Science.gov

Sample records for distribution des biopsies

  1. Apport de la biopsie radioguidée dans le diagnostic histopathologique des tumeurs de l'enfant: expérience de l'Hôpital d'Enfant de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    El Ochi, Mohamed Réda; Bellarbi, Salma; Rouas, Lamiae; Lamalmi, Najat; Malihy, Abderrahmane; Alhamany, Zaitouna; Cherradi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    La biopsie radioguidée constitue une alternative à la biopsie chirurgicale invasive et à la cytologie pour le diagnostic des tumeurs pédiatriques. L'intérêt de notre étude est d’évaluer la valeur diagnostique des biopsies radioguidées examinées au laboratoire d'anatomopathologie de l'hôpital d'Enfants de Rabat (HER). L’étude a porté sur 78 biopsies radioguidées recueillies dans notre laboratoire entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2011. l’âge moyen des patients était de 5 ans et 10 mois avec une prédominance masculine (65,4%). La tumeur était abdominale dans 80% des cas, thoracique dans 15% cas, thoracique et abdominale dans 2,5% et sacrée dans 1,2%. Les biopsies étaient écho-guidées dans 90% des cas et scannoguidées dans 10% des cas. Le diagnostic histopathologique était posé dans 89% des cas. L'immuno-histochimie a été indiquée dans 35% des cas. Les diagnostics les plus fréquents étaient: tumeurs neuroblastiques (42 cas), lymphomes non hodgkiniens (10 cas), rhabdomyosarcomes (6 cas), autres (sarcome d'Ewing, néphroblastomes, tumeur myofibroblastique inflammatoire, maladies de Hodgkin, leucémie aiguë, hépatoblastome et ostéosarcome). Dans notre série, la biopsie radioguidée a permis un diagnostic histopathologique certain dans 89% des cas. Elle nécessite une étroite collaboration entre clinicien, radiologue et anatomopathologiste pour discuter son indication, afin de diminuer le nombre de biopsies peu ou non représentatives. PMID:26587165

  2. Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Biopsie des Melanoms mittels Indocyaningrün und "FOVIS"-System.

    PubMed

    Göppner, Daniela; Nekwasil, Stephan; Jellestad, Anne; Sachse, Alexander; Schönborn, Karl-Heinz; Gollnick, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Der Nachweis metastatischer Infiltrate im Sentinel-Lymphkoten (SLN) gilt als wesentlicher prognostischer Faktor des Melanoms. Alternativ zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau zum Goldstandard der SLN-Biopsie (SLNB) mittels Radiokolloid wird die fluoreszenzoptische Darstellung mit Hilfe von Indocyaningrün (ICG) und Nahinfrarot (NIR)-Kamerasystem kommuniziert. Im Vergleich zur konventionellen Methode wurde die Wertigkeit des ICG-/NIR-Verfahrens in Abhängigkeit vom Body-Mass-Index (BMI) des Patienten und der Konzentration von ICG bezüglich der Visualisierung des Lymphabstroms und des SLNs untersucht. An zehn Patienten wurde die SLNB mittels Technetium-99m, Patentblau und ICG durchgeführt. Die Fluoreszenz-Darstellung von Lymphbahnen und SLN erfolgte in Echtzeit mittels der NIR-Kameratechnik "FOVIS". Je nach erzielter Bildqualität wurde ICG in einer Dosis von 0,25 mg bis 2,5 mg intrakutan appliziert. Neun der zehn SLN wurden fluoreszenzoptisch identifiziert (90 %), alle zehn radioaktiv (100 %), nur acht (80 %) mittels ICG-Grünfärbung bzw. Patenblau-Markierung. Transdermal wurde ein SLN dargestellt (10 %). In Korrelation zum BMI waren höhere ICG-Mengen, bis zu 2,5 mg intrakutan absolut, in der Darstellung der Lymphbahnen von Vorteil. Die SLN-Fluoreszenzmarkierung mit dem ICG/NIR-Kamera-System "FOVIS" stellt eine sichere Alternative zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau ergänzend zur Radiokolloidmethode mit Technetium-99m dar. Weitere Studien zur optimalen Dosierung von ICG und transdermalen Bildgebung in Relation zum BMI sind notwendig. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Image fusion: use in the control of the distribution of prostatic biopsies].

    PubMed

    Mozer, Pierre; Baumann, Michaël; Chevreau, Grégoire; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-02-01

    Prostate biopsies are performed under 2D TransRectal UltraSound (US) guidance by sampling the prostate according to a predefined pattern. Modern image processing tools allow better control of biopsy distribution. We evaluated the accuracy of a single operator performing a pattern of 12 ultrasound-guided biopsies by registering 3D ultrasound control images acquired after each biopsy. For each patient, prostate image alignment was performed automatically with a voxel-based registration algorithm allowing visualization of each biopsy trajectory in a single ultrasound reference volume. On average, the operator reached the target in 60% of all cases. This study shows that it is difficult to accurately reach targets in the prostate using 2D ultrasound. In the near future, real-time fusion of MRI and US images will allow selection of a target in previously acquired MR images and biopsy of this target by US guidance.

  4. Ponction biopsies rénales dans le Service de Néphrologie de Fès: indications et résultats: à propos de 522 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mbarki, Houda; Belghiti, Khadija Alaoui; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Najdi, Adil; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    L'apport de la ponction biopsie rénale (PBR) dans le diagnostic, le choix thérapeutique et l’évaluation pronostique des néphropathies est considérable. Aucune étude marocaine n'a évalué la pratique et l'apport de la PBR. Notre objectif est d’étudier les indications de la PBR, déterminer la fréquence des maladies rénales identifiées par PBR dans notre région et de faire une confrontation entre les données clinico-biologiques et le diagnostic historique. Notre étude menée entre Janvier 2009 et Décembre 2012, est rétrospective. Nous avons inclus tous les patients du service de Néphrologie du CHU Hassan II de Fès ayant bénéficié d'une biopsie de reins natifs. 522 PBR ont été réalisées. Nous avons exclu 8 biopsies devant le manque de renseignements et avons donc retenu 514. L’âge moyen des patients au moment de la PBR est de 39 ±17 ans (3-82 ans). Le sex ratio est de 0,9. Le syndrome néphrotique est le diagnostic clinique le plus fréquent à tous les âges (58,2%). Les néphropathies glomérulaires représentent 94,2% des maladies rénales diagnostiquées, leur distribution varie selon l’âge des patients. La PBR a confirmé le premier diagnostic suspecté cliniquement dans 40,65% des cas, alors qu'elle a révélé un diagnostic inattendu chez 22,5% d'entre eux. Le diagnostic syndromique permet d'orienter vers la maladie rénale la plus probable et de guider les thérapeutiques urgentes en attendant les résultats de la PBR. Mais il ne peut en aucun remplacer la PBR qui reste le gold standard. PMID:27583085

  5. Etiologies des pleurésies exsudatives: à propos de 424 cas à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoson, Joëlson Lovaniaina; Andrianasolo, Radonirina Lazasoa; Rakotomizao, Robert Jocelyn; Vololontiana, Marie Danielle Hanta; Ravahatra, Kiady; Rajaoarifetra, Jobeline; Andrianarisoa, Christophe Félix Ange

    2011-01-01

    Introduction La pleurésie constitue un motif fréquent de consultation en pneumologie. Notre travail a pour objectif de déterminer les étiologies des pleurésies exsudatives afin d'en faciliter les démarches étiologiques. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée chez des patients ayant une pleurésie exsudative et bénéficiant une biopsie pleurale à l'aveugle à l'aide de l'aiguille de Castelain, pendant une période de 5 ans (2005 à 2009). Résultats Parmi les 424 patients inclus, 259 hommes (61,08%) et 165 femmes (38,91%) étaient individualisés. Les pleurésies étaient d'origine tuberculeuse dans 298 cas (70, 28%), métastatique dans 63 cas (14,85%), inflammation non spécifique dans 51 cas (12,02%). Des fibres musculaires striées étaient biopsiées dans 12 cas (2,83%). Conclusion La biopsie pleurale occupe une place prépondérante dans la recherche étiologique des pleurésies d'exsudatives à Madagascar où la tuberculose sévit encore en mode endémique. PMID:22145067

  6. Liquid Biopsy zur Überwachung von Melanompatienten.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Maria Rita; von Bubnoff, Nikolas; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Utikal, Jochen Sven

    2018-04-01

    In den letzten sechs Jahren wurden verschiedene innovative systemische Therapien zur Behandlung des metastasierten malignen Melanoms (MM) entwickelt. Die konventionelle Chemotherapie wurde durch neuartige Primärtherapien abgelöst, darunter systemische Immuntherapien (Anti-CTLA4- und Anti-PD1-Antikörper; Zulassung von Anti-PDL1-Antikörpern erwartet) und Therapien, die gegen bestimmte Mutationen gerichtet sind (BRAF, NRAS und c-KIT). Daher stehen die behandelnden Ärzte neuen Herausforderungen gegenüber, beispielsweise der Stratifizierung von Patienten für geeignete Behandlungen und der Überwachung von Langzeit-Respondern auf Progression. Folglich werden zuverlässige Methoden zur Überwachung von Krankheitsprogression oder Behandlungsresistenz benötigt. Lokalisierte und fortgeschrittene Krebserkrankungen können zur Bildung zirkulierender Tumorzellen und Tumor-DNA (ctDNA) führen, die sich in Proben von peripherem Blut nachweisen und quantifizieren lassen (Liquid Biopsy). Im Fall von Melanompatienten können die Ergebnisse von Liquid Biopsy als neuartige prädiktive Biomarker bei therapeutischen Entscheidungen hilfreich sein, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit mutationsbasierten zielgerichteten Therapien. Die Herausforderungen bei der Anwendung der Liquid Biopsy beinhalten strikte Kriterien für den Phänotyp der zirkulierenden MM-Zellen oder ihrer Fragmente und die Instabilität von ctDNA im Blut. In diesem Übersichtsartikel diskutieren wir die Beschränkungen der Liquid Biopsy hinsichtlich ihrer Anwendung in der Routinediagnostik. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Determination des Parametres Atmospheriques des Etoiles Naines Blanches de Type DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Alain

    1995-01-01

    Les etoiles naines blanches dont les spectres visibles sont domines par des raies fortes d'helium neutre sont subdivisees en trois classes, DB (raies d'helium neutre seulement), DBA (raies d'helium neutre et d'hydrogene) et DBZ (raies d'helium neutre et d'elements lourds). Nous analysons trois echantillons de spectres observes de ces types de naines blanches. Les echantillons consistent, respectivement, de 48 spectres dans le domaine du visible (3700-5100 A). 24 dans l'ultraviolet (1200-3100 A) et quatre dans la partie rouge du visible (5100-6900) A). Parmi les objets de l'echantillon visible, nous identifions quatre nouvelles DBA, ainsi que deux nouvelles DBZ, auparavant classees DB. L'analyse nous permet de determiner spectroscopiquement les parametres atmospheriques, soit la temperature effective, la gravite de surface, ainsi que l'abondance relative de l'hydrogene, N(H)/N(He), dans le cas des DBA. Pour les objets plus chauds que ~15,000 K, la gravite de surface determinee est fiable, et nous obtenons les masses stellaires avec une relation masse -rayon theorique. Les exigences propres a l'analyse de ces objets ont requis d'importantes ameliorations dans la modelisation de leurs atmospheres et distributions de flux de radiation emis par ces derniers. Nous avons inclus dans les modeles d'atmospheres, pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance, les effets dus a la molecule He_sp{2 }{+}, ainsi que l'equation d'etat de Hummer et Mihalas (1988), qui tient compte des perturbations entre particules dans le calcul des populations des differents niveaux atomiques. Nous traitons la convection dans le cadre de la theorie de la longueur de melange. Trois grilles de modeles d'atmospheres a l'ETL (equilibre thermodynamique local) ont ete produites, pour un ensemble de temperatures effectives, gravites de surface et abondances d'hydrogene couvrant les proprietes des etoiles de nos echantillons; elles sont caracterisees par differentes parametrisations appelees, respectivement

  8. Cartographie des disques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Two techniques are frequently used to produce images of the accretion disc in an eclipsing binary: eclipse mapping and Doppler tomography. From the light curve, one can deduce the radial distribution of the effective temperature, assuming axial symmetry. On the other hand, from the variation of the line profile one can reconstruct an image in the velocity space, which can be converted into a real image if one knows the kinematics of the system. Deux techniques sont couramment utilisées pour obtenir des images des disques dans les systèmes binaires à éclipses. En utilisant la courbe de lumière, on peut remonter à la distribution radiale de la brillance de surface, en supposant que celle-ci a une symètrie axiale. D'autre part, les profils de raies renseignent sur la distribution de vitesse des régions émissives leur variation temporelle permet de réaliser une image dans l'espace des vitesses, que l'on peut ensuite transformer en carte dans l'espace (x,y) si on connaît la cinématique du système.

  9. MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy allows for equivalent cancer detection with significantly fewer needle cores in biopsy-naive men

    PubMed Central

    Yarlagadda, Vidhush K.; Lai, Win Shun; Gordetsky, Jennifer B.; Porter, Kristin K.; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Thomas, John V.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the efficiency and cancer detection of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasonography (US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy in a cohort of biopsy-naive men compared with standard-of-care systematic extended sextant transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy. METHODS From 2014 to 2016, 72 biopsy-naive men referred for initial prostate cancer evaluation who underwent MRI of the prostate were prospectively evaluated. Retrospective review was performed on 69 patients with lesions suspicious for malignancy who underwent MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy in addition to systematic extended sextant biopsy. Biometric, imaging, and pathology data from both the MRI-targeted biopsies and systematic biopsies were analyzed and compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in overall prostate cancer detection when comparing MRI-targeted biopsies to standard systematic biopsies (P = 0.39). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the distribution of severity of cancers based on grade groups in cases with cancer detection (P = 0.68). However, significantly fewer needle cores were taken during the MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy compared with systematic biopsy (63% less cores sampled, P < 0.001) CONCLUSION In biopsy-naive men, MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy offers equal prostate cancer detection compared with systematic TRUS-guided biopsy with significantly fewer tissue cores using the targeted technique. This approach can potentially reduce morbidity in the future if used instead of systematic biopsy without sacrificing the ability to detect prostate cancer, particularly in cases with higher grade disease. PMID:29770762

  10. Rectal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Amyloidosis - rectal biopsy; Crohn disease - rectal biopsy; Colorectal cancer - biopsy; Hirschsprung disease - rectal biopsy ... abnormal conditions of the rectum, such as: Abscesses Colorectal ... Inflammation Tumors Amyloidosis Crohn disease Hirschsprung ...

  11. Bone Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  12. Needle Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... needle biopsy procedures include fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy. Needle biopsy may be used to ... hollow needle to draw cells from your body. Core needle biopsy. This type of needle biopsy uses ...

  13. Cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... grade cone biopsy; High-grade cone biopsy; Carcinoma in situ-cone biopsy; CIS - cone biopsy; ASCUS - cone biopsy; ... marked dysplasia CIN III -- severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ Abnormal results may also be due to cervical ...

  14. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  15. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  16. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Kidney Biopsy What is a kidney biopsy? A kidney biopsy is a procedure that ... performs procedures using imaging equipment Why is a kidney biopsy performed? A health care provider will perform ...

  17. Prospective randomized trial comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided in-bore biopsy to MRI-ultrasound fusion and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in patients with prior negative biopsies.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Blondin, Dirk; Quentin, Michael; Hiester, Andreas; Godehardt, Erhard; Gabbert, Helmut E; Becker, Nikolaus; Antoch, Gerald; Albers, Peter; Schimmöller, Lars

    2015-10-01

    A significant proportion of prostate cancers (PCas) are missed by conventional transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB). It remains unclear whether the combined approach using targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy (FUS-GB) and systematic TRUS-GB is superior to targeted MRI-guided in-bore biopsy (IB-GB) for PCa detection. To compare PCa detection between IB-GB alone and FUS-GB + TRUS-GB in patients with at least one negative TRUS-GB and prostate-specific antigen ≥4 ng/ml. Patients were prospectively randomized after multiparametric prostate MRI to IB-GB (arm A) or FUS-GB + TRUS-GB (arm B) from November 2011 to July 2014. The study was powered at 80% to demonstrate an overall PCa detection rate of ≥60% in arm B compared to 40% in arm A. Secondary endpoints were the distribution of highest Gleason scores, the rate of detection of significant PCa (Gleason ≥7), the number of biopsy cores to detect one (significant) PCa, the positivity rate for biopsy cores, and tumor involvement per biopsy core. The study was halted after interim analysis because the primary endpoint was not met. The trial enrolled 267 patients, of whom 210 were analyzed (106 randomized to arm A and 104 to arm B). PCa detection was 37% in arm A and 39% in arm B (95% confidence interval for difference, -16% to 11%; p=0.7). Detection rates for significant PCa (29% vs 32%; p=0.7) and the highest percentage tumor involvement per biopsy core (48% vs 42%; p=0.4) were similar between the arms. The mean number of cores was 5.6 versus 17 (p<0.001). A limitation is the limited number of patients because of early cessation of accrual. This trial failed to identify an important improvement in detection rate for the combined biopsy approach over MRI-targeted biopsy alone. A prospective comparison between MRI-targeted biopsy alone and systematic TRUS-GB is justified. Our randomized study showed similar prostate cancer detection rates between targeted prostate biopsy

  18. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy - skin; Skin cancer - biopsy; Melanoma - biopsy; Squamous cell cancer - biopsy; Basal cell cancer - biopsy; Mohs microsurgery ... dermatitis Infection from bacteria or fungus Melanoma Basal cell skin cancer Squamous cell skin cancer

  19. [Real-time three-dimensional (4D) ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsies on a phantom. Comparative study versus 2D guidance].

    PubMed

    Long, Jean-Alexandre; Daanen, Vincent; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Rambeaud, Jean-Jacques; Descotes, Jean-Luc

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the added value of real-time three-dimensional (4D) ultrasound guidance of prostatic biopsies on a prostate phantom in terms of the precision of guidance and distribution. A prostate phantom was constructed. A real-time 3D ultrasonograph connected to a transrectal 5.9 MHz volumic transducer was used. Fourteen operators performed 336 biopsies with 2D guidance then 4D guidance according to a 12-biopsy protocol. Biopsy tracts were modelled by segmentation in a 3D ultrasound volume. Specific software allowed visualization of biopsy tracts in the reference prostate and evaluated the zone biopsied. A comparative study was performed to determine the added value of 4D guidance compared to 2D guidance by evaluating the precision of entry points and target points. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the volume investigated and by a redundancy ratio of the biopsy points. The precision of the biopsy protocol was significantly improved by 4D guidance (p = 0.037). No increase of the biopsy volume and no improvement of the distribution of biopsies were observed with 4D compared to 2D guidance. The real-time 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy technique on a phantom model appears to improve the precision and reproducibility of a biopsy protocol, but the distribution of biopsies does not appear to be improved.

  20. Endometrial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Biopsy - endometrium Images Pelvic laparoscopy Female reproductive anatomy Endometrial biopsy Uterus Endometrial biopsy References Beard JM, Osborn J. Common office procedures. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  1. Quand la biopsie cutanée peut étiqueter une épilepsie

    PubMed Central

    Harmouch, Taoufiq; Gallouj, Salim; Znati, Kaoutar; Sennou, Aicha Slassi; Belahcen, Faouzi; Amarti, Afaf

    2011-01-01

    La maladie de Lafora (ML) représente une forme rare et grave d’épilepsie myoclonique progressive. C'est une affection à transmission autosomique récessive, hétérogène sur le plan génétique. Nous rapportons le cas d'une adolescente de 16 ans, issue de parents consanguins de premier degré, qui présente depuis l’âge de 14 ans des crises d’épilepsie et des myoclonies. L'examen neurologique a montré un syndrome cérébelleux et une détérioration intellectuelle. La biopsie cutanée était indispensable pour orienter le diagnostic. La ML a un pronostic constamment fatal. L’étude histologique confirme le diagnostic et l’étude moléculaire peut aider à établir un conseil génétique. PMID:22187608

  2. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin Biopsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Skin Biopsy What's in ... en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a ...

  3. Distribution of Biopsy-Proven Presumed Primary Glomerulonephropathies in 2000-2011 Among a Racially and Ethnically Diverse US Population.

    PubMed

    Sim, John J; Batech, Michael; Hever, Aviv; Harrison, Teresa N; Avelar, Taurino; Kanter, Michael H; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies vary throughout the world and by race and ethnicity. We sought to evaluate the distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies among a large racially and ethnically diverse population of the United States. Case series from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2011. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) of an integrated health system who underwent native kidney biopsy and had kidney biopsy findings demonstrating focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), minimal change disease (MCD), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and other. Rates and characteristics of the most common primary glomerulonephropathies overall and by race and ethnicity. 2,501 patients with primary glomerulonephropathy were identified, with a mean age 50.6 years, 45.7% women, 36.1% Hispanics, 31.2% non-Hispanic whites, 17.4% blacks, and 12.4% Asians. FSGS was the most common glomerulonephropathy (38.9%) across all race and ethnic groups, followed by MGN (12.7%), MCD (11.0%), IgAN (10.2%), and other (27.3%). The FSGS category had the greatest proportion of blacks, and patients with FSGS had the highest rate of poverty. IgAN was the second most common glomerulonephropathy among Asians (28.6%), whereas it was 1.2% among blacks. Patients with MGN presented with the highest proteinuria (protein excretion, 8.3g) whereas patients with FSGS had the highest creatinine levels (2.6mg/dL). Overall glomerulonephropathy rates increased annually in our 12-year observation period, driven by FSGS (2.7 cases/100,000) and IgAN (0.7 cases/100,000). MGN and MCD rates remained flat. Missing data for urine albumin and sediment, indication bias in performing kidney biopsies, and inexact classification of primary versus secondary disease. Among a racially and ethnically diverse cohort from a single geographical area and similar environment, FSGS was the most common glomerulonephropathy, but there was variability of other

  4. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  5. Reliability of chronic allograft nephropathy diagnosis in sequential protocol biopsies.

    PubMed

    Serón, Daniel; Moreso, Francesc; Fulladosa, Xavier; Hueso, Miguel; Carrera, Marta; Grinyó, Josep M

    2002-02-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) progresses rapidly during the first few months and slowly thereafter. Although the presence of CAN in protocol renal biopsies is a predictor of outcome, the reliability of this diagnosis according to Banff criteria has not been characterized. Renal lesions were evaluated according to the Banff criteria in sequential protocol biopsies performed at 4 and 14 months in 310 biopsies obtained from 155 patients. CAN progressed from 40 to 53% (P=0.001) while serum creatinine remained stable (146 +/- 44 vs. 147 +/- 48 micromol/L, P=NS). Graft survival in patients with and without CAN in the first biopsy was 74 versus 91% (P < 0.05), and in the second biopsy 75 versus 94% (P < 0.05). In 54 patients (35%) no CAN was present in both biopsies, 39 (25%) showed progression to CAN, 19 (12%) showed regression of CAN, and 43 (28%) showed CAN in both biopsies. Graft survival was: 100%, 81.6%, 82.6% and 69.4%, respectively (P < 0.01). Assuming that CAN does not regress and sampling error is normally distributed, we estimated that 25% of biopsies cannot be properly classified. The increase in the incidence of CAN between the 4th and 14th month is lower than the proportion of misclassified biopsies. Thus, monitoring the progression of CAN by means of two sequential biopsies at 4 and 14 months is inaccurate. We suggest that progression of scarring be monitored by means of a donor and a protocol biopsy performed during the first year evaluated with a quantitative approach.

  6. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Calibration of redMaGiC Redshift Distributions in DES and SDSS from Cross-Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Cawthon, R.; et al.

    We present calibrations of the redshift distributions of redMaGiC galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 data. These results determine the priors of the redshift distribution of redMaGiC galaxies, which were used for galaxy clustering measurements and as lenses for galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements in DES Y1 cosmological analyses. We empirically determine the bias in redMaGiC photometric redshift estimates using angular cross-correlations with Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) galaxies. For DES, we calibrate a single parameter redshift bias in three photometric redshift bins:more » $$z \\in[0.15,0.3]$$, [0.3,0.45], and [0.45,0.6]. Our best fit results in each bin give photometric redshift biases of $$|\\Delta z|<0.01$$. To further test the redMaGiC algorithm, we apply our calibration procedure to SDSS redMaGiC galaxies, where the statistical precision of the cross-correlation measurement is much higher due to a greater overlap with BOSS galaxies. For SDSS, we also find best fit results of $$|\\Delta z|<0.01$$. We compare our results to other analyses of redMaGiC photometric redshifts.« less

  7. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  8. Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - brush - urinary tract; Retrograde ureteral brush biopsy cytology; Cytology - ureteral retrograde brush biopsy ... should not be performed in people with a: Urinary tract infection Blockage at or below the biopsy site ...

  9. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  10. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy Images Throat anatomy Oropharyngeal biopsy References Lee FE-H, Treanor JJ. Viral infections. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of the spine: results of 430 biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Rimondi, Eugenio; Errani, Costantino; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Casadei, Roberto; Alberghini, Marco; Malaguti, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Durante, Stefano; Mercuri, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Biopsies of lesions in the spine are often challenging procedures with significant risk of complications. CT-guided needle biopsies could lower these risks but uncertainties still exist about the diagnostic accuracy. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT-guided needle biopsies for bone lesions of the spine. We retrieved the results of 430 core needle biopsies carried out over the past fifteen years at the authors’ institute and examined the results obtained. Of the 430 biopsies performed, in 401 cases the right diagnosis was made with the first CT-guided needle biopsy (93.3% accuracy rate). Highest accuracy rates were obtained in primary and secondary malignant lesions. Most false negative results were found in cervical lesions and in benign, pseudotumoral, inflammatory, and systemic pathologies. There were only 9 complications (5 transient paresis, 4 haematomas that resolved spontaneously) that had no influence on the treatment strategy, nor on the patient’s outcome. In conclusion we can assert that this technique is reliable and safe and should be considered the gold standard in biopsies of the spine. PMID:18463900

  12. Bladder biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... than usual ( oliguria ). You cannot urinate despite a strong urge to do so. Alternative Names Biopsy - bladder Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Bladder biopsy ...

  13. CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy: a comparison between automated biopsy gun and fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, H; Nakajima, Y; Kurihara, Y; Niimi, H; Ishikawa, T

    1996-07-01

    We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic accuracy and complication rate of transthoracic core biopsy using an automated biopsy gun and compared the findings with those of aspiration needle biopsy. Seventy-three patients underwent 74 core biopsy procedures and 50 patients underwent 52 aspiration biopsy procedures. Of these, a final diagnosis was obtained in 107 lesions with surgery or clinical course. Fifteen patients in which a final diagnosis was not obtained were excluded from the study on diagnostic accuracy. Thus, in the study of diagnostic accuracy, 63 core biopsy procedures for 62 lesions are included. Core biopsy was performed with an 18 G cutting needle using an automated biopsy gun. Aspiration biopsy was performed with a 20 G aspiration needle. Core biopsy yielded sufficient material in 57/63 procedures (90.5%). A correct diagnosis was obtained in 36 procedures (85.7%) for malignant leisons and a specific benign diagnosis was obtained in 11 procedures (52.4%). Aspiration biopsy yielded a correct diagnosis in 26 procedures (81.3%) for malignant leisons and in seven (46.7%) for benign lesions. The overall correct diagnosis were 75.8% and 71.7% with core biopsy and aspiration biopsy, respectively. Core biopsy gave a higher predictive rate than that of aspiration biopsy for both benign and malignant lessons (P < 0.02). Pneumothorax occurred in 18/74 (24.3%) patients with core biopsy and in 18/45 (40.0%) patients with aspiration biopsy. Of these, three with core biopsy and two with aspiration biopsy needed tube drainage. The other complication was haemoptysis, which occurred in six patients following core biopsy and in three after aspiration biopsy. All nine cases subsided spontaneously. There were no fatal complications. Core biopsy with a biopsy gun increase the diagnostic accuracy with a higher histologic predictive rate and no obvious additional risk of complications.

  14. Multi-institutional Evaluation of Upper Urinary Tract Biopsy Using Backloaded Cup Biopsy Forceps, a Nitinol Basket, and Standard Cup Biopsy Forceps.

    PubMed

    Lama, Daniel J; Safiullah, Shoaib; Patel, Roshan M; Lee, Thomas K; Balani, Jyoti P; Zhang, Lishi; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Margulis, Vitaly; Savage, Stephen J; Uchio, Edward; Landman, Jaime

    2018-04-06

    To compare the performance of 3 contemporary ureteroscopic biopsy devices for the histopathologic diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). We retrospectively reviewed 145 patients who underwent 182 urothelial biopsies using 2.4F backloaded cup biopsy forceps, a nitinol basket, or 3F standard cup biopsy forceps at 3 tertiary academic centers between 2011 and 2016. Experienced genitourinary pathologists provided an assessment of each specimen without knowledge of the device used for biopsy. For patients who underwent nephroureterectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy within 3 months of biopsy-proven UTUC diagnosis, the biopsy grade was compared with both the grade and stage of the surgical specimen. Biopsy utilization varied among the 3 institutions (P <.0001). Significant variabilities in specimen size (P = .001), the presence of intact urothelium (P = .008), and crush artifact (P = .028) were found among the biopsy devices. The quality of specimens from backloaded cup forceps was rated similarly to the nitinol basket (P >.05) and was favored over standard cup forceps specimens. Grade concordance was not affected by specimen size (P >.05), morphology (P >.1), or location (P >.5). No difference existed among the devices in the rate of acquiring a grade concordant biopsy; however, the backloaded cup forceps provided concordant biopsies that could be distinguished as low- and high-grade (P = .02). The backloaded cup forceps and nitinol basket obtained a higher quality urothelial specimen compared with standard cup forceps. Ureteroscopic biopsy device selection did not significantly impact the accuracy of the histologic diagnosis of UTUC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. La ponction biopsie hépatique à Dakar: indications, complications et apport diagnostique - à propos de 70 cas

    PubMed Central

    Touré, Papa Souleymane; Léye, Abdoulaye; Diop, Madoky Maguette; Gueye, Mame Daouda; Léye, Yakham Mohamed; Berthé, Adama; Mourtalla Ka, Mamadou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de déterminer les indications, les complications et l'apport diagnostique de la ponction biopsie hépatique (PBH) transpariétale. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective descriptive allant du janvier 2006 à décembre 2010, réalisée dans le service de Médecine Interne de l'hôpital de Pikine de Dakar. Etaient inclus, tous les malades ayant subi une biopsie hépatique, en ambulatoire ou en hospitalisation. Etaient exclus, tous les patients qui ont bénéficié d'une PBH dont les résultats n'ont pas été retrouvés. Les données suivantes étaient étudié: l’âge, le sexe, les indications, la taille du fragment biopsique, Le nombre de carottes, les complications, la comparaison des diagnostics pré biopsiques avec les comptes rendus histologiques. Résultats Ont été colligées 70 patients atteints d'hépatopathie chronique ayant bénéficiés d'une PBH. Il s'agissait de 46 hommes (65.71%) et 24 femmes (34.29%). L’âge moyen des patients était de 36 ans. Les PBH étaient réalisées en ambulatoire chez 58 patients (82.86%) et chez 12 malades hospitalisés (17,14%). Les indications étaient dominées par les hépatites virales chroniques dans 62,86% (44cas), suivi des processus tumoraux du foie dans 24.29% (17 cas). Les complications survenues chez 15 patients (21.43%) étaient représentées de 14 cas de douleur (20%) et d'un cas de malaise vagal (1.43%). Les 70 PBH effectuées ont ramené une carotte dans 35,71% des cas, 2 à 6 carottes dans 32,87% des cas. La longueur moyenne des fragments biopsiques était de 22 ±8 mm. Soixante-six résultats étaient interprétables et 4 non interprétables soit une performance diagnostique de 94,29%. Conclusion La PBH est de pratique sure, avec un respect des contres indications et une bonne maitrise de la technique. Son acceptabilité a été bonne dans notre pratique et sa rentabilité diagnostique excellente. Elle devrait être beaucoup plus

  16. Radial scars without atypia in percutaneous biopsy specimens: can they obviate surgical biopsy?

    PubMed

    Mesa-Quesada, J; Romero-Martín, S; Cara-García, M; Martínez-López, A; Medina-Pérez, M; Raya-Povedano, J L

    To evaluate the need for surgical biopsy in patients diagnosed with radial scars without atypia by percutaneous biopsy. In this retrospective observational study, we selected patients with a histological diagnosis of radial scar in specimens obtained by percutaneous biopsy during an 8-year period. The statistical analysis was centered on patients with radial scar without atypia (we assessed the radiologic presentation, the results of the percutaneous biopsy, and their correlation with the results of surgical biopsy and follow-up) and we added the patients with atypia and cancer in the elaboration of the diagnostic indices. We identified 96 patients with radial scar on percutaneous biopsy; 54 had no atypia, 18 had atypia, and 24 had cancer. Among patients with radial scar without atypia, there were no statistically significant differences between patients who underwent imaging follow-up and those who underwent surgical biopsy (p>0.05). The rate of underdiagnosis for percutaneous biopsy in patients without atypia was 1.9%. The rates of diagnosis obtained with percutaneous biopsy in relation to follow-up and surgical biopsy in the 96 cases were sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 97.2%, and accuracy 97.9%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 (p<0.001), and the kappa concordance index was 0.95 (p<0.001) CONCLUSIONS: We consider that it is not necessary to perform surgical biopsies in patients with radial scars without atypia on percutaneous biopsies because the rate of underestimation is very low and the concordance between the diagnosis reached by percutaneous biopsy and the definitive diagnosis is very high. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Biopsy - testicle Images Endocrine glands Male reproductive anatomy Testicular biopsy References Garibaldi LR, Chematilly W. Disorders of pubertal development. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  18. Biochemical artifacts in experiments involving repeated biopsies in the same muscle

    PubMed Central

    Van Thienen, Ruud; D'Hulst, Gommaar; Deldicque, Louise; Hespel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Needle biopsies are being extensively used in clinical trials addressing muscular adaptation to exercise and diet. Still, the potential artifacts due to biopsy sampling are often overlooked. Healthy volunteers (n = 9) underwent two biopsies through a single skin incision in a pretest. Two days later (posttest) another biopsy was taken 3 cm proximally and 3 cm distally to the pretest incision. Muscle oxygenation status (tissue oxygenation index [TOI]) was measured by near‐infrared spectroscopy. Biopsy samples were analyzed for 40 key markers (mRNA and protein contents) of myocellular O2 sensing, inflammation, cell proliferation, mitochondrial biogenesis, protein synthesis and breakdown, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. In the pretest, all measurements were identical between proximal and distal biopsies. However, compared with the pretest, TOI in the posttest was reduced in the proximal (−10%, P < 0.05), but not in the distal area. Conversely, most inflammatory markers were upregulated at the distal (100–500%, P < 0.05), but not at the proximal site. Overall, 29 of the 40 markers measured, equally distributed over all pathways studied, were either up‐ or downregulated by 50–500% (P < 0.05). In addition, 19 markers yielded conflicting results between the proximal and distal measurements (P < 0.05). This study clearly documents that prior muscle biopsies can cause major disturbances in myocellular signaling pathways in needle biopsies specimens sampled 48 h later. In addition, different biopsy sites within identical experimental conditions yielded conflicting results. PMID:24819751

  19. Biochemical artifacts in experiments involving repeated biopsies in the same muscle.

    PubMed

    Van Thienen, Ruud; D'Hulst, Gommaar; Deldicque, Louise; Hespel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Needle biopsies are being extensively used in clinical trials addressing muscular adaptation to exercise and diet. Still, the potential artifacts due to biopsy sampling are often overlooked. Healthy volunteers (n = 9) underwent two biopsies through a single skin incision in a pretest. Two days later (posttest) another biopsy was taken 3 cm proximally and 3 cm distally to the pretest incision. Muscle oxygenation status (tissue oxygenation index [TOI]) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Biopsy samples were analyzed for 40 key markers (mRNA and protein contents) of myocellular O2 sensing, inflammation, cell proliferation, mitochondrial biogenesis, protein synthesis and breakdown, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. In the pretest, all measurements were identical between proximal and distal biopsies. However, compared with the pretest, TOI in the posttest was reduced in the proximal (-10%, P < 0.05), but not in the distal area. Conversely, most inflammatory markers were upregulated at the distal (100-500%, P < 0.05), but not at the proximal site. Overall, 29 of the 40 markers measured, equally distributed over all pathways studied, were either up- or downregulated by 50-500% (P < 0.05). In addition, 19 markers yielded conflicting results between the proximal and distal measurements (P < 0.05). This study clearly documents that prior muscle biopsies can cause major disturbances in myocellular signaling pathways in needle biopsies specimens sampled 48 h later. In addition, different biopsy sites within identical experimental conditions yielded conflicting results.

  20. Implementing a Cervical Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Program: Quality Improvement in Gynaecologic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Maria C; Walker, Rachel; Bernardini, Marcus Q; Bouchard-Fortier, Geneviève; Laframboise, Stephane; May, Taymaa; Murphy, Joan; Rosen, Barry; Covens, Al; Clarke, Blaise; Shaw, Patricia; Rouzbahman, Marjan; Mohan, Ravi; Ferguson, Sarah E

    2017-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is becoming a reasonable alternative to pelvic lymphadenectomy in early-stage cervical cancer. It is therefore imperative that centres without prior experience are able to successfully implement the procedure. The objectives of the current study were to (1) describe the process of implementing an SLN biopsy program with a novel peer mentorship component and (2) assess post-program quality improvement metrics, including SLN detection rate (DR) and diagnostic parameters. An institutional SLN biopsy protocol was developed collaboratively by gynaecologic oncology, nuclear medicine, and pathology departments at University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario. All decisions were based on the best evidence available. Newly diagnosed, early-stage cervical cancer patients undergoing primary surgery were then recruited prospectively for SLN biopsy with combined technique, followed by pelvic lymphadenectomy to evaluate key quality indicators, including SLN DR, sensitivity, and negative predictive value. Surgeons with previous SLN biopsy experience mentored surgeons unfamiliar with the technique. Interim analyses and multidisciplinary rounds were regularly carried out to identify failures of technique or protocol. Thirty-nine patients (median age 42) were enrolled in the study between August 2010 and February 2014. The median number of SLNs and total pelvic lymph nodes removed per patient were 3 and 19, respectively. SLN DRs were 92% per patient (36/39), 88.5% per hemipelvis (69/78), and 85% bilaterally (33/39). SLN biopsy correctly identified seven of eight hemipelvises with nodal metastases, yielding a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 0.47 to 1.00) and a false negative rate of 12% (95% CI 0 to 0.53). Surgeons undergoing peer mentorship (n = 3) performed as effectively (DR 100%) as surgeons (n = 2) with prior experience (DR 85%). This study provides a model upon which other centres can adopt and validate cervical SLN biopsy. High SLN DRs and accurate

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of biopsy being performed or the design of the biopsy machine, a biopsy of tissue ... cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  2. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  3. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. I. Technique, histological criteria and results.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Johnson, W H

    1991-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were taken for histological assessment from 97 cows which calved in a commercial dairy herd between April and August 1984. Sixty-two cows were biopsied at both day 26 and 40 postpartum, 23 cows at only day 26, and 12 at day 40 only. Subjective and quantitative histological criteria were assessed. Ninety-five percent of biopsies were adequate for at least subjective assessment. The distribution of criteria within each horn-day category, as well as combined readings by day and by gravid or nongravid horn were computed and significant differences noted. There was more severe inflammation and more segmented cells at day 26 than 40 postpartum, and in the gravid compared to the nongravid horn. The distribution patterns for the criteria examined provide an overview of histological characteristics in this group of postpartum cows. PMID:1884295

  4. Analysis of gingival biopsies in the Gujarati population: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Sutariya, Rakesh; Nagamahita, V; Dholia, Bhavik; Shah, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Biopsy is an important diagnostic tool used in the diagnosis of lesions ranging from simple non-neoplastic, tumor-like lesions to malignancies, and is often the only way to diagnose oral lesions and diseases. The gingiva is the most common site for some kind of irritation or low-grade injury, resulting in localized overgrowths that are considered to be reactive and non-neoplastic lesions. This aim of this study is to analyze the frequency and distribution of gingival lesions in the Gujarati population. In this retrospective study, gingival biopsies submitted for a period of five years were included. Microscopic slides of all the cases were reviewed by two observers for confirmation of the diagnosis. Among the 106 cases of gingival biopsies, the most frequent category of lesions encountered was the non-neoplastic category, which accounted for 73.58% of the cases. Both benign and malignant neoplasms constituted 26.42% of the cases. Among the non-neoplastic lesions, Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (38.46%), followed by fibrous hyperplasia (20.51%), inflammatory hyperplasia (19.23%), and Epulis (8.97%). Neoplasms accounted for 26.42% of the gingival biopsies (92.85% benign and 7.15% malignant). Among the benign neoplastic lesions, Fibroma (30.76%) and Fibrolipoma (26.92%) were the most frequent, followed by peripheral ossifying fibroma (23.08%) and peripheral giant cell granuloma (11%). It is difficult to compare studies carried out in various countries due to differences in people's attitudes toward oral health and the accessibility of various population groups to biopsy services. Nevertheless, this study has provided some information about the frequency and distribution of biopsied gingival lesions in the Gujarati population over a period of five years.

  5. Anxiety prior to breast biopsy: Relationships with length of time from breast biopsy recommendation to biopsy procedure and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Hayes Balmadrid, Melissa A; Shelby, Rebecca A; Wren, Anava A; Miller, Lauren S; Yoon, Sora C; Baker, Jay A; Wildermann, Liz A; Soo, Mary Scott

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated how time from breast biopsy recommendation to biopsy procedure affected pre-biopsy anxiety ( N = 140 women), and whether the relationship between wait time and anxiety was affected by psychosocial factors (chronic life stress, traumatic events, social support). Analyses showed a significant interaction between wait time and chronic life stress. Increased time from biopsy recommendation was associated with greater anxiety in women with low levels of life stress. Women with high levels of life stress experienced increased anxiety regardless of wait time. These results suggest that women may benefit from shorter wait times and receiving strategies for managing anxiety.

  6. Clinical application of Lin's biopsy grasper for intrauterine targeted biopsy and polypectomy during office hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bao-Liang; Tseng, Jen-Yu; Ueno, Kazunori; Nakada, Sakura

    2018-06-01

    Hysteroscopy has widely been used for diagnosis of the uterine cavity; however, target biopsy has often been difficult in part to the inherent limitations of ancillary instruments. Lin's biopsy grasper was specifically designed to work in conjunction with a flexible hysteroscope to obtain intrauterine biopsy under transabdominal sonography. Herein, we share our clinical experience in the management of endometrial abnormalities with the use of Lin's biopsy grasper during office-based hysteroscopy. From February 2006 to November 2016, the use of Lin's biopsy grasper for tissue biopsy was attempted on 126 cases. We retrospectively recorded and analyzed the patients' preoperative characteristics and biopsy outcomes to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of Lin's biopsy grasper. Out of the one hundred and twenty-six enrolled patients, satisfactory targeted biopsies were achieved; including high diagnostic rate (92.1%, with 116 cases confirmed histologically) and adequate tissue retrieval (77.8%, with 98 cases obtaining optimal specimen volume). All patients tolerated the procedure without analgesics or anesthesia. Diagnostic flexible hysteroscopy combined with the use of Lin's biopsy grasper has proven to be an effective tool for intrauterine evaluation and obtaining tissue sample. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Concordance of Gleason grading with three-dimensional ultrasound systematic biopsy and biopsy core pre-embedding.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Anouk A M A; Mannaerts, Christophe K; van der Linden, Hans; Gayet, Maudy; Schrier, Bart Ph; Mischi, Massimo; Beerlage, Harrie P; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2018-02-01

    To determine the value of a three-dimensional (3D) greyscale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy system and biopsy core pre-embedding method on concordance between Gleason scores of needle biopsies and radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. Retrospective analysis of prostate biopsies and subsequent RP for PCa in the Jeroen Bosch Hospital, the Netherlands, from 2007 to 2016. Two cohorts were analysed: conventional 2D TRUS-guided biopsies and RP (2007-2013, n = 266) versus 3D TRUS-guided biopsies with pre-embedding (2013-2016, n = 129). The impact of 3D TRUS-guidance with pre-embedding on Gleason score (GS) concordance between biopsy and RP was evaluated using the κ-coefficient. Predictors of biopsy GS 6 upgrading were assessed using logistic regression models. Gleason concordance was comparable between the two cohorts with a κ = 0.44 for the 3D cohort, compared to κ = 0.42 for the 2D cohort. 3D TRUS-guidance with pre-embedding, did not significantly affect the risk of biopsy GS 6 upgrading in univariate and multivariate analysis. 3D TRUS-guidance with biopsy core pre-embedding did not improve Gleason concordance. Improved detection techniques are needed for recognition of low-grade disease upgrading.

  8. Ultrasound-guided chest biopsies.

    PubMed

    Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Dahiya, Nirvikar

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary nodules that are surrounded by aerated lung cannot be visualized with sonography. Therefore, percutaneous biopsy must be guided with computed tomography or fluoroscopy. Although this restriction only applies to central lung nodules, it has permeated referral patterns for other thoracic lesions and has retarded the growth of ultrasound-guided interventions. Nevertheless, sonography is an extremely flexible modality that can expeditiously guide many biopsy procedures in the thorax. Peripheral pulmonary nodules can be successfully biopsied with success rates exceeding 90% and complications rates of less than 5%. Orienting the probe parallel to the intercostal space facilitates biopsies of peripheral pulmonary nodules. Anterior mediastinal masses that extend to the parasternal region are often easily approachable provided the internal mammary vessels, costal cartilage, and deep great vessels are identified and avoided. Superior mediastinal masses can be sampled from a suprasternal or supraclavicular approach. Phased array probes or tightly curved arrays may provide improved access for biopsies in this location. Posterior mediastinal masses are more difficult to biopsy with ultrasound guidance because of the overlying paraspinal muscles. However, when posterior mediastinal masses extend into the posterior medial pleural region, they can be biopsied with ultrasound guidance. Because many lung cancers metastasize to the supraclavicular nodes, it is important to evaluate the supraclavicular region when determining the best approach to obtain a tissue diagnosis. When abnormal supraclavicular nodes are present, they often are the easiest and safest lesions to biopsy.

  9. Canadian Consensus-based and Evidence-based Guidelines for Benign Endometrial Pathology Reporting in Biopsy Material.

    PubMed

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Cesari, Matthew; Djordjevic, Bojana; Grondin, Katherine; Kinloch, Mary; Köbel, Martin; Pirzada, Amrah; Plotkin, Anna; Gilks, C Blake

    2018-04-19

    Standardized terminology has proven benefits in cancer reporting; in contrast, reporting of benign diagnoses in endometrial biopsy currently lacks such standardization. Unification and update on the lexicon can provide the structure and consistency needed for optimal patient care and quality assurance purposes. The Special Interest Group in Gynecologic Pathology of the Canadian Association of Pathologists-Association Canadienne des Pathologistes (CAP-ACP) embarked in an initiative to address the current need for consensus terminology in benign endometrial biopsy pathology reporting. Nine members of the Special Interest Group developed a guideline for structured diagnosis of benign endometrial pathology through critical appraisal of the available peer-reviewed literature and joint discussions. The first version of the document was circulated for feedback to a group of professionals in akin fields, the CAP-ACP Executive Committee and the CAP-ACP general membership. The final 1-page document included 17 diagnostic terms comprising the most common benign endometrial entities, as well as explanatory notes for pathologists. The proposed terminology was implemented in the practice of 5 pathologists from the group, who applied the guideline to all benign endometrial biopsies over a 2-wk period. A total of 212 benign endometrial biopsies were evaluated in this implementation step; the recommended terminology adequately covered the diagnosis in 203 cases (95.8%). A list of terminology for benign endometrial biopsy reporting, based on expert consensus and critical appraisal of the available literature, is presented. On the basis of our results of implementation at multiple centers, the proposed guideline can successfully cover the large majority of diagnostic scenarios. The document has the potential to positively impact patient care, promote quality assurance, and facilitate research initiatives aimed at improving histopathologic assessment of benign endometrium.

  10. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration versus core needle biopsy: comparison of post-biopsy hematoma rates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chae, In Hye; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Y; Kwak, Jin Young

    2017-07-01

    To compare post-biopsy hematoma rates between ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy, and to investigate risk factors for post-biopsy hematoma. A total of 5304 thyroid nodules which underwent ultrasound guided biopsy were included in this retrospective study. We compared clinical and US features between patients with and without post-biopsy hematoma. Associations between these features and post-biopsy hematoma were analyzed. Post-biopsy hematoma rate was 0.8% (43/5121) for ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and 4.9% (9/183) for ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy (P < 0.001). For ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration, gender, age, size, presence of vascularity, and suspicious US features were not associated with post-biopsy hematoma according to experience level. Post-biopsy hematoma occurred significantly more with ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy (9/179, 5.0%) than with ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration (9/1138, 0.8%) (P < 0.001) in experienced performers and ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy was the only significant risk factor for post-biopsy hematoma (adjusted Odds Ratio, 6.458, P < 0.001). Post-biopsy hematoma occurred significantly more in ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy than in ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy was the only independent factor of post-biopsy hematoma in thyroid nodules.

  11. Percutaneous Biopsy of Osteoid Osteomas Prior to Percutaneous Treatment Using Two Different Biopsy Needles

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, Jean-Denis, E-mail: jean-denis.laredo@lrb.aphp.fr; Hamze, Bassam; Jeribi, Riadh

    2009-09-15

    Biopsy is usually performed as the first step in percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteomas prior to laser photocoagulation. At our institution, 117 patients with a presumed diagnosis of osteoid osteoma had a trephine biopsy before a percutaneous laser photocoagulation. Biopsies were made using two different types of needles. A Bonopty biopsy needle (14-gauge cannula, 16-gauge trephine needle; Radi Medical Systems, Uppsala, Sweden) was used in 65 patients, and a Laurane biopsy needle (11-gauge cannula, 12.5-gauge trephine needle; Laurane Medical, Saint-Arnoult, France) in 43 patients. Overall biopsy results were positive for osteoid osteoma in 83 (70.9%) of the 117 cases. Themore » Laurane needle provided a significantly higher positive rate (81.4%) than the Bonopty needle (66.1%; p < 0.05). This difference was not due to the size of the nidus, which was similar in the two groups (p < 0.05) and may be an effect of differences in needle caliber (12.5 vs. 14 gauge) as well as differences in needle design. The rate of positive biopsy results obtained in the present series with the Laurane biopsy needle is, to our knowledge, the highest rate reported in series dealing with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and laser photocoagulation of osteoid osteomas.« less

  12. La microscopie ionique analytique des tissus biologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, P.

    Proposed in 1960 by R. Castaing and G. Slodzian, secondary ion emission microanalysis is a microanalytical method which is now largely used for the study of inert material. The instrument called the analytical ion microscope can also be used for the study of biological spécimens ; images representing the distribution of a given stable or radioactive isotope in a tissue section are obtained with a resolution of 0.5 μm. Among the characteristics of this method, two are of particular interest in biological research : its capacity for isotopic analysis and its very high sensitivity which makes possible for the first time a chemical analysis of element at a very low or even at a trace concentration in a microvolume. Proposé en 1960 par R. Castaing et G. Slodzian, la microanalyse par émission ionique secondaire est une méthode qui permet, entre autre, d'obtenir des images représentant la distribution des isotopes présents à la surface d'un échantillon solide avec une résolution de 0,5 μm. D'intérêt très général, cette méthode a été d'abord largement utilisée pour l'étude des matériaux inertes. Elle offre en outre des possibilités entièrement nouvelles dans le domaine de la recherche biomédicale. L'instrument réalisé, le microscope ionique analytique présente deux caractéristiques particulièrement intéressantes pour la biologie : la possibilité d'analyse isotopique, et l'extrême sensibilité permettant de détecter et de localiser dans une coupe histologique des éléments à des concentrations très faibles voire à l'état de trace.

  13. Déprescription des agonistes des récepteurs des benzodiazépines

    PubMed Central

    Pottie, Kevin; Thompson, Wade; Davies, Simon; Grenier, Jean; Sadowski, Cheryl A.; Welch, Vivian; Holbrook, Anne; Boyd, Cynthia; Swenson, Robert; Ma, Andy; Farrell, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Formuler des lignes directrices fondées sur les données probantes visant à aider les cliniciens à décider du moment et de la façon sécuritaire de réduire la dose des agonistes des récepteurs des benzodiazépines (BZRA) pour mettre fin au traitement; se concentrer sur le niveau le plus élevé des données disponibles et obtenir les commentaires des professionnels de première ligne durant le processus de rédaction, de révision et d’adoption des lignes directrices. Méthodes L’équipe comptait 8 cliniciens (1 médecin de famille, 2 psychiatres, 1 psychologue clinique, 1 pharmacologue clinique, 2 pharmaciennes cliniques et 1 gériatre) et une spécialiste de la méthodologie; les membres ont divulgué tout conflit d’intérêts. Nous avons eu recours à un processus systématique, y compris l’approche GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) pour formuler les lignes directrices. Les données ont été générées par une revue systématique d’études portant sur la déprescription des BZRA contre l’insomnie, de même que par une revue des revues sur les torts liés à la poursuite du traitement par BZRA et des synthèses narratives sur les préférences des patients et les répercussions sur les ressources. Ces données et le score GRADE de qualité des données ont servi à formuler les recommandations. L’équipe a peaufiné le texte sur le contenu et les recommandations des lignes directrices par consensus et a synthétisé les considérations cliniques afin de répondre aux questions des cliniciens de première ligne. Une version préliminaire des lignes directrices a été révisée par les cliniciens et les intervenants. Recommandations Nous recommandons d’offrir la déprescription (réduction lente de la dose) des BZRA à tous les patients âgés (≥ 65 ans) sous un BZRA, sans égard à la durée de l’usage, et suggérons d’offrir la déprescription (réduction lente de la dose)

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease biopsies: updated British Society of Gastroenterology reporting guidelines.

    PubMed

    Feakins, Roger M

    2013-12-01

    Accurate histopathological assessment of biopsies is important for the diagnosis, subclassification, and management of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines for the initial histopathological diagnosis of IBD were published in 1997. Changes since then include: more widespread use of full colonoscopy; greater recognition of the effects of time and treatment; improved documentation of variations in anatomical distribution; better understanding of the mimics of IBD; significant progress in clinical management; and modifications of terminology. Accordingly, an update is required. These revised guidelines aim to optimise the quality and consistency of reporting of biopsies taken for the initial diagnosis of IBD by summarising the literature and making recommendations based on the available evidence. Advice from existing clinical guidelines is also taken into account. Among the subjects discussed are: distinguishing IBD from other colitides, particularly infective colitis; subclassification of IBD (as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or IBD unclassified); the discriminant value of granulomas; aspects of disease distribution, including discontinuity in ulcerative colitis; time-related changes; differences between paediatric and adult IBD; the role of ileal and upper gastrointestinal biopsies; differential diagnoses such as diverticular colitis and diversion proctocolitis; and dysplasia. The need to correlate the histological features with clinical and endoscopic findings is emphasised. An approach to the conclusion of an IBD biopsy report based on the acronym Pattern, Activity, Interpretation, Dysplasia (PAID) is suggested. The key recommendations are listed at the end of the document.

  15. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of biopsy being performed or the design of the biopsy machine, a biopsy of tissue ... cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  16. Molecular image-directed biopsies: improving clinical biopsy selection in patients with multiple tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Stephanie A.; Tuite, Michael J.; Jeraj, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Site selection for image-guided biopsies in patients with multiple lesions is typically based on clinical feasibility and physician preference. This study outlines the development of a selection algorithm that, in addition to clinical requirements, incorporates quantitative imaging data for automatic identification of candidate lesions for biopsy. The algorithm is designed to rank potential targets by maximizing a lesion-specific score, incorporating various criteria separated into two categories: (1) physician-feasibility category including physician-preferred lesion location and absolute volume scores, and (2) imaging-based category including various modality and application-specific metrics. This platform was benchmarked in two clinical scenarios, a pre-treatment setting and response-based setting using imaging from metastatic prostate cancer patients with high disease burden (multiple lesions) undergoing conventional treatment and receiving whole-body [18F]NaF PET/CT scans pre- and mid-treatment. Targeting of metastatic lesions was robust to different weighting ratios and candidacy for biopsy was physician confirmed. Lesion ranked as top targets for biopsy remained so for all patients in pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsy selection after sensitivity testing was completed for physician-biased or imaging-biased scenarios. After identifying candidates, biopsy feasibility was evaluated by a physician and confirmed for 90% (32/36) of high-ranking lesions, of which all top choices were confirmed. The remaining cases represented lesions with high anatomical difficulty for targeting, such as proximity to sciatic nerve. This newly developed selection method was successfully used to quantitatively identify candidate lesions for biopsies in patients with multiple lesions. In a prospective study, we were able to successfully plan, develop, and implement this technique for the selection of a pre-treatment biopsy location.

  17. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue taken from a biopsy . The Gram stain method can ...

  18. Multicentre evaluation of targeted and systematic biopsies using magnetic resonance and ultrasound image-fusion guided transperineal prostate biopsy in patients with a previous negative biopsy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nienke L; Kesch, Claudia; Barrett, Tristan; Koo, Brendan; Radtke, Jan P; Bonekamp, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Warren, Anne Y; Wieczorek, Kathrin; Hohenfellner, Markus; Kastner, Christof; Hadaschik, Boris

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the detection rates of targeted and systematic biopsies in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) image-fusion transperineal prostate biopsy for patients with previous benign transrectal biopsies in two high-volume centres. A two centre prospective outcome study of 487 patients with previous benign biopsies that underwent transperineal MRI/US fusion-guided targeted and systematic saturation biopsy from 2012 to 2015. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was reported according to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) Version 1. Detection of Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer on biopsy was the primary outcome. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values including 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Detection rates of targeted and systematic biopsies were compared using McNemar's test. The median (interquartile range) PSA level was 9.0 (6.7-13.4) ng/mL. PI-RADS 3-5 mpMRI lesions were reported in 343 (70%) patients and Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer was detected in 149 (31%). The PPV (95% CI) for detecting Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer was 0.20 (±0.07) for PI-RADS 3, 0.32 (±0.09) for PI-RADS 4, and 0.70 (±0.08) for PI-RADS 5. The NPV (95% CI) of PI-RADS 1-2 was 0.92 (±0.04) for Gleason score 7-10 and 0.99 (±0.02) for Gleason score ≥4 + 3 cancer. Systematic biopsies alone found 125/138 (91%) Gleason score 7-10 cancers. In patients with suspicious lesions (PI-RADS 4-5) on mpMRI, systematic biopsies would not have detected 12/113 significant prostate cancers (11%), while targeted biopsies alone would have failed to diagnose 10/113 (9%). In equivocal lesions (PI-RADS 3), targeted biopsy alone would not have diagnosed 14/25 (56%) of Gleason score 7-10 cancers, whereas systematic biopsies alone would have missed 1/25 (4%). Combination with PSA density improved the area under the curve of PI-RADS from 0.822 to 0.846. In patients with high probability mpMRI lesions, the highest detection rates of Gleason

  19. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  20. Temporal artery biopsy size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Kaptanis, Sarantos; Perera, Joanne K; Halkias, Constantine; Caton, Nadine; Alarcon, Lida; Vig, Stella

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether positive temporal artery biopsies had a greater sample length than negative biopsies in temporal arteritis. It has been suggested that biopsy length should be at least 1 cm to improve diagnostic accuracy. A retrospective review of 149 patients who had 151 temporal artery biopsies was conducted. Twenty biopsies were positive (13.3%), 124 negative (82.1%) and seven samples were insufficient (4.6%). There was no clinically significant difference in the mean biopsy size between positive (0.7 cm) and negative samples (0.65 cm) (t-test: p = .43 NS). Ninety-four patients fulfilled all three ACR criteria prior to biopsy (62.3%) and four patients (2.6%) changed ACR score from 2 to 3 after biopsy. Treatment should not be delayed in anticipation of the biopsy or withheld in the case of a negative biopsy if the patient's symptoms improve. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging guided in-bore prostate biopsy versus systematic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in biopsy naïve men with elevated prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Michael; Blondin, Dirk; Arsov, Christian; Schimmöller, Lars; Hiester, Andreas; Godehardt, Erhard; Albers, Peter; Antoch, Gerald; Rabenalt, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy is increasingly performed to diagnose prostate cancer. However, there is a lack of well controlled, prospective trials to support this treatment method. We prospectively compared magnetic resonance imaging guided in-bore biopsy with standard systematic transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy in biopsy naïve men with increased prostate specific antigen. We performed a prospective study in 132 biopsy naïve men with increased prostate specific antigen (greater than 4 ng/ml). After 3 Tesla functional multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging patients were referred for magnetic resonance imaging guided in-bore biopsy of prostate lesions (maximum 3) followed by standard systematic transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (12 cores). We analyzed the detection rates of prostate cancer and significant prostate cancer (greater than 5 mm total cancer length or any Gleason pattern greater than 3). A total of 128 patients with a mean ± SD age of 66.1 ± 8.1 years met all study requirements. Median prostate specific antigen was 6.7 ng/ml (IQR 5.1-9.0). Transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsies provided the same 53.1% detection rate, including 79.4% and 85.3%, respectively, for significant prostate cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies missed 7.8% and 9.4% of clinically significant prostate cancers, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging biopsy required significantly fewer cores and revealed a higher percent of cancer involvement per biopsy core (each p <0.01). Combining the 2 methods provided a 60.9% detection rate with an 82.1% rate for significant prostate cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging guided in-bore and systematic transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies achieved equally high detection rates in biopsy naïve patients with increased prostate specific antigen. Magnetic resonance imaging guided in-bore biopsies required significantly fewer cores and revealed a

  2. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ganesh M; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S

    2017-10-01

    Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered: In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary: As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies.

