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Sample records for distribution lines due

  1. Excessive magnetic field flux density distribution from overhead isolated powerline conductors due to neutral line current.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    Overhead isolated powerline conductors (hereinafter: "OIPLC") are the most compact form for distributing low voltage currents. From the known physics of magnetic field emission from 3-phase power lines, it is expected that excellent symmetry of the 120° shifted phase currents and where compact configuration of the 3-phase+neutral line exist, the phase current vectorial summation of the magnetic field flux density (MFFD) is expected to be extremely low. However, despite this estimation, an unexpectedly very high MFFD was found in at least three towns in Israel. This paper explains the reasons leading to high MFFD emissions from compact OIPLC and the proper technique to fix it. Analysis and measurement results had led to the failure hypothsis of neutral line poor connection design and poor grounding design of the HV-LV utility transformers. The paper elaborates on the low MFFD exposure level setup by the Israeli Environmental Protection Office which adopted a rather conservative precaution principal exposure level (2 mG averaged over 24 h).

  2. Configuration of three distributed lines for reducing noise due to the coupling of the common and normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Souma; Toki, Hiroshi; Abe, Masayoshi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the coupling between the common and normal modes in distributed lines and the resulting electromagnetic noise were considered. The telegraph equations of three distributed lines with the boundary conditions of a lumped circuit reveal the presence of mode-coupling noise. To reduce the coupling noise, the geometrically and electrically symmetric configuration of the three distributed lines is proposed. The simulation results show that the proposed configuration can decrease the mode-coupling noise by a factor of 1 ×10-8 in comparison with that of asymmetric configurations.

  3. Lightning protection of distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, T.E. ); Short, T.A. ); Anderson, J.G. , Pittsfield, MA )

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a study of distribution line lightning performance, using computer simulations of lightning overvoltages. The results of previous investigations are extended with a detailed model of induced voltages from nearby strokes, coupled into a realistic power system model. The paper also considers the energy duty of distribution-class surge arresters exposed to direct strokes. The principal result is that widely separated pole-top arresters can effectively protect a distribution line from induced-voltage flashovers. This means that nearby lightning strokes need not be a significant lightning performance problem for most distribution lines.

  4. Theory of Moessbauer line broadening due to diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, K.; Wolf, D.; Dederichs, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    We have calculated the line broadening of the Moessbauer line due to diffusion of Moessbauer atoms via single vacanices. We take into account the perturbation of vacancy jumps in the neighbourhood of an impurity Moessbauer atom (e.g. Fe in Al) using the 5-frequency model. The anisotropy of the line width is given by the Fourier transform of the final distribution of a Moessbauer atom after an encounter with a vacancy. This distribution is calculated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. 3 figures, 1 tables.

  5. Interaction of lightning with power distribution lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, Carlos Tomas

    Triggered-lightning experiments were conducted in 1996, 1999, and 2000 to study the responses of overhead power distribution lines to lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The lightning was artificially initiated (triggered) from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, and its current was directed to a phase conductor at midspan or at a pole near the center of the line. Experimental results and associated EMTP modeling are presented in this dissertation for the following line configurations: (1)a two-conductor, 740-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1996; (2)a four- conductor, 245-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1999; and (3)a four-conductor, 829-m overhead distribution line with 6 arrester stations in 2000. The three-phase lines tested in 1999 and 2000 were standard designs of a major Florida power company. Lightning peak currents injected into the lines ranged from 7 to 57 kA. Voltages and currents were measured at various locations along the line. Video and photographic cameras were used to image lightning channels and detect line flashovers. The significant results of the research are (1)flashovers between conductors were observed, both accompanied and not accompanied by arrester failures, (2)an arrester failed on seven of eight direct lightning strikes to the line in 2000, (3)arcing between conductors may prevent failures of arresters connected to the struck phase, (4)the bulk of the lightning current flows from the struck phase to neutral through the arresters closest to the strike point, (5)the withstand energy of the arresters can be exceeded due to the contribution from multiple strokes and/or relatively low-level, long-lasting current components, (6)the distribution of charge transferred to ground among multiple neutral grounds, which is determined by low-frequency, low-current grounding resistances is different from the

  6. Shifts of the Al-26 line due to Galactic rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skibo, Jeff; Ramaty, Reuven

    1991-01-01

    The shape of the Al-26 line is evaluated using a Galactic disk rotation curve and assuming various galactic distributions of radioactive aluminum. The line shape depends on galactic longitude, detector opening angle, and the assumed aluminum distribution. For a detector of 20 deg aperture and 2.5 keV resolution, the shift of the line peak can be as large as 0.4 keV. Such a shift could be detected with the proposed nuclear astrophysics explorer.

  7. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to suture line breakdown after bladder operation.

    PubMed

    Boogerd, W; Zoetmulder, F A; Moffie, D

    1990-01-01

    A patient is described with a severe encephalopathy and hyperammonemia in absence of liver dysfunction, attributed to urine absorption into the systemic circulation due to suture line breakdown after bladder dome resection. At autopsy characteristic Alzheimer type II astrocytes were found in the basal ganglia.

  8. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  9. Degree distribution and assortativity in line graphs of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Trajanovski, Stojan; Kooij, Robert E.; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2016-03-01

    Topological characteristics of links of complex networks influence the dynamical processes executed on networks triggered by links, such as cascading failures triggered by links in power grids and epidemic spread due to link infection. The line graph transforms links in the original graph into nodes. In this paper, we investigate how graph metrics in the original graph are mapped into those for its line graph. In particular, we study the degree distribution and the assortativity of a graph and its line graph. Specifically, we show, both analytically and numerically, the degree distribution of the line graph of an Erdős-Rényi graph follows the same distribution as its original graph. We derive a formula for the assortativity of line graphs and indicate that the assortativity of a line graph is not linearly related to its original graph. Additionally, line graphs of various graphs, e.g. Erdős-Rényi graphs, scale-free graphs, show positive assortativity. In contrast, we find certain types of trees and non-trees whose line graphs have negative assortativity.

