to approximate the optimal readjustments of the other elements of the solution. Then, the sensitivity of the Mars rover designs is described by application of this method.

  15. Existence and Uniqueness of a Generalized Solution for a System of Equations of Mixed Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki

    1994-01-01

    In order to explore the problem of wave propagation in a plasma, the traditional method has been to utilize geometric optics or plane stratified medium approximations. However, neither of these approximations is valid in applications involving moderately low frequencies and moderately long wave length. The partial differential equations associated with this model are basically Maxwell's equations. The dielectric medium in which the electromagnetic waves propagate is characterized by a cold plasma conductivity tensor which is a function of the space variables and the frequency. After the introduction of a pair of appropriate electromagnetic potentials, the wave propagation problem reduces to a system of two second-order partial differential equations. While one equation is elliptic as expected, the other is of mixed type: the equation makes a transition from elliptic to hyperbolic across a resonance curve. Such transition occurs at lower and upper hybrid resonances and also at cyclotron resonance surfaces, near which the cold plasma approximation breaks down. The change in type of the cold plasma model is represented by mixed type equations, such as the Tricomi equation. Solutions of the Tricomi equation are locally well-behaved near the transition line in the sense that generalized solutions belong to the L_2 -space. This indicates that the energy is preserved across the resonance line and thus no absorption takes place. However, Tricomi form fails to represent the model near points at which the resonance surface is tangent to a flux surface. The correct model equation shows that the degenerate point is located at the origin, and energy absorption is thought to be possible in the specified region near the origin. A uniqueness theorem for a generalized or weak solution of the Dirichlet problem for the cold plasma model, which permits a specified singularity at the origin on its boundary, is proved by establishing an apriori estimate. The existence of such a weak

  16. Qualitative Analysis for a New Integrable Two-Component Camassa-Holm System with Peakon and Weak Kink Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kai; Qiao, Zhijun; Yin, Zhaoyang

    2015-06-01

    This paper is devoted to a new integrable two-component Camassa-Holm system with peaked solitons (peakons) and weak-kink solutions. It is the first integrable system that admits weak kink and kink-peakon interactional solutions. In addition, the new system includes both standard (quadratic) and cubic Camassa-Holm equations as two special cases. In the paper, we first establish the local well-posedness for the Cauchy problem of the system, and then derive a precise blow-up scenario and a new blow-up result for strong solutions to the system with both quadratic and cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, its peakon and weak kink solutions are discussed as well.

  17. 77 FR 58424 - Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc. because it...

  18. Electrochemiluminescence of terbium (III)-two fluoroquinolones-sodium sulfite system in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi-lv; Ding, Fen; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Hui-chun

    2006-05-01

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of Tb 3+-enoxacin-Na 2SO 3 system (ENX system) and Tb 3+-ofloxacin-Na 2SO 3 system (OFLX system) in aqueous solution is reported. ECL is generated by the oxidation of Na 2SO 3, which is enhanced by Tb 3+-fluoroquinolone (FQ) complex. The ECL intensity peak versus potential corresponds to oxidation of Na 2SO 3, and the ECL emission spectra (the peaks are at 490, 545, 585 and 620 nm) match the characteristic emission spectrum of Tb 3+, indicating that the emission is from the excited state of Tb 3+. The mechanism of ECL is proposed and the difference of ECL intensity between ENX system and OFLX system is explained. Conditions for ECL emission were optimized. The linear range of ECL intensity versus concentrations of pharmaceuticals is 2.0 × 10 -10-8.0 × 10 -7 mol l -1 for ENX and 6.0 × 10 -10-6.0 × 10 -7 mol l -1 for OFLX, respectively. A theoretical limit of detection is 5.4 × 10 -11 mol l -1 for ENX and 1.6 × 10 -10 mol l -1 for OFLX, respectively. The ECL was satisfactorily applied to the determination of the two FQs in dosage form and urine sample.

  19. Blow-up of weak solutions to a chemotaxis system under influence of an external chemoattractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    We study nonnnegative radially symmetric solutions of the parabolic-elliptic Keller-Segel whole space system {ut=Δu-∇ṡ(u∇v), x∈Rn,t>0,0=Δv+u+f(x), x∈Rn,t>0,u(x,0)=u0(x), x∈Rn, with prototypical external signal production f(x):={f0|x|-α,if |x|⩽R-ρ,0,if |x|⩾R+ρ, for R\\in (0,1) and ρ \\in ≤ft(0,\\frac{R}{2}\\right) , which is still integrable but not of class {{L}\\frac{n{2}+{δ0}}}≤ft({{{R}}n}\\right) for some {δ0}\\in ≤ft[0,1\\right) . For corresponding parabolic-parabolic Neumann-type boundary-value problems in bounded domains Ω , where f\\in {{L}\\frac{n{2}+{δ0}}}(Ω ){\\cap}{{C}α}(Ω ) for some {δ0}\\in (0,1) and α \\in (0,1) , it is known that the system does not emit blow-up solutions if the quantities \\parallel {{u}0}{{\\parallel}{{L\\frac{n{2}+{δ0}}}(Ω )}},\\parallel f{{\\parallel}{{L\\frac{n{2}+{δ0}}}(Ω )}} and \\parallel {{v}0}{{\\parallel}{{Lθ}(Ω )}} , for some θ >n , are all bounded by some \\varepsilon >0 small enough. We will show that whenever {{f}0}>\\frac{2n}α(n-2)(n-α ) and {{u}0}\\equiv {{c}0}>0 in \\overline{{{B}1}(0)} , a measure-valued global-in-time weak solution to the system above can be constructed which blows up immediately. Since these conditions are independent of R\\in (0,1) and c 0  >  0, we obtain a strong indication that in fact {δ0}=0 is critical for the existence of global bounded solutions under a smallness conditions as described above.

  20. A Solution Space for a System of Null-State Partial Differential Equations: Part 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Steven M.; Kleban, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article is the last of four that completely and rigorously characterize a solution space for a homogeneous system of 2 N + 3 linear partial differential equations in 2 N variables that arises in conformal field theory (CFT) and multiple Schramm-Löwner evolution (SLE). The system comprises 2 N null-state equations and three conformal Ward identities that govern CFT correlation functions of 2 N one-leg boundary operators. In the first two articles (Flores and Kleban in Commun Math Phys, 2012; Flores and Kleban, in Commun Math Phys, 2014), we use methods of analysis and linear algebra to prove that dim , with C N the Nth Catalan number. Using these results in the third article (Flores and Kleban, in Commun Math Phys, 2013), we prove that dim and is spanned by (real-valued) solutions constructed with the Coulomb gas (contour integral) formalism of CFT. In this article, we use these results to prove some facts concerning the solution space . First, we show that each of its elements equals a sum of at most two distinct Frobenius series in powers of the difference between two adjacent points (unless is odd, in which case a logarithmic term may appear). This establishes an important element in the operator product expansion for one-leg boundary operators, assumed in CFT. We also identify particular elements of , which we call connectivity weights, and exploit their special properties to conjecture a formula for the probability that the curves of a multiple-SLE process join in a particular connectivity. This leads to new formulas for crossing probabilities of critical lattice models inside polygons with a free/fixed side-alternating boundary condition, which we derive in Flores et al. (Partition functions and crossing probabilities for critical systems inside polygons, in preparation). Finally, we propose a reason for why the exceptional speeds [certain values that appeared in the analysis of the Coulomb gas solutions in Flores and Kleban (Commun Math Phys, 2013)] and

  1. MBSSAS: A code for the computation of margules parameters and equilibrium relations in binary solid-solution aqueous-solution systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The computer code MBSSAS uses two-parameter Margules-type excess-free-energy of mixing equations to calculate thermodynamic equilibrium, pure-phase saturation, and stoichiometric saturation states in binary solid-solution aqueous-solution (SSAS) systems. Lippmann phase diagrams, Roozeboom diagrams, and distribution-coefficient diagrams can be constructed from the output data files, and also can be displayed by MBSSAS (on IBM-PC compatible computers). MBSSAS also will calculate accessory information, such as the location of miscibility gaps, spinodal gaps, critical-mixing points, alyotropic extrema, Henry's law solid-phase activity coefficients, and limiting distribution coefficients. Alternatively, MBSSAS can use such information (instead of the Margules, Guggenheim, or Thompson and Waldbaum excess-free-energy parameters) to calculate the appropriate excess-free-energy of mixing equation for any given SSAS system. ?? 1991.

  2. Groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo-Ferreira, Joao-Paulo; Oliveira, Luís.; Diamantino, Catarina

    2010-05-01

    The paper addresses groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios. The conceptual idea of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is considered as one of the scientific based solutions towards scientific based mitigation measures to climate variability and change in many parts of the world. In Portugal two European Union sponsored 6th Framework Programme for Research Projects have been addressing this topic, namely GABARDINE Project on "Groundwater artificial recharge based on alternative sources of water: Advanced integrated technologies and management" and the Coordinated Action ASEMWATERNet, a "Multi-Stakeholder Platform for ASEM S&T Cooperation on Sustainable Water Use". An application of Aquifer Storage and Recovery methodologies aiming drought mitigation and Integrated Water Resource Management of the Algarve (Portugal). The technique of artificial recharge of groundwater is used in many parts of the world with several aims, e.g. water storing in appropriate aquifers for the mitigation of future water needs during droughts or as protection against pollution or even for the recovery of groundwater quality. Artificial recharge of the aquifer systems of Campina de Faro and Silves-Querença is addressed in this paper, proposed to be an alternative to decrease the vulnerability of the Algarve to a future drought. Integrated management of water resources in the Algarve is not a clear issue since the last decade, when groundwater resources that supplied almost all water needs, have been drastically replaced by surface water stored in new reservoirs.

  3. Analyzing Heterogeneous Complexity in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research: A Systems Biology Solution via Parsimony Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Asab, Mones; Koithan, Mary; Shaver, Joan; Amri, Hakima

    2012-01-01

    Summary Systems biology offers cutting-edge tools for the study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The advent of ‘omics’ techniques and the resulting avalanche of scientific data have introduced an unprecedented level of complexity and heterogeneous data to biomedical research, leading to the development of novel research approaches. Statistical averaging has its limitations and is unsuitable for the analysis of heterogeneity, as it masks diversity by homogenizing otherwise heterogeneous populations. Unfortunately, most researchers are unaware of alternative methods of analysis capable of accounting for individual variability. This paper describes a systems biology solution to data complexity through the application of parsimony phylogenetic analysis. Maximum parsimony (MP) provides a data-based modeling paradigm that will permit a priori stratification of the study cohort(s), better assessment of early diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy within each stratum, and a method that could be used to explore, identify and describe complex human patterning. PMID:22327551

  4. An automatic multigrid method for the solution of sparse linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, Yair; Israeli, Moshe; Sidi, Avram

    1993-01-01

    An automatic version of the multigrid method for the solution of linear systems arising from the discretization of elliptic PDE's is presented. This version is based on the structure of the algebraic system solely, and does not use the original partial differential operator. Numerical experiments show that for the Poisson equation the rate of convergence of our method is equal to that of classical multigrid methods. Moreover, the method is robust in the sense that its high rate of convergence is conserved for other classes of problems: non-symmetric, hyperbolic (even with closed characteristics) and problems on non-uniform grids. No double discretization or special treatment of sub-domains (e.g. boundaries) is needed. When supplemented with a vector extrapolation method, high rates of convergence are achieved also for anisotropic and discontinuous problems and also for indefinite Helmholtz equations. A new double discretization strategy is proposed for finite and spectral element schemes and is found better than known strategies.

  5. Security Attacks and Solutions in Electronic Health (E-health) Systems.

    PubMed

    Zeadally, Sherali; Isaac, Jesús Téllez; Baig, Zubair

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, healthcare has been a basic service provided by many governments to their citizens. Over the past few decades, we have witnessed a significant transformation in the quality of healthcare services provided by healthcare organizations and professionals. Recent advances have led to the emergence of Electronic Health (E-health), largely made possible by the massive deployment and adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs). However, cybercriminals and attackers are exploiting vulnerabilities associated primarily with ICTs, causing data breaches of patients' confidential digital health information records. Here, we review recent security attacks reported for E-healthcare and discuss the solutions proposed to mitigate them. We also identify security challenges that must be addressed by E-health system designers and implementers in the future, to respond to threats that could arise as E-health systems become integrated with technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and smart cities.

  6. Virtual instrumentation and real-time executive dashboards. Solutions for health care systems.

    PubMed

    Rosow, Eric; Adam, Joseph; Coulombe, Kathleen; Race, Kathleen; Anderson, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    Successful organizations have the ability to measure and act on key indicators and events in real time. By leveraging the power of virtual instrumentation and open architecture standards, multidimensional executive dashboards can empower health care organizations to make better and faster data-driven decisions. This article will highlight how user-defined virtual instruments and dashboards can connect to hospital information systems (e.g., admissions/discharge/transfer systems, patient monitoring networks) and use statistical process control to "visualize" information and make timely, data-driven decisions. The case studies described will illustrate enterprisewide solutions for: bed management and census control, operational management, data mining and business intelligence applications, and clinical applications (physiological data acquisition and wound measurement and analysis).

  7. Composition optimization and stability testing of a parenteral antifungal solution based on a ternary solvent system.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Kristóf; Antal, István; Stampf, György; Klebovich, Imre; Ludányi, Krisztina

    2010-03-01

    An intravenous solution is a dosage forms intended for administration into the bloodstream. This route is the most rapid and the most bioavailable method of getting drugs into systemic circulation, and therefore it is also the most liable to cause adverse effects. In order to reduce the possibility of side effects and to ensure adequate clinical dosage of the formulation, the primarily formulated composition should be optimized. It is also important that the composition should retain its therapeutic effectiveness and safety throughout the shelf-life of the product. This paper focuses on the optimization and stability testing of a parenteral solution containing miconazole and ketoconazole solubilized with a ternary solvent system as model drugs. Optimization of the solvent system was performed based on assessing the risk/benefit ratio of the composition and its properties upon dilution. Stability tests were conducted based on the EMEA (European Medicines Agency) "guideline on stability testing: stability testing of existing active substances and related finished products". Experiments show that both the amount of co-solvent and surface active agent of the solvent system could substantially be reduced, while still maintaining adequate solubilizing power. It is also shown that the choice of various containers affects the stability of the compositions. It was concluded that by assessing the risk/benefit ratio of solubilizing power versus toxicity, the concentration of excipients could be considerably decreased while still showing a powerful solubilizing effect. It was also shown that a pharmaceutically acceptable shelf-life could be assigned to the composition, indicating good long-term stability.

  8. Solute transport modelling in a coupled water and heat flow system applied to cold regions hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, flow in the unsaturated zone is highly dynamic with seasonal variability and changes in temperature, moisture, and heat and water fluxes, all of which affect ground freeze-thaw processes and influence transport of inert and reactive waterborne substances. In arctic permafrost environments, near-surface groundwater flow is further restricted to a relatively shallow and seasonally variable active layer, confined by perennially frozen ground below. The active layer is typically partially saturated with ice, liquid water and air, and is strongly dependent on seasonal temperature fluctuations, thermal forcing and infiltration patterns. Here there is a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling subsurface solute transport in the partially saturated active layer zone. Studying solute transport in cold regions is relevant to improve the understanding of how natural and anthropogenic pollution may change as activities in arctic and sub-arctic regions increase. It is also particularly relevant for understanding how dissolved carbon is transported in coupled surface and subsurface hydrological systems under climate change, in order to better understand the permafrost-hydrological-carbon climate feedback. In this contribution subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in subsurface water flows and solute transport travel times are analysed for different modelled geological configurations during a 100-year warming period. Results show that for all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase non-linearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The travel time changes are shown to depend on combined warming effects of increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, reduced transport

  9. Analysis of an anisotropic coastal aquifer system using variable-density flow and solute transport simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souza, W.R.; Voss, C.I.

    1987-01-01

    The groundwater system in southern Oahu, Hawaii consists of a thick, areally extensive freshwater lens overlying a zone of transition to a thick saltwater body. This system is analyzed in cross section with a variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport model on a regional scale. The simulation is difficult, because the coastal aquifer system has a saltwater transition zone that is broadly dispersed near the discharge area, but is very sharply defined inland. Steady-state simulation analysis of the transition zone in the layered basalt aquifer of southern Oahu indicates that a small transverse dispersivity is characteristic of horizontal regional flow. Further, in this system flow is generally parallel to isochlors and steady-state behavior is insensitive to the longitudinal dispersivity. Parameter analysis identifies that only six parameters control the complex hydraulics of the system: horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the basalt aquifer; hydraulic conductivity of the confining "caprock" layer; leakance below the caprock; specific yield; and aquifer matrix compressibility. The best-fitting models indicate the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is significantly greater than the vertical hydraulic conductivity. These models give values for specific yield and aquifer compressibility which imply a considerable degree of compressive storage in the water table aquifer. ?? 1987.

  10. Discrete Pluriharmonic Functions as Solutions of Linear Pluri-Lagrangian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobenko, A. I.; Suris, Yu. B.

    2015-05-01

    Pluri-Lagrangian systems are variational systems with the multi-dimensional consistency property. This notion has its roots in the theory of pluriharmonic functions, in the Z-invariant models of statistical mechanics, in the theory of variational symmetries going back to Noether and in the theory of discrete integrable systems. A d-dimensional pluri-Lagrangian problem can be described as follows: given a d-form L on an m-dimensional space, m > d, whose coefficients depend on a function u of m independent variables (called field), find those fields u which deliver critical points to the action functionals for any d-dimensional manifold Σ in the m-dimensional space. We investigate discrete 2-dimensional linear pluri-Lagrangian systems, i.e., those with quadratic Lagrangians L. The action is a discrete analogue of the Dirichlet energy, and solutions are called discrete pluriharmonic functions. We classify linear pluri-Lagrangian systems with Lagrangians depending on diagonals. They are described by generalizations of the star-triangle map. Examples of more general quadratic Lagrangians are also considered.

  11. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  12. A Full Automatic Device for Sampling Small Solution Volumes in Photometric Titration Procedure Based on Multicommuted Flow System

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Sivanildo S.; Vieira, Gláucia P.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an automatic device to deliver titrant solution into a titration chamber with the ability to determine the dispensed volume of solution, with good precision independent of both elapsed time and flow rate, is proposed. A glass tube maintained at the vertical position was employed as a container for the titrant solution. Electronic devices were coupled to the glass tube in order to control its filling with titrant solution, as well as the stepwise solution delivering into the titration chamber. The detection of the titration end point was performed employing a photometer designed using a green LED (λ=545 nm) and a phototransistor. The titration flow system comprised three-way solenoid valves, which were assembled to allow that the steps comprising the solution container loading and the titration run were carried out automatically. The device for the solution volume determination was designed employing an infrared LED (λ=930 nm) and a photodiode. When solution volume delivered from proposed device was within the range of 5 to 105 μl, a linear relationship (R = 0.999) between the delivered volumes and the generated potential difference was achieved. The usefulness of the proposed device was proved performing photometric titration of hydrochloric acid solution with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution and using phenolphthalein as an external indicator. The achieved results presented relative standard deviation of 1.5%. PMID:18317510

  13. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  14. A Solution-Based Intelligent Tutoring System Integrated with an Online Game-Based Formative Assessment: Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooshyar, Danial; Ahmad, Rodina Binti; Yousefi, Moslem; Fathi, Moein; Abdollahi, Abbas; Horng, Shi-Jinn; Lim, Heuiseok

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, intelligent tutoring systems are considered an effective research tool for learning systems and problem-solving skill improvement. Nonetheless, such individualized systems may cause students to lose learning motivation when interaction and timely guidance are lacking. In order to address this problem, a solution-based intelligent…

  15. A Study of Diffusivity in the BCC Solid Solution of Nb-Al and Nb-Ti-Al System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    A STUDY OF DIFFUSIVITY IN THE BCC SOLID SOLUTION OF Nb-Al AND Nb-Ti-Al SYSTEM P DTIC ELECTE NOV 3o01993 A- J.BY JOSE GUADALUPE LUIS RUIZ APARICIO A...analysis was employed for the evaluation of composition profiles in all the diffusion couples. Tne interdiffusion coefficient for the 0 solid solution of Nb...system suggest that Ti is the fastest element in the J0 solid solution . Qualitatively the penetration tendencies correlate with the melting point of

  16. Generalized Darboux transformation and rogue wave solution of the coherently-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Qiang; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Wang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the generalized Darboux transformation for the coherently-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CCNLS) system is constructed in terms of determinant representations. Based on the Nth-iterated formula, the vector bright soliton solution and vector rogue wave solution are systematically derived under the nonvanishing background. The general first-order vector rogue wave solution can admit many different fundamental patterns including eye-shaped and four-petaled rogue waves. It is believed that there are many more abundant patterns for high order vector rogue waves in CCNLS system.