  3. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations

  4. Prospective, Randomized, Pathologist-Blinded Study of Disposable Alligator-Jaw Biopsy Forceps for Gastric Mucosal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abudayyeh, Suhaib; Hoffman, Jill; El-Zimaity, Hala T.; Graham, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background Endoscopic biopsy forceps differ in the size and shape of the biopsy cup and the presence or absence of a needle. Methods We compared 4 different “large cup” forceps (3 with needles designed for 2.8 mm biopsy channels. A gastric antral and corpus biopsy were obtained with each. Parameters examined included: weight (mg), length (mm), orientation (poor, good), intactness (1, 2, or 3 pieces), depth (superficial, above muscularis mucosae, included muscularis mucosae), crush artifact (yes, no), and overall adequacy (inadequate, suboptimal, adequate). Results 24 patients were enrolled (191 biopsies). The median length was approximately 5 mm (range 1.1 to 8.2 mm). Histologically inadequate specimens were present in 4% with the forceps without needle compared to 16% of those with needles (P = 0.061) and there were significantly fewer specimens in 3 or more pieces than did the forceps with needles 2.1% vs. 12..6% (P<0.05). Conclusions Current alligator style forceps provide a high proportion of acceptable specimens with only minor differences between brands. Forceps from one source were least preferred by endoscopy assistants and had the highest rates of inadequate biopsies and biopsies with crush artifact. Forceps without needles provide histologically acceptable samples slightly more frequently than those with needles. PMID:18799373

  5. Prospective, randomized, pathologist-blinded study of disposable alligator-jaw biopsy forceps for gastric mucosal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Abudayyeh, S; Hoffman, J; El-Zimaity, H T; Graham, D Y

    2009-05-01

    Endoscopic biopsy forceps differ in the size and shape of the biopsy cup and the presence or absence of a needle. We compared four different "large cup" forceps (three with needles) designed for 2.8mm biopsy channels. A gastric antral and corpus biopsy were obtained with each. Parameters examined included: weight (mg), length (mm), orientation (poor, good), intactness (1, 2, or 3 pieces), depth (superficial, above muscularis mucosae, included muscularis mucosae), crush artefact (yes, no), and overall adequacy (inadequate, suboptimal, adequate). Twenty-four patients were enrolled (191 biopsies). The median length was approximately 5mm (range 1.1-8.2mm). Histologically inadequate specimens were present in 4% with the forceps without needle compared to 16% of those with needles (P=0.061) and there were significantly fewer specimens in three or more pieces than did the forceps with needles 2.1% vs. 12.6% (P<0.05). Current alligator style forceps provide a high proportion of acceptable specimens with only minor differences between brands. Forceps from one source were least preferred by endoscopy assistants and had the highest rates of inadequate biopsies and biopsies with crush artefact. Forceps without needles provide histologically acceptable samples slightly more frequently than those with needles.

  6. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  7. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L.; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies. PMID:28875730

  8. Comparison of Keyes Punch Biopsy Instrument with Cervical Punch Biopsy Forceps for Diagnosing Cervical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Natasha; Suneja, Amita; Mishra, Kiran; Jain, Sandhya; Vaid, Neelam Bala; Guleria, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and efficacy of Keyes punch biopsy instrument (KP) in diagnosing cervical lesions and compare it with cervical punch biopsy forceps (CP). 75 women having satisfactory colposcopy with abnormal transformation zone were included and paired colposcopic directed biopsies were taken using KP followed by CP from the same target area. It was feasible in all cases to take cervical biopsy with KP after increasing its effective length. The volume of gross specimen obtained by KP was less than CP (0.076 ± 0.097 vs. 0.101 ± 0.156 cm3, p = 0.061), however on microscopic examination, mean length and mean depth of tissue in KP was greater than CP by 0.06 mm (p = 0.810) and 0.14 mm (p = 0.634) respectively. Exact agreement was found with the final surgical specimen in 42% of cases in both the biopsy forceps. KP is almost at par with CP for diagnosing preinvasive cervical lesions and is a useful adjunct to the existing armamentarium of biopsy forceps. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. A CT-guided fat transversing coaxial biopsy technique for pancreatic lesion biopsy that avoids major organs and vessels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Ying; Ou, Ming-Ching; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Shan, Yan-Shen; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Tsai, Yi-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: The purpose of this study is to report our results using a computed tomography (CT)-guided fat transversing coaxial biopsy technique for pancreatic lesion biopsy that avoids major organs and vessels. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients referred to our department for pancreatic mass biopsy. Patients and Methods: The records of patients (from June 2008 to August 2014) in whom biopsy was performed under CT guidance with a coaxial needle using a fat transversing technique were reviewed. Patient demographic data and biopsy outcomes were collected. We aimed to compare differences between lesion size and biopsy outcome, the independent two-samples t-test was used. Results: A total of 122 patients who underwent 17-G coaxial needle biopsy were included. The mean pancreatic lesion size was 3.2 cm, and in 30 patients it was more than 4 cm. The majority of lesions were located in the head of the pancreas (44.3%). No transorgan biopsies were performed. In most patients, the biopsy was performed via a fat traversing detour route (93.4%), and a successful diagnosis was made based on the biopsy outcome in 96.7% patients. Complications occurred in five patients (4.1%); three of the patients developed a fever, and two developed pancreatitis. All patients recovered with symptomatic treatment. Conclusion: CT-guided coaxial core biopsy of pancreatic lesions using a fat detour route appears to be a safe and effective method for obtaining pancreatic lesion biopsies with a high success rate and low complication rate. PMID:29205187

  10. Use of a frameless computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy system for nasal biopsy in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Gregory M; Taylor, Amanda R; Thieman-Mankin, Kelley M; Griffin, Jay; Cook, Audrey K; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-04-15

    5 dogs (median age, 9 years; median body weight, 31 kg [68.2 lb]) with undefined nasal masses were examined after undergoing CT of the head and nasal biopsy via a rostral rhinoscopic or unaided (blind) approach because histologic results for collected biopsy specimens (inflammatory, necrotic, or hemorrhagic disease) suggested the specimens were nonrepresentative of the underlying disease process identified via CT (aggressive or malignant disease). Clinical signs at the time dogs were evaluated included open-mouth breathing, sneezing, or unilateral epistaxis. Histologic findings pertaining to the original biopsy specimens were suggestive of benign processes such as inflammation. In an attempt to obtain better representative specimens, a frameless CT-guided stereotactic biopsy system (CTSBS) was used to collect additional biopsy specimens from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of the dogs. The second set of biopsy specimens was histologically evaluated. Histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens collected via the CTSBS revealed results suggestive of malignant neoplasia (specifically, chondrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, or undifferentiated sarcoma) for 3 dogs, mild mixed-cell inflammation for 1 dog, and hamartoma for 1 dog. No complications were reported. These findings resulted in a change in treatment recommendations for 3 dogs and confirmed that no additional treatment was required for 1 dog (with hamartoma). For the remaining dog, in which CT findings and clinical history were strongly suggestive of neoplasia, the final diagnosis was rhinitis. Biopsy specimens were safely collected from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of dogs by use of a frameless CTSBS, allowing a definitive diagnosis that was unachievable with other biopsy approaches.

  11. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of biopsy being performed or the design of the biopsy machine, a biopsy of tissue ... cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  12. Ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Wong, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of synovium is an increasingly performed procedure with a high diagnostic yield. In this review, we discuss the normal synovium, as well as the indications, technique, tissue handling and clinical applications of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. PMID:26581578

  13. KI-67 heterogeneity in well differentiated gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: when is biopsy reliable for grade assessment?

    PubMed

    Grillo, Federica; Valle, Luca; Ferone, Diego; Albertelli, Manuela; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Cittadini, Giuseppe; Vanoli, Alessandro; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2017-09-01

    Ki-67 heterogeneity can impact on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor grade assignment, especially when tissue is scarce. This work is aimed at devising adequacy criteria for grade assessment in biopsy specimens. To analyze the impact of biopsy size on reliability, 360 virtual biopsies of different thickness and lengths were constructed. Furthermore, to estimate the mean amount of non-neoplastic tissue component present in biopsies, 28 real biopsies were collected, the non-neoplastic components (fibrosis and inflammation) quantified and the effective area of neoplastic tissue calculated for each biopsy. Heterogeneity of Ki-67 distribution, G2 tumors and biopsy size all play an important role in reducing the reliability of biopsy samples in Ki-67-based grade assignment. In particular in G2 cases, 59.9% of virtual biopsies downgraded the tumor and the smaller the biopsy, the more frequent downgrading occurs. In real biopsies the presence of non-neoplastic tissue reduced the available total area by a mean of 20%. By coupling the results from these two different approaches we show that both biopsy size and non-neoplastic component must be taken into account for biopsy adequacy. In particular, we can speculate that if the minimum biopsy area, necessary to confidently (80% concordance) grade gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors on virtual biopsies ranges between 15 and 30 mm 2 , and if real biopsies are on average composed of only 80% of neoplastic tissue, then biopsies with a surface area not <12 mm 2 should be performed; using 18G needles, this corresponds to a minimum total length of 15 mm.

  14. Ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies may assist in diagnosing mitochondrial cytopathy when muscle biopsies yield negative results.

    PubMed

    McAfee, John L; Warren, Christine B; Prayson, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of skin biopsies has been utilized for diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. This study investigates how frequently skin biopsies reveal mitochondrial abnormalities, correlates skin and muscle biopsy findings, and describes clinical diagnoses rendered following the evaluation. A retrospective review of surgical pathology reports from 1990 to 2015 identified skin biopsies examined by electron microscopy for suspected metabolic disease. A total of 630 biopsies were included from 615 patients. Of these patients, 178 also underwent a muscle biopsy. Of the 630 skin biopsies, 75 (12%) showed ultrastructural abnormalities and 34 (5%) specifically showed mitochondrial abnormalities including increased size (n=27), reduced or abnormal cristae (n=23), dense matrices (n=20), and increased number (n=8). Additional findings included lysosomal abnormalities (n=13), lipid accumulation (n=2) or glycogen accumulation (n=1). Of the 34 patients with mitochondrial abnormalities on skin biopsy, 20 also had muscle biopsies performed and nine showed abnormalities suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder including absent cytochrome oxidase staining (n=2), increased subsarcolemmal NADH, SDH, or cytochrome oxidase staining (n=1), or ultrastructural findings including large mitochondrial size (n=5), abnormal mitochondrial structure (n=5), and increased mitochondrial number (n=4). The most common presenting symptoms were intellectual disability (n=13), seizures (n=12), encephalopathy (n=9), and gastrointestinal disturbances (n=9). At last known follow-up, 12 patients had a definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder. One patient each had Complex I deficiency, Complex III deficiency, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Our results suggest that skin biopsy sometimes yields diagnostic clues suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy in cases with a negative muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Number of Biopsies in Diagnosing Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wehrschuetz, M.; Wehrschuetz, E.; Portugaller, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the number of specimens to be obtained from pulmonary lesions to get the highest possible accuracy in histological work-up. Materials and methods: A retrospective evaluation (January 1999 to April 2004) covered 260 patients with thoracic lesions who underwent computer tomography (CT)-guided core-cut biopsy in coaxial technique. All biopsies were performed utilizing a 19 gauge introducer needle and a 20 gauge core-cut biopsy needle. In all, 669 usable biopsies were taken (from 1–5 biopsies in each setting). The specimens were marked sequentially and each biopsy was worked up histologicaly. The biopsy results were correlated to histology after surgery, clinical follow-up or autopsy. The number of biopsies was determined that is necessary to achieve the highest possible accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary lesions. Results: In 591 of 669 biopsies (88.3%), there were correct positive results. The overall accuracy was 87.4%. In 193 of 260 (74.2%) patients, a suspected malignancy was confirmed. In 50 of 260 (19.2%) patients, a benign lesion was correctly diagnosed. Seventeen (6.5%) patients were lost to follow-up. The first, second and third biopsies had cumulative accuracies of 63.6%, 89.2% and 91.5%, respectively (P < 0.02). More biopsies did not show any higher impact on accuracy. Conclusion: For the highest possible accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary lesions by CT-guided core-cut biopsy, at least three usable specimens are recommended to be taken. PMID:21157523

  16. Optimization of prostate biopsy: the role of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy in detection, localization and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Meng, Xiaosong; Le Nobin, Julien; Wysock, James S; Lepor, Herbert; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Taneja, Samir S

    2014-09-01

    Optimization of prostate biopsy requires addressing the shortcomings of standard systematic transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, including false-negative rates, incorrect risk stratification, detection of clinically insignificant disease and the need for repeat biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of biopsy, and thereby enhances clinical risk assessment and improves the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. In this review we 1) summarize the various sequences that comprise a prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging examination along with its performance characteristics in cancer detection, localization and reporting standards; 2) evaluate potential applications of magnetic resonance imaging targeting in prostate biopsy among men with no previous biopsy, a negative previous biopsy and those with low stage cancer; and 3) describe the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy and comparative study outcomes. A bibliographic search covering the period up to October 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE®/PubMed®. Articles were reviewed and categorized based on which of the 3 objectives of this review was addressed. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging consists of anatomical T2-weighted imaging coupled with at least 2 functional imaging techniques. It has demonstrated improved prostate cancer detection sensitivity up to 80% in the peripheral zone and 81% in the transition zone. A prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score has been developed, and is depicted using the Likert or PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) scale for better standardization of magnetic resonance imaging interpretation and reporting. Among men with no previous biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging increases the frequency of significant cancer detection to 50

  17. Possibility of transrectal photoacoustic imaging-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Shinchi, Masayuki; Horiguchi, Akio; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Asano, Tomohiko

    2017-03-01

    A transrectral ultrasonography (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is mandatory for histological diagnosis in patients with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but its diagnostic accuracy is not satisfactory; therefore, a considerable number of patients are forced to have an unnecessary repeated biopsy. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has the ability to visualize the distribution of hemoglobin clearly. Thus, there is the potential to acquire different maps of small vessel networks between cancerous and normal tissue. We developed an original TRUS-type PA probe consisting of a microconvex array transducer with an optical illumination system providing coregistered PA and ultrasound images. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the clinical possibility of a transrectral PA image. The prostate biopsy cores obtained by transrectal systemic biopsies under TRUS guidance were stained with HE staining and anti-CD34 antibodies as a marker of the endothelium of the blood vessel in order to find a pattern in the map of a small vessel network, which allows for imaging-based identification of prostate cancer. We analyzed the association of PA signal patterns, the cancer location by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, and the pathological diagnosis with CD34 stains as a prospective intervention study. In order to demonstrate the TRUS-merged-with-PA imaging guided targeted biopsy combined with a standard biopsy for capturing the clinically significant tumors, we developed a puncture needle guide attachment for the original TRUS-type PA probe.

  18. Relationship Between Prebiopsy Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Biopsy Indication, and MRI-ultrasound Fusion-targeted Prostate Biopsy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaosong; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendhiratta, Neil; Fenstermaker, Michael; Huang, Richard; Wysock, James S; Bjurlin, Marc A; Marshall, Susan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Taneja, Samir S

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-ultrasound fusion-targeted prostate biopsy (MRF-TB) to improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) while limiting detection of indolent disease compared to systematic 12-core biopsy (SB). To compare MRF-TB and SB results and investigate the relationship between biopsy outcomes and prebiopsy MRI. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired cohort of men presenting for prostate biopsy over a 26-mo period. A total of 601 of 803 consecutively eligible men were included. All men were offered prebiopsy MRI and assigned a maximum MRI suspicion score (mSS). Men with an MRI abnormality underwent combined MRF-TB and SB. Detection rates for all PCa and high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7) were compared using the McNemar test. MRF-TB detected fewer GS 6 PCas (75 vs 121; p<0.001) and more GS ≥7 PCas (158 vs 117; p<0.001) than SB. Higher mSS was associated with higher detection of GS ≥7 PCa (p<0.001) but was not correlated with detection of GS 6 PCa. Prediction of GS ≥7 disease by mSS varied according to biopsy history. Compared to SB, MRF-TB identified more GS ≥7 PCas in men with no prior biopsy (88 vs 72; p=0.012), in men with a prior negative biopsy (28 vs 16; p=0.010), and in men with a prior cancer diagnosis (42 vs 29; p=0.043). MRF-TB detected fewer GS 6 PCas in men with no prior biopsy (32 vs 60; p<0.001) and men with prior cancer (30 vs 46; p=0.034). Limitations include the retrospective design and the potential for selection bias given a referral population. MRF-TB detects more high-grade PCas than SB while limiting detection of GS 6 PCa in men presenting for prostate biopsy. These findings suggest that prebiopsy multiparametric MRI and MRF-TB should be considered for all men undergoing prostate biopsy. In addition, mSS in conjunction with biopsy indications may ultimately help in identifying men at low risk of high-grade cancer for whom prostate biopsy

  19. Laparoscopic ovarian biopsy pick-up method for goats.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fabiana A S; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Souza, Samara S; Silva, Yago P; Freitas, Vicente J F; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2018-02-01

    Biopsy pick-up (BPU) has been considered a safe method to harvest ovarian fragments from live animals. However, no studies have been reported on the use of BPU to collect in vivo ovarian tissue in goats. The goals of this study were: (i) to test different biopsy needle sizes to collect ovarian tissue in situ using the BPU method (Experiment 1), and (ii) to study ovarian tissue features such as preantral follicle density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density in ovarian fragments obtained in vivo through a laparoscopic BPU method (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, goat ovaries (n = 20) were collected in a slaughterhouse and subjected to in situ BPU. Three needles (16, 18, and 20G) were tested. In Experiment 2, the most efficient biopsy needle from Experiment 1 was used to perform laparoscopic BPU in goats (n = 8). In Experiment 1, the recovery rate was greater (P < 0.05; range 50-62%) with 16G and 18G needles than the 20G (17%) needle. The mean weight of ovarian fragments collected by the 16G needle was greater (P < 0.05) than the 18G and the 20G needle. In Experiment 2, 62 biopsy attempts were performed and 52 ovarian fragments were collected (90% success rate). Overall, 2054 preantral follicles were recorded in 5882 histological sections analyzed. Mean preantral follicular density was 28.4 ± 1.3 follicles per cm 2 . The follicular density differed (P < 0.05) among animals and ovarian fragments within the same animal. The mean stromal cell density in the ovarian fragments was 37.1 ± 0.5 cells per 2500 μm 2 , and differed (P < 0.05) among animals. Moreover, preantral follicle density and stromal cell density were associated (P < 0.001). The percentage of morphologically normal follicles was 70.1 ± 1.2, and differed (P < 0.05) among animals. The majority (79%) of the morphologically normal follicles was classified as primordial follicles, and differed (P < 0.05) among animals and between ovaries. In summary, a

  20. Molecular imaging of melanin distribution in vivo and quantitative differential diagnosis of human pigmented lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; Wei, Ming-Liang; Su, Yu-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Harmonic generation microscopy is a noninvasive repetitive imaging technique that provides real-time 3D microscopic images of human skin with a sub-femtoliter resolution and high penetration down to the reticular dermis. In this talk, we show that with a strong resonance effect, the third-harmonic-generation (THG) modality provides enhanced contrast on melanin and allows not only differential diagnosis of various pigmented skin lesions but also quantitative imaging for longterm tracking. This unique capability makes THG microscopy the only label-free technique capable of identifying the active melanocytes in human skin and to image their different dendriticity patterns. In this talk, we will review our recent efforts to in vivo image melanin distribution and quantitatively diagnose pigmented skin lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy. This talk will first cover the spectroscopic study on the melanin enhanced THG effect in human cells and the calibration strategy inside human skin for quantitative imaging. We will then review our recent clinical trials including: differential diagnosis capability study on pigmented skin tumors; as well as quantitative virtual biopsy study on pre- and post- treatment evaluation on melasma and solar lentigo. Our study indicates the unmatched capability of harmonic generation microscopy to perform virtual biopsy for noninvasive histopathological diagnosis of various pigmented skin tumors, as well as its unsurpassed capability to noninvasively reveal the pathological origin of different hyperpigmentary diseases on human face as well as to monitor the efficacy of laser depigmentation treatments. This work is sponsored by National Health Research Institutes.

  1. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  2. Histological Value of Duodenal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Limci; B., Hamid

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to see the value of histopathological diagnosis in management of patients with duodenal biopsies; to look for correlation of histology and serology in suspected cases of coeliac disease; the reasons for taking duodenal biopsies and whether proper adequate histories are provided on the forms sent with request for histopathological view on duodenal biopsies. Here are the observations of the study followed by the discussion. PMID:15915293

  3. Comparison of Battery-Powered and Manual Bone Biopsy Systems for Core Needle Biopsy of Sclerotic Bone Lesions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Micah G; McMahon, Colm J; Kung, Justin W; Wu, Jim S

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare manual and battery-powered bone biopsy systems for diagnostic yield and procedural factors during core needle biopsy of sclerotic bone lesions. A total of 155 consecutive CT-guided core needle biopsies of sclerotic bone lesions were performed at one institution from January 2006 to November 2014. Before March 2012, lesions were biopsied with manual bone drill systems. After March 2012, most biopsies were performed with a battery-powered system and either noncoaxial or coaxial biopsy needles. Diagnostic yield, crush artifact, CT procedure time, procedure radiation dose, conscious sedation dose, and complications were compared between the manual and battery-powered core needle biopsy systems by Fisher exact test and t test. One-way ANOVA was used for subgroup analysis of the two battery-powered systems for procedure time and radiation dose. The diagnostic yield for all sclerotic lesions was 60.0% (93/155) and was significantly higher with the battery-powered system (73.0% [27/37]) than with the manual systems (55.9% [66/118]) (p = 0.047). There was no significant difference between the two systems in terms of crush artifact, procedure time, radiation dose, conscious sedation administered, or complications. In subgroup analysis, the coaxial battery-powered biopsies had shorter procedure times (p = 0.01) and lower radiation doses (p = 0.002) than the coaxial manual systems, but the noncoaxial battery-powered biopsies had longer average procedure times and higher radiation doses than the coaxial manual systems. In biopsy of sclerotic bone lesions, use of a battery-powered bone drill system improves diagnostic yield over use of a manual system.

  4. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  5. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... report). The biopsy test is not an exact science. In cases of difficult or unusual problems, second opinions can be helpful. Back to Index The medical information provided in this site is for educational purposes only and is the property of the American ...

  6. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of in-office cup forcep biopsies versus operating room biopsies for laryngopharyngeal tumors.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Harini; Noordzij, J Pieter; Samim, Arang; Jalisi, Scharukh; Grillone, Gregory A

    2012-09-01

    To compare the diagnostic yield, safety, and cost of biopsies of laryngopharyngeal tumor performed in an office setting with those performed in the operating room (OR) under general anesthesia. This was a retrospective review of patients' records at Boston Medical Center from 2006 to 2008. In-office biopsies were performed using flexible digital videolaryngoscopy with cup forcep biopsies taken via the working channel in patients in whom cancer was strongly suspected. Patients whose in-office biopsies were nondiagnostic or suspected to be falsely negative were taken to the OR for biopsy under general anesthesia and served as the control group. Twelve patients fit the selection criteria and had in-office biopsies attempted. One patient could not tolerate the in-office biopsy. Seven of the 11 in-office biopsies performed were diagnostic for squamous cell carcinoma. The average cost (facility and professional otolaryngology charges) for an in-office biopsy was $2053.91. Five of these patients required further biopsy in the OR at an average cost (charges for surgeon, OR, anesthesia, and recovery room) of $9024.47. There were no significant complications reported for any of the procedures. In patients with strongly suspected laryngopharyngeal cancer, in-office cup forcep biopsies were 64% diagnostic. When compared with the OR, in-office cup biopsies of laryngopharyngeal tumor are safe and considerably more cost-effective. Although 36% of patients required operative biopsies, the cost would have been considerably higher in this cohort if all patients had gone to the OR for biopsies. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the biopsy punch, gastrointestinal mechanical biopsy instrument, suction... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is a...

  8. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the biopsy punch, gastrointestinal mechanical biopsy instrument, suction... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is a...

  9. Outcomes of ultrasound guided renal mass biopsies.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Edward L; Choromanska, Agnieszka; Al-Katib, Sayf; Coffey, Mary

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsies (RMBs) at our institution and to determine what patient, procedural, and focal renal mass (FRM) factors were associated with nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided RMBs. Eighty-two ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsies performed between January 2014 and October 2016 were included in our study. Biopsy outcomes (diagnostic vs. nondiagnostic) and patient, procedural, and FRM characteristics were retrospectively reviewed and recorded. Univariate statistical analyses were performed to identify biopsy characteristics that were indicative of nondiagnostic biopsy. Ultrasound-guided RMBs were diagnostic in 70 out of 82 cases (85%) and non-diagnostic in 12 cases (15%). Among the diagnostic biopsies, 54 (77%) were malignant cases, 94% of which were renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Of the 12 nondiagnostic cases, the final diagnosis was RCC in 4 cases and angiomyolipoma in one case; seven of the nondiagnostic cases were lost to follow-up. A weak association (p = 0.04) was found between the number of needle passes and the biopsy outcome. None of the remaining collected RMB characteristics showed a significant correlation with a diagnostic or nondiagnostic RMB. Six patients (7%) experienced complications. Ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsy is a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of renal masses with a low rate of nondiagnostic outcomes. A nondiagnostic biopsy should not be treated as a surrogate for a diagnosis since a significant number of patients with nondiagnostic biopsies have subsequently been shown to have renal malignancies. Repeat biopsy should be considered in such cases.

  10. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... biopsy instrument, gastro-urology biopsy needle and needle set, and nonelectric biopsy forceps. This... regulations. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for the biopsy forceps cover and the non-electric biopsy forceps. The devices subject to this paragraph (b)(2) are exempt from...

  11. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... biopsy instrument, gastro-urology biopsy needle and needle set, and nonelectric biopsy forceps. This... regulations. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for the biopsy forceps cover and the non-electric biopsy forceps. The devices subject to this paragraph (b)(2) are exempt from...

  12. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... biopsy instrument, gastro-urology biopsy needle and needle set, and nonelectric biopsy forceps. This... regulations. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for the biopsy forceps cover and the non-electric biopsy forceps. The devices subject to this paragraph (b)(2) are exempt from...

  13. Atypical ulcers: wound biopsy results from a university wound pathology service .

    PubMed

    Tang, Jennifer C; Vivas, Alejandra; Rey, Andrea; Kirsner, Robert S; Romanelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    Chronic wounds are an increasing health burden across the continuum of care and encountered by a wide variety of healthcare providers and physicians of all specialties. The majority of chronic wounds are caused by vascular insufficiency, neuropathy, or prolonged pressure. Wounds caused by other underlying health conditions or external factors such as radiation or spider bites are usually referred to as atypical. Although a wound biopsy generally is recommended in the case of refractory, nonhealing ulcers or when wounds present with atypical signs and symptoms, little is known about the distribution of atypical ulcers. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted to describe the proportion and differential diagnosis of atypical ulcer biopsies received during a 2-year period by the wound pathology division in the division of Dermatopathology at the University of Miami Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery. Of the 350 wound biopsies received for diagnostic purposes, 104 (29.7%) were due to atypical causes. The majority of specimens were neoplasms (n = 24). Pyoderma gangrenosum was the most common atypical diagnosis encountered (n = 14). Vasculitis, predominantly leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and external causes were diagnosed in 16 and 15 biopsies, respectively. This study represents the first published case series of atypical ulcer biopsy results from a wound pathology division. Although the prevalence results cannot be generalized and are likely lower in the general population of patients with nonhealing wounds, the results confirm the usefulness of obtaining wound biopsies to provide a definitive diagnosis and to guide care.

  14. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma.We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern.Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones.Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions.

  15. Association between HIV status and Positive Prostate Biopsy in a Study of U.S. Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Wayland; Anastasia, Katrina; Hall, John; Goodman, Michael; Rimland, David; Ritenour, Chad W. M.; Issa, Muta M.

    2009-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with increased incidence of malignancies, such as lymphomas and testicular cancers. We reviewed the relationship between HIV infection and prostate cancer in a contemporary series of prostate biopsy patients. The study is a retrospective analysis of consecutive prostate biopsies performed at a VA Medical Center. The indications for performing a prostate biopsy included an abnormal digital rectal examination and/or an elevated PSA. Patients were categorized according to their HIV status, biopsy results, and various demographic and clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared distributions of HIV status, and various clinical and demographic characteristics. The adjusted measures of association between HIV status and positive biopsy were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The likelihood of positive biopsy was significantly higher among 18 HIV-positive patients compared to patients with negative HIV tests (adjusted OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.3–11.5). In analyses restricted to prostate cancer patients, HIV-positive patients were not different from the remaining group with respect to their prostate cancer stage, PSA level, PSA velocity, PSA density, or Gleason grade. There is an association between HIV infection and prostate biopsy positive for carcinoma in a population referred for urologic workup. Further confirmation of this association by prospective studies may impact the current screening practices in HIV patients. PMID:19219374

  16. Outpatient biopsy of breast cancer. Influence on survival.

    PubMed Central

    Bertario, L; Reduzzi, D; Piromalli, D; Piva, L; Di Pietro, S

    1985-01-01

    From 1948 to 1975, at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan, 209 patients underwent extended radical mastectomy (ERM) for breast cancer classified as T1 NO-1 MO. In 57 patients (27.3%), the ERM was preceded by an excisional biopsy performed in the outpatient clinic (Group A), of which 75% were performed within 30 days of admission and 25% after 30 days (average, 25 days; range 5-99). The remaining 152 patients (Group B) underwent an extemporaneous frozen biopsy. There was no difference in the distribution of the histologic types in the two groups. The axillary lymph nodes (N) and the internal mammary chain (MI) were free of neoplastic invasion (N-, MI-) in 156 patients (74.6%), 44 in Group A (77.2%) and 112 in Group B (73.7%). Actuarial 10-year survival of the patients was 79.9% in Group A and 77.7% in Group B (p = NS). It was 90% in N- MI- patients of Group A and 81.9% in those of Group B (p = NS). Instead, for N+ patients, actuarial survival at 10 years was 50% in Group A and 67% in Group B (p = NS), and for MI+ patients it was 50% and 49.8%, respectively. These present data do not support the hypothesis that a delay between biopsy and radical surgery of breast cancer is an important prognostic factor. PMID:3966829

  17. MRI-Targeted or Standard Biopsy for Prostate-Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Rannikko, Antti S; Borghi, Marcelo; Panebianco, Valeria; Mynderse, Lance A; Vaarala, Markku H; Briganti, Alberto; Budäus, Lars; Hellawell, Giles; Hindley, Richard G; Roobol, Monique J; Eggener, Scott; Ghei, Maneesh; Villers, Arnauld; Bladou, Franck; Villeirs, Geert M; Virdi, Jaspal; Boxler, Silvan; Robert, Grégoire; Singh, Paras B; Venderink, Wulphert; Hadaschik, Boris A; Ruffion, Alain; Hu, Jim C; Margolis, Daniel; Crouzet, Sébastien; Klotz, Laurence; Taneja, Samir S; Pinto, Peter; Gill, Inderbir; Allen, Clare; Giganti, Francesco; Freeman, Alex; Morris, Stephen; Punwani, Shonit; Williams, Norman R; Brew-Graves, Chris; Deeks, Jonathan; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Emberton, Mark; Moore, Caroline M

    2018-05-10

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without targeted biopsy, is an alternative to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy for prostate-cancer detection in men with a raised prostate-specific antigen level who have not undergone biopsy. However, comparative evidence is limited. In a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously to undergo MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, or standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy. Men in the MRI-targeted biopsy group underwent a targeted biopsy (without standard biopsy cores) if the MRI was suggestive of prostate cancer; men whose MRI results were not suggestive of prostate cancer were not offered biopsy. Standard biopsy was a 10-to-12-core, transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy. The primary outcome was the proportion of men who received a diagnosis of clinically significant cancer. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of men who received a diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancer. A total of 500 men underwent randomization. In the MRI-targeted biopsy group, 71 of 252 men (28%) had MRI results that were not suggestive of prostate cancer, so they did not undergo biopsy. Clinically significant cancer was detected in 95 men (38%) in the MRI-targeted biopsy group, as compared with 64 of 248 (26%) in the standard-biopsy group (adjusted difference, 12 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 20; P=0.005). MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, was noninferior to standard biopsy, and the 95% confidence interval indicated the superiority of this strategy over standard biopsy. Fewer men in the MRI-targeted biopsy group than in the standard-biopsy group received a diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancer (adjusted difference, -13 percentage points; 95% CI, -19 to -7; P<0.001). The use of risk assessment with MRI before biopsy and MRI-targeted biopsy was superior to

  18. Sonographically guided percutaneous muscle biopsy in diagnosis of neuromuscular disease: a useful alternative to open surgical biopsy.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Paul J; Gorman, Grainne M; Hardiman, Orla M; Farrell, Michael J; Logan, P Mark

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sonographically guided percutaneous muscle biopsy in the investigation of neuromuscular disorders. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle was performed with a 14-gauge core biopsy system in 40 patients over a 24-month period. Patients were referred from the Department of Neurology under investigation for neuromuscular disorders. Sonography was used to find suitable tissue and to avoid major vascular structures. A local anesthetic was applied below skin only. A 3- to 4-mm incision was made. Three 14-gauge samples were obtained from each patient. All samples were placed on saline-dampened gauze and sent for neuropathologic analysis. As a control, we retrospectively assessed results of the 40 most recent muscle samples acquired via open surgical biopsy. With the use of sonography, 32 (80%) of 40 patients had a histologic diagnosis made via percutaneous needle biopsy. This included 26 (93%) of 28 patients with acute muscular disease and 6 (50%) of 12 patients with chronic disease. In the surgical group (all acute disease), 38 (95%) of 40 patients had diagnostic tissue attained. Sonographically guided percutaneous 14-gauge core skeletal muscle biopsy is a useful procedure, facilitating diagnosis in acute muscular disease. It provides results comparable with those of open surgical biopsy in acute muscular disease. It may also be used in chronic muscular disease but repeated or open biopsy may be needed.

  19. Are concurrent systematic cores needed at the time of targeted biopsy in patients with prior negative prostate biopsies?

    PubMed

    Albisinni, S; Aoun, F; Noel, A; El Rassy, E; Lemort, M; Paesmans, M; van Velthoven, R; Roumeguère, T; Peltier, A

    2018-01-01

    MRI-guided targeted biopsies are advised in patients who have undergone an initial series of negative systematic biopsies, in whom prostate cancer (PCa) suspicion remains elevated. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether, in men with prior negative prostate biopsies, systematic cores are also warranted at the time of an MRI-targeted repeat biopsy. We enrolled patients with prior negative biopsy undergoing real time MRI/TRUS fusion guided prostate biopsy at our institute between 2014 and 2016. Patients with at least one index lesion on multiparametric MRI were included. All eligible patients underwent both systematic random biopsies (12-14 cores) and targeted biopsies (2-4 cores). The study included 74 men with a median age of 65 years, PSA level of 9.27ng/mL, and prostatic volume of 45ml. The overall PCa detection rate and the clinically significant cancer detection rate were 56.7% and 39.2%, respectively. Targeted cores demonstrated similar clinically significant PCa detection rate compared to systematic cores (33.8% vs. 28.4%, P=0.38) with significantly less tissue sampling. Indeed, a combination approach was significantly superior to a targeted-only in overall PCa detection (+16.7% overall detection rate, P=0.007). Although differences in clinically significant PCa detection were statistically non-significant (P=0.13), a combination approach did allow detecting 7 extra clinically significant PCas (+13.8%). In patients with elevated PSA and prior negative biopsies, concurrent systematic sampling may be needed at the time of targeted biopsy in order to maximize PCa detection rate. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the complications of traditional 12 cores transrectal prostate biopsy with image fusion guided transperineal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Tingsheng; Zhang, Qing; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Lian, Huibo; Guo, Hongqian

    2016-11-17

    To compare the complications of traditional transrectal (TR) prostate biopsy and image fusion guided transperineal (TP) prostate biopsy in our center. Two hundred and fourty-two patients who underwent prostate biopsy from August 2014 to January 2015were reviewed. Among them, 144 patients underwent systematic 12-core transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy (TR approach) while 98 patients underwent free-hand transperineal targeted biopsy with TRUS and multi-parameter magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) fusion images (TP approach). The complications of the two groups were presented and a simple statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups. The cohort of our study include242 patients, including 144 patients underwent TR biopsies while 98 patients underwentTP biopsies. There was no significant difference of major complications, including sepsis, bleeding and other complication requiring admissionbetween the two groups (P > 0.05). The incidence rate of infection and rectal bleeding in TR was much higher than TP (p < 0.05), but the incidence rate of perineal swelling in TP was much higher than TR (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences of minor complications including hematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), dysuria, and acuteurinary retention between the two groups (p > 0.05). The present study supports the safety of both techniques. Free-handTP targeted prostate biopsy with real-time fusion imaging of mpMRI and TR ultrasound is a good approach for prostate biopsy.

  1. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... portion of the lump is removed surgically. This type of biopsy is most commonly used for tumors of the skin to distinguish benign conditions and diagnose cancers and other tumors. This can be done by 'shave', 'curette' or 'punch' methods. A " shave " slices a surface portion off with ...

  2. Comparison of Transjugular Liver Biopsy and Percutaneous Liver Biopsy With Tract Embolization in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Tulin-Silver, Sheryl; Obi, Chrystal; Kothary, Nishita; Lungren, Matthew

    2018-03-05

    The aim of the study was to compare safety and efficacy of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) with tract embolization in pediatric patients with liver disease. TJLB and PLB between December 2009 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Primary endpoints were adequate sampling and complication rate. Patient age, weight, coagulation factors, ascites, blood transfusions, adequacy of biopsy sample, number of biopsy samples, and complications were compared. There were 39 TJLB (average age 10.6 years) and 120 PLB (average age 7.1 years) (P value <0.05). Average weight was 40.2 kg for TJLB and 26.8 kg for PLB (P value <0.05). Average platelets were 155 for TJLB and 252 for PLB (P value <0.05). Average INR was 1.7 for TJLB and 1.3 for PLB (P value <0.05). Mean postbiopsy hematocrit decrease was 0.8 and 0.9, for TJLB and PLB, respectively. Mean postbiopsy hemoglobin decrease was 0.3 in both groups. Number of core biopsy samples was 4.5 and 4.3, for TJLB and PLB, respectively. There was 1 biopsy yielding insufficient sample in each group. TJLB had 1 (2.6%) complication of supraventricular tachycardia. PLB had 4 (3.3%) complications, with 1 hemoperitoneum, 1 hypotension, 1 patient with decreased hemoglobin, and 1 patient with bilious drainage from the biopsy site. TJLB and PLB with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization are both safe and effective for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in pediatric patients. To avoid radiation, PLB may be considered as first-line approach in the pediatric population, even in the setting of coagulopathy.

  3. [Muscle biopsy in children: Usefulness in 2012].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Maurage, C-A; Carpentier, A; Briand, G; Thévenon, A; Rouaix, N; Vallée, L

    2013-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a mainstay diagnostic tool for investigating neuromuscular disorders in children. We report the yield of pediatric muscle biopsy in a population of 415 children by a retrospective study of 419 biopsies performed between 1/01/2000 and 31/12/2009 in a neuropediatric department, including mitochondrial respiratory chain analysis for 87 children. Two hundred and fifty-five biopsies were from boys (61%) 164 from girls (39%). Their mean age at biopsy was 6.5years; 155 (37%) biopsies were obtained before the child was 5years old. Final histopathological diagnoses were: congenital myopathy (n=193, including 15 structural congenital myopathies); progressive muscular dystrophy (n=75 [18%] including 57 dystrophinopathies); congenital muscular dystrophy (n=17, including six primary merosinopathies); dermatomyositis (n=11); spinal muscular atrophy (n=9, including six atypical spinal muscular atrophies); metabolic myopathy (n=32, including 19 mitochondrial myopathies); encephalomyopathy (n=53 [13%], including 27 with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect). Pathological diagnosis remained undetermined in 16 cases. In 184 patients (44%), the muscle biopsy revealed specific histopathological anomalies (dystrophic process; specific ultrastructural abnormalities; perifascicular atrophy; neurogenic atrophy; metabolic anomalies) enabling a precise etiological diagnosis. For 85% of progressive muscular dystrophies, the biopsy resulted in a genetic diagnosis after identification of the protein defect. In 15% of the congenital myopathies, histopathological anomalies focused attention on one or several genes. Concerning dystrophinopathies, quantification of dystrophin deficiency on the biopsy specimen contributed to the definition of the clinical phenotype: Duchenne, or Becker. In children with a myopathy, muscle biopsy is often indispensable to establish the etiological diagnosis. Based on the results from this series, muscle biopsy can provide a precise

  4. Coeliac disease: to biopsy or not?

    PubMed

    Reilly, Norelle R; Husby, Steffen; Sanders, David S; Green, Peter H R

    2018-01-01

    Coeliac disease is increasingly recognized as a global problem in both children and adults. Traditionally, the findings of characteristic changes of villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytosis identified in duodenal biopsy samples taken during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have been required for diagnosis. Although biopsies remain advised as necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in adults, European guidelines for children provide a biopsy-sparing diagnostic pathway. This approach has been enabled by the high specificity and sensitivity of serological testing. However, these guidelines are not universally accepted. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of a biopsy-avoiding pathway for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, especially in this current era of the call for more biopsies, even from the duodenal bulb, in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. In addition, a contrast between paediatric and adult guidelines is presented.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of electrocoagulation-enabled biopsy versus conventional biopsy in the diagnosis of endobronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ajmal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Bal, Amanjit; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Although electrocoagulation at time of endobronchial biopsy can potentially reduce procedure-related bleeding during fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB), it can also impair quality of tissue specimen; credible data for either are lacking. To evaluate the impact of hot biopsy on the quality of tissue samples and to quantify the amount of procedure-related bleeding during endobronchial biopsy. In this single-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled study we included adult patients referred for FOB and having endobronchial lesions. Patients were randomized to bronchial biopsy using an electrocoagulation-enabled biopsy forceps, with (EC+ group) or without (EC- group) application of electrocoagulation current (40 W for 10 s in a monopolar mode). Procedure-related bleeding was semi-quantified by observer description, as well as through a visual analogue scale. Overall quality of biopsy specimen and tissue damage were assessed and graded by a pulmonary pathologist blinded to FOB details. 160 patients were randomized to endobronchial biopsy with (n = 81) or without (n = 79) the application of electrocoagulation. There were no severe bleeding episodes in either group, and severity of bleeding in the EC+ and EC- groups was similar (median visual analogue scale scores of 14 and 16, respectively). Histopathological diagnosis was similar in the EC+ and EC- groups (77.8% and 82.3%, respectively). There was no significant difference in tissue quality between the two groups. Use of electrocoagulation-enabled endobronchial biopsy does not alter specimen quality and does not result in any significant reduction in procedure-related bleeding. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue samples are also vital to an accurate diagnosis—celiac disease can cause patchy lesions in the duodenum which ... to perform an intestinal biopsy to establish the diagnosis of celiac disease in a patient with DH; the skin biopsy ...

  7. Automated quantitative muscle biopsy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An automated system to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases by producing fiber size histograms utilizing histochemically stained muscle biopsy tissue. Televised images of the microscopic fibers are processed electronically by a multi-microprocessor computer, which isolates, measures, and classifies the fibers and displays the fiber size distribution. The architecture of the multi-microprocessor computer, which is iterated to any required degree of complexity, features a series of individual microprocessors P.sub.n each receiving data from a shared memory M.sub.n-1 and outputing processed data to a separate shared memory M.sub.n+1 under control of a program stored in dedicated memory M.sub.n.

  8. The liquid biopsy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Junaid; Yun, Jungmi W; Kompelli, Anvesh R; Moufarrej, Youmna E; Alexander, Jonathan S; Herrera, Guillermo A; Shackelford, Rodney E

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has significantly increased over the last century, largely due to smoking, and remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. This is often due to lung cancer first presenting at late stages and a lack of curative therapeutic options at these later stages. Delayed diagnoses, inadequate tumor sampling, and lung cancer misdiagnoses are also not uncommon due to the limitations of the tissue biopsy. Our better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the systemic actions of tumors, combined with the recent advent of the liquid biopsy, may allow molecular diagnostics to be done on circulating tumor markers, particularly circulating tumor DNA. Multiple liquid biopsy molecular methods are presently being examined to determine their efficacy as surrogates to the tumor tissue biopsy. This review will focus on new liquid biopsy technologies and how they may assist in lung cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

  9. Clinical usefulness of temporal artery biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Vilaseca, J; González, A; Cid, M C; Lopez-Vivancos, J; Ortega, A

    1987-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic usefulness of temporal artery biopsy in temporal arteritis (TA) and establish clinical features capable of predicting its positivity we have retrospectively studied the biopsy specimens and the clinical features of 103 patients who had undergone temporal artery biopsy. Temporal artery biopsy reached a positive predictive value of 90.2% with respect to the final diagnosis based on the criteria proposed by Ellis and Ralston and the clinical course. The simultaneous presence of recent onset headache, jaw claudication, and abnormalities of the temporal arteries on physical examination had a specificity of 94.8% with respect to the histological diagnosis and of 100% with respect to final diagnosis. The presence of any of these clinical features, though of little specificity (34.4%), had a sensitivity of 100% with respect to histological diagnosis, selecting a group of patients in whom temporal artery biopsy has more discriminative value. PMID:3592783

  10. Ventricular fibrillation complicating endomyocardial biopsy of transplanted heart.

    PubMed

    Rozmus, Grzegorz; Patel, Hamang; Rosero, Spencer; Alexis, Jeffrey D

    2013-07-01

    Life-threatening arrhythmia is an unusual complication of endomyocardial biopsy in transplanted heart. Herein we described a case of VF during endomyocardial biopsy. The possibility of VF during a biopsy necessitates immediate access to defibrillation during endomyocardial biopsy. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Problématique de la prise en charge des cancers du sein au Sénégal: une approche transversale

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Serigne Modou Kane; Gueye, Mamour; Coulbary, Sophie Aminata; Diouf, Alassane; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2016-01-01

    L’heure où les thérapeutiques innovantes se multiplient dans le cancer du sein, des pays moins nantis comme le Sénégal accusent encore un retard considérable dans la prise en charge globale de ce type de cancer. Au Sénégal, même si la prise en charge des cancers du sein avancés est actuellement bien codifiée, les résultats en terme de survie et de morbidités sont encore médiocres vu les retards diagnostiques et les traitements mutilants, parfois onéreux et mal tolérés, devenus nécessaires. Pour ces cancers avancés, les défis qui restent à relever résident dans l’érection de centres de soins palliatifs et le développement de la pluridisciplinarité pour améliorer la qualité de vie et l’accompagnement des malades. En revanche, pour les cancers infracliniques ou potentiellement guérissables, les défis restent immenses car il s’agira de les dépister, de bien les localiser et les diagnostiquer aussitôt (biopsie écho guidée ou stéréotaxique) mais également de les opérer de façon précise et entière (repérage – exérèse in sano et radiographie de pièce opératoire) tout en limitant les complications comme celles du curage classique (biopsie du ganglion sentinelle). Il s’agit là autant d’objectifs auxquels nos structures de santé ne sont pas toujours préparées. Cette mise au point est une analyse situationnelle sur les écueils contextuels qui grèvent encore la prise en charge globale des cancers du sein au Sénégal. PMID:28154696

  12. Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... time If your biopsy will be done using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tell your doctor if you ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  13. Randomized in vitro and in vivo evaluation of different biopsy needles and devices for breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Helbich, T H; Rudas, M; Böhm, G; Huber, S; Wagner, T; Taucher, S; Wolf, G; Mostbeck, G H

    1999-01-01

    In an experimental study (in vitro and in vivo) we evaluated the efficacy of various biopsy needles/devices for breast biopsy. In vitro, biopsies of five human cadaveric breast specimens were performed using 33 different needles/devices ranging from 14 to 20-gauge. Of these 33 needles/devices, 22 optimally performing needles were selected for the in vivo study. In the clinical part of the study, 44 breast lesions were randomly biopsied with each of the 22 needles/devices under stereotactic guidance. Tissue specimens were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Several automatic long-throw guns (Acecut, Asap, Biopty, Magnum) obtained greater tissue areas and had a better histopathologic score than the conventional type of a side-notch needle like Trucut, an aspiration needle like Surecut, or an end-cut needle like Autovac. The automatic long-throw guns performed better than the short-throw Monopty gun. Regardless of needle size (14-20-gauge), breast biopsies should be routinely performed with automated long-throw side-notch guns (Acecut, Asap, Biopty, Magnum).

  14. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cross-Correlation Redshifts in the DES -- Calibration of the Weak Lensing Source Redshift Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.; et al.

    We present the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) weak lensing source galaxy redshift distributions from clustering measurements. By cross-correlating the positions of source galaxies with luminous red galaxies selected by the redMaGiC algorithm we measure the redshift distributions of the source galaxies as placed into different tomographic bins. These measurements constrain any such shifts to an accuracy ofmore » $$\\sim0.02$$ and can be computed even when the clustering measurements do not span the full redshift range. The highest-redshift source bin is not constrained by the clustering measurements because of the minimal redshift overlap with the redMaGiC galaxies. We compare our constraints with those obtained from $$\\texttt{COSMOS}$$ 30-band photometry and find that our two very different methods produce consistent constraints.« less

  15. Performance and Cost of Disposable Biopsy Forceps in Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Comparison with Reusable Biopsy Forceps

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Won Chul; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Kyu Yong; Chung, In-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims It is believed that disposable biopsy forceps are more costly than reusable biopsy forceps. In this study, we evaluated performance and cost of disposable forceps versus reusable forceps in esophagogastroduodenoscopic biopsy. Methods Between October 2009 and July 2010, we enrolled 200 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopic biopsy at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Biopsies were performed with 100 disposable or 5 reusable forceps by random assignment. Seventy-five additional patients were studied to estimate durability of reusable forceps. The assisting nurses estimated the performance of the forceps. The evaluation of costs included purchase prices and reprocessing costs. The adequacy of the sample was estimated according to the diameter of the obtained tissue. Results Performance of disposable forceps was estimated as excellent in 97.0%, good in 2.0% and adequate in 1.0%. Reusable forceps were estimated as excellent in 36.0%, good in 36.0%, adequate in 25.1% and inadequate in 2.9%. The performance of reusable forceps declined with the number of uses. The reprocessing cost of reusable forceps for one biopsy session was calculated as ₩8,021. The adequacy of the sample was excellent for both forceps. Conclusions Disposable forceps showed excellent performance. Considering the reprocessing costs of reusable forceps, usage of disposable forceps with a low price should be considered. PMID:22741133

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Abrams Pleural Biopsy vs CT-Guided Tru-Cut Pleural Biopsy in Malignant Pleural Disease, a 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Parthipan; Jayaram, Deepak; Rao, Deepak; Dhileepan, Vignesh; Ahmed, Irfan; Ahmed, Liju

    2016-12-01

    Conventional Abrams biopsy shows low sensitivity in suspected malignant pleural disease. There are limited data on the improvement in sensitivity by adding in image guidance. This retrospective study compares the diagnostic sensitivity of Abrams biopsy using ultrasound guidance with CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsy in suspected malignant pleural disease. Data were collected from 2006 to 2012 of patients who underwent image-guided biopsies for suspected non-tuberculous pleural disease. Data were collected on the result of the initial biopsy and final patient diagnosis as of June 2015. Sixty-three patients underwent image-guided Abrams biopsy and 29 underwent CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsies. The sensitivity of Abrams was 71.43 % compared to 75 % in the CT-guided Tru-Cut group. Specificity was 100 % in both groups. Image-guided Abrams biopsies demonstrate comparable diagnostic sensitivity in malignant pleural disease to CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsy.

  17. Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Weizhe; Liang, Hengrui; Zeng, Haikang; He, Jianxing

    2018-04-01

    Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer. In this review, we described a landscape of different liquid biopsy methods by highlighting the rationale and advantages, accessing the value of various circulating biomarkers and discussing their possible future development in the detection of early lung cancer.

  18. Structure des fluides de bâtonnets polaires et polarisables dans l'approximation des chaînes hypertressées avec amplification du potentiel répulsif. Un modèle simple d'acétonitrile liquide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamito, B.; Fries, P. H.

    1991-07-01

    We study fluids of rigid rods which are generated by a distribution of line sites and which carry a polarizable electric point dipole at their centre. We examine the difficulties for solving the integral equations, which result from truncating the rotational invariant expansion of the usual intermolecular rapidly varying shape potentials. In order to overcome these convergence problems, soft shape potentials are used in addition to an approximation HNCAR, of the hypernetted chain (HNC) type, which Amplifies these soft Repulsive effects. The polarization due to all the molecules is treated at a self-consistent mean field level. This formalism is applied to a model of liquid acetonitrile at 291K. The Kirkwood factors, the dielectric constant, and the cross sections of neutron or X-rays diffraction studies are in good agreement with experiment. This justifies the theoretical molecular pair distribution, from which the local molecular order is carefully analyzed. On étudie des fluides de bâtonnets rigides engendrés par une distribution de sites alignés et portant en leur centre un dipôle électrique ponctuel polarisable. On examine les difficultés de résolution des équations intégrales liées à la troncature du développement en invariants rotationnels des potentiels de forme intermoléculaires usuels à variation rapide. Pour contourner ces problèmes de convergence on utilise des potentiels de forme molle combinés à une approximation HNCAR, du type des chaînes hypertressées (HNC), qui Amplifie ces effets Répulsifs mous. On traite la polarisation due à l'ensemble des molécules par une approximation auto-cohérente de champ moyen. On applique ce formalisme à un modèle d'acétonitrile liquide à 291K. Les facteurs de Kirkwood, la constante diélectrique et les sections efficaces de diffusion des neutrons ou des rayons X calculés sont en bon accord avec l'expérience. Ceci justifie la distribution théorique de paires de molécules à partir de

  19. Testicular biopsy: clinical practice and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Dohle, Gert R; Elzanaty, Saad; van Casteren, Niels J

    2012-01-01

    Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia. Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation of obstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones. Nowadays, testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy. In a subgroup of infertile men, there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis, especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy. Ultrasonographic abnormalities, such as testicular microlithiasis, inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes, further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men. For an accurate histological classification, proper tissue handling, fixation, preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed. A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended. In addition, approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory. In this mini-review, we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility. PMID:22157985

  20. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  1. [When to ask for a skin biopsy in a patient with leg ulcer? Retrospective study of 143 consecutive biopsies].

    PubMed

    Stansal, A; Khayat, K; Duchatelle, V; Tella, E; Gautier, V; Sfeir, D; Attal, R; Lazareth, I; Priollet, P

    2018-02-01

    A vascular cause is found in around 85% of leg ulcer patients, but non-vascular causes are also observed. Their diagnosis is based on a set of clinical arguments and skin biopsy with histological analysis. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of these biopsies and to find common criteria for ulcers whose skin biopsies had led to the diagnosis of a non-vascular ulcer. A retrospective study was carried out on the analysis of 143 skin biopsies of leg ulcers. The reasons for the biopsy were mainly atypical clinical signs and/or the lack of improvement in care after 6 months, as advocated by the French health authorities. The skin biopsies led to a diagnosis of non-vascular ulcer in 4.9% of cases (7/143), including skin cancer (n=5, 3.5%), cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=1, 0.7%) and Pyoderma gangrenosum (n=1, 0.7%). The univariate statistical analysis revealed that an elevated rim and abnormal excessive granulation tissue were significantly more frequently found in these ulcers. All patients with a positive skin biopsy had associated vascular involvement. This study found a 5% rate of non-vascular causes of ulcers, mainly skin cancer. Elevated rims and abnormal excessive granulation tissue were the unusual features most commonly found in these ulcers. All patients whose skin biopsy revealed a non-vascular cause had associated vascular involvement. This information confirms the need to perform a skin biopsy, even in the presence of a vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Yield and complications in percutaneous renal biopsy. A comparison between ultrasound-guided gun-biopsy and manual techniques in native and transplant kidneys.

    PubMed

    Nyman, R S; Cappelen-Smith, J; al Suhaibani, H; Alfurayh, O; Shakweer, W; Akhtar, M

    1997-05-01

    To compare the yield and complications of ultrasound-guided gun-biopsy and manual Tru-Cut techniques in percutaneous renal biopsy. A total of 448 biopsies were reviewed. They comprised 124 manual and 131 gun-biopsies in native kidneys, and 111 manual and 82 gun-biopsies in transplant kidneys. The gun-biopsies were performed under real-time ultrasound (US) guidance. The manual technique used US mainly for marking the position of the kidney. There was a significantly higher diagnostic yield and fewer complications in the gun-biopsy group. A total of 8 major complications were found, all in the manual group. Provided that the operator is experienced in US scanning, a switch from the manual technique to real-time US-guided gun-biopsy will result in the improvement of diagnostic accuracy together with a reduced risk of complications.

  3. Influence des défauts de la structure du verre sur la résistance mécanique des fibres optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmel, A.; Baptizmanski, V. V.; Kharshak, A. A.