  10. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  11. Fracture line distribution of olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Bart; Mellema, Jos J; Janssen, Stein J; Ring, David

    2017-01-01

    The association between specific olecranon fracture characteristics (e.g., displacement, fragmentation, subluxation) and fracture line distribution might help surgeons predict intra-articular fracture location based on fracture characteristics that can be determined on radiographs. We hypothesized that fracture mapping techniques would reveal different fracture patterns for minimally displaced fractures, displaced fractures, and fracture-dislocations of the olecranon. A consecutive series of 78 patients with olecranon fractures were evaluated using initial radiographs and computed tomography scans and characterized according to the Mayo classification. Fracture lines were identified based on reduced three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and graphically superimposed onto a standard template to create two-dimensional fracture maps. The fracture maps were then converted into fracture heat maps. Based on fracture and heat maps, fracture line location and patterns were determined. Six (7.7%) patients had a non- or minimally displaced fracture, 22 (28%) a displaced fracture, and 50 (64%) a fracture-dislocation of the olecranon. There were 27 (54%) anterior and 23 (46%) posterior olecranon fracture-dislocations. Fracture lines of non- or minimally displaced fractures and posterior fracture-dislocations enter and exit the trochlear notch at the base of the coronoid, while fracture lines of displaced fractures and anterior fracture-dislocations were spread more broadly over the depths of the trochlear notch. Based on fracture characteristics depicted on radiographs, one can anticipate the amount of the olecranon involved (how close is the fracture line to the coronoid) and the orientation of the fracture line. Computer tomography could be reserved for when more specific knowledge of the fracture line might affect treatment. III.

  12. Distribution main rehabilitated with HDPE lining process

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, M. )

    1994-08-01

    Innovative use of a new HDPE lining technology recently saved Brooklyn Union Gas Co. 30% over conventional replacement costs. The company chose lining technology from United Pipeline Systems called Tite Liner to rehabilitate 2,500 ft of 20-in., 15 psig, bare steel main in Brooklyn's Bay Ridge section, an area spanning six city blocks and crossing three major avenues. The main is mechanically joined with no offsets or service connections. Due to surface and subsurface working space restrictions and the impact on costs, the company elected to employ the liner system in which a specially designed HDPE liner pipe is reduced to a smaller diameter through a rolldown box for insertion into a steel or cast iron main. A tight fit is attained as the liner is allowed to expand against the pipe wall after pull through.

  13. Luminosity Distribution for Broad Absorption Line QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cales, S. L.; Canalizo, G.; Lacy, M.

    2004-12-01

    The relationship of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs to the general QSO population remains uncertain. We present a preliminary set of BALQSOs from a large sample of BALQSOs identified from the SDSS Data Release 2 (DR2) Catalog in order to further study the relationship. The use of the SDSS DR2 allows us to access a much larger population of BAL and non-BAL QSOs relative to previous studies. To inspect this relationship we use spectroscopic data from SDSS to compare BALQSO luminosity distributions with those of the non-BALQSO population. Within the BALQSO population, high (Hi) and low (Lo) ionization classifications are studied in relation with their luminosity distribution. Preliminary results show the LoBALQSOs appearing less luminous than the general population and more numerous that previously suggested. Their distribution also shows a secondary peak not observed in the other types of QSOs. From this data we look at three questions; first, are BALQSOs more or less luminous than the non-BALQSO population, second, are there changes in the luminosity of these types of QSOs as a function of redshift, and lastly, how do these results clarify the relationship between BALQSOs and non-BALQSOs. A discussion of possible selection effects is also included.

  14. 7 CFR 1726.51 - Distribution line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution line construction. 1726.51 Section 1726..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Distribution Facilities § 1726.51 Distribution line construction. (a) Contract forms. The borrower must use RUS Form 790, or 830,...

  15. 49 CFR 192.181 - Distribution line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... line valves. (a) Each high-pressure distribution system must have valves spaced so as to reduce the... the flow or pressure of gas in a distribution system must have a valve installed on the inlet piping... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution line valves. 192.181 Section 192.181...

  16. Monitoring pipe line stress due to ground displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, J.H. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    Northwest Pipeline Corp. has a large-diameter natural gas pipe line system from Ignacio, Colo., to Sumas, Wash. At Douglas Pass in Colorado, large landslides required several sections of the line to be relocated outside the slide areas: 4,400 ft of new line in April 1962 and 3,200 ft in March 1963. No serious disruptions occurred for the next 16 years. Then in July 1979, some 1,200 ft had to be relocated. From 1980 to date, many landslides in the Douglas Pass area have caused new deformations, with the springs of 1983 and 1984 being the worst years. In 1980, Northwest Pipeline began engineering and geotechnical studies of the landslide problems. These led to instrumentation and pipe monitoring which indicated that pipe failure can be predicted and prevented if important slope deformations or increases in pipe stresses are detected early enough to implement some mitigating measures. Excavation of the pipe to relieve the stresses was used in most cases. The method was so successful that no pipe failure occurred in 1984 within instrumented sections, in spite of the exceptionally bad climatic conditions experienced.

  17. Manipulator system for constructing overhead distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, H.; Tsuchihashi, H.; Waki, S.; Mochizuki, K. ); Yamamoto, T.; Watanabe, H. ); Furukawa, H. )

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes the manipulator for live-line construction of high-voltage overhead power transmission lines (line voltage 6.6 kV) that is being jointly developed by Tokyo Electric Power and other companies. It describes this system's development concept, makeup, functions, and design, as well as operability tests using actual-scale transmission line poles. In this research, development began in 1984. As the first step, a prototype model of a ground-mounted twin-arm manipulator was trial-manufactured in 1985. As the second step, in 1988 a truck-mounted system was developed in which the twin-arm manipulator was mounted on a cherrypicker vehicle. As the third step, a practical system was developed based on these results.