  17. Internet Protocol Display Sharing Solution for Mission Control Center Video System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of broadcast television as a constant source of information throughout the NASA manned space flight Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the current Video Transport System (VTS) characteristics provides the ability to visually enhance real-time applications as a broadcast channel that decision making flight controllers come to rely on, but can be difficult to maintain and costly. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) of the Mission Operations Facility Division (MOFD) has been tasked to provide insight to new innovative technological solutions for the MCC environment focusing on alternative architectures for a VTS. New technology will be provided to enable sharing of all imagery from one specific computer display, better known as Display Sharing (DS), to other computer displays and display systems such as; large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and other offsite centers using IP networks. It has been stated that Internet Protocol (IP) applications are easily readied to substitute for the current visual architecture, but quality and speed may need to be forfeited for reducing cost and maintainability. Although the IP infrastructure can support many technologies, the simple task of sharing ones computer display can be rather clumsy and difficult to configure and manage to the many operators and products. The DS process shall invest in collectively automating the sharing of images while focusing on such characteristics as; managing bandwidth, encrypting security measures, synchronizing disconnections from loss of signal / loss of acquisitions, performance latency, and provide functions like, scalability, multi-sharing, ease of initial integration / sustained configuration, integration with video adjustments packages, collaborative tools, host / recipient controllability, and the utmost paramount priority, an enterprise solution that provides ownership to the whole

  18. A survey of COTS wireless transceiver solutions for unmanned/unattended homeland defense systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurth, Timothy J.; Wells, Jeffrey S.; Trimble, Michael L.

    2004-08-01

    As the war on terrorism continues abroad, the need to maintain security at home remains a major concern. Every aspect of the security effort can benefit from rapid information transfer. Advances in Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) radios make them valuable in applications ranging from deployed sensors on unsecured borders, to organizing an emergency response team. Additionally, the reduced cost and availability of these transceivers make them a viable alternative to custom developments. As an example, COTS radios can serve as the communication element in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and munitions systems. Other applications include networked sonobuoys and networked RFID tracking. An additional advantage of COTS solutions is that they are available in a small form factor. They have extremely small mechanical outlines and are easily installed in systems requiring miniature designs and light payloads such as man-pack emplaced radios for the Army"s Future Combat System (FCS), as well as missions carried out by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The availability of the COTS radios result in a low-cost alternative for communication links that are applicable to military and Homeland Defense projects. They provide an easily obtainable, low-cost radio alternative enabling quick design cycles to meet mission timeliness. COTS solutions eliminate months from a typical design cycle and have many features already implemented such as ad-hoc routing and encryption. This enables robust hardware to be fielded quickly when a new need arises. The focus of this paper is to identify different COTS modules that can efficiently and cost effectively be applied to these and other various applications.

  19. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that ‘soil engineering in vivo’, wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon—effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

  20. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Jason T; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A; Whalley, W Richard; Ginn, Timothy R; Nelson, Douglas C; Mortensen, Brina M; Martinez, Brian C; Barkouki, Tammer

    2011-01-06

    Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming-these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that 'soil engineering in vivo', wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon-effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized.

  1. Bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenic species in solution culture and soil system: implications to remediation.

    PubMed

    Bolan, Nanthi; Mahimairaja, Santiago; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Seshadri, Balaji; Thangarajan, Ramya

    2015-06-01

    In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture and soil system. Firstly, the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was compared using a number of non-allophanic and allophanic soils. Secondly, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were examined using germination, phytoavailability, earthworm, and soil microbial activity tests. Both As-spiked soils and As-contaminated sheep dip soils were used to test bioavailability and ecotoxicity. The sheep dip soil which contained predominantly As(V) species was subject to flooding to reduce As(V) to As(III) and then used along with the control treatment soil to compare the bioavailability between As species. Adsorption of As(V) was much higher than that of As(III), and the difference in adsorption between these two species was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. In the solution culture, there was no significant difference in bioavailability and ecotoxicity, as measured by germination and phytoavailability tests, between these two As species. Whereas in the As-spiked soils, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were higher for As(III) than As(V), and the difference was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. Bioavailability of As increased with the flooding of the sheep dip soils which may be attributed to the reduction of As(V) to As(III) species. The results in this study have demonstrated that while in solution, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity do not vary between As(III) and As(V), in soils, the latter species is less bioavailable than the former species because As(V) is more strongly retained than As(III). Since the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of As depend on the nature of As species present in the environment, risk-based remediation approach should aim at controlling the dynamics of As transformation.

  2. A liquid flatjet system for solution phase soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ekimova, Maria; Quevedo, Wilson; Faubel, Manfred; Wernet, Philippe; Nibbering, Erik T. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a liquid flatjet system for solution phase soft-x-ray spectroscopy. The flatjet set-up utilises the phenomenon of formation of stable liquid sheets upon collision of two identical laminar jets. Colliding the two single water jets, coming out of the nozzles with 50 μm orifices, under an impact angle of 48° leads to double sheet formation, of which the first sheet is 4.6 mm long and 1.0 mm wide. The liquid flatjet operates fully functional under vacuum conditions (<10−3 mbar), allowing soft-x-ray spectroscopy of aqueous solutions in transmission mode. We analyse the liquid water flatjet thickness under atmospheric pressure using interferomeric or mid-infrared transmission measurements and under vacuum conditions by measuring the absorbance of the O K-edge of water in transmission, and comparing our results with previously published data obtained with standing cells with Si3N4 membrane windows. The thickness of the first liquid sheet is found to vary between 1.4–3 μm, depending on the transverse and longitudinal position in the liquid sheet. We observe that the derived thickness is of similar magnitude under 1 bar and under vacuum conditions. A catcher unit facilitates the recycling of the solutions, allowing measurements on small sample volumes (∼10 ml). We demonstrate the applicability of this approach by presenting measurements on the N K-edge of aqueous NH4+. Our results suggest the high potential of using liquid flatjets in steady-state and time-resolved studies in the soft-x-ray regime. PMID:26798824

  3. Solution of dense systems of linear equations in electromagnetic scattering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rahola, J.

    1994-12-31

    The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) is a method for calculating the scattering of light by an irregular particle. The DDA has been used for example in calculations of optical properties of cosmic dust. In this method the particle is approximated by interacting electromagnetic dipoles. Computationally the DDA method includes the solution of large dense systems of linear equations where the coefficient matrix is complex symmetric. In the author`s work, the linear systems of equations are solved by various iterative methods such as the conjugate gradient method applied to the normal equations and QMR. The linear systems have rather low condition numbers due to which many iterative methods perform quite well even without any preconditioning. Some possible preconditioning strategies are discussed. Finally, some fast special methods for computing the matrix-vector product in the iterative methods are considered. In some cases, the matrix-vector product can be computed with the fast Fourier transform, which enables the author to solve dense linear systems of hundreds of thousands of unknowns.

  4. Automatic determination of chlorine without standard solutions using a biamperometric flow-batch analysis system.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Valberes B; Selva, Thiago M G; Coelho, Elaine C S; Santos, Francyana P; Antônio, Jadielson L S; Silva, José R; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Araújo, Mário C U

    2010-04-15

    This study presents an automatic analysis system that does not require the use of standard solutions. The system uses an electrochemical flow cell for in line generation of the standards, and operates under the standard addition technique. The versatility of this system was demonstrated by the development of a one key touch fully automatic method for the determination of total available chlorine in real samples. The extremely simple, accurate and inexpensive method was based simply on the biamperometric monitoring of the well known redox reaction of chlorine with iodide ions in a flow-batch system, where the produced iodine (triiodide ions) generates an electrical current proportional to the chlorine concentration in the sample. The flow-batch parameters were optimized to maximize the sensitivity without losses on the precision of the analysis. An excellent linear dependence between the biamperometric signal and the chlorine concentration for the standard additions and a good agreement between the proposed approach and a reference method were obtained. The method was successfully applied to determine chlorine in several different bleach and chlorinated water samples (r=0.9995, LOD=8.261 x 10(-7) mol L(-1)) and could be easily extended to other oxidants and samples. Comparison to a reference method and recoveries close to 100% demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method. In addition, low residue disposal and reagent consumption, allied with high accuracy and precision, make it very promising for routine applications.

  5. Designing Solutions for the Retirement System – In Search of Balance between Economy and Health

    PubMed Central

    Romaniuk, Piotr; Brukało, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Social security system currently faces a number of difficulties arising of changes in the demographic structure of societies, like the decrease in fertility, lengthening of life expectancy, and unfavorable change in the proportion of the population receiving retirement benefits to the population in working age. In result, social security systems are being subjected to transition aimed at securing their financial stability, part of which is a tendency to rise the retirement age and eliminate all the incentives to prematurely exit the labor market. On the other hand, this process of transition, as observed in Poland, is being driven mainly by political processes and due to economic reasons, while lacking public health evidence. This raises a danger that in final result the financial savings will be illusory only and that the final configuration of the system will be inconsistent with the actual social needs of the population and will not efficiently protect against the social risks. In this article, we present arguments for using the Healthy Life Years indicator in analyses relating to the performance of social security systems. The indicator may help to reflect differences in health status of different professional groups and adjust system’s solutions to conditions characterizing these groups, in terms of both risk protection and prevention. PMID:27630982

  6. Reductive destruction and decontamination of aqueous solutions of chlorinated antimicrobial agent using bimetallic systems.

    PubMed

    Ghauch, Antoine; Tuqan, Almuthanna

    2009-05-30

    Palladium, ruthenium and silver were investigated as catalysts for the dechlorination of dichlorophen (DCP, 2,2'-methylenebis(4-chlorophenol)), an antimicrobial and anthelmintic agent largely used as algicide, fungicide and bactericide. Experiments were undertaken under oxic and anoxic conditions for experimental durations up to 180 min (3h). The anoxic conditions were achieved by purging the solutions with nitrogen gas. Reactions were performed in a 12+/-0.5 mg L(-1) DCP solution (V=20 mL) using 0.8 g of Fe(0) (40 g L(-1)). Along with micrometric Fe(0), five Fe(0)-plated systems were investigated: Pd (1%), Ru (0.01%), Ru (0.1%), Ru (1%) and Ag (1%). Metal plating was controlled by atomic absorption spectroscopy. DCP degradation was monitored using: (i) two HPLC devices, (ii) ion chromatography, (iii) UV and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Results indicated: (i) total dechlorination with Fe/Pd, (ii) partial dechlorination (40%) with Fe/Ru, and no reaction with Fe/Ag. DCP is vanished completely after 90 min of contact with Fe/Pd following a first order kinetic. The observed degradation rate k(obs) was about (3.98+/-0.10)x10(-2)min(-1), the calculated half-life t(1/2) about 17.4+/-0.9 min and a t(50) about 10.1+/-0.5 min. A DCP degradation pathway map was also proposed.

  7. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  8. T-system on T-hook: Grassmannian solution and twisted Quantum Spectral Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Vladimir; Leurent, Sébastien; Volin, Dmytro

    2016-12-01

    We propose an efficient grassmannian formalism for solution of bi-linear finite-difference Hirota equation (T-system) on T-shaped lattices related to the space of highest weight representations of gl( K 1 , K 2| M ) superalgebra. The formalism is inspired by the quantum fusion procedure known from the integrable spin chains and is based on exterior forms of Baxter-like Q-functions. We find a few new interesting relations among the exterior forms of Q-functions and reproduce, using our new formalism, the Wronskian determinant solutions of Hirota equations known in the literature. Then we generalize this construction to the twisted Q-functions and demonstrate the subtleties of untwisting procedure on the examples of rational quantum spin chains with twisted boundary conditions. Using these observations, we generalize the recently discovered, in our paper with N. Gromov, AdS/CFT Quantum Spectral Curve for exact planar spectrum of AdS/CFT duality to the case of arbitrary Cartan twisting of AdS5×S5 string sigma model. Finally, we successfully probe this formalism by reproducing the energy of gamma-twisted BMN vacuum at single-wrapping orders of weak coupling expansion.

  9. Segregated and synchronized vector solutions to linearly coupled systems of Schrödinger equations

    PubMed Central

    Long, Wei; Wang, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the following linearly coupled system −ε2Δui+Pi(x)ui=ui3+∑j≠iNλijuj,ui∈H1(R3),i=1,…,N, where ε > 0 is a small parameter, Pi(x) are positive potentials, and λij = λji > 0 (i ≠ j) are coupling constants for i, j = 1, …, N. We investigate the effect of potentials to the structure of the solutions. More precisely, we construct multi-spikes solutions concentrating near the local maximum point x0i of Pi(x). When x0i=x0j, Pi(x0i)=Pj(x0j)=a,i≠j, i,j=1,…,N, the components have spikes clustering at the same point as ε → 0+. When x0i≠x0j, i≠j, the components have spikes clustering at the different points as ε → 0+. PMID:26396438

  10. An Analytical Solution of Radiative Transfer in the Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean System with Rough Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Zhonghai; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rutledge, Ken; Knut Stamnes; Wang, Yingjian

    2006-01-01

    Using the efficient discrete-ordinate method, we present an analytical solution for radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system with rough air-water interface. The theoretical formulations of the radiative transfer equation and solution are described. The effects of surface roughness on radiation field in the atmosphere and ocean are studied and compared with measurements. The results show that ocean surface roughness has significant effects on the upwelling radiation in the atmosphere and the downwelling radiation in the ocean. As wind speed increases, the angular domain of sunglint broadens, the surface albedo decreases, and the transmission to ocean increases. The downward radiance field in the upper ocean is highly anisotropic, but this anisotropy decreases rapidly as surface wind increases and as depth in ocean increases. The effects of surface roughness on radiation also depend greatly on both wavelength and angle of incidence (i.e., solar elevation); these effects are significantly smaller throughout the spectrum at high sun. The model-observation discrepancies may indicate that the Cox-Munk surface roughness model is not sufficient for high wind conditions.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of bimolecular electron transfer reaction in quinone-amine systems in micellar solution

    SciTech Connect

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2005-02-22

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions between anthraquinone derivatives and aromatic amines have been investigated in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar solutions. Significant static quenching of the quinone fluorescence due to high amine concentration in the micellar phase has been observed in steady-state measurements. The bimolecular rate constants for the dynamic quenching in the present systems k{sub q}{sup TR}, as estimated from the time-resolved measurements, have been correlated with the free energy changes {delta}G{sup 0} for the ET reactions. Interestingly it is seen that the k{sub q}{sup TR} vs {delta}G{sup 0} plot displays an inversion behavior with maximum k{sub q}{sup TR} at around 0.7 eV, a trend similar to that predicted in Marcus ET theory. Like the present results, Marcus inversion in the k{sub q}{sup TR} values was also observed earlier in coumarin-amine systems in SDS and TX-100 micellar solutions, with maximum k{sub q}{sup TR} at around the same exergonicity. These results thus suggest that Marcus inversion in bimolecular ET reaction is a general phenomenon in micellar media. Present observations have been rationalized on the basis of the two-dimensional ET (2DET) theory, which seems to be more suitable for micellar ET reactions than the conventional ET theory. For the quinone-amine systems, it is interestingly seen that k{sub q}{sup TR} vs {delta}G{sup 0} plot is somewhat wider in comparison to that of the coumarin-amine systems, even though the maxima in the k{sub q}{sup TR} vs {delta}G{sup 0} plots appear at almost similar exergonicity for both the acceptor-donor systems. These observations have been rationalized on the basis of the differences in the reaction windows along the solvation axis, as envisaged within the framework of the 2DET theory, and arise due to the differences in the locations of the quinones and coumarin dyes in the micellar phase.

  12. Solid solution directionally solidified eutectics: Model systems for structure-property relationships in interfacial fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Luke Nathaniel

    The next generation of high temperature materials for application in aerospace and power generation systems will be required to withstand temperatures well in excess of 1200°C, often in oxidizing atmospheres. Oxide-oxide directionally solidified eutectics (DSE's) have shown promise as high temperature ceramic materials, only to be limited by their lack of fracture toughness at room temperature. In the case of DSE oxide materials, the interfacial fracture behavior has been blamed for the poor performance in the past and is the subject of interest in this work. In this thesis, the solid solution, directionally solidified quaternary eutectic (SS-DSE), Co1-xNixO/ZrO2(CaO), is developed as a model system for the study of interfacial fracture in oxide-oxide DSE's. A variety of structural and mechanical characterization techniques are applied to investigate structure-property relationships for interfacial fracture behavior. The optical floating zone technique was employed for growing both the eutectic crystals and their single crystal counterparts, Co1-x NixO. Co1-xNixO/ZrO2(CaO) was shown to possess the necessary structural elements to serve as a model system for interfacial fracture. Lamellar microstructures were observed for all compositions. The crystallographic relationships between phases evolved as a model solid solution. Interdiffusion of chemical species was minimal, allowing the layers to treated independently. The core of this thesis is dedicated to studying the nature of interfacial fracture behavior in oxide eutectics. This study is motivated by the novel observation of extensive interfacial delamination for the system CoO/ZrO 2(CaO). A transition from interfacial delamination to interfacial penetration is observed for compositions of Co1-xNixO/ZrO 2(CaO) with x > 0.2. The residual stress state in these materials was investigated using X-ray and neutron diffraction-based techniques. The role of plasticity in interfacial fracture was explored using a

  13. Phenix - a comprehensive python-based system for macromolecular structure solution

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Hung, Li - Wei; Adams, Paul D; Afonine, Pavel V; Bunkoczi, Gabor; Chen, Vincent B; Davis, Ian; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J; Grosse Kunstleve, Ralf W; Mccoy, Airlie J; Moriarty, Nigel W; Oeffner, Robert; Read, Randy J; Richardson, David C; Richardson, Jane S; Zwarta, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Macromolecular X-ray crystallography is routinely applied to understand biological processes at a molecular level. However, significant time and effort are still required to solve and complete many of these structures because of the need for manual interpretation of complex numerical data using many software packages, and the repeated use of interactive three-dimensional graphics. Phenix has been developed to provide a comprehensive system for crystallographic structure solution with an emphasis on automation of all procedures. This has relied on the development of algorithms that minimize or eliminate subjective input, the development of algorithms that automate procedures that are traditionally performed by hand, and finally the development of a framework that allows a tight integration between the algorithms.

  14. Effective solutions in introducing Server-Based Computing into a hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Shigeki; Teramoto, Kei; Matsumura, Yasushi; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kondoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Server-Based Computing (SBC) is a technology for terminal administration that achieves higher security at lower expense. Use of SBC in large hospitals, however, is not widespread because methods to effectively implement the technology have not been fully established. We present a system design that uses SBC in a large-scale hospital and then discuss the implementation problems and their solutions. With the exception of network traffic estimates, the server size estimates were validated. Three results from an evaluation of an SBC implementation were: 1) security was re-enforced by applying multiple-policy adaptation to a single client terminal, 2) cost reduction was realized by having fewer PC failures and a lower power consumption, and 3) user-roaming was found to be effective in reducing the number of iterative operations performed by users.

  15. An iterative method for the solution of nonlinear systems using the Faber polynomials for annular sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    The author gives a hybrid method for the iterative solution of linear systems of equations Ax = b, where the matrix (A) is nonsingular, sparse and nonsymmetric. As in a method developed by Starke and Varga the method begins with a number of steps of the Arnoldi method to produce some information on the location of the spectrum of A. This method then switches to an iterative method based on the Faber polynomials for an annular sector placed around these eigenvalue estimates. The Faber polynomials for an annular sector are used because, firstly an annular sector can easily be placed around any eigenvalue estimates bounded away from zero, and secondly the Faber polynomials are known analytically for an annular sector. Finally the author gives three numerical examples, two of which allow comparison with Starke and Varga`s results. The third is an example of a matrix for which many iterative methods would fall, but this method converges.

  16. Solution of Hybrid FEM-BEM Systems via Schur Complement Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.; Sharpe, R.; Champagne, N.