    1992-12-01

    For silica (pure and doped) optical fibers prepared from preforms irradiated by thermal neutrons and Ar^+ ions, the measurements of lifetime under transverse stress were carried out. It is found that the neutron bombardment leads to decrease of the lifetime and the strength of fiber while the ion implantation results in increasing of these parameters. The influence of particle irradiation on the glass strength is explained by the generation of structural defects which were observed by the infrared an Raman spectroscopy methods. The direction of the change of mechanical properties of fibers is determined by the type of defects and their distribution in the cross-section of fiber. Des préformes de fibres optiques de silice ont été exposées à un bombardement par des faisceaux de neutrons thermiques et d'ions Ar^+ à énergie de 40 keV afin d'engendrer des défauts de la structure respectivement dans le volume ou dans la couche superficielle des échantillons. Les fibres obtenues des préformes irradiées et non irradiées ont été mises en charge de flexion. On a déterminé leur temps de rupture sous diverses contraintes de traction sur la surface extérieure de la fibre en flexion. On a observé une diminution du temps de rupture des fibres après le bombardement neutronique et une augmentation après l'implantation ionique. L'analyse de la nature des défauts en faisant appel à la spectroscopie infrarouge et Raman a fait ressortir que l'irradiation aux ions entraînait essentiellement des liaisons chimiques dans une fine couche superficielle de l'échantillon alors que l'irradiation aux neutrons occasionnait une déformation des zones du réseau silicique dans toute la section de la préforme et de la fibre. L'amélioration de la résistance mécanique s'explique par une augmentation de la mobilité des éléments structuraux de la matrice de verre par suite d'une rupture partielle des liaisons chimiques et sa diminution par l'apparition de concentrateurs

  4. Distribution of angiographic measures of restenosis after drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, R A; Eberle, S; Kastrati, A; Dibra, A; Ndrepepa, G; Iijima, R; Mehilli, J; Schömig, A

    2009-10-01

    A bimodal distribution of measures of restenosis has been demonstrated at 6-8 months after bare metal stent implantation. Drug-eluting stent (DES) treatment has attenuated the impact of certain factors (eg, diabetes) on restenosis but its effect on the distribution of indices of restenosis is not known. To perform a detailed analysis of the metrics of restenosis indices after DES implantation. Design, settings, Prospective observational study of patients undergoing DES implantation (Cypher, sirolimus-eluting stent; or Taxus, paclitaxel-eluting stent) at two German centres, with repeat angiography scheduled at 6-8 months after coronary stenting. In-stent late luminal loss (LLL) and in-segment percentage diameter stenosis (%DS) as determined by quantitative coronary angiography at recatheterisation. Paired cineangiograms were available for 2057 patients. Overall mean (SD) LLL was 0.31 (0.50) mm; mean (SD) %DS was 30.3 (15.7)%. Distribution of both LLL and %DS differed significantly from normal (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; p<0.001 for each). For both parameters a mixed distribution model better described the data (likelihood ratio test with 3df; p<0.001 for each). This consisted of two normally distributed subpopulations with means (SD) of 0.10 (0.25) mm and 0.69 (0.60) mm for LLL, and means (SD) of 22.2 (8.6)% and 40.1 (16.6)% for %DS. The results were consistent across subgroups of DES type, "on-label" versus "off-label" indication, and presence or absence of diabetes. LLL and %DS at follow-up angiography after DES implantation have a complex mixed distribution that may be accurately represented by a bimodal distribution model. The introduction of DES treatment has not resulted in elimination of a variable propensity to restenosis among subpopulations of patients with stented lesions.

  5. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  6. Magnetic resonance elastography is as accurate as liver biopsy for liver fibrosis staging.

    PubMed

    Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Shintaro; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kondo, Tetsuo; Funayama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Masanori; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Liver MR elastography (MRE) is available for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis; however, no previous studies have compared the diagnostic ability of MRE with that of liver biopsy. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of liver fibrosis staging between MRE-based methods and liver biopsy using the resected liver specimens as the reference standard. A retrospective study at a single institution. In all, 200 patients who underwent preoperative MRE and subsequent surgical liver resection were included in this study. Data from 80 patients were used to estimate cutoff and distributions of liver stiffness values measured by MRE for each liver fibrosis stage (F0-F4, METAVIR system). In the remaining 120 patients, liver biopsy specimens were obtained from the resected liver tissues using a standard biopsy needle. 2D liver MRE with gradient-echo based sequence on a 1.5 or 3T scanner was used. Two radiologists independently measured the liver stiffness value on MRE and two types of MRE-based methods (threshold and Bayesian prediction method) were applied. Two pathologists evaluated all biopsy samples independently to stage liver fibrosis. Surgically resected whole tissue specimens were used as the reference standard. The accuracy for liver fibrosis staging was compared between liver biopsy and MRE-based methods with a modified McNemar's test. Accurate fibrosis staging was achieved in 53.3% (64/120) and 59.1% (71/120) of patients using MRE with threshold and Bayesian methods, respectively, and in 51.6% (62/120) with liver biopsy. Accuracies of MRE-based methods for diagnoses of ≥F2 (90-91% [108-9/120]), ≥F3 (79-81% [95-97/120]), and F4 (82-85% [98-102/120]) were statistically equivalent to those of liver biopsy (≥F2, 79% [95/120], P ≤ 0.01; ≥F3, 88% [105/120], P ≤ 0.006; and F4, 82% [99/120], P ≤ 0.017). MRE can be an alternative to liver biopsy for fibrosis staging. 3. Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1268-1275. © 2017

  7. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy liquid part of the bone where blood cells are ... you might also feel the pressure of the biopsy needle pushing in. Some ... sharp cramp as the liquid bone marrow is withdrawn for the aspiration or ...

  8. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  9. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  10. Transbronchial biopsies safely diagnose amyloid lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Praveen; Keyes, Colleen M.; Hankinson, Elizabeth A.; O’Hara, Carl J.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Berk, John L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58–92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies. Methods We identified patients referred to the Amyloidosis Center at Boston Medical Center with lung amyloidosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsies (TBBX). Amyloid typing was determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry. Standard end organ assessments, including pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest tomography (CT) imaging, and extra-thoracic biopsies established the extent of disease. Results Twenty-five (21.7%) of 115 patients with lung amyloidosis were diagnosed by TBBX. PFT classified 33.3% with restrictive physiology, 28.6% with obstructive disease, and 9.5% mixed physiology; 9.5% exhibited isolated diffusion defects while 19% had normal pulmonary testing. Two view chest or CT imaging identified focal opacities in 52% of cases and diffuse interstitial disease in 48%. Amyloid type and disease extent included 68% systemic AL disease, 16% localized (lung limited) AL disease, 12% ATTR disease, and 4% AA amyloidosis. Fluoroscopy was not used during biopsy. No procedure complications were reported. Conclusions Our case series of 25 patients supports the use of bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies for diagnosis of parenchymal lung amyloidosis. Normal PFTs do not rule out the histologic presence of amyloid lung disease. PMID:28393574

  11. Caracterisation des melanges developpes pour le moulage basse pression des poudres metalliques (LPIM) =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareh, Fouad

    Le moulage par injection basse pression des poudres metalliques est une technique de fabrication qui permet de fabriquer des pieces possedant la complexite des pieces coulees mais avec les proprietes mecaniques des pieces corroyees. Cependant, l'optimisation des etapes de deliantage et de frittage a ete jusqu'a maintenant effectuee a l'aide de melange pour lesquels la moulabilite optimale n'a pas encore ete demontree. Ainsi, la comprehension des proprietes rheologiques et de la segregation des melanges est tres limitee et cela presente le point faible du processus de LPIM. L'objectif de ce projet de recherche etait de caracteriser l'influence des liants sur le comportement rheologique des melanges en mesurant la viscosite et la segregation des melanges faible viscosite utilises dans le procede LPIM. Afin d'atteindre cet objectif, des essais rheologiques et thermogravimetriques ont ete conduits sur 12 melanges. Ces melanges ont ete prepares a base de poudre d'Inconel 718 de forme spherique (chargement solide constant a 60%) et de cires, d'agents surfactants ou epaississants. Les essais rheologiques ont ete utilises entre autre pour calculer l'indice d'injectabilite ?STV des melanges, tandis que les essais thermogravimetriques ont permis d'evaluer precisement la segregation des poudres dans les melanges. Il a ete demontre que les trois (3) melanges contenant de la cire de paraffine et de l'acide stearique presentent des indices alpha STV plus eleves qui sont avantageux pour le moulage par injection des poudres metalliques (MIM), mais segregent beaucoup trop pour que la piece fabriquee produise de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. A l'oppose, le melange contenant de la cire de paraffine et de l'ethylene-vinyle acetate ainsi que le melange contenant seulement de la cire de carnauba segregent peu voire pas du tout, mais possedent de tres faibles indices alphaSTV : ils sont donc difficilement injectables. Le meilleur compromis semble donc etre les melanges contenant de

  12. La participation des enfants et des adolescents à la boxe

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Laura K; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Des milliers de garçons et de filles de moins de 19 ans font de la boxe en Amérique du Nord. Même si la boxe comporte des avantages pour ceux qui y participent, y compris l’exercice, l’autodiscipline et la confiance en soi, le sport lui-même favorise et récompense des coups délibérés à la tête et au visage. Les personnes qui font de la boxe risquent de subir des blessures à la tête, au visage et au cou, y compris des traumatismes neurologiques chroniques et même fatals. Les commotions cérébrales sont l’une des principales blessures causées par la boxe. En raison du risque de blessures crâniennes et faciales, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie et l’American Academy of Pediatrics s’opposent vigoureusement à la boxe comme activité sportive pour les enfants et les adolescents. Ces organismes recommandent que les médecins s’élèvent contre la boxe auprès des jeunes et les encouragent à participer à d’autres activités dans lesquelles les coups intentionnels à la tête ne constituent pas un élément essentiel du sport.

  13. An analysis of 4,514 cases of renal biopsy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, I J; Jeong, H J; Han, D S; Lee, J S; Choi, K H; Kang, S W; Ha, S K; Lee, H Y; Kim, P K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the distribution and changing patterns of renal diseases in Korea, a total of 4,514 cases of renal biopsy collected over a 23-year period between 1973 and 1995 were reviewed. Of 4,200 cases excluding 314 unsatisfactory biopsies, adult cases comprised 59.5% and pediatric cases, 40.5%. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1 in adults and 2.2:1 in children. Glomerulonephritis (GN) comprised 80.0% of the total. The most common primary GN in adults was minimal change disease (MCD) (26.6%), followed by IgA nephropathy (IgAN) (22.1%), membranous GN (MGN) (11.8%), and membranoproliferative GN (MPGN) (5.9%). In children, the primary GN incidence rates were MCD (24.8%), IgAN (10.3%), poststreptococcal (including postinfectious) GN (PSGN) (8.6%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (4.0%). The most common secondary GN in adults was lupus nephritis and in children Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome was MCD in both adults and children, followed by MGN and FSGS. The elderly, aged sixty years and older, comprised 2.7% of cases and recorded equal numbers of MCD and MGN. The proportion of the biopsies found to be seropositive for HBs antigen was 27.9%, and these showed either MGN or MPGN pattern. Repeat biopsy was performed in 168 patients, due to previous biopsy failure in 15.5%. When the primary GN cases were analyzed at 5-year intervals, the prevalence of PSGN, which was greater than 25% during the 1973-1982 period, decreased abruptly in children thereafter, whereas the prevalence of FSGS increased slowly since the 1988-1992 period in both adults and children. The decrease of PSGN and the increase of FSGS suggest a role for socioeconomic and environmental factors in Korea.

  14. Multiple Biopsies and Detection of Cervical Cancer Precursors at Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Walker, Joan L.; Gold, Michael A.; Smith, Katie M.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Mathews, Cara; Dunn, S. Terence; Zhang, Roy; Moxley, Katherine; Bishop, Erin; Tenney, Meaghan; Nugent, Elizabeth; Graubard, Barry I.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results are referred to colposcopy and biopsy for diagnosis of cervical cancer precursors (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSILs]). Colposcopy with a single biopsy can miss identification of HSILs. No systematic study has quantified the improved detection of HSIL by taking multiple lesion-directed biopsies. Methods The Biopsy Study was an observational study of 690 women referred to colposcopy after abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Up to four directed biopsies were taken from distinct acetowhite lesions and ranked by colposcopic impression. A nondirected biopsy of a normal-appearing area was added if fewer than four directed biopsies were taken. HSIL identified by any biopsy was the reference standard of disease used to evaluate the incremental yield and sensitivity of multiple biopsies. Results In the overall population, sensitivities for detecting HSIL increased from 60.6% (95% CI, 54.8% to 66.6%) from a single biopsy to 85.6% (95% CI, 80.3% to 90.2%) after two biopsies and to 95.6% (95% CI, 91.3% to 99.2%) after three biopsies. A significant increase in sensitivity of multiple biopsies was observed in all subgroups. The highest increase in yield of HSIL was observed for women with a high-grade colposcopic impression, HSIL cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 positivity. Only 2% of all HSILs diagnosed in the participants were detected by biopsies of normal-appearing transformation zone. Conclusion Collection of additional lesion-directed biopsies during colposcopy increased detection of histologic HSIL, regardless of patient characteristics. Taking additional biopsies when multiple lesions are present should become the standard practice of colposcopic biopsy. PMID:25422481

  15. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de; Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik

    2010-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helicallymore » bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.« less

  16. Can we improve the biopsy quality of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors? Single-center preliminary results of a new biopsy forceps.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Saeed M; Legraverend, Dorian; Gil-Diez de Medina, Sixtina; Sibony, Mathilde; Traxer, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the biopsy quality of upper urinary tract urothelial transitional cell carcinoma with a new biopsy forceps (BIGopsy®, Cook Medical) compared to a classic biopsy forceps (Piranha®, Boston Scientific). From December 2009 to December 2011, 20 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial transitional cell carcinoma underwent conservative treatment endoscopically. All lesions were evaluated and biopsied with 3 Fr cup forceps using both types of forceps (BIGopsy and Piranha). A single pathologist blindly analyzed the specimens in order to determine the optimal biopsy for each patient. Specimen histopathology results were graded; however, they were staged if the lamina propria was not invaded (T1) or if the tumor was detected at the lamina propria (T1+). Of the 20 upper urinary tract lesions, 12 (60%) were in the renal pelvis, 3 (15%) in the upper calyx, 1 (5%) in the middle calyx, 1 (5%) in the lower calyx, 1 (5%) in the upper third of the ureter and 2 (10%) in the middle third of the ureter. We did not detect T1 in all biopsies. One patient had no valid biopsies by both forceps. A diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma was made in 17 BIGopsy biopsies compared to 7 Piranha biopsies. Despite the limited number of cases, our study demonstrated the advantage of the new forceps (BIGopsy) in obtaining a valid biopsy of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors. Therefore, we recommend it in evaluating this pathology for optimal treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Clinical utility of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate after negative magnetic resonance imaging-guided transrectal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Arjun; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Ahmed, Hashim U; Barret, Eric; Cathala, Nathalie; Mombet, Annick; Uriburu Pizarro, Facundo; Carneiro, Arie; Doizi, Steeve; Galiano, Marc; Rozet, Francois; Prapotnich, Dominique; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the prostate cancer detection with transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen and negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsy. Totally 75 patients underwent transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy for prior negative MRI-guided (cognitive registration) biopsy during April 2013 to August 2014. Primary objective was to report clinically significant cancer detection in this cohort of patients. Significant cancer was defined using varying thresholds of MCL or Gleason grade 3+4 or greater or both. Cancers with more than 80% of positive core length anterior to the level of urethra were termed anterior zone cancer. Secondary objective was to evaluate the potential clinical and radiological predictors for significant cancer detection. The mean age was 61.6 ± 6.5 years and median prostate-specific antigen was 10.4 ng/dl (7.9-18) with a mean MRI target size of 7.2mm (4-11). Transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy identified cancer in 36% (27/75) patients and 66.6% (18/27) of them were anterior zone cancers. The rates of detection of clinically significant and insignificant cancer according to the several definitions used range from 22.7% to 30.7% and 5.3% to 13.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis did not identify any predictors for finding clinically significant and anterior cancers in this group of patients. Transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy appears to be an excellent biopsy protocol for downstream management following negative MRI-guided biopsy. Most of the cancers detected were predominantly anterior tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate-specific antigen increase during dutasteride to indicate the need for prostate biopsy: influence of prostatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sciarra, Alessandro; Maggi, Martina; Fasulo, Andrea; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Cattarino, Susanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of an increase in total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels despite dutasteride treatment as a predictor of prostate cancer (PC) at biopsy. We focused our attention on the rate of the first PSA increase and on the influence of prostatic inflammation. From 2011 to 2016, 365 men with a previous negative prostate biopsy and persistent elevated PSA levels received dutasteride treatment. The population was followed for a range of 12-48 months. One hundred twelve cases with a confirmed PSA increase >0.5 ng/ml over the nadir value during the follow-up were included in Group A and underwent a new prostate biopsy. In Group A, the PSA increase was associated with PC at the re-biopsy in 66% of cases. The percentage of PSA reduction after 6 months of treatment was not a significant indicator of the risk for PC. The distribution of inflammatory infiltrates significantly (p<00.01) varied from positive to negative prostate biopsies. The relative risk for PC at biopsy significantly increased according to PSA level during dutasteride. Treatment with dutasteride can help to analyze PSA kinetic. A persistent prostatic inflammation is a factor able to reduce the performance of PSA kinetic during dutasteride treatment.

  19. Effective osimertinib treatment in a patient with discordant T790 M mutation detection between liquid biopsy and tissue biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mambetsariev, Isa; Vora, Lalit; Yu, Kim Wai; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-03-21

    We report the successful treatment of the patient with osimertinib 80 mg/day following disease progression and a discordance in the detection of a mechanism of resistance epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790 M between liquid biopsy and tissue biopsy methods. A 57-year-old Hispanic male patient initially diagnosed with an EGFR 19 deletion positive lung adenocarcinoma and clinically responded to initial erlotinib treatment. The patient subsequently progressed on erlotinib 150 mg/day and repeat biopsies both tissue and liquid were sent for next-generation sequencing (NGS). A T790 M EGFR mutation was detected in the blood sample using a liquid biopsy technique, but the tissue biopsy failed to show a T790 M mutation in a newly biopsied tissue sample. He was then successfully treated with osimertinib 80 mg/day, has clinically and radiologically responded, and remains on osimertinib treatment after 10 months. Second-line osimertinib treatment, when administered at 80 mg/day, is both well tolerated and efficacious in a patient with previously erlotinib treated lung adenocarcinoma and a T790 M mutation detected by liquid biopsy.

  20. Membrane fluidization by alcohols inhibits DesK-DesR signalling in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Vaňousová, Kateřina; Beranová, Jana; Fišer, Radovan; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Malgorzata; Matyska Lišková, Petra; Cybulski, Larisa; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Konopásek, Ivo

    2018-03-01

    After cold shock, the Bacillus subtilis desaturase Des introduces double bonds into the fatty acids of existing membrane phospholipids. The synthesis of Des is regulated exclusively by the two-component system DesK/DesR; DesK serves as a sensor of the state of the membrane and triggers Des synthesis after a decrease in membrane fluidity. The aim of our work is to investigate the biophysical changes in the membrane that are able to affect the DesK signalling state. Using linear alcohols (ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol) and benzyl alcohol, we were able to suppress Des synthesis after a temperature downshift. The changes in the biophysical properties of the membrane caused by alcohol addition were followed using membrane fluorescent probes and differential scanning calorimetry. We found that the membrane fluidization induced by alcohols was reflected in an increased hydration at the lipid-water interface. This is associated with a decrease in DesK activity. The addition of alcohol mimics a temperature increase, which can be measured isothermically by fluorescence anisotropy. The effect of alcohols on the membrane periphery is in line with the concept of the mechanism by which two hydrophilic motifs located at opposite ends of the transmembrane region of DesK, which work as a molecular caliper, sense temperature-dependent variations in membrane properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zero-Time Renal Transplant Biopsies: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Naesens, Maarten

    2016-07-01

    Zero-time kidney biopsies, obtained at time of transplantation, are performed in many transplant centers worldwide. Decisions on kidney discard, kidney allocation, and choice of peritransplant and posttransplant treatment are sometimes based on the histological information obtained from these biopsies. This comprehensive review evaluates the practical considerations of performing zero-time biopsies, the predictive performance of zero-time histology and composite histological scores, and the clinical utility of these biopsies. The predictive performance of individual histological lesions and of composite scores for posttransplant outcome is at best moderate. No single histological lesion or composite score is sufficiently robust to be included in algorithms for kidney discard. Dual kidney transplantation has been based on histological assessment of zero-time biopsies and improves outcome in individual patients, but the waitlist effects of this strategy remain obscure. Zero-time biopsies are valuable for clinical and translational research purposes, providing insight in risk factors for posttransplant events, and as baseline for comparison with posttransplant histology. The molecular phenotype of zero-time biopsies yields novel therapeutic targets for improvement of donor selection, peritransplant management and kidney preservation. It remains however highly unclear whether the molecular expression variation in zero-time biopsies could become a better predictor for posttransplant outcome than donor/recipient baseline demographic factors.

  2. The Skin Punch Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Blakeman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The skin punch biopsy is a simple and safe office procedure which is a valuable aid in diagnosing many skin diseases. It can be performed in a few minutes and offers in most situations a very suitable histological specimen with a minimum amount of scarring and little or no pain or discomfort to the patient. The indications for skin biopsy, selection of a proper site and the technique are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283375

  3. BiopSee® - transperineal stereotactic navigated prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zogal, Pawel; Sakas, Georgios; Rösch, Woerner; Baltas, Dimos

    2011-06-01

    In the recent years, prostate cancer was the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Currently secure diagnosis confirmation is done by a transrectal biopsy and following histopathological examination. Conventional transrectal biopsy success rates are rather low with ca. 30% detection upon the first and ca 20% after re-biopsy. The paper presents a novel system for stereotactic navigated prostate biopsy. The approach results into higher accuracy, reproducibility and unrestricted and effective access to all prostate regions. Custom designed ultrasound, new template design and integrated 2-axes stepper allows superior 2D and 3D prostate imaging quality and precise needle navigation. DICOM functionality and image fusion enable to import pre-operative datasets (e.g. multiparametric MRI, targets etc.) and overlay all available radiological information into the biopsy planning and guiding procedure. The biopsy needle insertion itself is performed under augmented reality ultrasound guidance. Each procedure step is automatically documented in order to provide quality assurance and permit data re-usage for the further treatment. First clinical results indicates success rates of ca. 70% by first biopsies by our approach.

  4. Kidney Biopsy Adequacy: A Metric-based Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, German; Andeen, Nicole K; Lockridge, Joseph; Norman, Douglas; Foster, Bryan R; Houghton, Donald C; Troxell, Megan L

    2018-06-05

    There are differences in renal biopsy yield related to on-site evaluation, tissue division, and operator, among others. To understand these variations, we collected adequacy-associated data (%cortex, glomeruli, arteries, length) from consecutive native and allograft kidney biopsies over a 22-month period. In total, 1332 biopsies (native: 873, allograft: 459) were included, 617 obtained by nephrologists, 663 by radiologists, and 559 with access to on-site division. Proceduralists with access to on-site evaluation had significantly lower inadequacy rates and better division of tissue for light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy than those without access to on-site evaluation. Radiologists in our region were significantly less likely to have access to on-site evaluation than nephrologists. On multivariate analysis for native kidney biopsies, the effect of having a radiologist perform the biopsy and having access to on-site division were both significant predictors of obtaining greater calculated amount of cortex for LM. Despite the trend for radiologists to obtain more tissue in general, biopsies from nephrologists contained a greater percentage of cortex and were more likely to be considered adequate for LM (native kidney inadequacy rate for LM: 1.11% vs. 5.41%, P=0.0086). Biopsies in which inadequate or marginal cortical tissue was submitted for LM had only minor decreases in the amount of cortex submitted for immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, revealing an opportunity for improved specimen triaging when limited tissue is obtained. In conclusion, both on-site evaluation/division and proceduralist significantly affect quantitative kidney biopsy metrics, which in turn affects the pathologist's ability to render an accurate diagnosis with appropriate prognostic information for the patient and treating nephrologist.

  5. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  6. Fast MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Laura; Morris, Elizabeth A; Dershaw, D David; Thornton, Cynthia M; Van Zee, Kimberly J; Tan, Lee K

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method for performing MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in a study of lesions that had subsequent surgical excision. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty women scheduled for MRI-guided needle localization and surgical biopsy were prospectively entered in the study. MRI-guided biopsy was performed with a vacuum-assisted probe, followed by placement of a localizing clip, and then needle localization for surgical excision. Vacuum-assisted biopsy and surgical histology were correlated. Vacuum-assisted biopsy was successfully performed in 19 (95%) of the 20 women. The median size of 27 MRI-detected lesions that had biopsy was 1.0 cm (range, 0.4-6.4 cm). Cancer was present in eight (30%) of 27 lesions and in six (32%) of 19 women; among these eight cancers, five were infiltrating and three were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Among these 27 lesions, histology was benign at vacuum-assisted biopsy and at surgery in 19 (70%), cancer at vacuum-assisted biopsy in six (22%), atypical ductal hyperplasia at vacuum-assisted biopsy and DCIS at surgery in one (4%), and benign at vacuum-assisted biopsy with surgery showing microscopic DCIS that was occult at MRI in one (4%). The median time to perform vacuum-assisted biopsy of a single lesion was 35 min (mean, 35 min; range, 24-48 min). Placement of a localizing clip, attempted in 26 lesions, was successful in 25 (96%) of 26, and the clip was retrieved on specimen radiography in 22 (96%) of 23. One complication occurred: a hematoma that resolved with compression. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is a fast, safe, and accurate alternative to surgical biopsy for breast lesions detected on MRI.

  7. Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Following Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pita; Santos; Manteiga; Rodriguez; Beiras

    1996-03-01

    Ventricular perforation is an unusual complication after endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplanted patients. We report a case of asymptomatic right ventricular perforation and pseudoaneurysm formation, secondary to endomyocardial biopsy, diagnosed by angiography. The spontaneous obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm was observed.

  8. Detection of blur artifacts in histopathological whole-slide images of endomyocardial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Hang Wu; Phan, John H; Bhatia, Ajay K; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Shehata, Bahig M; Wang, May D

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological whole-slide images (WSIs) have emerged as an objective and quantitative means for image-based disease diagnosis. However, WSIs may contain acquisition artifacts that affect downstream image feature extraction and quantitative disease diagnosis. We develop a method for detecting blur artifacts in WSIs using distributions of local blur metrics. As features, these distributions enable accurate classification of WSI regions as sharp or blurry. We evaluate our method using over 1000 portions of an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) WSI. Results indicate that local blur metrics accurately detect blurry image regions.

  9. Transcutaneous pleural biopsy with a retrograde forceps: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Hiebinger, Andreas; Hoechel, Sebastian; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Barg, Alexej; Valderrabano, Victor; Hügle, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pleural biopsies are commonly performed to investigate the cause of exudative pleural effusion. Biopsy needles (e.g. Abrams needle, Cope needle) are traditionally used to perform the biopsy. However, certain complications such as pneumothorax and haemothorax have been described. We present a technique utilizing a novel retrograde forceps, which could improve the simplicity and lower the complication rate of performing closed pleural biopsies. A retrograde forceps (Retroforceps, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) was used to perform 20 transcutaneous pleural biopsies in a cadaver thorax under thoracoscopical control. Video documentation of the procedure from outside and inside the thorax was performed. The surgeon performing the biopsy was blinded to the thoracoscopical view. After the removal of the forceps, it was checked whether biopsy material was retrieved. The video material was retrospectively used to confirm whether the biopsy was taken from the pleura parietalis. Biopsy material was retrieved in 19 out of 20 biopsy attempts. Video material confirmed that the biopsy was taken from the pleura parietalis in all cases. Using a retrograde biopsy forceps is a simple and practicable procedure suitable for clinical application. This technique could potentially reduce the incidence of pneumothorax.

  10. Timing embryo biopsy for PGD - before or after cryopreservation?

    PubMed

    Shinar, S; Kornecki, N; Schwartz, T; Mey-Raz, N; Amir, H; Almog, B; Shavit, T; Hasson, J

    2016-09-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is required in order to screen and diagnose embryos of patients at risk of having a genetically affected offspring. A biopsy to diagnose the genetic profile of the embryo may be performed either before or after cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to determine which biopsy timing yields higher embryo survival rates. Retrospective cohort study of all PGD patients in a public IVF unit between 2010 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were patients with good-quality embryos available for cryopreservation by the slow freezing method. Embryos were divided into two groups: biopsy before and biopsy after cryopreservation. The primary outcome was embryo survival rates post thawing. Sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. 145 embryos were biopsied before cryopreservation and 228 embryos were cryopreserved and biopsied after thawing. Embryo survival was significantly greater in the latter group (77% vs. 68%, p < 0.0001). Cryopreservation preceding biopsy results in better embryo survival compared to biopsy before cryopreservation.

  11. [Is bone biopsy necessary for the diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases? Necessity of bone biopsy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Akemi; Yajima, Aiji

    2011-09-01

    Histological analysis of undecalcified bone biopsy specimens is a valuable clinical and research tool for studying the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of metabolic bone diseases. In case of osteoporosis, bone biopsy is not usually required for the diagnosis ; however, bone histomorphometry may be useful in rare cases with unusual skeletal fragility. Bone histomorphometry also provides valuable information on the mechanism of action, safety and efficacy of new anti-osteoporosis drugs. Bone histomorphometry is useful for the diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response in rickets/osteomalacia and in CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders) . In Japan, bone biopsy is often performed to establish the diagnosis of Paget's disease of bone, especially to differentiate it from metastatic bone disease.

  12. Intraoperative loss of core biopsy clips: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Kristine; Giuliano, Armando; Brenner, R James

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the occurrence of intraoperative loss of metallic marking clips placed during image-guided biopsy and to hypothesize the likely mechanism of this clinical problem. From January 2003 through December 2004, patients presenting for preoperative mammographic localization and operative excision of biopsy site marking clips were identified. Age, method of image-guided biopsy, number of excised specimens, and tissue diagnosis were determined. Specimen radiographs were used to identify cases of suspected intraoperative clip loss. Clips absent on specimen radiographs and postoperative mammograms were defined as lost intraoperatively. Biopsy site marking clips, surgical clips, and suction device apertures were measured. In 78 surgical procedures performed during the study period, three (3.8%) of the patients experienced clip loss. Specimen radiographs confirmed the absence of clips in all submitted tissues. A median of four (range, three to five) separate biopsy specimens were excised among these three cases. A healing biopsy site from the stereotactic biopsy preceding the clip placement procedure was confirmed in all cases. Absence of the metallic clip was confirmed on postoperative mammograms. The apertures of two types of suction device were four and two times those of the biopsy clips. Intraoperative loss of metallic clips placed at the conclusion of image-guided breast biopsy is unusual but can occur during subsequent surgical excision. Repeated inability to locate the clip on specimen radiographs after accurate preoperative localization should raise the suspicion that the target clip has been lost, not missed, during surgery, likely because of inadvertent removal of the clip with the suction device.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy Improves Selection of Patients Considered for Active Surveillance for Clinically Low Risk Prostate Cancer Based on Systematic Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ouzzane, Adil; Renard-Penna, Raphaele; Marliere, François; Mozer, Pierre; Olivier, Jonathan; Barkatz, Johann; Puech, Philippe; Villers, Arnauld

    2015-08-01

    Current selection criteria for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy underestimate prostate cancer volume and grade. We investigated the role of additional magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy in reclassifying patients eligible for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy. We performed a study at 2 institutions in a total of 281 men with increased prostate specific antigen. All men met certain criteria, including 1) prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging, 12-core transrectal systematic biopsy and 2 additional magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies of lesions suspicious for cancer during the same sequence as systematic biopsy, and 2) eligibility for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy results. Criteria for active surveillance were prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml, no Gleason grade 4/5, 5 mm or less involvement of any biopsy core and 2 or fewer positive systematic biopsy cores. Patient characteristics were compared between reclassified and nonreclassified groups based on magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy results. On magnetic resonance imaging 58% of the 281 patients had suspicious lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy was positive for cancer in 81 of 163 patients (50%). Of 281 patients 28 (10%) were reclassified by magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy as ineligible for active surveillance based on Gleason score in 8, cancer length in 20 and Gleason score plus cancer length in 9. Suspicious areas on magnetic resonance imaging were in the anterior part of the prostate in 15 of the 28 men (54%). Reclassified patients had a smaller prostate volume (37 vs 52 cc) and were older (66.5 vs 63 years) than those who were not reclassified (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy reclassified 10% of patients who were eligible for active surveillance based on systematic biopsy. Its incorporation into the active surveillance eligibility criteria may decrease the risk of reclassification to

  14. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Autoimmune Diseases Read more Biopsy Read more Fungal ...

  15. Caracterisation des revetements par projection thermique a haute vitesse obtenus a partir de differentes poudres de wc-10co-4cr pour des applications en aeronautique =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero Malpica, Alfonso

    Les revetements par projection thermique HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel) sont communement utilises dans l'industrie aeronautique, notamment au sein du partenaire industriel du projet (Tecnickrome Aeronautique Inc), comme des remplacants pour les revetements produits par l'electrodeposition du chrome dur due aux problemes environnementaux. Ce projet avait pour but de trouver une poudre alternative a celle qui est actuellement utilisee pour la production des revetements de type WC-10Co-4Cr obtenus avec la technologie de projection thermique a haute vitesse HVOF et en utilisant le systeme de projection HVOF-JET KOTERTM III. Dans un premier temps, cinq poudres incluant celle de reference, ayant des distributions granulometriques differentes, ont ete projetees dans le but d'identifier quelles poudres pouvaient etre utilisees avec le systeme de projection HVOF-JET KOTERTM III en gardant des parametres similaires (debit d'hydrogene, debit d'oxygene, debit de poudre et distance de projection) que pour la poudre de reference. Les revetements obtenus a partir des poudres etudiees ont ete evalues selon les criteres d'acceptation des revetements sollicites par les principaux manufacturiers des trains d'atterrissage. Les tests ont porte sur l'epaisseur, l'adhesion, la microstructure, la microdurete, les contraintes residuelles et la rugosite. A partir des resultats obtenus, seulement deux poudres ont rencontre toutes les proprietes demandees par les specifications aeronautiques. L'influence de la variation de la distance de projection sur la qualite des revetements a ete etudiee. Cinq distances (100, 125, 150, 175 et 200 mm) ont ete choisies pour faire la projection des deux poudres selectionnees. Les revetements obtenus ont montre de proprietes des revetements similaires (epaisseur, adhesion, microstructure, microdurete, contraintes residuelles et rugosite). Il a ete trouve que la distance de projection est un parametre indirect du systeme de projection HVOF-JET KOTERTM III et

  16. The value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pathologic complete remission in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Hua; An, Xin; Lin, Xi; Gao, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Guo-Chen; Kong, Ling-Heng; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-10-20

    Patients with pathological complete remission (pCR) after treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) have better long-term outcome and may receive conservative treatments in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The study aimed to evaluate the value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pCR in LARC treated with nCRT. In total, 120 patients entered this study. Sixty-one consecutive patients received preoperative forceps biopsy during endoscopic examination. Ex vivo core needle biopsy was performed in resected specimens of another 43 consecutive patients. The accuracy for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly higher than forceps biopsy (76.7% vs. 36.1%; p < 0.001). The sensitivity for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly lower in good responder (TRG 3) than poor responder (TRG ≤ 2) (52.9% vs. 94.1%; p = 0.017). In vivo core needle biopsy was further performed in 16 patients with good response. Eleven patients had residual cancer cells in final resected specimens, among whom 4 (36.4%) patients were biopsy positive. In conclusion, routine forceps biopsy was of limited value in identifying pCR after nCRT. Although core needle biopsy might further identify a subset of patients with residual cancer cells, the accuracy was not substantially increased in good responders.

  17. The value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pathologic complete remission in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Guo-Chen; Kong, Ling-Heng; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pathological complete remission (pCR) after treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) have better long-term outcome and may receive conservative treatments in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The study aimed to evaluate the value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pCR in LARC treated with nCRT. In total, 120patients entered this study. Sixty-one consecutive patients received preoperative forceps biopsy during endoscopic examination. Ex vivo core needle biopsy was performed in resected specimens of another 43 consecutive patients. The accuracy for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly higher than forceps biopsy (76.7% vs. 36.1%; p < 0.001). The sensitivity for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly lower in good responder (TRG 3) than poor responder (TRG ≤ 2) (52.9% vs. 94.1%; p = 0.017). In vivo core needle biopsy was further performed in 16 patients with good response. Eleven patients had residual cancer cells in final resected specimens, among whom 4 (36.4%) patients were biopsy positive. In conclusion, routine forceps biopsy was of limited value in identifying pCR after nCRT. Although core needle biopsy might further identify a subset of patients with residual cancer cells, the accuracy was not substantially increased in good responders. PMID:26416245

  18. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  19. Renal biopsy practice: What is the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Brachemi, Soumeya; Bollée, Guillaume

    2014-11-06

    Renal biopsy (RB) is useful for diagnosis and therapy guidance of renal diseases but incurs a risk of bleeding complications of variable severity, from transitory haematuria or asymptomatic hematoma to life-threatening hemorrhage. Several risk factors for complications after RB have been identified, including high blood pressure, age, decreased renal function, obesity, anemia, low platelet count and hemostasis disorders. These should be carefully assessed and, whenever possible, corrected before the procedure. The incidence of serious complications has become low with the use of automated biopsy devices and ultrasound guidance, which is currently the "gold standard" procedure for percutaneous RB. An outpatient biopsy may be considered in a carefully selected population with no risk factor for bleeding. However, controversies persist on the duration of observation after biopsy, especially for native kidney biopsy. Transjugular RB and laparoscopic RB represent reliable alternatives to conventional percutaneous biopsy in patients at high risk of bleeding, although some factors limit their use. This aim of this review is to summarize the issues of complications after RB, assessment of hemorrhagic risk factors, optimal biopsy procedure and strategies aimed to minimize the risk of bleeding.

  20. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer On This Page What is DES? ... outlined in the table below. Fertility Problems in DES Daughters ( 7 ) Fertility Complication Hazard Ratio Percent Cumulative ...

  1. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  2. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... called if any of the following occur: ● Persistent abdominal or chest pain ● Vomiting ● Pallor, weakness or dizziness ● Bleeding from the site of the biopsy ● Passage of tarry black stools For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroen- terologist in your area please visit our ...

  3. Maladie des vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, les symptômes, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la maladie des vibrations, une maladie professionnelle importante et courante au Canada. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur MEDLINE afin de relever les recherches et comptes rendus portant sur la maladie des vibrations. Une recherche a été effectuée sur Google dans le but d’obtenir la littérature grise qui convient au contexte canadien. D’autres références ont été tirées des articles relevés. Message principal La maladie des vibrations est une maladie professionnelle répandue touchant les travailleurs de diverses industries qui utilisent des outils vibrants. La maladie est cependant sous-diagnostiquée au Canada. Elle compte 3 éléments : vasculaire, sous la forme d’un phénomène de Raynaud secondaire; neurosensoriel; et musculosquelettique. Aux stades les plus avancés, la maladie des vibrations entraîne une invalidité importante et une piètre qualité de vie. Son diagnostic exige une anamnèse minutieuse, en particulier des antécédents professionnels, un examen physique, des analyses de laboratoire afin d’éliminer les autres diagnostics, et la recommandation en médecine du travail aux fins d’investigations plus poussées. La prise en charge consiste à réduire l’exposition aux vibrations, éviter les températures froides, abandonner le tabac et administrer des médicaments. Conclusion Pour assurer un diagnostic rapide de la maladie des vibrations et améliorer le pronostic et la qualité de vie, les médecins de famille devraient connaître cette maladie professionnelle courante, et pouvoir obtenir les détails pertinents durant l’anamnèse, recommander les patients aux cliniques de médecine du travail et débuter les demandes d’indemnisation de manière appropriée. PMID:28292812

  4. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the pleura Images Pleural biopsy References Klein JS, Bhave AD. Thoracic radiology: invasive diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and ...

  5. Cross-correlation redshift calibration without spectroscopic calibration samples in DES Science Verification Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C.; Rozo, E.; Roodman, A.; Alarcon, A.; Cawthon, R.; Gatti, M.; Lin, H.; Miquel, R.; Rykoff, E. S.; Troxel, M. A.; Vielzeuf, P.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2018-06-01

    Galaxy cross-correlations with high-fidelity redshift samples hold the potential to precisely calibrate systematic photometric redshift uncertainties arising from the unavailability of complete and representative training and validation samples of galaxies. However, application of this technique in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) is hampered by the relatively low number density, small area, and modest redshift overlap between photometric and spectroscopic samples. We propose instead using photometric catalogues with reliable photometric redshifts for photo-z calibration via cross-correlations. We verify the viability of our proposal using redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to successfully recover the redshift distribution of SDSS spectroscopic galaxies. We demonstrate how to combine photo-z with cross-correlation data to calibrate photometric redshift biases while marginalizing over possible clustering bias evolution in either the calibration or unknown photometric samples. We apply our method to DES Science Verification (DES SV) data in order to constrain the photometric redshift distribution of a galaxy sample selected for weak lensing studies, constraining the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions to a statistical uncertainty of Δz ˜ ±0.01. We forecast that our proposal can, in principle, control photometric redshift uncertainties in DES weak lensing experiments at a level near the intrinsic statistical noise of the experiment over the range of redshifts where redMaPPer clusters are available. Our results provide strong motivation to launch a programme to fully characterize the systematic errors from bias evolution and photo-z shapes in our calibration procedure.

  6. Cross-correlation redshift calibration without spectroscopic calibration samples in DES Science Verification Data

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, C.; Rozo, E.; Roodman, A.; ...

    2018-03-26

    Galaxy cross-correlations with high-fidelity redshift samples hold the potential to precisely calibrate systematic photometric redshift uncertainties arising from the unavailability of complete and representative training and validation samples of galaxies. However, application of this technique in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) is hampered by the relatively low number density, small area, and modest redshift overlap between photometric and spectroscopic samples. We propose instead using photometric catalogs with reliable photometric redshifts for photo-z calibration via cross-correlations. We verify the viability of our proposal using redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to successfully recover the redshift distribution of SDSS spectroscopic galaxies. We demonstrate how to combine photo-z with cross-correlation data to calibrate photometric redshift biases while marginalizing over possible clustering bias evolution in either the calibration or unknown photometric samples. We apply our method to DES Science Verification (DES SV) data in order to constrain the photometric redshift distribution of a galaxy sample selected for weak lensing studies, constraining the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions to a statistical uncertainty ofmore » $$\\Delta z \\sim \\pm 0.01$$. We forecast that our proposal can in principle control photometric redshift uncertainties in DES weak lensing experiments at a level near the intrinsic statistical noise of the experiment over the range of redshifts where redMaPPer clusters are available. Here, our results provide strong motivation to launch a program to fully characterize the systematic errors from bias evolution and photo-z shapes in our calibration procedure.« less

  7. Cross-correlation redshift calibration without spectroscopic calibration samples in DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.; Rozo, E.; Roodman, A.

    Galaxy cross-correlations with high-fidelity redshift samples hold the potential to precisely calibrate systematic photometric redshift uncertainties arising from the unavailability of complete and representative training and validation samples of galaxies. However, application of this technique in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) is hampered by the relatively low number density, small area, and modest redshift overlap between photometric and spectroscopic samples. We propose instead using photometric catalogs with reliable photometric redshifts for photo-z calibration via cross-correlations. We verify the viability of our proposal using redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to successfully recover the redshift distribution of SDSS spectroscopic galaxies. We demonstrate how to combine photo-z with cross-correlation data to calibrate photometric redshift biases while marginalizing over possible clustering bias evolution in either the calibration or unknown photometric samples. We apply our method to DES Science Verification (DES SV) data in order to constrain the photometric redshift distribution of a galaxy sample selected for weak lensing studies, constraining the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions to a statistical uncertainty ofmore » $$\\Delta z \\sim \\pm 0.01$$. We forecast that our proposal can in principle control photometric redshift uncertainties in DES weak lensing experiments at a level near the intrinsic statistical noise of the experiment over the range of redshifts where redMaPPer clusters are available. Here, our results provide strong motivation to launch a program to fully characterize the systematic errors from bias evolution and photo-z shapes in our calibration procedure.« less

  8. Etat des lieux des soins de premier recours des malades mentaux à Antananarivo : étude rétrospective

    PubMed Central

    Bakohariliva, Hasina Andrianarivony; Rafehivola, Imisanavalona Hanitrinihaja; Raobelle, Evah Norotiana; Raharivelo, Adeline; Rajaonarison, Bertille Hortense

    2018-01-01

    Résumé Religion et guérisseurs traditionnels occupent encore une place prépondérante dans la prise en charge des maladies mentales à Madagascar. Ainsi, nous nous sommes fixés comme objectif d'établir un état des lieux sur les soins de premier recours des malades mentaux. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective descriptive s'étalant sur une période de 16 mois allant de janvier 2014 en avril 2015 au sein du service de psychiatrie du CHU de Befelatanana à Antananarivo. La prévalence des psychoses était de 25%. Le genre féminin (53%), l'ethnie merina (77%), les étudiants (45%), le niveau d'étude secondaire (40%), les célibataires (72%), la religion protestante (45%), ainsi que le niveau socio-économique moyen (57,5%) étaient prédominants. Dans les paramètres cliniques, le mode de début brutal (52%), le premier recours à la religion (40%), la présence d'antécédents des cas similaire (90%), étaient majoritaires. La schizophrénie était la pathologie la plus rencontrée dans la moitié des cas. Le délai d'amélioration en cas de traitement religieux et traditionnels était dans la moitié des cas de plus de 10 jours d'hospitalisation. Les patients ayant reçu une prise en charge psychiatrique en premier recours, étaient améliorés dans 75 % cas en moins de 10jours. Le retard du recours aux soins psychiatriques est une réalité à Madagascar qui aggrave le pronostic des psychoses. PMID:29632623

  9. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  10. Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

  11. Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Image Fusion Supported Transperineal Prostate Biopsy Using the Ginsburg Protocol: Technique, Learning Points, and Biopsy Results.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nienke; Patruno, Giulio; Wadhwa, Karan; Gaziev, Gabriele; Miano, Roberto; Barrett, Tristan; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Doble, Andrew; Warren, Anne; Bratt, Ola; Kastner, Christof

    2016-08-01

    Prostate biopsy supported by transperineal image fusion has recently been developed as a new method to the improve accuracy of prostate cancer detection. To describe the Ginsburg protocol for transperineal prostate biopsy supported by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) image fusion, provide learning points for its application, and report biopsy results. The article is supplemented by a Surgery in Motion video. This single-centre retrospective outcome study included 534 patients from March 2012 to October 2015. A total of 107 had no previous prostate biopsy, 295 had benign TRUS-guided biopsies, and 159 were on active surveillance for low-risk cancer. A Likert scale reported mpMRI for suspicion of cancer from 1 (no suspicion) to 5 (cancer highly likely). Transperineal biopsies were obtained under general anaesthesia using BiopSee fusion software (Medcom, Darmstadt, Germany). All patients had systematic biopsies, two cores from each of 12 anatomic sectors. Likert 3-5 lesions were targeted with a further two cores per lesion. Any cancer and Gleason score 7-10 cancer on biopsy were noted. Descriptive statistics and positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated. The detection rate of Gleason score 7-10 cancer was similar across clinical groups. Likert scale 3-5 MRI lesions were reported in 378 (71%) of the patients. Cancer was detected in 249 (66%) and Gleason score 7-10 cancer was noted in 157 (42%) of these patients. PPV for detecting 7-10 cancer was 0.15 for Likert score 3, 0.43 for score 4, and 0.63 for score 5. NPV of Likert 1-2 findings was 0.87 for Gleason score 7-10 and 0.97 for Gleason score ≥4+3=7 cancer. Limitations include lack of data on complications. Transperineal prostate biopsy supported by MRI/TRUS image fusion using the Ginsburg protocol yielded high detection rates of Gleason score 7-10 cancer. Because the NPV for excluding Gleason score 7-10 cancer was very

  12. Safety and Outcomes of Percutaneous Biopsy of 61 Hepatic Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Derrick A; Atwell, Thomas D; Sanchez, William; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hough, David M; Schmit, Grant D; Kurup, A Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Given the recent classification of hepatic adenoma (HA) into subtypes and recognition of imperfect specificity of MRI to differentiate HA from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), there is a resurgent interest in the role of biopsy to diagnose HA. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and outcomes of biopsy of HAs. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all patients who underwent hepatic mass biopsy revealing HA from 2000 through 2013 was performed. The biopsy procedure parameters were evaluated. Complications were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Pathology-specific outcomes related to the diagnosis of HA were assessed. Sixty patients (52 women and eight men) were identified with a mean age of 42 ± 13 (SD) years and a mean follow-up of 2.3 ± 3.0 years after biopsy. One patient had two HAs biopsied during the same procedure, resulting in a total of 61 biopsy-proven HAs. Of the 60 patients, one patient (2%) had a single major complication, which involved bleeding that resulted in a blood transfusion, and six patients (10%) had a minor complication. A total of six (10%) discordant biopsy results were found: Four biopsy-proven HAs (7%) revealed FNH on surgical resection or repeat biopsy, one HA (2%) showed well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at subsequent biopsy, and one HA (2%) showed findings suggestive of HCC on follow-up imaging. Complications after biopsy of HAs are uncommon. Although uncommon, discordant pathology results between biopsy and surgical resection may occur.

  13. [Stereotactic biopsy in the accurate diagnosis of lesions in the brain stem and deep brain].

    PubMed

    Qin, F; Huang, Z C; Cai, M Q; Xu, X F; Lu, T T; Dong, Q; Wu, A M; Lu, Z Z; Zhao, C; Guo, Y

    2018-06-12

    Objective: To investigate the value of stereotactic biopsy in the accurate diagnosis of lesions in the brain stem and deep brain. Methods: A total of 29 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy of brainstem and deep brain lesions between May 2012 and January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) stereotactic frame was installed under local anesthesia. Thin-layer CT and MRI scanning were performed. Target coordinates were calculated by inputting CT-MRI data into the radionics surgical planning system. The individualized puncture path was designed according to the location of the lesions and the characteristics of the image. Target distributions were as follows: 12 cases of midbrain or pons, 2 cases of internal capsule, 3 cases of thalamus, 12 cases of basal ganglia. The biopsy samples were used for further pathological and/or genetic diagnosis. Results: Twenty-eight of the 29 cases (96.6%) were diagnosed accurately by histopathology and genomic examination following stereotactic biopsy. Pathological results were as follows: 8 cases of lymphoma, 7 cases of glioma, 4 cases of demyelination, 2 cases of germ cell tumor, 2 cases of metastatic tumor, 1 cases of cerebral sparganosis, 1 case of tuberculous granuloma, 1 case of hereditary prion disease, 1 case of glial hyperplasia, 1 case of leukemia. The accurate diagnosis of one case required a combination of histopathology and genomic examination. Undefined diagnosis was still made in 1 cases (3.45%) after biopsy. After biopsy, there were 2 cases (6.9%) with symptomatic slight hemorrhage, 1 case (3.45%) with symptomatic severe hemorrhage, and 1 cass (3.45%) with permanent neurological dysfunction. No one died because of surgery or surgical complications. Conclusions: Stereotactic biopsy is fast, safe and minimally invasive. It is an ideal strategy for accurate diagnosis of lesions in brain stem and deep brain.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Curved Biopsy Device for CT-Guided Biopsy of Lesions Unreachable Using Standard Straight Needle Trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Hagen, Maximilian Franz, E-mail: mschulze@ukaachen.de; Pfeffer, Jochen; Zimmermann, Markus

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel curved CT-guided biopsy needle prototype with shape memory to access otherwise not accessible biopsy targets.Methods and MaterialsA biopsy needle curved by 90° with specific radius was designed. It was manufactured using nitinol to acquire shape memory, encased in a straight guiding trocar to be driven out for access of otherwise inaccessible targets. Fifty CT-guided punctures were conducted in a biopsy phantom and 10 CT-guided punctures in a swine corpse. Biposies from porcine liver and muscle tissue were separately gained using the biopsy device, and histological examination was performed subsequently.ResultsMean time for placement ofmore » the trocar and deployment of the inner biopsy needle was ~205 ± 69 and ~93 ± 58 s, respectively, with a mean of ~4.5 ± 1.3 steps to reach adequate biopsy position. Mean distance from the tip of the needle to the target was ~0.7 ± 0.8 mm. CT-guided punctures in the swine corpse took relatively longer and required more biopsy steps (~574 ± 107 and ~380 ± 148 s, 8 ± 2.6 steps). Histology demonstrated appropriate tissue samples in nine out of ten cases (90%).ConclusionsTargets that were otherwise inaccessible via standard straight needle trajectories could be successfully reached with the curved biopsy needle prototype. Shape memory and preformed size with specific radius of the curved needle simplify the target accessibility with a low risk of injuring adjacent structures.« less

  15. Mediastinoscopy with biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure is also done for certain infections (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and autoimmune disorders . Normal Results Biopsies of lymph ... Hodgkin disease Lung cancer Lymphoma or other tumors Sarcoidosis The spread of disease from one body part ...

  16. Breast biopsy -- stereotactic

    MedlinePlus

    ... sent to a pathologist to be examined. Normal Results A normal result means there is no sign ... follow-up mammogram or other tests. What Abnormal Results Mean If the biopsy shows benign breast tissue ...

  17. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed The test is used to diagnose cancer, sarcoidosis, or an infection (such as tuberculosis): When you ... of lymph nodes and other organs and tissues ( sarcoidosis ) Risks Lymph node biopsy may result in any ...

  18. Liquid Biopsy in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lousada-Fernandez, Fatima; Rapado-Gonzalez, Oscar; Lopez-Cedrun, Jose-Luis; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes

    2018-06-08

    Oral cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer worldwide. Carcinogenesis is a complex process, in which heterogeneity plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease. This review provides an overview of the current biological and clinical significance of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), and exosomes for diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. We highlight the importance of liquid biopsy—using blood and saliva—which represents a potential alternative to solid biopsy for diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, liquid biomarkers allow for the real-time monitoring of tumour evolution and therapeutic responses, initiating the era of personalized medicine. However, in oral cancer, the impact of liquid biopsies in clinical settings is still limited, requiring further studies to discover the best scenario for its clinical use.

  19. Visually directed vs. software-based targeted biopsy compared to transperineal template mapping biopsy in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Massimo; McCartan, Neil; Freeman, Alex; Punwani, Shonit; Emberton, Mark; Ahmed, Hashim U

    2015-10-01

    Targeted biopsy based on cognitive or software magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to transrectal ultrasound registration seems to increase the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer as compared with standard biopsy. However, these strategies have not been directly compared against an accurate test yet. The aim of this study was to obtain pilot data on the diagnostic ability of visually directed targeted biopsy vs. software-based targeted biopsy, considering transperineal template mapping (TPM) biopsy as the reference test. Prospective paired cohort study included 50 consecutive men undergoing TPM with one or more visible targets detected on preoperative multiparametric MRI. Targets were contoured on the Biojet software. Patients initially underwent software-based targeted biopsies, then visually directed targeted biopsies, and finally systematic TPM. The detection rate of clinically significant disease (Gleason score ≥3+4 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥4mm) of one strategy against another was compared by 3×3 contingency tables. Secondary analyses were performed using a less stringent threshold of significance (Gleason score ≥4+3 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥6mm). Median age was 68 (interquartile range: 63-73); median prostate-specific antigen level was 7.9ng/mL (6.4-10.2). A total of 79 targets were detected with a mean of 1.6 targets per patient. Of these, 27 (34%), 28 (35%), and 24 (31%) were scored 3, 4, and 5, respectively. At a patient level, the detection rate was 32 (64%), 34 (68%), and 38 (76%) for visually directed targeted, software-based biopsy, and TPM, respectively. Combining the 2 targeted strategies would have led to detection rate of 39 (78%). At a patient level and at a target level, software-based targeted biopsy found more clinically significant diseases than did visually directed targeted biopsy, although this was not statistically significant (22% vs. 14%, P = 0.48; 51.9% vs. 44.3%, P = 0.24). Secondary

  20. NEEDLE BIOPSY OF THE LIVER—General Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Molle, William E.; Kaplan, Leo

    1952-01-01

    Needle biopsy of the liver provides concrete diagnostic information that cannot be as readily obtained in any other way. This report reviews 401 liver biopsies in 312 patients. The major indications for use of this procedure are: To determine the cause of an obscure liver enlargement; to establish the cause of jaundice; to distinguish between malignant disease and cirrhosis of the liver; to determine when hepatitis has subsided; and to evaluate the results of treatment. At times, systemic disease that has not been recognized by other means may be diagnosed by this technique. There is risk in performing this test, and the 0.25 per cent mortality in this series compares favorably with that reported from other clinics. Where the diagnosis by biopsy could be compared with observations at operation or autopsy, the correct diagnosis was made by biopsy in 85 per cent of cases. Greater accuracy was obtained by two or more biopsic examinations in one case then by single biopsy. In several cases in which surgical operation was considered, biopsic information made it unnecessary, and vice versa. PMID:14886754

  1. Litigation involving DES.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, P D

    1976-01-01

    Focus is on the diethylstilbestrol (DES) litigation which has resulted from the 1971 discovery that this synthetic estrogen can cause cancer in the daughters of women who used the drug during pregnancy in an effort to prevent threatened abortion. Possibly 100 suits are pending at this time in which DES daughters claim injuries. In most of these vaginal or cervical cancer has appeared -- with or without a hysterectomy having been performed. Several women died from cancer. The fact that the use of DES occurred many years ago is the legal hurdle most troublesome to lawyers. The average women coming to a lawyer's office today has a mother who used some form of DES, perhaps in 1955. Few drugstores have records today of the prescriptions which they filled 20 years ago. It has been estimated that over the 1950-1970 period more than 200 different companies manufactured or "tabletized" under their own name DES plus a variety of similar synthetic estrogens promoted for the prevention of threatened abortion. A further hurdle caused by the passage of time is that even the records of the physicians are frequently lost. A final problem created by the age of the cases is statute of limitations. If the actual manufacturer of the DES cannot be identified, this is generally the end of the lawyer's interest in the case. The chance of the plaintiff winning may be increased if the action against all the manufacturers is a class action. Most of the pending DES suits are against the manufacturer and not against the doctor. Thus far no DES case has been tried to completion. Several have been settled by the manufacturers on the eve of the trial, generally for less than the full sum that a cancer victim would expect to receive.

  2. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  3. [Gene expression analyses of kidney biopsies: the European renal cDNA bank--Kröner-Fresenius biopsy bank].

    PubMed

    Cohen, C D; Kretzler, M

    2009-03-01

    Histological analysis of kidney biopsies is an essential part of our current diagnostic workup of patients with renal disease. Besides the already established diagnostic tools, new methods allow extensive analysis of the sample tissue's gene expression. Using results from a European multicenter study on gene expression analysis of renal biopsies, in this review we demonstrate that this novel approach not only expands the scope of so-called basic research but also might supplement future biopsy diagnostics. The goals are improved diagnosis and more specific therapy choice and prognosis estimates.