  18. Probabilistic approach to damage of tunnel lining due to fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šejnoha, Jiří; Sýkora, Jan; Novotná, Eva; Šejnoha, Michal

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, risk is perceived as the probable damage caused by a fire in the tunnel lining. In its first part the traffic flow is described as a Markov chain of joint states consisting of a combination of trucks/buses (TB) and personal cars (PC) from adjoining lanes. The heat release rate is then taken for a measure of the fire power. The intensity λf reflecting the frequency of fires was assessed based on extensive studies carried out in Austria [1] and Italy [2, 3]. The traffic density AADT, the length of the tunnel L, the percentage of TBs, and the number of lanes are the remaining parameters characterizing the traffic flow. In the second part, a special combination of models originally proposed by Bažant and Thonguthai [4], and Künzel & Kiessl [5] for the description of transport processes in concrete at very high temperatures creates a basis for the prediction of the thickness of the spalling zone and the volume of concrete degraded by temperatures that exceed a certain temperature level. The model was validated against a macroscopic test on concrete samples placed into the furnace.

  19. EPR Line Shifts and Line Shape Changes Due to Spin Exchange of Nitroxide Free Radicals in Liquids 6. Separating Line Broadening due to Spin Exchange and Dipolar Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Barney L; Meyer, Michelle; Smith, Steve; Peric, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    EPR spectra of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (PDT) are studied as functions of molar concentration, c, and temperature, T, in water and 70 wt% glycerol in water. The increase of the intrinsic linewidth averaged over the three hyperfine lines, 〈Btot〉, varies linearly with c with zero intercept in both solvents at all temperatures; therefore ddc〈Btot〉 is independent of c. The spin exchange induced dispersion, from which the spin exchange frequency, ωe, may be computed, increases linearly with 〈Btot〉, passing through the origin in water and in 70 % glycerol at high temperatures; however, at low temperatures, where dipolar interactions broaden the spectra, linearity does not prevail until 〈Btot〉 > 1 G due to a contribution of dipolar interactions to the dispersion. The broadening constant due to spin exchange, ddc〈Be〉, is found from the slope of the linear region, permitting a computation of the dipolar constant, ddcBdip=ddc〈Btot〉−ddc〈Be〉. Thus, the separation of concentration broadening into spin exchange and dipolar contributions is effected without having to appeal to some supposed temperature dependence of the two interactions. The fractional broadening by spin exchange, Ω(T), is near unity at high temperatures in both solvents, decreasing to zero in 70 % glycerol at 273 K. Ω(T) is a continuous function of the inverse rotational correlation time of PDT, but is discontinuous as a function of T/η where η is the shear viscosity. Ω(T) = 0.5, where spin exchange and dipolar interactions contribute equally to the linewidth occurs at T/η = 20 ± 1 K/cP in 70 % glycerol. Hydrodynamic predictions of ddc〈Be〉 via the Stokes-Einstein (SE) equation are remarkably accurate in 70 % glycerol comparable with the results in a series of alkanes. In water, ddc〈Be〉 is linear with T /η with zero intercept as required by the SE; however, with slope a factor of 0.73 smaller. ddc〈Bdip〉 is reasonably predicted by

  20. Brief communication: coaxial lines for multiphase power distribution.

    PubMed

    Barnes, F S; Harwick, P; Banerjee, A

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial cable can be used to reduce the magnetic and electric fields that extend into environments in the vicinity of transmission lines and distribution lines and in-house or building wiring for power distribution systems. The use of the coaxial geometry may prove useful in cases where there are environmental concerns with respect to health effects and in cases where there is a need to run high-speed data communications in close proximity to power distribution systems.

  1. Particle distribution measurements using in line Fraunhofer holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D.; Malone, R.; Frogget, B.; Ciarcia, C.; Tunnell, T.; Flurer, R.

    1996-10-01

    In-line Fraunhofer holography has been developed and implemented at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure particle distributions of fast moving particles. Holography is a unique diagnostic that gives unambiguous information on the size and shapes of particle distributions over a three dimensional volume. Currently, the capability of measuring particles two microns in size which travel many mm/{mu}sec has been demonstrated in hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility. Normally, for setting up an in- line holography experiment for measuring particles a few microns in size, the holographic film would be placed less than one centimeter from the particles. However, due to the high energy associated with the dynamic experiment, an optical relay system is used to relay the interference pattern 35 cm so that glass hologram will survive. After the hologram has been made the data must be extracted. This is accomplished by using a laser to reconstruct the data in space. This three dimensional image is then digitized via a CCD camera and a three axis actuator system. After the data has been digitized it is then analyzed with intelligent image processing algorithms. Details will be described below.

  2. Line Loss Minimization of Loop Distribution Systems Using UPFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Mahmoud A.; Inayoshi, Nobuyuki; Takeshita, Takaharu; Ueda, Fukashi

    This paper presents an elaborated mathematical analysis of the line loss minimum conditions of loop distribution systems. In order to achieve these conditions, the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), a typical Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) device that is capable of instantaneous control of transmission and distribution power flow, is used. For minimizing the total line loss of the loop distribution system, the authors propose two control schemes, the Line Inductance Compensation control and the Line Voltage Compensation control. These control schemes can be applied for controlling the UPFC in the loop distribution system according to the line parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes has been verified experimentally using a laboratory prototype in a 200V, 6kVA system.

  3. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the atmospheric muon flux and the associated depth-intensity relation are measured and compared with previous measurements and Monte Carlo expectations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is presented.

  4. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  5. Voltage variation due to solar photovoltaic in distribution network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, H. I.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.; >Hesamaldin Maleki,

    2013-06-01

    Grid integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) plant offers reduction in greenhouse emissions and independence from fossil fuels for power generation. The integration of such forms of power generation also brings with it a variety of policy and technical issues. One of the technical issues is the variation in grid voltages in the presence of solar photovoltaic (PV) plant, resulting in degradation of power quality. In this paper, the application of a dq current controller to limit the voltage variation at the point of common coupling (PCC) due to a 2 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) plant will be discussed. The controller's goal is to ensure that the voltage variation meets the momentary voltage change limits specified in TNB's Technical Guidebook for the connection of distributed generation. The proposed dq current controller is shown to be able to limit the voltage variation.