    2000-10-01

    We are concerned with the numerical solution linear systems that arise from a hybridization of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Our present focus is hybrid FEM-BEM discretization of the frequency-domain vector Helmholtz equation of electromagnetics, but similar hybrid techniques are used in electrostatics, acoustics, elasticity, etc. The hybrid FEM-BEM technique is used to solve ''open'' or ''infinite'' problems, where the FEM is used to discretize the interior of the problem and the BEM is used to simulate the effect of the infinite domain. This is illustrated generically in two dimensions in Figure 1 below. The FEM is applied to the interior V, the BEM is applied to the fictitious surface S, and the two methods are appropriately coupled to form a well-posed problem.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of water, solution, and clay mineral-water systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Clays and clay minerals together with zeolites are major mineral components in the earth's surface environment. These minerals interact with the atmosphere, natural water, inorganic and organic components in soils, etc. Physicochemical processes in the surface region are generally complex and difficult to understand because of the complicated "molecular" structures and the ambient conditions under wet circumstances. We have investigated the structure and physical/dynamical properties of the mineral-gas/liquid systems by means of molecular simulation methods; molecular dynamics and Metropolis Monte Carlo methods. Swelling of smectite and adsorption of inorganic molecules in clay minerals and zeolites, etc. were simulated and analyzed on the basis of the atomic and molecular processes. We have developed atomic and molecular interaction models of inorganic systems. The models compose of electrostatic, short range repulsive, van der Waals and covalent (radial and angular) terms with respect to all the elements appeared in the mineral-water systems. All of our molecular dynamics simulations (MD) were performed with full degree of freedom of atom motions. Using the model for H2O molecule, the structure and physical properties such as density, diffusion coefficients, etc. of ice polymorphs and water are well reproduced. Alkaliharide aqueous solutions and gas hydrates and their (hydrophobic) solutions are also reasonably simulated. Clay mineral-water interactions are particularly important to understand the mechanical and chemical processes in the environments, in order to develop nano-composite materials, and to use clays in engineering applications. Absorption and swelling are the most remarkable properties of clay minerals, specially smectite. We have investigate these properties by means of molecular simulation methods using various clay minerals-water/solution systems. The swelling curves, the relation between humidity and the basal spacings, were reproduced

  18. Global Axisymmetric Solutions of Three Dimensional Inhomogeneous Incompressible Navier-Stokes System with Nonzero Swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Fang, Daoyuan; Zhang, Ting

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global well-posedness for the three dimensional inhomogeneous incompressible Navier-Stokes system with axisymmetric initial data. We obtain the global existence and uniqueness of the axisymmetric solution provided that |a0/r|_{∞} and |u0^{θ}|3 {are sufficiently small}. Furthermore, if {u_0 in L1} and {ru^{θ}0in L1 \\cap L2} , we have the decay estimate |u^{θ}(t)|22 + < t rangle |nabla(u^{θ}e_{θ})(t)|22 + t< t rangle(|ut^{θ}(t)|22 + |Δ(u^{θ}e_{θ})(t)|22) ≤q C < trangle^{-5/2}, quad forall t > 0.

  19. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integrating Salinity Measurements from Aquarius into the Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lewis, David; Hilbert, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution suggests the use of Aquarius sea surface salinity measurements to improve the NOAA/NCDDC (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration s National Coastal Data Development Center) HABSOS (Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System) DST (decision support tool) by enhancing development and movement forecasts of HAB events as well as potential species identification. In the proposed configuration, recurring salinity measurements from the Aquarius mission would augment HABSOS sea surface temperature and in situ ocean current measurements. Thermohaline circulation observations combined with in situ measurements increase the precision of HAB event movement forecasting. These forecasts allow coastal managers and public health officials to make more accurate and timely warnings to the public and to better direct science teams to event sites for collection and further measurements.

  20. On solutions of Coulomb system and its generalization to the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.-H.

    2009-02-15

    The paper numerically analyzes the Aharonov-Bohm effect of an infinitely thin magnetic flux for its influence on a two- or three-dimensional (3d) solutions of Coulomb system in momentum and coordinate spaces. For any definitive eigenstate, it is shown that the flux shifts the position of the most probable radius (MPR) of a probability distribution inward or outward in momentum or coordinate spaces, respectively. Moreover, the probability density of the shifted MPR is amplified in the momentum space, while reduced in the coordinate space. Since the Coulomb force among charged particles dominate the structure of matter, shifting of the MPR controlling by the flux effect may be beneficial to the construction of nanostructure by manipulating the atomic and molecular bonds.

  1. Solvent properties governing solute partitioning in polymer/polymer aqueous two-phase systems: nonionic compounds.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Pedro P; Reis, Celso A; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Mikheeva, Larissa M; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2010-01-14

    The solvatochromic solvent parameters characterizing the solvent polarity (pi*), solvent hydrogen-bond donor acidity (alpha), and solvent hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity (beta) of aqueous media were measured in the coexisting phases of nine different aqueous polymer/polymer two-phase systems (ATPS), containing 0.15 M NaCl in 0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Partitioning coefficients of six neutral compounds were measured in the nine ATPS at particular polymer concentrations. The solvatochromic equation was used to describe the partitioning of each compound. Three descriptors of the solvent properties of the phases could describe adequately the partitioning of the solutes in all the ATPS employed.

  2. Joint density-functional theory and its application to systems in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, Sahak A.

    The physics of solvation, the interaction of water with solutes, plays a central role in chemistry and biochemistry, and it is essential for the very existence of life. Despite the central importance of water and the advent of the quantum theory early in the twentieth century, the link between the fundamental laws of physics and the observable properties of water remain poorly understood to this day. The central goal of this thesis is to develop a new formalism and framework to make the study of systems (solutes or surfaces) in contact with liquid water as practical and accurate as standard electronic structure calculations without the need for explicit averaging over large ensembles of configurations of water molecules. The thesis introduces a new form of density functional theory for the ab initio description of electronic systems in contact with a molecular liquid environment. This theory rigorously joins an electron density-functional for the electrons of a solute with a classical density-functional theory for the liquid into a single variational principle for the free energy of the combined system. Using the new form of density-functional theory for the ab initio description of electronic systems in contact with a molecular liquid environment, the thesis then presents the first detailed study of the impact of a solvent on the surface chemistry of Cr2O3, the passivating layer of stainless steel alloys. In comparison to a vacuum, we predict that the presence of water has little impact on the adsorption of chloride ions to the oxygen-terminated surface but has a dramatic effect on the binding of hydrogen to that surface. A key ingredient of a successful joint density functional theory is a good approximate functional for describing the solvent. We explore how the simplest examples of the best known class of approximate forms for the classical density functional fail when applied directly to water. The thesis then presents a computationally efficient density

  3. PHENIX: a comprehensive Python-based system for macromolecular structure solution

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Paul D.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Chen, Vincent B.; Davis, Ian W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Hung, Li-Wei; Kapral, Gary J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Oeffner, Robert; Read, Randy J.; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Zwart, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Macromolecular X-ray crystallography is routinely applied to understand biological processes at a molecular level. How­ever, significant time and effort are still required to solve and complete many of these structures because of the need for manual interpretation of complex numerical data using many software packages and the repeated use of interactive three-dimensional graphics. PHENIX has been developed to provide a comprehensive system for macromolecular crystallo­graphic structure solution with an emphasis on the automation of all procedures. This has relied on the development of algorithms that minimize or eliminate subjective input, the development of algorithms that automate procedures that are traditionally performed by hand and, finally, the development of a framework that allows a tight integration between the algorithms. PMID:20124702

  4. The solution of linear mechanical systems in terms of path superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrans, Francesc Xavier; Poblet-Puig, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We prove that the solution of any linear mechanical system can be expressed as a linear combination of signal transmission paths. This is done in the framework of the Global Transfer Direct Transfer (GTDT) formulation for vibroacoustic problems. Transmission paths are expressed as powers of the transfer matrix. The key idea of the proof is to generalise the Neumann series of the transfer matrix - which is convergent only if its spectral radius is smaller than one - into a modified Neumann series that is convergent regardless of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix. The modification consists in choosing the appropriate combination coefficients for the powers of the transfer matrix in the series. A recursive formula for the computation of these factors is derived. The theoretical results are illustrated by means of numerical examples. Finally, we show that the generalised Neumann series can be understood as an acceleration (i.e. convergence speedup) of the Jacobi iterative method.

  5. A plug&play Brain Computer Interface solution for AAL systems.

    PubMed

    Mora, Niccolò; De Munari, Ilaria; Ciampolini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We present a complete BCI-enabled (Brain Computer Interface) solution for Ambient Assisted Living system control. BCI are alternative, augmentative communication means capable of exploiting just the brain waveforms to infer intent, thus potentially posing as a technological bridge capable of overcoming limitations in the usual neuromuscular pathways. The module was completely developed in a customized way, encompassing hardware and software components. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach on a practical control scenario in which the user can issue 4 different commands, at his own pace and will, in real-time. No initial calibration is necessary, in line with the aimed plug&play approach. Results are very promising, especially in false positives rejection, well improving over literature.

  6. Solitary wave solutions and modulational instability in a system of coupled complex Newell-Segel-Whitehead equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, Asawari; Yomba, Emmanuel; Djellouli, Rabia

    2016-12-01

    By virtue of the modulational instability (MI) and phase amplitude ansatz approach, a system of coupled complex Newell-Segel-Whitehead equations (NSWEs), which describes isotropic systems near a subcritical oscillatory instability, is investigated. The constraints that allow the MI procedure to transform the system under consideration into a study of the roots of a polynomial equation of the fourth degree are obtained. A number of examples are analyzed graphically, to overcome the complexity of the dispersion relation and its dependence on many parameters. The existence of a variety of MI gain spectrum is observed. The influence of the cubic-quintic nonlinearity and the magnitude of the plane wave solutions of the system on the MI are also analyzed. Various novel solitary-wave solutions of the system, such as bright-bright, dark-dark, and dark-bright wave solutions, are analytically obtained using direct approach under some constraint conditions.

  7. Dynamics and mass transport of solutal convection in a closed porous media system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Baole; Akhbari, Daria; Hesse, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Most of the recent studies of CO2 sequestration are performed in open systems where the constant partial pressure of CO2 in the vapor phase results in a time-invariant saturated concentration of CO2 in the brine (Cs). However, in some closed natural CO2 reservoirs, e.g., Bravo Dome in New Mexico, the continuous dissolution of CO2 leads to a pressure drop in the gas that is accompanied by a reduction of Cs and thereby affects the dynamics and mass transport of convection in the brine. In this talk, I discuss the characteristics of convective CO2 dissolution in a closed system. The gas is assumed to be ideal and its solubility given by Henry's law. An analytical solution shows that the diffusive base state is no longer self-similar and that diffusive mass transfer declines rapidly. Scaling analysis reveals that the volume ratio of brine and gas η determines the behavior of the system. DNS show that no constant flux regime exists for η > 0 nevertheless, the quantity F /Cs2 remains constant, where F is the dissolution flux. The onset time is only affected by η when the Rayleigh number Ra is small. In this case, the drop in Cs during the initial diffusive regime significantly reduces the effective Ra and therefore delays the onset.

  8. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in aqueous solution in the thermally activated persulfate system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minhui; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian; Miao, Zhouwei; Zang, Xueke; Wu, Xiaoliang

    2015-04-09

    Thermal activation of persulfate (PS) has been identified to be effective in the destruction of organic pollutants. The feasibility of carbon tetrachloride (CT) degradation in the thermally activated PS system was evaluated. The experimental results showed that CT could be readily degraded at 50 °C with a PS concentration of 0.5M, and CT degradation and PS consumption followed the pseudo-first order kinetic model. Superoxide radical anion (O2(*-)) was the predominant radical species responsible for CT degradation and the split of CCl was proposed as the possible reaction pathways for CT degradation. The process of CT degradation was accelerated by higher PS dose and lower initial CT concentration. No obvious effect of the initial pH on the degradation of CT was observed in the thermally activated PS system. Cl(*-), HCO3(*-), and humic acid (HA) had negative effects on CT degradation. In addition, the degradation of CT in the thermally activated PS system could be significantly promoted by the solvents addition to the solution. In conclusion, the thermally activated PS process is a promising option in in-situ chemical oxidation/reduction remediation for degrading highly oxidized organic contaminants such as CT that is widely detected in contaminated sites.

  9. Simulation of Solute Flow and Transport in a Geostatistically Generated Fractured Porous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assteerawatt, A.; Helmig, R.; Haegland, H.; Bárdossy, A.

    2007-12-01

    Fractured aquifer systems have provided important natural resources such as petroleum, gas, water and geothermal energy and have also been recently under investigation for their suitability as storage sites for high-level nuclear waste. The resource exploitation and potential utilization have led to extensive studies aiming of understanding, characterizing and finally predicting the behavior of fractured aquifer systems. By applying a discrete model approach to study flow and transport processes, fractures are determined discretely and the effect of individual fractures can be explicitly investigated. The critical step for the discrete model is the generation of a representative fracture network since the development of flow paths within a fractured system strongly depends on its structure. The geostatistical fracture generation (GFG) developed in this study aims to create a representative fracture network, which combines the spatial structures and connectivity of a fracture network, and the statistical distribution of fracture geometries. The spatial characteristics are characterized from indicator fields, which are evaluated from fracture trace maps. A global optimization, Simulated annealing, is utilized as a generation technique and the spatial characteristics are formulated to its objective function. We apply the GFG to a case study at a Pliezhausen field block, which is a sandstone of a high fracture density. The generated fracture network from the GFG are compared with the statistically generated fracture network in term of structure and hydraulic behavior. As the GFG is based on a stochastic concept, several realizations of the same descriptions can be generated, hence, an overall behavior of the fracture-matrix system have to be investigated from various realizations which leads to a problem of computational demand. In order to overcome this problem, a streamline method for a solute transport in a fracture porous system is presented. The results obtained

  10. Photometric solution and period analysis of the contact binary system AH Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ying-Jiang; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Deng, Li-Cai; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jian-Feng; Yan, Zheng-Zhou; Pan, Yang; Fang, Wei-Jing; Feng, Zhong-Wen; Tang, De-Lin; Liu, Qi-Li; Sun, Jin-Jiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Photometric observations of AH Cnc, a W UMa-type system in the open cluster M67, were carried out by using the 50BiN telescope. About 100 h of time-series B- and V -band data were taken, based on which eight new times of light minima were determined. By applying the Wilson-Devinney method, the light curves were modeled and a revised photometric solution of the binary system was derived. We confirmed that AH Cnc is a deep contact (f = 51%), low mass-ratio (q = 0.156) system. Adopting the distance modulus derived from study of the host cluster, we have re-calculated the physical parameters of the binary system, namely the masses and radii. The masses and radii of the two components were estimated to be respectively 1.188(±0.061) M ⊙, 1.332(±0.063) R ⊙ for the primary component and 0.185(±0.032) M ⊙, 0.592(±0.051) R ⊙ for the secondary. By adding the newly derived minimum timings to all the available data, the period variations of AH Cnc were studied. This shows that the orbital period of the binary is continuously increasing at a rate of dp/dt = 4.29 × 10-10 d yr-1. In addition to the long-term period increase, a cyclic variation with a period of 35.26 yr was determined, which could be attributed to an unresolved tertiary component of the system.

  11. Use of numerically generated body-fitted coordinate systems for solution of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Thames, F. C.; Shanks, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that can treat the unsteady laminar flow about bodies of arbitrary shape, such as two-dimensional airfoils, multiple airfoils, and submerged hydrofoils, as naturally as it can deal with the flow about simple bodies. The solution is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. The curvilinear coordinates are generated as the solution of two elliptical partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, one coordinate being specified to be constant on each of the boundaries, and a distribution of the other being specified along the boundaries. The solution compares excellently with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semiinfinite flat plate.

  12. (Ca,Sr)CO 3 aqueous-solid solution systems: From atomistic simulations to thermodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulik, D. A.; Vinograd, V. L.; Paulsen, N.; Winkler, B.

    The uptake of strontium in calcium carbonates is a topic of sustained interest in (radio)geochemistry. The available data on (Ca,Sr)CO 3 aqueous-solid solution (Aq-SS) systems with the calcite ( R3barc) and aragonite ( Pmcn) structures are reconciled using a stepwise approach from atomistic to thermodynamic modelling consisting of: (1) Quantum-mechanical and force-field calculations aimed at the prediction of standard thermodynamic properties of a hypothetical pure SrCO 3( R3barc) compound; (2) Force-field calculations on supercell structures of end members with defects of incoherent atoms in the cluster expansion framework, followed by Monte Carlo simulations of the excess SS mixing properties in both R3barc and Pmcn structures; (3) Thermodynamic modelling of Aq-SS systems with SS phases of both structures using the Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) code in two scenarios: (i) aqueous solution in equilibrium with one SS phase of either Pmcn or R3barc structure; (ii) aqueous solution equilibrated with two SS phases having different structures. The (ii) case was investigated using two approaches: (A) The two SS introduced as separate phases, with the excess mixing in each phase described by an own Guggenheim polynomial and (B) End members of different structures combined into a single calcite-strontianite phase using the Darken’s Quadratic Formulation (DQF) mixing model. For the aragonite-strontianite SS system, a nearly symmetric solvus is predicted in good agreement with the available calorimetric and electrochemical data. The solubility data at low Sr concentrations are qualitatively reproduced with the DQF model. For the (Ca,Sr)CO 3 SS with the calcite structure, a slightly asymmetric, moderately positive excess Gibbs free energy of mixing is predicted and shown to agree well with known equilibrium distribution coefficients for trace Sr in calcite and with the predicted solubility product of the hypothetical SrCO 3( R3barc) end member. Although each SS system

  13. Positive periodic solution of a general discrete non-autonomous difference system of plankton allelopathy with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhijun; Chen, Lansun

    2006-12-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate a discrete time non-autonomous difference system of plankton allelopathy with delays. By employing continuous theorem proposed by Gains and Mawhin and some new techniques, a set of verifiable sufficient criteria are established for the existence of at least one strictly positive (componentwise) periodic solution, and as an application, we also examine some special case, showing that these conditions are similar to those of continuous differential system. It is also shown that the time delays are harmless for the existence of positive periodic solutions of system.

  14. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two new explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess clear advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the new solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the new analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  15. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP.

  16. Multilayering of Surfactant Systems at the Air-Dilute Aqueous Solution Interface.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Robert K; Penfold, Jeffrey

    2015-07-14

    In the last 15 years there have been a number of observations of surfactants adsorbed at the air-water interface with structures more complicated than the expected single monolayer. These observations, mostly made by neutron or X-ray reflectivity, show structures varying from the usual monolayer to monolayer plus one or two additional bilayers to multilayer adsorption at the surface. These observations have been assembled in this article with a view to finding some common features between the very different systems and to relating them to aspects of the bulk solution phase behavior. It is argued that multilayering is primarily associated with wetting or prewetting of the air-water interface by phases in the bulk system, whose structures depend on an overall attractive force between the constituent units. Two such phases, whose formation is assumed to be partially driven by strong specific ion binding, are a concentrated lamellar phase that forms at low concentrations and a swollen lamellar phase that is not space-filling. Multilayering phenomena at the air-water interface then offer a delicate and easy means of studying the finer details of the incompletely understood attraction that leads to these two phases, as well as an interesting new means of self-assembling surface structures. In addition, multilayering is often associated with unusual wetting characteristics. Examples of systems discussed, and in some cases their bulk phase behavior, include surfactants with multivalent metal counterions, surfactants with oligomers and polymers, surfactant with hydrophobin, dichain surfactants, lung surfactant, and the unusual system of ethanolamine and stearic acid. Two situations where the air-water surface is deliberately held out of equilibrium are also assessed for features in common with the steady-state/equilibrium observations.

  17. Existence and numerical simulation of periodic traveling wave solutions to the Casimir equation for the Ito system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Van Gorder, R. A.; Hajiketabi, M.; Mesrizadeh, M.

    2015-10-01

    We consider traveling wave solutions to the Casimir equation for the Ito system (a two-field extension of the KdV equation). These traveling waves are governed by a nonlinear initial value problem with an interesting nonlinearity (which actually amplifies in magnitude as the size of the solution becomes small). The nonlinear problem is parameterized by two initial constant values, and we demonstrate that the existence of solutions is strongly tied to these parameter values. For our interests, we are concerned with positive, bounded, periodic wave solutions. We are able to classify parameter regimes which admit such solutions in full generality, thereby obtaining a nice existence result. Using the existence result, we are then able to numerically simulate the positive, bounded, periodic solutions. We elect to employ a group preserving scheme in order to numerically study these solutions, and an outline of this approach is provided. The numerical simulations serve to illustrate the properties of these solutions predicted analytically through the existence result. Physically, these results demonstrate the existence of a type of space-periodic structure in the Casimir equation for the Ito model, which propagates as a traveling wave.