  4. Microbiological Characteristics of Acute Prostatitis After Transrectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jun-Ho; Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Dong-Sup; Lee, Seung-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to identify microbiological characteristics in patients with acute prostatitis after transrectal prostate biopsy to provide guidance in the review of prevention and treatment protocols. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of medical records was performed in 1,814 cases who underwent prostate biopsy at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and St. Vincent's Hospital over a 5 year period from 2006 to 2011. Cases in which acute prostatitis occurred within 7 days after the biopsy were investigated. Before starting treatment with antibiotics, sample collections were done for culture of urine and blood. Culture and drug susceptibility was identified by use of a method established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results A total of 1,814 biopsy procedures were performed in 1,541 patients. For 1,246 patients, the procedure was the first biopsy, whereas for 295 patients it was a repeat biopsy. Twenty-one patients (1.36%) were identified as having acute bacterial prostatitis after the biopsy. Fifteen patients (1.2%) had acute prostatitis after the first biopsy, and 6 patients (2.03%) experienced acute prostatitis after a repeat biopsy. Even though the incidence of acute bacterial prostatitis was higher after repeat biopsy than that after the first biopsy, there was no statistically significant intergroup difference in terms of incidence (χ2=1.223, p=0.269). When the collected urine and blood samples were cultured, Escherichia coli was found in samples from 15 patients (71.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae in 3 patients (14.3%), Enterobacter intermedius in 1 patient (4.8%), E. aerogenes in 1 patient (4.8%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 1 patient (4.8%). A fluoroquinolone-resistant strain was confirmed in 5 cases (23.8%) in total. Three cases of E. coli and 1 case of Klebsiella had extended-spectrum β-lactamase activity. Conclusions Empirical treatment of acute prostatitis should be done with consideration of geographical prevalence and drug

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid ... Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? ...

  6. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Cancer of the bile ducts ( cholangiocarcinoma ) Cysts in the liver Liver cancer Pancreatic cancer ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Bile Duct Cancer Read more Bile Duct Diseases Read more Biopsy ...

  7. Low-cost phantom for stereotactic breast biopsy training.

    PubMed

    Larrison, Matthew; DiBona, Alex; Hogg, David E

    2006-10-01

    This article reports on the construction of a low-cost phantom to be used for training technologists, residents, and radiologists to perform stereotactic breast biopsy. The model is adaptable to a variety of biopsy devices and realistically simulates the aspects of stereotactic breast biopsy. We believe our model provides an excellent alternative to more expensive commercial products.

  8. Attitudes towards drug-eluting stent use and the distribution of motivation type among interventional cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Phelps, Charles E; Ling, Frederick S; Hannan, Edward L; Veazie, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    The safety of drug-eluting stent (DES) use was called into question in 2006. However, the attitudes towards DES use after DES safety concerns were expressed and the distribution of chronic motivation type among interventional cardiologists are unknown. This study aims to examine the current attitudes towards DES use among interventional cardiologists and to investigate the distribution of chronic motivation type among these doctors. A questionnaire survey of interventional cardiologists was conducted in New York State from October 2008 to April 2009. The questionnaire included face valid items to measure the attitudes towards DES use, valid Regulatory Focus Questionnaire to measure the chronic motivation type, and items collecting demographic information. A total of 119 valid responses were received (response rate: 47%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding the demographic factors between the respondents and the non-respondents. The vast majority of interventional cardiologists (92%) agreed that 'DES is a revolutionary technology' and that 'DES use will increase in the future' (70%). The chronic motivation type of the respondents was predominantly sensitive to positive outcomes (89%). Interventional cardiologists had a very positive attitude regarding DES technology and predicted future growth of DES use. The vast majority of interventional cardiologists were found to be concerned about achieving positive outcomes and wanted to prevent errors of omission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the distribution of chronic motivation type among doctors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Radiofrequency Cauterization with Biopsy Introducer Needle

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, William F.; Wray-Cahen, Diane; Karanian, John W.; Hilbert, Stephen; Wood, Bradford J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The principal risks of needle biopsy are hemorrhage and implantation of tumor cells in the needle tract. This study compared hemorrhage after liver and kidney biopsy with and without radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the needle tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS Biopsies of liver and kidney were performed in swine through introducer needles modified to allow RF ablation with the distal 2 cm of the needle. After each biopsy, randomization determined whether the site was to undergo RF ablation during withdrawal of the introducer needle. Temperature was measured with a thermistor stylet near the needle tip, with a target temperature of 70°C–100°C with RF ablation. Blood loss was measured as grams of blood absorbed in gauze at the puncture site for 2 minutes after needle withdrawal. Selected specimens were cut for gross examination. RESULTS RF ablation reduced bleeding compared with absence of RF ablation in liver and kidney (P < .01), with mean blood loss reduced 63% and 97%, respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss (±SD) in the liver in the RF and no-RF groups were 2.03 g ± 4.03 (CI, 0.53–3.54 g) and 5.50 g ± 5.58 (CI, 3.33–7.66 g), respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss in the kidney in the RF and no-RF groups were 0.26 g ± 0.32 (CI, −0.01 to 0.53 g) and 8.79 g ± 7.72 (CI, 2.34–15.24 g), respectively. With RF ablation, thermal coagulation of the tissue surrounding the needle tract was observed. CONCLUSION RF ablation of needle biopsy tracts reduced hemorrhage after biopsy in the liver and kidney and may reduce complications of hemorrhage as well as implantation of tumor cells in the tract. PMID:14963187

  10. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): impact of endoscopy and biopsy on health, testicular morphology, and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Histologic examination of a testicular biopsy sample may be required to evaluate the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of testicular sampling from live birds by assessing the impact on the birds' health, testicular integrity, and sperm quality. Testicular biopsy samples were obtained by endoscopy 4 times during 12 months from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri). Only 2 of 16 birds showed testicular cicatrization or divided testicular tissue after a single endoscopy. Further complications, such as damage to the air sacs or bleeding, predominantly occurred in subsequent endoscopies. In both species, endoscopy and testicular biopsy caused only minor or transient effects on sperm production and sperm quality. These results support that a single testicular biopsy is a viable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male psittacine birds.

  11. A study to evaluate the efficacy of image-guided core biopsy in the diagnosis and management of lymphoma--results in 103 biopsies.

    PubMed

    Vandervelde, C; Kamani, T; Varghese, A; Ramesar, K; Grace, R; Howlett, D C

    2008-04-01

    The reason for this study was to evaluate the ability of image-guided core biopsy to replace surgical excision by providing sufficient diagnostic and treatment information. All consecutive image-guided core biopsies in patients with a final diagnosis of lymphoma over a 6-year period at our institution were collected retrospectively. Case notes and pathology reports were reviewed and the diagnostic techniques used were recorded. Pathology reports were graded according to their diagnostic completeness and their ability to provide treatment information. Out of a total of 328 instances of lymphoma, 103 image-guided core biopsies were performed in 96 patients. In 78% of these, the diagnostic information obtained from the biopsy provided a fully graded and subtyped diagnosis of lymphoma with sufficient information to initiate therapy. In the head and neck 67% of core biopsies were fully diagnostic for treatment purposes compared to 91% in the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Image-guided core biopsy has a number of cost and safety advantages over surgical excision biopsy and in suitable cases it can obviate the need for surgery in cases of suspected lymphoma. This is especially relevant for elderly patients and those with poor performance status.

  12. Safety of pediatric percutaneous liver biopsy performed by interventional radiologists.

    PubMed

    Potter, Carol; Hogan, Mark J; Henry-Kendjorsky, Katherine; Balint, Jane; Barnard, John A

    2011-08-01

    National data suggest that pediatric percutaneous liver biopsy is increasingly being performed by interventional radiologists rather than pediatric gastroenterologists. The objective of the present report is to describe the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous liver biopsy performed by interventional radiologists in a large cohort of children and to compare the results with the existing literature on biopsies performed by pediatric gastroenterologists. The medical records of 249 children undergoing ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy by interventional radiologists were reviewed for adverse events and success of obtaining tissue. Two hundred ninety-four biopsies were reviewed. There were no deaths. There were 2 instances of a 2-g or greater drop in hemoglobin following biopsy, neither of which was associated with clinical signs of hemorrhage. A small, asymptomatic pneumothorax quickly resolved without treatment. One patient developed Klebsiella sepsis 48  hours after biopsy. In all but 1 case, an adequate sample size was obtained. This low incidence of adverse events compares favorably with existing published reports of morbidity and mortality following percutaneous liver biopsy performed by pediatric gastroenterologists. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy performed by experienced pediatric interventional radiologists in a children's hospital setting is as safe and effective as biopsy performed by pediatric gastroenterologists.

  13. Excision versus incision biopsy in the management of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita S; Lim, Philip; Brotherston, Micheal T

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has increased over the last decade. The Breslow thickness is one of the most important histological parameters. The gold standard for histological diagnosis is an excision biopsy. Incisional, punch or shave biopsies are not recommended as they are often incomplete and can result in false negatives. To assess the validity of incision versus excision biopsies in the prediction of Breslow thickness in the histopathological analysis of malignant melanoma. A retrospective review of histopathological records was conducted for all patients undergoing incision biopsy for malignant melanoma. The Breslow thicknesses of the incisional biopsies were matched to the later corresponding excisional biopsies. The demographical data, site of melanoma and histological subtype were also examined. Sixty patients between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2013 were identified. The most common area biopsied was the upper and lower limbs - 50%. The Breslow thickness and Clark's level were found to be significantly increased in excision versus incision biopsy specimens. Nine patients had differing mitotic rates which were all higher in the excision biopsy samples. Our data supports the UK national guidelines on the management of malignant melanoma in that incisional biopsies are not indicated in the diagnostic pathway of malignant melanoma.

  14. [Renal biopsy findings in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kharrat, Mahmoud; Kammoun, Khawala; Charfeddine, Khaled; Yaich, Soumaya; Zaghdene, Saoussen; Chaker, Hanene; Jarraya, Faiçal; Ben Hmida, Mohamed; Jlidi, Rachid; Hachicha, Jamil

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetic patients with endstage renal disease is increased overall the word. Renal biopsy is sometimes necessary to precise the type of renal damage. To precise the type and the frequency of non diabetic nephropathy in diabetic patients. We enrolled retrospectively during 17 years, 72 diabetic patients who had a renal biopsy. A non diabetic nephropathy was found in 69.5 % of them. Its presence was correlate to the presence of hematuria and the absence of diabetic retinopathy. We can successfully treated nine patients with minimal-change nephrotic syndrome and one patient with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Renal biopsy must be done in diabetic patient with hematuria or in the absence of diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Targeted fascicular biopsy of the sciatic nerve and its major branches: rationale and operative technique.

    PubMed

    Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Dyck, P James B; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    , neurolymphomatosis, amyloidosis, prostate cancer, injury neuroma, neuromuscular choristoma, sarcoidosis, vasculitis, hemangiomatosis, arteriovenous malformation, fibrolipomatous hamartoma (lipomatosis of nerve), and cervical adenocarcinoma. The series included 11 (9.9%) temporary and 5 (4.5%) permanent complications: 3 patients (2.7%) reported permanent numbness in the peroneal division distribution, and 2 patients (1.8%) were diagnosed with neuromuscular choristoma that developed desmoid tumor at the biopsy site 3 and 8 years later. CONCLUSIONS Targeted fascicular biopsy of the sciatic nerve is a safe and efficient diagnostic procedure, and in highly selected cases can be offered as the initial procedure over distal cutaneous nerve biopsy. Diagnoses were very diverse and included entities considered very rare. Even for the more prevalent diagnoses, the biopsy technique allowed a more targeted approach with a higher diagnostic yield and justification for more aggressive treatment. In this series, new radiological patterns of some entities were identified, which could be biopsied less frequently.

  16. Current Status and Problems of T790M Detection, a Molecular Biomarker of Acquired Resistance to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, with Liquid Biopsy and Re-biopsy.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Chiho; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hirakawa, Haruki; Abe, Tomonori; Ogusu, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Koichiro; Takeda, Yuji; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider appropriate application of liquid and re-biopsy through analysis of current status in practice. We performed a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer who exhibited 1st/2nd generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors resistance. The cobas® method was used to detect T790M with re-biopsy and the mutation-biased PCR and quenched probe method was used with liquid biopsy. T790M detection rate was 52% with re-biopsy and 58% with liquid biopsy. The concordance between tissue and plasma was 58%. One patient who was T790M-positive with liquid biopsy showed heterogeneity among metastatic lesions in terms of osimertinib efficacy, as revealed by T790M detection with re-biopsy. Liquid biopsy reflects the whole body, whereas re-biopsy is useful for spatial diagnosis. Considering these characteristics, a combination of liquid and re-biopsy contribute to enhanced treatment. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. In-Bore MR-Guided Biopsy Systems and Utility of PI-RADS.

    PubMed

    Fütterer, Jurgen J; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald; Yakar, Derya

    2016-06-01

    A diagnostic dilemma exists in cases wherein a patient with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer has a negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy session. Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the standard of care, a paradigm shift is being observed. In biopsy-naive patients and patients with at least 1 negative biopsy session, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being utilized for tumor detection and subsequent targeting. Several commercial devices are now available for targeted prostate biopsy ranging from transrectal ultrasound-MR fusion biopsy to in bore MR-guided biopsy. In this review, we will give an update on the current status of in-bore MRI-guided biopsy systems and discuss value of prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PIRADS).

  18. A fully actuated robotic assistant for MRI-guided prostate biopsy and brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M.; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-03-01

    Intra-operative medical imaging enables incorporation of human experience and intelligence in a controlled, closed-loop fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an ideal modality for surgical guidance of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with its ability to perform high resolution, real-time, high soft tissue contrast imaging without ionizing radiation. However, for most current image-guided approaches only static pre-operative images are accessible for guidance, which are unable to provide updated information during a surgical procedure. The high magnetic field, electrical interference, and limited access of closed-bore MRI render great challenges to developing robotic systems that can perform inside a diagnostic high-field MRI while obtaining interactively updated MR images. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a piezoelectrically actuated robotic assistant for actuated percutaneous prostate interventions under real-time MRI guidance. Utilizing a modular design, the system enables coherent and straight forward workflow for various percutaneous interventions, including prostate biopsy sampling and brachytherapy seed placement, using various needle driver configurations. The unified workflow compromises: 1) system hardware and software initialization, 2) fiducial frame registration, 3) target selection and motion planning, 4) moving to the target and performing the intervention (e.g. taking a biopsy sample) under live imaging, and 5) visualization and verification. Phantom experiments of prostate biopsy and brachytherapy were executed under MRI-guidance to evaluate the feasibility of the workflow. The robot successfully performed fully actuated biopsy sampling and delivery of simulated brachytherapy seeds under live MR imaging, as well as precise delivery of a prostate brachytherapy seed distribution with an RMS accuracy of 0.98mm.

  19. Upper airway biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Biopsy Read more Cancer Read more ...

  20. [Prostate cancer diagnostic by saturation randomized biopsy versus rigid targeted biopsy].

    PubMed

    Defontaines, J; Salomon, L; Champy, C; Cholley, I; Chiaradia, M; de la Taille, A

    2017-12-01

    Optimal diagram teaming up randomized biopsy (BR) to targeted biopsy (BC) is still missing for the diagnostic of prostate cancer (CP). This study compares diagram of 6, 12 or 18 BR with or without BC rigid. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 120 patients had prostate biopsy BR and BC. Each patient had 18 BR and BC. Results compared sextant (6 BR), standard (12 BR) and saturation (18 BR) protocol with or without the adding of BC for the detection of CP. Rectal examination was normal, mean PSA at 8.99ng/mL and mean volume at 54cm 3 . It was first round for 48% of patients. Forty-four cancers were found by the group 18 BR+BC (control). The detection rate was respectively, for 6, 12 and 18 BR of 61%, 82% and 91%. The add of BC increased this detection of +27% for 6 BR+BC, +13% for 12 BR+BC and +9% for 18 BR+BC. BC found 70% of all CP. Nine percent of CP were missed by BR only. Significant CP (Gleason≥7) diagnostic was the same for 12 BR+BC and 18 BR+BC. The add of BC to BR increase the detection of CP by 10%. Twelve BR+BC is the optimal diagram for the diagnostic of CP finding 95% of CP and 97% of significant CP. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing breast biopsies by ultrasonographic analysis and a modified self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Greenleaf, James F.; Gisvold, John J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual evaluation of ultrasound images could decrease negative biopsies of breast cancer diagnosis. However, visual evaluation requires highly experienced breast sonographers. The objective of this study is to develop computerized radiologist assistant to reduce breast biopsies needed for evaluating suspected breast cancer. The approach of this study utilizes a neural network and tissue features extracted from digital sonographic breast images. The features include texture parameters of breast images: characteristics of echoes within and around breast lesions, and geometrical information of breast tumors. Clusters containing only benign lesions in the feature space are then identified by a modified self- organizing map. This newly developed neural network objectively segments population distributions of lesions and accurately establishes benign and equivocal regions.t eh method was applied to high quality breast sonograms of a large number of patients collected with a controlled procedure at Mayo Clinic. The study showed that the number of biopsies in this group of women could be decreased by 40 percent to 59 percent with high confidence and that no malignancies would have been included in the nonbiopsied group. The advantages of this approach are that it is robust, simple, and effective and does not require highly experienced sonographers.

  2. Etude numerique et experimentale de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures raidies a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejdi, Abderrazak

    Les fuselages des avions sont generalement en aluminium ou en composite renforces par des raidisseurs longitudinaux (lisses) et transversaux (cadres). Les raidisseurs peuvent etre metalliques ou en composite. Durant leurs differentes phases de vol, les structures d'avions sont soumises a des excitations aeriennes (couche limite turbulente : TBL, champs diffus : DAF) sur la peau exterieure dont l'energie acoustique produite se transmet a l'interieur de la cabine. Les moteurs, montes sur la structure, produisent une excitation solidienne significative. Ce projet a pour objectifs de developper et de mettre en place des strategies de modelisations des fuselages d'avions soumises a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes. Tous d'abord, une mise a jour des modeles existants de la TBL apparait dans le deuxieme chapitre afin de mieux les classer. Les proprietes de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures planes finies et infinies sont analysees. Dans le troisieme chapitre, les hypotheses sur lesquelles sont bases les modeles existants concernant les structures metalliques orthogonalement raidies soumises a des excitations mecaniques, DAF et TBL sont reexamines en premier lieu. Ensuite, une modelisation fine et fiable de ces structures est developpee. Le modele est valide numeriquement a l'aide des methodes des elements finis (FEM) et de frontiere (BEM). Des tests de validations experimentales sont realises sur des panneaux d'avions fournis par des societes aeronautiques. Au quatrieme chapitre, une extension vers les structures composites renforcees par des raidisseurs aussi en composites et de formes complexes est etablie. Un modele analytique simple est egalement implemente et valide numeriquement. Au cinquieme chapitre, la modelisation des structures raidies periodiques en composites est beaucoup plus raffinee par la prise en compte des effets de couplage des deplacements planes et transversaux. L'effet de taille des structures finies periodiques est egalement pris en

  3. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspiration removes a small amount of marrow in liquid form for examination. ... and a syringe is used to withdraw the liquid bone marrow. If this is done, the needle will be removed and repositioned. Or, another needle may be used for the biopsy.

  4. Etude de l'amelioration de la qualite des anodes par la modification des proprietes du brai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Julie

    La qualite des anodes produites se doit d'etre bonne afin d'obtenir de l'aluminium primaire tout en reduisant le cout de production du metal, la consommation d'energie et les emissions environnementales. Or, l'obtention des proprietes finales de l'anode necessite une liaison satisfaisante entre le coke et le brai. Toutefois, la matiere premiere actuelle n'assure pas forcement la compatibilite entre le coke et le brai. Une des solutions les plus prometteuses, pour ameliorer la cohesion entre ces deux materiaux, est la modification des proprietes du brai. L'objectif de ce travail consiste a modifier les proprietes du brai par l'ajout d'additifs chimiques afin d'ameliorer la mouillabilite du coke par le brai modifie pour produire des anodes de meilleure qualite. La composition chimique du brai est modifiee en utilisant des tensioactifs ou agents de modification de surface choisis dans le but d'enrichir les groupements fonctionnels susceptibles d'ameliorer la mouillabilite. L'aspect economique, l'empreinte environnementale et l'impact sur la production sont consideres dans la selection des additifs chimiques. Afin de realiser ce travail, la methodologie consiste a d'abord caracteriser les brais non modifies, les additifs chimiques et les cokes par la spectroscopie infrarouge a transformee de Fourier (FTIR) afin d'identifier les groupements chimiques presents. Puis, les brais sont modifies en ajoutant un additif chimique afin de possiblement modifier ses proprietes. Differentes quantites d'additif sont ajoutees afin d'examiner l'effet de la variation de la concentration sur les proprietes du brai modifie. La methode FTIR permet d'evaluer la composition chimique des brais modifies afin de constater si l'augmentation de la concentration d'additif enrichit les groupements fonctionnels favorisant l'adhesion coke/brai. Ensuite, la mouillabilite du coke par le brai est observee par la methode goutte- sessile. Une amelioration de la mouillabilite par la modification a l'aide d

  5. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'.

    PubMed

    Sainani, Nisha I; Arellano, Ronald S; Shyn, Paul B; Gervais, Debra A; Mueller, Peter R; Silverman, Stuart G

    2013-08-01

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is among the most commonly performed procedures in interventional radiology. While most abdominal masses are readily amenable to percutaneous biopsy, some may be technically challenging for a number of reasons. Low lesion conspicuity, small size, overlying or intervening structures, motion, such as that due to respiration, are some of the factors that can influence the ability and ultimately the success of an abdominal biopsy. Various techniques or technologies, such as choice of imaging modality, use of intravenous contrast and anatomic landmarks, patient positioning, organ displacement or trans-organ approach, angling CT gantry, triangulation method, real-time guidance with CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound, sedation or breath-hold, pre-procedural image fusion, electromagnetic tracking, and others, when used singularly or in combination, can overcome these challenges to facilitate needle placement in abdominal masses that otherwise would be considered not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. Familiarity and awareness of these techniques allows the interventional radiologist to expand the use of percutaneous biopsy in clinical practice, and help choose the most appropriate technique for a particular patient.

  6. Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; McLoughlin, M.J.; Tao, L.C.

    1981-04-01

    Forty patients with suspected malignant disease of the liver underwent percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy with radioisotope scintigraphic and fluoroscopic guidance. The needle was aimed at focal defects identified on the liver scan and several passes were made. When the scan was diffusely abnormal, the liver was widely sampled with multiple passes. Thirty patients were eventually considered to have malignant disease and aspiration biopsy was positive in 28 (93%) of these patients, including 25 of 26 with liver metastases (96%). There were two false-positive results and one minor complication. In 24 patients, conventional wide-bore needle biopsy was also performed. In thismore » group, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of hepatic malignancy. Aspiration biopsies were positive in 14 of these (87%) and conventional needle biopsies were positive in four (25%). Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended for pathologic diagnosis of hepatic malignancy because of its simplicity, high yield, and reasonable safety.« less

  7. Microarray gene expression profiling using core biopsies of renal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Craig G; Ditlev, Jonathon A; Tan, Min-Han; Sugimura, Jun; Qian, Chao-Nan; Cooper, Jeff; Lane, Brian; Jewett, Michael A; Kahnoski, Richard J; Kort, Eric J; Teh, Bin T

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using microarray gene expression profiling technology to analyze core biopsies of renal tumors for classification of tumor histology. Core biopsies were obtained ex-vivo from 7 renal tumors-comprised of four histological subtypes-following radical nephrectomy using 18-gauge biopsy needles. RNA was isolated from these samples and, in the case of biopsy samples, amplified by in vitro transcription. Microarray analysis was then used to quantify the mRNA expression patterns in these samples relative to non-diseased renal tissue mRNA. Genes with significant variation across all non-biopsy tumor samples were identified, and the relationship between tumor and biopsy samples in terms of expression levels of these genes was then quantified in terms of Euclidean distance, and visualized by complete linkage clustering. Final pathologic assessment of kidney tumors demonstrated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (4), oncocytoma (1), angiomyolipoma (1) and adrenalcortical carcinoma (1). Five of the seven biopsy samples were most similar in terms of gene expression to the resected tumors from which they were derived in terms of Euclidean distance. All seven biopsies were assigned to the correct histological class by hierarchical clustering. We demonstrate the feasibility of gene expression profiling of core biopsies of renal tumors to classify tumor histology.

  8. Microarray gene expression profiling using core biopsies of renal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Craig G.; Ditlev, Jonathon A.; Tan, Min-Han; Sugimura, Jun; Qian, Chao-Nan; Cooper, Jeff; Lane, Brian; Jewett, Michael A.; Kahnoski, Richard J.; Kort, Eric J.; Teh, Bin T.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using microarray gene expression profiling technology to analyze core biopsies of renal tumors for classification of tumor histology. Core biopsies were obtained ex-vivo from 7 renal tumors—comprised of four histological subtypes—following radical nephrectomy using 18-gauge biopsy needles. RNA was isolated from these samples and, in the case of biopsy samples, amplified by in vitro transcription. Microarray analysis was then used to quantify the mRNA expression patterns in these samples relative to non-diseased renal tissue mRNA. Genes with significant variation across all non-biopsy tumor samples were identified, and the relationship between tumor and biopsy samples in terms of expression levels of these genes was then quantified in terms of Euclidean distance, and visualized by complete linkage clustering. Final pathologic assessment of kidney tumors demonstrated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (4), oncocytoma (1), angiomyolipoma (1) and adrenalcortical carcinoma (1). Five of the seven biopsy samples were most similar in terms of gene expression to the resected tumors from which they were derived in terms of Euclidean distance. All seven biopsies were assigned to the correct histological class by hierarchical clustering. We demonstrate the feasibility of gene expression profiling of core biopsies of renal tumors to classify tumor histology. PMID:19966938

  9. [Determination of the 120-day post prostatic biopsy mortality rate].

    PubMed

    Canat, G A; Duclos, A; Couray-Targe, S; Schott, A-M; Polazzi, S; Scoazec, J-Y; Berger, F; Perrin, P

    2014-06-01

    Concerning death-rates were reported following prostate biopsy but the lack of contexts in which event occurred makes it difficult to take any position. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 120-day post-biopsy mortality rate. Between 2000 and 2011, 8804 men underwent prostate biopsy in the hospice civils de Lyon. We studied retrospectively, the mortality rate after each of the 11,816 procedures. Biopsies imputability was assessed by examining all medical records. Dates of death were extracted from our local patient management database, which is updated trimestrially with death notifications from the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies. In our study 42 deaths occurred within 120days after 11,816 prostate biopsies (0.36%). Of the 42 records: 9 were lost to follow-up, 3 had no identifiable cause of death, 28 had an intercurrent event ruling out prostate biopsy as a cause of death. Only 2 deaths could be linked to biopsy. We reported at most 2 deaths possibly related to prostate biopsy over 11,816 procedures (0.02%). We confirmed the fact that prostate biopsies can be lethal but this rare outcome should not be considered as an argument against prostate screening given the circumstances in which it occurs. 5. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid Biopsy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Vila, Miguel A.; Mayo-de-las-Casas, Clara; Giménez-Capitán, Ana; Jordana-Ariza, Núria; Garzón, Mónica; Balada, Ariadna; Villatoro, Sergi; Teixidó, Cristina; García-Peláez, Beatriz; Aguado, Cristina; Catalán, María José; Campos, Raquel; Pérez-Rosado, Ana; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Martínez-Bueno, Alejandro; Gil, María-de-los-Llanos; González-Cao, María; González, Xavier; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Viteri, Santiago; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Liquid biopsy analyses are already incorporated in the routine clinical practice in many hospitals and oncology departments worldwide, improving the selection of treatments and monitoring of lung cancer patients. Although they have not yet reached its full potential, liquid biopsy-based tests will soon be as widespread as “standard” biopsies and imaging techniques, offering invaluable diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive information. This review summarizes the techniques available for the isolation and analysis of circulating free DNA and RNA, exosomes, tumor-educated platelets, and circulating tumor cells from the blood of cancer patients, presents the methodological challenges associated with each of these materials, and discusses the clinical applications of liquid biopsy testing in lung cancer. PMID:28066769

  11. Cancer Diagnosis Using a Liquid Biopsy: Challenges and Expectations.

    PubMed

    Castro-Giner, Francesc; Gkountela, Sofia; Donato, Cinzia; Alborelli, Ilaria; Quagliata, Luca; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Aceto, Nicola

    2018-05-09

    The field of cancer diagnostics has recently been impacted by new and exciting developments in the area of liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive alternative to surgical biopsies of solid tissues, typically achieved through the withdrawal of a blood sample or other body fluids, allowing the interrogation of tumor-derived material including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fragments that are present at a given time point. In this short review, we discuss a few studies that summarize the state-of-the-art in the liquid biopsy field from a diagnostic perspective, and speculate on current challenges and expectations of implementing liquid biopsy testing for cancer diagnosis and monitoring in the clinical setting.

  12. Complications and adequacy of transplant kidney biopsies: A comparison of techniques.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Brett W; Chen, Pauline; Cross, Richard; Leavitt, Matthew A; Killen, Paul D; Heung, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Kidney biopsies are an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of kidney diseases, particularly in kidney transplant recipients. Biopsies carry a risk for serious complications and not all biopsies achieve adequate tissue. We examined the impact of kidney biopsy technique on complications and biopsy adequacy. The cohort consisted of consecutive kidney transplant patients undergoing biopsy by one of three techniques: ultrasound localization, real-time ultrasound guidance, and ultrasound-guided trocar placement. Variables of interest included patient characteristics and procedural characteristics. The primary outcome was serious complication attributable to kidney biopsy, and the secondary outcome was biopsy adequacy as defined by Banff criteria. Among 263 patients undergoing biopsy, 27 (10.3%) had a complication (14 with gross hematuria, 10 requiring blood transfusion, 3 requiring an unplanned interventional radiology procedure, 1 kidney loss; no deaths). Complications were more common among patients biopsied using ultrasound-guided trocar compared to real-time ultrasound and ultrasound localization (21.4% vs 7.9% vs 7.1%, respectively, p = 0.008). After adjusting for patient and procedure characteristics, technique was no longer significantly associated with complication. Biopsy adequacy was significantly higher when using ultrasound localization and real-time ultrasound compared to ultrasound-guided trocar (84.6% vs 86.8% vs 69.6%, p = 0.029), and this finding persisted in adjusted analysis. Kidney biopsy complications appear to be similar when using any of the three techniques examined in our study. However, ultrasound-guided trocar technique may yield lower biopsy adequacy when compared to non-trocar techniques.

  13. Single-Institution Results of Image-Guided Nonplugged Percutaneous Versus Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardman, Rulon L., E-mail: hardmanr@uthscsa.edu; Perrich, Kiley D.; Silas, Anne M.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review patients who underwent transjugular and image-guided percutaneous biopsy and compare the relative risk of ascites, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. Materials and Methods: From August 2001 through February 2006, a total of 238 liver biopsies were performed. The radiologist reviewed all patient referrals for transjugular biopsy. These patients either underwent transjugular biopsy or were reassigned to percutaneous biopsy (crossover group). Patients referred to percutaneous image-guided liver biopsy underwent this same procedure. Biopsies were considered successful if a tissue diagnosis could be made from the samples obtained. Results: A total of 36 transjugular biopsies were performed with 3 totalmore » (8.3%) and 1 major (2.8%) complications. A total of 171 percutaneous biopsies were performed with 10 (5.8%) total and 3 (1.8%) major complications. The crossover group showed a total of 4 (12.9%) complications with 1 (3.2%) major complication. Sample adequacy was 91.9% for transjugular and 99.5% for percutaneous biopsy. Conclusion: Both transjugular and percutaneous liver biopsy techniques are efficacious and safe. Contraindications such as thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and ascites are indicators of greater complications but are not necessarily prevented by transjugular biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy more frequently yields a diagnostic specimen than transjugular biopsy.« less

  14. Quantitative Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Imaging of Human Kidney Biopsies: A Bridge to Precision Medicine in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Seth; Dagher, Pierre C; Dunn, Kenneth W; Eadon, Michael T; Ferkowicz, Michael; Barwinska, Daria; Kelly, Katherine J; Sutton, Timothy A; El-Achkar, Tarek M

    2018-06-05

    Kidney biopsy remains the gold standard for uncovering the pathogenesis of acute and chronic kidney diseases. However, the ability to perform high resolution, quantitative, molecular and cellular interrogation of this precious tissue is still at a developing stage compared to other fields such as oncology. Here, we discuss recent advances in performing large-scale, three-dimensional (3D), multi-fluorescence imaging of kidney biopsies and quantitative analysis referred to as 3D tissue cytometry. This approach allows the accurate measurement of specific cell types and their spatial distribution in a thick section spanning the entire length of the biopsy. By uncovering specific disease signatures, including rare occurrences, and linking them to the biology in situ, this approach will enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, by providing accurate quantitation of cellular events, 3D cytometry may improve the accuracy of prognosticating the clinical course and response to therapy. Therefore, large-scale 3D imaging and cytometry of kidney biopsy is poised to become a bridge towards personalized medicine for patients with kidney disease. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Epidemiology of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis in Queensland adults.

    PubMed

    Jegatheesan, Dev; Nath, Karthik; Reyaldeen, Reza; Sivasuthan, Goutham; John, George T; Francis, Leo; Rajmokan, Mohana; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data pertaining to the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN) in Australia. This retrospective study aims to review the data from all adult native renal biopsies performed in the state of Queensland from 2002 to 2011--comparing results with centres from across the world. Pathology reports of 3697 adult native kidney biopsies were reviewed, of which 2048 had GN diagnoses. Age, gender, clinical indication and histopathology findings were compared. The average age at biopsy was 48 ± 17 years. Male preponderance was noted overall (∼60%), with lupus nephritis being the only individual GN with female predilection. The average rate of biopsy was 12.04 per hundred thousand people per year (php/yr). Nephrotic and nephritic syndromes comprised approximately 75% of all clinical indications that lead to GN diagnoses. IgA nephropathy (1.41 php/yr) was the most common primary GN followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (1.02 php/yr) and crescentic GN (0.73 php/yr). Diabetic nephropathy (0.84 php/yr), lupus nephritis (0.69 php/yr) and amyloidosis (0.19 php/yr) were the most commonly identified secondary GN. IgA nephropathy is the predominant primary GN in Queensland, and nephrotic syndrome the most common indication for a renal biopsy. While crescentic GN incidence has significantly increased with time, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis incidence has not shown any trend. Incidence of GN overall appears to increase with age. The annual rate of biopsy in this study appears lower than previously published in an Australian population. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Utilization of sentinel lymph node biopsy for uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason D; Cham, Stephanie; Chen, Ling; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Tergas, Ana I; Desai, Vrunda; Hu, Jim C; Ananth, Cande V; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L

    2017-06-01

    To limit the potential short and long-term morbidity of lymphadenectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy has been proposed for endometrial cancer. The principle of sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on removal of a small number of lymph nodes that are the first drainage basins from a tumor and thus the most likely to harbor tumor cells. While the procedure may reduce morbidity, efficacy data are limited and little is known about how commonly the procedure is performed. We examined the patterns and predictors of use of sentinel lymph node biopsy and outcomes of the procedure in women with endometrial cancer who underwent hysterectomy. We used the Perspective database to identify women with uterine cancer who underwent hysterectomy from 2011 through 2015. Billing and charge codes were used to classify women as having undergone lymphadenectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, or no nodal assessment. Multivariable models were used to examine clinical, demographic, and hospital characteristics with use of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Length of stay and cost were compared among the different methods of nodal assessment. Among 28,362 patients, 9327 (32.9%) did not undergo nodal assessment, 17,669 (62.3%) underwent lymphadenectomy, and 1366 (4.8%) underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.6%) of abdominal hysterectomies, 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-4.1%) of laparoscopic hysterectomies, and 7.5% (95% confidence interval, 7.0-8.0%) of robotic-assisted hysterectomies. In a multivariable model, more recent year of surgery was associated with performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Compared to abdominal hysterectomy, those undergoing laparoscopic (adjusted risk ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-3.18) and robotic-assisted (adjusted risk ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.19-3.30) hysterectomy were more likely to undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy. Among women who underwent minimally

  17. Quantification des besoins en intrants antipaludiques: contribution à l'actualisation des hypothèses pour la quantification des intrants de prise en charge des cas de paludisme grave en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Likwela, Joris Losimba; Otokoye, John Otshudiema

    2015-01-01

    Les formes graves de paludisme à Plasmodium falciparum sont une cause majeure de décès des enfants de moins de 5 ans en Afrique Sub-saharienne. Un traitement rapide dépend de la disponibilité de médicaments appropriés au niveau des points de prestation de service. La fréquence des ruptures de stock des commodités antipaludiques, en particuliers celles utilisées pour le paludisme grave, avait nécessité une mise à jour des hypothèses de quantification. Les données issues de la collecte de routine du PNLP de 2007 à 2012 ont été comparées à celles rapportés par d'autres pays africains et utilisées pour orienter les discussions au cours d'un atelier organisé par le PNLP et ses partenaires techniques et financiers afin de dégager un consensus national. La proportion des cas de paludisme rapportés comme grave en RDC est resté autour d'une médiane de 7% avec un domaine de variation de 6 à 9%. Hormis la proportion rapportée au Kenya (2%), les pays africains ont rapporté une proportion de cas grave variant entre 5 et 7%. Il apparaît que la proportion de 1% précédemment utilisée pour la quantification en RDC a été sous-estimée dans le contexte de la gestion des cas graves sur terrain. Un consensus s'est dégagé autour de la proportion de 5% étant entendu que des efforts de renforcement des capacités seraient déployés afin d'améliorer le diagnostic au niveau des points de prestation des services. PMID:26213595

  18. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J.; Lang, Julie E.; Sener, Stephen F.; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E.; Kirk Shung, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  19. Esophageal foreign bodies and eosinophilic esophagitis--the need for esophageal mucosal biopsy: a 12-year survey across pediatric subspecialties.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul; Jameson, Samuel; Bishop, Phyllis; Sawaya, David; Nowicki, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal foreign body impaction (EFBI) is a common problem requiring urgent endoscopy. EFBI may be the first sign of underlying esophageal pathology, yet mucosal biopsies are rarely performed. We report a retrospective analysis of 572 children requiring removal of an EFBI over a 12-year period by pediatric otolaryngologists (ENT), surgeons (PS), and gastroenterologists (PGI). The method of removal [direct laryngoscopy (DL), rigid endoscopy (RE), flexible endoscopy (FE)], type of foreign body (inanimate or food), whether mucosal biopsies were performed, and histologic findings of biopsy samples were recorded for each patient. Foreign body removal was most commonly performed by PGI (298 [52 %]); the remaining were equally distributed between ENT (136 [24 %]) and PS (138 [24 %]). The method of foreign body removal used by ENT was RE (89 %), DL (8 %), and FE (3 %). Pediatric surgery preferred FE (62 %), followed by RE (27 %) and DL (11 %). Pediatric gastroenterology used FE exclusively. Esophageal biopsies were never performed by ENT or PS; PGI performed esophageal biopsies more commonly in children with meat bolus impactions (50 %) than in children with inanimate foreign bodies (12 %). Mucosal pathology was more common in children with meat bolus impaction (100 %) than in children with inanimate foreign bodies (45 %). Esophageal mucosal biopsy should be considered for all children with EFBI not attributed to stricture, particularly those with meat bolus impaction.

  20. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Hospitalization rate in relation to severe complications of transrectal prostate biopsy: About 2715 patients biopsied].

    PubMed

    Tamarelle, B; Perrin, P; Devonec, M; Paparel, P; Ruffion, A

    To identify hospitalizations directly related to a complication occurring within 30 days following a transrectal prostate biopsy (PBP). Overall hospitalization rates, mortality rates, potential predisposing factors for complications. Single-center study including all patients who underwent PBP between January 2005 and January 2012. Any hospitalization occurring within 30 days of the PBP for urgent motive was considered potentially attributable to biopsy. We identified the reason for hospitalization with direct complications (urinary infection or fever, rectal bleeding, bladder caillotage, retention) and indirect (underlying comorbidities decompensation) of the biopsy. The contributing factors were anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment well as waning immunity factors (corticosteroid therapy, HIV, chemotherapy or immunodulateur). Among 2715 men who underwent PBP, there were 120 (4.4%) hospitalizations including 28 (1.03%) caused by the biopsy. Twenty-five (0.92%) were related to a direct complication of biopsy: 14 (56%) for urinary tract infection or fever including 1 hospitalization in intensive care, 5 (20%) for rectal bleeding which required several transfusions 1, 10 (40%) urinary retention and 3 (0.11%) for an indirect complication (2 coronary syndromes and 1 respiratory failure). Several direct complications were associated in 3 cases. Only two hospitalizations associated with rectal bleeding were taking an antiplatelet or anticoagulant. There was no association between hospitalization for urinary tract infections and a decreased immune status. The first death observed in our study occurred at D31 of pulmonary embolism (advanced metastatic patient with bladder cancer). Twenty (60.6%) patients urgently hospitalized did not have prostate cancer. Within this large sample of patients the overall rate of hospitalization due to the realization of a PBP was 1%. It has not been found predictive of complications leading to hospitalization. 4. Copyright © 2016

  2. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    SciTech Connect

    Gurel, Kamil; Karabay, Oguz; Gurel, Safiye

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs ofmore » a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.« less

  3. Labial salivary gland biopsy assessment in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Flipo, R M; Janin, A; Hachulla, E; Houvenagel, E; Foulet, A; Cardon, T; Desbonnet, A; Grardel, B; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1994-10-01

    To assess the vascular involvement in labial salivary gland (LSG) from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). Forty seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) took part in a prospective study. Among them, 12 had proven RV. LSG biopsy was performed after local anaesthesia. Histological appearance of inflammatory vascular damage was observed in all but one patient with proven RV (92%). Inflammatory vascular involvement was also identified in LSG biopsy of seven patients with RA (20%) and only one patient in the control group (8%). A second specimen of LSG was studied after a mean treatment period of six months and failed to show any feature of inflammatory vascular involvement in three of the five cases that were analysed. The study emphasises the high incidence of immunopathological features of microvascular damage in patients with RV. LSG biopsy is minimally invasive and may be a potential useful tool for the diagnosis of RV especially when skin lesions are absent or impossible to biopsy. The assessment of the predictive value of positive LSG biopsy in RA requires a long term prospective study.

  4. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  5. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le

  6. Clinical and prognostic significance of muscle biopsy in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Yanardag, Halil; Tetikkurt, Cuneyt; Bilir, Muammer

    2018-04-30

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of muscle involvement on the clinical features, prognostic outcome, extrapulmonary organ, and endobronchial involvement in sarcoidosis patients. The second aim was to assess the diagnostic yield of muscle biopsy for the histopathologic identification of sarcoidosis.  Fifty sarcoidosis patients participated in the study. The patients were classified into two groups according to the histopathologic presence of non-caseating granulomatous inflammatory pattern of the muscle biopsy samples and were evaluated retrospectively in regard to clinical features, prognosis, extrapulmonary, and endobronchial disease involvement. Pathologic examination of the muscle biopsy samples revealed non-caseating granulomas in eighteen and myositis in seven patients compatible with sarcoidosis. The diagnostic yield of muscle biopsy for demonstrating non-caseating granulomatous inflammation was fifty percent. Patients with muscle sarcoidosis showed a worse prognosis and a more severe extrapulmonary organ involvement than the patients without muscle disease. Muscle biopsy was not statistically significant to delineate diffuse endobronchial involvement while it was suggestive for endobronchial disease clinically. The results of our study reveal that muscle biopsy appears to be a useful diagnostic tool along with its safety and easy clinical applicability. It is a rewarding utility to predict the prognostic outcome and extrapulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis patients. Positive biopsy on the other hand confirms the identification of sarcoidosis in patients with single organ involvement carrying an equivocal diagnostic clinical pattern. Muscle biopsy may be considered as the initial step for the final diagnosis of sarcoidosis in such cases.

  7. Emergency right hepatectomy after laparoscopic tru-cut liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Nicolás; León, Felipe; Martínez, Jorge; Jarufe, Nicolás; Guerra, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver biopsy is a common procedure usually required for final pathologic diagnosis of different liver diseases. Morbidity following tru-cut biopsy is uncommon, with bleeding complications generally self-limited. Few cases of major hemorrhage after liver biopsies have been reported, but to our knowledge, no cases of emergency hepatectomy following a tru-cut liver biopsy have been reported previously. Presentation of case We report the case of a 38 years-old woman who presented with an intrahepatic arterial bleeding after a tru-cut liver biopsy under direct laparoscopic visualization, initially controlled by ligation of the right hepatic artery and temporary liver packing. On tenth postoperative day, she developed a pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior branch of the right hepatic artery, evolving with massive bleeding that was not amenable to control by endovascular therapy. Therefore, an emergency right hepatectomy had to be performed in order to stop the bleeding. The patient achieved hemodynamic stabilization, but developed a biliary fistula from the liver surface, refractory to non-operative treatment. In consequence, a Roux-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was performed at third month, with no further complications. Discussion Bleeding following tru-cut biopsy is a rare event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an emergency hepatectomy due to hemorrhage following liver biopsy. Risks and complications of liver biopsy are revised. Conclusion Care must be taken when performing this kind of procedures and a high level of suspicion regarding this complication should be taken in count when clinical/hemodynamic deterioration occurs after these procedures. PMID:25618399

  8. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Amyloidosis Read more Biopsy Read more Carpal Tunnel ...

  9. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy: A Libyan experience

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A.; Tarsin, R.; ElHabbash, B.; Zagan, N.; Markus, R.; Drebeka, S.; AbdElmola, K.; Shawish, T.; Shebani, A.; AbdElmola, T.; ElUsta, A.; Ehtuish, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB), to ascertain the risk factors for complications and determine the optimal period of observation. The radiologist (A.M.) at the National Organ Transplant Centre, Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, performed 86 PRBs between February 1, 2006, and January 31, 2008, using an automated biopsy gun with 16-gauge needle. Coagulation profile was done in all the patients. All patients were kept on strict bed rest for six hours post-procedure. Eighty six renal biopsies were performed on 78 patients referred from rheumatology department and eight post-kidney transplant recipients; 23 were males with age range 15 – 56 years and 63 females with age range 16 – 66 years. A mean of 17.5 glomeruli were present in each specimen. A glomerular yield of less than five glomeruli was seen in four biopsies. Class I lupus nephritis (LN) was seen in 1 patient, class II lupus nephritis in 7 patients, class III LN in 13 patients and class IV LN in 29 patients. All the eight renal allografts were diagnosed as acute tubular necrosis or acute interstitial rejection. The risk of post-biopsy bleeding was higher in women, older patients and higher PTT. The overall complication rate was 5.8%. Three complications were observed within six hours of biopsy. No late complication was seen. PRB under real-time ultrasound-guidance is a safe and efficacious procedure to establish the histological diagnosis and should be done as out-patient procedure. Observation time of six hours post-biopsy is optimal. PMID:20835320

  10. Le role du phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) dans les variations des proprietes optiques des eaux du Saint-Laurent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Sebastien

    Les mesures satellitaires de couleur des oceans sont largement determinees par les proprietes optiques inherentes (IOPs) des eaux de surface. D'autre part, le phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) est le plus souvent dominant dans les oceans, et peut donc etre une source importante de variation des IOPs dans les oceans. Dans ce contexte, le but principal de ce doctorat etait de definir l'impact du phytoplancton (<20 mum) sur les variations des proprietes optiques de l'Estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Afin d'atteindre cet objectif, il etait necessaire de determiner en milieu controle les facteurs de variabilite des proprietes optiques cellulaires et des IOPs du phytoplancton (<20 mum) des eaux du Saint-Laurent, et d'evaluer la contribution du phytoplancton (<20 mum) aux proprietes optiques totales des eaux du Saint-Laurent. Des experiences en laboratoire ont montre que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques soumises a un cycle jour-nuit, ainsi qu'a des changements concomitants d'intensite lumineuse, peuvent contribuer significativement a la variabilite des proprietes optiques observee en milieu naturel. D'autres experiences ont, quant a elles, mis en evidence que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques dues aux phases de croissance peuvent alterer les IOPs des oceans, particulierement pendant les periodes de floraison. De plus, la presence de bacteries et de particules detritiques peut egalement affecter la variabilite des IOPs totales, notamment la diffusion. Au printemps, dans l'Estuaire et le Golfe du Saint-Laurent, la contribution du phytoplancton <20 mum aux IOPs presentait des differences regionales evidentes pour les proprietes d'absorption et de diffusion. En plus de la variabilite spatiale, les proprietes optiques cellulaires presentaient des variations journalieres, et ce particulierement pour le picophytoplancton. Enfin, la plupart des differences observees dans les

  11. Probability modeling of the number of positive cores in a prostate cancer biopsy session, with applications.

    PubMed

    Serfling, Robert; Ogola, Gerald

    2016-02-10

    Among men, prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer. A major issue of very large scale is avoiding both over-treatment and under-treatment of CaP cases. The central challenge is deciding clinical significance or insignificance when the CaP biopsy results are positive but only marginally so. A related concern is deciding how to increase the number of biopsy cores for larger prostates. As a foundation for improved choice of number of cores and improved interpretation of biopsy results, we develop a probability model for the number of positive cores found in a biopsy, given the total number of cores, the volumes of the tumor nodules, and - very importantly - the prostate volume. Also, three applications are carried out: guidelines for the number of cores as a function of prostate volume, decision rules for insignificant versus significant CaP using number of positive cores, and, using prior distributions on total tumor size, Bayesian posterior probabilities for insignificant CaP and posterior median CaP. The model-based results have generality of application, take prostate volume into account, and provide attractive tradeoffs of specificity versus sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Systemic Air Embolism After CT-guided Lung Biopsy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-27

    Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Lung Biopsy Under CT Guidance; Patients Who Presented Systemic Air Embolism After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy Under CT Guidance Depicted at the Time of the Procedure on a Whole Thoracic CT

  13. Clinical correlation of biopsy results in patients with temporal arteritis.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Volkan; Guclu, Orkut; Tastekin, Ebru; Halici, Umit; Huseyin, Serhat; Inal, Volkan; Canbaz, Suat

    2017-11-01

    Temporal arteritis is systemic vasculitis of medium and large sized vessels. The lowest incidence rates were reported in Turkey, Japan and Israel. We aimed to investigate the results of patients with biopsy-proven temporal arteritis and those classified according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria from a low-incidence region for temporal arteritis. The results of our study are noteworthy, since there is limited data on pathologic diagnosis of temporal arteritis in Turkey. We studied the medical records, laboratory findings such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, biopsy results, and postoperative complications of all the patients operated for temporal artery biopsy at our clinic. We used the computerized laboratory registry that keeps all records of 42 consecutive temporal artery biopsy results from January 2011 to December 2016. The mean age was 66±12.5 years. The most common manifestations on admission were temporal headache, optic neuritis and jaw claudication, respectively. Temporal artery biopsy  results confirmed tempoal arteritis in eight out of 42 (19%) patients. There was no statistically significant difference between biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative groups in terms of sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and biopsy length. We were not able to find a correlation between the analysis of biopsy results and clinical evaluation of patients with temporal arteritis. We suggest that diagnosis of temporal arteritis  depends on clinical suspicion. Laboratory examination results may not be helpful in accurate diagnosis of tempoal arteritis.

  14. Survey of Kidney Biopsy Clinical Practice and Training in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Christina M; Nee, Robert; Little, Dustin J; Narayan, Rajeev; Childs, John M; Prince, Lisa K; Raghavan, Rajeev; Oliver, James D

    2018-05-07

    Practicing clinical nephrologists are performing fewer diagnostic kidney biopsies. Requiring biopsy procedural competence for graduating nephrology fellows is controversial. An anonymous, on-line survey of all Walter Reed training program graduates ( n =82; 1985-2017) and all United States nephrology program directors ( n =149; August to October of 2017), regarding kidney biopsy practice and training, was undertaken. Walter Reed graduates' response and completion rates were 71% and 98%, respectively. The majority felt adequately trained in native kidney biopsy (83%), transplant biopsy (82%), and tissue interpretation (78%), with no difference for ≤10 versus >10 practice years. Thirty-five percent continued to perform biopsies (13% did ≥10 native biopsies/year); 93% referred at least some biopsies. The most common barriers to performing biopsy were logistics (81%) and time (74%). Program director response and completion rates were 60% and 77%. Seventy-two percent cited ≥1 barrier to fellow competence. The most common barriers were logistics (45%), time (45%), and likelihood that biopsy would not be performed postgraduation (41%). Fifty-one percent indicated that fellows should not be required to demonstrate minimal procedural competence in biopsy, although 97% agreed that fellows should demonstrate competence in knowing/managing indications, contraindications, and complications. Program directors citing ≥1 barrier or whose fellows did <50 native biopsies/year in total were more likely to think that procedural competence should not be required versus those citing no barriers ( P =0.02), or whose fellows performed ≥50 biopsies ( P <0.01). Almost two-thirds of graduate respondents from a single military training program no longer perform biopsy, and 51% of responding nephrology program directors indicated that biopsy procedural competence should not be required. These findings should inform discussion of kidney biopsy curriculum requirements. Copyright

  15. Breast Biopsy: The Effects of Hypnosis and Music.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Arnoldo; Sánchez-Jáuregui, Teresa; Juárez-García, Dehisy M; García-Solís, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacies of audio-recorded hypnosis with background music and music without hypnosis in the reduction of emotional and physical disturbances in patients scheduled for breast biopsy in comparison with a control group. A total of 75 patients were randomly assigned to 3 different groups and evaluated at baseline and before and after breast biopsy using visual analog scales of stress, pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, optimism, and general well-being. The results showed that, before breast biopsy, the music group presented less stress and anxiety, whereas the hypnosis with music group presented reduced stress, anxiety, and depression and increased optimism and general well-being. After the biopsy, the music group presented less anxiety and pain, whereas the hypnosis group showed less anxiety and increased optimism.

  16. Cost Analysis of Channeled, Distal Chip Laryngoscope for In-office Laryngopharyngeal Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sonya; Timen, Micah; Dion, Gregory R; Fritz, Mark A; Branski, Ryan C; Amin, Milan R

    2018-02-19

    Given that financial considerations play an increasingly prominent role in clinical decision-making, we sought (1) to determine the cost-effectiveness of in-office biopsy for the patient, the provider, and the health-care system, and (2) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of in-office biopsy. Retrospective, financial analyses were performed. Patients who underwent in-office (Current Procedural Terminology Code 31576) or operative biopsy (CPT Code 31535) for laryngopharyngeal lesions were included. Two financial analyses were performed: (1) the average cost of operating room (OR) versus in-office biopsy was calculated, and (2) a break-even analysis was calculated to determine the cost-effectiveness of in-office biopsy for the provider. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of in-office biopsies and need for additional biopsies or procedures was recorded. Of the 48 patients included in the current study, 28 underwent in-office biopsy. A pathologic sample was obtained in 26 of 28 (92.9%) biopsies performed in the office. Of these patients, 16 avoided subsequent OR procedures. The average per patient cost was $7000 and $11,000 for in-office and OR biopsy, respectively. Break-even analysis demonstrated that the provider could achieve a profit 2 years after purchase of the necessary equipment. In-office laryngopharyngeal biopsies are accurate and, overall, more cost-effective than OR biopsies. Purchase of the channeled, distal chip laryngoscope and biopsy forceps to perform in-office biopsies can be profitable for a provider with a videolaryngoscopy tower. In-office biopsy should be considered the initial diagnostic tool for suspected laryngopharyngeal malignancies noted on videolaryngoscopy. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A retrospective study of 51,781 adult oral and maxillofacial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dovigi, Edwin A; Kwok, Elaine Y L; Eversole, Lewis R; Dovigi, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have compared patient and anatomic characteristics across the broad scope of oral and maxillofacial disease seen in dental clinics. The authors conducted a study to make these comparisons by surveying a large sample of histologically diagnosed oral and maxillofacial lesions in a US adult population. A total of 51,781 specimens biopsied from 51,781 adult patients were received by an oral pathology service over 13 years (2001-2015) and analyzed. A description of patients' sex and age at diagnosis, as well as the anatomic site of biopsy was given for diagnoses of 10 oral disease types, including malignant neoplasm, benign neoplasm, infectious, reactive, potentially malignant, developmental, healthy tissue, immune dysfunction, physical trauma, and other. The authors reported reactive lesions were the most prevalent disease type found in the sample (74.9%). Malignant diagnoses comprised 1.97% of all biopsies. The 3 most prevalent diagnoses in this study included benign keratosis, chronic apical periodontitis, and radicular cyst. Different anatomic sites, patient age groups, and sexes show different distributions of disease. Certain disease types and diagnoses were found to have a higher prevalence by sex, among particular age groups, and in certain anatomic sites. This information provides clinicians with a detailed and broad scope of the variety of oral and maxillofacial lesions processed at an oral pathology service and may assist practitioners in forming clinical impressions and differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Holonic Approach for Control and Coordination of Distributed Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    Kuokka, D. R., Weber, J. C., Tenenbaum, J. M., Gruber, T . R., and Olsen, G . R. (1993), SHADE: Technology for Knowledge-Based Collaborative 70 DRDC...H o l o n i c a p p ro a ch fo r c o n t ro l a n d coordination of distributed sensors A. Benaskeur H. Irandoust DRDC Valcartier Defence R&D...contrôle de la gestion des capteurs, et en par- ticulier les processus de planification des tâches et l’allocation des capteurs, sont discutés en

  19. Randomized comparison of power Doppler ultrasonography-guided core-needle biopsy with open surgical biopsy for the characterization of lymphadenopathies in patients with suspected lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Novella; Di Perna, M; Cozzolino, I; Ciancia, G; Pettinato, G; Zeppa, P; Varone, V; Masone, S; Cerchione, C; Della Pepa, R; Simeone, L; Giordano, C; Martinelli, V; Salvatore, C; Pane, F; Picardi, M

    2017-04-01

    The sensitivity of lymph node core-needle biopsy under imaging guidance requires validation. We employed power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) to select the lymph node most suspected of malignancy and to histologically characterize it through the use of large cutting needle. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this randomized clinical trial. In a single center between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015, patients with lymph node enlargement suspected for lymphoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to biopsy with either standard surgery or PDUS-guided 16-gauge modified Menghini needle. The primary endpoint was the superiority of sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignancy for core-needle cutting biopsy (CNCB). Secondary endpoints were times to biopsy, complications, and costs. A total of 376 patients were randomized into the two arms and received allocated biopsy. However, four patients undergoing CNCB were excluded for inadequate samples; thus, 372 patients were analyzed. Sensitivity for the detection of malignancy was significantly better for PDUS-guided CNCB [98.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 95.9-99.9] than standard biopsy (88.7%; 95% CI, 82.9-93; P < 0.001). For all secondary endpoints, the comparison was significantly disadvantageous for conventional approach. In particular, estimated cost per biopsy performed with standard surgery was 24-fold higher compared with that performed with CNCB. The presence of satellite enlarged reactive and/or necrotic lymph nodes may impair the success of an open surgical biopsy (OSB). PDUS and CNCB with adequate gauge are diagnostic tools that enable effective, safe, fast, and low-cost routine biopsy for patients with suspected lymphoma, avoiding psychological and physical pain of an unnecessary surgical intervention.