  6. Changes in dimethyl sulfide oceanic distribution due to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Scott; Erickson III, David J

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here we report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. We find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associated with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  7. Large capacitor performs as a distributed parameter pulse line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Capacitor of extended foil construction performs as a distributed parameter pulse line in which current, amplitude, and period are readily controlled. The capacitor is used as the energy storage element in a pulsed plasma accelerator.

  8. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Ji, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2017-02-01

    Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV) power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a "mass" counterterm in the auxiliary z-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  9. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  10. 49 CFR 192.181 - Distribution line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution line valves. 192.181 Section 192.181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.181 Distribution...

  11. Changes in photon dose distributions due to breast prostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, E.E. ); Kuske, R.R. )

    1993-02-15

    Subcutaneous prosthetic implants have been routinely used for cosmetic augmentation and for tissue replacement following mastectomy over the last 15 years. The implants come in many forms as the gel filler material and surrounding shell material(s) vary significantly. This study uses a thin window parallel-plate chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters to quantify any dosimetric changes to surrounding breast tissue due to the presence of the prosthesis. A mammographic phantom was compared to four commercial prostheses, namely two silicon gel fillers within two different shells (silicon or silicon/polyurethane), a tri-glyceride within silicon and a bio-oncotic gel within silicon and a bio-oncotic gel within silicon/polyurethane. The latter two implants were designed with a low-Z fill for diagnostic imaging benefits. Ion chamber results indicate no significant alteration of depth doses away from the implant with only minor canceling (parallel opposed) interface perturbations for all implants. In addition the physical changes to the irradiated prostheses were quantified by tonometry testing and qualified by color change. Each implant exhibited color change following 50 Gy, and the bio-oncotic gel became significantly less formable following irradiation, and even less formable 6 weeks postirradiation. The data indicates that prostheses do not affect the photon beam distribution, but radiation does affect the prosthesis. 9 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Redshift distribution of Lyα lines and metal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-11-01

    The observed redshift distribution of Lyα lines and metal systems is examined in order to discriminate and to trace the evolution of structure elements observed in the galaxy distribution, at small redshifts, and to test the theoretical description of structure evolution. We show that the expected evolution of a filamentary component of structure describes quite well the redshift distribution of metal systems and stronger Lyα lines with log(NHi)>=14, at z<=3. The redshift distribution of weaker Lyα lines can be attributed to the population of poorer structure elements (Zel'dovich pancakes), which were formed at high redshifts from the invisible dark matter and non-luminous baryonic matter, and which at lower redshifts are mainly merged and dispersed.

  13. Intrinsic speckle noise in in-line particle holography due to polydisperse and continuous particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Philip J.; Hobson, Peter R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-08-01

    In-line particle holography is subject to image deterioration due to intrinsic speckle noise. The resulting reduction in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the replayed image can become critical for applications such as holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) and 3D visualisation of marine plankton. Work has been done to extend the mono-disperse model relevant to HPV to include poly-disperse particle fields appropriate for the visualisation of marine plankton. Continuous and discrete particle fields are both considered. It is found that random walk statistics still apply for the poly-disperse case. The speckle field is simply the summation of the individual speckle patters due to each scatter size. Therefor the characteristic speckle parameter (which encompasses particle diameter, concentration and sample depth) is alos just the summation of the individual speckle parameters. This reduces the SNR calculation to the same form as for the mono-disperse case. For the continuous situation three distributions, power, exponential and Gaussian are discussed with the resulting SNR calcuated. The work presented here was performed as part of the Holomar project to produce a working underwater holographic camera for recording plankton.

  14. Spatial signature of electron distributions around the X line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Shinohara, I.; Owen, C. J.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Takada, T.; Runov, A.; Baumjohann, W.; Nagai, T.; Luceck, E. A.; Reme, H.

    2006-12-01

    We present spatial signatures of the electron distribution functions around the X line obtained from the PEACE instrument onboard the Cluster satellites. Highly accelerated electron beams into the X line up to 5 keV with thermalized electrons are observed in the vicinity of the X line as well as < 1 keV electrons related to the field-aligned current which is considered to be connected to the Hall current system, and the flat-top distribution. They are mainly observed in the off-equatorial region with finite magnetic field intensity. In some cases they are rather stable and continuously observed for a few minutes. We discuss generation mechanisms of such distributions by examining their relation to the magnetic field and ion / proton data, and compare them with several theoretical ideas.

  15. 10. MAP SHOWING 'THE ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTING LINES AND WATERWAYS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. MAP SHOWING 'THE ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTING LINES AND WATERWAYS OF THE TELLURIDE POWER COMPANY OF COLORADO'. THE AMES POWER STATION LIES AT THE FORK OF THE GORGE, LOWER LEFT OF CENTER IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Ames Hydroelectric Plant, Ames, San Miguel County, CO

  16. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  17. Real line strength distributions for random band models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. J.; Caldwell, J.

    1983-01-01

    An improved random band-model method, which makes allowance for the real line-strength distribution, is proposed. The model is shown to be useful for low-resolution, infrared observational data of the outer solar system. The method can be used as easily as conventional random band calculations. In the illustrative examples cited here, the variation of line width with J, the rotational quantum number, is small. Other effects which can, in principle, cause the model to deviate from laboratory observations are discussed. These include the assumption that line positions are random, ignoring the effects of the Lorentz wings of lines immediately outside the specific interval for which the mean transmission is calculated, and ignoring the effects of instrumental slit functions.