  18. Activities of the components in a spinel solid solution of the Fe-Al-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykasov, A. A.; Kimyashev, A. A.

    2011-09-01

    The conditions of the equilibrium between the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution and wustite are determined by measuring the EMF of galvanic cells containing a solid electrolyte, and the activities of the components in the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution are calculated by treating the results of the experiment on the equilibrium between the spinel solution and wustite. Their properties are found to be different from those of ideal solutions at temperatures of 1000-1300 K. A significant positive deviation from the Raoult's law is believed to indicate the tendency of the solution to decompose. The experimental data are treated in terms of the theory of regular solutions, assuming the energy of mixing to be a function of temperature only. The critical temperature of decomposition for the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution is found to be 1084 K.

  19. Towards a mLearning training solution to the adoption of a CPOE system.

    PubMed

    Pakonstantinou, Despoina; Poulymenopoulou, Mikaela; Malamateniou, Flora; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2012-01-01

    Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) has been introduced as a solution that can fundamentally change the way healthcare is provided, affecting all types of healthcare stakeholders and improving healthcare decisions, patient outcomes, patient safety and efficiency. However, a relatively small proportion of healthcare organizations have implemented CPOE systems, due to its technological complexity and to its low acceptance rate by healthcare professionals who largely disregard the value of CPOE in efficient healthcare delivery. An online training facility embedded within a CPOE service may increase the likelihood of its adoption by healthcare professionals as it offers them guidelines on how to perform each task of the CPOE service. In contrast to CPOE, on the other hand, handheld devices and other mobile technologies have showed an increased adoption rate. This paper considers a CPOE service that can be accessed by authorized healthcare professionals through their mobile devices anytime anywhere, and allows embedded training content, which has been developed through a learning management system (LMS) to be presented to the user automatically upon request.

  20. Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Yongkoo; Javandel, Iraj

    2008-03-15

    Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron catalyst, is used for an in-situ chemical oxidation of organic contaminants. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to create an acidic condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton's reaction often involves pressure buildup and precipitation of reaction products, which can cause safety hazards and diminish efficiency. We selected citric acid, a food-grade substance, as an acidifying agent to evaluate its efficiencies for organic contaminant removal in Fenton's reaction, and examined the impacts of using citric acid on the unwanted reaction products. A series of batch and column experiments were performed with varying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to decompose selected chlorinated ethylenes. Either dissolved iron from soil or iron sulfate salt was added to provide the iron catalyst in the batch tests. Batch experiments revealed that both citric and sulfuric acid systems achieved over 90% contaminant removal rates, and the presence of iron catalyst was essential for effective decontamination. Batch tests with citric acid showed no signs of pressure accumulation and solid precipitations, however the results suggested that an excessive usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} relative to iron catalysts (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < 1/330) would result in lowering the efficiency of contaminant removal by iron chelations in the citric acid system. Column tests confirmed that citric acid could provide suitable acidic conditions to achieve higher than 55% contaminant removal rates.

  1. Dynamical traps in Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems: Mechanism and solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Yang Wei; Sim, Adelene Y. L.; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-08-01

    We study the mechanism behind dynamical trappings experienced during Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems reported by several authors. Trapping is caused by the random walker coming close to a local energy extremum, although the mechanism is different from that of the critical slowing-down encountered in conventional molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. When trapped, the random walker misses the entire or even several stages of Wang-Landau modification factor reduction, leading to inadequate sampling of the configuration space and a rough density of states, even though the modification factor has been reduced to very small values. Trapping is dependent on specific systems, the choice of energy bins, and the Monte Carlo step size, making it highly unpredictable. A general, simple, and effective solution is proposed where the configurations of multiple parallel Wang-Landau trajectories are interswapped to prevent trapping. We also explain why swapping frees the random walker from such traps. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated.

  2. Dynamical traps in Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems: Mechanism and solution.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yang Wei; Sim, Adelene Y L; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-08-01

    We study the mechanism behind dynamical trappings experienced during Wang-Landau sampling of continuous systems reported by several authors. Trapping is caused by the random walker coming close to a local energy extremum, although the mechanism is different from that of the critical slowing-down encountered in conventional molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. When trapped, the random walker misses the entire or even several stages of Wang-Landau modification factor reduction, leading to inadequate sampling of the configuration space and a rough density of states, even though the modification factor has been reduced to very small values. Trapping is dependent on specific systems, the choice of energy bins, and the Monte Carlo step size, making it highly unpredictable. A general, simple, and effective solution is proposed where the configurations of multiple parallel Wang-Landau trajectories are interswapped to prevent trapping. We also explain why swapping frees the random walker from such traps. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated.

  3. Strong correlation and multi-phase solution in nonequilibrium lattice systems coupled to dissipation medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jong; Li, Jiajun; Aron, Camille; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    How does a strongly correlated electronic solid evolve continuously out of equilibrium when an electric field is applied? While this question may seem deceptively simple, it requires rigorous understanding of dissipation. We formulate the nonequilibrium steady-state lattice coupled to fermion baths in the Coulomb gauge. We demonstrate that the Hubbard model solved using the iterative perturbation theory within the dynamical mean-field approximation recovers the DC conductivity independent of the Coulomb interaction in a very narrow linear response regime. Due to the singular dependence of the effective temperature on the damping in the steady-state [2], systems with damping have dramatic field-dependent effect, very different from dissipationless systems. We conclude that the dominant physics in lattice nonequilibrium is not the field vs quasi-particle energy, but rather the Joule heat vs the quasi-particle energy. Furthermore, we show that, in the vicinity of the Mott-insulator transition, the solution supports mixed-phase state scenario which indicates that the electron transport in solids under high-field can be spatially inhomogeneous leading to filamentary conducting paths, as suggested by experiments. Supported by NSF DMR-0907150, NSF DMR-1308141

  4. Multiplicity of solutions for a class of quasilinear Kirchhoff system involving the fractional p-Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Mingqi; Zhang, Binlin; Rădulescu, Vicenţiu D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiplicity of solutions for a p-Kirchhoff system driven by a nonlocal integro-differential operator with zero Dirichlet boundary data. As a special case, we consider the following fractional p-Kirchhoff system {(∑i=1k[ui]s,pp)θ-1(-Δ)psuj(x)=λj|uj|q-2uj+∑i≠jβij|ui|m|uj|m-2ujin  Ω,uj=0in  RN\\Ω, where {≤ft[{{u}j}\\right]}s,p}={{≤ft({\\int}{\\int}{{{R}2N}}\\frac{|{{u}j}(x)-{{u}j}( y){{|}p}}{|x-y{{|}N+ps}}\\text{d}x\\text{d}y\\right)}1/p} , j=1,2,\\ldots,k , k≥slant 2 , θ ≥slant 1 , Ω is an open bounded subset of {{{R}}N} with Lipschitz boundary \\partial Ω , N  >  ps with s\\in (0,1) , (- Δ )ps is the fractional p-Laplacian, {{λj}>0 and {βij}={βji} for i\

  5. pH dependence of uranyl retention in a quartz/solution system: an XPS study.

    PubMed

    Froideval, A; Del Nero, M; Barillon, R; Hommet, J; Mignot, G

    2003-10-15

    We have investigated the pH dependence of U(VI) retention in quartz/10(-4) M uranyl solution systems, under conditions favoring formation of polynuclear aqueous species and of colloids of amorphous schoepite as U(VI) solubility-limiting phases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to gain insights into the coordination environments of sorbed/precipitated uranyl ions in the centrifuged quartz samples. The U4f XPS spectra made it possible to identify unambiguously the presence of two uranyl components. A high binding energy component, whose relative proportion increases with pH, exhibits the U4f lines characteristic of a reference synthetic metaschoepite. Such a high binding energy component is interpreted as a component having a U(VI) oxide hydrate character, either as polynuclear surface oligomers and/or as amorphous schoepite-like (surface) precipitates. Its pH dependence suggests that a binding of polynuclear species at quartz surfaces and/or a formation of amorphous schoepite-like (surface) precipitates is favored when the proportion of aqueous polynuclear species increases. A second surface component exhibits binding energies for the U4f core levels at values significantly lower (DeltaE(b)=1.2 eV) than for metaschoepite, evidencing uranyl ions in a distinct coordination environment. Such a low binding energy component may be attributed to monomeric uranyl surface complexes on the basis of published EXAFS data. Such a hypothesis is supported by a major contribution of the low binding energy component to the U4f XPS spectra of reference samples for uranyl sorbed on quartz from very acidic 10(-3) M uranyl solutions where UO(2)(2+) ions predominate.

  6. Probabilistic solution of some multi-degree-of-freedom nonlinear systems under external independent Poisson white noises.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H T

    2012-06-01

    This paper studies the stationary probability density function (PDF) of the response of multi-degree-of-freedom nonlinear systems under external independent Poisson white noises. The PDF is governed by the high-dimensional generalized Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation. The state-space-split (3S) method is adopted to reduce the high-dimensional generalized FPK equation to a low-dimensional equation. Subsequently, the exponential-polynomial closure (EPC) method is further used to solve the reduced FPK equation for the PDF solution. Two illustrative examples are presented to examine the accuracy of the 3S-EPC solution procedure. One example involves a two-degree-of-freedom coupled nonlinear system. The other example is concerned with a ten-degree-of-freedom system with cubic terms in displacement. A Monte Carlo simulation is also performed for simulating the PDF solution of the response. The comparison with the simulated result shows that the 3S-EPC solution procedure can provide satisfactory PDF solutions. The good agreement is also observed in the tail regions of the PDF solutions.

  7. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  8. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight <2000 g (mostly preterm). KMC involves continuous skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding support, and promotion of early hospital discharge with follow-up. The World Health Organization has endorsed KMC for stabilised newborns in health facilities in both high-income and low-resource settings. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) use a 12-country analysis to explore health system bottlenecks affecting the scale-up of KMC; (2) propose solutions to the most significant bottlenecks; and (3) outline priority actions for scale-up. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Results Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. Conclusions There

  9. New solutions for standardization, monitoring and quality management of fluorescence-based imaging systems (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royon, Arnaud; Papon, Gautier

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopes have become ubiquitous in life sciences laboratories, including those focused on pharmaceuticals, diagnosis, and forensics. For the past few years, the need for both performance guarantees and quantifiable results has driven development in this area. However, the lack of appropriate standards and reference materials makes it difficult or impossible to compare the results of two fluorescence microscopes, or to measure performance fluctuations of one microscope over time. Therefore, the operation of fluorescence microscopes is not monitored as often as their use warrants - an issue that is recognized by both systems manufacturers and national metrology institutes. We have developed a new process that enables the etching of long-term stable fluorescent patterns with sub-micrometer sizes in three dimensions inside glass. In this paper, we present, based on this new process, a fluorescent multi-dimensional ruler and a dedicated software that are suitable for monitoring and quality management of fluorescence-based imaging systems (wide-field, confocal, multiphoton, high content machines). In addition to fluorescence, the same patterns exhibit bright- and dark-field contrast, DIC, and phase contrast, which make them also relevant to monitor these types of microscopes. Non-exhaustively, this new solution enables the measurement of: The stage repositioning accuracy; The illumination and detection homogeneities; The field flatness; The detectors' characteristics; The lateral and axial spatial resolutions; The spectral response (spectrum, intensity and lifetime) of the system. Thanks to the stability of the patterns, microscope performance assessment can be carried out as well in a daily basis as in the long term.

  10. Generalized linear solvation energy model applied to solute partition coefficients in ionic liquid-supercritical carbon dioxide systems.

    PubMed

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Sťavíková, Lenka; Roth, Michal

    2012-08-10

    Biphasic solvent systems composed of an ionic liquid (IL) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) have become frequented in synthesis, extractions and electrochemistry. In the design of related applications, information on interphase partitioning of the target organics is essential, and the infinite-dilution partition coefficients of the organic solutes in IL-scCO(2) systems can conveniently be obtained by supercritical fluid chromatography. The data base of experimental partition coefficients obtained previously in this laboratory has been employed to test a generalized predictive model for the solute partition coefficients. The model is an amended version of that described before by Hiraga et al. (J. Supercrit. Fluids, in press). Because of difficulty of the problem to be modeled, the model involves several different concepts - linear solvation energy relationships, density-dependent solvent power of scCO(2), regular solution theory, and the Flory-Huggins theory of athermal solutions. The model shows a moderate success in correlating the infinite-dilution solute partition coefficients (K-factors) in individual IL-scCO(2) systems at varying temperature and pressure. However, larger K-factor data sets involving multiple IL-scCO(2) systems appear to be beyond reach of the model, especially when the ILs involved pertain to different cation classes.

  11. Regular solutions to higher order curvature Einstein Yang Mills systems in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenlohner, Peter; Maison, Dieter; Tchrakian, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    We study regular, static, spherically symmetric solutions of Yang Mills theories employing higher order invariants of the field strength coupled to gravity in d dimensions. We consider models with only two such invariants characterized by integers p and q. These models depend on one dimensionless parameter α leading to one-parameter families of regular solutions, obtainable by numerical solution of the corresponding boundary value problem. Much emphasis is put on an analytical understanding of the numerical results.

  12. Bifurcation of Singular Solutions in Reversible Systems and Applications to Reaction-Diffusion Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    bifurcation of trajectories connecting saddle points from stationary solutions is studied. As an application, reaction-diffusion models in one space...to reaction- diffusion models are discussed. We obtain solutions, which may be considered *one-dimensional analogues of the patterns of concentric...Oscillating sina,!ar solutions connected with Hopf bifurcations We consider a general chemical reaction model given by an equation 2au _2u (6.1) =F( ,u) + D

  13. Multi-Dark Soliton Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Multi-Component Yajima-Oikawa Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi

    2015-03-01

    We present a general form of multi-dark soliton solutions of two-dimensional (2D) multi-component soliton systems. Multi-dark soliton solutions of the 2D and 1D multi-component Yajima-Oikawa (YO) systems, which are often called the 2D and 1D multi-component long wave-short wave resonance interaction systems, are studied in detail. Taking the 2D coupled YO system with two short wave and one long wave components as an example, we derive the general N-dark-dark soliton solution in both the Gram type and Wronski type determinant forms for the 2D coupled YO system via the KP hierarchy reduction method. By imposing certain constraint conditions, the general N-dark-dark soliton solution of the 1D coupled YO system is further obtained. The dynamics of one dark-dark and two dark-dark solitons are analyzed in detail. In contrast with bright-bright soliton collisions, it is shown that dark-dark soliton collisions are elastic and there is no energy exchange among solitons in different components. Moreover, the dark-dark soliton bound states including the stationary and moving ones are discussed. For the stationary case, the bound states exist up to arbitrary order, whereas, for the moving case, only the two-soliton bound state is possible under the condition that the coefficients of nonlinear terms have opposite signs.

  14. Exact analytical solutions for time-dependent Hermitian Hamiltonian systems from static unobservable non-Hermitian Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fring, Andreas; Frith, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We propose a procedure to obtain exact analytical solutions to the time-dependent Schrödinger equations involving explicit time-dependent Hermitian Hamiltonians from solutions to time-independent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems and the time-dependent Dyson relation, together with the time-dependent quasi-Hermiticity relation. We illustrate the working of this method for a simple Hermitian Rabi-type model by relating it to a non-Hermitian time-independent system corresponding to the one-site lattice Yang-Lee model.

  15. Dissipative boundary conditions for 2 × 2 hyperbolic systems of conservation laws for entropy solutions in BV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coron, Jean-Michel; Ervedoza, Sylvain; Ghoshal, Shyam Sundar; Glass, Olivier; Perrollaz, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the BV stability of 2 × 2 hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with strictly positive velocities under dissipative boundary conditions. More precisely, we derive sufficient conditions guaranteeing the exponential stability of the system under consideration for entropy solutions in BV. Our proof is based on a front tracking algorithm used to construct approximate piecewise constants solutions whose BV norms are controlled through a Lyapunov functional. This Lyapunov functional is inspired by the one proposed in J. Glimm's seminal work [16], modified with some suitable weights in the spirit of the previous works [9,10].

  16. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma-Solution System (Gliding Discharge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NI, Mingjiang; YANG, Huan; CHEN, Tong; ZHANG, Hao; WU, Angjian; DU, Changming; LI, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a plasma-solution system was applied to the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7). The effects of initial concentration and type of feed gases (air, oxygen, nitrogen or argon) were studied. As the initial concentration increased from 100 mg/L to 160 mg/L, the discolouration rate of AO7 decreased from 99.3% to 95.9%, whereas the COD removal rate decreased from 37.9% to 22.6%. Air provided the best discolouration and COD removal rates (99.3% and 37.9%, respectively). In the presence of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) catalyst, the AO7 COD removal rate increased to 76.4%. The degradation products were analysed by a GC-MS, revealing that the degradation of the dye molecule was initiated through the cleavage of the -N=N- bond before finally being converted to organic acids. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 50908237, 51076142) and the Open Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of China (No. ZJUCEU2009008)

  17. Solute diffusion through fibrotic tissue formed around protective cage system for implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Prihandana, Gunawan Setia; Ito, Hikaru; Tanimura, Kohei; Yagi, Hiroshi; Hori, Yuki; Soykan, Orhan; Sudo, Ryo; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the concept of an implantable cage system that can house and protect implanted biomedical sensing and therapeutic devices in the body. Cylinder-shaped cages made of porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sheets with an 80-µm pore size and/or stainless steel meshes with 0.54-mm openings were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of rats for 5 weeks. Analysis of the explanted cages showed the formation of fibrosis tissue around the cages. PVA cages had fibrotic tissue growing mostly along the outer surface of cages, while stainless steel cages had fibrotic tissue growing into the inside surface of the cage structure, due to the larger porosity of the stainless steel meshes. As the detection of target molecules with short time lags for biosensors and mass transport with low diffusion resistance into and out of certain therapeutic devices are critical for the success of such devices, we examined whether the fibrous tissue formed around the cages were permeable to molecules of our interest. For that purpose, bath diffusion and microfluidic chamber diffusion experiments using solutions containing the target molecules were performed. Diffusion of sodium, potassium and urea through the fibrosis tissue was confirmed, thus suggesting the potential of these cylindrical cages surrounded by fibrosis tissue to successfully encase implantable sensors and therapeutic apparatus.

  18. Multiple positive solutions to nonlinear boundary value problems of a system for fractional differential equations.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chengbo; Hao, Mengru

    2014-01-01

    By using Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem, we study the existence of at least one or two positive solutions to a system of fractional boundary value problems given by -D(0+)(ν1)y1(t) = λ1a1(t)f(y1(t), y2(t)), - D(0+)(ν2)y2(t) = λ2a2(t)g(y1(t), y2(t)), where D(0+)(ν) is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, ν1, ν2 ∈ (n - 1, n] for n > 3 and n ∈ N, subject to the boundary conditions y1((i))(0) = 0 = y ((i))(0), for 0 ≤ i ≤ n - 2, and [D(0+)(α)y1(t)] t=1 = 0 = [D(0+ (α)y2(t)] t=1, for 1 ≤ α ≤ n - 2, or y1((i))(0) = 0 = y ((i))(0), for 0 ≤ i ≤ n - 2, and [D(0+)(α)y1(t)] t=1 = ϕ1(y1), [D(0+)(α)y2(t)] t=1 = ϕ2(y2), for 1 ≤ α ≤ n - 2, ϕ1, ϕ2 ∈ C([0,1], R). Our results are new and complement previously known results. As an application, we also give an example to demonstrate our result.

  19. High-performance CMOS image sensors at BAE SYSTEMS Imaging Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Paul; Fowler, Boyd; Liu, Chiao; Mims, Steve; Balicki, Janusz; Bartkovjak, Peter; Do, Hung; Li, Wang

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of high-performance CMOS image sensor products developed at BAE SYSTEMS Imaging Solutions designed to satisfy the increasingly challenging technical requirements for image sensors used in advanced scientific, industrial, and low light imaging applications. We discuss the design and present the test results of a family of image sensors tailored for high imaging performance and capable of delivering sub-electron readout noise, high dynamic range, low power, high frame rates, and high sensitivity. We briefly review the performance of the CIS2051, a 5.5-Mpixel image sensor, which represents our first commercial CMOS image sensor product that demonstrates the potential of our technology, then we present the performance characteristics of the CIS1021, a full HD format CMOS image sensor capable of delivering sub-electron read noise performance at 50 fps frame rate at full HD resolution. We also review the performance of the CIS1042, a 4-Mpixel image sensor which offers better than 70% QE @ 600nm combined with better than 91dB intra scene dynamic range and about 1 e- read noise at 100 fps frame rate at full resolution.