  20. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Incisional Biopsy in the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sara; Forman, Michael; Sadow, Peter M; August, Meredith

    2016-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of incisional biopsy examination to diagnose oral lesions. This retrospective cohort study was performed to determine the concordance rate between incisional biopsy examination and definitive resection diagnosis for different oral lesions. The study sample was derived from the population of patients who presented to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA) from January 2005 through December 2012. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of an oral lesion from an incisional biopsy examination, subsequent diagnosis from the definitive resection of the same lesion, and complete clinical and pathologic patient records. The predictor variables were the origin and size of the lesion. The primary outcome variable was concordance between the provisional incisional biopsy diagnosis and definitive pathologic resection diagnosis. The secondary outcome variable was type of biopsy error for the discordant cases. Incisional biopsy errors were assessed and grouped into 5 categories: 1) sampling error; 2) insufficient tissue for diagnosis; 3) presence of inflammation making diagnosis difficult; 4) artifact; and 5) pathologist discordance. A total of 272 patients met the inclusion criteria. The study sample had a mean age of 47.4 years and 55.7% were women. Of these cases, 242 (88.9%) were concordant when comparing the biopsy and final resection pathology reports. At histologic evaluation, 60.0% of discordant findings were attributed to sampling error, 23.3% to pathologist discrepancy, 13.3% to insufficient tissue provided in the biopsy specimen, and 3.4% to inflammation obscuring diagnosis. Overall, concordant cases had a larger average biopsy volume (1.53 cm(3)) than discordant cases (0.42 cm(3)). The data collected indicate an 88.9% diagnostic concordance with final pathologic results for incisional oral biopsy diagnoses. Sixty percent of discordance was attributed to sampling error when sampled

  1. Prostatic needle biopsies following primary high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma: histopathological features in tumour and non-tumour tissue.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Paul; Finelli, Antonio; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Fleshner, Neil; Sweet, Joan; Cheung, Carol; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Evans, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is currently offered as primary treatment for patients with clinically localised prostate cancer. Data on histopathological features of post-treatment biopsies are limited. Pretreatment biopsies were identified in 45 men (age range 41-85) who received primary HIFU therapy. Post-HIFU biopsies were performed in 30 of these patients (67%) at mean 14.1 months (95% CI 11.7 to 16.5) follow-up, 22 due to rising PSA and eight as part of routine follow-up. Biopsies were examined for presence, distribution and extent of adenocarcinoma, Gleason scores, use of standard immunohistochemistry and ablative tissue changes were attributable to HIFU. In post-HIFU biopsies performed for biochemical failure, 17/22 (77%) contained adenocarcinoma; 4/22 (18%) had higher post-HIFU Gleason score; 3/22 (14%) had newly recognised bilateral involvement; and 4/22 (18%) had higher percentage tissue involvement compared with pre-HIFU biopsies. Of cases without rising post-HIFU PSA, 2/8 (25%) routine follow-up biopsies contained adenocarcinoma. Stromal fibrosis was the commonest finding in non-tumour post-HIFU biopsy tissue (17/30, 57%) with coagulative necrosis occurring in fewer cases (4/30, 13%) and over a shorter follow-up interval than cases showing fibrosis (8.5 (0.2-16.8) vs 15.3 (11.5-19.1) months). Treatment effects in tumour cells precluding the assignment of Gleason scores or use of immunohistochemistry in post-HIFU biopsies were not identified. Post-HIFU biopsies are positive in more than 75% of patients with elevated or rising PSA. Stromal fibrosis is common but the tissue effects of this modality do not appear to impair pathologists' ability to detect and grade adenocarcinoma in follow-up biopsies.

  2. CARCINOMA IN SITU OF THE UTERINE CERVIX—DIAGNOSIS BY BIOPSY

    PubMed Central

    Fluhmann, C. Frederic; Lyons, Harold M.

    1960-01-01

    In 50 cases of carcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri, the lesion was present in the cervical canal in 36 instances, but the squamous epithelium of the portio was involved in only 14 cases. Since single biopsy from the portio or external os may show no malignant change even in cases in which vaginal smears are positive for cancer, single biopsy is indicated only in the presence of gross suspicious lesions. When positive smears have been obtained, cold-knife cone biopsy is indicated (a) whenever gross lesions are not visible on the ectocervix, (b) if carcinoma in situ is found in a biopsy of the external os, in order to determine the presence or absence of invasion, and (c) when there are repeated positive smears and biopsy of the portio has not shown the presence of malignancy. The technique of cone biopsy is given in detail. PMID:13823610

  3. Comparison of histologic diagnosis between stereotactic core needle biopsy and open surgical biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, R L; Sung, J; Eckhert, K H; Koul, A; Castillo, N B; Nemoto, T

    1997-06-01

    This study correlates the histologic findings of stereotactic core needle biopsy (SCNB) with open surgical biopsy (OSB) and identifies which lesions can be treated definitively based only on the SCNB histology. Women who underwent SCNB between July 1, 1993, and January 1, 1969, were identified by retrospective chart review. Mammographic (MGM) lesions found by SCNB to be ductal or lobular hyperplasia with atypia, or carcinoma underwent OSB. When the histologic findings by SCNB were inconsistent with the MGM findings, the lesion also underwent OSB. 799 women underwent SCNB with 96 (12%) of these going on to OSB. MGM findings in the 92 who presented without a palpable mass included microcalcifications (MCS) in 39, mass in 47, MCS and mass in 7, and tissue distortion in 3. One hundred one breast lesions biopsied first by SCNB, then by OSB were correlated histologically. Sensitivity of SCNB is 89%, with a specificity of 94%. Eight-four women (88%) were able to have definitive treatment at time of OSB because of prior SCNB, and 703/799 (88%) of women were spared OSB entirely. SCNB accurately identifies benign breast histology and invasive cancers in women with MGM abnormalities, a distinct advantage over fine needle aspiration cytology. SCNB does not reliably identify women with DCIS and invasion. All women with SCNB diagnosis of ductal or lobular atypia should also undergo OSB.

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Guided Targeted Biopsy Evaluated by Transperineal Template Saturation Prostate Biopsy for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mortezavi, Ashkan; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Donati, Olivio F; Rizzi, Gianluca; Rupp, Niels J; Wettstein, Marian S; Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas; Eberli, Daniel

    2018-02-21

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy against that of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy to detect prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 415 men who consecutively presented for prostate biopsy between November 2014 and September 2016 at our tertiary care center. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3 Tesla device without an endorectal coil, followed by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy with the BiopSee® fusion system. Additional fusion guided targeted biopsy was done in men with a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, defined as Likert score 3 to 5. Any Gleason pattern 4 or greater was defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. The detection rates of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided targeted biopsy were compared with the detection rate of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy using the McNemar test. We obtained a median of 40 (range 30 to 55) and 3 (range 2 to 4) transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and fusion guided targeted biopsy cores, respectively. Of the 124 patients (29.9%) without a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 32 (25.8%) were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer on transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy. Of the 291 patients (70.1%) with a Likert score of 3 to 5 clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 129 (44.3%) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion guided targeted biopsy, in 176 (60.5%) by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and in 187 (64.3%) by the combined approach. Overall 58 cases (19.9%) of clinically significant prostate cancer would have been missed if fusion guided targeted biopsy had been performed exclusively. The sensitivity of

  5. Labial salivary gland biopsy assessment in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Flipo, R M; Janin, A; Hachulla, E; Houvenagel, E; Foulet, A; Cardon, T; Desbonnet, A; Grardel, B; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the vascular involvement in labial salivary gland (LSG) from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). METHODS--Forty seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) took part in a prospective study. Among them, 12 had proven RV. LSG biopsy was performed after local anaesthesia. RESULTS--Histological appearance of inflammatory vascular damage was observed in all but one patient with proven RV (92%). Inflammatory vascular involvement was also identified in LSG biopsy of seven patients with RA (20%) and only one patient in the control group (8%). A second specimen of LSG was studied after a mean treatment period of six months and failed to show any feature of inflammatory vascular involvement in three of the five cases that were analysed. CONCLUSIONS--The study emphasises the high incidence of immunopathological features of microvascular damage in patients with RV. LSG biopsy is minimally invasive and may be a potential useful tool for the diagnosis of RV especially when skin lesions are absent or impossible to biopsy. The assessment of the predictive value of positive LSG biopsy in RA requires a long term prospective study. Images PMID:7979576

  6. Nose biopsy: a comparison between two sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nili; Osyntsov, Lidia; Olchowski, Judith; Kordeluk, Sofia; Plakht, Ygal

    2016-06-01

    Pre operative biopsy is important in obtaining preliminary information that may help in tailoring the optimal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare two sampling techniques of obtaining nasal biopsy-nasal forceps and nasal scissors in terms of pathological results. Biopsies of nasal lesions were taken from patients undergoing nasal surgery by two techniques- with nasal forceps and with nasal scissors. Each sample was examined by a senior pathologist that was blinded to the sampling method. A grading system was used to rate the crush artifact in every sample (none, mild, moderate, severe). A comparison was made between the severity of the crush artifact and the pathological results of the two techniques. One hundred and forty-four samples were taken from 46 patients. Thirty-one were males and the mean age was 49.6 years. Samples taken by forceps had significantly higher grades of crush artifacts compared to those taken by scissors. The degree of crush artifacts had a significant influence on the accuracy of the pre operative biopsy. Forceps cause significant amount of crush artifacts compared to scissors. The degree of crush artifact in the tissue sample influences the accuracy of the biopsy.

  7. Repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ipsilateral recurrent breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Folli, Secondo; Falco, Giuseppe; Mingozzi, Matteo; Buggi, Federico; Curcio, Annalisa; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Taffurelli, Mario; Regolo, Lea; Nanni, Oriana

    2016-04-01

    Patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence or new ipsilateral primary tumor after previous breast conservative surgery with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy need a new axillary staging procedure. However, the best surgical option, i.e. repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection, is still debated. Purpose of the study is to assess the performance of repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy. In a multicenter study, lymph node biopsy completed by back-up axillary lymph node dissection was undertaken for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence or new ipsilateral primary tumor. Tracer uptake was used to identify and isolate the sentinel lymph node during surgery, and it was classified after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibodies. Aside from negative predictive value, overall accuracy and false-negative rate of repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy were assessed. A multicenter, prospective study was conducted performing 30 repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy completed by back-up axillary lymph node dissection for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence or new ipsilateral primary tumor in patients formerly treated with previous breast conservative surgery and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Negative predictive value, overall accuracy and false-negative rate of repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy were assessed. Sentinel lymph nodes were mapped in 27 patients out of 30 (90%). Aberrant drainage pathways were observed in one patient (3.7%). Tracer uptake was sufficient to identify and isolate the sentinel lymph node during surgery in 23 cases (76.6%); the patients in whom lymphoscintigraphy failed or no sentinel lymph nodes could be isolated underwent axillary lymph node dissection. The negative predictive value was 95.2%, the accuracy was 95.6% and the false-negative rate was 33%. Repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy is feasible and accurate, with a high negative predictive value. Patients with ipsilateral breast tumor

  8. Closed percutaneous pleural biopsy. A lost art in the new era.

    PubMed

    Khadadah, Mousa E; Muqim, Abdulaziz T; Al-Mutairi, Abdulla D; Nahar, Ibrahim K; Sharma, Prem N; Behbehani, Nasser H; El-Maradni, Nabeel M

    2009-06-01

    To assess the association between size and number of biopsy specimens obtained by percutaneous closed pleural biopsy, with overall diagnostic yield in general, and histopathological evidence of tuberculosis pleurisy, in particular. One hundred and forty-three patients, with a high index of clinically having tuberculous pleurisy, were referred to the respiratory division of Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital in Kuwait during a 9-year period (January 1999 to December 2007). All subjects with exudative lymphocytic predominant effusion underwent percutaneous closed pleural biopsy, looking for tuberculous granulomas. The clinical diagnosis and pathological characteristics (number and size of biopsy samples) were analyzed. Overall diagnostic yield of percutaneous closed pleural biopsy in all cases was noticed to be 52%. The larger biopsy sample size of 3 mm and more, and the higher number of specimens (> or = 4) were significantly associated with an increased diagnostic yield for tuberculous pleurisy (p=0.007 and 0.047). Obtaining 4 or more biopsy samples, and larger specimens of 3mm and more for histopathological evaluation, through percutaneous pleural biopsy, results in a better diagnostic yield for tuberculous pleurisy.

  9. Elaboration de revetements nanocomposites avec des proprietes superhydrophobes, semi-conductrices et photocatalytiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madidi, Fatima Zahra

    Les lignes aeriennes de transport et de distribution de l'energie electrique sont souvent exposees a diverses contraintes. Parmi celles-ci, la pollution des isolateurs constitue l'un des facteurs de premiere importance dans la fiabilite du transport d'energie. En effet, la presence de pollution sur les isolateurs lorsqu'elle est humidifiee entraine la diminution de leur performance electrique en favorisant l'apparition d'arcs de contournement. De telles pannes peuvent parfois causer des impacts socioeconomiques importants. Par ailleurs, le developpement de nouveaux revetements pour ces isolateurs peut s'averer un moyen efficace pour les proteger contre l'apparition de l'arc de contournement. Les revetements superhydrophobes ont fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes au cours de ces dernieres annees. Ces surfaces sont preparees en combinant une rugosite nano-microstructuree avec une faible energie de surface. En outre, de telles surfaces ont de nombreuses applications si elles sont durables et n'ont pas d'effets nocifs sur l'environnement. L'objectif principal de la presente etude vise d'abord l'elaboration de revetements superhydrophobes, puis l'etude de leur duree de vie, leurs proprietes dielectriques et photocatalytiques. Une grande variete de materiaux a faible energie de surface peuvent etre utilises pour le developpement de ces revetements. Dans cette recherche, le caoutchouc de silicone (CS) est employe car il presente de nombreuses proprietes, notamment une forte hydrophobie, une resistance aux rayonnements ultraviolets, et une bonne tenue au feu sans degagement de produits toxiques. Toutefois, le point faible de ces materiaux est la degradation de leurs proprietes hydrophobes. Afin d'ameliorer certaines proprietes du caoutchouc de silicone, des nanoparticules seront additionnees au polymere de base. La technique d'elaboration des revetements consiste a ajouter des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2) au polymere de base, par des methodes ayant un

  10. Prostate cancer detection in patients with prior negative biopsy undergoing cognitive-, robotic- or in-bore MRI target biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Sascha; Russo, Giorgio I; Bamberg, Fabian; Löwe, Lorenz; Morgia, Giuseppe; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Stenzl, Arnulf; Kruck, Stephan; Bedke, Jens

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the detection rate among three different targeted biopsy approaches of robot-assisted MRI/TRUS fusion (RA-TB), mpMRI in-bore (MRGB), cognitive fusion guidance biopsy (COG-TB) for the detection of prostate cancer (PC) and clinically significant PC (csPC). Between 2014 and 2016, 156 patients with a lesion on mpMRI, performed in accordance with ESUR guidelines, due to cancer suspicion or on-going cancer suspicion after prior negative prostate biopsy, underwent targeted biopsy with RA-TB, MRGB or COG-TB. All lesions were rated according to PI-RADS v2. We compared detection rates between techniques. Models were constructed to predict the detection of overall PC and csPC and using a 1000 boot-strap sample. In the all cohort, 73, 45 and 38 patients underwent RA-TB, MRGB or COG-TB, respectively. Overall PC was found in 39 (52.42%), 23 (51.11%) and 11 (28.95%) (p = 0.04) patients of RA-TB, MRGB and COG-TB arm, respectively. As concerning the detection of csPC, it was found in 26 (35.62%),18 (40.0%) and 9 (23.68%) patients of RA-TB, MRGB and COG-TB arm (p = 0.27). Model 1 showed that RA-TB [OR: 10.08 (95% CI 1.95-51.97); p < 0.01] and MRGB [OR: 12.88 (95% CI 2.36-70.25); p < 0.01] were associated with overall PC detection in TB, while only MRGB was associated with csPC at TB (model 2) [OR: 5.72; (95% CI 1.40-23.35); p < 0.01]. The c-index for model 1 and model 2 was 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. We did not report significant complications between groups. In-bore biopsy and MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy showed greater accuracy in detecting PC compared to cognitive fusion as modeled in a newly established normogram.

  11. Microincision, aspiration cutter-assisted multifocal iris biopsy for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Finger, Paul T; Milman, Tatyana

    2017-01-19

    To describe a minimally invasive method to create multifocal full-thickness surgical iridectomy biopsies. Seven patients suspected to have diffuse iris melanoma underwent multifocal surgical iridectomy biopsy through a single 1.0-mm clear corneal incision. A 25-G inked trocar was used to create one visible corneal portal, through which the anterior chamber was filled with sodium hyaluronate 1%. Then, a 25-G aspiration cutter probe was introduced through the corneal incision such that the aspiration portal was occluded by the iris biopsy sites. Then aspiration (600 mm Hg) cutting (300 cuts per minute) was used to create full- and partial-thickness surgical iridectomy biopsies at multiple locations. After each biopsy the probe was removed, and its contents aspirated into a separate 3-mL syringe (marked by clock hour location). The sodium hyaluronate 1% was removed and wound checked for leakage. Diagnostic specimens were obtained in all cases. Five were found to be diffuse iris melanomas and 2 were indeterminate iris melanocytic proliferations. No patients developed a secondary increase in intraocular pressure, hyphema, infection, cataract, or vision loss. No cases of intraocular tumor dissemination were observed. No patient complained of glare or monocular diplopia. Three of 7 corneal wounds were self-sealing. Multifocal surgical iridectomy biopsy can be minimally invasive and effective allowing for partial- and full-thickness iris biopsy. Use of a 25-G aspiration cutting probe allowed for small incision surgery, rapid rehabilitation, and no significant complications.

  12. Epidemiologie, Prävention und Früherkennung des Zervixkarzinoms

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Persistierende Infektionen mit humanen Papillomviren sind die notwendige Ursache des Zervixkarzinoms. Die Entwicklung von HPV-basierten Präventionsverfahren, der HPV Impfung und der HPV-Testung, führt derzeit zu umfangreichen Veränderungen von Zervixkarzinom-Vorsorgeprogrammen. Eine Dekade nach Einführung der HPV-Imfpung in vielen Ländern werden bereits Reduktionen von HPV-Infektionen und Krebsvorstufen in jungen Frauen beobachtet. Der Fokus liegt jetzt auf der Integration von neuen Testverfahren im Screening von Populationen mit zunehmenden Impfraten. Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerung Ein erfolgreiches Zervixkarzinom-Vorsorgeprogramm besteht aus verschiedenen Komponenten, vom primären Screening über die Triage zur Kolposkopie mit Biopsie, um Frauen mit Kresbvorstufen zu identifizieren, die eine therapeutische Intervention benötigen. Im primären Screening wird eine kleine Gruppe von Frauen mit erhöhtem Risiko für eine Krebsvorstufe identifiziert, während die grosse Mehrheit kein erhöhtes Risiko hat. Je nach primärem Testverfahren werden in screen-positiven Frauen zusätzliche Triage-Tests durchgeführt, um zu entscheiden, wer zur Kolposkopie überwiesen werden sollte. Derzeit gibt es drei verschiedene Ansätze für das primäre Zervixkarzinomscreening: Die Zervix-Zytologie, die HPV-Testung, und die HPV-Zytologie Ko-Testung. Zahlreiche Triage-Tests für HPV-positive Frauen werden derzeit untersucht, darunter sind die Zytologie, HPV-Genotypisierung, p16/Ki-67 Zytologie, und diverse Methylierungstests. Die steigende Anzahl an Optionen für die Früherkennung des Zervixkarzinoms stellt eine Herausforderung für klinische Leitlinien dar. Die zunehmende Komplexität von Vorsorgeprogrammen kann zur Verunsicherung von Ärzten und von am Screening teilnehmenden Frauen führen. Die Präzisions-Prävention des Zervixkarzinoms ist eine neuer Ansatz, der umfangreiche Risikodaten basierend auf der individuellen Vorgeschichte und von

  13. Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

  14. Ability of sextant biopsies to predict radical prostatectomy stage.

    PubMed

    Wills, M L; Sauvageot, J; Partin, A W; Gurganus, R; Epstein, J I

    1998-05-01

    There are few studies evaluating multiple variables on sextant biopsies with the intent to predict stage in radical prostatectomy specimens. We studied 113 sextant biopsies with corresponding totally submitted radical prostatectomy specimens. Variables evaluated on sextant biopsies included total length and percent of cancer; maximum length and percent of cancer on one core; location (apex, mid, base); bilaterality; Gleason grade; number of cores involved; serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level; and serum PSA density (PSAD). Radical prostatectomy stage was classified as organ versus non-organ confined. The following variables individually correlated with radical prostatectomy stage: total cancer measured in millimeters (P <0.0001) or percent (P <0.0005); biopsy Gleason score (P <0.0001); number of involved cores (P <0.0001); maximum cancer on one core measured in millimeters (P = 0.0001); maximum percent of cancer on one core (P = 0.01); bilaterality (P = 0.01); PSA level (P = 0.03), and PSAD (P = 0.001). The most predictive sets of two variables that correlated with stage included high Gleason score (P <0.0001) combined with numbers of cores involved (P = 0.002). When biopsies had Gleason scores of 6 or less, two or fewer positive cores, and serum PSA of 0 to 4 ng/mL, 89% were organ confined. When biopsies had Gleason scores of 6 or less with two unilaterally positive cores, 87% were organ confined. In biopsies with Gleason scores of 7 or more and more than one positive core, only 10% were organ confined. The most important predictors of stage by sextant needle biopsy evaluation are numbers of cores involved with carcinoma and high Gleason score. Bilaterality and serum PSA values improved prediction in two small subgroups. In 37% of our population we were able to predict with a greater than 87% probability the organ-confined versus non-organ-confined status.

  15. The desA and desB genes from Clostridium scindens ATCC 35704 encode steroid-17,20-desmolase.

    PubMed

    Devendran, Saravanan; Mythen, Sean M; Ridlon, Jason M

    2018-06-01

    Clostridium scindens is a gut microbe capable of removing the side-chain of cortisol, forming 11β-hydro-xyandrostenedione. A cortisol-inducible operon ( desABCD ) was previously identified in C. scindens ATCC 35704 by RNA-Seq. The desC gene was shown to encode a cortisol 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSDH). The desD encodes a protein annotated as a member of the major facilitator family, predicted to function as a cortisol transporter. The desA and desB genes are annotated as N-terminal and C-terminal transketolases, respectively. We hypothesized that the DesAB forms a complex and has steroid-17,20-desmolase activity. We cloned the desA and desB genes from C. scindens ATCC 35704 in pETDuet for overexpression in Escherichia coli The purified recombinant DesAB was determined to be a 142 ± 5.4 kDa heterotetramer. We developed an enzyme-linked continuous spectrophotometric assay to quantify steroid-17,20-desmolase. This was achieved by coupling DesAB-dependent formation of 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione with the NADPH-dependent reduction of the steroid 17-keto group by a recombinant 17β-HSDH from the filamentous fungus, Cochliobolus lunatus The pH optimum for the coupled assay was 7.0 and kinetic constants using cortisol as substrate were K m of 4.96 ± 0.57 µM and k cat of 0.87 ± 0.076 min -1 Substrate-specificity studies revealed that rDesAB recognized substrates regardless of 11β-hydroxylation, but had an absolute requirement for 17,21-dihydroxy 20-ketosteroids. Copyright © 2018 Devendran et al.

  16. Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    See, Teik Choon, E-mail: teikchoon.see@addenbrookes.nhs.u; Thompson, Barbara C.; Howie, Alexander J.

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failedmore » percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion biopsy for prediction of final prostate pathology.

    PubMed

    Le, Jesse D; Stephenson, Samuel; Brugger, Michelle; Lu, David Y; Lieu, Patricia; Sonn, Geoffrey A; Natarajan, Shyam; Dorey, Frederick J; Huang, Jiaoti; Margolis, Daniel J A; Reiter, Robert E; Marks, Leonard S

    2014-11-01

    We explored the impact of magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy on the prediction of final surgical pathology. A total of 54 consecutive men undergoing radical prostatectomy at UCLA after fusion biopsy were included in this prospective, institutional review board approved pilot study. Using magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion, tissue was obtained from a 12-point systematic grid (mapping biopsy) and from regions of interest detected by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (targeted biopsy). A single radiologist read all magnetic resonance imaging, and a single pathologist independently rereviewed all biopsy and whole mount pathology, blinded to prior interpretation and matched specimen. Gleason score concordance between biopsy and prostatectomy was the primary end point. Mean patient age was 62 years and median prostate specific antigen was 6.2 ng/ml. Final Gleason score at prostatectomy was 6 (13%), 7 (70%) and 8-9 (17%). A tertiary pattern was detected in 17 (31%) men. Of 45 high suspicion (image grade 4-5) magnetic resonance imaging targets 32 (71%) contained prostate cancer. The per core cancer detection rate was 20% by systematic mapping biopsy and 42% by targeted biopsy. The highest Gleason pattern at prostatectomy was detected by systematic mapping biopsy in 54%, targeted biopsy in 54% and a combination in 81% of cases. Overall 17% of cases were upgraded from fusion biopsy to final pathology and 1 (2%) was downgraded. The combination of targeted biopsy and systematic mapping biopsy was needed to obtain the best predictive accuracy. In this pilot study magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion biopsy allowed for the prediction of final prostate pathology with greater accuracy than that reported previously using conventional methods (81% vs 40% to 65%). If confirmed, these results will have important clinical implications. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  18. Multi-Quadrant Biopsy Technique Improves Diagnostic Ability in Large Heterogeneous Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Abel, E Jason; Heckman, Jennifer E; Hinshaw, Louis; Best, Sara; Lubner, Meghan; Jarrard, David F; Downs, Tracy M; Nakada, Stephen Y; Lee, Fred T; Huang, Wei; Ziemlewicz, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    Percutaneous biopsy obtained from a single location is prone to sampling error in large heterogeneous renal masses, leading to nondiagnostic results or failure to detect poor prognostic features. We evaluated the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for large renal masses using a modified multi-quadrant technique vs a standard biopsy technique. Clinical and pathological data for all patients with cT2 or greater renal masses who underwent percutaneous biopsy from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed. The multi-quadrant technique was defined as multiple core biopsies from at least 4 separate solid enhancing areas in the tumor. The incidence of nondiagnostic findings, sarcomatoid features and procedural complications was recorded, and concordance between biopsy specimens and nephrectomy pathology was compared. A total of 122 biopsies were performed for 117 tumors in 116 patients (46 using the standard biopsy technique and 76 using the multi-quadrant technique). Median tumor size was 10 cm (IQR 8-12). Biopsy was nondiagnostic in 5 of 46 (10.9%) standard and 0 of 76 (0%) multi-quadrant biopsies (p=0.007). Renal cell carcinoma was identified in 96 of 115 (82.0%) tumors and nonrenal cell carcinoma tumors were identified in 21 (18.0%). One complication occurred using the standard biopsy technique and no complications were reported using the multi-quadrant technique. Sarcomatoid features were present in 23 of 96 (23.9%) large renal cell carcinomas studied. Sensitivity for identifying sarcomatoid features was higher using the multi-quadrant technique compared to the standard biopsy technique at 13 of 15 (86.7%) vs 2 of 8 (25.0%) (p=0.0062). The multi-quadrant percutaneous biopsy technique increases the ability to identify aggressive pathological features in large renal tumors and decreases nondiagnostic biopsy rates. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Derivation of therapeutic lung spheroid cells from minimally invasive transbronchial pulmonary biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Phuong-Uyen C; Cores, Jhon; Hensley, M Taylor; Vandergriff, Adam C; Tang, Junnan; Allen, Tyler A; Caranasos, Thomas G; Adler, Kenneth B; Lobo, Leonard J; Cheng, Ke

    2017-06-30

    Resident stem and progenitor cells have been identified in the lung over the last decade, but isolation and culture of these cells remains a challenge. Thus, although these lung stem and progenitor cells provide an ideal source for stem-cell based therapy, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain the most popular cell therapy product for the treatment of lung diseases. Surgical lung biopsies can be the tissue source but such procedures carry a high risk of mortality. In this study we demonstrate that therapeutic lung cells, termed "lung spheroid cells" (LSCs) can be generated from minimally invasive transbronchial lung biopsies using a three-dimensional culture technique. The cells were then characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic potential was tested by in-vitro HUVEC tube formation assay. In-vivo bio- distribution of LSCs was examined in athymic nude mice after intravenous delivery. From one lung biopsy, we are able to derive >50 million LSC cells at Passage 2. These cells were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry and were shown to represent a mixture of lung stem cells and supporting cells. When introduced systemically into nude mice, LSCs were retained primarily in the lungs for up to 21 days. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated that direct culture and expansion of human lung progenitor cells from pulmonary tissues, acquired through a minimally invasive biopsy, is possible and straightforward with a three-dimensional culture technique. These cells could be utilized in long-term expansion of lung progenitor cells and as part of the development of cell-based therapies for the treatment of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of three biopsy techniques in 117 dogs with intra-nasal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Harris, B J; Lourenço, B N; Dobson, J M; Herrtage, M E

    2014-04-01

    To determine if nasal biopsies taken at rhinoscopy are more accurate for diagnosing neoplasia than biopsies taken blindly or using advanced imaging for guidance. A retrospective study of 117 dogs with nasal mass lesions that were divided into three groups according to the method of nasal biopsy collection; advanced imaging-guided, rhinoscopy-guided and blind biopsy. Signalment, imaging and rhinoscopic findings, and histopathological diagnosis were compared between groups. The proportion of first attempt biopsies confirming neoplasia were determined for each group. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of biopsies that confirmed neoplasia obtained via advanced imaging-guided, rhinoscopy-guided or blind biopsy techniques. In dogs with a high index of suspicion of nasal neoplasia, blind biopsy may be as diagnostic as rhinoscopy-guided biopsy. Repeated biopsies are frequently required for definitive diagnosis. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Evolving biopsy techniques for the diagnosis of neuroblastoma in children.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Eric; Foster, Jennifer; Vasudevan, Sanjeev; Nuchtern, Jed; Kim, Eugene; Commander, Sarah; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi

    2018-04-14

    To compare the adequacy and safety of percutaneous core needle biopsy and surgical wedge biopsy of neuroblastoma in children. A retrospective review of patients who underwent biopsy for intermediate- or high-risk neuroblastoma at our institution between 2011 and 2015 was performed (recent cohort). Procedure details and outcomes were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon rank tests; P < 0.05 was considered significant. Published data from 2002 to 2010 were compared (historic cohort). Since 2011, percutaneous, ultrasound-guided, core needle biopsy has been more commonly utilized (47% (16/34) recent vs. 25% (7/28) historic; P = 0.07), and the number of core needle samples increased from median 7 (historic) to 25 (recent). Complications decreased (21% (7/34) recent vs. 64% (18/28) historic; P < 0.01). Biopsy adequacy in the recent cohort was similar (94% percutaneous vs. 89% surgical; P = 1.00), which is improved from the historic cohort (71% percutaneous vs. 100% surgical; P = 0.06). Larger tumors were more likely to have a percutaneous biopsy (82 ± 37 cm percutaneous vs. 47 ± 29 cm surgical; P = 0.04). When multiple cores are obtained, percutaneous core needle biopsy is adequate for complete tissue diagnosis of neuroblastoma and can be safely performed. This can be considered as an alternative to open surgical biopsy. Treatment Study. III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  3. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  4. Significance of Random Bladder Biopsies in Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumano, Masafumi; Miyake, Hideaki; Nakano, Yuzo; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate retrospectively the clinical outcome of random bladder biopsies in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) undergoing transurethral resection (TUR). Patients and Method This study included 234 consecutive patients with NMIBC who underwent random biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium of the bladder, including the anterior wall, posterior wall, right wall, left wall, dome, trigone and/or prostatic urethra, during TUR. Result Thirty-seven patients (15.8%) were diagnosed by random biopsies as having urothelial cancer. Among several factors available prior to TUR, preoperative urinary cytology appeared to be independently related to the detection of urothelial cancer in random biopsies on multivariate analysis. Urinary cytology prior to TUR gave 50.0% sensitivity, 91.7% specificity, 56.8% positive predictive value and 89.3% negative predictive value for predicting the findings of the random biopsies. Conclusion Biopsies of normal-appearing urothelium resulted in the additional detection of urothelial cancer in a definite proportion of NMIBC patients, and it remains difficult to find a reliable alternative to random biopsies. Collectively, these findings suggest that it would be beneficial to perform random biopsies as part of the routine management of NMIBC. PMID:24917759

  5. Swab or biopsy samples for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue?

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2014-12-01

    Swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are most commonly collected by tissue banks for bacterial and fungal bioburden testing. An in vitro study was performed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standard 'Quality control of microbiological transport systems' (2003) to validate and evaluate the recovery of six challenge organisms from swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. On average, 8.4 to >100 and 7.2 to >100 % of the inoculum was recovered from swab and biopsy samples respectively. A retrospective review of donor episodes was also performed, consisting of paired swab and biopsy samples received in this laboratory during the period 2001-2012. Samples of allograft femoral heads were collected from living donors during hip operations. From the 3,859 donor episodes received, 21 paired swab and biopsy samples each recovered an isolate, 247 swab samples only and 79 biopsy samples only were culture positive. Low numbers of challenge organisms were recovered from inoculated swab and biopsy samples in the in vitro study and validated their use for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. Skin commensals were the most common group of organisms isolated during a 12-year retrospective review of paired swab and biopsy samples from living donor allograft femoral heads. Paired swab and biopsy samples are a suitable representative sample of allograft musculoskeletal tissue for bioburden testing.

  6. Utilization and Outcomes of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Vulvar Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cham, Stephanie; Chen, Ling; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Tergas, Ana I; Hu, Jim C; Ananth, Cande V; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    To examine the use and predictors of sentinel node biopsy in women with vulvar cancer. The Perspective database, an all-payer database that collects data from more than 500 hospitals, was used to perform a retrospective cohort study of women with vulvar cancer who underwent vulvectomy and lymph node assessment from 2006 to 2015. Multivariable models were used to determine factors associated with sentinel node biopsy. Length of stay and cost were compared between women who underwent sentinel node biopsy and lymphadenectomy. Among 2,273 women, sentinel node biopsy was utilized in 618 (27.2%) and 1,655 (72.8%) underwent inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy. Performance of sentinel node biopsy increased from 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.0-22.0%) in 2006 to 39.1% (95% CI 27.1-51.0%) in 2015. In a multivariable model, women treated more recently were more likely to have undergone sentinel node biopsy, whereas women with more comorbidities and those treated at rural hospitals were less likely to have undergone the procedure. The median length of stay was shorter for those undergoing sentinel node biopsy (median 2 days, interquartile range 1-3) compared with women who underwent inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy (median 3 days, interquartile range 2-4). The cost of sentinel node biopsy was $7,599 (interquartile range $5,739-9,922) compared with $8,095 (interquartile range $5,917-11,281) for lymphadenectomy. The use of sentinel node biopsy for vulvar cancer has more than doubled since 2006. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is associated with a shorter hospital stay and decreased cost compared with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy.

  7. Evolution of prostate biopsy techniques. Looking back on a meaningful journey.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, A; Sanchez-Salas, R; Castro-Marin, M; Barret, E; Guillot-Tantay, C; Prapotnich, D; Cathelineau, X

    2016-10-01

    The technique of prostate biopsy has evolved a long way since its inception to being a safe diagnostic procedure. The principles of the biopsy technique continue to improvise with the knowledge about prostate cancer and availability of newer treatment options like active surveillance and focal therapy. Currently, we depend on accurate cancer information from the biopsy more than ever for deciding the ideal treatment option. The aim of this review is to present the major milestones in prostate biopsy technique evolutions and its impact on the prostate cancer management. We performed a detailed non-systematic literature review to present the historical facts on the transformations in prostate biopsy techniques and also the direction of present research to improve accurate cancer detection. There is a clear change in trend in biopsy technique before and after the introduction of transrectal ultrasound and prostate specific antigen. In the earlier era, the biopsies were aimed at palpable nodules and obtaining adequate prostatic tissue for diagnosis while the later era has moved towards detection of non-palpable and early prostate cancer. Recently, there is an increasing trend towards image guided targeted biopsies to extract maximum cancer information from minimum biopsy cores. Prostate biopsy techniques have seen major changes since its inception and have a major impact on prostate cancer management. There is a great potential for research which can further support the newer treatment options like focal therapy. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer Liquid Biopsy: Is It Ready for Clinic?

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Ji, John S; Jin, Jason Gang; Kuo, Winston Patrick; Kang, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    The management of cancer relies on a combination of imaging and tissue biopsy for diagnosis, monitoring, and molecular classification-based patient stratification to ensure appropriate treatment. Conventional tissue biopsy harvests tumor samples with invasive procedures, which are often difficult for patients with advanced disease. Given the well-recognized intratumor genetic heterogeneity [1], the biopsy of small tumor fragments does not necessarily represent all the genetic aberrations in the tumor, but sampling the entire tumor in each patient is not realistic. Moreover, tumors evolve all the time from local to advanced disease and by adapting to selective pressure from treatment.

  9. How to use… lymph node biopsy in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Farndon, Sarah; Behjati, Sam; Jonas, Nico; Messahel, Boo

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in children. It often causes anxiety among parents and healthcare professionals because it can be a sign of cancer. There is limited high-quality evidence to guide clinicians as to which children should be referred for lymph node biopsy. The gold standard method for evaluating lymphadenopathy of unknown cause is an excision biopsy. In this Interpretation, we discuss the use of lymph node biopsy in children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Frame-based, Frameless and Intraoperative MRI Guided Brain Biopsy Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Yeung, Cecil; Radmanesh, Alireza; Wiemann, Robert; Black, Peter M.; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intraoperative MRI (IoMRI) guided brain biopsy provides a real time visual feedback of the lesion that is sampled during surgery. The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic yield and safety profiles of ioMRI needle brain biopsy with two traditional brain biopsy methods: frame-based and frameless stereotactic brain biopsies. Methods A retrospective analysis from 288 consecutive needle brain biopsies in 277 patients undergoing stereotactic brain biopsy with any of the three biopsy methods at Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2000 to 2008 was performed. Variables such as age, sex, history of radiation and previous surgery, pathology results, complications and postoperative stays were analyzed. Results Over the course of eight years, 288 brain biopsies were performed. 253 (87.8%) biopsies yielded positive diagnostic tissue. Young age (<40 years), history of brain radiation or surgery were significant negative predictors for a positive biopsy diagnostic yield. Excluding patients with prior radiation or surgeries, no significant difference in diagnostic yield was detected among the three groups, with frame-based, frameless and ioMRI guided needle biopsies yield 96.9%, 91.8% and 89.9% positive diagnostic yield, respectively. 19 biopsies (6.6%) were complicated by serious adverse events. The ioMRI-guided brain biopsy was associated with less serious adverse events and the shortest postoperative hospital stay. Conclusions Frame-based, frameless stereotactic and ioMRI guided brain needle biopsy have comparable diagnostic yield for patients with no prior treatments (either radiation or surgery). IoMRI guided brain biopsy is associated with fewer serious adverse events and shorter hospital stay. PMID:25088233

  12. How to Interpret Thyroid Biopsy Results: A Three-Year Retrospective Interventional Radiology Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, Jason D., E-mail: j-oppenheimer@md.northwestern.edu; Kasuganti, Deepa; Nayar, Ritu

    2010-08-15

    Results of thyroid biopsy determine whether thyroid nodule resection is appropriate and the extent of thyroid surgery. At our institution we use 20/22-gauge core biopsy (CBx) in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to decrease the number of passes and improve adequacy. Occasionally, both ultrasound (US)-guided FNA and CBx yield unsatisfactory specimens. To justify clinical recommendations for these unsatisfactory thyroid biopsies, we compare rates of malignancy at surgical resection for unsatisfactory biopsy results against definitive biopsy results. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 1979 patients who had a total of 2677 FNA and 663 CBx performed by experienced interventional radiologists undermore » US guidance from 2003 to 2006 at a tertiary-care academic center. In 451 patients who had surgery following biopsy, Fisher's exact test was used to compare surgical malignancy rates between unsatisfactory and malignant biopsy cohorts as well as between unsatisfactory and benign biopsy cohorts. We defined statistical significance at P = 0.05. We reported an overall unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy rate of 3.7% (100/2677). A statistically significant higher rate of surgically proven malignancies was found in malignant biopsy patients compared to unsatisfactory biopsy patients (P = 0.0001). The incidence of surgically proven malignancy in unsatisfactory biopsy patients was not significantly different from that in benign biopsy patients (P = 0.8625). In conclusion, an extremely low incidence of malignancy was associated with both benign and unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy results. The difference in incidence between these two groups was not statistically significant. Therefore, patients with unsatisfactory biopsy specimens can be reassured and counseled accordingly.« less

  13. [Comparison of hot versus cold biopsy forceps in the diagnosis of endobronchial lesions].

    PubMed

    Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Seifirad, Soroush; Safavi, Enayat; Dinparast, Reza; Taslimi, Shervin; Derakhshandeilami, Gholamreza

    2011-11-01

    Traditionally cold biopsy forceps were used for endobronchial biopsy, and recently electrocautery (hot) bronchoscopy biopsy forceps are introduced. It is hypothesized that hot biopsy forceps may decrease procedure related bleeding and also may decrease the quality of obtained samples. Patients with different indications for endobronchial biopsy during fiberoptic bronchoscopy underwent three hot and three cold biopsies with a random fashion. All biopsies were obtained with a single biopsy forceps with and without the application of an electrocoagulation current, set on soft coagulation mode (40W). A four point scale was used for quantification of bleeding. A single pathologist blinded to the patients' history was requested to review all samples. A three point scale was used to assess electrocoagulation damage. A total of 240 biopsies were obtained from 40 patients. Frequency of positive concordance between the two methods was 85%. The degree of electrocoagulation damage of the samples was as follows: grade 1=52.5%, grade 2=32.5%, and grade 3=15%. The average bleeding score following hot biopsy was significantly lower compared to the cold biopsy (P=.006). The concordance between diagnostic yield of hot and cold biopsies was 85%. There was no significant difference between the diagnostic yields of two biopsy methods (P=.687). Hot biopsy forceps significantly decreased the procedure related bleeding. The quality of samples was not impaired significantly. Regarding low prevalence of bleeding following endobronchial biopsy, routine use of hot bronchoscopy forceps is not reasonable. However, familiarity of bronchoscopists with this method may improve bronchoscopy safety. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. A Contemporary Prostate Biopsy Risk Calculator Based on Multiple Heterogeneous Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Ankerst, Donna P; Straubinger, Johanna; Selig, Katharina; Guerrios, Lourdes; De Hoedt, Amanda; Hernandez, Javier; Liss, Michael A; Leach, Robin J; Freedland, Stephen J; Kattan, Michael W; Nam, Robert; Haese, Alexander; Montorsi, Francesco; Boorjian, Stephen A; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Poyet, Cedric; Vertosick, Emily; Vickers, Andrew J

    2018-05-16

    Prostate cancer prediction tools provide quantitative guidance for doctor-patient decision-making regarding biopsy. The widely used online Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPTRC) utilized data from the 1990s based on six-core biopsies and outdated grading systems. We prospectively gathered data from men undergoing prostate biopsy in multiple diverse North American and European institutions participating in the Prostate Biopsy Collaborative Group (PBCG) in order to build a state-of-the-art risk prediction tool. We obtained data from 15 611 men undergoing 16 369 prostate biopsies during 2006-2017 at eight North American institutions for model-building and three European institutions for validation. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the risks of high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7) on biopsy based on clinical characteristics, including age, prostate-specific antigen, digital rectal exam, African ancestry, first-degree family history, and prior negative biopsy. We compared the PBCG model to the PCPTRC using internal cross-validation and external validation on the European cohorts. Cross-validation on the North American cohorts (5992 biopsies) yielded the PBCG model area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as 75.5% (95% confidence interval: 74.2-76.8), a small improvement over the AUC of 72.3% (70.9-73.7) for the PCPTRC (p<0.0001). However, calibration and clinical net benefit were far superior for the PBCG model. Using a risk threshold of 10%, clinical use of the PBCG model would lead to the equivalent of 25 fewer biopsies per 1000 patients without missing any high-grade cancers. Results were similar on external validation on 10 377 European biopsies. The PBCG model should be used in place of the PCPTRC for prediction of prostate biopsy outcome. A contemporary risk tool for outcomes on prostate biopsy based on the routine clinical risk factors is now available for informed decision-making. Copyright

  15. Underestimation of malignancy in biopsy-proven cases of stromal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lad, S; Seely, J M; Schweitzer, M E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of underestimation of malignancy in patients with biopsy-proven stromal fibrosis. Methods: Following institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with biopsy-proven stromal fibrosis who underwent percutaneous breast biopsy in the 5-year period between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2009. The medical records and the histopathology in patients who underwent repeat biopsy and/or surgical excision at the site of stromal fibrosis within 2 years were reviewed. Interval stability for up to 2 years was documented in patients who did not undergo additional biopsy or surgical excision. An upgrade was defined as any patient with biopsy-proven stromal fibrosis or fibroadenoma with evidence of malignancy at the site of biopsy within 2 years. Results: 365 cases of stromal fibrosis were identified, of which 25 (7%) were upgraded to in situ or invasive malignancy on repeat biopsy or surgical excision. 7 were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ and 18 were upgraded to invasive cancer. Of the upgraded cases, 8 out of 24 (32%) were considered concordant with a benign diagnosis. The false-negative rate, that is, cases of stromal fibrosis concordant with benignity, but with subsequent upgrade, comprised 2% of all cases. Conclusion: In biopsy-proven cases of stromal fibrosis, there is a 7% upgrade to malignancy. We recommend that all instances of stromal fibrosis with radiology–pathology discordance undergo repeat biopsy or surgical excision. Cases that demonstrate radiology–pathology concordance can be safely categorized as a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 3 (BI-RADS® 3) lesion with a 6-month follow-up, owing to a false-negative rate for missed cancer of 2%. Advances in knowledge: We now recommend that concordant cases of stromal fibrosis be categorized as BI-RADS 3 with a short-term follow-up, as this results in a missed cancer rate of 2%. PMID:24846442

  16. Magnetic resonance/transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy of the prostate compared to systematic 12-core biopsy for the diagnosis and characterization of prostate cancer: multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 389 patients.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Guilherme C; Costa, Daniel N; Pedrosa, Ivan; Falsarella, Priscila M; Martins, Tatiana; Roehrborn, Claus G; Rofsky, Neil M; Xi, Yin; M Andrade, Thais C; Queiroz, Marcos R; Lotan, Yair; Garcia, Rodrigo G; Lemos, Gustavo C; Baroni, Ronaldo H

    2016-09-01

    To determine the incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsies added to an extended sextant biopsy scheme on a per-patient, risk-stratified basis in 2 academic centers using different multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, a large group of radiologists, multiple biopsy systems, and different biopsy operators. All patients with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent multiparametric MRI of the prostate in 2 academic centers between February 2013 and January 2015 followed by systematic and targeted MRI-transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy were reviewed. Risk-stratified detection rate using systematic biopsies was compared with targeted biopsies on a per-patient basis. The McNemar test was used to compare diagnostic performance of the 2 approaches. A total of 389 men met eligibility criteria. PCa was diagnosed in 47% (182/389), 52%(202/389), and 60%(235/389) of patients using the targeted, systematic, and combined (targeted plus systematic) approach, respectively. Compared with systematic biopsy, targeted biopsy diagnosed 11% (37 vs. 26) more intermediate-to-high risk (P<0.0001) and 16% (10 vs. 16) fewer low-risk tumors (P<0.0001). These results were replicated when data from each center, biopsy-naïve patients, and men with previous negative biopsies were analyzed separately. Targeted MRI-transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy consistently improved the detection of clinically significant PCa in a large patient cohort with diverse equipment, protocols, radiologists, and biopsy operators as can be encountered in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of collagenous colitis: utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Mazzoleni, G; Riddell, R H

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of the collagen band in 33 patients with collagenous colitis to estimate the likelihood of the disease being diagnosed in biopsy specimens from the left side of the colon, such as those obtained using flexible sigmoidoscopy. To be included in this study patients had a subepithelial collagen band greater than or equal to 10 microns, an increase in chronic inflammatory cells in the same specimen, and diarrhoea for which there was no other apparent cause. In 17 patients undergoing full colonoscopy with a thickened collagen band, collagenous colitis was frequently patchy, even though overall the thickened collagen band was almost equally distributed throughout the colon. Rectal biopsy specimens showed a normal collagen band in 73% of patients, while a thickened collagen band was found in 82% of patients in at least one specimen from the left side of the colon. Three patients had a thickened collagen band only in the caecum. In three of eight rectal biopsy specimens with a normal collagen band there was no mucosal inflammation to raise the possibility of proximal disease, although all but one specimen with a normal collagen band from the sigmoid and descending colon were inflamed. Rectal biopsy alone is therefore a relatively poor method of making the diagnosis. Flexible sigmoidoscopy with multiple biopsy specimens from several sites is a reasonable initial investigation but not sufficient to exclude collagenous colitis when based on the presence of a thickened collagen band alone. Should left sided biopsy specimens show a normal collagen band but an inflamed mucosa, total colonoscopy with multiple specimens including the caecum may be required to establish the diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1740280

  18. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A.; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Context There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  19. Interoperative Biopsy Site Relocalization in Endoluminal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Anant Suraj; Nicolau, Stephane; Sportes, Adrien; Marescaux, Jacques; Soler, Luc; Ayache, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Barrett's oesophagus, a premalignant condition of the oesophagus has been on a rise in the recent years. The standard diagnostic protocol for Barrett's involves obtaining biopsies at suspicious regions along the oesophagus. The localization and tracking of these biopsy sites "interoperatively" poses a significant challenge for providing targeted treatments and tracking disease progression. This paper proposes an approach to provide guided navigation and relocalization of the biopsy sites using an electromagnetic tracking system. The characteristic of our approach over existing ones is the integration of an electromagnetic sensor at the flexible endoscope tip, so that the endoscopic camera depth inside the oesophagus can be computed in real time, allowing to retrieve and display an image from a previous exploration at the same depth. We first describe our system setup and methodology for interoperative registration. We then propose three incremental experiments of our approach. First, on synthetic data with realistic noise model to analyze the error bounds of our system. The second on in vivo pig data using an optical tracking system to provide a pseudo ground truth. Accuracy results obtained were consistent with the synthetic experiments despite uncertainty introduced due to breathing motion, and remain inside acceptable error margin according to medical experts. Finally, a third experiment designed using data from pigs to simulate a real task of biopsy site relocalization, and evaluated by ten gastro-intestinal experts. It clearly demonstrated the benefit of our system toward assisted guidance by improving the biopsy site retrieval rate from 47.5% to 94%.

  20. Renal biopsies in children: current practice and audit of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Farida; Mallik, Meeta; Marks, Stephen D; Watson, Alan R

    2010-02-01

    There is considerable variation in the way that children are prepared for and the techniques employed in a renal biopsy. There was national agreement between UK paediatric renal centres to review current practice and audit outcomes An initial questionnaire survey was undertaken and a 12-month prospective audit performed of renal biopsies against agreed standards for the number of needle passes, adequacy of biopsy material and complication rates. Eleven of 13 centres participated. Information leaflets are sent pre-biopsy in five centres with only one using play preparation. Six of 11 routinely perform biopsies as day-case (DC) procedures and 6 use general anaesthesia (GA). Real-time ultrasound is the favoured method in eight centres. Biopsies are performed by nephrologists only in four centres, nephrologists with radiologists in five and radiology alone in two. Of 531 biopsies (352 native), 31% were performed as a DC with 49% being done under GA. The standard for the number of passes of native kidneys (95%). The major complication rate was higher than the standard of biopsy was performed as a DC or inpatient procedure (P = 0.73) or when GA or sedation was used (P = 0.8). The audit highlights significant variation in clinical practice with limited use of preparation materials and DC procedures. The results have stimulated constructive debate about preparation and indications for biopsy and training issues. The audit enables centres and individuals to monitor performance.

  1. Analysis of "dry" mesothelioma with ultrasound guided biopsies.

    PubMed

    Stigt, Jos A; Boers, James E; Groen, Harry J M

    2012-12-01

    Image-guided sampling of the thickened pleura is a sensitive approach in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma with pleural effusion. Malignant pleural mesothelioma presenting without effusion however is more of a diagnostic challenge. In this study we report the diagnostic yield and complications of ultrasound-guided cutting needle biopsies in this particular category of patients. A retrospective database analysis from September 2007 until January 2012 was performed in 56 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Clinical characteristics and results of diagnostic evaluations were analysed. Of the 56 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, 20 patients presented without pleural effusion of with locular effusion. Ultrasound-guided cutting needle biopsy was performed in 14/20 patients with a diagnostic accuracy of 80%. Only 1 patient had mild haemoptysis immediately following biopsies. Diagnosing patients with pleural thickenings suspect for malignant mesothelioma without pleural effusion or with loculated pleural effusion is effective and safe with ultrasound-guided cutting needle biopsies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized, prospective cross-over trial comparing methylene blue-directed biopsy and conventional random biopsy for detecting intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ragunath, K; Krasner, N; Raman, V S; Haqqani, M T; Cheung, W Y

    2003-12-01

    The value of methylene blue-directed biopsies (MBDB) in detecting specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of MBDB with random biopsy in detecting intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial was undertaken to compare MBDB with random biopsy in patients with Barrett's esophagus segments 3 cm or more in length without macroscopic evidence of dysplasia or cancer. Dysplasia was graded as: indefinite for dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, or carcinoma, and was reported in a blinded fashion. Fifty-seven patients were recruited, 44 of whom were male. A total of 1,269 biopsies were taken (MBDB-651, random biopsie-618). Analysis of the results by per-biopsy protocol showed that the MBDB technique diagnosed significantly more specialized intestinal metaplasia (75 %) compared to the random biopsy technique (68 %; P = 0.032). The sensitivity and specificity rates of MBDB for diagnosing specialized intestinal metaplasia were 91 % (95 % CI, 88 - 93 %) and 43 % (95 % CI, 36 - 51 %), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity rates of MBDB for diagnosing dysplasia or carcinoma were 49 % (95 % CI, 38 - 61 %) and 85 % (95 % CI, 82 - 88 %), respectively. There were no significant differences in the diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma - MBDB 12 %, random biopsy 10 %. The methylene blue staining pattern appeared to have an influence on the detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia/carcinoma. Dark blue staining was associated with increased detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia (P < 0.0001), and heterogeneous staining (P = 0.137) or no staining (P = 0.005) were associated with dysplasia and/or carcinoma detection. The MBDB technique prolonged the endoscopy examination by an average of 6 min. The diagnostic accuracy of the MBDB technique was superior to that of the

  3. Novel biopsy forceps for diagnosis of biliary tract diseases during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a prospective comparative study with 90° adjustable and conventional biopsy forceps.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kentaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Kurihara, Toshio; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Umeda, Junko; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2012-01-01

    Recently, controllable biopsy forceps (MTW, D°sseldorf, Germany) have been developed. This biopsy forceps were 90° adjustable. In the present study, the feasibility and efficacy of the controllable biopsy forceps were compared with those of conventional biopsy forceps in patients with biliary tract disease. A total of 27 patients with biliary tract lesions were enrolled. We evaluated the procedure time, the sample tissue size and the diagnostic accuracy. In addition, the physicians performing the procedure rated their impressions about operability into 3 classes: excellent, fair and poor. The sensitivity in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions was 71.4% (15/21) for the 90° adjustable type and 66.7% (14/21) for the conventional type. The accuracy rate was 77.8% (21/27) for the 90° adjustable type and 74.0% (20/27) for the conventional type. In terms of operability as rated by each physician, the 'excellent' rate was given more frequently to the 90° adjustable type 25.9% than for the conventional type 11.1% (p=0.047). This preliminary study showed that controllable biopsy forceps compared to conventional type biopsy forceps, despite a larger diameter, enables biopsy in a similar procedure time and its ease of use was rated better.

  4. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    PubMed

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    Approximately half of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) develop lupus nephritis (LN), a major cause of morbidity and early mortality in that disease. Prolonged renal inflammation is associated with irreversible kidney damage which confers a 30% risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), making early, aggressive treatment mandatory. Failure to achieve therapeutic response or recurrence of renal flare often prompts repeat biopsy. However, the role of repeat biopsy in determining long-term renal prognosis remains controversial. For this reason repeat biopsies are usually not utilized unless clinical evidence of refractory or recurrent disease is already present, despite known mismatches between clinical and biopsy findings. The current study quantifies the degree to which histopathologic worsening between first and second biopsies and duration between them predicts ESRD and death. Medical records of 141 LN patients with more than one biopsy were obtained from a single large urban medical center. Cases were attained using billing codes for diagnosis and procedures from 1/1999-1/2015. Biopsy worsening was defined as unfavorable histopathologic classification transitions and/or increased chronicity; if neither were present, the patient was defined as non-worsening. We used Cox proportional hazard models to study the relationship between ESRD and survival adjusting for covariates which included age at first biopsy, gender, race, initial biopsy class, and initial induction therapy. Of 630 patients screened, 141 had more than one biopsy. Advancing chronicity was detected in 48 (34.0%) and a renal class switch to worse grade of pathology was found in 54 (38.3%). At least one of these adverse second biopsy features was reported in 79 (56.0%) patients. Five years following initial biopsy, 28 (35.4%) of those with worsening histopathology on second biopsy developed ESRD, compared to 6 (9.7%) of non-worsening patients and 10 (12.7%) of patients with worsening

  5. Aircraft Disinsection: A Guide for Military and Civilian Air Carriers (Desinsectisation des aeronefs: Un guide a l’intention des responsables des transports aeriens civils et militaires)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    regulations. - Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly). Quarantine regulations generally reduce - Rhagoletis pomonella (Apple maggot). the chances of a...d’insectes nuisibles dans un pays, en 6vitant des risques pour la sant6 des 6quipages, pour la s~curit6 de 1’a~ronef et pour l’industrie. Ce rapport examine 1...diffrrents officiels responsables de la r~glementation des insectes nuisibles introduits, de l’inscription des pesticides et de leur utilisation en

  6. Infrared needle mapping to assist biopsy procedures and training.

    PubMed

    Shar, Bruce; Leis, John; Coucher, John

    2018-04-01

    A computed tomography (CT) biopsy is a radiological procedure which involves using a needle to withdraw tissue or a fluid specimen from a lesion of interest inside a patient's body. The needle is progressively advanced into the patient's body, guided by the most recent CT scan. CT guided biopsies invariably expose patients to high dosages of radiation, due to the number of scans required whilst the needle is advanced. This study details the design of a novel method to aid biopsy procedures using infrared cameras. Two cameras are used to image the biopsy needle area, from which the proposed algorithm computes an estimate of the needle endpoint, which is projected onto the CT image space. This estimated position may be used to guide the needle between scans, and results in a reduction in the number of CT scans that need to be performed during the biopsy procedure. The authors formulate a 2D augmentation system which compensates for camera pose, and show that multiple low-cost infrared imaging devices provide a promising approach.

  7. Technique of the sural nerve biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Nicholas J; Rogers, Lee C; Malik, Rayaz A; Armstrong, David G

    2007-01-01

    A sural nerve biopsy may be useful to enable the clinician to diagnose the etiology and underlying pathology of patients presenting with symptoms of a peripheral neuropathy, when no clear underlying cause has been determined with conventional assessment such as electrophysiology or quantitative sensory testing. Given the prevalence of lower extremity neurological pathology, it is surprising that few descriptions in the peer-reviewed medical literature exist on the rationale and technique for biopsy of the sural nerve. We review the usefulness of this procedure, describe the technique, and discuss the potential complications.