  18. Elliptic flow in small systems due to elliptic gluon distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshikazu; Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the contributions from the so-called elliptic gluon Wigner distributions to the rapidity and azimuthal correlations of particles produced in high energy pp and pA collisions by applying the double parton scattering mechanism. We compute the 'elliptic flow' parameter v2 as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity, and find qualitative agreement with experimental observations. This shall encourage further developments with more rigorous studies of the elliptic gluon distributions and their applications in hard scattering processes in pp and pA collisions.

  19. Predicting Change in Eelgrass Distribution Due to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted ...

  20. Predicting Change in Eelgrass Distribution Due to Sea Level Rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted ...

  1. State space representations of distributed fluid line dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, H.; Goodson, R. E.; Leonard, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the convenience of using a systematic straight forward procedure to obtain meaningful dynamic information for a class of complex distributed parameter fluid line networks. System transients in the time domain are determined by means of state space techniques. Digital computer implementation yields a simple but consistent way of obtaining overall system time solutions. A step-by-step analysis procedure flow chart is shown in Appendix I which illustrates the basic approach for modeling, approximating and selecting digital techniques for simulating the dynamic response of fluid line systems.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic disc winds and line width distributions - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajet, L. S.; Hall, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of Emmering et al. Here, we extend our previous work to consider central objects with different masses and/or luminosities. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV line-width distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. Following Fine et al., we transform that scatter in the profile line-widths into a constraint on the torus geometry and show how the half-opening angle of the obscuring structure depends on the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. We find that the results depend only mildly on the dimensionless angular momentum, one of the two integrals of motion that characterize the dynamics of the self-similar ideal MHD outflows.

  3. An estimation of lightning insulation level of overhead distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, P.B.; Grzybowski, S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Ross, E.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops a practical procedure for determining the total insulation strength of multiple or composite insulations most commonly used in the design of overhead distribution lines. Laboratory test data were obtained on a wide range of combinations and configurations utilizing porcelain, polymer and fiberglass insulators as well as wood poles and wood crossarms. Data were obtained for both dry and wet conditions with positive and negative polarities of the impulses.

  4. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    PubMed

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Million-line failure distributions for narrow interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelt, M.C.; Hoyt, J.J.; Bartelt, N.C.; Dike, J.J.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1997-12-01

    The authors examine the distribution of failure times in a simple and computationally efficient, yet reasonably authentic, model of interconnect reliability that allows consideration of statistically significant samples. The model includes an approximate description of the distribution of grain sizes and texture in narrow interconnects, an effective treatment of stress evolution associated with mass transport along grain boundaries, and local relaxation of stresses due to void formation. Failure time distributions for populations of idealized structures are analyzed to aid in interpretation of model behavior.

  6. First In Situ Evidence of Electron Pitch Angle Scattering Due to Magnetic Field Line Curvature in the Ion Diffusion Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shen, C.; Marchaudon, A.; Rong, Z.; Lavraud, B.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Yao, Z.; Mihaljcic, B.; Ji, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Theory predicts that the first adiabatic invariant of a charged particle may be violated in a region of highly curved field lines, leading to significant pitch angle scattering for particles whose gyroradius are comparable to the radius of the magnetic field line curvature. This scattering generates more isotropic particle distribution functions, with important impacts on the presence or absence of plasma instabilities. Using magnetic curvature analysis (MCA) based on multipoint Cluster spacecraft observations, we present the first investigation of magnetic curvature in the vicinity of an ion diffusion region where reconnected field lines are highly curved. Electrons at energies > 8 keV show a clear pitch angle ordering between bidirectional or trapped distribution in surrounding regions, while we show that in the more central part of the ion diffusion region electrons above such energies become isotropic. By contrast, colder electrons ( 1 keV) retain their bidirectional character throughout the diffusion regions. The calculated adiabatic parameter for these electrons is in agreement with theory. This study provides the first observational evidence for particle pitch angle scattering due to magnetic field lines with well characterized curvature in a space plasma.

  7. First in situ evidence of electron pitch angle scattering due to magnetic field line curvature in the Ion diffusion region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Shen, C.; Marchaudon, A.; Rong, Z. J.; Lavraud, B.; Fazakerley, A.; Yao, Z.; Mihaljcic, B.; Ji, Y.; Ma, Y. H.; Liu, Z. X.

    2016-05-01

    Theory predicts that the first adiabatic invariant of a charged particle may be violated in a region of highly curved field lines, leading to significant pitch angle scattering for particles whose gyroradius are comparable to the radius of the magnetic field line curvature. This scattering generates more isotropic particle distribution functions, with important impacts on the presence or absence of plasma instabilities. Using magnetic curvature analysis based on multipoint Cluster spacecraft observations, we present the first investigation of magnetic curvature in the vicinity of an ion diffusion region where reconnected field lines are highly curved. Electrons at energies > 8 keV show a clear pitch angle ordering between bidirectional and trapped distribution in surrounding regions, while we show that in the more central part of the ion diffusion region electrons above such energies become isotropic. By contrast, colder electrons (~1 keV) retain their bidirectional character throughout the diffusion regions. The calculated adiabatic parameter K2 for these electrons is in agreement with theory. This study provides the first observational evidence for particle pitch angle scattering due to magnetic field lines with well characterized curvature in a space plasma.

  8. Vulnerabilities of macrophytes distribution due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Yadav, Sarita; Quaik, Shlrene; Pant, Gaurav; Maruthi, A. Y.; Ismail, Norli

    2017-08-01

    The rise in the earth's surface and water temperature is part of the effect of climatic change that has been observed for the last decade. The rates of climate change are unprecedented, and biological responses to these changes have also been prominent in all levels of species, communities and ecosystems. Aquatic-terrestrial ecotones are vulnerable to climate change, and degradation of the emergent aquatic macrophyte zone would have contributed severe ecological consequences for freshwater, wetland and terrestrial ecosystems. Most researches on climate change effects on biodiversity are contemplating on the terrestrial realm, and considerable changes in terrestrial biodiversity and species' distributions have been detected in response to climate change. This is unfortunate, given the importance of aquatic systems for providing ecosystem goods and services. Thus, if researchers were able to identify early-warning indicators of anthropogenic environmental changes on aquatic species, communities and ecosystems, it would certainly help to manage and conserve these systems in a sustainable way. One of such early-warning indicators concerns the expansion of emergent macrophytes in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones. Hence, this review highlights the impact of climatic changes towards aquatic macrophytes and their possible environmental implications.