  20. Rugged, reliable, and secured data storage solutions for airborne ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsur, Ofer

    2004-08-01

    Rugged, reliable and secure data storage is of major concern to engineers designing Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) systems. Operation under harsh conditions of shock, vibration and high altitude in extreme temperature ranges is an essential requirement. Due to its rotating mechanism, a mechanical disk cannot provide top-level data reliability in such an environment. Other Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) solutions can replace mechanical disks. This paper describes some of these alternatives and highlights their cost-effectiveness. One alternative is a ruggedized mechanical disk, a mechanical disk sealed in a rigid cartridge. Another alternative is the solid-state flash disk that, like the mechanical disk, retains data when power is off, and is a "drop-in replacement" for the mechanical disk for reliability in harsh environments. Flash disk manufacturers incorporate special methods to enhance endurance and reliability for military designers. This paper also describes the mandatory requirements of the DoD, NSA and the US Air Force for erasing confidential data in storage devices. This issue is vital, especially since the P-3 landed forcibly on China"s soil. Some flash disk vendors meet security requirements with Fast Secure Erase and Sanitize, enabling data declassification in seconds, even without power.

  1. A Rationale for System-Dependent Advantages and Disadvantages of Solution Crystal Growth at Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Vekilov, Peter G.; Lin, Hong; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1997-01-01

    Protein crystallization experiments at reduced gravity have yielded crystals that, depending on the specific material, are either superior or inferior in their structural perfection compared to counterparts grown at normal gravity. A reduction of the crystals' quality due to their growth at low gravity cannot be understood from existing models. Our experimental investigations of the ground-based crystallization of the protein lysozyme have revealed pronounced unsteady growth layer dynamics and associated defect formation under steady external conditions. Through scaling analysis and numerical simulations we show that the observed fluctuations originate from the coupling of bulk transport with non-linear interface kinetics under mixed kinetics-transport control of the growth rate. The amplitude of the fluctuations is smallest when either transport or interfacial kinetics dominate the control of the crystallization process. Thus, depending on the specific system, crystal quality may be improved by either enhancing or suppressing the transport in the solution. These considerations provide, for the first time, a material-dependent rationale for the advantages, as well as the disadvantages, of reduced gravity for (protein) crystallization.

  2. Implicit time-integration method for simultaneous solution of a coupled non-linear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Justin Kyle

    Historically large physical problems have been divided into smaller problems based on the physics involved. This is no different in reactor safety analysis. The problem of analyzing a nuclear reactor for design basis accidents is performed by a handful of computer codes each solving a portion of the problem. The reactor thermal hydraulic response to an event is determined using a system code like TRAC RELAP Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE). The core power response to the same accident scenario is determined using a core physics code like Purdue Advanced Core Simulator (PARCS). Containment response to the reactor depressurization in a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) type event is calculated by a separate code. Sub-channel analysis is performed with yet another computer code. This is just a sample of the computer codes used to solve the overall problems of nuclear reactor design basis accidents. Traditionally each of these codes operates independently from each other using only the global results from one calculation as boundary conditions to another. Industry's drive to uprate power for reactors has motivated analysts to move from a conservative approach to design basis accident towards a best estimate method. To achieve a best estimate calculation efforts have been aimed at coupling the individual physics models to improve the accuracy of the analysis and reduce margins. The current coupling techniques are sequential in nature. During a calculation time-step data is passed between the two codes. The individual codes solve their portion of the calculation and converge to a solution before the calculation is allowed to proceed to the next time-step. This thesis presents a fully implicit method of simultaneous solving the neutron balance equations, heat conduction equations and the constitutive fluid dynamics equations. It discusses the problems involved in coupling different physics phenomena within multi-physics codes and presents a solution to these problems

  3. On Non-Topological Solutions for Planar Liouville Systems of Toda-Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliakovsky, Arkady; Tarantello, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the study of non-abelian Chern Simons vortices of non-topological type in Gauge Field Theory, see e.g. Gudnason (Nucl Phys B 821:151-169, 2009), Gudnason (Nucl Phys B 840:160-185, 2010) and Dunne (Lecture Notes in Physics, New Series, vol 36. Springer, Heidelberg, 1995), we analyse the solvability of the following (normalised) Liouville-type system in the presence of singular sources: (1)_τ -Δ u_1 = e^{u_1} - τ e^{u_2} - 4N π δ_0,-Δ u_2 = e^{u_2} - τ e^{u_1}, β_1 = 1/2π int_{R2} e^{u_1} {and } β_2 = 1/2π int_{R2} e^{u_2}, with {τ > 0} and {N > 0}. We identify necessary and sufficient conditions on the parameter {τ} and the "flux" pair: {(β_1, β_2),} which ensure the radial solvability of {(1)_τ.} Since for {τ=1/2,} problem {(1)_τ} reduces to the (integrable) 2 {×} 2 Toda system, in particular we recover the existence result of Lin et al. (Invent Math 190(1):169-207, 2012) and Jost and Wang (Int Math Res Not 6:277-290, 2002), concerning this case. Our method relies on a blow-up analysis for solutions of {(1)_τ}, which (even in the radial setting) takes new turns compared to the single equation case. We mention that our approach also permits handling the non-symmetric case, where in each of the two equations in {(1)_τ}, the parameter {τ} is replaced by two different parameters {τ_1 > 0} and {τ_2 > 0} respectively, and also when the second equation in {(1)_τ} includes a Dirac measure supported at the origin.

  4. Treatment of neonatal infections: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Around one-third of the world's 2.8 million neonatal deaths are caused by infections. Most of these deaths are preventable, but occur due to delays in care-seeking, and access to effective antibiotic treatment with supportive care. Understanding variation in health system bottlenecks to scale-up of case management of neonatal infections and identifying solutions is essential to reduce mortality, and also morbidity. Methods A standardised bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the development of the Every Newborn Action Plan. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete a survey tool, to grade health system "bottlenecks" hindering scale up of maternal-newborn intervention packages. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyse the data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and synthesise actions to improve case management of newborn infections. Results For neonatal infections, the health system building blocks most frequently graded as major or significant bottlenecks, irrespective of mortality context and geographical region, were health workforce (11 out of 12 countries), and community ownership and partnership (11 out of 12 countries). Lack of data to inform decision making, and limited funding to increase access to quality neonatal care were also major challenges. Conclusions Rapid recognition of possible serious bacterial infection and access to care is essential. Inpatient hospital care remains the first line of treatment for neonatal infections. In situations where referral is not possible, the use of simplified antibiotic regimens for outpatient management for non-critically ill young infants has recently been reported in large clinical trials; WHO is developing a guideline to treat this group of young infants. Improving quality of care through more investment in the health workforce at all levels of care is critical, in addition to ensuring development

  5. A dynamical system approach to the construction of singular solutions of some degenerate elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huentutripay, Jorge; Jazar, Mustapha; Véron, Laurent

    We study the existence of singular separable solutions to the 2-dimensional quasilinear equation -∇·(|∇ u| p-2 ∇ u)+| u| q-1 u=0 under the form u( r, θ)= r- βω( θ). We obtain the full description of the set of such solutions by combining a 2-dimensional shooting method with a phase plane analysis approach.

  6. Polarizable solute in polarizable and flexible solvents: simulation study of electron transfer reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tateki

    2005-10-06

    A polarizable solute model, based on the empirical valence bond approach, is developed and applied to electron transfer (ET) reactions in polarizable and flexible water solvents. The polarization effect is investigated in comparison with a nonpolarizable solute and solvent model. With free energy curves constructed by a molecular dynamics simulation, the activation energy barrier and the reorganization energy related to ET processes are investigated. The present simulation results show that the activation energy barrier becomes larger in the polarizable model than in the nonpolarizable model and that this makes the ET rate slower than that with the nonpolarizable model. It is shown that the effect of the electronic energy difference of solute molecule on free energy profiles is remarkable and that, corresponding to this effect, the reorganization energy is significantly modified. These results indicate that the process of solvent polarization by the polarized solute to enhance the solute-solvent interaction is a key factor and that treating the polarization of both solute and solvent at the same time is essential. Also, the polarization effect on the diffusive motion of the solute molecule in the polarization solvent is studied. The polarized solute molecule shows slower diffusive motion compared with that in the nonpolarizable model.

  7. 76 FR 59167 - Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., Concord, CA; Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Global Services/Supply Chain Management Including.../Supply Chain Management. These employees provided support for the supply of information technology...,158) and Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Global Services/Supply Chain Management,...

  8. Stability of therapeutic albumin solutions used for molecular adsorbent recirculating system-based liver dialysis.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Tom; Meijers, Björn; Evenepoel, Pieter; Laub, Ruth; Willems, Ludo; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests beneficial effects of albumin dialysis-based liver support in patients suffering from acute-on-chronic liver failure. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is a nonbiological liver support device, based on the exchange of albumin-bound toxins between the patient's blood and a 20% human serum albumin solution in a secondary circuit. Bound toxins are continuously removed from the circulating albumin by exposure to activated charcoal and an ion-exchange resin. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the impact of exposure to charcoal and resin on the ligand binding properties of albumins, containing various levels of stabilizers and obtained from different suppliers (Baxter, CAF-DCF [Red Cross], and Sigma-Aldrich). Albumin binding properties were assessed by measuring equilibrium binding properties of warfarin, diazepam, and salicylate before and after incubation (for up to 7 h) with adsorbing materials; albumin-associated esterase-like activities were also determined. Notable changes in albumin binding upon incubation with adsorbing materials were only observed when using warfarin as a ligand. Affinity of warfarin for the Baxter and Sigma albumins showed a pronounced decrease (higher K(d) ) after the 1-7-h exposure to charcoal or resin. In the absence of adsorbing materials, similar effects were found, indicating that incubation time per se affects albumin binding properties. Following exposure to resin, Baxter albumin binding capacity (B(max)) increased about twofold. For albumin obtained from CAF-DCF, binding affinity and capacity for warfarin were constant under all conditions tested. Esterase-like activities associated with these albumins were either maintained or enhanced (up to 2.5-fold in case of Sigma albumin) following 7-h incubations with adsorbing materials. Our data suggest limited direct influence of the presence of stabilizers in therapeutic albumin solutions on baseline binding properties of human

  9. Analysis of Residential System Strategies Targeting Least-Cost Solutions Leading to Net Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Building America residential systems research project uses an analysis-based system research approach to identify research priorities, identify technology gaps and opportunities, establish a consistent basis to track research progress, and identify system solutions that are most likely to succeed as the initial targets for residential system research projects. This report describes the analysis approach used by the program to determine the most cost-effective pathways to achieve whole-house energy-savings goals. This report also provides an overview of design/technology strategies leading to net zero energy buildings as the basis for analysis of future residential system performance.

  10. An implicit difference scheme for the long-time evolution of localized solutions of a generalized Boussinesq system

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.I.; Maugin, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear system of equations built up from a generalized Boussinesq equation coupled with a wave equation which is a model for the one-dimensional dynamics of phases in martensitic alloys. The strongly implicit scheme employing Newton`s quasilinearisation allows us to track the long time evolution of the localized solutions of the system. Two distinct classes of solutions are encountered for the pure Boussinesq equation. The first class consists of oscillatory pulses whose envelopes are localized waves. The second class consists of smoother solutions whose shapes are either heteroclinic (kinks) or homoclinic (bumps). The homoclinics decrease in amplitude with time while their support increases. An appropriate self-similar scaling is found analytically and confirmed by the direct numerical simulations to high accuracy. The rich phenomenology resulting from the coupling with the wave equation is also investigated. 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Quantum dynamics of incoherently driven V-type systems: Analytic solutions beyond the secular approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, Amro; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath, relevant to light harvesting processes, are obtained and discussed. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter ζ = /1 2 ( γ 1 + γ 2) / Δ p , where γi are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels i = 1, 2, and Δ p = √{ Δ 2 + ( 1 - p 2) γ 1 γ 2 } depends on the excited-state level splitting Δ > 0 and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit (ζ ≫ 1), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit (ζ ≪ 1), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping (ζ = 1). The sudden incoherent turn-on is shown to generate a mixture of excited eigenstates |e1> and |e2> and their in-phase coherent superposition | ϕ + > = /1 √{ r 1 + r 2 } ( √{ r 1 } | e 1 > + √{ r 2 } | e 2 >) , which is remarkably long-lived in the overdamped limit (where r1 and r2 are the incoherent pumping rates). Formation of this coherent superposition enhances the decay rate from the excited states to the ground state. In the strongly asymmetric V-system where the coupling strengths between the ground state and the excited states differ significantly, additional asymptotic quasistationary coherences are identified, which arise due to slow equilibration of one of the excited states. Finally, we demonstrate that noise-induced Fano coherences are maximized with respect to populations when r1 = r2 and the transition dipole moments are fully aligned.

  12. Quantum dynamics of incoherently driven V-type systems: Analytic solutions beyond the secular approximation.

    PubMed

    Dodin, Amro; Tscherbul, Timur V; Brumer, Paul

    2016-06-28

    Closed-form analytic solutions to non-secular Bloch-Redfield master equations for quantum dynamics of a V-type system driven by weak coupling to a thermal bath, relevant to light harvesting processes, are obtained and discussed. We focus on noise-induced Fano coherences among the excited states induced by incoherent driving of the V-system initially in the ground state. For suddenly turned-on incoherent driving, the time evolution of the coherences is determined by the damping parameter ζ=12(γ1+γ2)/Δp, where γi are the radiative decay rates of the excited levels i = 1, 2, and Δp=Δ(2)+(1-p(2))γ1γ2 depends on the excited-state level splitting Δ > 0 and the angle between the transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The coherences oscillate as a function of time in the underdamped limit (ζ ≫ 1), approach a long-lived quasi-steady state in the overdamped limit (ζ ≪ 1), and display an intermediate behavior at critical damping (ζ = 1). The sudden incoherent turn-on is shown to generate a mixture of excited eigenstates |e1〉 and |e2〉 and their in-phase coherent superposition |ϕ+〉=1r1+r2(r1|e1〉+r2|e2〉), which is remarkably long-lived in the overdamped limit (where r1 and r2 are the incoherent pumping rates). Formation of this coherent superposition enhances the decay rate from the excited states to the ground state. In the strongly asymmetric V-system where the coupling strengths between the ground state and the excited states differ significantly, additional asymptotic quasistationary coherences are identified, which arise due to slow equilibration of one of the excited states. Finally, we demonstrate that noise-induced Fano coherences are maximized with respect to populations when r1 = r2 and the transition dipole moments are fully aligned.

  13. Localized wave and vortical solutions to linear hyperbolic systems and their application to linear shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Shafarevich, A. I.; Tirozzi, B.

    2008-06-01

    The result of this paper is that any fast-decaying function can be represented as an integral over the canonical Maslov operator, on a special Lagrangian manifold, acting on a specific function. This representation enables one to construct effective explicit formulas for asymptotic solutions of a vast class of linear hyperbolic systems with variable coefficients.

  14. Using the method of dual quadratic solutions to solve systems of polynomial equations in the complex domain

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, N.Z.; Berezovskii, O.A.

    1995-05-01

    In general, the dual solutions are applied in the branch and bound scheme to solve the optimization problem. Of special interest, however, are problems that can be reduced to a quadratic problem with {Omega}-property. In this paper, we consider one such problem, namely the problem of solving a system of polynomial equations in complex variables.

  15. On the existence of local strong solutions to chemotaxis-shallow water system with large data and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jiahang; Chen, Li; Duan, Ben; Luo, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, motivated by the chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system arising from mathematical biology [43], a modified shallow water type chemotactic model is derived. For large initial data allowing vacuum, the local existence of strong solutions together with the blow-up criterion is established.

  16. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  17. The existence of positive periodic solutions of a generalized N-species Gilpin-Ayala impulsive competition system.

    PubMed

    Li, Meili; Han, Maoan; Kou, Chunhai

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the existence of positive periodic solutions of a class of periodic -species Gilpin-Ayala impulsive competition systems is studied. By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions is obtained. Our results are general enough to include some known results in this area.

  18. Single cell performance studies on the Fe/Cr Redox Energy Storage System using mixed reactant solutions at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Ling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental studies in a 14.5 sq cm single cell system using mixed reactant solutions at 65 C are described. Systems were tested under isothermal conditions i.e., reactants and the cell were at the same temperature. Charging and discharging performance were evaluted by measuring watt-hour and coulombic efficiencies, voltage-current relationships, hydrogen evolution and membrane resistivity. Watt-hour efficiencies ranged from 86% at 43 ma/sq cm to 75% at 129 ma/sq cm with corresponding coulombic efficiencies of 92% and 97%, respectively. Hydrogen evolution was less than 1% of the charge coulombic capacity during charge-discharge cycling. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes maintained reversible performance and low hydrogen evolution under normal and adverse cycling conditions. Reblending of the anode and cathode solutions was successfully demonstrated to compensate for osmotic volume changes. Improved performance was obtained with mixed reactant systems in comparison to the unmixed reactant systems.

  19. Viability of Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution and two hydrogen peroxide systems

    PubMed Central

    Hiti, K; Walochnik, J; Haller-Schober, E M; Faschinger, C; Aspöck, H

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Contact lens cases contaminated with Acanthamoeba are a major risk factor for an infection of the eye. In this study the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of three different contact lens storage solutions was tested. Methods: A new multipurpose contact lens storage solution (Meni Care Plus) and a two step (Titmus H2O2) and one step (Oxysept Comfort) hydrogen peroxide system were tested for their effects on trophozoites and cysts of three different Acanthamoeba species: A castellanii, A hatchetti, and A lenticulata. Results: After a soaking time of 8 hours (overnight soaking of contact lenses) the Titmus H2O2 0.6% solution showed very good amoebicidal effects, while Oxysept Comfort 3% H2O2 could not effectively destroy the cysts of any of the three tested species. Viable cysts of the species A lenticulata and A hatchetti were still present after exposure to Meni Care Plus (0.0005% PHMB) for 8 hours. Conclusion: Not all of the three tested contact lens storage solutions have sufficient amoebicidal effects. The two step peroxide system Titmus H2O2 is a very effective disinfectant contact lens solution in order to avoid a possible Acanthamoeba infection of the eye. PMID:11815336

  20. Semi-analytical Solution of One-dimensional Multispecies Reactive Transport in a Permeable Reactive Barrier-aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieles, J. M.; Zhan, H.

    2010-12-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have been accepted by the EPA as an effective groundwater remediation technology. Effective implementation of this in-situ technology requires accurate site characterization to identify the chemicals of concern (COCs) present, their interactions (if any), and their required residence time in the PRB to achieve regulatory concentrations at the point of compliance (POC). Therefore, minimizing performance uncertainties in the design phase is key. Among these uncertainties determining the required PRB thickness is the most important and has been examined in other studies. Less attention, however, has been devoted to developing a practical yet rigorous tool for modeling multi-species reactive transport in the barrier-aquifer system. In this study Park and Zhan’s [2009] mass conservative semi-analytical solution - developed to calculate the required PRB thickness based on the decay of one species - is expanded to four reactive species. For example, the expanded solution could be used to model the degradation pathway from tetrachloroethylene (PCE) to vinyl chloride (VC). The solution is presented in two forms: The steady-state solution programmed into Excel can quickly assist designers in determining the required PRB thickness so that all COCs involved in the degradation pathway achieve regulatory limits at the POC. The second form is the transient solution which is solved by numerically inverting the Laplace transform. The semi-analytical solution presented in this study has several advantages over prior solutions. For example, the influent and effluent boundary conditions of the PRB are mass conservative and both dispersion and decay rate differences between the PRB and aquifer are considered. In addition, the transient solution allows for different retardation factors to be considered in both transport media and for each species.

  1. Development of a Design Support System that Can Efficiently Utilize Non-dominated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Minato, Ryojiro

    This paper proposes a new design support approach, which efficiently utilizes the information of many non-dominated solutions obtained from evolutionary multi-criterion optimization (EMO). The proposed approach consists of four mechanisms: grouping (clustering), reducing the number of candidates (selecting the representative solutions), dimensionality reduction, and estimation. Non-dominated solutions can be regarded as a beneficial subspace in whole search space, which have the feature of being non-inferior to other solutions. Therefore, we think the proposed approach can be used to estimate the characteristics of a problem through the interaction with the designer. In this paper, we examine the characteristics and effectiveness of the proposed approach through computational experiments on a design problem of a counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine. A counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine with two spools is chosen for the design target of the present study. We handle this task as a seven-objective design problem.