  8. Reduction in nevus biopsies in patients monitored by total body photography.

    PubMed

    Truong, Amanda; Strazzulla, Lauren; March, Jordon; Boucher, Kenneth M; Nelson, Kelly C; Kim, Caroline C; Grossman, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Total body photography (TBP) can facilitate identification of new and changing lesions. By confirming that particular nevi are stable, TBP may reduce nevus biopsies. We sought to determine the number and rate of nevus biopsies before and after TBP, and the factors associated with increased biopsy rate during monitoring by TBP. We reviewed records of all patients in 2 pigmented lesion clinics (PLCs) who received TBP and had 2 or more follow-up visits over a period of 2 years or longer. Before PLCs and TBP, the mean number of nevus biopsies per patient was 5.92 (589 patients) at a mean rate of 1.62 per year (160 patients). After TBP in PLCs, the same patients averaged 1.56 biopsies at a mean rate of 0.34 per year (P < 2 × 10(-16)). The entire cohort (926 patients) averaged similarly low post-TBP biopsy rates of less than 0.2 per year and per visit. Biopsy rates after TBP were positively correlated with decreased age, male gender, and family history of melanoma, but not nevus number. Some information was not available for some patients. Patients at risk for melanoma experienced a 3.8-fold reduction in nevus biopsies after TBP. Younger male patients with family history of melanoma had higher biopsy rates after TBP. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonalbumin proteinuria predominates in biopsy-proven tenofovir nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sise, Meghan E; Hirsch, Jamie S; Canetta, Pietro A; Herlitz, Leal; Mohan, Sumit

    2015-05-15

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal renal tubular injury and dysmorphic mitochondria resulting in proteinuria, orthoglycemic glycosuria, and other markers of proximal tubular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Retrospective chart review. Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7 ± 0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742 mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200-2000 mg] and 1667 mg/g creatinine (IQR 851-1967 mg/g), respectively. Ten patients had concurrent urinary albumin measured, with a median 236 mg/g creatinine (IQR 137-343 mg/g). The mean urine albumin-to-urine protein ratio (uAPR) was 0.17 (IQR 0.14-0.19), confirming that TDF nephrotoxicity is primarily associated with nonalbumin proteinuria. Control cases had a uAPR of 0.65 (IQR 0.55-0.79) P < 0.001. Histopathology showed the predominance of proximal tubular injury with characteristic mitochondrial abnormalities. In the largest published cohort of patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity, we show that low uAPR is a reliable feature of this disease. Because of the predominance of nonalbumin proteinuria, dipstick urinalysis may be unreliable in TDF nephrotoxicity.

  10. Use of Age and Medical Comorbidity to Assess Long-term Other-cause Mortality Risk in a Cohort of Men Undergoing Prostate Biopsy at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Hal D; Bashline, Michael; Eun, Daniel; Pontari, Michel A; Mydlo, Jack H; Reese, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    To assess life expectancy and biopsy outcomes in men undergoing prostate biopsy at an academic medical center. We analyzed men who underwent prostate biopsy at our medical center between July 2012 and June 2014. Long-term other-cause mortality risk was determined using survival tables. Indications for biopsy and biopsy outcomes were assessed, and compared among men with varying mortality risks. A total of 417 men underwent prostate biopsy, in whom 14-year other-cause mortality risk ranged from 9% to 74%. One hundred ninety-three men (46.3%) were considered low-mortality risk (<40% risk of 14-year mortality), 131 (31.4%) intermediate risk (41%-55% 14-year mortality), and 93 (22.3%) high risk (>55% 14-year mortality). Of the 417 patients who underwent biopsy, 149 (35.7%) were found to have prostate cancer. There was no significant difference in the rate of positive biopsies (P = .72), distribution of Gleason scores (P = .60), or percentage of positive biopsy cores (P = .74) between mortality risk groups. However, by UCSF Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score, there was significant trend toward higher-risk prostate cancer in men with intermediate and high-mortality risk (P = .04). In this analysis, a large number of men with limited life expectancies underwent prostate biopsy. The majority of these men had negative biopsies or low-risk cancers, suggesting that they were unlikely to benefit from biopsy. To avoid potentially unnecessary prostate biopsies, the practitioner must give serious consideration to a patient's age and medical comorbidities before making a recommendation as to whether biopsy should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of muscular biopsy on the mechanics of running.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-Benoit; Samozino, Pierre; Féasson, Léonard; Geyssant, André; Millet, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a widely used technique in protocols aiming at studying physical capacities and fiber profiles of athletes, and muscular adaptations to exercise. Side effects of biopsy alone on physiological parameters have recently been pointed out, and we sought to determine whether a single biopsy had effects on the main stride mechanical parameters. Ten male runners performed 4-min runs before and after undergoing a biopsy of their left vastus lateralis muscle. Step frequency and duty factor were significantly higher after biopsy (2.86 +/- 0.14 vs. 2.82 +/- 0.15 Hz, and 0.77 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.75 +/- 0.05, respectively), whereas other factors were significantly lower: maximal vertical ground reaction force (1,601 +/- 240 vs. 1,643 +/- 230 N), loading rate (53.9 +/- 12.8 vs. 58.4 +/- 13.5 bw s(-1)), center of mass vertical displacement (0.056 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.058 +/- 0.008 m) and external mechanical work at each step (1.14 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.10 J kg(-1) step(-1)). These effects were observed on the left (biopsed) leg, but also on the right one for the external mechanical work, the duty factor and the maximal vertical ground reaction force, showing that a single biopsy had both ipsi- and contralateral effects on running mechanics.

  12. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  13. CT-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy of Intrathoracic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Hira; Nath, Alok; Borah, Samudra

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous CT-guided needle biopsy of mediastinal and pulmonary lesions is a minimally invasive approach for obtaining tissue for histopathological examination. Although it is a widely accepted procedure with relatively few complications, precise planning and detailed knowledge of various aspects of the biopsy procedure is mandatory to avert complications. In this pictorial review, we reviewed important anatomical approaches, technical aspects of the procedure, and its associated complications. PMID:22438689

  14. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  15. Improved Survival in Male Melanoma Patients in the Era of Sentinel Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Koskivuo, I; Vihinen, P; Mäki, M; Talve, L; Vahlberg, T; Suominen, E

    2017-03-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a standard method for nodal staging in patients with clinically localized cutaneous melanoma, but the survival advantage of sentinel node biopsy remains unsolved. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the survival benefit of sentinel node biopsy. A total of 305 prospective melanoma patients undergoing sentinel node biopsy were compared with 616 retrospective control patients with clinically localized melanoma whom have not undergone sentinel node biopsy. Survival differences were calculated with the median follow-up time of 71 months in sentinel node biopsy patients and 74 months in control patients. Analyses were calculated overall and separately in males and females. Overall, there were no differences in relapse-free survival or cancer-specific survival between sentinel node biopsy patients and control patients. Male sentinel node biopsy patients had significantly higher relapse-free survival ( P = 0.021) and cancer-specific survival ( P = 0.024) than control patients. In females, no differences were found. Cancer-specific survival rates at 5 years were 87.8% in sentinel node biopsy patients and 85.2% in controls overall with 88.3% in male sentinel node biopsy patients and 80.6% in male controls and 87.3% in female sentinel node biopsy patients and 89.8% in female controls. Sentinel node biopsy did not improve survival in melanoma patients overall. While females had no differences in survival, males had significantly improved relapse-free survival and cancer-specific survival following sentinel node biopsy.

  16. FDG-PET in the selection of brain lesions for biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.W.; Glantz, M.J.; Hoffman, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The CT-guided stereotaxic needle biopsy has become a widely used procedure in the diagnostic evaluation of intracranial lesions including tumors. Conventional CT or MR frequently defines the anatomic regions of abnormality, which may be multiple lesions or a single lesion that is heterogeneous in cellular composition owing to the topographic variation of cellular constituency or the combination of active disease, nonspecific inflammation, necrosis, and/or edema. In these cases, selection of the most appropriate site for a successful diagnostic needle biopsy can be difficult. In three patients, we have used (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the site mostmore » likely to provide a diagnostic biopsy result. In the first patient, who presented with confusion, multiple biopsies from the temporal lobe, based on MR abnormalities, revealed only reactive gliosis and edema. Repeat biopsy directed by PET revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma. In a second patient, PET allowed us to differentiate radiation effect from active metastatic breast cancer. In the third patient, who presented with a grand mal seizure, biopsy of a CT-defined hypodense region demonstrated lymphocytosis. Metabolism of FDG was normal or increased in areas of Aspergillus encephalitis at autopsy. These preliminary studies suggest a complementary role for FDG-PET and CT or MR in selected patients for defining the intracranial site most likely to yield a positive biopsy result.« less

  17. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolez, Patricia

    Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative a la technique electrique, presentant lors du debut de cette these des problemes lies a la variation du resultat des mesures selon la position des contacts de tension sur la surface de l'echantillon, et de pouvoir mesurer les pertes ac dans des conditions simulant la realite des futures applications industrielles des rubans supraconducteurs: en particulier, cette methode utilise la technique calorimetrique, associee a une calibration simultanee et in situ. La validite de la methode a ete verifiee de maniere theorique et experimentale: d'une part, des mesures ont ete realisees sur des echantillons de Bi-2223 recouverts d'argent ou d'alliage d'argent-or et comparees avec les predictions theoriques donnees par Norris, nous indiquant la nature majoritairement hysteretique des pertes ac dans nos echantillons; d'autre part, une mesure electrique a ete realisee in situ dont les resultats correspondent parfaitement a ceux donnes par notre methode calorimetrique. Par ailleurs, nous avons compare la dependance en courant et en frequence des pertes ac d'un echantillon avant et apres qu'il ait ete endommage. Ces mesures semblent indiquer une relation entre la valeur du coefficient de la loi de puissance modelisant la dependance des pertes avec le courant, et les inhomogeneites longitudinales du courant critique induites par l'endommagement. De plus, la variation en frequence montre qu'au niveau des grosses fractures transverses creees par l'endommagement dans le coeur supraconducteur, le courant se partage localement de maniere a peu pres equivalente entre les quelques grains de matiere

  18. In-gantry MRI guided prostate biopsy diagnosis of prostatitis and its relationship with PIRADS V.2 based score.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Rajeev; Jina, Noel Hamesh; Haxhimolla, Hodo Z

    2017-04-01

    The recent literature has focussed predominantly on prostate cancer detection which has been revolutionized by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). Due to an overlap of features, prostatitis may mimic prostate cancer on MRI, especially in patients with chronic prostatitis. We retrospectively analysed our in-gantry MRI-guided biopsy (MRGB) results to determine incidental detection rate of prostatitis in Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) 3, 4 and 5 foci reported on diagnostic MRI of the prostate. About 137 patients underwent in-gantry MRGB for lesions with PIRADS score of 3 or above. All the biopsies were performed utilizing the dynaTRIM™ system (Invio Inc, Germany) on a three-tesla MRI scanner (Ingenia 3.0T, Philips, Netherlands) by a Radiologist and a Urologist. We biopsied 228 lesions in 137 patients. There were 55 lesions that returned positive for prostate cancer with a Gleason Score of 3 + 3 = 6 or above. There were 62 lesions that showed inflammation. The distribution of these lesions was 3 (5%) in the central zone, 32 (52%) in the transitional zone and 27 (43%) in the peripheral zone. Inflammation was found in 36 (58%) PIRADS 3 lesions, 24 (39%) PIRADS 4 lesions and 2 (3%) PIRADS 5 lesions on pre biopsy MRI evaluation. In our series, biopsies which showed inflammation had a radiological appearance on mpMRI more likely of a PIRADS 3 or 4 lesions with only 3% of PIRADS 5 biopsies showing inflammation. This would suggest that a higher PIRADS score can more reliably differentiate between prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. 21 CFR 878.4755 - Absorbable lung biopsy plug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable lung biopsy plug. 878.4755 Section 878.4755 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4755 Absorbable lung biopsy...

  20. Ultrasound-guided synovial Tru-cut biopsy: indications, technique, and outcome in 111 cases.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Griffith, James F; Lai, Fernand M; Hui, Mamie; Chiu, K H; Lee, Ryan K L; Ng, Alex W H; Leung, Jason

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. Clinical notes, pathology and microbiology reports, ultrasound and other imaging studies of 100 patients who underwent 111 ultrasound-guided synovial biopsies were reviewed. Biopsies were compared with the final clinical diagnosis established after synovectomy (n = 43) or clinical/imaging follow-up (n = 57) (mean 30 months). Other than a single vasovagal episode, no complication of synovial biopsy was encountered. One hundred and seven (96 %) of the 111 biopsies yielded synovium histologically. Pathology ± microbiology findings for these 107 conclusive biopsies comprised synovial tumour (n = 30, 28 %), synovial infection (n = 18, 17 %), synovial inflammation (n = 45, 42 %), including gouty arthritis (n = 3), and no abnormality (n = 14, 13 %). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of synovial biopsy was 99 %, 97 %, and 100 % for synovial tumour; 100 %, 100 %, and 100 % for native joint infection; and 78 %, 45 %, and 100 % for prosthetic joint infection. False-negative synovial biopsy did not seem to be related to antibiotic therapy. Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and reliable technique with a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing synovial tumour and also, most likely, for joint infection. Regarding joint infection, synovial biopsy of native joints seems to have a higher diagnostic yield than that for infected prosthetic joints. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy has high accuracy (99 %) for diagnosing synovial tumour. • It has good accuracy, sensitivity, and high specificity for diagnosis of joint infection. • Synovial biopsy of native joints works better than biopsy of prosthetic joints. • A negative synovial biopsy culture from a native joint largely excludes septic arthritis. • Ultrasound-guided Tru-cut synovial biopsy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure.

  1. The cost effectiveness of vacuum-assisted versus core-needle versus surgical biopsy of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, P; Marco-Doménech, S F; Lizán-Tudela, L; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Navarro-Ballester, A; Casanovas-Feliu, E

    To determine the cost effectiveness of breast biopsy by 9G vacuum-assisted guided by vertical stereotaxy or ultrasonography in comparison with breast biopsy by 14G core-needle biopsy and surgical biopsy. We analyzed a total of 997 biopsies (181 vacuum-assisted, 626 core, and 190 surgical biopsies). We calculated the total costs (indirect and direct) of the three types of biopsy. We did not calculate intangible costs. We measured the percentage of correct diagnoses obtained with each technique. To identify the most cost-effective option, we calculated the mean ratios for the three types of biopsies. Total costs were €225.09 for core biopsy, €638.90 for vacuum-assisted biopsy, and €1780.01 for surgical biopsy. The overall percentage of correct diagnoses was 91.81% for core biopsy, 94.03% for vacuum-assisted biopsy, and 100% for surgical biopsy; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance (p=0.3485). For microcalcifications, the percentage of correct diagnoses was 50% for core biopsy and 96.77% for vacuum-assisted biopsy (p<0.0001). For nodules, there were no significant differences among techniques. The mean cost-effectiveness ratio considering all lesions was 2.45 for core biopsy, 6.79 for vacuum-assisted biopsy, and 17.80 for surgical biopsy. Core biopsy was the dominant option for the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions in general. However, in cases with microcalcifications, the low percentage of correct diagnoses achieved by core biopsy (50%) advises against its use in this context, where vacuum-assisted biopsy would be the technique of choice because it is more cost-effective than surgical biopsy, the other technique indicated for biopsying microcalcifications. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Upgrading the Gleason Score in Extended Prostate Biopsy: Implications for Treatment Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira Leite, Katia Ramos; Laboratory of Surgical and Molecular Pathology - Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo; Camara-Lopes, Luiz H.A.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of overestimation of Gleason score (GS) in extended prostate biopsy, and consequently circumventing unnecessary aggressive treatment. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective study of 464 patients who underwent prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy between January 2001 and November 2007. The GS from biopsy and radical prostatectomy were compared. The incidence of overestimation of GS in biopsies and tumor volume were studied. Multivariate analysis was applied to find parameters that predict upgrading the GS in prostate biopsy. Results: The exact agreement of GS between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy occurred in 56.9% of cases. Inmore » 29.1% cases it was underestimated, and it was overestimated in 14%. One hundred and six (22.8%) patients received a diagnosis of high GS (8, 9, or 10) in a prostate biopsy. In 29.2% of cases, the definitive Gleason Score was 7 or lower. In cases in which GS was overestimated in the biopsy, tumors were significantly smaller. In multivariate analysis, the total percentage of tumor was the only independent factor in overestimation of GS. Tumors occupying less than 33% of cores had a 5.6-fold greater chance of being overestimated. Conclusion: In the extended biopsy era and after the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus on GS, almost one third of tumors considered to have high GS at the biopsy may be intermediate-risk cancers. In that condition, tumors are smaller in biopsy. This should be remembered by professionals involved with prostate cancer to avoid overtreatment and undesirable side effects.« less

  3. Positional calibration of an ultrasound image-guided robotic breast biopsy system.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas R; Tran, Amy; Fakourfar, Hourieh; Nebeker, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    Precision biopsy of small lesions is essential in providing high-quality patient diagnosis and management. Localization depends on high-quality imaging. We have developed a dedicated, fully automatic volume breast ultrasound (US) imaging system for early breast cancer detection. This work focuses on development of an image-guided robotic biopsy system that is integrated with the volume breast US system for performing minimally invasive breast biopsies. The objective of this work was to assess the positional accuracy of the robotic system for breast biopsy. We have adapted a compact robotic arm for performing breast biopsy. The arm incorporates a force torque sensor and is modified to accommodate breast biopsy sampling needles mounted on the robot end effector. Volume breast US images are used as input to a targeting algorithm that provides the physician with control of biopsy device guidance and trajectory optimization. In this work, the positional accuracy was evaluated using (1) a light-emitting diode (LED) mounted on the end effector and (2) a LED mounted on the end of a biopsy needle, each of which was imaged for each robot controller position as part of mapping the positional accuracy throughout a volume that would contain the breast. We measured the error in each location and the cumulative error. Robotic device performance over the volume provided mean accuracy ± SD of 0.76 ± 0.13 mm (end effector) and 0.55 ± 0.13 mm (needle sample location), sufficient for a targeting accuracy within ±1 mm, which is suitable for clinical use. Depth positioning error also was small: 0.38 ± 0.03 mm. Reproducibility was excellent with less than 0.5% variation. Overall accuracy and reproducibility of the compact robotic device were excellent, well within clinical biopsy performance requirements. Volume breast US data provide high-quality input to a biopsy sampling algorithm under physician control. Robotic devices may provide more precise device placement, assisting

  4. Accuracy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy of renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianding; Lv, Yuanhang; Xu, Zilin; Aniu, Muguo; Qiu, Yang; Wei, Bing; Li, Xiaohong; Wei, Qiang; Dong, Qiang; Lin, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Our aim is to determine the sufficiency, accuracy, and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy of renal masses in Chinese patients. Patients who had undergone ultrasound-guided needle core renal mass biopsy from June 2012 to June 2016 at West China Hospital, China were retrospectively reviewed. The information obtained included demographics, mass-related parameters, biopsy indications, technique, complications, pathologic results, and follow-up. Concordance of surgical resection pathology and follow-up data were assessed. Renal mass biopsies were performed in 106 patients. Thirty-nine (36.8%) were asymptomatic. The male/female ratio was 60/46, with a median age of 49.5 years. Median mass size was 8.1 cm (range 1.8–20). Biopsy was performed through a 16-gauge needle, with median cores of 2 taken (range 1–5). Only one significant biopsy-related complication (hemorrhage requiring transfusion) was encountered. An adequate tissue sample was obtained in 97.2% (103/106) of biopsies. Eighty-seven biopsies (82.1%) showed malignant neoplasms, 16 (15.1%) yielded benignity, and 3 (2.8%) were nondiagnostic. After biopsy, 46 patients (43.4%) underwent surgery. Compared with the subsequent mass resection pathology, the biopsy diagnoses were identical in 43 cases. The accuracy rate of biopsy distinguishing malignant from benign lesions was 99.1%, and the rate for determining tumor histological type (excluding the nondiagnostic biopsies) was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting malignancy were 98.9% and 100%, respectively. In several situations, there is still a role for biopsy before intervention. Percutaneous needle core biopsy under ultrasonography guidance is highly accurate and safe, and can determine the proper management of undefinable masses. PMID:29595650

  5. Added value of second biopsy target in screen-detected widespread suspicious breast calcifications.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Nathalie M; Hince, Dana; Porter, Gareth; Dessauvagie, Ben; Jeganathan, Sanjay; Bulsara, Max; Lo, Glen

    2018-06-01

    There is controversy on the optimal work-up of screen-detected widespread breast calcifications: whether to biopsy a single target or multiple targets. This study evaluates agreement between multiple biopsy targets within the same screen-detected widespread (≥25 mm) breast calcification to determine if the second biopsy adds value. Retrospective observational study of women screened in a statewide general population risk breast cancer mammographic screening program from 2009 to 2016. Screening episodes recalled for widespread calcifications where further views indicated biopsy, and two or more separate target areas were sampled within the same lesion were included. Percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa were calculated. A total of 293317 women were screened during 761124 separate episodes with recalls for widespread calcifications in 2355 episodes. In 171 women, a second target was biopsied within the same lesion. In 149 (86%) cases, the second target biopsy result agreed with the first biopsy (κ = 0.6768). Agreement increased with increasing mammography score (85%, 86% and 92% for score 3, 4 and 5 lesions). Same day multiple biopsied lesions were three times more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases. While a single target biopsy is sufficient to discriminate a benign vs. malignant diagnosis in most cases, in 14% there is added value in performing a second target biopsy. Biopsies performed prospectively are more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases, suggesting a single prospective biopsy may be sufficient when results are radiological-pathological concordant; discordance still requires repeat sampling. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Apport de l'imagerie dans le diagnostic des sacroiliites infectieuses : à propos de 19 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Hanen; Chaabouni, Salim; Frikha, Faten; Toumi, Nozha; Souissi, Basma; Lahiani, Dorra; Bahloul, Zouhir; Ben Mahfoudh, Khaireddine

    2014-01-01

    Les sacro-iliites infectieuses méritent d’être mieux connues. Leur diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie trompeuse et des diffcultés d'exploration de l'articulation sacro-iliaque. Notre travail est basé sur une étude rétrospective portant sur les cas de SII, recueillis sur une période comprise entre 1997 et 2008 dans notre centre universitaire Sfax-Tunisie. Le diagnostic de sacro-iliite était retenu en présence d'arguments cliniques et radiologiques d'atteinte sacroiliaque. Nous rapportons dix neuf cas de sacroiliites infectieuses (10 hommes et 9 femmes), avec un âge moyen de 32 ans. L'atteinte était unilatérale dans tous les cas. Les radiographies standard faites dans tous les cas ont été suggestives dans 14 cas et normales dans les autres cas. La TDM faite dans 13 cas a montré, un abcès des parties molles dans 8 cas et un séquestre osseux dans 2 cas. L'IRM réalisée dans 8 cas, a objectivé une infiltration des parties molles dans tous les cas et un abcès dans 3 cas. Le germe a été identifié dans 9 cas (3 cas de tuberculose, 3 cas de brucellose, 2 sacro-iliites à pyogène et un cas de candidose). Cette identification était faite par biopsie dans 3 cas, hémocultures dans 2 cas, prélèvement au niveau de la porte d'entrée dans 1 cas et sérodiagnostic dans 3 cas. Pour les autres cas, l'origine pyogène a été retenue sur des arguments cliniques et biologiques. L'imagerie joue un rôle primordial dans le diagnostic précoce et l'orientation étiologique d'une sacroiliite infectieuse. PMID:25120884

  7. An evaluation of in-office flexible fiber-optic biopsies for laryngopharyngeal lesions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Francisco; Smith, Kristine A; Chandarana, Shamir; Matthews, T Wayne; Bosch, J Douglas; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Dort, Joseph C

    2018-05-09

    Operative endoscopy and flexible fiber-optic in-office tissue biopsy are common techniques to assess suspicious laryngopharyngeal lesions. The primary outcome was the delay to the initiation of treatment. Secondary outcomes were delay to biopsy, histopathological diagnosis, and assessment at a multidisciplinary oncology clinic. A retrospective analysis was performed to assess the relative delays between these approaches to biopsy of laryngopharyngeal lesions. There were 114 patients in the study cohort; 44 in-office and 70 operative endoscopic biopsies). The mean delay from consultation to biopsy was 17.4 days for the operative endoscopy group and 1.3 days for the in-office group. The mean delay from initial otolaryngology consultation to initiation of treatment was 51.7 days and 44.6 days for the operative endoscopy and in-office groups, respectively. In-office biopsy reduced the time from initial consultation to biopsy. The temporal gains via in-office biopsy did not translate into faster access to treatment. This outcome highlights the opportunity to improve access to treatment for patients with early diagnosis.

  8. CT fluoroscopy-guided core needle biopsy of anterior mediastinal masses.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, T; Hiraki, T; Matsui, Y; Fujiwara, H; Sakurai, J; Masaoka, Y; Uka, M; Tanaka, T; Gobara, H; Kanazawa, S

    2018-02-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety, diagnostic yield, and risk factors of diagnostic failure of computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided biopsies of anterior mediastinal masses. Biopsy procedures and results of anterior mediastinal masses in 71 patients (32 women/39 men; mean [±standard deviation] age, 53.8±20.0years; range, 14-88years) were analyzed. Final diagnoses were based on surgical outcomes, imaging findings, or clinical follow-up findings. The biopsy results were compared with the final diagnosis, and the biopsy procedures grouped by pathologic findings into diagnostic success and failure groups. Multiple putative risk factors for diagnostic failure were then assessed. Seventy-one biopsies (71 masses; mean size, 67.5±27.3mm; range 8.6-128.2mm) were analyzed. We identified 17 grade 1 and one grade 2 adverse events (25.4% overall) according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Sixty-nine biopsies (97.2%) provided samples fit for pathologic analysis. Diagnostic failure was found for eight (11.3%) masses; the 63 masses diagnosed successfully included thymic carcinoma (n=17), lung cancer (n=14), thymoma (n=12), malignant lymphoma (n=11), germ cell tumor (n=3), and others (n=6). Using a thinner needle (i.e., a 20-gauge needle) was the sole significant risk factor for diagnostic failure (P=0.039). CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy of anterior mediastinal masses was safe and had a high diagnostic yield; however, using a thinner biopsy needle significantly increased the risk of a failed diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Frameless robotically targeted stereotactic brain biopsy: feasibility, diagnostic yield, and safety.

    PubMed

    Bekelis, Kimon; Radwan, Tarek A; Desai, Atman; Roberts, David W

    2012-05-01

    Frameless stereotactic brain biopsy has become an established procedure in many neurosurgical centers worldwide. Robotic modifications of image-guided frameless stereotaxy hold promise for making these procedures safer, more effective, and more efficient. The authors hypothesized that robotic brain biopsy is a safe, accurate procedure, with a high diagnostic yield and a safety profile comparable to other stereotactic biopsy methods. This retrospective study included 41 patients undergoing frameless stereotactic brain biopsy of lesions (mean size 2.9 cm) for diagnostic purposes. All patients underwent image-guided, robotic biopsy in which the SurgiScope system was used in conjunction with scalp fiducial markers and a preoperatively selected target and trajectory. Forty-five procedures, with 50 supratentorial targets selected, were performed. The mean operative time was 44.6 minutes for the robotic biopsy procedures. This decreased over the second half of the study by 37%, from 54.7 to 34.5 minutes (p < 0.025). The diagnostic yield was 97.8% per procedure, with a second procedure being diagnostic in the single nondiagnostic case. Complications included one transient worsening of a preexisting deficit (2%) and another deficit that was permanent (2%). There were no infections. Robotic biopsy involving a preselected target and trajectory is safe, accurate, efficient, and comparable to other procedures employing either frame-based stereotaxy or frameless, nonrobotic stereotaxy. It permits biopsy in all patients, including those with small target lesions. Robotic biopsy planning facilitates careful preoperative study and optimization of needle trajectory to avoid sulcal vessels, bridging veins, and ventricular penetration.

  10. Liquid Biopsy and its Potential for Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Ao; Yang, Xin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    We summarized the recent findings of liquid biopsy in cancer field and discussed its potential utility in hepatocellular carcinoma. Literature published in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Direct electronic databases was searched and reviewed. Liquid biopsy specially referred to the detection of nucleic acids (circulating cell-free DNA, cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients. Compared to conventional single-site sampling or biopsy method, liquid biopsy had the advantages such as non-invasiveness, dynamic monitoring, and the most important of all, overcoming the limit of spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The genomic information of cancer could be profiled by genotyping cfDNA/CTC and subsequently applied to make molecular classification, targeted therapy guidance, and unveil drug resistance mechanisms. The serial sampling feature of liquid biopsy made it possible to monitor treatment response in a real-time manner and predict tumor metastasis/recurrence in advance. Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive, dynamic, and informative sampling method with important clinical translational significance in cancer research and practice. Much work needs to be done before it is used in the management of HCC.

  11. Biopsy - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपाली) Russian (Русский) ... हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Expand Section Biopsy - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...

  12. Usefulness and safety of biliary percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy (PTFB): our experience.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Mangini, Monica; Fontana, Federico; Floridi, Chiara; De Marchi, Giuseppe; Petrillo, Mario; Capasso, Raffaella; Chini, Claudio; Cocozza, Eugenio; Cuffari, Salvatore; Segato, Sergio; Rotondo, Antonio; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and safety of percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy in patients suspected of having a malignant biliary obstruction. Forty consecutive patients (21 men and 19 women; mean age, 71.9 years) underwent forceps biopsy through percutaneous transhepatic biliary access performed to drain bile. Lesions involved the common bile duct (n 8), common hepatic duct (n 18), hilum (n 6), ampullary segment of the common bile duct (n 8) and were biopsied with 7-F biopsy forceps. Final diagnosis was confirmed with pathologic findings at surgery, or clinical and radiologic follow-up. Twenty-one of 40 biopsies resulted in correct diagnosis of malignancy. Thirteen biopsy diagnosis were proved to be true-negative. There were six false-negative and no false-positive diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in aspecific biliary obstructions were 85%, 100% and 88,7% respectively. Sensitivity of biopsy in malignancies was higher than in benign obstructions (100% vs 68,4%, CI = 95%). Sensitivity was lower in the hilum tract and in the common bile duct than in other sites (CI = 95%). No major complications related to biopsy procedures occurred. Percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy is a safe procedure, easy to perform through a transhepatic biliary drainage tract, providing high accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant biliary obstructions.

  13. Ureteroscopic biopsy of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: comparison of basket and forceps.

    PubMed

    Kleinmann, Nir; Healy, Kelly A; Hubosky, Scott G; Margel, David; Bibbo, Marluce; Bagley, Demetrius H

    2013-12-01

    To compare two different biopsy devices for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and evaluate the pathologic result obtained by these devices. From January 2008 to December 2010, 414 ureteroscopies were performed and 504 biopsies were taken for evaluation of UTUC. Two biopsy devices were compared: 2.4F stainless steel flat wire basket and 3F cup biopsy forceps. The effect of the biopsy device on obtaining an adequate pathologic specimen was evaluated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. We also investigated whether tumor grade determination was affected by the biopsy device among patients with a diagnostic biopsy. Diagnosis was successful in 63% and 94% in the forceps and basket groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among biopsies with a definite diagnosis of UTUC, specific grade was determined in 80% and 93% in the forceps and basket groups, respectively (P = 0.033). In subgroup analysis of tumors larger than 10 mm in diameter, diagnosis was obtained in 80% and 94% in the forceps and basket groups, respectively (P = 0.037). Cytologic evaluation was found to increase diagnostic rates. The stainless steel flat wire basket was shown to be superior to the 3F cup biopsy forceps in terms of obtaining tissue diagnosis and providing specific grade.

  14. Significance of Ureteroscopic Biopsy Grade in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Junya; Miyake, Hideaki; Sakai, Iori; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the ureteroscopic biopsy grade for patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Patients and Methods This study included 40 patients who were diagnosed with a single focus of UTUC by ureteroscopic biopsy and subsequently underwent nephroureterectomy. The significance of the biopsy grade as a predictive factor for pathological outcomes of nephroureterectomy was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of these 40 patients, 19 (47.5%) and 21 (52.5%) were diagnosed with low and high grade UTUC, respectively. The ureteroscopic biopsy grade matched the pathological grade of surgically resected specimens in 35 of the 40 cases (87.5%), and there was a significant correlation between the biopsy and pathological grades (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the biopsy grade was also shown to be closely associated with the pathological stage (p < 0.001); that is, only 1 of the 19 patients (5.3%) with biopsy low grade UTUC were pathologically diagnosed as having muscle invasive disease, while 17 of the 21 patients (81.0%) with biopsy high grade UTUC appeared to show tumor invasion into muscle or deeper. Conclusions The grade of UTUC on ureteroscopic biopsy could provide accurate diagnostic information on the final pathology of nephroureterectomy specimens. PMID:24917735

  15. Liquid Biopsy in Metastasized Breast Cancer as Basis for Treatment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Natalia; Fehm, Tanja; Banys-Paluchowski, Malgorzata; Janni, Wolfgang; Schramm, Amelie

    2016-01-01

    According to current guidelines, the additional biopsy of breast cancer metastases to analyze the receptor status for phenotype assessment is recommended. However, due to clinical difficulties in performing biopsies of metastatic lesions, the phenotype of the primary tumor most often determines the treatment decisions in metastatic breast cancer. Liquid biopsy allows the analysis of several circulating biomarkers like circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in peripheral blood samples of cancer patients. Thus, it is an elegant and easily practicable technique that delivers information on the current disease status. Determination of the CTC phenotype regarding the hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status might replace additional tissue biopsy for planning further therapy strategies. Liquid biopsy is a crucial step towards a more individualized cancer therapy. In contrast to the conventional concept of tissue biopsy, it offers an easy, less invasive acquisition of biomaterial. In addition, it allows multiple repetitions and real-time monitoring of metastasized disease in the clinical routine. However, the clinical utility of liquid biopsy still needs to be evaluated. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. [Closed needle-biopsy in the diagnosis of neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Sforza, M; Perelli Ercolini, M; Beani, G

    1979-04-01

    The AA. demonstrate with this communication the validity of the needle biopsie for the diagnosis of neoplasms. They had used it for the breast, thyroid, flg and some other superficial tumefactions. In the mass-screening for the feminine neoplasms the clinical examination and the needle biopsy are very good method for a careful diagnosis.

  17. Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change.

  18. Liquid Biopsy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Circulating Tumor-Derived Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang-Qing; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Qu, Zhen; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide due to latent liver disease, late diagnosis, and nonresponse to systemic treatments. Till now, surgical and/or biopsy specimens are still generally used as a gold standard by the clinicians for clinical decision-making. However, apart from their invasive characteristics, tumor biopsy only mirrors a single spot of the tumor, failing to reflect current cancer dynamics and progression. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new diagnostic strategies with significant effectiveness and reliability to monitor high-risk populations and detect HCC at an early stage. In the past decade, the potent utilities of "liquid biopsy" have attracted intense concern and were developed to evaluate cancer progression in several clinical trials. "Liquid biopsies" represent a series of noninvasive tests that detect cancer byproducts easily accessible in peripheral blood, mainly including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) that are shed into the blood from the tumor sites. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the field of "liquid biopsy" as well as the diagnostic and prognostic significance of CTCs and cfNAs in HCC patients.

  19. Margins in Skin Excision Biopsies: Principles and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Richa; Singh, Lavleen; Arava, Sudheer K; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Skin biopsies are usually undertaken to confirm a clinical diagnosis, to remove a lesion, and to determine the adequacy of excised tissue margin. A surgical margin is technically defined as the “edge” of the tissue removed. The term is especially pertinent when the tissue excised is suspected of being involved by a malignant process. One of the most important predictive and prognostic factors of a malignant lesion is whether the margins of the resected specimen are involved by the tumor or not. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into grossing of a skin biopsy specimen with emphasis on techniques and reporting of excision biopsy margins. PMID:25484385

  20. [Diagnostic rentability of close pleural biopsy: Tru-cut vs. Cope].

    PubMed

    Valdez-López, Héctor Glenn; Cano-Rodríguez, Alma Iris; Montemayor-Chapa, Mario; Castillo-Sánchez, Juan Francisco

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of pleural effusion in Mexico is over 400 per 100 000 inhabitants. The etiology is infectious in 45.7% and neoplastic in 32.6%. Closed pleural biopsy sensibility is 48-70% in cancer and 50-59% in tuberculosis using Cope or Abrams needle. In 1989, Tru-cut needle biopsy was described in a small study for massive pleural effusions with a sensibility of 86%. Our Institute has a wide experience with this infrequently procedure with reliable results than using Cope needle. Diagnostic yield should be evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of Tru-cut vs. standard Cope biopsy in the histopathological diagnosis of pleural effusion. Experimental, not blinded, analytical, cross-sectional study. We studied 44 patients (24 male and 20 female) with exudative pleural effusion over a period of 14 months. Every patient underwent four Tru-cut and four Cope needle biopsies. The diagnostic yield of both methods was compared. The mean age of patients was 61.4 ± 12.2 years. The diagnosis was achieved in 25 (57%) of patients using Tru-cut and 22 (50%) of patients using Cope's closed pleural biopsy. The diagnostic value was not significantly higher (p = 0.41). The most common diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (20.5%), mesothelioma (15.9%) and tuberculosis (15.9%). The diagnostic yield of Tru-cut needle biopsy is slightly higher than Cope pleural biopsy, very similar to that reported previously. The experience in this procedure is an advantage in our clinical practice.

  1. New Bacterial Infection in the Prostate after Transrectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yumi; Lee, Gilho

    2018-04-23

    The prostate is prone to infections. Hypothetically, bacteria can be inoculated into the prostate during a transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) and progress into chronic bacterial prostatitis. Therefore, we examined new bacterial infections in biopsied prostates after TRPB and whether they affect clinical characteristics in the biopsied patients. Of men whose prostate cultures have been taken prior to TRPB, 105 men with bacteria-free benign prostate pathology underwent an additional repeated prostate culture within a year after TRPB. Twenty out of 105 men (19.05%) acquired new bacteria in their naïve prostates after TRPB. Except for one single case of Escherichia coli infection, 19 men had acquired gram-positive bacteria species. Between the culture-positive and negative groups, there were no significant differences in age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, white blood cell (WBC) counts in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), prostate volume, symptom severities in Korean version of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) questionnaire, and patient-specific risk factors for biopsy associated infectious complications. Additionally, the TRPB procedure increased the WBC counts in post-biopsy EPS ( P = 0.031, McNemar test), but did not increase the serum PSA level and symptoms of NIH-CPSI in 20 men who acquired new bacteria after TRPB. The TRPB procedure was significantly associated with acquiring new bacterial infections in the biopsied prostate, but these localized bacteria did not affect patients' serum PSA level and symptoms after biopsy.

  2. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism, or to compete with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor, it may be possible that these products affect the risk of developing impaired fertility, precocious puberty or some kinds of cancer in man. Le plus ancien récit de lutte contre la pollution remonte à une légende indienne racontant que la divinité Sing-bonga était incommodée par les émanations des fours dans lesquels les Asuras fondaient leurs métaux (1). Evidemment depuis, la problématique n-a cessé de s-accroître et la contamination de la Terre par de nombreux polluants est devenue aujourd-hui un problème majeur de notre Société. La protection de notre environnement est une question capitale qui doit être respectée malgré la pression économique actuelle et qui ne cessera de croître au cours des prochaines années même si l-identification objective et indiscutable de ce qui est essentiel - donc devant être prioritairement garanti sur la planète - est difficile à cerner (2). « Un oiseau en mauvais état ne pond pas de bons oeufs » disait un proverbe grec. Mais ce n-est qu-à partir de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle que les toxicologues ont commencé à identifier les effets qu-avaient entraînés à l-échelle mondiale les pollutions émises aux XIXème siècle sur la faune sauvage et sur le cheptel (3). L-histoire contemporaine des pesticides industriels commence vers 1874 (synthèse des organochlorés) et se poursuit tout au long de ces 2 siècles en passant par la synthèse des organophosphorés (1950), des carbamates (1970) et des pyréthroïdes (1975) (4). Le dichlorodiphényltrichloroéthane (DDT) a été synthétisé pour la première fois par un étudiant en cours de préparation de sa thèse de doctorat : Othmer Zeidler. La production, reprise par les

  3. A low cost solution for post-biopsy complications using available RFA generator and coaxial core biopsy needle.

    PubMed

    Azlan, C A; Mohd Nasir, N F; Saifizul, A A; Faizul, M S; Ng, K H; Abdullah, B J J

    2007-12-01

    Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy is typically performed in highly vascular organs or in tumours with rich macroscopic and microscopic blood supply. The main risks related to this procedure are haemorrhage and implantation of tumour cells in the needle tract after the biopsy needle is withdrawn. From numerous conducted studies, it was found that heating the needle tract using alternating current in radiofrequency (RF) range has a potential to minimize these effects. However, this solution requires the use of specially designed needles, which would make the procedure relatively expensive and complicated. Thus, we propose a simple solution by using readily available coaxial core biopsy needles connected to a radiofrequency ablation (RFA) generator. In order to do so, we have designed and developed an adapter to interface between these two devices. For evaluation purpose, we used a bovine liver as a sample tissue. The experimental procedure was done to study the effect of different parameter settings on the size of coagulation necrosis caused by the RF current heating on the subject. The delivery of the RF energy was varied by changing the values for delivered power, power delivery duration, and insertion depth. The results showed that the size of the coagulation necrosis is affected by all of the parameters tested. In general, the size of the region is enlarged with higher delivery of RF power, longer duration of power delivery, and shallower needle insertion and become relatively constant after a certain value. We also found that the solution proposed provides a low cost and practical way to minimizes unwanted post-biopsy effects.

  4. How we process trephine biopsy specimens: epoxy resin embedded bone marrow biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Krenacs, T; Bagdi, E; Stelkovics, E; Bereczki, L; Krenacs, L

    2005-01-01

    Improved cytomorphology of semithin resin sections over paraffin wax embedded sections may be important in diagnostic haematopathology. However, resin embedding can make immunohistochemical antigen detection or DNA isolation for clonal gene rearrangement assays difficult. This review describes the processing of bone marrow biopsies using buffered formaldehyde based fixation and epoxy resin embedding, with or without EDTA decalcification. Traditional semithin resin sections are completely rehydrated after etching in home made sodium methoxide solution. Resin elimination allows high resolution staining of tissue components with common histological stains. Efficient antigen retrieval and the Envision-HRP system permit the immunohistological detection of many antigens of diagnostic relevance, with retention of high quality cytomorphology. Furthermore, DNA can be extracted for clonality analysis. The technique can be completed within a similar time period to that of paraffin wax processing with only ∼30% increase in cost. This technique has been used for diagnosis in over 4000 bone marrow biopsies over the past 14 years. By meeting traditional and contemporary demands on the haematopathologist, it offers a powerful alternative to paraffin wax processing for diagnosis and research. PMID:16126867

  5. A preliminary exploration of the feasibility of offering men information about potential prostate cancer treatment options before they know their biopsy results.

    PubMed

    Zeliadt, Steven B; Hannon, Peggy A; Trivedi, Ranak B; Bonner, Laura M; Vu, Thuy T; Simons, Carol; Kimmie, Crystal A; Hu, Elaine Y; Zipperer, Chris; Lin, Daniel W

    2013-02-06

    A small pre-test study was conducted to ascertain potential harm and anxiety associated with distributing information about possible cancer treatment options at the time of biopsy, prior to knowledge about a definitive cancer diagnosis. Priming men about the availability of multiple options before they have a confirmed diagnosis may be an opportunity to engage patients in more informed decision-making. Men with an elevated PSA test or suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) who were referred to a urology clinic for a biopsy were randomized to receive either the clinic's usual care (UC) biopsy instruction sheet (n = 11) or a pre-biopsy educational (ED) packet containing the biopsy instruction sheet along with a booklet about the biopsy procedure and a prostate cancer treatment decision aid originally written for newly diagnosed men that described in detail possible treatment options (n = 18). A total of 62% of men who were approached agreed to be randomized, and 83% of the ED group confirmed they used the materials. Anxiety scores were similar for both groups while awaiting the biopsy procedure, with anxiety scores trending lower in the ED group: 41.2 on a prostate-specific anxiety instrument compared to 51.7 in the UC group (p = 0.13). ED participants reported better overall quality of life while awaiting biopsy compared to the UC group (76.4 vs. 48.5, p = 0.01). The small number of men in the ED group who went on to be diagnosed with cancer reported being better informed about the risks and side effects of each option compared to men diagnosed with cancer in the UC group (p = 0.07). In qualitative discussions, men generally reported they found the pre-biopsy materials to be helpful and indicated having information about possible treatment options reduced their anxiety. However, 2 of 18 men reported they did not want to think about treatment options until after they knew their biopsy results. In this small sample offering pre-biopsy education about potential

  6. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India.

    PubMed

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A K; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity.

  7. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Two Different Prostate Biopsy Schemes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-03

    Prostate Cancer; Local Anesthesia; Prostate-Specific Antigen/Blood; Biopsy/Methods; Image-guided Biopsy/Methods; Prostatic Neoplasms/Diagnosis; Prostate/Pathology; Prospective Studies; Humans; Male; Ultrasonography, Interventional/Methods

  8. Visual Biopsy by Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Signal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjie; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Jinfeng; Li, Jishan; Zheng, Jing; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-11-01

    Visual biopsy has attracted special interest by surgeons due to its simplicity and practicality; however, the limited sensitivity of the technology makes it difficult to achieve an early diagnosis. To circumvent this problem, herein, we report a visual signal amplification strategy for establishing a marker-recognizable biopsy that enables early cancer diagnosis. In our proposed approach, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was selected as a potential underlying marker for its compact relationship in cancer progression. For selective recognition of H 2 O 2 in the process of visual biopsy, a benzylbenzeneboronic acid pinacol ester-decorated copolymer, namely, PMPC-Bpe, was synthesized, affording the final formation of the H 2 O 2 -responsive micelles in which amylose was trapped. The presence of H 2 O 2 activates the boronate ester recognition site and induces it releasing abundant indicator amylose, leading to signal amplification. The indicator came across the solution of KI/I 2 added to the sample, and the formative amylose-KI/I 2 complex has a distinct blue color at 574 nm for visual amplification detection. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by visualizing the H 2 O 2 content of cancer at different stages and three kinds of actual cancerous samples. As far as we know, this is the first paradigm to rationally design a signaling amplification-based molecular recognizable biopsy for visual and sensitive disease identification, which will extend new possibilities for marker-recognition and signal amplification-based biopsy in disease progressing.

  9. Combination of prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density predicts biopsy outcome in prostate biopsy naïve patients.

    PubMed

    Washino, Satoshi; Okochi, Tomohisa; Saito, Kimitoshi; Konishi, Tsuzumi; Hirai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    To assess the value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system, for prostate multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer, and classical parameters, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and PSA density, for predicting biopsy outcome in biopsy naïve patients who have suspected prostate cancer. Patients who underwent mpMRI at our hospital, and who had their first prostate biopsy between July 2010 and April 2014, were analysed retrospectively. The prostate biopsies were taken transperineally under transrectal ultrasonography guidance. In all, 14 cores were biopsied as a systematic biopsy in all patients. Two cognitive fusion-targeted biopsy cores were added for each lesion in patients who had suspicious or equivocal lesions on mpMRI. The PI-RADS scoring system version 2.0 (PI-RADS v2) was used to describe the MRI findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. In all, 288 patients were analysed. The median patient age, PSA level, prostate volume and PSA density were 69 years, 7.5 ng/mL, 28.7 mL, and 0.26 ng/mL/mL, respectively. The biopsy results were benign, clinically insignificant, and clinically significant prostate cancer in 129 (45%), 18 (6%) and 141 (49%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were independent predictors for prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. When PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were combined, a PI-RADS v2 score of ≥4 and PSA density ≥0.15 ng/mL/mL, or PI-RADS v2 score of 3 and PSA density of ≥0.30 ng/mL/mL, was associated with the highest clinically significant prostate cancer detection rates (76-97%) on the first biopsy. Of the patients in this group with negative biopsy results, 22% were subsequently diagnosed as prostate cancer. In contrast, a PI

  10. Identification des parametres du moteur de l'avion Cessna Citation X pour la phase de croisiere a partir des tests en vol et a base des reseaux de neurones =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaag, Mahdi

    La disponibilite des modeles precis des avions est parmi les elements cles permettant d'assurer leurs ameliorations. Ces modeles servent a ameliorer les commandes de vol et de concevoir de nouveaux systemes aerodynamiques pour la conception des ailes deformables des avions. Ce projet consiste a concevoir un systeme d'identification de certains parametres du modele du moteur de l'avion d'affaires americain Cessna Citation X pour la phase de croisiere a partir des essais en vol. Ces essais ont ete effectues sur le simulateur de vol concu et fabrique par CAE Inc. qui possede le niveau D de la dynamique de vol. En effet, le niveau D est le plus haut niveau de precision donne par l'autorite federale de reglementation FAA de l'aviation civile aux Etats-Unis. Une methodologie basee sur les reseaux de neurones optimises a l'aide d'un algorithme intitule le "grand deluge etendu" est utilisee dans la conception de ce systeme d'identification. Plusieurs tests de vol pour differentes altitudes et differents nombres de Mach ont ete realises afin de s'en servir comme bases de donnees pour l'apprentissage des reseaux de neurones. La validation de ce modele a ete realisee a l'aide des donnees du simulateur. Malgre la nonlinearite et la complexite du systeme, les parametres du moteur ont ete tres bien predits pour une enveloppe de vol determinee. Ce modele estime pourrait etre utilise pour des analyses de fonctionnement du moteur et pourrait assurer le controle de l'avion pendant cette phase de croisiere. L'identification des parametres du moteur pourrait etre realisee aussi pour les autres phases de montee et de descente afin d'obtenir son modele complet pour toute l'enveloppe du vol de l'avion Cessna Citation X (montee, croisiere, descente). Cette methode employee dans ce travail pourrait aussi etre efficace pour realiser un modele pour l'identification des coefficients aerodynamiques du meme avion a partir toujours des essais en vol. None None None

  11. Biopsy Findings After Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vapiwala, Neha; Starzyk, Jill; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns and factors predictive of positive ipsilateral breast biopsy after conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of Stage I-II breast cancer patients initially treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy between 1977 and 1996, who later underwent post-treatment ipsilateral breast biopsies. Results: A total of 223 biopsies were performed in 193 treated breasts: 171 single and 22 multiple biopsies. Of the 223 biopsies, 56% were positive and 44% were negative for recurrence. The positive biopsy rate (PBR) was 59% for the first and 32% for subsequent biopsies. The median timemore » to the first post-treatment biopsy was 49 months. Of the patients with negative initial biopsy findings, 11% later developed local recurrence. The PBR was 40% among patients with physical examination findings only, 65% with mammographic abnormalities only, and 79% with both findings (p = 0.001). Analysis of the procedure type revealed a PBR of 86% for core and 58% for excisional biopsies compared with 28% for aspiration cytology alone (p = 0.025). The PBR varied inversely with age at the original diagnosis: 49% if {>=}51 years, 57% if 36-50 years, and 83% if {<=}35 years (p = 0.05). The PBR correlated directly with the interval after radiotherapy: 49% if {<=}60 months, 59% if 60.1-120 months, 77% if 120.1-180 months, and 100% if >180 months after completing postlumpectomy radiotherapy (p = 0.01). The PBR was not linked with recurrence location, initial pathologic T or N stage, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or final pathologic margins (all p {>=} 0.15). Conclusion: After definitive radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, a greater PBR was associated with the presence of both mammographic and clinical abnormalities, excisional or core biopsies, younger age at the initial diagnosis, and longer intervals after radiotherapy completion.« less

  12. Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation: prognostic value of structural monitoring.

    PubMed

    Serón, D; Moreso, F

    2007-09-01

    The natural history of renal allograft damage has been characterized in serial protocol biopsies. The prevalence of subclinical rejection (SCR) is maximal during the first months and it is associated with the progression of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) and a decreased graft survival. IF/TA rapidly progress during the first months and constitutes an independent predictor of graft survival. IF/TA associated with transplant vasculopathy, SCR, or transplant glomerulopathy implies a poorer prognosis than IF/TA without additional lesions. These observations suggest that protocol biopsies could be considered a surrogate of graft survival. Preliminary data suggest that the predictive value of protocol biopsies is not inferior to acute rejection or renal function. Additionally, protocol biopsies have been employed as a secondary efficacy variable in clinical trials. This strategy has been useful to demonstrate a decrease in the progression of IF/TA in some calcineurin-free regimens. Quantification of renal damage is associated with graft survival suggesting that quantitative parameters might improve the predictive value of protocol biopsies. Validation of protocol biopsies as a surrogate of graft survival is actively pursued, as the utility of classical surrogates of graft outcome such as acute rejection has become less useful because of its decreased prevalence with actual immunosuppression.

  13. Elaboration de nouvelles approches micromecaniques pour l'optimisation des performances mecaniques des materiaux heterogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutajeddine, Ahmed

    Les modeles micromecaniques de transition d'echelles qui permettent de determiner les proprietes effectives des materiaux heterogenes a partir de la microstructure sont consideres dans ce travail. L'objectif est la prise en compte de la presence d'une interphase entre la matrice et le renforcement dans les modeles micromecaniques classiques, de meme que la reconsideration des approximations de base de ces modeles, afin de traiter les materiaux multiphasiques. Un nouveau modele micromecanique est alors propose pour tenir compte de la presence d'une interphase elastique mince lors de la determination des proprietes effectives. Ce modele a ete construit grace a l'apport de l'equation integrale, des operateurs interfaciaux de Hill et de la methode de Mori-Tanaka. Les expressions obtenues pour les modules globaux et les champs dans l'enrobage sont de nature analytique. L'approximation de base de ce modele est amelioree par la suite dans un nouveau modele qui s'interesse aux inclusions enrobees avec un enrobage mince ou epais. La resolution utilisee s'appuie sur une double homogeneisation realisee au niveau de l'inclusion enrobee et du materiau. Cette nouvelle demarche, permettra d'apprehender completement les implications des approximations de la modelisation. Les resultats obtenus sont exploites par la suite dans la solution de l'assemblage de Hashin. Ainsi, plusieurs modeles micromecaniques classiques d'origines differentes se voient unifier et rattacher, dans ce travail, a la representation geometrique de Hashin. En plus de pouvoir apprecier completement la pertinence de l'approximation de chaque modele dans cette vision unique, l'extension correcte de ces modeles aux materiaux multiphasiques est rendue possible. Plusieurs modeles analytiques et explicites sont alors proposee suivant des solutions de differents ordres de l'assemblage de Hashin. L'un des modeles explicite apparait comme une correction directe du modele de Mori-Tanaka, dans les cas ou celui ci echoue a

  14. Comparison of routinely used intestinal biopsy forceps in dogs: an ex vivo histopathological approach.

    PubMed

    Dahan, J; Semin, M O; Monton, C; Amiriantz, S; Concordet, D; Raymond-Letron, I; Dossin, O

    2017-03-01

    To compare the quality of duodenal and ileal samples obtained with different biopsy forceps. Fifteen dogs were included in a prospective ex vivo study. After euthanasia, the duodenum and the ileum were sampled with four different forceps and evaluated according to a standardised scoring system. The biopsy forceps evaluated had alligator jaws or cups with smooth edge with or without a needle. The global quality of the biopsies was better in the ileum that in the duodenum regardless of the biopsy forceps. Biopsy forceps with smooth edge including a needle resulted in fewer artefacts than biopsy forceps with smooth edge but no needle in both sites and those with alligator jaws without a needle provided deeper biopsies than those with smooth edge without a needle only in the duodenum. There was no effect of the biopsy forceps type on the size of the biopsies. Our findings may aid in choosing the appropriate type of forceps for intestinal biopsy. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. An analysis of oral biopsies extracted from 1995 to 2009, in an oral medicine and surgery unit in Galicia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sixto-Requeijo, Raquel; Diniz-Freitas, Marco; Torreira-Lorenzo, Juan-Carlos; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José M

    2012-01-01

    To conduct an analysis of the frequency of oral lesions in biopsies over a 14-year period in the Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery and Implantology Unit. We conducted a retrospective study of biopsies removed from 1995-2009, recording data regarding age, sex, location of the lesions, biopsy types, anatomical and pathological diagnosis and definitive diagnosis. Of the 562 patients studied, the average age was 51.8 years, with a standard deviation of 18.5 (range 5-96). The distribution by sex was 318 (56.6%) women and 244 (43.4%) men. The most common diagnostic category was mucosal pathologies in 37.9% of cases, followed by odontogenic cysts in 27.8%. Malignant tumors accounted for 3.9% of cases, oral squamous cell carcinomas were the most frequent malignancy, appearing in 22 cases. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws was the most common injury within the bone lesions group. Following the performance of 647 biopsies on 562 patients, we can say that the most common injury was radicular cysts (appearing in 108 cases), having found statistical differences in relation to the patients' sex and age.

  16. Execution of robot-assisted biopsies within the clinical context.

    PubMed

    Rovetta, A; Sala, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the first prostatic biopsy on a human patient using a robotic and telerobotic system. This system was designed at the Politecnico di Milano, and the biopsy was performed on April 7, 1995, in the Hospital Policlinico in Milan, Italy.

  17. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  18. Profil épidémiologique des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires : à propos de 154 cas

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Khadija; Mouanis, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelmounim; Maher, Mostafa; Harmouch, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont des tumeurs rares représentant 3à 5% des tumeurs de la tête et du cou. La classification de l'OMS 2005 distingue les tumeurs épithéliales, les tumeurs mésenchymateuses, les tumeurs hématologiques et les tumeurs secondaires. Méthodes Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 10 ans allant de janvier 2002 à janvier 2012. Les critères d'inclusion étaient: l'âge, le sexe, le siège de la tumeur et le type histologique. Résultats L'incidence annuelle des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires dans notre série était de 15 cas par an. Cent cinquante quatre cas de tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires ont été colligés sans prédominance de sexe (78 femmes (50,6%) et 76 hommes (49,4%)). La moyenne d'âge était de 60 ans avec des extrêmes de 4 et 83 ans et un pic de fréquence entre 51et 70 ans. Deux tiers des cas (65%) avaient une localisation au niveau des glandes principales avec 66 cas au niveau de la parotide (43%) et 34 cas au niveau de la glande sous maxillaire (22%). Cinquante quatre patients avaient une tumeur maligne des glandes salivaires accessoires (35%) dont 61% au niveau du palais. Aucun cas de tumeur maligne de la glande sublinguale n'a été recensé dans notre étude. Le type histologique prédominant dans notre série était le carcinome adénoïde kystique et retrouvé chez 43 patients (27,9%), suivi de l'adénocarcinome sans autre indication chez 37 patients (24%) puis du carcinome mucoépidermoïde chez 16 patients (10,4%) et de l'adénocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade également chez 16 patients (10. 4%). Conclusion Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires représentent un ensemble hétérogène de maladies de caractérisation complexe et de fréquence variable. PMID:25120861

  19. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  20. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    PubMed Central

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921

  1. Diagnostic yield and safety of closed needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Rajawat, Govind Singh; Batra, Supreet; Takhar, Rajendra Prasad; Rathi, Lalit; Bhandari, Chand; Gupta, Manohar Lal

    2017-01-01

    Closed pleural biopsy was previously considered a procedure of choice in cases of undiagnosed pleural effusion with good efficacy. Currently, the closed pleural biopsy has been replaced by thoracoscopic biopsy but not easily available in resource-limited setups. The objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic yield and safety of closed needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion and assessment of patients' characteristics with the yield of pleural biopsy. This was a cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at Institute of Respiratory Diseases, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, a tertiary care center of West India. A total of 250 cases of pleural effusion were evaluated with complete pleural fluid biochemical, microbiological, and cytological examination. Out of these 250 patients, 59 were excluded from the study as the diagnosis could be established on initial pleural fluid examination. The remaining (191) patients were considered for closed pleural biopsy with Abrams pleural biopsy needle. The main outcome measure was diagnostic yield in the form of confirming diagnosis. Out of the 191 patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion, 123 (64.40%) were diagnosed on the first pleural biopsy. Among the remaining 68 patients, 22 patients had repeat pleural biopsy with a diagnostic yield of 59.9%. The overall pleural biopsy could establish the diagnosis in 136 (71.20%) patients with pleural effusion. The most common diagnosis on pleural biopsy was malignancy followed by tuberculosis. Closed pleural biopsy provides diagnostic yield nearly comparative to thoracoscopy in properly selected patients of pleural effusions. In view of good yield, low cost, easy availability, and very low complication rate, it should be used routinely in all cases of undiagnosed exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. There was no comparison with a similar group undergoing thoracoscopic pleural biopsy.