  9. Vulnerabilities of macrophytes distribution due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Yadav, Sarita; Quaik, Shlrene; Pant, Gaurav; Maruthi, A. Y.; Ismail, Norli

    2016-06-01

    The rise in the earth's surface and water temperature is part of the effect of climatic change that has been observed for the last decade. The rates of climate change are unprecedented, and biological responses to these changes have also been prominent in all levels of species, communities and ecosystems. Aquatic-terrestrial ecotones are vulnerable to climate change, and degradation of the emergent aquatic macrophyte zone would have contributed severe ecological consequences for freshwater, wetland and terrestrial ecosystems. Most researches on climate change effects on biodiversity are contemplating on the terrestrial realm, and considerable changes in terrestrial biodiversity and species' distributions have been detected in response to climate change. This is unfortunate, given the importance of aquatic systems for providing ecosystem goods and services. Thus, if researchers were able to identify early-warning indicators of anthropogenic environmental changes on aquatic species, communities and ecosystems, it would certainly help to manage and conserve these systems in a sustainable way. One of such early-warning indicators concerns the expansion of emergent macrophytes in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones. Hence, this review highlights the impact of climatic changes towards aquatic macrophytes and their possible environmental implications.

  10. Reduction in soil aggregate size distribution due to wind erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swet, Nitzan; Katra, Itzhak

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion process by wind causes emission of fine soil particles, and thus alters the topsoil's properties, fertility, and erodibility. Topsoil resistance to erosion depends on its physicochemical properties, especially on the soil aggregation. Although the key role of aggregates in soil erodibility, quantitative information on the relations between soil aggregate size distribution (ASD) and erosion is still lucking. This study focuses on ASD analyses before and after soil erosion by wind. Wind tunnel experiments and soil analyses were conducted on semiarid loess topsoils with different initial conditions of aggregation. The results show that in all initial soil conditions saltation of sand particles caused the breakdown of macro-aggregates > 500 µm, resulting in increase of micro-aggregates (63-250 µm). The micro-aggregate production increases with the wind shear velocity (up to 0.61 m s-1) for soils with available macro-aggregates. The findings highlight dynamics in soil aggregation in response to erosion process, and therefore the significance of ASD in quantifying soil degradation and soil loss potential.

  11. Deriving particle distributions from in-line Fraunhofer holographic data

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.; Malone, R.M.; Fredericson, R.H.; DeLanoy, A.D.; Johnson, D.E.; Ciarcia, C.A.; Sorenson, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set.

  12. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Ciarcia; D.E. Johnson; D.S. Sorenson; R.H. Frederickson, A.D. Delanoy; R.M. Malone; T.W. Tunnel

    1997-08-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set.

  13. The lead line in bone---a lesion apparently due to chondroclastic indigestion.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, R.; Kawanoue, S.

    1975-01-01

    The metaphyseal line of increased radiodensity which occurs in lead poisoning was studied in children and young monkeys with lead encephalopathy and in guinea pigs. The histologic lesion consists of impaired resorption of calcified metaphyseal cartilage, depressed bone deposition on cartilaginous surfaces, and the accumulation of numerous multinucleate giant cells, some containing lead inclusions. By electron microscopy, the giant cells appear to be osteoclasts and chondroclasts containing large amounts of mineralized cartilage matrix. We interpret the lead line to be the result of a lead-induced inability of cartilage-resorbing cells to degrade mineralized matrix, with a resultant impairment of metaphyseal cartilage resorption. The radiodensity of the lead line would thus be due to persistent mineralized metaphyseal cartilage and not to a primary osseous change. Some observations on lead inclusions in these cells suggest that the fibrillar component forms before the amorphous part. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figures 2 and 3 PMID:169701

  14. Line intensity enhancements in stellar coronal X-ray spectra due to opacity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.; Matranga, M.; Mathioudakis, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Wark, J. S.

    2008-06-01

    Context: The I(15.01 Å)/I(16.78 Å) emission line intensity ratio in Fe xvii has been reported to deviate from its theoretical value in solar and stellar X-ray spectra. This is attributed to opacity in the 15.01 Å line, leading to a reduction in its intensity, and was interpreted in terms of a geometry in which the emitters and absorbers are spatially distinct. Aims: We study the I(15.01 Å)/I(16.78 Å) intensity ratio for the active cool dwarf EV Lac, in both flare and quiescent spectra. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on the XMM-Newton satellite. The emission measure distribution versus temperature reconstruction technique is used for our analysis. Results: We find that the 15.01 Å line exhibits a significant enhancement in intensity over the optically thin value. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such an enhancement has been detected on such a sound statistical basis. We interpret this enhancement in terms of a geometry in which the emitters and absorbers are not spatially distinct, and where the geometry is such that resonant pumping of the upper level has a greater effect on the observed line intensity than resonant absorption in the line-of-sight.

  15. Estimation of the maximal voltage induced on an overhead line due to the nearby lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Jankov, V.

    1997-01-01

    Determination of the maximal voltages induced on the overhead power lines by nearby lightning stroke is a complex problem. The scope of this paper is to recognize the parameters that affect the maximal voltages and to present an equation for their estimation. This equation gives an opportunity to calculate the maximal voltage with the reasonable accuracy avoiding complex electromagnetic field calculus. It may be very useful in the estimation of flashover and outage rates due to the nearby strokes.

  16. Venus. I - Carbon monoxide distribution and molecular-line searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Klein, M. J.; Kahar, R. K.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Ho, P. T. P.