  2. Cesaro-One Summability and Uniform Convergence of Solutions of a Sturm-Liouville System

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, R.S.; Tucker, D.H.

    1999-01-26

    Galerkin methods are used in separable Hilbert spaces to construct and compute L{sup 2} [0,{pi}] solutions to large classes of differential equations. In this note a Galerkin method is used to construct series solutions of a nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville problem defined on [0,{pi}]. The series constructed are shown to converge to a specified du Bois-Reymond function f in L{sup 2} [0,{pi}]. It is then shown that the series solutions can be made to converge uniformly to the specified du Bois-Reymond function when averaged by the Ces{'a}ro-one summability method. Therefore, in the Ces{'a}ro-one sense, every continuous function f on [0,{pi}] is the uniform limit of solutions of nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville problems.

  3. Dynamic behavior of positive solutions for a leslie predator-prey system with mutual interference and feedback controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Nan-jing; Deng, Chuan-xian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Leslie predator-prey system with mutual interference and feedback controls. For general nonautonomous case, by using differential inequality theory and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, we obtain some sufficient conditions which guarantee the permanence and the global attractivity of the system. For the periodic case, we obtain some sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence, uniqueness, and stability of a positive periodic solution.

  4. Investigations of stabilizing additives. I. A model system for studying radical scavenging activity in solution. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.S.; Williams, E.E.; Williams, J.L.

    1982-06-01

    In the current study an electron spin resonance model was developed to compare the thermal stability and radical scavenging activity of stabilizers in solution. High-resolution spectra and the influence of molecular structure on radical stability provided a basis for the interpretation of spin concentration data in the model system. A correlation was established between the radical scavenging activity measured in the model system and actual behavior in irradiated polypropylene formulations measured by radiation-induced degradation of mechanical properties.

  5. Conservation laws and exact solutions of system of Boussinesq-Burgers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, Arzu; Kaplan, Melike; Taşcan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study conservation laws that is one of the applications of symmetries. Conservation laws has important place for differential equations and their solutions, also in all physics applications. This study deals with conservation laws of Boussinessq-Burgers equation. We used Noether approach and conservation theorem approach for finding conservation laws for this equation. Also finally, we found exact solutions of this equation by using the modified simple equation method.

  6. A Solution Space for a System of Null-State Partial Differential Equations: Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Steven M.; Kleban, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second of four that completely and rigorously characterize a solution space for a homogeneous system of 2 N + 3 linear partial differential equations in 2 N variables that arises in conformal field theory (CFT) and multiple Schramm-Löwner evolution (SLE). The system comprises 2 N null-state equations and three conformal Ward identities which govern CFT correlation functions of 2 N one-leg boundary operators. In the first article (Flores and Kleban, Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1212.2301, 2012), we use methods of analysis and linear algebra to prove that dim , with C N the Nth Catalan number. The analysis of that article is complete except for the proof of a lemma that it invokes. The purpose of this article is to provide that proof. The lemma states that if every interval among ( x 2, x 3), ( x 3, x 4),…,( x 2 N-1, x 2 N ) is a two-leg interval of (defined in Flores and Kleban, Commun Math Phys, arXiv:1212.2301, 2012), then F vanishes. Proving this lemma by contradiction, we show that the existence of such a nonzero function implies the existence of a non-vanishing CFT two-point function involving primary operators with different conformal weights, an impossibility. This proof (which is rigorous in spite of our occasional reference to CFT) involves two different types of estimates, those that give the asymptotic behavior of F as the length of one interval vanishes, and those that give this behavior as the lengths of two intervals vanish simultaneously. We derive these estimates by using Green functions to rewrite certain null-state PDEs as integral equations, combining other null-state PDEs to obtain Schauder interior estimates, and then repeatedly integrating the integral equations with these estimates until we obtain optimal bounds. Estimates in which two interval lengths vanish simultaneously divide into two cases: two adjacent intervals and two non-adjacent intervals. The analysis of the latter case is similar to that for one vanishing

  7. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental closed loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFE) is designed to be flight tested in a microgravity environment. When flown, the PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of microgravity fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of the nutrient solution in a microgravity environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  8. Anomalous Diffusion in Polymer Solution as Probed by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Its Universal Importance in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushida, Kiminori

    2008-02-01

    Experimental evidence of anomalous diffusion occurring in an inhomogeneous media (hyaluronan aquous solution) was obtained by use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with other techniques (PFG-NMR and Photochemical reactions). The diffusion coefficient was obtained as a function of diffusion time or diffusion distance. Since this polymer solution can be regarded as a model system of extracellular matrices (ECMs), intercellular communication, which takes part in ECM, is greatly influenced by this anomalous diffusion mode. Therefore universal importance of anomalous diffusion in biological activity is identified in this series of independent experiments to measure diffusion coefficients.

  9. An evidence-based toolkit for the development of effective and sustainable root cause analysis system safety solutions.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, A Zachary; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Hegde, Sudeep; Rackoff, Alexandra S; Wreathall, John; Lewis, Vicki L; Bisantz, Ann M; Wears, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) after adverse events in healthcare is a standard practice at many institutions. However, healthcare has failed to see a dramatic improvement in patient safety over the last decade. In order to improve the RCA process, this study used systems safety science, which is based partly on human factors engineering principles and has been applied with success in other high-risk industries like aviation. A multi-institutional dataset of 334 RCA cases and 782 solutions was analyzed using qualitative methods. A team of safety science experts developed a model of 13 RCA solutions categories through an iterative process, using semi-structured interview data from 44 frontline staff members from 7 different hospital-based unit types. These categories were placed in a model and toolkit to help guide RCA teams in developing sustainable and effective solutions to prevent future adverse events. This study was limited by its retrospective review of cases and use of interviews rather than clinical observations. In conclusion, systems safety principles were used to develop guidelines for RCA teams to promote systems-level sustainable and effective solutions for adverse events.

  10. Studies on equilibrium of anthranilic acid in aqueous solutions and in two-phase systems: aromatic solvent-water.

    PubMed

    Zapała, Lidia; Kalembkiewicz, Jan; Sitarz-Palczak, Elzbieta

    2009-03-01

    The acid-base equilibria of anthranilic acid have been characterized in terms of macro- and microdissociation constants (dissociation constants K(a1), K(a2) and tautomeric constant K(z)). On the basis of spectrophotometric investigations the values of the distribution ratio D of anthranilic acid in the two-phase systems: aromatic solvent (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene)-aqueous solution were obtained. Employing the results of potentiometric titration in the two-phase systems: aromatic solvent-aqueous solution the distribution constant K(D) and dimerization constant K(dim) values were calculated. The influence of organic solvent polarity and pH of the aqueous phase on the contents of the particular forms of the acid in the two-phase systems were analyzed.

  11. Nonuniqueness for the vanishing viscosity solution with fixed initial condition in a nonstrictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, Daniel N.

    2007-11-01

    We consider the Riemann problem for a system of two decoupled, nonstrictly hyperbolic, Burgers-like conservation equations with added artificial viscosity. We analytically establish two different vanishing viscosity limits for the solution of this system, which correspond to the two cases where one of the viscosities vanishes much faster than the other. This is done without altering the initial condition as is necessary with travelling wave methods. Numerical evidence is then provided to show that when the two viscosities vanish at the same rate, the solution converges to a limit that lies strictly between the two previously established limits. Finally, we use control theory to explain the mechanism behind this nonuniqueness behavior, which indicates other systems of nonstrictly hyperbolic conservation laws where nonuniqueness will occur.

  12. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: VII. Characterization of sodium cholate-sodium deoxycholate mixed-micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2010-03-05

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) systems with mixed pseudostationary phases of the bile surfactants sodium cholate (SC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) have been characterized by means of the solvation parameter model. The importance of characterizing systems with an appropriate set of solutes that embrace a wide range of descriptor values has been proven as they can significantly influence the value of the system constants. The fit of the solvation parameter model to the experimental log k data has been compared for each SC-SDC system when the Abraham descriptors and the Poole optimized descriptors, recently proposed, are used. In both cases, the variation in MEKC surfactant composition results in similar changes in the coefficients of the correlation equations, which in turn leads to similar information on solute-solvent and solute-micelle interactions. It is demonstrated that SDC is more hydrogen-bond acidic and hydrophobic but slightly less polarizable than SC. Systems with intermediate selectivity are obtained through mixtures of both surfactants.

  13. Numerical continuation of solution at a singular point of high codimension for systems of nonlinear algebraic or transcendental equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S. D.; Kuznetsov, E. B.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical continuation of solution through certain singular points of the curve of the set of solutions to a system of nonlinear algebraic or transcendental equations with a parameter is considered. Bifurcation points of codimension two and three are investigated. Algorithms and computer programs are developed that implement the procedure of discrete parametric continuation of the solution and find all branches at simple bifurcation points of codimension two and three. Corresponding theorems are proved, and each algorithm is rigorously justified. A novel algorithm for the estimation of errors of tangential vectors at simple bifurcation points of a finite codimension m is proposed. The operation of the computer programs is demonstrated by test examples, which allows one to estimate their efficiency and confirm the theoretical results.

  14. Global existence and boundedness of radial solutions to a two dimensional fully parabolic chemotaxis system with general sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujie, Kentarou; Senba, Takasi

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with positive radially symmetric solutions of the Neumann boundary value problem for the fully parabolic chemotaxis system, {ut=Δu-∇ṡ(u∇χ(v))in Ω×(0,∞),τvt=Δv-v+uin Ω×(0,∞), in a ball Ω \\subset {{{R}}2} with general sensitivity function χ (v) satisfying {χ\\prime}>0 and decaying property {χ\\prime}(s)\\to 0 (s\\to ∞ ), parameter τ \\in ≤ft(0,1\\right] and nonnegative radially symmetric initial data. It is shown that if τ \\in ≤ft(0,1\\right] is sufficiently small, then the problem has a unique classical radially symmetric solution, which exists globally and remains uniformly bounded in time. Especially, this result establishes global existence of solutions in the case χ (v)={χ0}log v for all {χ0}>0 , which has been left as an open problem.

  15. Spatial and temporal geochemical trends in the hydrothermal system of Yellowstone National Park: Inferences from river solute fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present and analyze a chemical dataset that includes the concentrations and fluxes of HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and F- in the major rivers draining Yellowstone National Park (YNP) for the 2002-2004 water years (1 October 2001 - 30 September 2004). The total (molar) flux in all rivers decreases in the following order, HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > F-, but each river is characterized by a distinct chemical composition, implying large-scale spatial heterogeneity in the inputs of the various solutes. The data also display non-uniform temporal trends; whereas solute concentrations and fluxes are nearly constant during base-flow conditions, concentrations decrease, solute fluxes increase, and HCO3-/Cl-, and SO42-/Cl- increase during the late-spring high-flow period. HCO3-/SO42- decreases with increasing discharge in the Madison and Falls Rivers, but increases with discharge in the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers. The non-linear relations between solute concentrations and river discharge and the change in anion ratios associated with spring runoff are explained by mixing between two components: (1) a component that is discharged during base-flow conditions and (2) a component associated with snow-melt runoff characterized by higher HCO3-/Cl- and SO42-/Cl-. The fraction of the second component is greater in the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers, which host lakes in their drainage basins and where a large fraction of the solute flux follows thaw of ice cover in the spring months. Although the total river HCO3- flux is larger than the flux of other solutes (HCO3-/Cl- ??? 3), the CO2 equivalent flux is only ??? 1% of the estimated emission of magmatic CO2 soil emissions from Yellowstone. No anomalous solute flux in response to perturbations in the hydrothermal system was observed, possibly because gage locations are too distant from areas of disturbance, or because of the relatively low sampling frequency. In order to detect changes in river hydrothermal solute fluxes, sampling at higher

  16. An analytical solution for one-dimensional contaminant diffusion through multi-layered system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunmin; Xie, Haijian; Ke, Han; Chen, Renpeng

    2009-09-01

    An analytical solution for one-dimensional contaminant diffusion through multi-layered media is derived regarding the change of the concentration of contaminants at the top boundary with time. The model accounts for the arbitrary initial conditions and the conditions of zero concentration and zero mass flux on the bottom boundary. The average degree of diffusion of the layered system is introduced on the basis of the solution. The results obtained by the presented analytical solutions agree well with those obtained by the numerical methods presented in the literature papers. The application of the analytical solution to the problem of landfill liner design is illustrated by considering a composite liner consisting of geomembrane and compacted clay liner. The results show that the 100-year mass flux of benzene at the bottom of the composite liner is 45 times higher than that of acetone for the same composite liner. The half-life of the contaminant has a great influence on the solute flux of benzene diffused into the underlying aquifer. Results also indicates that an additional 2.9-5.0 m of the conventional (untreated) compacted clay liner under the geomembrane is required to achieve the same level of protection as provided by 0.60 m of the Hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA)-treated compacted clay liners in conjunction with the geomembrane. Applications of the solution are also presented in the context of a contaminated two-layered media to demonstrate that different boundary and initial conditions can greatly affect the decontamination rate of the problem. The method is relatively simple to apply and can be used for performing equivalency analysis of landfill liners, preliminary design of groundwater remediation system, evaluating experimental results, and verifying more complex numerical models.

  17. THERMODYNAMICS AND SOLUBILITY OF (UxNp1-x)O2(am) SOLID SOLUTION IN THE CARBONATE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Hess, Nancy J.; Yui, Mikazu; Felmy, Andrew R.; Moore, Dean A.

    2004-03-15

    ABSTRACT -The formation of a solid solution can significantly affect the solubility of a minor component. The objectives of this study were to determine the nature of U(IV) and Np(IV) solid solutions and their thermodynamic properties. For this purpose, co-precipitates of U(IV) and Np(IV) [(UxNp1-x )O2(am), with values for x of 0.95, 0.85, 0.50, 0.15, and 0.05] were prepared, characterized, and used to determine their solubility as a function of K2CO3 concentrations ranging from 1.0 m to 5.0 m in the presence of 0.01 m Na2S2O4 and 0.01 m KOH, and as a function of KHCO3 concentrations ranging from 0.1 m to 0.8 m in the presence of 0.01 m Na2S2O4. The solubility data show that the equilibrium in these systems is reached in <7 days, the solubility-controlling solids are amorphous, and that we were successful in maintaining U and Np in the tetravalent state. A scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of the solids indicated the equilibrated co-precipitates to be solid solutions. A close agreement between the thermodynamic predictions, assuming an ideal solid solution, and the experimental solubilities shows that U(IV) and Np(IV) form an ideal solid solution and that non-ideal solid solution behavior for this system can be ruled out.

  18. Measurement of CO(2) Dissolved in Aqueous Solutions Using a Modified Infrared Gas Analyzer System.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, T E; Smucker, A J

    1983-05-01

    Total dissolved inorganic carbon (SigmaCO(2)) and aqueous carbon dioxide (H(2)CO(3) (*)) in nutrient solutions may be measured by the injection of small gas or liquid samples (1 microliter to 8 milliliters) into a gas stripping column connected in-line with an infrared gas analyzer. The measurement of SigmaCO(2) in solution requires sample acidification, while H(2)CO(3) (*) and gaseous CO(2) are measured without the addition of lactic acid. The standard curve for SigmaCO(2) was linear up to 300 nanomoles CO(2). Maximum sensitivity was approximately 300 picomoles. Measurements of H(2)CO(3) (*) were independent of pH. Consequently, SigmaCO(2) and H(2)CO(3) (*) could be used to calculate the pH, HCO(3) (-), and CO(3) (2-) values of nutrient solutions. Injection and complete analyses required from 0.8 to 2 minutes.

  19. Post-instability in continuous systems. I - Failure of differentiability of solutions in continuum mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that mathematical models of continua are based on certain assumptions regarding functions which must be at least piece-wise differentiable. The assumption about smoothness of the functions makes it possible to use the mathematical technique of differentiable equations. However, this artificial mathematical limitation follows neither from the principles of mechanics nor from the definition of a continuum. The price paid for such a mathematical convenience is instability (in the class of smooth functions) of the solutions to the corresponding governing equations in some regions of the parameters. A new mathematical technique should, therefore, be developed to describe the solutions which are not necessarily differentiable. The present investigation is concerned with the criteria of applicability of the classical models of continua from the view point of stability of the corresponding solutions, postinstability models derived by reformulation of the original models, and postinstability models in enlarged classes of functions.

  20. Light scattering study of partially ionized poly(acrylic acid) systems : comparison between gels and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaid, A.; Munch, J. P.; Schosseler, F.; Candau, S. J.

    1991-06-01

    Static and quasielastic light scattering experiments have been performed on the reaction bath of partially neutralized poly(acrylic acid) solutions and gels. The intensity scattered from gels is independent on the scattering wavevector, giving thus evidence that the gels are homogeneous at the scale of the wavelength of the light, contrary to what is generally observed in neutral gels. The comparison of the time and ensemble averages of the autocorrelation function of scattered light intensity shows that the gels behave with respect to that experiment as ergodic media. The variations of the intensity scattered from gels and solutions, with the ionization degree and the polymer concentration were found to be in good agreement with those predicted from simple theoretical arguments. The variations of the cooperative diffusion with these same parameters were found similar for gels and solutions. Des mesures de diffusion statique et quasiélastique de la lumière ont été effectuées sur des solutions et des gels d'acide poly(acrylique) partiellement ionisés. L'intensité diffusée par les gels est indépendante du vecteur d'onde de transfert, ce qui montre leur homogénéité, contrairement au cas des gels neutres. La comparaison des moyennes temporelle et spatiale de la fonction d'autocorrélation de l'intensité de la lumière diffusée montre que ces gels se comportent comme des milieux ergodiques. Les variations de l'intensité diffusée par les gels et les solutions en fonction de la concentration en polymère et du degré d'ionisation sont en bon accord avec les prédictions théoriques. Les variations du coefficient de diffusion avec ces mêmes paramètres sont identiques pour les gels et les solutions.

  1. Modeling of dispersed-drug delivery from planar polymeric systems: optimizing analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Helbling, Ignacio M; Ibarra, Juan C D; Luna, Julio A; Cabrera, María I; Grau, Ricardo J A

    2010-11-15

    Analytical solutions for the case of controlled dispersed-drug release from planar non-erodible polymeric matrices, based on Refined Integral Method, are presented. A new adjusting equation is used for the dissolved drug concentration profile in the depletion zone. The set of equations match the available exact solution. In order to illustrate the usefulness of this model, comparisons with experimental profiles reported in the literature are presented. The obtained results show that the model can be employed in a broad range of applicability.

  2. Assay of PCM Crates and Drums using the BIL Solutions Ltd. Imaging DISPIM{sup R} System

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, A.; Sharpe, R.J.

    2006-07-01

    BIL Solutions Ltd Decommissioning In-Situ Plutonium Inventory Monitor (DISPIM{sup R}) is a versatile neutron and gamma assay system designed to be deployable in a wide range of decommissioning and waste management situations. The system utilizes Totals and Coincidence neutron counting to determine both total Pu mass values and the 3D Pu mass distribution inside the target object. DISPIM{sup R}'s modular, mobile design allows the system to be used in the assay of a range of objects of varying size and shape in locations where alternative monitoring equipment would not normally be available. The DISPIM{sup R} system has recently been successfully used for the in-situ measurement of crated and drummed Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) waste items to provide Pu mass values in preparation for their treatment as part of a decommissioning program. A description of the operation of the DISPIM{sup R} system is given, including calibration of the system prior to the on-site survey, the measurement and quality control methodology employed during assay of waste items and discussion of the data analysis techniques. The results of 'imaging' measurements (i.e. Pu mass distribution results) recorded from the PCM crate measurements are likely to be of particular benefit when planning any future operations on these waste items. The results of this DISPIM{sup R} survey represent a complete solution for the customer with minimal requirement for use of their own resources. Technically substantiated Pu mass assay results have been provided which can now be easily adopted for use in criticality safety cases for the future treatment of these waste items. In summary, the DISPIM{sup R} system has successfully delivered a safe, fast and cost effective measurement solution to this challenging assay task and demonstrated its flexibility as a PCM monitoring system. (authors)

  3. Preparation and Analysis of Solid Solutions in the Potassium Perchlorate-Permanganate System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Garrett K.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experiment, designed for and tested in an advanced inorganic laboratory methods course for college seniors and graduate students, that prepares and analyzes several samples in the nearly ideal potassium perchlorate-permanganate solid solution series. The results are accounted for by a theoretical treatment based upon aqueous…

  4. Part of the Solution: Judy Nelson--Pierce County Library System, Tacoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Judy Nelson thinks it's important to understand what the community wants for its young people, "which means lots of listening." We need to give taxpayers more good reasons to support libraries, she says, and the community's problems and unmet needs are opportunities for libraries to be an integral part of the solution. One problem Nelson…

  5. The asymptotic solutions for a class of nonlinear singular perturbed differential systems with time delays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Jin, Yinlai

    2014-01-01

    We study a kind of vector singular perturbed delay-differential equations. By using the methods of boundary function and fractional steps, we construct the formula of asymptotic expansion and confirm the interior layer at t = σ. Meanwhile, on the basis of functional analysis skill, the existence of the smooth solution and the uniform validity of the asymptotic expansion are proved.