  2. Spectral biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis: initial clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Yao; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a noninvasive method that utilizes multimodal spectroscopy towards the goal of a "spectral biopsy" of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We previously described an updated spectral biopsy system that allows acquisition of all three forms of spectroscopy through a single fiber optic probe and is composed of off-the-shelf OEM components that are smaller, cheaper, and enable a more clinic-friendly system. We present initial patient data acquired with the spectral biopsy system, the first from an extensive clinical study (n = 250) to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma). We also present our first attempts at analyzing this initial set of clinical data using statistical-based models, and with models currently being developed to extract biophysical information from the collected spectra, all towards the goal of noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis.

  3. Les soins aux enfants et aux adolescents des familles des militaires canadiens : les considérations particulières

    PubMed Central

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Les familles des militaires font face à de nombreux facteurs de stress, tels que les réinstallations fréquentes, les longues pério des de séparation familiale, l’isolement géographique du réseau de soutien de la famille élargie et le déploiement en zones très dangereuses. Les enfants et les adolescents des familles des militaires vivent les mêmes trajectoires développementales et motivationnelles que leurs homologues civils, mais ils sont également aux prises avec des pressions et des facteurs de stress liés à leur développement qui sont inhabituels et qui leur sont imposés par les exigences de la vie militaire. Les effets de la vie militaire sur les familles et les enfants commencent à être admis et mieux caractérisés. Il est essentiel de comprendre les préoccupations propres aux enfants et aux adolescents des familles des militaires et de mobiliser les ressources nécessaires pour les soutenir afin de répondre à leurs besoins en matière de santé.

  4. Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Cerebellar and Brainstem Parenchymal Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tobin, W Oliver; Meyer, Fredric B; Keegan, B Mark

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to determine the diagnostic yield and safety of posterior fossa parenchymal biopsy. One-hundred-thirty-six patients who underwent 137 posterior fossa (brainstem or cerebellar) parenchymal biopsies at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota, USA) between 1996 and 2009 were identified by chart review. Case histories; radiologic, surgical, and pathologic reports; and safety outcomes were assessed. Posterior fossa parenchymal biopsies were performed on 78 male and 58 female patients of median age 47 years (interquartile range 28-61). Preoperative clinical diagnosis in the majority of cases was of a malignant neoplasm. Glial neoplasm (51%) was the most common finding followed by lymphoma (7%) and neurosarcoidosis (7%). Normal tissue or nonspecific changes were observed in 28 cases (20%). Three deaths occurred: 2 at the time of biopsy (1%) and 1 due to underlying disease. All deaths occurred in patients who had a cerebellar biopsy. Transient neurologic deficits occurred in 15 patients (11%): worsening of presenting symptoms (4), cardiac arrhythmia (3), vertigo (2), diplopia (2), ataxia (3), seizure (1), decreased consciousness (1), and limb numbness (3). Sustained neurologic deficits occurred in 3 patients: fourth nerve palsy (1), hemiparesis (1), and facial numbness (1). The diagnostic yield of posterior fossa parenchymal biopsy in Mayo Clinic patients with diverse pathologies was 80%. The complication rate was 11% with the majority being transient, but 2 deaths were attributed to biopsy. Evaluation of the diagnostic yield and complication rate at individual neurosurgical centers is needed to determine generalizability of these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinicopathological predictors for progression of chronic kidney disease in nephrosclerosis: a biopsy-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hoshino, Junichi; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Takaichi, Kenmei; Kinowaki, Keiichi; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Mise, Koki; Toyama, Tadashi; Hara, Akinori; Shimizu, Miho; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi

    2018-05-19

    Biopsy-based studies on nephrosclerosis are lacking and the clinicopathological predictors for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not well established. We retrospectively assessed 401 patients with biopsy-proven nephrosclerosis in Japan. Progression of CKD was defined as new-onset end-stage renal disease, decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by  ≥50% or doubling of serum creatinine, and the sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for CKD progression was determined for various clinical and histological characteristics in competing risks analysis. The incremental value of pathological information for predicting CKD progression was assessed by calculating Harrell's C-statistics, the Akaike information criterion (AIC), net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 117 patients showed progression of CKD and 10 patients died before the defined kidney event. Multivariable sub-distribution hazards model identified serum albumin (SHR 0.48; 95% CI 0.35-0.67), hemoglobin A1c (SHR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.94), eGFR (SHR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) (SHR 1.18; 95% CI 1.08-1.29), percentage of segmental/global glomerulosclerosis (%GS) (SHR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02) and interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) (SHR 1.52; 95% CI 1.20-1.92) as risk factors for CKD progression. The C-statistic of a model with only clinical variables was improved by adding %GS (0.790 versus 0.796, P < 0.01) and IFTA (0.790 versus 0.811, P < 0.01). The reclassification statistic was also improved after adding the biopsy data to the clinical data. The model including IFTA was superior, with the lowest AIC. The study implies that in addition to the traditional markers of eGFR and UACR, we may explore the markers of serum albumin and hemoglobin A1c, which are widely available but not routinely measured in patients

  6. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  7. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  8. Economic Costs Avoided by Diagnosing Melanoma Six Months Earlier Justify >100 Benign Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Daniel J; Wick, Jo; Shaath, Tarek S; Rajpara, Anand N; Patel, Vikas; Badawi, Ahmed H; Li, Cicy; Fraga, Garth R; Doolittle, Gary; Liu, Deede Y

    2016-05-01

    New melanoma drugs bring enormous benefits but do so at significant costs. Because melanoma grows deeper and deadlier over time, deeper lesions are costlier due to increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, chemotherapy, and disease-associated income loss. Prior studies have justified pigmented lesion biopsies on a "value per life" basis; by contrast we sought to assess how many biopsies are justified per melanoma found on a purely economic basis. We modeled how melanomas in the United States would behave if diagnosis were delayed by 6 months, eg, not biopsied, only observed until the next surveillance visit. Economic loss from delayed biopsy is the obverse of economic benefit of performing biopsy earlier. Growth rates were based on Liu et al. The results of this study can be applied to all patients presenting to dermatologists with pigmented skin lesions suspicious for melanoma. In-situ melanomas were excluded because no studies to date have modeled growth rates analogous to those for invasive melanoma. We assume conservatively that all melanomas not biopsied initially will be biopsied and treated 6 months later. Major modeled costs are (1) increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, (2) increased chemotherapy for metastatic lesions using increased 5-yr death as metastasis marker, and (3) income loss per melanoma death at $413,370 as previously published. Costs avoided by diagnosing melanoma earlier justify 170 biopsies per melanoma found. Efforts to penalize "unnecessary" biopsies may be economically counterproductive.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):527-532.

  9. The Role of Procurement Biopsies in Acceptance Decisions for Kidneys Retrieved for Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Darren E.; Bista, Bipin R.; Salkowski, Nicholas; Snyder, Jon J.; Israni, Ajay K.; Crary, Gretchen S.; Rosendale, John D.; Matas, Arthur J.; Delmonico, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives There is a shortage of kidneys for transplant, and many patients on the deceased donor kidney transplant waiting list would likely benefit from kidneys that are currently being discarded. In the United States, the most common reason given for discarding kidneys retrieved for transplant is procurement biopsy results. This study aimed to compare biopsy results from discarded kidneys with discard attributed to biopsy findings, with biopsy results from comparable kidneys that were successfully transplanted. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this retrospective, observational, case-control study, biopsy reports were examined from 83 kidneys discarded in 2010 due to biopsy findings (cases), 83 contralateral transplanted kidneys from the same donor (contralateral controls), and 83 deceased donors randomly matched to cases by donor risk profile (randomly matched controls). A second procurement biopsy was obtained in 64 of 332 kidneys (19.3%). Results The quality of biopsy reports was low, with amounts of tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation, arteriolar hyalinosis, and acute tubular necrosis often not indicated; 69% were wedge biopsies and 94% used frozen tissue. The correlation between first and second procurement biopsies was poor; only 25% of the variability (R2) in glomerulosclerosis was explained by biopsies being from the same kidney. The percentages of glomerulosclerosis overlapped substantially between cases, contralateral controls, and randomly matched controls: 17.1%±15.3%, 9.0%±6.6%, and 5.0%±5.9%, respectively. Of all biopsy findings, only glomerulosclerosis>20% was independently correlated with discard (cases versus contralateral controls; odds ratio, 15.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.47 to 92.41; P=0.003), suggesting that only this biopsy result was used in acceptance decisions. One-year graft survival was 79.5% and 90.7% in contralateral and randomly matched controls, respectively, versus 91.6% among all

  10. Nasal hydropulsion: a novel tumor biopsy technique.

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Elizabeth A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Miller, Carrie J; Powers, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Intranasal tumors of dogs and cats pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for small animal practitioners. Multiple nasal biopsy techniques have been described in the past. This report describes a simplified flushing technique to biopsy and debulk nasal tumors, which often also results in immediate clinical relief for the patient. Based on the results of this retrospective study, the authors recommend high-pressure saline hydropulsion as a minimally invasive diagnostic, and potentially therapeutic, technique for nasal tumors in dogs and cats.

  11. Eosinophils are rare in biopsy specimens of psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Gabriela; Fernandez, Anthony P; Schneider, Sarah; Billings, Steven D

    2017-12-01

    Histological features of lesional biopsies can be helpful in distinguishing psoriasis subtypes from disease mimickers. However, occasionally, classic histological features are not sufficient for distinction, and additional clues would be useful. There is a common belief that the presence of eosinophils in skin biopsies argues against psoriasis, but actual literature is scant. Skin biopsies with a diagnosis of psoriasis from 2013 to 2016 were reviewed. For inclusion, both histological and clinical features were required to be consistent with psoriasis. For biopsies meeting inclusion criteria, a detailed evaluation for typical histological parameters of psoriasis, as well as presence of dermal eosinophils, was performed. Of 85 cases meeting inclusion criteria, all had either individual or grouped intracorneal neutrophils and dilated papillary blood vessels. Diminished or complete loss of the granular cell layer was seen in 83 cases (98%), and parakeratosis was seen in 84 cases (99%). Alternatively, dermal eosinophils were seen in only 15 cases (18%). Of cases with eosinophils, none had more than 3 eosinophils upon examination of the entire dermis. Active treatment did not appear to impact presence/absence or numbers of eosinophils. Eosinophils are uncommon in psoriasis biopsies, and when present, they are found in small numbers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Smriti; Kumari, Swati; Srivastava, Anurag; Thulkar, Sanjay; Mathur, Sandeep; Veedu, Prasad Thotton

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Methods: Over a period of 18 months, 36 patients each with palpable breast masses were randomized into palpation guided and image guided breast biopsy arms. Ultrasound was used for image guidance in 33 patients and mammographic (stereotactic) guidance in three patients. All biopsies were performed using 14 gauge automated core biopsy needles. Inconclusive, suspicious or imaging-histologic discordant biopsies were repeated. Results: Malignancy was found in 30 of 36 women in palpation guided biopsy arm and 27 of 36 women in image guided biopsy arm. Palpation guided biopsy had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.7, 100, 100, 27.3 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing breast cancer. Nineteen of 36 women (52.8%) required repeat biopsy because of inadequate samples (7 of 19), suspicious findings (2 of 19) or imaging-histologic discordance (10 of 19). On repeat biopsy, malignancy was found in all cases of imaging-histologic discordance. Image guided biopsy had 96.3 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. There was no case of inadequate sample or imaging-histologic discordance with image guided biopsy. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates. PMID:27488003

  13. Joint measurement of lensing-galaxy correlations using SPT and DES SV data

    DOE PAGES

    Baxter, E. J.

    2016-07-04

    We measure the correlation of galaxy lensing and cosmic microwave background lensing with a set of galaxies expected to trace the matter density field. The measurements are performed using pre-survey Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification optical imaging data and millimeter-wave data from the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. The two lensing-galaxy correlations are jointly fit to extract constraints on cosmological parameters, constraints on the redshift distribution of the lens galaxies, and constraints on the absolute shear calibration of DES galaxy lensing measurements. We show that an attractive feature of these fits is that they are fairly insensitive to the clustering bias of the galaxies used as matter tracers. The measurement presented in this work confirms that DES and SPT data are consistent with each other and with the currently favoredmore » $$\\Lambda$$CDM cosmological model. In conclusion, it also demonstrates that joint lensing-galaxy correlation measurement considered here contains a wealth of information that can be extracted using current and future surveys.« less

  14. Joint measurement of lensing-galaxy correlations using SPT and DES SV data

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, E. J.

    We measure the correlation of galaxy lensing and cosmic microwave background lensing with a set of galaxies expected to trace the matter density field. The measurements are performed using pre-survey Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification optical imaging data and millimeter-wave data from the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. The two lensing-galaxy correlations are jointly fit to extract constraints on cosmological parameters, constraints on the redshift distribution of the lens galaxies, and constraints on the absolute shear calibration of DES galaxy lensing measurements. We show that an attractive feature of these fits is that they are fairly insensitive to the clustering bias of the galaxies used as matter tracers. The measurement presented in this work confirms that DES and SPT data are consistent with each other and with the currently favoredmore » $$\\Lambda$$CDM cosmological model. In conclusion, it also demonstrates that joint lensing-galaxy correlation measurement considered here contains a wealth of information that can be extracted using current and future surveys.« less

  15. Joint measurement of lensing–galaxy correlations using SPT and DES SV data

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, E.; Clampitt, J.; Giannantonio, T.

    We measure the correlation of galaxy lensing and cosmic microwave background lensing with a set of galaxies expected to trace the matter density field. The measurements are performed using pre-survey Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification optical imaging data and millimetre-wave data from the 2500 sq. deg. South Pole Telescope Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. The two lensing–galaxy correlations are jointly fit to extract constraints on cosmological parameters, constraints on the redshift distribution of the lens galaxies, and constraints on the absolute shear calibration of DES galaxy-lensing measurements. We show that an attractive feature of these fits is that they are fairlymore » insensitive to the clustering bias of the galaxies used as matter tracers. The measurement presented in this work confirms that DES and SPT data are consistent with each other and with the currently favoured Λ cold dark matter cosmological model. It also demonstrates that joint lensing–galaxy correlation measurement considered here contains a wealth of information that can be extracted using current and future surveys.« less

  16. Genetically-Adjusted PSA Values May Prevent Delayed Biopsies in African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Donin, Nicholas; Loeb, Stacy; Cooper, Phillip R.; Roehl, Kimberly A.; Baumann, Nikola A.; J.Catalona, William; Helfand, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Genetic variants called PSA-single nucleotide polymorphisms (PSA-SNPs) have been associated with serum PSA levels. We previously demonstrated that genetic correction of serum PSA in Caucasian men could reduce both potentially unnecessary biopsies by 15% to 20% and potentially delayed biopsies by 3%. Our objective was to evaluate whether genetic correction with the PSA-SNPs could reduce potentially unnecessary and/or delayed biopsies in African-American (AA) men. Materials and Methods We compared the genotypes of 4 PSA-SNPs between 964 Caucasian and 363 AA men without known PC. We adjusted PSA values based upon an individual's PSA-SNP carrier status, and calculated the percentage of men that would meet commonly used PSA thresholds for biopsy (≥2.5 or ≥4.0ng/mL) before and after genetic correction. Potentially unnecessary and delayed biopsies were defined as those men who went below and above the biopsy threshold after genetic correction, respectively. Results Overall, 349 (96.1%) and 354 (97.5%) AA men had measured PSA levels <2.5 and <4.0 ng/mL. Genetic correction in AA men did not avoid any potentially unnecessary biopsies, but resulted in a significant (p<0.001) reduction in potentially delayed biopsies by 2.5% and 3.9% based upon the biopsy threshold cutoff. Conclusions There are significant differences in the influence of the PSA-SNPs between AA and Caucasian men without known PC, as genetic correction resulted in an increased proportion of AA men crossing the threshold for biopsy. These results raise the question whether genetic differences in PSA might contribute to delayed PC diagnosis in AA patients. PMID:24712975

  17. CT fluoroscopy-guided robotically-assisted lung biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Fichtinger, Gabor; Taylor, Russell H.; Banovac, Filip; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Lung biopsy is a common interventional radiology procedure. One of the difficulties in performing the lung biopsy is that lesions move with respiration. This paper presents a new robotically assisted lung biopsy system for CT fluoroscopy that can automatically compensate for the respiratory motion during the intervention. The system consists of a needle placement robot to hold the needle on the CT scan plane, a radiolucent Z-frame for registration of the CT and robot coordinate systems, and a frame grabber to obtain the CT fluoroscopy image in real-time. The CT fluoroscopy images are used to noninvasively track the motion of a pulmonary lesion in real-time. The position of the lesion in the images is automatically determined by the image processing software and the motion of the robot is controlled to compensate for the lesion motion. The system was validated under CT fluoroscopy using a respiratory motion simulator. A swine study was also done to show the feasibility of the technique in a respiring animal.

  18. Integrated sensor biopsy device for real time tissue metabolism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Alonso, Jesus; Lieberman, Robert A.; DiCarmine, Paul M.; Berry, David; Guzman, Narciso; Marpu, Sreekar B.

    2018-02-01

    Current methods for guiding cancer biopsies rely almost exclusively on images derived from X-ray, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance, which essentially characterize suspected lesions based only on tissue density. This paper presents a sensor integrated biopsy device for in situ tissue analysis that will enable biopsy teams to measure local tissue chemistry in real time during biopsy procedures, adding a valuable new set of parameters to augment and extend conventional image guidance. A first demonstrator integrating three chemical and biochemical sensors was tested in a mice strain that is a spontaneous breast cancer model. In all cases, the multisensory probe was able to discriminate between healthy tissue, the edge of the tumor, and total insertion inside the cancer tissue, recording real-time information about tissue metabolism.

  19. Percutaneous Biopsy of Retrobulbar Masses: Anatomical Considerations and MRI Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Edalat, Faramarz, E-mail: faramarz.edalat@gmail.com; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien

    2017-04-15

    PurposeObtaining adequate tissue from retrobulbar masses remains a challenge. To this end, a new method of retrobulbar mass biopsy using MRI guidance is presented.Materials and MethodsTwo patients (7- and 71-year-old male) with indeterminate retrobulbar masses underwent bioptic and cytological samplings using MR-compatible 18G and 20–22G needles, and multi-planar MR fluoroscopy. An inferior approach was taken to avoid injury to the optic nerve and ophthalmic arteries.ResultsThe two biopsies were completed without complication. The core biopsy resulted in a final diagnosis, whereas the cytological sampling was non-diagnostic.ConclusionPercutaneous MR-guided retrobulbar mass biopsy proved to be feasible and safe in the two cases describedmore » in this report.« less

  20. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and CT-guided transthoracic core lung biopsy.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Cátia; Costa, Francisco R; Redondo, Margarida T; Moura, Conceição S; Guimarães, Susana; Morais, António; Pereira, José M

    2016-02-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) with variable clinical and radiological features. Diagnosis is based on histology obtained by surgical lung biopsy, which is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. This study aims to briefly review PPFE and discuss the role of CT-guided transthoracic core lung biopsy (TTB) in its diagnosis. Four cases of PPFE diagnosed at our institution with TTB are reported and discussed. Clinical, radiological and histological features are in agreement with the previous literature cases. TTB provided the diagnosis in all cases. Iatrogenic pneumothorax was the main complication in all patients. Placement of a chest tube was needed in three patients. An overlap between PPFE and other interstitial lung diseases (ILD) was documented. PPFE is an underdiagnosed IIP, so radiologist awareness of it needs to be widespread in patients with fibrosis with apical-caudal distribution. Coexistence of different lung diseases strengthens the idea of a predisposing factor. TTB proved to be a good diagnostic tool and can be considered the first choice for invasive assessment of these patients. PFFE has a variable course with no established therapeutic options; therefore a multidisciplinary team is crucial in the approach to patients with ILD. • PPFE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fibrosis with apical-caudal distribution. • CT-guided TTB can be considered the first choice for invasive assessment of PPFE. • Site of biopsy has to be chosen carefully in order not to miss PPFE. • Coexistence of different lung diseases strengthens the idea of a predisposing factor. • A multidisciplinary team is crucial in the approach to patients with ILD.

  1. Implementation Cryptography Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) Method in Communication System Based Near Field Communication (NFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnadewi; Pramono Adhie, Roy; Hutama, Yonatan; Saleh Ahmar, A.; Setiawan, M. I.

    2018-01-01

    Cryptography is a method used to create secure communication by manipulating sent messages during the communication occurred so only intended party that can know the content of that messages. Some of the most commonly used cryptography methods to protect sent messages, especially in the form of text, are DES and 3DES cryptography method. This research will explain the DES and 3DES cryptography method and its use for stored data security in smart cards that working in the NFC-based communication system. Several things that will be explained in this research is the ways of working of DES and 3DES cryptography method in doing the protection process of a data and software engineering through the creation of application using C++ programming language to realize and test the performance of DES and 3DES cryptography method in encrypted data writing process to smart cards and decrypted data reading process from smart cards. The execution time of the entering and the reading process data using a smart card DES cryptography method is faster than using 3DES cryptography.

  2. Mantle biopsy: a technique for nondestructive tissue-sampling of freshwater mussels

    Treesearch

    David J. Berg; Wendell R. Haag; Sheldon I. Guttman; James B. Sickel

    1995-01-01

    Mantle biopsy is a means of obtaining tissue samples for genetic, physiological, and contaminant studies of bivalves; but the effects of this biopsy on survival have not been determined. We describe a simple technique for obtaining such samples from unionacean bivalves and how we compared survival among biopsied and control organisms in field experiments. Survival was...

  3. Patients' knowledge about the outcomes of thyroid biopsy: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Singh Ospina, Naykky; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Ward, Russell; Brito, Juan P; Maraka, Spyridoula; Zeballos Palacios, Claudia; Yost, Kathleen J; Dean, Diana S; Montori, Victor M

    2018-06-16

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid is an increasingly common outpatient procedure. Patients are counseled about the indications and risks of this procedure and informed consent is obtained. We aimed to assess the extent to which patients acquired necessary knowledge during this process. Survey study conducted in a thyroid nodule clinic at a referral center. Adult patients who had just undergone a thyroid biopsy were asked to complete a survey, including eight questions regarding the indications and potential outcomes of thyroid biopsy. The main outcome of the study was to assess the patients' knowledge based on the response to each individual survey question. Two-hundred and ninety-seven patients were eligible, of which 196 (66%) completed the survey: most were women (76%), had adequate reading health literacy (95%) and a mean age of 58 years. Although 86% of patients correctly identified evaluation for thyroid cancer as the main indication for their biopsy, 56% were not aware of the likelihood of this diagnosis. Almost all (>90%) of respondents knew that results could be benign or malignant; fewer were aware of non-diagnostic (71%) or indeterminate (68%) outcomes, or of the need for additional diagnostic testing after the biopsy (33%). After undergoing thyroid biopsy, a high proportion of well-educated patients remained unaware of their risk for thyroid cancer, potential outcomes, and downstream consequences of their biopsy. This quality gap raises the possibility that informed consent procedures that meet legal standards may leave patients undergoing thyroid biopsy paradoxically uninformed.

  4. Analysis of pathological data of renal biopsy at one single center in China from 1987 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueguang; Liu, Shuwen; Tang, Li; Wu, Jie; Chen, Pu; Yin, Zhong; Li, Minxia; Xie, Yuansheng; Cai, Guangyan; Wei, Ribao; Qiu, Qiang; Wang, Yuanda; Shi, Suozhu; Chen, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    In China, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease has increased significantly. Many studies shows that the spectrum of kidney disease had changed in recent years. We retrospectively analyzed the pathological types of renal biopsy and its spectrum change at the General Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army from December 1987 to December 2012, in order to offer new supporting evidences for further specifying the distribution of renal pathological types in China. According to the "Revised Protocol for the Histological Typing of Glomerulopathy" (WHO, 1995), pathological diagnosis of renal biopsy was classified, detection rate of each pathological type was summarized (i.e., percentage of total renal biopsy cases), study period was divided at an interval of 5 years, and age-stratified distribution change of main pathological types was analyzed. The proportion of pathological types in 11 618 cases of renal biopsy was as follows: primary glomerulonephritis (PGN, 70.7%), secondary glomerulonephritis (SGN, 20.7%), tubular-interstitial nephropathy (4.0%), hereditary/rare nephropathy (0.3%), end-stage renal disease (0.9%), and unclassified renal disease (3.3%). Among PGN, there was IgA nephropathy (IgAN, 37.0%), membranous nephropathy (MN, 11.8%), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN, 8.9%), minimal change disease (MCD, 6.6%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (3.9%). Among SGN there was lupus nephritis (LN, 5.5%), Henoch-Schönlein purpura glomerulonephritis (5.3%), hepatitis B virus-associated nephritis (HBVAN, 3.03%), diabetic nephropathy (2.2%), and hypertension/malignant hypertension-associated renal damage (1.9%). Pathological data were analyzed from 1987-1992 to 2008-2012 (after age adjustment). Detection rate of IgAN tended to rise (P < 0.001). Detection rates of MN and MCD rose significantly (P < 0.001), but detection rate of MsPGN dropped significantly (P < 0.001). Among SGN, detection rate of HBVAN tended to drop (P < 0.001). In China

  5. Respiratory analysis of coupled mitochondria in cryopreserved liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    García-Roche, Mercedes; Casal, Alberto; Carriquiry, Mariana; Radi, Rafael; Quijano, Celia; Cassina, Adriana

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a cryopreservation method of small liver biopsies for in situ mitochondrial function assessment. Herein we describe a detailed protocol for tissue collection, cryopreservation, high-resolution respirometry using complex I and II substrates, calculation and interpretation of respiratory parameters. Liver biopsies from cow and rat were sequentially frozen in a medium containing dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant and stored for up to 3 months at -80 °C. Oxygen consumption rate studies of fresh and cryopreserved samples revealed that most respiratory parameters remained unchanged. Additionally, outer mitochondrial membrane integrity was assessed adding cytochrome c, proving that our cryopreservation method does not harm mitochondrial structure. In sum, we present a reliable way to cryopreserve small liver biopsies without affecting mitochondrial function. Our protocol will enable the transport and storage of samples, extending and facilitating mitochondrial function analysis of liver biopsies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The eternal enigma in prostatic biopsy access route.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Andrea; Principi, Emanuele; Filosa, Alessandra; Servi, Lucilla

    2017-10-03

    Dear Editors,We read with interest the article by Di Franco and co-workers (1). The introduction of prostatic magnetic resonance and the relative fusion-biopsy have not yet allowed the expected improvements in prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, there are no works that demonstrate the superiority of fusion techniques on the remaining ultrasound guided prostate biopsies that are still the widely used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Furthemore, these technologies are expensive exams and they are not yet available in all centers, especially in those minors. We work at a "minor" center and we always keep in mind that the goal of  prostatic biopsy is the diagnosis and the staging of prostatic neoplasms.. However, it remains uncertain which of the two techniques, transperineal (TP) or transrectal (TR), is superior in terms of detection rate during first biopsy setting. Several studies have compared the prostate cancer detection rate but TR and TP access route in prostatic gland sampling seems to be equivalent in terms of efficiency and complications, as reported by Shen PF et al. (2), despite several methodological limitations recognized in their work. The results reported by Di Franco CA et al. represent the real life experience of most urologists that perform the PB based on their own training experience and available technical devices. From an historical viewpoint, the TP route has been the first one to be used to reach the prostate, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To date, because it seems to be more invasive and difficult, the TP route is less used worldwide than the TR one (2). Theoretically, the TP approach should detect more prostate cancer than the TR way  because the cores of the TP approach are directed longitudinally to the peripheral zone and the anterior part of the prostate (4). The results reported by Di Franco et al. seems to confirm these considerations. However, our real life experience differ from the conclusions reached in their

  7. Post-therapy lesions in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by 18F-FDG PET/CT-guided biopsy using automated robotic biopsy arm.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Renjith K; Mittal, Bhagwant R; Basher, Rajender K; Prakash, Gaurav; Malhotra, Pankaj; Kalra, Naveen; Das, Ashim

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the positive predictive value (PPV) of post-therapy fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT performed for response or recurrence evaluation in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to appraise the diagnostic utility of F-FDG PET/CT-guided biopsy in this setting. A total of 17 patients with NHL showing F-FDG avid lesions in F-FDG PET/CT performed for response or recurrence assessment underwent F-FDG PET/CT-guided biopsy using automated robotic biopsy arm needle navigation technique. The objectives were analysed in reference to histopathology. In all, 15 of the 17 (88.5%) procedures yielded adequate representative tissue samples. Nine out of 15 lesions were positive for residual disease and the remaining revealed benign findings on histopathology. One patient with inconclusive biopsy underwent surgical resection and histopathology confirmed the presence of residual disease. PPV of theF-FDG PET/CT was observed to be 62.5% (10/16). F-FDG PET/CT for response evaluation in NHL possesses a low PPV and hence warrants histopathological correlation when F-FDG PET/CT findings influence management decision. Diagnostic yield of F-FDG PET/CT-guided biopsy is high and has the potential to reduce sampling errors.

  8. Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Brain Biopsy for Suspected Primary Central Nervous System Angiitis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jose; Loomis, Caitlin; Cucchiara, Brett; Smith, Michelle; Messé, Steven

    2016-08-01

    The utility and safety of brain biopsy for suspected primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) are uncertain. Factors predictive of a positive biopsy have not been well described. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of brain biopsy in suspected PACNS and determine whether any prebiopsy variables are associated with a positive biopsy. This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic brain biopsy for PACNS at a single institution. The relationship between biopsy yield and patient demographics, surgical technique, laboratory testing, neuroimaging, biopsy characteristics, and prebiopsy immunosuppressive therapy were examined. PACNS was confirmed in 9 of 79 patients (11%). Biopsy identified alternative diagnoses in 24 patients (30%), with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (8 patients), encephalitis (5 patients), demyelination (3 patients), and CNS lymphoma (3 patients) most commonly found. There was no correlation between a positive biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid results, neuroimaging, surgical technique, biopsy characteristics, or preoperative immunosuppressive therapy. Smaller biopsies (P=0.02) and closed procedures (P=0.013) were less likely to yield a diagnosis. Postoperative complications occurred in 13 patients (16%), 3 (4%) of which were serious. Brain biopsy leads to pathological confirmation of vasculitis in a minority of suspected PACNS cases but alternative diagnoses are often identified. Importantly, rare but meaningful complications may occur. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Nasal biopsies of children exposed to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Valencia-Salazar, G; Mora-Tascareño, A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Van Dyke, T

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Children in SWMMC are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants, and they exhibit significant nasal damage. The objective of this study was to assess p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies of SWMMC children. We evaluated 111 biopsies from 107 children (83 exposed SWMMC children and 24 control children residents in a pollutant-compliant Caribbean island). Complete clinical histories and physical examinations, including an ear-nose-throat (ENT) exam were done. There was a significant statistical difference in the upper and lower respiratory symptomatology and ENT findings between control and exposed children (p < 0.001). Control children gave no respiratory symptomatology in the 3 months prior to the study; their biopsies exhibited normal ciliated respiratory epithelium and were p53-negative. SWMMC children complained of epistaxis, nasal obstruction. and crusting. Irregular areas of whitish-gray recessed mucosa over the inferior and middle turbinates were seen in 25% of SWMMC children, and their nasal biopsies displayed basal cell hyperplasia, decreased numbers of ciliated and goblet cells, neutrophilic epithelial infiltrates, squamous metaplasia. and mild dysplasia. Four of 21 SWMMC children with grossly abnormal mucosal changes exhibited strong transmural nuclear p53 staining in their nasal biopsies (p 0.005, odds ratio 26). In the context of lifetime exposures to toxic and potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, p53 nasal induction in children could potentially represent. a) a checkpoint response to toxic exposures, setting up a selective condition for p53 mutation, or b) a p53 mutation has already occurred as a result of such selection. Because the biological significance of p53 nuclear accumulation in the nasal biopsies of these children is not clear at this point, we strongly

  10. Importance of the site of endoscopic gastric biopsy in ulcerating lesions of the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, A R; Slavin, G; Segal, A W; Levi, A J

    1975-01-01

    Twenty freshly resected stomach specimens, each containing an ulcerated carcinoma, were studied in an attempt to determine the best site for gastric biopsy. Using endoscopic biopsy forceps multiple biopsies were obtained from various sites around the ulcer. Carcinoma was detected with similar frequency in biopsies from the slough and from the rim of the ulcer. The positive biopsy rate was increased to 95% when the results from the rim and the slough were combined. It is suggested that the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic gastric biopsy can be improved by taking biopsies from both the rim and the slough of an ulcer. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1193417

  11. Radiology-guided forceps biopsy and airway stenting in severe airway stenosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong Ming; Wu, Gang; Han, Xin Wei; Ren, Ke Wei; Zhu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of radiology-guided forceps biopsy and airway stenting in patients with severe airway stenosis. This study involved 28 patients with severe airway stenosis who underwent forceps biopsy between October 2006 and September 2011. Chest multislice computed tomography was used to determine the location and extent of stenosis. Sixteen patients had tracheal stenosis, two patients had stenosis of the tracheal carina, six patients had stenosis of the left main bronchus, and four patients had stenosis of the right main bronchus. Forceps biopsy and stenting of the stenosed area were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in digital subtraction angiography and the biopsy specimens were analyzed histopathologically. We contacted the patients via phone call and utilized a standardized questionnaire to determine their medical condition during a postoperative three-month follow-up. The technical success rate of radiology-guided forceps biopsy was 100%. Biopsy specimens were obtained in all patients. Dyspnea was relieved immediately after stent placement. No serious complications, such as tracheal hemorrhage or perforation, mediastinal emphysema, or asphyxia, occurred. Radiology-guided forceps biopsy and airway stenting can be used for the emergency treatment of severe airway stenosis. This method appears to be safe and effective, and it may be an alternative therapeutic option in patients who cannot tolerate fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

  12. Radiology-guided forceps biopsy and airway stenting in severe airway stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zong-Ming; Wu, Gang; Han, Xin-Wei; Ren, Ke-Wei; Zhu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of radiology-guided forceps biopsy and airway stenting in patients with severe airway stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study involved 28 patients with severe airway stenosis who underwent forceps biopsy between October 2006 and September 2011. Chest multislice computed tomography was used to determine the location and extent of stenosis. Sixteen patients had tracheal stenosis, two patients had stenosis of the tracheal carina, six patients had stenosis of the left main bronchus, and four patients had stenosis of the right main bronchus. Forceps biopsy and stenting of the stenosed area were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in digital subtraction angiography and the biopsy specimens were analyzed histopathologically. We contacted the patients via phone call and utilized a standardized questionnaire to determine their medical condition during a postoperative three-month follow-up. RESULTS The technical success rate of radiology-guided forceps biopsy was 100%. Biopsy specimens were obtained in all patients. Dyspnea was relieved immediately after stent placement. No serious complications, such as tracheal hemorrhage or perforation, mediastinal emphysema, or asphyxia, occurred. CONCLUSION Radiology-guided forceps biopsy and airway stenting can be used for the emergency treatment of severe airway stenosis. This method appears to be safe and effective, and it may be an alternative therapeutic option in patients who cannot tolerate fiberoptic bronchoscopy. PMID:24808434

  13. Cutting performance orthogonal test of single plane puncture biopsy needle based on puncture force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingqiang; Zhang, Qinhe; Liu, Guowei

    2017-04-01

    Needle biopsy is a method to extract the cells from the patient's body with a needle for tissue pathological examination. Many factors affect the cutting process of soft tissue, including the geometry of the biopsy needle, the mechanical properties of the soft tissue, the parameters of the puncture process and the interaction between them. This paper conducted orthogonal experiment of main cutting parameters based on single plane puncture biopsy needle, and obtained the cutting force curve of single plane puncture biopsy needle by studying the influence of the inclination angle, diameter and velocity of the single plane puncture biopsy needle on the puncture force of the biopsy needle. Stage analysis of the cutting process of biopsy needle puncture was made to determine the main influencing factors of puncture force during the cutting process, which provides a certain theoretical support for the design of new type of puncture biopsy needle and the operation of puncture biopsy.

  14. Relationship between uterine biopsy score, endometrial infection and inflammation in the mare.

    PubMed

    Buczkowska, Justyna; Kozdrowski, Roland; Nowak, Marcin; Sikora, Monika

    2016-06-16

    Endometrial biopsy score is an accepted marker of uterine health and predicted fertility, and it has been suggested that endometrial alternations are correlated with susceptibility to persistent infectious endometritis. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of endometrial biopsy score with: 1) presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the epithelium and stratum compactum in histopathology; 2) presence of PMNs in cytology and 3) presence of infection in microbiology. The material for examination was collected from 69 mares suspected for subclinical endometritis (bred three or more times unsuccessfully in the same breeding season) and from 15 maiden mares. Samples were collected by endometrial biopsy and cytobrush technique. Endometrial alterations (biopsy score IIA, IIB, III) were found in 64 of 82 mares (78%). There was an increase in PMN occurrence for grades IIA, IIB and III. When comparing grades and PMNs infiltration, we observed statistically significant differences between grades I and IIA (p  = 0.222) and grades I and IIB (p = 0.042) in samples collected by endometrial biopsy. Statistically significant differences were found in microbiological examination (biopsy p = 0.036; cytobrush p = 0.189), cytological examination (biopsy p = 0.040; cytobrush p = 0.079) and PMN infiltration (p    =    0.042) between mares with biopsy scores I and IIB. Furthermore, the highest percentage of infected mares was in grade IIA and IIB, and we found statistically significant differences between grades I and IIA (p = 0.043), and grades I and IIB (p = 0.036) in biopsy samples. We observed a tendency to higher prevalence of endometrial infection in mares with biopsy score IIA, IIB and III than with biopsy score I in samples collected using cytobrush technique. However, there were no statistical significant differences. Degenerative endometrial changes can predispose to uterine infection and inflammation. Our study shows

  15. Percutaneous Breast Biopsy: Effect on Short-term Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Kathryn L.; Donelan, Karen; Kong, Chung Y.; Williams, Olubunmi; Itauma, Omosalewa; Halpern, Elkan F.; Gerade, Beverly J.; Rafferty, Elizabeth A.; Swan, J. Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of percutaneous breast biopsy on short-term quality of life. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant prospective study. From December 1, 2007, through February 28, 2010, women undergoing percutaneous breast biopsy in an academic medical center were recruited to participate in a mixed-mode survey 2–4 days after biopsy. Patients described their biopsy experience by using the Testing Morbidities Index (TMI), a validated instrument for assessing short-term quality of life related to diagnostic testing. The scale ranged from 0 (worst possible experience) to 100 (no adverse effects). Seven attributes were assessed: pain or discomfort before and during testing, fear or anxiety before and during testing, embarrassment during testing, and physical and mental function after testing. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors of TMI score. Results In 188 women (mean age, 51.4 years; range, 22–80 years), the mean TMI score (±standard deviation) was 82 ± 12. Univariate analysis revealed age and race as significant predictors of the TMI score (P < .05). In the multivariate model, only patient age remained a significant independent predictor (P = .001). TMI scores decreased by approximately three points for every decade decrease in patient age, which suggests that younger women were more adversely affected by the biopsy experience. Conclusion Younger patient age is a significant predictor of decreased short-term quality of life related to percutaneous breast biopsy procedures. Tailored prebiopsy counseling may better prepare women for percutaneous biopsy procedures and improve their experience. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24471385

  16. MRI-guided Breast Biopsy: Outcomes and Impact on Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Ihab R; Macura, Katarzyna J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to correlate the pathology results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided breast biopsies at our institution to MRI findings and patient clinical history characteristics. The impact of MRI-guided breast biopsies on surgical management in patients with a new diagnosis of breast cancer was also assessed. Patients and Methods In this HIPAA-compliant study we retrospectively reviewed all MRI-guided breast biopsies performed 3/2006–5/2012. Clinical history, MRI features and pathology outcomes were reviewed. In patients undergoing breast MRI to evaluate extent of disease, any change in surgical management resulting from the MRI-guided biopsy was recorded. Statistical analysis included binary logistic regression and independent student’s t-test. Results Two-hundred fifteen lesions in 168 patients were included, of which 23 (10.7%) were malignant, 43 (20%) were high risk, and 149 (69.3%) were benign. No clinical characteristic was associated with malignancy in our cohort. MRI features associated with malignancy were: larger size (mean 2.6 cm versus 1.3 cm, p=0.046), washout kinetics (18% malignancy rate, p=0.02) and marked background parenchymal enhancement (40% malignancy rate, p-value <0.001 to 0.03). Nineteen (28%) of the 67 patients with a new diagnosis of breast cancer undergoing MRI-guided breast biopsy had a change in surgical management based on the biopsy result. Conclusions Malignancy rate was associated with lesion size, washout kinetics and marked background enhancement of the breast parenchyma but was not associated with any clinical history characteristics. Pre-operative MRI-guided breast biopsies changed surgical management in 28% of women with a new diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25499596

  17. Value of percutaneous needle biopsy of small renal tumors in patients referred for cryoablation.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Matsui, Yusuke; Araki, Motoo; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and diagnostic yield of needle biopsy of small renal tumors, and the clinical consequences of performing needle biopsy in patients referred for percutaneous cryoablation before their treatment. Biopsy was performed for 120 tumors (mean diameter, 2.2 cm) in 119 patients. All procedures were divided into diagnostic and non-diagnostic biopsies. Various variables were compared between the two groups. All cryoablation procedures were divided into two groups: procedures with or without simultaneous biopsy. The rates of benign or non-diagnostic tumors in each group were compared. After performing 120 initial and eight repeat biopsies, Grade 1 bleedings occurred in 44 cases. Six tumors were non-diagnostic and 114 were pathologically diagnosed. There were no significant variables between the diagnostic and non-diagnostic biopsies. Unnecessary cryoablation was avoided in nine benign lesions by performing biopsy in advance. Cryoablation performed simultaneously with biopsy included significantly more benign or non-diagnostic tumors than cryoablation performed after biopsy (15.2% vs. 1.4%; p = .01). Percutaneous biopsy of small renal tumors referred for cryoablation was a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield. The confirmation of pathological diagnosis prior to cryoablation is necessary because patients with benign tumors can avoid unnecessary treatment.

  18. A Single-Institution Experience in Percutaneous Image-Guided Biopsy of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, B. T., E-mail: Welch.brian@mayo.edu; Eiken, P. W.; Atwell, T. D.

    PurposeMesothelioma has been considered a difficult pathologic diagnosis to achieve via image-guided core needle biopsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of percutaneous image-guided biopsy for diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review was performed to identify patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma and who underwent image-guided needle biopsy between January 1, 2002, and January 1, 2016. Thirty-two patients with pleural mesothelioma were identified and included for analysis in 33 image-guided biopsy procedures. Patient, procedural, and pathologic characteristics were recorded. Complications were characterized via standardized nomenclature [Common Terminology for Clinically Adverse Events (CTCAE)].ResultsPercutaneousmore » image-guided biopsy was associated with an overall sensitivity of 81%. No CTCAE clinically significant complications were observed. No image-guided procedures were complicated by pneumothorax or necessitated chest tube placement. No patients had tumor seeding of the biopsy tract.ConclusionPercutaneous image-guided biopsy can achieve high sensitivity for pathologic diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma with a low procedural complication rate, potentially obviating need for surgical biopsy.« less

  19. Emergent Embolization of Arterial Bleeding after Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, Aaron M., E-mail: aaron.fischman@mountsinai.org; Epelboym, Yan, E-mail: yan.epelboym@mssm.edu; Siegelbaum, Robert H., E-mail: rhsiegelbaum@gmail.com

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum-assisted core breast biopsy has become important in evaluating patients with suspicious breast lesions. It has proven to be a relatively safe procedure that in rare cases can result in vascular complications. These are the first reported cases of transcatheter embolization of uncontrolled breast hemorrhage after vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. With increased use of biopsy and larger-gauge devices, breast imaging groups may consider embolotherapy as a safe alternative for treatment of hemorrhage in a select group of patients.

  20. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients.

  1. Localization of acyl ghrelin- and des-acyl ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the rat stomach and their responses to intragastric pH.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Makoto; Atsuchi, Kaori; Asakawa, Akihiro; Matsuda, Norifumi; Fujimura, Masaki; Inui, Akio; Kato, Ikuo; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2009-11-01

    Acyl ghrelin has a 28-amino acid sequence with O-n-octanoyl acid modification at the serine 3 position, whereas des-acyl ghrelin has no octanoyl acid modification. Although these peptides exert different physiological functions, no previous studies have shown the different localization of acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in the stomach. Here we have developed an antibody specific for des-acyl ghrelin that does not crossreact with acyl ghrelin. Both acyl ghrelin- and des-acyl ghrelin-immunoreactive cells were distributed in the oxyntic and antral mucosa of the rat stomach, with higher density in the antral mucosa than oxyntic mucosa. Immunofluorescence double staining showed that acyl ghrelin- and des-acyl ghrelin-positive reactions overlapped in closed-type round cells, whereas des-acyl ghrelin-positive reaction was found in open-type cells in which acyl ghrelin was negative. Acyl ghrelin-/des-acyl ghrelin-positive closed-type cells contain obestatin; on the other hand, des-acyl ghrelin-positive open-type cells contain somatostatin. We measured the release of acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in vascularly perfused rat stomach by ELISA, and the effects of different intragastric pH levels on the release of each peptide were examined. The release of des-acyl ghrelin from the perfused stomach was greater at pH 2 than at pH 4; however, the release of acyl ghrelin was not affected by intragastric pH. The present study demonstrated the differential localization of acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in the rat stomach and their different responses to the intragastric pH.

  2. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1

  4. Biopsy of CT-Occult Bone Lesions Using Anatomic Landmarks for CT Guidance.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Travis J; Talbert, Robert J; Friedman, Michael V; Long, Jeremiah R; Jennings, Jack W; Wessell, Daniel E; Baker, Jonathan C

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the histopathologic diagnostic yield, sample size, procedural time, and dose-length product (DLP) for the biopsy of CT-occult lesions found at MRI or PET or both. A retrospective review of our radiology information system for biopsies of CT-occult lesions using CT guidance from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014, was performed and compared with a selection of CT-guided biopsies of CT-evident bone lesions during the same period. The data were then evaluated for diagnostic yield of histopathologic diagnosis, procedural time, use of sedation medication, DLP, and size of specimens obtained. A total of 30 CT-occult biopsies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven of those biopsies had results that were concordant with the patient's primary histopathologic diagnosis, imaging findings, and clinical course. In the CT-evident lesion group, concordant histopathologic abnormalities were identified in 27 of 30 patients. There was a statistically significant increase in number of samples obtained for the CT-evident lesions compared with CT-occult lesions. There was no statistically significant difference in total specimen length, DLP, number of CT scans, procedural time, or use of sedation medication between the CT-occult and CT-evident biopsy groups. Biopsy of CT-occult lesions using anatomic landmarks achieves diagnostic yields similar to those for CT-guided biopsy of CT-evident lesions.

  5. Relations de Dispersion et Diffusion des Glueballs et des Mesons dans la Theorie de Jauge U(1)(2+1) Compacte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chaara El Mouez

    Nous avons etudie les relations de dispersion et la diffusion des glueballs et des mesons dans le modele U(1)_{2+1} compact. Ce modele a ete souvent utilise comme un simple modele de la chromodynamique quantique (QCD), parce qu'il possede le confinement ainsi que les etats de glueballs. Par contre, sa structure mathematique est beaucoup plus simple que la QCD. Notre methode consiste a diagonaliser l'Hamiltonien de ce modele dans une base appropriee de graphes et sur reseau impulsion, afin de generer les relations de dispersion des glueballs et des mesons. Pour la diffusion, nous avons utilise la methode dependante du temps pour calculer la matrice S et la section efficace de diffusion des glueballs et des mesons. Les divers resultats obtenus semblent etre en accord avec les travaux anterieurs de Hakim, Alessandrini et al., Irving et al., qui eux, utilisent plutot la theorie des perturbations en couplage fort, et travaillent sur un reseau espace-temps.

  6. Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Kim, Jongsik; Shemonski, Nathan D; Chaney, Eric J; Spillman, Darold R; Boppart, Stephen A

    2012-06-01

    Advances in optical imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), enable us to observe tissue microstructure at high resolution and in real time. Currently, core-needle biopsies are guided by external imaging modalities such as ultrasound imaging and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for breast and lung masses, respectively. These image-guided procedures are frequently limited by spatial resolution when using ultrasound imaging, or by temporal resolution (rapid real-time feedback capabilities) when using x-ray CT. One feasible approach is to perform OCT within small gauge needles to optically image tissue microstructure. However, to date, no system or core-needle device has been developed that incorporates both three-dimensional OCT imaging and tissue biopsy within the same needle for true OCT-guided core-needle biopsy. We have developed and demonstrate an integrated core-needle biopsy system that utilizes catheter-based 3-D OCT for real-time image-guidance for target tissue localization, imaging of tissue immediately prior to physical biopsy, and subsequent OCT imaging of the biopsied specimen for immediate assessment at the point-of-care. OCT images of biopsied ex vivo tumor specimens acquired during core-needle placement are correlated with corresponding histology, and computational visualization of arbitrary planes within the 3-D OCT volumes enables feedback on specimen tissue type and biopsy quality. These results demonstrate the potential for using real-time 3-D OCT for needle biopsy guidance by imaging within the needle and tissue during biopsy procedures.

  7. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  8. The Epidemiological, Clinical, and Histopathological Characteristics of Lacrimal Gland Biopsies in a Tertiary Care Center in Israel.

    PubMed

    Priel, Ayelet; Vishnevskia-Dai, Vicktoria; Hochma, Liran; Gildener-Leapman, Juliana; Ben Simon, Guy J; Rosner, Mordechai; Antman, Gal; Zloto, Ofira

    2018-02-01

    The distribution of pathology and clinical characteristics of lacrimal gland diseases are different in different areas of the world. To evaluate the incidence rate, patient characteristics, and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in a tertiary care center in Israel. All biopsied or surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions at the Goldschleger Eye Institute from 2009 to 2015 were identified. The following data were collected: age, gender, indications for surgical intervention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. We evaluated 28 lacrimal gland biopsies from 26 patients (11 men, 15 women). Mean age at biopsy was 47.5 years old. The most common presenting symptoms were: eyelid swollenness (57.14%), ptosis (32.14%), and proptosis (10.71%). All patients underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In 28 cases, infiltrations of the lacrimal gland were found. In nine cases infiltration of muscles or orbital extension were found. The most common pathologies were non-specified inflammation (44.82%), lymphoma (20.68%), and immunoglobulin G4-related disease (10.34%). The treatment was diverse according to the patient diagnosis. Prognosis of lacrimal gland disease was good; however, in five patients the systemic disease progressed. Lesions of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide variety of pathological findings that require different treatment strategies. Lacrimal gland biopsies enable physicians to precisely recognize the pathology; therefore, it is important to consider this surgical method in any patient with lesions in the lacrimal gland.

  9. [Current situation and prospect of breast cancer liquid biopsy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, B; Xin, L; Xu, L; Ye, J M; Liu, Y H

    2018-02-01

    Liquid biopsy is a diagnostic approach by analyzing body fluid samples. Peripheral blood is the most common sample. Urine, saliva, pleural effusion and ascites are also used. Now liquid biopsy is mainly used in the area of neoplasm diagnosis and treatment. Compared with traditional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is minimally invasive, convenient to sample and easy to repeat. Liquid biopsy mainly includes circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection. Detection of ctDNA requires sensitive and accurate methods. The progression of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and digital PCR promote the process of studies in ctDNA. In 2016, Nature published the result of whole-genome sequencing study of breast cancer. The study found 1 628 mutations of 93 protein-coding genes which may be driver mutations of breast cancer. The result of this study provided a new platform for breast cancer ctDNA studies. In recent years, there were many studies using ctDNA detection to monitor therapeutic effect and guide treatment. NGS is a promising technique in accessing genetic information and guiding targeted therapy. It must be emphasized that ctDNA detection using NGS is still at research stage. It is important to standardize ctDNA detection technique and perform prospective clinical researches. The time is not ripe for using ctDNA detection to guide large-scale breast cancer clinical practice at present.

  10. A novel semi-robotized device for high-precision 18F-FDG-guided breast cancer biopsy.

    PubMed

    Hellingman, D; Teixeira, S C; Donswijk, M L; Rijkhorst, E J; Moliner, L; Alamo, J; Loo, C E; Valdés Olmos, R A; Stokkel, M P M

    To assess the 3D geometric sampling accuracy of a new PET-guided system for breast cancer biopsy (BCB) from areas within the tumour with high 18 F-FDG uptake. In the context of the European Union project MammoCare, a prototype semi-robotic stereotactic prototype BCB-device was incorporated into a dedicated high resolution PET-detector for breast imaging. The system consists of 2 stacked rings, each containing 12 plane detectors, forming a dodecagon with a 186mm aperture for 3D reconstruction (1mm 3 voxel). A vacuum-assisted biopsy needle attached to a robot-controlled arm was used. To test the accuracy of needle placement, the needle tip was labelled with 18 F-FDG and positioned at 78 target coordinates distributed over a 35mm×24mm×28mm volume within the PET-detector field-of-view. At each position images were acquired from which the needle positioning accuracy was calculated. Additionally, phantom-based biopsy proofs, as well as MammoCare images of 5 breast cancer patients, were evaluated for the 3D automated locating of 18 F-FDG uptake areas within the tumour. Needle positioning tests revealed an average accuracy of 0.5mm (range 0-1mm), 0.6mm (range 0-2mm), and 0.4mm (range 0-2mm) for the x/y/z-axes, respectively. Furthermore, the MammoCare system was able to visualize and locate small (<10mm) regions with high 18 F-FDG uptake within the tumour suitable for PET-guided biopsy after being located by the 3D automated application. Accuracy testing demonstrated high-precision of this semi-automatic 3D PET-guided system for breast cancer core needle biopsy. Its clinical feasibility evaluation in breast cancer patients scheduled for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy will follow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving diagnostic accuracy of prostate carcinoma by systematic random map-biopsy.

    PubMed

    Szabó, J; Hegedûs, G; Bartók, K; Kerényi, T; Végh, A; Romics, I; Szende, B

    2000-01-01

    Systematic random rectal ultrasound directed map-biopsy of the prostate was performed in 77 RDE (rectal digital examination) positive and 25 RDE negative cases, if applicable. Hypoechoic areas were found in 30% of RDE positive and in 16% of RDE negative cases. The score for carcinoma in the hypoechoic areas was 6.5% in RDE positive and 0% in RDE negative cases, whereas systematic map biopsy detected 62% carcinomas in RDE positive, and 16% carcinomas in RDE negative patients. The probability of positive diagnosis of prostate carcinoma increased in parallel with the number of biopsy samples/case. The importance of systematic map biopsy is emphasized.

  12. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  13. Evaluation d’une grille de supervision des laboratoires des leishmanioses cutanées au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    El Mansouri, Bouchra; Amarir, Fatima; Hajli, Yamina; Fellah, Hajiba; Sebti, Faiza; Delouane, Bouchra; Sadak, Abderrahim; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Rhajaoui, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Afin d’évaluer une grille de contrôle standardisée de laboratoire de diagnostic des leishmanioses, comme nouveau outil de supervision. Méthodes Un essai pilote a été pratiqué sur sept laboratoires provinciaux, appartenant à quatre provinces au Maroc, en suivant l’évolution de leurs performances tous les deux ans, entre l’année 2006 et 2014. Cette étude détaille la situation des laboratoires provinciaux avant et après la mise en œuvre de la grille de supervision. Au total vingt et une grille sont analysées. Résultats En 2006, les résultats ont montré clairement une insuffisance des performances des laboratoires: besoin en formation (41.6%), personnel pratiquant le prélèvement cutané (25%), pénurie en matériels et réactifs (65%), gestions documentaire et local non conformes (85%). Différentes actions correctives ont été menées par le Laboratoire National de Référence des Leishmanioses (LNRL) durant la période d’étude. En 2014, le LNRL a enregistré une nette amélioration des performances des laboratoires. Les besoins en matière de formation, qualité du prélèvement, dotation en matériels et réactifs ont été comblés et une coordination efficace s’est établie entre le LNRL et les laboratoires provinciaux. Conclusion Ceci montre l'efficacité de la grille comme outil de supervision de grande qualité, et comme pierre angulaire de tout progrès qui doit être obtenu dans les programmes de lutte contre les leishmanioses. PMID:29187922

  14. Identification et prise en charge des femmes ayant des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les meilleures données portant sur les stratégies d’identification et de prise en charge des femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur PubMed à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management et magnetic resonance imaging screening, entre 2000 et 2016. La plupart des données sont de niveau II. Message principal Une bonne anamnèse familiale est essentielle lors de l’évaluation du risque de cancer du sein afin d’identifier les femmes qui sont candidates à une recommandation en counseling génétique pour un éventuel test génétique. On peut sauver des vies en offrant aux femmes porteuses d’une mutation au gène BRCA des interventions chirurgicales de réduction des risques (mastectomie bilatérale prophylactique, salpingo-ovariectomie bilatérale). Il faut encourager toutes les femmes qui présentent des antécédents familiaux de cancer du sein à demeurer actives et à limiter leur consommation d’alcool à moins de 1 verre par jour; certaines femmes sont admissibles à la chimioprévention. Il faut offrir aux femmes dont le risque à vie de cancer du sein est de 20 à 25 % ou plus un dépistage poussé par imagerie par résonance magnétique en plus d’une mammographie. Conclusion Une vie saine et la chimioprévention (chez les candidates) pourraient réduire l’incidence du cancer du sein; le dépistage poussé pourrait entraîner une détection plus précoce. Le fait d’aiguiller des femmes porteuses d’une mutation au BRCA vers la chirurgie de réduction des risques sauve des vies. PMID:27737991

  15. Cervical cancer biopsy reporting: a review.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria Carolina; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2014-01-01

    The terminology for reporting human papillomavirus-associated squamous lesions in the cervix, both in tissue samples and cytology specimens, has suffered from many changes throughout the last years creating confusion in interpreting cervical biopsy and cytology reports by clinicians. This review presents a summary and discussion of the current terminology for reporting results of cervical biopsies and cytology with emphasis in the lower anogenital squamous terminology consensus recommendations for tissue specimens and the 2001 Bethesda Workshop for reporting cytology results. Microscopic features of cervical lesions in tissue samples and cytology specimens are presented. Biomarkers, including p16 and Ki-67, are discussed and how they can help the pathologist when dealing with difficult cases.