    1981-01-01

    An observational program to study variations of the vertical distribution of CO in the Venus atmosphere is presented. Measurements of the J = 0 - 1 absorption line at 2.6 mm wavelength are reported for two phase angles in 1977, one near eastern elongation (February) and the other near inferior conjunction (April). The two spectra are significantly different, with the April absorption line being narrower and deeper. The results of numerical inversion calculations show that the CO mixing ratio increases by a factor of approximately 100 between 78 and 100 km and that the CO abundance above approximately 100 km is greatest on the night-side hemisphere. These conclusions are in qualitative agreement with theoretical models. In addition to the CO observations, a search for other molecules was made to provide further information on the composition of the Venus middle atmosphere. The J = 0 - 1 transition of (C-13)O was detected and upper limits were derived for nine other molecules.

  17. On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

  18. Development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines with altered starch granule size distribution.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Båga, Monica; Ahuja, Geetika; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-03-12

    Microscope analysis of starches prepared from 139 barley genotypes identified a Japanese genotype, Kinai Kyoshinkai-2 (KK-2), with altered starch granule size distribution. Compared to normal barley starch, KK-2 produced consistently higher volumes of starch granules with 5-15 μm diameter and reduced volumes of starch granules with >15 μm diameter when grown in different environments. A cross between KK-2 and normal starch cultivar CDC Kendall was made and led to the production of 154 F5 lines with alterations to the normal 7:3:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. Three F5 lines showed unimodal starch granule size distribution due to apparent lack of very small (<5.0 μm diameter) C-type starch granules, but the phenotype was accompanied by reduced grain weight and total starch concentration. Five F5 lines produced a significantly larger population of large (>15 μm diameter) A-type starch granules as compared to normal starch and showed on average a 10:4:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. The unusual starch phenotypes displayed by the F5 lines confirm starch granule size distribution in barley can be genetically altered.

  19. Development of rules for single-line fault diagnosis in delta-delta connected distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Momoh, J.A.; Dias, L.G.; Thor, T.; Laird, D.N.

    1994-12-31

    Single-line fault diagnosis in delta-delta connected distribution systems suffers due to the low fault currents associated with such faults. Simulation tests on this type of system reveals that rule based decision support can be used of such diagnosis. This paper describes the development of rules for single-line fault diagnosis utilizing simulation test results. The key parameters used are the voltage magnitude of each phase at the bus bar and the currents on the feeders including their sequence components.

  20. Field line distribution of mass density at geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, Kazue; Lee, Jimyoung; Zeitler, C. K.; Wimer, N. T.; Litscher, L. E.; Singer, H. J.; Min, Kyungguk

    2015-06-01

    The distribution of mass density along the field lines affects the ratios of toroidal (azimuthally oscillating) Alfvén frequencies, and given the ratios of these frequencies, we can get information about that distribution. Here we assume the commonly used power law form for the field line distribution, ρm = ρm,eq(LRE/R)α, where ρm,eq is the value of the mass density ρm at the magnetic equator, L is the L shell, RE is the Earth's radius, R is the geocentric distance to a point on the field line, and α is the power law coefficient. Positive values of α indicate that ρm increases away from the magnetic equator, zero value indicates that ρm is constant along the magnetic field line, and negative α indicates that there is a local peak in ρm at the magnetic equator. Using 12 years of observations of toroidal Alfvén frequencies by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, we study the typical dependence of inferred values of α on the magnetic local time (MLT), the phase of the solar cycle as specified by the F10.7 extreme ultraviolet solar flux, and geomagnetic activity as specified by the auroral electrojet (AE) index. Over the mostly dayside range of the observations, we find that α decreases with respect to increasing MLT and F10.7, but increases with respect to increasing AE. We develop a formula that depends on all three parameters, α3Dmodel=2.2+1.3·cos(MLT·15°)+0.0026·AE·cos((MLT-0.8)·15°)+2.1·10-5·AE·F10.7-0.010·F10.7, that models the binned values of α within a standard deviation of 0.3. While we do not yet have a complete theoretical understanding of why α should depend on these parameters in such a way, we do make some observations and speculations about the causes. At least part of the dependence is related to that of ρm,eq; higher α, corresponding to steeper variation with respect to magnetic latitude, occurs when ρm,eq is lower.

  1. Three-dimensional organic Dirac-line materials due to nonsymmorphic symmetry: A data mining approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilhufe, R. Matthias; Bouhon, Adrien; Borysov, Stanislav S.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    A data mining study of electronic Kohn-Sham band structures was performed to identify Dirac materials within the Organic Materials Database. Out of that, the three-dimensional organic crystal 5,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-methoxy-1 H -1,3-diazepine was found to host different Dirac-line nodes within the band structure. From a group theoretical analysis, it is possible to distinguish between Dirac-line nodes occurring due to twofold degenerate energy levels protected by the monoclinic crystalline symmetry and twofold degenerate accidental crossings protected by the topology of the electronic band structure. The obtained results can be generalized to all materials having the space group P 21/c (No. 14, C2h 5) by introducing three distinct topological classes.

  2. Evaluation of ocular hazards due to electric arc flash at an in-line switch.

    PubMed

    Chou, B R; Cullen, A P

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the ocular damage resulting from operation of a solid blade pole-mounted in-line electrical switch at between 16 and 17 kV with current loads between 38 A and 340 A. Spectroradiometric data for the electric arcs produced as the switch was opened were obtained over the waveband 200 to 1500 nm. The eyes of adult pigmented rabbits were exposed to the arc flash at a distance of 2 m. The ocular tissues were assessed clinically and histologically up to 48 h postexposure. Threshold damage was clinically detectable only in eyes exposed to a 340 A arc. We conclude that at the normal current loads on a 17-kV electric power transmission line, the principal oculovisual hazards are due to molten metal fulminated from the switch by the arc, and after-images due to the bright visible light flash. At a working distance of 2 m, the ultraviolet ocular hazard is negligible. Adequate eye protection is provided by clear polycarbonate safety lenses.