  6. Semianalytical Solutions for Transport in Aquifer and Fractured Clay Matrix System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-dimensional mathematical model that describes transport of contaminant in a horizontal aquifer with simultaneous diffusion into a fractured clay formation is proposed. A group of analytical solutions is derived based on specific initial and boundary conditions as well as ...

  7. The Separatory Cylinder: A Novel Solvent Extraction System for the Study of Chemical Equilibrium in Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikel, Dori; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Dicusses the use of the separatory cylinder in student laboratory experiments for investigating equilibrium distribution of a solute between immiscible phases. Describes the procedures for four sets of experiments of this nature. Lists of materials needed and quantities of reagents are provided. (TW)

  8. Smart gelation of chitosan solution in the presence of NaHCO3 for injectable drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Tang, Ximin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Shengrong

    2011-07-29

    In situ gelling systems are attractive as injectable vehicles for drug delivery. The present work described a novel gelation process of acidic chitosan solution in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)). The NaHCO(3) concentration played an important role in this gelling system. When it came within the appropriate range, the chitosan/NaHCO(3) system would stay at sol state in certain condition and showed sol-gel transition from the top to the bottom after heating. The rheological properties of the gelling system, as well as the morphology and erosion behavior of the formed chitosan hydrogels were evaluated as a function of the NaHCO(3) concentration in sols. The hydrogels showed porous morphologies with some diversification depending on the NaHCO(3) concentration, which also affected their erosion behaviors and drug release rates. Moreover, the gelation mechanism of such chitosan/NaHCO(3) system was studied and proposed as the formation of three-dimensional chitosan network with physical junctions thanks to the deprotonation of -NH(3)(+) in chitosan accompanying with the gradual neutralization between HCO(3)(-) and acid. In vivo gelation test was also performed by the dorsal subcutaneous injection of chitosan/NaHCO(3) solution in rat. The formation of in situ gels suggested such system promising applications in injectable drug delivery system.

  9. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulaye, D.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  10. Innovative Systems: Solution or Illusion? Proceedings of the 1974 CAUSE National Conference. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plourde, Paul J., Ed.; Thomas, Charles R., Ed.

    Nineteen contributed papers presented at the 1974 College and University Systems Exchange (CAUSE) National Conference are compiled. Topics include specific applications, data base management systems, and management techniques in administrative information systems for higher education. (DGC)

  11. Future non-linear stability for solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system of Bianchi types II and VI0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nungesser, Ernesto

    2012-10-01

    In a recent paper [E. Nungesser, "Future non-linear stability for reflection symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system of Bianchi types II and VI0," Annales Henri Poincare (2012), 10.1007/s00023-012-0201-0], we have treated the future nonlinear stability for reflection symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system of Bianchi types II and VI0. We have been able now to remove the reflection symmetry assumption, thus treating the non-diagonal case. Apart from the increasing complexity, the methods have been essentially the same as in the diagonal case, showing that they are thus quite powerful. Here, the challenge was to put the equations in a form that permits the use of the previous results. We are able to conclude that after a possible basis change, the future of the non-diagonal spacetimes in consideration is asymptotically diagonal.

  12. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, B B; Orazbayeva, K N; Kurmangaziyeva, L T; Makhatova, V E

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

  13. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods

    PubMed Central

    Orazbayev, B. B.; Orazbayeva, K. N.; Kurmangaziyeva, L. T.; Makhatova, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods. PMID:28275318

  14. Effect of zone size on the convergence of exact solutions for diffusion in single phase systems with planar, cylindrical or spherical geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Exact solutions for diffusion in single phase binary alloy systems with constant diffusion coefficient and zero-flux boundary condition have been evaluated to establish the optimum zone size of applicability. Planar, cylindrical and spherical interface geometry, and finite, singly infinite, and doubly infinite systems are treated. Two solutions are presented for each geometry, one well suited to short diffusion times, and one to long times. The effect of zone-size on the convergence of these solutions is discussed. A generalized form of the diffusion solution for doubly infinite systems is proposed.

  15. Existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson systems with steep potential well

    PubMed Central

    Du, Miao; Tian, Lixin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Fubao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of Schrödinger-Poisson systems with the asymptotically linear or asymptotically 3-linear nonlinearity. Under some suitable assumptions on V, K, a, and f, we prove the existence, nonexistence, and asymptotic behavior of solutions via variational methods. In particular, the potential V is allowed to be sign-changing for the asymptotically linear case. PMID:27013766

  16. Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

    2004-03-29

    Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

  17. On the solution of system of fractional nonlinear predator-prey population model via homotopy decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atangana, Abdon

    2013-10-01

    We exploit a relatively new analytical technique, the Homotopy Decomposition Method (HDM), for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations arising in prey-predator biological population dynamics system. Numerical solutions are provided and they have certain properties which exhibit biologically significant dependence on the parameter values. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The HDM is reliable and reduces the number of computations. This gives the HDM a wider applicability. In addition, the method is very easy to use.

  18. Existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson systems with steep potential well.

    PubMed

    Du, Miao; Tian, Lixin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Fubao

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of Schrödinger-Poisson systems with the asymptotically linear or asymptotically 3-linear nonlinearity. Under some suitable assumptions on V, K, a, and f, we prove the existence, nonexistence, and asymptotic behavior of solutions via variational methods. In particular, the potential V is allowed to be sign-changing for the asymptotically linear case.

  19. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    edu, Janet. twomey@wichita.

    2010-04-30

    This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  20. A minimum propellant solution to an orbit-to-orbit transfer using a low thrust propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1991-10-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative is considering the use of low thrust (nuclear electric, solar electric) and intermediate thrust (nuclear thermal) propulsion systems for transfer to Mars and back. Due to the duration of such a mission, a low thrust minimum-fuel solution is of interest; a savings of fuel can be substantial if the propulsion system is allowed to be turned off and back on. This switching of the propulsion system helps distinguish the minimal-fuel problem from the well-known minimum-time problem. Optimal orbit transfers are also of interest to the development of a guidance system for orbital maneuvering vehicles which will be needed, for example, to deliver cargoes to the Space Station Freedom. The problem of optimizing trajectories for an orbit-to-orbit transfer with minimum-fuel expenditure using a low thrust propulsion system is addressed.

  1. A minimum propellant solution to an orbit-to-orbit transfer using a low thrust propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative is considering the use of low thrust (nuclear electric, solar electric) and intermediate thrust (nuclear thermal) propulsion systems for transfer to Mars and back. Due to the duration of such a mission, a low thrust minimum-fuel solution is of interest; a savings of fuel can be substantial if the propulsion system is allowed to be turned off and back on. This switching of the propulsion system helps distinguish the minimal-fuel problem from the well-known minimum-time problem. Optimal orbit transfers are also of interest to the development of a guidance system for orbital maneuvering vehicles which will be needed, for example, to deliver cargoes to the Space Station Freedom. The problem of optimizing trajectories for an orbit-to-orbit transfer with minimum-fuel expenditure using a low thrust propulsion system is addressed.

  2. THE SOLAR NEBULA ON FIRE: A SOLUTION TO THE CARBON DEFICIT IN THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Bergin, Edwin A.; Nomura, Hideko E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu

    2010-02-10

    Despite a surface dominated by carbon-based life, the bulk composition of the Earth is dramatically carbon poor when compared to the material available at formation. Bulk carbon deficiency extends into the asteroid belt representing a fossil record of the conditions under which planets are born. The initial steps of planet formation involve the growth of primitive sub-micron silicate and carbon grains in the Solar Nebula. We present a solution wherein primordial carbon grains are preferentially destroyed by oxygen atoms ignited by heating due to stellar accretion at radii <5 AU. This solution can account for the bulk carbon deficiency in the Earth and meteorites, the compositional gradient within the asteroid belt, and for growing evidence for similar carbon deficiency in rocks surrounding other stars.

  3. Deriving Coarse-Grained Charges from All-Atom Systems: An Analytic Solution.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Peter; Lake, Peter T; McCullagh, Martin

    2016-09-13

    An analytic method to assign optimal coarse-grained charges based on electrostatic potential matching is presented. This solution is the infinite size and density limit of grid-integration charge-fitting and is computationally more efficient by several orders of magnitude. The solution is also minimized with respect to coarse-grained positions which proves to be an extremely important step in reproducing the all-atom electrostatic potential. The joint optimal-charge optimal-position coarse-graining procedure is applied to a number of aggregating proteins using single-site per amino acid resolution. These models provide a good estimate of both the vacuum and Debye-Hückel screened all-atom electrostatic potentials in the vicinity and in the far-field of the protein. Additionally, these coarse-grained models are shown to approximate the all-atom dimerization electrostatic potential energy of 10 aggregating proteins with good accuracy.

  4. Domains of analyticity for response solutions in strongly dissipative forced systems

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, Livia E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it; Feola, Roberto E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it; Gentile, Guido E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it

    2013-12-15

    We study the ordinary differential equation εx{sup ¨}+x{sup .}+εg(x)=εf(ωt), where g and f are real-analytic functions, with f quasi-periodic in t with frequency vector ω. If c{sub 0}∈R is such that g(c{sub 0}) equals the average of f and g′(c{sub 0}) ≠ 0, under very mild assumptions on ω there exists a quasi-periodic solution close to c{sub 0} with frequency vector ω. We show that such a solution depends analytically on ε in a domain of the complex plane tangent more than quadratically to the imaginary axis at the origin.

  5. Investigation on the chemical stability of erythromycin in solutions using an optimization system.

    PubMed

    Brisaert, M; Heylen, M; Plaizier-Vercammen, J

    1996-10-01

    Erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used topically in the treatment of acne, is unstable in solution. The stability is influenced by the pH and by the presence of water. The influence of the pH on the stability of erythromycin was investigated even with the use of dimethyl isosorbide as co-solvent instead of water. The addition of zinc was attempted to ameliorate erythromycin stability as suggested in the literature. To investigate these three factors and their interactions, an optimization technique was carried out consisting of a 2(3) factorial analysis and a rotative central composite design. The erythromycin solutions were analysed with an HPLC method. The pH and the concentration of dimethyl isosorbide had a significant influence on the stability of erythromycin but the addition of zinc was not a significant factor. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the pH and dimethyl isosorbide.

  6. Implementation of a block Lanczos algorithm for Eigenproblem solution of gyroscopic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Kajal K.; Lawson, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    The details of implementation of a general numerical procedure developed for the accurate and economical computation of natural frequencies and associated modes of any elastic structure rotating along an arbitrary axis are described. A block version of the Lanczos algorithm is derived for the solution that fully exploits associated matrix sparsity and employs only real numbers in all relevant computations. It is also capable of determining multiple roots and proves to be most efficient when compared to other, similar, exisiting techniques.

  7. Assessment of IT solutions used in the Hungarian income tax microsimulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, I.; Hardhienata, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of information technology (IT) in diverse microsimulation studies and presents state-of-the-art solutions in the traditional application field of personal income tax simulation. The aim of the paper is to promote solutions, which can improve the efficiency and quality of microsimulation model implementation, assess their applicability and help to shift attention from microsimulation model implementation and data analysis towards experiment design and model use. First, the authors shortly discuss the relevant characteristics of the microsimulation application field and the managerial decision-making problem. After examination of the salient problems, advanced IT solutions, such as meta-database and service-oriented architecture are presented. The authors show how selected technologies can be applied to support both data- and behavior-driven and even agent-based personal income tax microsimulation model development. Finally, examples are presented and references made to the Hungarian Income Tax Simulator (HITS) models and their results. The paper concludes with a summary of the IT assessment and application-related author remarks dedicated to an Indonesian Income Tax Microsimulation Model.

  8. Degradation of multi-DNAPLs by a UV/persulphate/ethanol system with the additional injection of a base solution.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Gu; Do, Si-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Kong, Sung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the inhibited influences on and solution to the degradation of four types of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) (i.e. perchloroethylene [PCE], trichloroethylene [TCE], chloroform [CF], and carbon tetrachloride [CT]) all at the same instance in groundwater (GW). Degradations of DNAPLs in de-ionized water (DW) and GW were carried out by applying an ultraviolet radiation-activated persulphate (UV/PS) system. PCE and TCE were degraded by over 90% and CT was only degraded by 25% in both DW and GW. However, CF was degraded by over 90% in DW, while it was only degraded by 50% in GW. First of all, degradations with an inorganic anion (either Cl- or HCO3-) indicated that the lower degradation of CF in GW was caused by the existence of the chloride ion. Moreover, the low CF degradation in GW was overcome by the additional injection of a base solution (sodium hydroxide [NaOH]) into the UV/PS system. The results showed that PCE, TCE, and CF were degraded by over 90%, respectively, when a molar ratio of [base]0:[PS]0 was larger than 0.5:1, but CT was still not effectively degraded in the UV/PS system. To achieve effective CT degradation, UV/PS with the ethanol (EtOH) system was evaluated and it was found that it degraded CT over 90%. However, at this time, CF was not effectively degraded in the UV/PS/EtOH system. Finally, degradations of DNAPLs in the UV/PS/EtOH system with the additional injection of a base solution were conducted and it showed that multi-DNAPLs were degraded by over 90%, respectively, when the molar ratio of [PS]0:[EtOH]0:[base]0 was 1:1:3.

  9. Asymptotic behaviour of the solution to a singularly perturbed partially dissipative system with a multiple root of the degenerate equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butuzov, V. F.

    2016-08-01

    Asymptotic formulae for the solution of the initial-boundary value problem for a singularly perturbed partially dissipative system of reaction-diffusion type are constructed and justified. The system consists of a parabolic and an ordinary differential equation in the case when the corresponding degenerate equation has a root of multiplicity two. The behaviour of the boundary layer functions and the algorithm for constructing them are significantly distinct from the case of a simple (multiplicity-one) root of the degenerate equation. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  10. On the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy to detect contaminants in water using single salt solutions as model systems.

    PubMed

    Gowen, A A; Marini, F; Tsuchisaka, Y; De Luca, S; Bevilacqua, M; O'Donnell, C; Downey, G; Tsenkova, R

    2015-01-01

    This research work evaluates the feasibility of NIRS to detect contaminants in water using single salt solutions as model systems. Previous research has indicated the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detecting solutes in water; however, a comprehensive investigation of the limit of detection of this technique has not been carried out. Near infrared transmittance spectra of aqueous salt solutions in the concentration range 0.002-0.1 mol L(-1) (equivalent to 117-13,334 ppm or 0.0001-0.01% mass/mass) were investigated. The first overtone region of the near infrared spectrum (1300-1600 nm) was found to be the most effective wavelength range for prediction of salt concentration in aqueous solutions. Calibration models built using this wavelength range and employing the extended multiplicative scatter spectral pre-treatment resulted in root mean squared error of prediction values ranging from 0.004 to 0.01 mol L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be of the order of 0.1% (mass/mass) or 1000 ppm. Within the framework of Aquaphotomics, it was possible to examine the effect of different salts on the NIR spectra of water in the first overtone range. Our results were confirmed through test experiments at various geographical locations employing dispersive and Fourier transform type NIRS instruments.

  11. Advances in diamond-turned surfaces enable unique cost-effective optical system solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Joshua M.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Dewa, Paul G.; Dunn, Mike M.; Flint, Scott D.

    2006-06-01

    Corning has developed a number of manufacturing and test techniques to meet the challenging requirements of imaging hyperspectral optical systems. These processes have been developed for applications in the short-wave visible through long-wave IR wavelengths. Optical designs for these imaging systems are typically Offner or Dyson configurations, where the critical optical components are powered gratings and slits. Precision alignment, system athermalization, and harsh environmental requirements, for these systems drive system level performance and production viability. This paper will present the results of these techniques including all aluminum gratings and slits, innovative grating profiles, snap together self-aligning mechanical designs, and visible test techniques for IR systems.

  12. ElVis: A System for the Accurate and Interactive Visualization of High-Order Finite Element Solutions.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B; Liu, E; Kirby, R M; Haimes, R

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the Element Visualizer (ElVis), a new, open-source scientific visualization system for use with high-order finite element solutions to PDEs in three dimensions. This system is designed to minimize visualization errors of these types of fields by querying the underlying finite element basis functions (e.g., high-order polynomials) directly, leading to pixel-exact representations of solutions and geometry. The system interacts with simulation data through runtime plugins, which only require users to implement a handful of operations fundamental to finite element solvers. The data in turn can be visualized through the use of cut surfaces, contours, isosurfaces, and volume rendering. These visualization algorithms are implemented using NVIDIA's OptiX GPU-based ray-tracing engine, which provides accelerated ray traversal of the high-order geometry, and CUDA, which allows for effective parallel evaluation of the visualization algorithms. The direct interface between ElVis and the underlying data differentiates it from existing visualization tools. Current tools assume the underlying data is composed of linear primitives; high-order data must be interpolated with linear functions as a result. In this work, examples drawn from aerodynamic simulations-high-order discontinuous Galerkin finite element solutions of aerodynamic flows in particular-will demonstrate the superiority of ElVis' pixel-exact approach when compared with traditional linear-interpolation methods. Such methods can introduce a number of inaccuracies in the resulting visualization, making it unclear if visual artifacts are genuine to the solution data or if these artifacts are the result of interpolation errors. Linear methods additionally cannot properly visualize curved geometries (elements or boundaries) which can greatly inhibit developers' debugging efforts. As we will show, pixel-exact visualization exhibits none of these issues, removing the visualization scheme as a source of

  13. Neural-network-based online HJB solution for optimal robust guaranteed cost control of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding; Wang, Fei-Yue; Li, Hongliang; Yang, Xiong

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the infinite horizon optimal robust guaranteed cost control of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems is investigated using neural-network-based online solution of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. By establishing an appropriate bounded function and defining a modified cost function, the optimal robust guaranteed cost control problem is transformed into an optimal control problem. It can be observed that the optimal cost function of the nominal system is nothing but the optimal guaranteed cost of the original uncertain system. A critic neural network is constructed to facilitate the solution of the modified HJB equation corresponding to the nominal system. More importantly, an additional stabilizing term is introduced for helping to verify the stability, which reinforces the updating process of the weight vector and reduces the requirement of an initial stabilizing control. The uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is analyzed by using the Lyapunov approach as well. Two simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the present control approach.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  15. Designing High Quality Evaluation Systems for High School Teachers: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John H.

    2011-01-01

    A central part of education reform today is the wide-ranging and unprecedented effort to either revamp existing teacher evaluation systems or develop and implement entirely new systems. High-quality teacher evaluation systems are seen as one lever for improving the teacher workforce and hence the outcomes of students, including high school…

  16. The relational clinical database: a possible solution to the star wars in registry systems.

    PubMed

    Michels, D K; Zamieroski, M

    1990-12-01

    In summary, having data from other service areas available in a relational clinical database could resolve many of the problems existing in today's registry systems. Uniting sophisticated information systems into a centralized database system could definitely be a corporate asset in managing the bottom line.

  17. The challenges – and some solutions – to process-based modelling of grazed agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastoral systems are characterised by a number of features, not present in arable cropping systems, which present significant challenges to the simulation modelling of pastoral systems. These challenges include: (i) pastures are biologically diverse so interactions between plant species must be con...