  16. Skin and soft tissue infections: experience over a five-year period and clinical usefulness of ultrasonography-guided gun biopsy-based culture.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji Yun; Cheong, Hee Jin; Song, Joon Young; Hong, Suk-Joo; Myung, Jae Sung; Choi, Won Suk; Jo, Yu Mi; Heo, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Joo

    2011-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common clinical diseases, but only a few reports of microbiological data on SSTIs in Korea have been published. In practice, specimens are rarely obtained from infected lesions unless there is visible pus or an abscess pocket. However, identification of the causative pathogen is important, because of emerging drug resistance and the increase in immunocompromised hosts. The medical records of 760 adult cases of community-acquired SSTIs (CA-SSTIs) from September 2003 to August 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. We analyzed epidemio-clinical features and microbiological distributions of CA-SSTIs and evaluated the positive culture rate of several diagnostic methods, including swab, tissue biopsy, blind needle aspiration, ultrasonography (US)-guided needle aspiration, and US-guided gun biopsy. Most CA-SSTIs (76.1%) occurred in previously healthy persons without underlying diseases. Re-infections were identified in 76 (10%) patients and cirrhosis was an independent risk factor for re-infection (odds ratio 3.64, 95% confidence interval 1.36-9.76). The most commonly identified pathogen was methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, and 3(rd)-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly used empirical antibiotics (47.9%). US-guided needle aspiration had a high positive culture rate of 73.9% and the positive culture rate of US-guided gun biopsy was 17.5%. Considering the microbiological distribution of CA-SSTIs in Korea, penicillinase-stable penicillin or a 1(st)-generation cephalosporin should be adequate for initial antibiotic treatment. US-guided needle aspiration was a good technique for the identification of causative pathogens, and additive productivity is expected with US-guided gun biopsy culture from lesions without fluid collection.

  17. [Liquid biopsy analysis using cell-free DNA (cfDNA): Opportunities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Dahl, E; Kloten, V

    2015-11-01

    Molecular biological analysis of nucleic acids in blood or other bodily fluids (i.e. liquid biopsy analyses) may supplement the pathologists' diagnostic armamentarium in a reasonable way-particularly in cancer precision medicine. Within the field of oncology, liquid biopsy can potentially be used to monitor tumor burden in the blood and to early detect emerging resistance in the course of targeted cancer therapies. An already approved application of liquid biopsy is the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) driver mutations in blood samples of lung cancer patients in those cases where no tissue biopsy is available. However, there is still currently considerable insecurity associated with blood-based DNA analytic methods that must be solved before liquid biopsy can be implemented for broader routine application in the diagnosis of cancer. In this article, the current state of development of liquid biopsy in molecular diagnostics from a pathology point of view is presented.

  18. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d

  19. Applications of Composite Materials in Helicopter Construction (Les Applications des Materiaux Composite dans la Construction des Helicopteres),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-21

    TRANSLATION TITLE: APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS IN HELICOPTER CONSTRUCTION LES APPLICATIONS DES MATERTAUX COMWSITE DANS LA CONSTRUCTION DES...International Symposium on Design and Use of Kevlar in Aircraft, Geneva, 12 October 1982 [Beziac, Gilbert;* Les applications des mat6riaux composite...the pilot’s orders to the engine and the rotors. --Rear rotor Conventional or "faired propeller" type with its overall pitch control --Vibration

  20. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction and Mammography Biopsy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Katrina; Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Jinbo; Demeter, Mirar N. Bristol

    2012-01-01

    Background Controversy continues about screening mammography, in part because of the risk of false-negative and false-positive mammograms. Pre-test breast cancer risk factors may improve the positive and negative predictive value of screening. Purpose To create a model that estimates the potential impact of pre-test risk prediction using clinical and genomic information on the reclassification of women with abnormal mammograms (BI-RADS3 and BI-RADS4 [Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System]) above and below the threshold for breast biopsy. Methods The current study modeled 1-year breast cancer risk in women with abnormal screening mammograms using existing data on breast cancer risk factors, 12 validated breast cancer single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and probability of cancer given the BI-RADS category. Examination was made of reclassification of women above and below biopsy thresholds of 1%, 2%, and 3% risk. The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium data were collected from 1996 to 2002. Data analysis was conducted in 2010 and 2011. Results Using a biopsy risk threshold of 2% and the standard risk factor model, 5% of women with a BI-RADS3 mammogram had a risk above the threshold, and 3% of women with BIRADS4A mammograms had a risk below the threshold. The addition of 12 SNPs in the model resulted in 8% of women with a BI-RADS3 mammogram above the threshold for biopsy and 7% of women with BI-RADS4A mammograms below the threshold. Conclusions The incorporation of pre-test breast cancer risk factors could change biopsy decisions for a small proportion of women with abnormal mammograms. The greatest impact comes from standard breast cancer risk factors. PMID:23253645

  1. Application of a single needle type for all image-guided biopsies: results of 100 consecutive core biopsies in various organs using a novel tri-axial, end-cut needle

    PubMed Central

    Diederich, S; Padge, B; Vossas, U; Hake, R; Eidt, S

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess feasibility, results and complications in image-guided biopsies using a single needle design in various organs. Materials and methods: 100 consecutive percutaneous biopsies were performed in 54 females and 46 males aged 24–87 years (mean age/standard deviation: 64.5 +/− 12 years) using a full-core end-cut tri-axial full-automatic biopsy needle (18 gauge BioPince ™, InterV-MDTech, Gainesville, Florida) under CT (n=45) or ultrasound (n=55) guidance. In 63 biopsies a coaxial technique was used. Results: Biopsies were obtained of liver (n=32), lymph nodes (n=17), thyroid (n=11), lung (n=9), adrenal (n=9), pelvis (n=6), chest wall/pleura (n=6), mediastinum (n=4), lytic bone lesions (n=2), retroperitoneum (n=1), muscle (n=1), pancreas (n=1), peritoneum (n=1). Between 1 and 6 (mean/SD 2.83 +/− 0.92) needle passes were performed. In 77 cases a malignant (40 metastases, 37 primary tumours) and in 23 a benign lesion was diagnosed. Of the 23 benign lesions a specific diagnosis was possible in 22. In one case necrosis and haemorrhage was diagnosed. In this patient surgery and autopsy both revealed a mediastinal haematoma of unknown origin. Eight minor complications (mild pain/local haematoma requiring no therapy) and three major complications (three pneumothoraces in nine lung biopsies requiring two aspirations and one drainage) were observed. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Percutaneous image-guided biopsy using the described full-core end-cut needle resulted in a specific diagnosis in 99/100 consecutive biopsies in various organs with a low complication rate. We use this needle type for all CT- or US-guided biopsies in all organs except for solid bone. PMID:16766268

  2. [Evaluation of postmenopausal uterine bleeding by endometrial biopsy in-office hysteroscopy vs endometrial biopsy with manual vacuum aspiration in the office. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Hernández, José Arias; Franco, María Eugenia Lozano; Mendizábal, David Pablo Bulnes; Broca, Yrma Bocanegra; Escoto, Adrián Fores

    2009-11-01

    To compare endometrial biopsy by hysteroscopy vs manual endouterine aspiration in office, in patients of Climateric Clinic from Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de la Mujer Tabasco, with postmenopausal uterine bleeding. There were included patients that come from October 30 2007 to December 20 2008 to Climateric Clinic, with abnormal uterine bleeding and without hormonal replacement therapy. There were taken biopsy by hysteroscopy and AMEU. The histopathology results were compared. A total of 25 women were evaluated. The average age was 53 years (+/- 5.6). The delivery average was 3 births (+/- 1). We found polyps in 9 (37%) patients, endometrial atrophy in 3 (13%), cystic hyperplasia in 2 (8%), proliferative endometrium in 4 (17%), submucous myomas in 5 (21%) and neoplasia in 1 (4%). The correlation between endometrial biopsy by hysteroscopy and AMEU was 100% for endometrial atrophy, cystic hyperplasia, proliferativo endometrium and neoplasia. There was not correlation between manual endouterine aspiration and endometrial biopsy by hysteroscopy for polyps and submucous myomas. We didn't have complications during the procedures. Hysteroscopic endometrial biopsy seems to have the same histopathology results than AMEU for endometrial atrophy, cystic hyperplasia, proliferative endometrium and neoplasia, not for miomas and polyps. Hysteroscopy can give us the possibility to see miomas and polyps and treat surgical pathology at the same moment almost in all cases.

  3. Mapping and simulating systematics due to spatially-varying observing conditions in DES science verification data

    DOE PAGES

    Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Elsner, F.; ...

    2016-10-17

    Spatially-varying depth and characteristics of observing conditions, such as seeing, airmass, or sky background, are major sources of systematic uncertainties in modern galaxy survey analyses, in particular in deep multi-epoch surveys. We present a framework to extract and project these sources of systematics onto the sky, and apply it to the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to map the observing conditions of the Science Verification (SV) data. The resulting distributions and maps of sources of systematics are used in several analyses of DES SV to perform detailed null tests with the data, and also to incorporate systematics in survey simulations. Wemore » illustrate the complementarity of these two approaches by comparing the SV data with the BCC-UFig, a synthetic sky catalogue generated by forward-modelling of the DES SV images. We then analyse the BCC-UFig simulation to construct galaxy samples mimicking those used in SV galaxy clustering studies. We show that the spatially-varying survey depth imprinted in the observed galaxy densities and the redshift distributions of the SV data are successfully reproduced by the simulation and well-captured by the maps of observing conditions. The combined use of the maps, the SV data and the BCC-UFig simulation allows us to quantify the impact of spatial systematics on N(z), the redshift distributions inferred using photometric redshifts. We conclude that spatial systematics in the SV data are mainly due to seeing fluctuations and are under control in current clustering and weak lensing analyses. However, they will need to be carefully characterised in upcoming phases of DES in order to avoid biasing the inferred cosmological results. The framework presented is relevant to all multi-epoch surveys, and will be essential for exploiting future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will require detailed null-tests and realistic end-to-end image simulations to correctly interpret the deep, high

  4. MAPPING AND SIMULATING SYSTEMATICS DUE TO SPATIALLY VARYING OBSERVING CONDITIONS IN DES SCIENCE VERIFICATION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Elsner, F.

    Spatially varying depth and the characteristics of observing conditions, such as seeing, airmass, or sky background, are major sources of systematic uncertainties in modern galaxy survey analyses, particularly in deep multi-epoch surveys. We present a framework to extract and project these sources of systematics onto the sky, and apply it to the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to map the observing conditions of the Science Verification (SV) data. The resulting distributions and maps of sources of systematics are used in several analyses of DES-SV to perform detailed null tests with the data, and also to incorporate systematics in survey simulations. Wemore » illustrate the complementary nature of these two approaches by comparing the SV data with BCC-UFig, a synthetic sky catalog generated by forward-modeling of the DES-SV images. We analyze the BCC-UFig simulation to construct galaxy samples mimicking those used in SV galaxy clustering studies. We show that the spatially varying survey depth imprinted in the observed galaxy densities and the redshift distributions of the SV data are successfully reproduced by the simulation and are well-captured by the maps of observing conditions. The combined use of the maps, the SV data, and the BCC-UFig simulation allows us to quantify the impact of spatial systematics on N(z), the redshift distributions inferred using photometric redshifts. We conclude that spatial systematics in the SV data are mainly due to seeing fluctuations and are under control in current clustering and weak-lensing analyses. However, they will need to be carefully characterized in upcoming phases of DES in order to avoid biasing the inferred cosmological results. The framework presented here is relevant to all multi-epoch surveys and will be essential for exploiting future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will require detailed null tests and realistic end-to-end image simulations to correctly interpret the deep, high

  5. Mapping and simulating systematics due to spatially-varying observing conditions in DES science verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Elsner, F.

    Spatially-varying depth and characteristics of observing conditions, such as seeing, airmass, or sky background, are major sources of systematic uncertainties in modern galaxy survey analyses, in particular in deep multi-epoch surveys. We present a framework to extract and project these sources of systematics onto the sky, and apply it to the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to map the observing conditions of the Science Verification (SV) data. The resulting distributions and maps of sources of systematics are used in several analyses of DES SV to perform detailed null tests with the data, and also to incorporate systematics in survey simulations. Wemore » illustrate the complementarity of these two approaches by comparing the SV data with the BCC-UFig, a synthetic sky catalogue generated by forward-modelling of the DES SV images. We then analyse the BCC-UFig simulation to construct galaxy samples mimicking those used in SV galaxy clustering studies. We show that the spatially-varying survey depth imprinted in the observed galaxy densities and the redshift distributions of the SV data are successfully reproduced by the simulation and well-captured by the maps of observing conditions. The combined use of the maps, the SV data and the BCC-UFig simulation allows us to quantify the impact of spatial systematics on N(z), the redshift distributions inferred using photometric redshifts. We conclude that spatial systematics in the SV data are mainly due to seeing fluctuations and are under control in current clustering and weak lensing analyses. However, they will need to be carefully characterised in upcoming phases of DES in order to avoid biasing the inferred cosmological results. The framework presented is relevant to all multi-epoch surveys, and will be essential for exploiting future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will require detailed null-tests and realistic end-to-end image simulations to correctly interpret the deep, high

  6. Canadian Forces Education and Training for Interagency Operational Contexts (Education et Instruction des Forces Canadiennes Pour les Contextes Operationnels Interorganisationnels)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    organismes gouvernementaux dans le processus de planification opérationnelle (PPO) des FC. Le rapport se termine par des recommandations de travaux...B.D., THOMSON, M.H., BROWN, A.L., SARTORI, J.A., TAYLOR, T.E., WALDHERR, S.U. 2008. Organizational trust in the Canadian Forces. DRDC T No. CR2008...enablers for distributed team collaboration. DRDC T No. CR2007-137. Toronto, ON: Defence Research and Development Canada. FUGLESTAD, P.T., SNYDER

  7. Medical audit of rectal biopsy diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Frei, J V; Morson, B C

    1982-03-01

    The records of the rectal biopsy diagnoses of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the Department of Pathology, St Mark's Hospital, London, were reviewed. The biopsy diagnoses were compared to subsequent resection diagnoses on the same patients, and annual and seasonal variations in the frequency of these and related diagnoses were studied. The accuracy rate for the biopsy diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was about 70% and for Crohn's disease about 40% each time a biopsy was read. The low figure for the accuracy rate for Crohn's disease could be attributed to sampling error inherent in the diagnosis of a disease which is essentially patchy, showing discontinuous pathology. Also, many patients with Crohn's disease have a normal rectum which is biopsied to demonstrate the distinction from ulcerative colitis. In practical terms therefore a 40% accuracy rate in Crohn's disease is probably adequate. The rate of "false-positive" diagnoses was about 5%. There was a seasonal variation in the frequency of these two diagnoses, but no variation attributable to changes in observers, as pathology trainees in the Department change regularly. The frequency of diagnoses of non-specific inflammation and of normal colon did show such non-random variations.

  8. Parotid gland biopsy and /sup 67/Ga imaging correlation in systemic sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, S.D.; Orzel, J.A.; Weiland, F.L.

    1987-03-01

    We correlated the results of parotid gland biopsy, chest roentgenograms, and gallium citrate scintigraphy in 24 patients evaluated for possible systemic sarcoidosis. Of 19 patients ultimately proven to have sarcoidosis, 11 (57.9 percent) had positive parotid gland biopsy. The yield of parotid gland biopsy in patients with abnormal gallium parotid activity was only marginally higher (64.7 percent). Abnormal parotid gland uptake of gallium citrate was seen in 17 of these 19 patients (89.5 percent) and was always associated with abnormal lung or perihilar activity. The parotid gland biopsy is a useful technique for obtaining the tissue diagnosis of sarcoidosis; however,more » gallium scintigraphy should not be performed to select patients as this will only marginally increase the biopsy yield.« less

  9. Right atrial and right ventricular ultrasound-guided biopsy technique in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Decloedt, A; de Clercq, D; Ven, S; van der Vekens, N; Chiers, K; van Loon, G

    2016-05-01

    Endomyocardial biopsies could be a valuable tool in equine cardiology for diagnosing myocardial disease, which is probably underdiagnosed in horses because of lack of specific diagnostic measures and limitations of currently available diagnostic methods. To describe a technique for serial right atrial and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in standing horses using a percutaneous approach through the jugular vein. Prospective study. Biopsy was performed in 10 healthy standing horses sedated with detomidine, under continuous electrocardiography monitoring. A 10 cm (n = 6), 45 cm (n = 1) or 98 cm (n = 3) introducer sheath was inserted into the right jugular vein. Under echocardiographic guidance, a biopsy forceps was introduced through the sheath into the right ventricle and right atrium and endomyocardial biopsies were acquired. In all horses, 3 right ventricular biopsies were obtained from the right ventricular apex and 3 right atrial biopsies were obtained from the dorsal right atrial wall near the tuberculum intervenosum. The presence of myocardial tissue was confirmed by histology. All horses showed atrial and ventricular premature depolarisations associated with acquisition of the biopsies. In 9 horses, the arrhythmia disappeared after retraction of the forceps and introducer sheath. In one horse, ventricular premature depolarisations disappeared only after 8 h. No other complications were observed. Endomyocardial biopsy of the right atrium and right ventricle could be performed in standing horses using a percutaneous approach through the jugular vein and was not associated with complications other than temporary arrhythmias. This technique may be useful for research purposes or as a diagnostic tool, although further research is needed to establish the safety of the technique in clinical patients with myocardial disease. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Intraocular biopsy using special forceps: a new instrument and refined surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Akgul, Harun; Otterbach, Friedrich; Bornfeld, Norbert; Jurklies, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the Essen biopsy forceps as a new instrument and surgical approach for biopsy of intraocular tumours. Biopsy is indicated for assessment of any uncertain intraocular process or confirmation for presumed diagnosis before treatment. There is increasing interest for further genetic and immunocytological information in order to characterise the neoplasm, especially grading and prognosis of micrometastasis in uveal melanoma. The authors have developed a new surgical technique using special intraocular biopsy forceps. Twenty patients with uncertain intraocular subretinal tumour underwent biopsies carried out using the special Essen biopsy forceps. Biopsies were obtained through sutureless 23-gauge three-port vitrectomy. A small retinotomy tumour specimen was taken by the forceps branches. For further processing, the specimens were flushed out into a sterile tube and then sent to pathologists. The prebioptical tumour had a mean thickness of 3.48 mm (1.1 to 9.8 mm). In all cases (n=20) biopsies (0.3-2.1 mm in size) were obtained, in 19 cases (95%) allowing precise histological and immunohistochemical typing of the lesions following cytoblock embedding. Uveal melanoma was diagnosed in 50% (n=10), choroidal metastasis in 15% (n=3) and choroidal naevus in 15% (n=3); other diagnoses (n=3) included choroidal haemangioma, B cell lymphoma and old subretinal haemorrhage. Apart from three patients with temporary punctual bleeding on the surface, there were no intra- and postoperative complications. Biopsy using special forceps is a promising new approach and precise surgical procedure. Especially for small intraocular tumours, this technique has the advantage in providing enough tissue for improved histological examination and presenting a low risk for complications.

  11. Efficacy of deep biopsy for subepithelial lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Vaicekauskas, Rolandas; Stanaitis, Juozas; Valantinas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1-2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm) by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7-89.7%). The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36) and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm) were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008). Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  12. CT-Guided Biopsy of Small Liver Lesions: Visibility, Artifacts, and Corresponding Diagnostic Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Stattaus, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.stattaus@uni-due.de; Kuehl, Hilmar; Ladd, Susanne

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Our study aimed to determine the visibility of small liver lesions during CT-guided biopsy and to assess the influence of lesion visibility on biopsy results. Material and Methods. Fifty patients underwent CT-guided core biopsy of small focal liver lesions (maximum diameter, 3 cm); 38 biopsies were performed using noncontrast CT, and the remaining 12 were contrast-enhanced. Visibility of all lesions was graded on a 4-point-scale (0 = not visible, 1 = poorly visible, 2 = sufficiently visible, 3 = excellently visible) before and during biopsy (with the needle placed adjacent to and within the target lesion). Results. Forty-three biopsiesmore » (86%) yielded diagnostic results, and seven biopsies were false-negative. In noncontrast biopsies, the rate of insufficiently visualized lesions (grades 0-1) increased significantly during the procedure, from 10.5% to 44.7%, due to needle artifacts. This resulted in more (17.6%) false-negative biopsy results compared to lesions with good visualization (4.8%), although this difference lacks statistical significance. Visualization impairment appeared more often with an intercostal or subcostal vs. an epigastric access and with a subcapsular vs. a central lesion location, respectively. With contrast-enhanced biopsy the visibility of hepatic lesions was only temporarily improved, with a risk of complete obscuration in the late phase. Conclusion. In conclusion, visibility of small liver lesions diminished significantly during CT-guided biopsy due to needle artifacts, with a fourfold increased rate of insufficiently visualized lesions and of false-negative histological results. Contrast enhancement did not reveal better results.« less

  13. A template for a clinico-pathological audit of medical liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    Colling, Richard; Fryer, Eve; Cobbold, Jeremy; Collier, Jane; Collantes, Elena; Wang, Lai Mun; Hubscher, Stefan; Wyatt, Judith; Fleming, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    With changing indications for performing medical liver biopsies, we aimed to develop a tool to allow pathologists to evaluate the current usefulness, value and impact of their medical liver biopsy service. We designed and piloted a questionnaire-based clinico-pathological audit for medical liver biopsies. The audit tool was simple to implement and provided useful information about our service. Hepatologists felt that 96% of reports were clinically useful. 56% of biopsies confirmed clinical diagnoses, 46% helped differentiate between diagnoses and 42% were able to exclude possible diagnoses. 74% resulted in a change of management and 27% of liver biopsies resulted in a diagnosis which was not clinically suspected. We demonstrate the usefulness of an audit tool in providing evidence of the value of the liver pathology service in a large UK regional centre. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The Importance of Biopsy in the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Etay; Durack, Jeremy C; Solomon, Stephen B

    Recent advances in the molecular characterization of cancers have triggered interest in developing a new taxonomy of disease in oncology with the goal of using the molecular profile of a patient's tumor to predict response to treatment. Image-guided needle biopsy is central to this "precision medicine" effort. In this review, we first discuss the current role of biopsy in relation to clinical examples of molecular medicine. We then outline important bottlenecks to the advancement of precision medicine and highlight the potential role of image-guided biopsy to address these challenges.

  15. [The role of percutaneous renal biopsy in kidney transplant].

    PubMed

    Manfro, R C; Lee, J Y; Lewgoy, J; Edelweiss, M I; Gonçalves, L F; Prompt, C A

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is an useful tool for diagnostic and therapeutic orientation in renal transplantation. PURPOSE--To evaluate the current role of PRB in post-transplant acute renal dysfunction (ARD) of renal allografts. METHODS--Sixty-five renal transplant patients were submitted to 95 valid renal biopsies with no major complications. RESULTS--There was disagreement between the clinical and the pathological diagnosis in 28 occasions (29.5%). In 36 cases (37.9%) the results of the pathological examination led to a modification in patient's management. These modifications were most commonly the avoidance or witholding of a steroid pulse (8 cases); nephrectomy of the renal allograft (8 cases); witholding or decrease of cyclosporine dosage (6 cases); giving a steroid pulse (5 cases) and giving antibiotics to treat acute pyelonephritis in 4 cases. The use of kidneys from cadaveric donors was significantly associated with an increased number of biopsies (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION--These results demonstrate that even though several less invasive procedures are currently employed, renal biopsy is still an indispensable method to the management of ARD in renal transplant patients.

  16. Stereotactic biopsy complicated by pneumocephalus and acute pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan; Avneri, Itzik; Nimrod, Adi; Kanner, Andrew A

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pneumocephalus as a rare complication of stereotactic biopsy and as a possible cause of acute neurogenic pulmonary edema. A case of frameless stereotactic biopsy complicated by pneumocephalus presenting with acute lung injury 48 hours after the procedure. A frameless stereotactic procedure was performed in the standard fashion. Immediate postoperative CT showed no intracranial air except for a gas inclusion at the biopsy site within the lesion. The skin staple placed at the end of surgery on the skin incision was removed 36 hours later. A CT scan performed 48 hours postoperatively showed new pneumocephalus. The patient exhibited acute respiratory distress but no new neurologic symptoms. There was no detectable systemic cause for the pulmonary edema. The patient received supportive respiratory treatment and fully recovered. Pneumocephalus is apparently a rare complication of stereotactic brain biopsy and one that may result from early removal of the skin staple or suture. The occurrence of acute neurogenic pulmonary edema may be attributed to the pneumocephalus.

  17. Analysis of bronchial biopsies in chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Patricia; Zhang, Qingling; Saito, Junpei; Liang, Zhike; Ffolkes, Lorrette; Nicholson, Andrew G; Chung, Kian Fan

    2017-06-01

    Chronic cough is commonly associated with asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and postnasal drip, but in a significant proportion, no associated cause can be found. We determined whether examination of bronchial biopsies would be useful in determining the cause associated with chronic cough. 100 consecutive patients referred to a specialist cough clinic underwent a systematic assessment including a fiberoptic bronchoscopy for bronchial biopsies. In 38 patients, treatment of associated causes led to amelioration of cough ('explained') and in 62, there was no association or improvement ('idiopathic'). The latter group had a longer duration of cough, a lower FeNO levels and a more sensitive capsaicin cough response, with an increase in basement membrane thickness with no differences in goblet cell hyperplasia and seromucinous hyperplasia, and in lymphocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil counts. The duration of cough was inversely correlated with the degree of neutrophil infiltration. We conclude that pathological examination of bronchial biopsies is unlikely to be useful in the diagnosis of chronic cough in non-smokers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Glomerular enlargement assessed by paired donor and early protocol renal allograft biopsies.

    PubMed

    Alperovich, Gabriela; Maldonado, Rafael; Moreso, Francesc; Fulladosa, Xavier; Grinyó, Josep M; Serón, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the evolution of glomerular volume 4 months after transplantation. Mean glomerular volume (Vg) was estimated according to the Weibel and Gomez method in a donor and a protocol biopsy done at 139 +/- 58 d in 41 stable grafts. Biopsies were also evaluated according to the Banff schema. Vg increased after transplantation from 4.1 +/- 1.4 to 5.1 +/- 2.4 x 10(6) micro3 (p=0.02). In patients with chronic allograft nephropathy in the protocol biopsy (n=14), the Vg enlargement was -0.3 +/-x 10(6) micro3 while in patients without chronic allograft nephropathy (n=27), glomerular enlargement was 1.6 +/- 2.1 x 10(6) micro3 (p=0.01). There was a negative association between glomerular volume in the donor biopsy and glomerular enlargement after transplantation (R=- 0.34, p=0.03). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that Vg in the donor biopsy and chronic allograft nephropathy in the protocol biopsy were independent predictors of glomerular enlargement after transplantation (R=0.48, p=0.01). Moreover, Vg in the protocol biopsy correlated with creatinine clearance at the time of biopsy (R=0.38, p=0.01). Glomeruli enlarge after transplantation and glomerular volume after 4 months correlates with creatinine clearance, suggesting that glomerular enlargement is a necessary condition for renal adaptation to the recipient. Glomerular enlargement is impaired in patients with chronic allograft nephropathy.

  19. [Ecology and fluoroquinolon resistance profiles in febrile urinary tract infections (FUTI) after prostate needle biopsy: A retrospective study in 466 biopsies].

    PubMed

    Duboureau, H; Achkar, K; Stephan, R; Schmit, J L; Saint, F

    2017-05-01

    The biopsies of prostate are the reference examination to assert the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Even if the urinary infectious complications are rare thanks to the systematic oral antibiotic prophylaxis, they may still be serious. The SPILF (Society of Infectious Pathology and French language) published in 2014, an important increase of the resistances in fluoroquinolones for Escherichia coli (3 to 25%), whereas this is the most bacterium frequently found in the urinary infections (70-80%). The objectives of this study were to estimate the indicence of the febrile urinary tract infections after prostate needle biopsy and to define the ecology and the profile of E. coli's resistance. A total of 466 transrectal ultrasound-guided needle prostate biopsy were included in the study from 2012 to 2015. All the patients were taken care according to the recommendations of the AFU (Ouzzane et al., 2011). We estimated, for all the inclusive patients, if they had presented a clinic sign of urinary infection like fever or burning which suggestive of an urinary infection, and having a urines and blood culture, in the next 30 days the realization of the medical exam. Among 466 realized biopsies, seven patients developed a febril urinary tract infection (1.5%) [prostatitis (n=6), orchitis (n=1)]. Five infections to E. coli were identified; two were resistant for fluoroquinolones (40%). No germ was able to be identified for two patients. The infectious complications post-biopsy of prostate are rare (1.5%). E. coli is the germ most frequently identified with 40% of resistance with fluoroquinolones. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Etude spectroscopique des collisions moleculaires (hydrogene-azote et hydrogene-oxygene) a des energies de quelques MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Jacinthe

    1998-09-01

    Les resultats presentes ici proviennent d'une etude systematique portant sur les collisions a vitesse constante, entre les projectiles d'hydrogene (H+, H2+ et H3+ a 1 MeV/nucleon) et deux cibles gazeuses (N2 et O2), soumises a differentes pressions. Les collisions sont analysees a l'aide des spectres d'emission (de 400 A a 6650 A) et des graphiques intensite/pression. Les spectres ont revele la presence des raies d'azote atomique, d'azote moleculaire, d'oxygene atomique, d'oxygene moleculaire et d'hydrogene atomique. Les raies d'hydrogene sont observees seulement avec les projectiles H2+ et H3+. Donc les processus responsables de la formation de ces raies sont des mecanismes de fragmentation des projectiles. Pour conclure, il existe une difference notable entre les projectiles et les differentes pressions. Les raies d'azote et d'oxygene augmentent selon la pression et les raies d'hydrogene atomique presentent une relation non lineaire avec la pression.

  1. DES Science Portal: II- Creating Science-Ready Catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fausti Neto, Angelo; et al.

    We present a novel approach for creating science-ready catalogs through a software infrastructure developed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We integrate the data products released by the DES Data Management and additional products created by the DES collaboration in an environment known as DES Science Portal. Each step involved in the creation of a science-ready catalog is recorded in a relational database and can be recovered at any time. We describe how the DES Science Portal automates the creation and characterization of lightweight catalogs for DES Year 1 Annual Release, and show its flexibility in creating multiple catalogs withmore » different inputs and configurations. Finally, we discuss the advantages of this infrastructure for large surveys such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. The capability of creating science-ready catalogs efficiently and with full control of the inputs and configurations used is an important asset for supporting science analysis using data from large astronomical surveys.« less

  2. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of intestinal full-thickness biopsy samples from cats with lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Marsilio, S; Kleinschmidt, S; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2014-05-01

    The distribution and numbers of CD3(+) T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin(+) plasma cells and calprotectin (L1)(+) macrophages was analyzed in full-thickness, formalin-fixed biopsy samples from the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and from the colon from nine cats with clinical signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All animals had lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or lymphoplasmacytic enterocolitis. Equivalent samples from the same intestinal regions from 12 healthy pet cats served as controls. Labelled cells in the lamina propria were counted by computer-aided morphometry. The different cell types were similarly distributed in both groups, but there were differences in their numbers. There were more CD3(+) T cells in the duodenum and jejunum of cats with IBD; however, the difference was only significant for the duodenum. There were significantly more IgA(+) cells in the duodenal crypt region. There were significantly more IgG(+) cells in the lower jejunal crypt region. Plasma cells expressing IgM were decreased in cats with IBD, but the difference was not significant. L1(+) macrophages were significantly decreased in the lower crypt area of the colon in cats with IBD and there was a trend to decreased L1(+) cells in the upper crypt area of the duodenum and jejunum. Comparison of the results of this study with previous findings on endoscopically-obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats with IBD revealed some differences. These discrepancies might relate to differences between control cat populations, types of biopsy samples, methodological factors such as different counting techniques and the activity of the disease at the time of sampling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Percutaneous transgastric computed tomography-guided biopsy of the pancreas using large needles

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hsiuo-Shan; Chen, Chia-Yuen; Chan, Wing P; Chiang, Jen-Huey

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety, yield and clinical utility of percutaneous transgastric computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of pancreatic tumor using large needles, in selected patients. METHODS: We reviewed 34 CT-guided biopsies in patients with pancreas mass, of whom 24 (71%) had a direct path to the mass without passing through a major organ. The needle passed through the liver in one case (3%). Nine passes (26%) were made through the stomach. These nine transgastric biopsies which used a coaxial technique (i.e. a 17-gauge coaxial introducer needle and an 18-gauge biopsy needle) were the basis of this study. Immediate and late follow-up CT images to detect complications were obtained. RESULTS: Tumor tissues were obtained in nine pancreatic biopsies, and histologic specimens for diagnosis were obtained in all cases. One patient, who had a rare sarcomatoid carcinoma, received a second biopsy. One patient had a complication of transient pneumoperitoneum but no subjective complaints. An immediate imaging study and clinical follow-up detected neither hemorrhage nor peritonitis. No delayed procedure-related complication was seen during the survival period of our patients. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic biopsy can be obtained by a transgastric route using a large needle as an alternative method, without complications of peritonitis or bleeding. PMID:20014462

  4. Using the verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) and health provider responses (VR-CoDES-P) in the dental context.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alice; Humphris, Gerry; Wanyonyi, Kristina L; Freeman, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    To show if cues, concerns and provider responses (defined in VR-CoDES and VR-CoDES-P manuals) are present, can be reliably coded and require additional advice for adoption in a dental context. Thirteen patients in a dental practice setting were videoed with either their dentist or hygienist and dental nurse present in routine treatment sessions. All utterances were coded using the Verona systems: VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P. Rates of cue, concerns and provider responses described and reliability tested. The VR-CoDES and VR-CoDES-P were successfully applied in the dental context. The intra-rater ICCs for the detection of cues and concerns and provider response were acceptable and above 0.75. A similar satisfactory result was found for the inter-rater reliability. The VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P are applicable in the dental setting with minor supporting guidelines and show evidence of reliable coding. The VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P may be helpful tools for analysing patient cues and concerns and the dental professionals' responses in the dental context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of specialties performing temporal artery biopsies in Ontario: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Temporal artery biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, but the numbers and types of surgical specialists performing temporal artery biopsies are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine which surgical specialists performed temporal artery biopsies and how geographic location influenced this trend over a period of 10 years. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all physicians practising in Ontario from 2002 to 2013. Using comprehensive physician services data from the IntelliHEALTH Medical Services database, physicians performing temporal artery biopsies were identified by the Ontario Health Insurance Plan billing code submitted for remuneration. Physicians were categorized by specialty and geographic Local Health Integration Unit. Results A total of 9958 patients underwent a temporal artery biopsy during the study period: the biopsies were performed by 11 different subspecialties. The number of patients undergoing a temporal artery biopsy declined over the 10-year study period. Most procedures were performed by general surgeons (38.1%), followed by ophthalmologists (31.0%) and plastic surgeons (23.6%). Ophthalmologists performed more temporal artery biopsies per person compared with general surgeons, but significantly more general surgeons performed at least 1 biopsy. There was significant variation based on geographic location: plastic surgeons performed the most biopsies in regions with a population of more than 1 million people, and general surgeons performed most of the biopsies in rural areas. Interpretation Geographic location heavily influenced which specialty was most likely to perform temporal artery biopsies. General surgery, ophthalmology and plastic surgery emerged as leaders in this area, and their residency programs should include formal training in this procedure in their curricula. PMID:26442226

  6. Penthrox inhaler analgesia in transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanyang; Woo, Henry H

    2015-06-01

    Periprostatic injection of local anaesthetic (PILA) has been shown to significantly reduce pain in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB). However, this method does not address pain that is associated with ultrasound probe insertion, and the injection of local anaesthetic itself causes pain. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of methoxyflurane delivered by a Penthrox inhaler as a novel method of pain relief during TRUSPB. From July 2012 to July 2013, 64 patients were scheduled at a single centre to undergo TRUSPB while receiving analgesia via Penthrox inhaler. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy procedure, these patients were asked to complete a pain score survey using a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) to separately report the degree of pain experienced during digital rectal examination (DRE), ultrasound probe insertion and core biopsy. The median pain scores on a 10-cm VAS were 2.0, 2.4 and 3.0 during DRE, probe insertion and needle biopsy, respectively, while using the Penthrox inhaler. Of the 64 patients, 11 had undergone TRUSPB previously receiving PILA. In these patients, PILA was significantly better than the Penthrox inhaler for pain relief during needle biopsy (median pain score 2.0 versus 4.0; P = 0.012). The Penthrox inhaler appears to be a safe and effective method of analgesia for TRUSPB. Patients who had experienced both PILA and Penthrox reported pain scores that significantly favoured PILA over the Penthrox inhaler. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Effect of Advanced Imaging Technology on How Biopsies Are Done and Who Does Them1

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Kerlan, Robert K.; Sunshine, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess national levels and trends in utilization of biopsy procedures during the past decade and investigate the relative roles of biopsy approaches (open, endoscopic, and percutaneous) and physician specialties. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was not necessary because only public domain data were used. Aggregated Medicare claims data were used to determine utilization of biopsies performed in 10 anatomic regions from 1997 to 2008. Utilization levels according to biopsy approach and anatomic region were calculated. Trends in the relative utilization of percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) and imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy (IGPB) were assessed. The relative roles of radiologists and nonradiologists in the performance of all biopsies, PNBs, and IGPBs were evaluated. Results: Biopsy procedures with all approaches increased from 1380 to 1945 biopsies per 100 000 Medicare enrollees between 1997 and 2008, which represents a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3%. Utilization of non-PNBs fell, while the absolute level and relative share of PNBs increased. In 2008, 67% of all biopsies were performed by using a percutaneous route. IGPB as a percentage of all PNBs increased over time in the regions for which data were available. Radiology was the leading specialty providing biopsy services. The total number of biopsies performed by radiologists increased at a CAGR of 8%, and radiologists’ share of all biopsies increased from 35% to 56%. Conclusion: During the past decade, there was continuing substitution away from invasive approaches and non–imaging-guided percutaneous approaches in favor of PNBs and IGPBs, likely related to increasing use of advanced imaging modalities for biopsy guidance. Consequently, radiologists are performing an increasing share of biopsies across all anatomic regions. © RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material:http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.10092130/-/DC1 PMID:20587643

  8. A comparison of diagnostic performance of vacuum-assisted biopsy and core needle biopsy for breast microcalcification: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu Chen; Hu, Xu Hua; Wang, Xiao Ran; Zhou, Chao Xi; Wang, Fei Fei; Yang, Shan; Wang, Gui Ying

    2018-03-16

    Core needle biopsy (CNB) and vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) are both popularly used breast percutaneous biopsies. Both of them have become reliable alternatives to open surgical biopsy (OSB) for breast microcalcification (BM). It is controversial that which biopsy method is more accurate and safer for BM. Hence, we conducted this meta-analysis to compare the diagnostic performance between CNB and VAB for BM, aiming to find out the better method. Articles according with including and excluding criteria were collected from the databases, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Preset outcomes were abstracted and pooled to find out the potential advantages in CNB or VAB. Seven studies were identified and entered final meta-analysis from initially found 138 studies. The rate of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) underestimation was significantly lower in VAB than CNB group [risk ratio (RR) = 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 to 2.40, p < 0.001]. The microcalcification retrieval rate was significantly higher in VAB than CNB group (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p = 0.02), while CNB owned a significantly lower complication rate than VAB (RR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.93, p = 0.04). The atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) underestimation rates were not compared for the limited number of studies reporting this outcome. Compared with CNB, VAB shows better diagnostic performance in DCIS underestimation rate and microcalcification retrieval rate. However, CNB shows a significantly lower complication rate. More studies are needed to verify these findings.

  9. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  10. A Single Center Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging against Transperineal Prostate Mapping Biopsy: An Analysis of Men with Benign Histology and Insignificant Cancer following Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pal, Raj P; Ahmad, Ros; Trecartan, Shaun; Voss, James; Ahmed, Shaista; Bazo, Alvaro; Lloyd, Jon; Walton, Thomas J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to detect prostate cancer against transperineal prostate mapping biopsy as the reference test. Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transperineal prostate mapping biopsy were performed in 426 patients between April 2012 and January 2016. Patients initially underwent systematic 12 core transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy followed 3 months later by 1.5 Tesla, high resolution T2, diffusion-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Two specialist uroradiologists blinded to the results of transperineal prostate mapping biopsy allocated a PI-RADS™ (Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System) score to each multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging study. Transperineal prostate mapping biopsy with 5 mm interval sampling, which was performed within 6 months of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, served as the reference test. Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy identified 247 of 426 patients with prostate cancer and 179 of 426 with benign histology. Transperineal prostate mapping biopsy detected prostate cancer in 321 of 426 patients. On transperineal prostate mapping biopsy 94 of 179 patients with benign transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy had prostate cancer and 95 of 247 with prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy were identified with cancer of higher grade. Using a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging PI-RADS score of 3 or greater to detect significant prostate cancer, defined as any core containing Gleason 4 + 3 or greater prostate cancer on transperineal prostate mapping biopsy, the ROC AUC was 0.754 (95% CI 0.677-0.819) with 87.0% sensitivity (95% CI 77.3-97.0), 55.3% specificity (95% CI 50.2-60.4) and 97.1% negative predictive value (95% CI 94.8-99.4). Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is a more

  11. Factors that increase diagnostic yield of surgical lung biopsy in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Gonzales, Danielle; Ross, James T; Dishop, Megan K; Deterding, Robin R; Partrick, David A

    2015-09-01

    Recent data demonstrate that surgical lung biopsy in immunocompromised children, including oncology patients, alters therapy in only 50% of cases. We hypothesized that there are factors identifiable preoperatively which can predict the patients who will or will not benefit from surgical biopsy. We reviewed the medical records of all children with malignancy who underwent surgical lung biopsy between 2004 and 2013 at a single institution, excluding those children who had previously undergone a solid organ or bone marrow transplant. Eighty lung wedge biopsies were performed (median age 13 years, IQR 5.25-16; 63% male, n=50) 53 (66%) of which led to a change in patient management. The majority of biopsies were performed to diagnose a new mass or differentiate infection from metastases (mass group) (n=68, 85%), and 12 biopsies (15%) were performed to diagnose a known infection for antibiotic guidance (infection group). Children in the infection group were more likely to be febrile preoperatively, were more likely to be an inpatient preoperatively, and had a lower absolute neutrophil count at the time of biopsy. Patients in the infection group had higher postoperative mortality rates and higher rates of major complications. In pediatric oncology patients, surgical lung biopsy has a lower diagnostic yield and higher complication rate when performed for antibiotic guidance. Prior to proceeding with biopsy in this high-risk patient population, surgeons and oncologists should carefully weigh the potential risks and benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative cost-effectiveness of fine needle aspiration biopsy versus image-guided biopsy, and open surgical biopsy in the evaluation of breast cancer in the era of Affordable Care Act: a changing landscape.

    PubMed

    Masood, Shahla; Rosa, Marilin; Kraemer, Dale F; Smotherman, Carmen; Mohammadi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Proven as a time challenged and cost-effective sampling procedure, the use of FNAB has still remained controversial among the scientific community. Currently, other minimally invasive sampling procedures such as ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) and image guided core needle biopsy (IG-CNB) have become the preferred sampling procedures for evaluation of breast lesions. However, changes in the medical economy and the current growing emphasis on cost containment in the era of the Affordable Care Act make it necessary to stimulate a renewed interest in the use of FNAB as the initial diagnostic sampling procedure. This study was designed to define the changing trend in the practice of tissue sampling during the last several years, and to assess the comparative effectiveness and appropriateness of the procedure of choice for breast cancer diagnosis. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the computer database of the Pathology Department, University of Florida, College of Medicine-Jacksonville at UF Health was retrospectively searched to identify all breast biopsy pathology reports issued during the period of January 2004 to December 2011. The inclusion criteria were all women that underwent any of the following biopsy types: FNAB, US-FNAB, IG-CNB, and surgical biopsy (SB). Diagnostic procedures were identified using current procedural terminology (CPT) codes recorded on claims from the UF Health Jacksonville patient accounting application files. The data obtained was used to determine which technique has the best cost-effectiveness in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The outcome variable for this project was a positive breast cancer diagnosis resulting from these methodologies. The predictor variable was the biopsy type used for sampling. The rate of cancer detection for each procedure was also determined. Among the four groups of procedures compared, the lower cost was attributed to FNAB, followed by US-FNAB, and SB. IG-CNB was the most

  13. Endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andreas; von Weyhern, Claus; Fend, Falko; Schneider, Jochen; Neu, Bruno; Meining, Alexander; Weidenbach, Hans; Schmid, Roland M; Prinz, Christian

    2008-02-21

    To evaluate the sensitivity of brush cytology and forceps biopsy in a homogeneous patient group with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Brush cytology and forceps biopsy were routinely performed in patients with suspected malignant biliary strictures. Fifty-eight consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) including forceps biopsy and brush cytology in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995-2005. Positive results for malignancy were obtained in 24/58 patients (41.4%) by brush cytology and in 31/58 patients (53.4%) by forceps biopsy. The combination of both techniques brush cytology and forceps biopsy resulted only in a minor increase in diagnostic sensitivity to 60.3% (35/58 patients). In 20/58 patients (34.5%), diagnosis were obtained by both positive cytology and positive histology, in 11/58 (19%) by positive histology (negative cytology) and only 4/58 patients (6.9%) were confirmed by positive cytology (negative histology). Brush cytology and forceps biopsy have only limited sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant hilar tumors. In our eyes, additional diagnostic techniques should be evaluated and should become routine in patients with negative cytological and histological findings.

  14. Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Methods Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. Results We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. Conclusions COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change. PMID:19390655

  15. [Application of Liquid Biopsy for Lung Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shunsuke; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    Liquid biopsy is defined as a non-invasive blood test that detects features of tumor cells, which are shed into the blood stream from the primary tumor and/or metastatic sites. This method is developing based on research on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the circulating free/fragments of tumor DNA (cfDNA). CfDNA can be detected in the absence of detectable CTCs, and has been shown to increase with the disease condition. The detection of cfDNA can be used for tumor genotyping, monitoring of the tumor burden, and monitoring minimal residual diseases, and recent results showed that cfDNA is a highly specific biomarker with intermediate sensitivity. Liquid biopsy with cfDNA is promising, and is becoming an alternative to re- biopsy. However, there are some caveats: it has not been elucidated which patients and tumor types can be accessed with cfDNA. Further research is warranted.

  16. Utility of pre-procurement bedside liver biopsy in the deceased extended-criteria liver donor.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Borup, Tim C; Popa, Sam; Saxena, Romil; Cummings, Oscar; Tector, A Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The Indiana Organ Procurement Organization (IOPO) utilizes preoperative bedside liver biopsies in certain extended-criteria donors (ECDs), obtained by the on-site coordinator, to determine the utility of pursuing donation. This study reports the clinical and financial outcomes for this management strategy. All bedside liver biopsies obtained in ECDs over a five-yr period were reviewed. Study variables included the following: indication for biopsy, biopsy results, taking the case to the operating room, transplantation of the donor liver, and graft survival. All biopsies were processed at a single university center. There were 110 donors biopsied. Primary indications included the following: old age (29%), extensive/current alcohol abuse (26%), hepatitis C-positive serology (21%), obesity (25%), and severely elevated liver function enzymes (18%). Biopsy results demonstrated a potentially transplantable liver in 73 cases (66%), all of whom were taken to the OR (while 37 ruled out for donation based upon liver biopsy [34%]). Of all biopsied livers, 49 ultimately were transplanted (45%). Intra-operative decisions included the following: transplant 51/73 (70%), surgeon decision to exclude 20/73 (27%), nonuse due to finding of malignancy two (3%). Bedside liver biopsy may be a valuable tool to determine the utility in pursuing donation in ECDs, particularly with liver-only donors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effectiveness of Sedoanalgesia in Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Premedication

    PubMed Central

    Sezgin, Orhan; Ates, Fehmi; Altintas, Engin; Saritas, Bunyamin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Percutaneous needle liver biopsy (PLB) is frequently associated with pain and anxiety. This may discourage the patients for biopsy, and rebiopsies, if needed. We planned a study to investigate the efficacy of additional analgesia or sedation for PLB. Materials and methods: The study has been designed as a single-center, prospective study. The PLB was planned for 18- to 65-year-old consecutive patients who were included in the study. The patients were divided into three premedication groups as control, Meperidine, and Midazolam. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure each subject’s anxiety level. Fifteen minutes before the biopsy, 1 mL 0.9% NaCl subcutaneously (sc), 1 mg/kg (max 100 mg) Meperidine sc, or 0.1 mg/kg (max 5 mg) Midazolam intravenously was administered to patients respectively. Then PLB was done with 16 G Menghini needle. The day after, the patients were asked about feelings regarding biopsy. Results: Groups were similar by gender and age. The HADS scores prior to PLB and on visual analog scale (VAS, 1-10 points) score during PLB were similar. In the three groups, 7, 12, and 7 patients, respectively, experienced no pain. Other patients explained pain as mild or moderate or severe. The number of patients who agreed for possible rebiopsy was higher in Meperidine and Midazolam groups than in the control group. Conclusion: Premedication with Meperidine or Midazolam in PLB would improve patients’ tolerance, comfort, and attitude against a possible repeat PLB. How to cite this article: Sezgin O, Yaras S, Ates F, Altintas E, Saritas B. Effectiveness of Sedoanalgesia in Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Premedication. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(2):146-149. PMID:29201797

  18. Small incision iris tumour biopsy using a cavernous sampling forceps.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulos, Argyrios; Kilic, Ergin; Joussen, Antonia M; Lipski, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective report is to describe our experience with the Essen-23G biopsy forceps (Akgül forceps) for biopsies of pigmented iris tumours. In this retrospective study of cases between October 2012 and September 2013, patients with iris tumours and clinical signs for malignancy underwent biopsy to secure the diagnosis. The Essen-23G-forceps was used to grasp and extract tissue through a clear corneal incision. Eventual entry and bimanual manipulation with a 23G mini-scissors was achieved through a second incision. Tissue samples were fixed in a sterile tube for further histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Seven eyes of seven patients underwent biopsy using the forceps. The average thickness of the iris tumours was 1.07±0.79 mm. A second corneal incision for scissoring in a bimanual technique was necessary in 5 cases (71%). In 6 cases (85%), a precise histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis was achieved. Complications were limited to minute bleeding at the biopsy site and one case of relative pupil enlargement (anisocoria) without further refractive issues. Iris tumour biopsies can be successfully approached using a cavernous 23G intraocular forceps with a low risk for procedure-related complications. The conical interior design allows for removal of whole tissue pieces with minimal manipulative artefacts. An optional bimanual access through a second corneal incision and use of a 23G scissors provides better efficacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. [Safety of reducing the recovery time after percutaneous and laparoscopic liver biopsy].

    PubMed

    Nodarse-Pérez, Pablo Orlando; Pérez-Menéndez, Roberto; Heredia-Andrade, Enkly Dennys; Noa-Pedroso, Guillermo; Araluce-Cordoví, Roberto; Fernández-Sotolongo, José

    2016-01-01

    Liver biopsy is the main diagnostic tool for the study of the liver, and as such, its inherent complications have been minimised as much as possible over the years, through the modification of several factors regarding its procedure, including post-biopsy recovery time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety in the reduction of post-liver biopsy recovery time. A non-blinded, randomised clinical trial was conducted in the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital from November 2011 to October 2012, on 128 patients in order to assess safety when reducing post-biopsy recovery times. The patients were randomised into 2 groups. Group A was allowed a 6-hour recovery time, while Group B was allowed a 2-hour recovery time after liver biopsy. Complications were fully recorded. The Chi squared test of homogeneity and Student t test was used as appropriate, in the statistical analysis, a significance level of 0.05 was set. The main biopsy indication was elevated plasma transaminases. Pain in the puncture site was the most recurrent complication (67.2%), and the most serious complication was subcapsular liver haematoma in two cases (1.6%). There were no differences regarding the liver biopsy technique that could have caused complications in any group. There were no significant differences between 2 hours and 6 hours post-liver biopsy recovery time in terms of complications, so it is considered that after two hours the patient is incorporated more quickly into their activities, and the institution spends less material and human resources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  20. Determining the Optimal Number of Core Needle Biopsy Passes for Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nam S; Ge, Benjamin H; Pan, Lorraine Y; Ozawa, Michael G; Kong, Christina S; Louie, John D; Shah, Rajesh P

    2018-03-01

    The number of core biopsy passes required for adequate next-generation sequencing is impacted by needle cut, needle gauge, and the type of tissue involved. This study evaluates diagnostic adequacy of core needle lung biopsies based on number of passes and provides guidelines for other tissues based on simulated biopsies in ex vivo porcine organ tissues. The rate of diagnostic adequacy for pathology and molecular testing from lung biopsy procedures was measured for eight operators pre-implementation (September 2012-October 2013) and post-implementation (December 2013-April 2014) of a standard protocol using 20-gauge side-cut needles for ten core biopsy passes at a single academic hospital. Biopsy pass volume was then estimated in ex vivo porcine muscle, liver, and kidney using side-cut devices at 16, 18, and 20 gauge and end-cut devices at 16 and 18 gauge to estimate minimum number of passes required for adequate molecular testing. Molecular diagnostic adequacy increased from 69% (pre-implementation period) to 92% (post-implementation period) (p < 0.001) for lung biopsies. In porcine models, both 16-gauge end-cut and side-cut devices require one pass to reach the validated volume threshold to ensure 99% adequacy for molecular characterization, while 18- and 20-gauge devices require 2-5 passes depending on needle cut and tissue type. Use of 20-gauge side-cut core biopsy needles requires a significant number of passes to ensure diagnostic adequacy for molecular testing across all tissue types. To ensure diagnostic adequacy for molecular testing, 16- and 18-gauge needles require markedly fewer passes.

  1. Conjunctival Biopsy as a First Choice to Confirm a Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz Ekren, Pervin; Mogulkoc, Nesrin; Toreyin, Zehra Nur; Egrilmez, Sait; Veral, Ali; Akalın, Taner; Bacakoglu, Feza

    2016-10-07

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous systemic disease of unknown aetiology. The diagnosis needs histological confirmation of the presence of non-caseating granulomata. One option is a conjunctival biopsy. The aims of this study were to evaluate conjunctival biopsy for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis with respect to its sensitivity and to assess its cost effectiveness by comparison with other histopathological diagnostic procedures. Patients were identified from the database of the Interstitial Lung Disease Clinic (ILDC) of the Chest Department of Ege University Hospital from May 2008 to June 2014.  The patients who had biopsy procedures performed for the definitive diagnosis of sarcoidosis were assessed. Their diagnostic procedures and the cost of procedures were recorded. The cost per positive result for each procedure was calculated.  Results: In total, 280 patients were followed up with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis, of whom 174 had histological confirmation; these constitute the study population. There were 127 females and 47 males with a median age of 46 years (range 14-78 years). Forty three patients had conjunctival biopsy and we could establish a diagnosis in 54% of these by means of conjunctival biopsy. Moreover, we showed that this biopsy can provide positive result for sarcoidosis patients who lack abnormal eye findings. Additionally, it is cost effective approach and without complications. This study re-asserts the value of  conjunctival biopsy, which was described in the past but is not commonly used nowadays. In the presence of suggestive clinic and radiologic findings, we recommend conjunctival biopsy as the first choice for the histopathological confirmation of sarcoidosis.

  2. Shape memory alloy-based biopsy device for active locomotive intestinal capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Le, Viet Ha; Hernando, Leon-Rodriguez; Lee, Cheong; Choi, Hyunchul; Jin, Zhen; Nguyen, Kim Tien; Go, Gwangjun; Ko, Seong-Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho

    2015-03-01

    Recently, capsule endoscopes have been used for diagnosis in digestive organs. However, because a capsule endoscope does not have a locomotive function, its use has been limited to small tubular digestive organs, such as small intestine and esophagus. To address this problem, researchers have begun studying an active locomotive intestine capsule endoscope as a medical instrument for the whole gastrointestinal tract. We have developed a capsule endoscope with a small permanent magnet that is actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system, allowing active and flexible movement in the patient's gut environment. In addition, researchers have noted the need for a biopsy function in capsule endoscope for the definitive diagnosis of digestive diseases. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel robotic biopsy device for active locomotive intestine capsule endoscope. The proposed biopsy device has a sharp blade connected with a shape memory alloy actuator. The biopsy device measuring 12 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length was integrated into our capsule endoscope prototype, where the device's sharp blade was activated and exposed by the shape memory alloy actuator. Then the electromagnetic actuation system generated a specific motion of the capsule endoscope to extract the tissue sample from the intestines. The final biopsy sample tissue had a volume of about 6 mm(3), which is a sufficient amount for a histological analysis. Consequently, we proposed the working principle of the biopsy device and conducted an in-vitro biopsy test to verify the feasibility of the biopsy device integrated into the capsule endoscope prototype using the electro-magnetic actuation system. © IMechE 2015.

  3. Minimisation des inductances propres des condensateurs à film métallisé

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Ch.; Rojat, G.; Béroual, A.

    1995-07-01

    In this article, we examine the different factors responsible for the equivalent series inductance in metallized capacitors and we propose structures for capacitors that reduce this inductance. After recalling the structure of metallized capacitors we compare, by experimental measurements, the inductance due to the winding and that one added by the connections. The latter can become preponderant. In order to explain the experimental evolution of the winding impedance vs. frequency, we describe an analytical model which gives the current density in the winding and its impedance. This model enables us to determine the self resonant frequency for different types of capacitors. From where, we can infer the influence of the height of capacitors and their internal and external radius upon performances, It appears that to reduce the equivalent series inductance, it is better to use flat windings and annular windings. Dans cet article nous examinons les différents facteurs responsables de l'inductance équivalente série dans les condensateurs à film métallisé et proposons des géométries de condensateurs qui réduisent cette inductance. Après avoir rappelé la structure des condensateurs à film métallisé, nous comparons, par des mesures expérimentales, l'inductance due au bobinage et l'inductance ajoutée par les connexions. Cette dernière peut devenir prépondérante. Afin d'expliquer l'évolution de l'impédance du bobinage en fonction de la fréquence, nous décrivons un modèle analytique qui donne la densité du courant dans le bobinage et l'impédance de ce dernier. En outre, ce modèle permet de déterminer la fréquence de résonance série de divers types de condensateurs ce qui permet de déduire l'influence de la hauteur des condensateurs et de leurs rayons interne et externe sur les performances. Il apparaît ainsi que, pour diminuer l'inductance équivalente série, il vaut mieux employer des bobinages plats et des bobinages annulaires.

  4. Variability of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy prophylactic measures.

    PubMed

    Hillelsohn, Joel H; Duty, Brian; Blute, Michael L; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Kashan, Mahyar; Moldwin, Robert; Ashley, Richard N

    2012-12-01

    To assess the variability of pre-prostate biopsy prophylaxis among American urologists. A survey was electronically mailed to 3355 urologists around the country. Urologists were surveyed on their antibiotic prophylaxis choice, the route and duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis. Additionally they were questioned about their knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance and if rectal enemas were routinely used. There were 679 (21%) responses to the survey. The survey revealed differences in pre-prostate biopsy prophylaxis among urologists. Ten different classes of antibiotics were used orally, 4 classes intramuscular, 5 classes intravenous, and there was also 14 different duration regimens. Despite the initiation of the 2008 American Urological Association Guidelines on this topic, there still is a lack of uniformity in prostate biopsy prophylaxis.

  5. Optical spectroscopy for stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, Niklas; von Berg, Anna; Fiedler, Sebastian; Goetz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Polzer, Christoph; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic biopsy procedure is performed to obtain a tissue sample for diagnosis purposes. Currently, a fiber-based mechano-optical device for stereotactic biopsies of brain tumors is developed. Two different fluorophores are employed to improve the safety and reliability of this procedure: The fluorescence of intravenously applied indocyanine green (ICG) facilitates the recognition of blood vessels and thus helps minimize the risk of cerebral hemorrhages. 5- aminolevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is used to localize vital tumor tissue. ICG fluorescence detection using a 2-fiber probe turned out to be an applicable method to recognize blood vessels about 1.5 mm ahead of the fiber tip during a brain tumor biopsy. Moreover, the suitability of two different PpIX excitation wavelengths regarding practical aspects was investigated: While PpIX excitation in the violet region (at 405 nm) allows