  18. Efficient solutions to hard computational problems by P systems with symport/antiport rules and membrane division.

    PubMed

    Song, Bosheng; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J; Pan, Linqiang

    2015-04-01

    P systems are computing models inspired by some basic features of biological membranes. In this work, membrane division, which provides a way to obtain an exponential workspace in linear time, is introduced into (cell-like) P systems with communication (symport/antiport) rules, where objects are never modified but they just change their places. The computational efficiency of this kind of P systems is studied. Specifically, we present a (uniform) linear time solution to the NP-complete problem, Subset Sum by using division rules for elementary membranes and communication rules of length at most 3. We further prove that such P system allowing division rules for non-elementary membranes can efficiently solve the PSPACE-complete problem, QSAT in a uniform way.

  19. Iterative method for the numerical solution of a system of integral equations for the heat conduction initial boundary value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetushkov, N. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper deals with a numerical algorithm to reduce the overall system of integral equations describing the heat transfer process at any geometrically complex area (both twodimensional and three-dimensional), to the iterative solution of a system of independent onedimensional integral equations. This approach has been called "string method" and has been used to solve a number of applications, including the problem of the detonation wave front for the calculation of heat loads in pulse detonation engines. In this approach "the strings" are a set of limited segments parallel to the coordinate axes, into which the whole solving area is divided (similar to the way the strings are arranged in a tennis racket). Unlike other grid methods where often for finding solutions, the values of the desired function in the region located around a specific central point here in each iteration step is determined by the solution throughout the length of the one-dimensional "string", which connects the two end points and set them values and determine the temperature distribution along all the strings in the first step of an iterative procedure.

  20. Comparison of laser ablation and dried solution aerosol as sampling systems in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a study designed to determine the possibility of using a dried aerosol solution for calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The relative sensitivities of tested materials mobilized by laser ablation and by aqueous nebulization were established, and the experimentally determined relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were used in conjunction with aqueous calibration for the analysis of solid steel samples. To such a purpose a set of CRM carbon steel samples (SS-451/1 to SS-460/1) were sampled into an ICP-MS instrument by solution nebulization using a microconcentric nebulizer with membrane desolvating (D-MCN) and by laser ablation (LA). Both systems were applied with the same ICP-MS operating parameters and the analyte signals were compared. The RSF (desolvated aerosol response/ablated solid response) values were close to 1 for the analytes Cr, Ni, Co, V, and W, about 1.3 for Mo, and 1.7 for As, P, and Mn. Complementary tests were carried out using CRM SS-455/1 as a solid standard for one-point calibration, applying LAMTRACE software for data reduction and quantification. The analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values in all cases, showing that the applicability of dried aerosol solutions is a good alternative calibration system for laser ablation sampling.

  1. Communications oriented programming of parallel iterative solutions of sparse linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, M. L.; Pratt, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Parallel algorithms are developed for a class of scientific computational problems by partitioning the problems into smaller problems which may be solved concurrently. The effectiveness of the resulting parallel solutions is determined by the amount and frequency of communication and synchronization and the extent to which communication can be overlapped with computation. Three different parallel algorithms for solving the same class of problems are presented, and their effectiveness is analyzed from this point of view. The algorithms are programmed using a new programming environment. Run-time statistics and experience obtained from the execution of these programs assist in measuring the effectiveness of these algorithms.

  2. Original analytic solution of a half-bridge modelled as a statically indeterminate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanta, Emil M.; Panait, Cornel; Raicu, Alexandra; Barhalescu, Mihaela

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an original computer based analytical model of a half-bridge belonging to a circular settling tank. The primary unknown is computed using the force method, the coefficients of the canonical equation being calculated using either the discretization of the bending moment diagram in trapezoids, or using the relations specific to the polygons. A second algorithm based on the method of initial parameters is also presented. Analyzing the new solution we came to the conclusion that most of the computer code developed for other model may be reused. The results are useful to evaluate the behavior of the structure and to compare with the results of the finite element models.

  3. Entire Blow-Up Solutions of Semilinear Elliptic Equations and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    solR r B r u v c d= > = . (4.24) Let ,c dR be given as , supc d solR R= . (4.25) Then , , lim ( ) lim ( ) c d c dr R r R u r v r...Proof. Take ( , )c d S∉ , 0c d≠ ≠ . By Lemma 4-3, solR ≠ ∅ , and since ( , )c d S∉ , ,c dR < ∞ . Let ( , )u v be a solution of (1.2) in ,(0

  4. Technical Challenges in Current Primo Vascular System Research and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung A; Maldonado, Claudio; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2016-12-01

    Since Bonghan Kim's discovery of the Bonghan system (BHS) in the 1960s, numerous reports have suggested that the system is fundamental for maintaining mammalian life. The BHS is a circulatory system independent of the blood or the lymphatic system, forms an extensive network throughout the entire mammalian body, has been reported to be the acupuncture meridian, stores distinct types of stem cells, and appears to have some roles in cancer metastasis. Despite Kim's first report having been published as early as 1962, research progress has been rather slow mainly because the system is very small and translucent, making it optically difficult to distinguish it from the hemoglobin-rich surrounding tissues. Unfortunately, Kim did not describe in detail the methods that he used for identifying and harvesting the system and the components of the system. In 2000, Kwang-Sup Soh reopened the BHS research, and since then, new and important scientific findings on the system have been reported, and many of Kim's results have been verified. In 2010, the BHS was renamed the primo vascular system. Nevertheless, good tools to properly deal with this system are still lacking. In this article, we address some of the technical difficulties involved in studying the primo vascular system and attempt to discuss potential ways to overcome those difficulties.

  5. Dielectric analysis of the upper critical solution temperature behaviour of a poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) copolymer system in water.

    PubMed

    Asadujjaman, Asad; Bertin, Annabelle; Schönhals, Andreas

    2017-03-15

    A copolymer consisting of acrylamide (AAm) and acrylonitrile (AN) in aqueous solution was investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy at frequencies between 10(-1) Hz and 10(6) Hz in the temperature range from 2 °C to 60 °C. This system shows an UCST phase behavior. The phase transition and aggregation behavior is monitored by both the temperature and frequency dependence of the complex conductivity σ*(f, T), where the AN fraction and the concentration of the solution were varied. Additionally, the dielectric data are compared with the results obtained from dynamic light scattering measurements. The temperature dependence of the DC conductivity (σDC) of the copolymer solution is monitored and the phase transition temperature (PTT) of the poly(AAm-co-AN) copolymer is deduced from a change in the T-dependence of the DC conductivity. The change in σDC can be explained by decreased effective charge carrier mobility and a reduction of the effective charge number density at temperatures below the phase transition temperature of the poly(AAm-co-AN) solution. A pronounced interfacial polarization effect on the frequency dependence of the real part of the conductivity (σ') is observed at temperatures below the phase transition temperature. The charge carriers are blocked at the formed aggregates giving rise to this interfacial polarization. The dependence of the interfacial polarization on the acrylonitrile fraction in the copolymer and the concentration of the solution is studied in detail and conclusions concerning the internal structures of the copolymer aggregates are drawn.

  6. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-08

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR.

  7. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental, closed-loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFX) is designed to be flight tested in a micro-gravity (micro-g) environment and was developed under NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP). When flown, PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of micro-g fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of nutrient solution in a micro-g environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  8. The Core Flight System (cFS) Community: Providing Low Cost Solutions for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; Wilmot, Jonathan; Cudmore, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In February 2015 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) completed the open source release of the entire Core Flight Software (cFS) suite. After the open source release a multi-NASA center Configuration Control Board (CCB) was established that has managed multiple cFS product releases. The cFS was developed and is being maintained in compliance with the NASA Class B software development process requirements and the open source release includes all Class B artifacts. The cFS is currently running on three operational science spacecraft and is being used on multiple spacecraft and instrument development efforts. While the cFS itself is a viable flight software (FSW) solution, we have discovered that the cFS community is a continuous source of innovation and growth that provides products and tools that serve the entire FSW lifecycle and future mission needs. This paper summarizes the current state of the cFS community, the key FSW technologies being pursued, the development/verification tools and opportunities for the small satellite community to become engaged. The cFS is a proven high quality and cost-effective solution for small satellites with constrained budgets.

  9. Development anmd testing of electrophoresis solutions. Task I.1: Development of optimal buffer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Two buffers were explored for testing: low ionic strength electrophoresis buffer with and without density gradient material. It was found that the electrophoresis routine was better tolerated when Ficoll was present. The results of a viability study of primary human fetal kidney (HFK-1) cells at the first passage are shown. Cell strain HFK-1 was used in several experiments at the first and second passage. The HFK consisted mainly of fibroblasts, and HFK-1 has a high epithelioid cell content. The chromosomes of HFK were examined and found to be euploid. The stock medium for cell electrophoresis is described. In this solution density gradient solutes such as sucrose and Ficoll are dissolved to bring the osmolarity to 0.30. Its ionic strength is less than 0.01M, and its conductivity is usually 0.0011 mho/cm. Methods for viability determination included direct microscopic counting of the percent cells attached and spread within 24 hr of plating test cultures or electrophoretically separated fractions. The Cytograf viability assay concept was tested, and shown that blue stained cells scatter less light into the 0.8 to 3.3 deg angular interval than do unstained cells.

  10. Quantification of stomatal uptake of ionic solutes using a new model system.

    PubMed

    Eichert, T; Burkhardt, J

    2001-04-01

    Evidence for stomatal uptake of solutes by leaves without the application of surfactants or pressure has recently been provided (Eichert et al., 1998). In the present study, experimental conditions were refined in that the water potential was held at <0 on the physiologically inner side of the epidermal strips (ES) by use of a ceramic plate or the proper mesophyll of the plant. The penetrated substances were immobilized on the inner side by ion exchange membranes. The influence of humidity, light, stomatal density, and re-wetting on the uptake of anions (fluorescein) and cations (Fe(3+)) was investigated, using leaves of Allium porrum, Commelina communis and Sedum telephium. Uptake increased with humidity, stomatal aperture and stomatal density. It was restricted to stomatal areas, and was especially high below the rims of drying droplets. Again, penetration of stomatal pores was observed. Uptake was strongly correlated with the number of penetrated stomata, although usually less than 10% of the stomata contributed to uptake. The number of stomata that had been penetrated was highly variable, increasing extremely significantly with the number of repeated drying/ wetting cycles. These results indicate that stomatal uptake can be a major pathway for the foliar uptake of ionic solutes. It is a dynamic process, depending on environmental conditions and history of the residues on the leaf, aspects that had been neglected in previous concepts.

  11. Probing systems in solution by NMR using sulfur hexafluoride as a spy molecule.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Luca; Locci, Emanuela; Lai, Adolfo; Luhmer, Michel

    2009-05-28

    The use of SF6 as a spy molecule in solution-state NMR is investigated as an alternative to 129Xe NMR. 19F chemical shift, longitudinal relaxation time, and integral measurements, as well as intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects, are reported for SF6 dissolved in simple deuterated solvents and/or in various solutions among which are aqueous solutions of cucurbit[6]uril (CB) and alpha-cyclodextrin (alphaCD). Both CB and alphaCD form a 1:1 inclusion complex with SF6. In a 0.2 M D2SO4-D2O solution, the affinity of CB for SF6 is 2.9x10(5) L mol(-1) at 298 K; it is the largest value ever found for the inclusion of a neutral guest into the CB cavity. It is one order of magnitude larger than in a 0.2 M Na2SO4-D2O solution, and the role of the cation is evidenced. In D2O, the affinity of alphaCD for SF6 is about 25 L mol(-1). With CB, the kinetics is slow on both the 1H and 19F chemical shift time scales, while with alphaCD fast exchange is observed. The 19F chemical shift of SF6 is much less sensitive to medium effects than the chemical shift of 129Xe. This might be a limitation if minute structural changes are to be investigated but, in the present study, turned out to be an advantage for determining the affinity of alphaCD for SF6. With CB, the 19F chemical shift of included SF6 is found to be sensitive to the nature of the cation bound at the portals. The 19F relaxation time of SF6 dissolved in deuterated solvents is dominated by the spin-rotation mechanism and is orders of magnitude shorter that the 129Xe relaxation time. It is found to be rather sensitive to the environment and was used to determine the affinity of alphaCD for SF6. The detection limit of SF6 by 19F NMR is lower than the NMR detection limit of thermally polarized 129Xe by more than three orders of magnitude. It lies in the micromolar range, and SF6 concentrations of the order of 10 microM were determined by 19F NMR signal integral measurements and used to quantify the affinity of CB for SF6

  12. Single cell performance studies on the FE/CR Redox Energy Storage System using mixed reactant solutions at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Ling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental studies in a 14.5 sq cm single cell system using mixed reactant solutions at 65 C are described. Systems were tested under isothermal conditions, i.e., reactants and the cell were at the same temperature. Charging and discharging performance were evaluated by measuring watt-hour and coulombic efficiencies, voltage-current relationships, hydrogen evolution and membrane resistivity. Watt-hour efficiencies ranged from 86 percent at 43 ma/sq cm to 75 percent at 129 ma/sq cm with corresponding coulombic efficiencies of 92 percent and 97 percent, respectively. Hydrogen evolution was less than 1 percent of the charge coulumbic capacity during charge-discharge cycling. Bismuth amd bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes maintained reversible performance and low hydrogen evolution under normal and adverse cycling conditions. Reblending of the anode and cathode solutions was successfully demonstrated to compensate for osmotic volume changes. Improved performance was obtained with mixed reactant systems in comparison to the unmixed reactant systems. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25042

  13. Perfect fluidity of a dissipative system: Analytical solution for the Boltzmann equation in AdS2 Ⓧ S2

    DOE PAGES

    Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2015-12-30

    In this paper we obtain an analytical solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation under the relaxation time approximation that describes the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a radially expanding massless gas. This solution is found by mapping this expanding system in flat spacetime to a static flow in the curved spacetime AdS2 Ⓧ S2. We further derive explicit analytic expressions for the momentum dependence of the single-particle distribution function as well as for the spatial dependence of its moments. We find that this dissipative system has the ability to flow as a perfect fluid even though its entropy density does not matchmore » the equilibrium form. The nonequilibrium contribution to the entropy density is shown to be due to higher-order scalar moments (which possess no hydrodynamical interpretation) of the Boltzmann equation that can remain out of equilibrium but do not couple to the energy-momentum tensor of the system. Furthermore, in this system the slowly moving hydrodynamic degrees of freedom can exhibit true perfect fluidity while being totally decoupled from the fast moving, nonhydrodynamical microscopic degrees of freedom that lead to entropy production.« less

  14. Study of the dose response of the system ferrous ammonium sulfate-sucrose-xylenol orange in acid aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J. M.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2014-11-01

    An aqueous solution of ammonium ferrous sulfate-sucrose-xylenol orange in sulfuric acid (FSX) is proposed as a dosimetric system for the processes of gamma irradiation in a range between 0.3 and 6 Gy. This system is based on the indirect oxidation of ferrous ion by an organic compound (sucrose) to ferric ion and on the formation of a color complex of Fe3+ in an acidic medium with xylenol orange (a dye). After gamma radiation, an observable change occurs in the color of the system. Irradiation was executed at three different temperatures (13 °C, 22 °C, and 40 °C). A spectrometric readout method at 585 nm was employed to evaluate the system's dose response. In all of the cases analyzed, the responses had a linear behavior, and a slight effect of irradiation temperature was observed. Post-irradiation response was also evaluated and showed the stability of the solutions 24 h after the irradiation. The results obtained suggest that FSX might be used as a dosimeter for low doses of gamma irradiation because it provides a stable signal, good reproducibility, and an accessible technique for analysis.

  15. A Multi-Fluid Compressible System as the Limit of Weak Solutions of the Isentropic Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresch, D.; Huang, X.

    2011-08-01

    This paper mainly concerns the mathematical justification of a viscous compressible multi-fluid model linked to the Baer-Nunziato model used by engineers, see for instance I shii (Thermo-fluid dynamic theory of two-phase flow, Eyrolles, Paris, 1975), under a "stratification" assumption. More precisely, we show that some approximate finite-energy weak solutions of the isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations converge, on a short time interval, to the strong solution of this viscous compressible multi-fluid model, provided the initial density sequence is uniformly bounded with corresponding Young measures which are linear convex combinations of m Dirac measures. To the authors' knowledge, this provides, in the multidimensional in space case, a first positive answer to an open question, see H illairet (J Math Fluid Mech 9:343-376, 2007), with a stratification assumption. The proof is based on the weak solutions constructed by D esjardins (Commun Partial Differ Equ 22(5-6):977-1008, 1997) and on the existence and uniqueness of a local strong solution for the multi-fluid model established by H illairet assuming initial density to be far from vacuum. In a first step, adapting the ideas from H off and S antos (Arch Ration Mech Anal 188:509-543, 2008), we prove that the sequence of weak solutions built by D esjardins has extra regularity linked to the divergence of the velocity without any relation assumption between λ and μ. Coupled with the uniform bound of the density property, this allows us to use appropriate defect measures and their nice properties introduced and proved by H illairet (Aspects interactifs de la m'ecanique des fluides, PhD Thesis, ENS Lyon, 2005) in order to prove that the Young measure associated to the weak limit is the convex combination of m Dirac measures. Finally, under a non-degeneracy assumption of this combination ("stratification" assumption), this provides a multi-fluid system. Using a weak-strong uniqueness argument, we prove that

  16. The effect of stocking rate on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath a free-draining dairy production system in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J; Delaby, L; Hennessy, D; McCarthy, B; Ryan, W; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2015-06-01

    Economically viable and productive farming systems are required to meet the growing worldwide need for agricultural produce while at the same time reducing environmental impact. Within grazing systems of animal production, increasing concern exists as to the effect of intensive farming on potential N losses to ground and surface waters, which demands an appraisal of N flows within complete grass-based dairy farming systems. A 3-yr (2011 to 2013) whole-farm system study was conducted on a free-draining soil type that is highly susceptible to N loss under temperate maritime conditions. Soil solution concentrations of N from 3 spring-calving, grass-based systems designed to represent 3 alternative whole-farm stocking rate (SR) treatments in a post-milk quota situation in the European Union were compared: low (2.51 cows/ha), medium (2.92 cows/ha), and high SR (3.28 cows/ha). Each SR had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and 23 cows. Nitrogen loss from each treatment was measured using ceramic cups installed to a depth of 1m to sample the soil water. The annual and monthly average nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and total N concentrations in soil solution collected were analyzed for each year using a repeated measures analysis. Subsequently, and based on the biological data collated from each farm system treatment within each year, the efficiency of N use was evaluated using an N balance model. Based on similar N inputs, increasing SR resulted in increased grazing efficiency and milk production per hectare. Stocking rate had no significant effect on soil solution concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, or total N (26.0, 0.2, 2.4, and 32.3 mg/L, respectively). An N balance model evaluation of each treatment incorporating input and output data indicated that the increased grass utilization and milk production per hectare at higher SR resulted in a reduction in N surplus and increased N use efficiency. The results highlight the possibility for the sustainable

  17. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Code structure, system models, and solution methods. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents, and operational transients, such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling, approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I provides modeling theory and associated numerical schemes.

  18. Security threats and solutions in distributed, interoperable health information systems using middleware.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly, distributed, interoperable healthcare information systems, which meet the shared care paradigm, work across the boundaries of policy, organisational, and technological domains and are based on middleware concepts. Especially in healthcare with its sensitive personal and medical data, such systems require advanced data security measures. In the paper, a common object-oriented security model for middleware systems and advertisements for implementation are proposed, corresponding the security requirement of both the user and the application environment.

  19. Stationary distribution and periodic solutions for stochastic Holling-Leslie predator-prey systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Daqing; Zuo, Wenjie; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    The stochastic autonomous and periodic predator-prey systems with Holling and Leslie type functional response are investigated. For the autonomous system, we prove that there exists a unique stationary distribution, which is ergodic by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function under relatively small white noise. The result shows that, stationary distribution doesn't rely on the existence and the stability of the positive equilibrium in the undisturbed system. Furthermore, for the corresponding non-autonomous system, we show that there exists a positive periodic Markov process under relatively weaker condition. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate our theoretical results.

  20. The aerial relay system: An energy-efficient solution to the airport congestion problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyser, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to transfer airline passengers between aircraft in flight, if adequately developed and integrated into the national air transportation system, could provide significant improvements in transportation-system performance, in terms of airport congestion, fuel consumption, and passenger service. The proposed Aerial Relay System concept, which was developed as a means of exploiting inflight transfer, makes use of large 'cruise liner' aircraft which fly continuously along their routes, docking periodically with short-haul feeder aircraft for exchange of payloads. Preliminary vehicle designs for a representative system are described and the operational feasibility of the concept for the United States in the 1990's is discussed.