  3. Modeling field emitter arrays using nonlinear line charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Debabrata; Singh, Gaurav; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2016-09-01

    Modeling high aspect ratio field emitter arrays is a computational challenge due to the enormity of the resources involved. The line charge model (LCM) provides an alternate semi-analytical tool that has been used to model both infinite as well as finite sized arrays. It is shown that the linearly varying charge density used in the LCM generically mimics ellipsoidal emitters rather than a Cylindrical-Post-with-an-Ellipsoidal-Tip (CPET) that is typical of nanowires. Furthermore, generalizing the charge density beyond the linear regime allows for modeling shapes that are closer to a CPET. Emitters with a fixed base radius and a fixed apex radius are studied with a view to understanding the effect of nonlinearity on the tip enhancement factor and the emitter current in each case. Furthermore, an infinite square array of the CPET emitters is studied using the nonlinear line charge model, each having a height h =1500 μm and a base radius b =1.5 μm . It is found that for moderate external field strengths ( 0.3 -0.4 V /μm ), the array current density falls sharply for lattice spacings smaller than 4/3 h . Beyond this value, the maximal array current density can be observed over a range of lattice spacings and falls gradually thereafter.

  4. Strategies and Considerations for Distributing and Recovering Mouse Lines

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yubin; Xie, Wen; Liu, Chengyu

    2012-01-01

    As more and more genetically modified mouse lines are being generated, it becomes increasingly common to share animal models among different research institutions. Live mice are routinely transferred between animal facilities. Due to various issues concerning animal welfare, intellectual property rights, colony health status and biohazard, significant paperwork and coordination are required before any animal travel can take place. Shipping fresh or frozen preimplantation embryos, gametes, or reproductive organs can bypass some of the issues associated with live animal transfer, but it requires the receiving facilities to be able to perform delicate and sometimes intricate procedures such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), or ovary transplantation. Here, we summarize the general requirements for live animal transport and review some of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that can be applied to shipping and reviving mouse lines. Intended users of these methods should consult their institution’s responsible official to find out whether each specific method is legal or appropriate in their own animal facilities. PMID:20691859

  5. Unscheduled load flow effect due to large variation in the distributed generation in a subtransmission network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mujahidul

    A sustainable energy delivery infrastructure implies the safe and reliable accommodation of large scale penetration of renewable sources in the power grid. In this dissertation it is assumed there will be no significant change in the power transmission and distribution structure currently in place; except in the operating strategy and regulatory policy. That is to say, with the same old structure, the path towards unveiling a high penetration of switching power converters in the power system will be challenging. Some of the dimensions of this challenge are power quality degradation, frequent false trips due to power system imbalance, and losses due to a large neutral current. The ultimate result is the reduced life of many power distribution components - transformers, switches and sophisticated loads. Numerous ancillary services are being developed and offered by the utility operators to mitigate these problems. These services will likely raise the system's operational cost, not only from the utility operators' end, but also reflected on the Independent System Operators and by the Regional Transmission Operators (RTO) due to an unforeseen backlash of frequent variation in the load-side generation or distributed generation. The North American transmission grid is an interconnected system similar to a large electrical circuit. This circuit was not planned but designed over 100 years. The natural laws of physics govern the power flow among loads and generators except where control mechanisms are installed. The control mechanism has not matured enough to withstand the high penetration of variable generators at uncontrolled distribution ends. Unlike a radial distribution system, mesh or loop networks can alleviate complex channels for real and reactive power flow. Significant variation in real power injection and absorption on the distribution side can emerge as a bias signal on the routing reactive power in some physical links or channels that are not distinguishable

  6. Single exosome study reveals subpopulations distributed among cell lines with variability related to membrane content

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary J.; Lee, Changwon; Rojalin, Tatu; Carney, Randy P.; Hazari, Sidhartha; Knudson, Alisha; Lam, Kit; Saari, Heikki; Ibañez, Elisa Lazaro; Viitala, Tapani; Laaksonen, Timo; Yliperttula, Marjo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Current analysis of exosomes focuses primarily on bulk analysis, where exosome-to-exosome variability cannot be assessed. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to study the chemical composition of single exosomes. We measured spectra of individual exosomes from 8 cell lines. Cell-line-averaged spectra varied considerably, reflecting the variation in total exosomal protein, lipid, genetic, and cytosolic content. Unexpectedly, single exosomes isolated from the same cell type also exhibited high spectral variability. Subsequent spectral analysis revealed clustering of single exosomes into 4 distinct groups that were not cell-line specific. Each group contained exosomes from multiple cell lines, and most cell lines had exosomes in multiple groups. The differences between these groups are related to chemical differences primarily due to differing membrane composition. Through a principal components analysis, we identified that the major sources of spectral variation among the exosomes were in cholesterol content, relative expression of phospholipids to cholesterol, and surface protein expression. For example, exosomes derived from cancerous versus non-cancerous cell lines can be largely separated based on their relative expression of cholesterol and phospholipids. We are the first to indicate that exosome subpopulations are shared among cell types, suggesting distributed exosome functionality. The origins of these differences are likely related to the specific role of extracellular vesicle subpopulations in both normal cell function and carcinogenesis, and they may provide diagnostic potential at the single exosome level. PMID:26649679

  7. Reliability Degeneration Mechanisms of the 20-nm Flash Memories Due to the Word Line Stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Soo; Ryu, Ju Tae; Yoo, Keon-Ho; Kim, T W

    2016-02-01

    The electrical characteristics of NAND flash memories with a high-k dielectric layer were simulated by using a full three-dimensional technology computer-aided design simulator. The occurrence rate of the errors in the flash memories increases with increasing program/erase cycles. To verify the word line stress effect, electron density in the floating gate of target cell and non-target cell, the drain current in the channel of non-target cell and depletion region of the non-target cell were simulated as a function of program/erase cycle, for various floating gate thicknesses. The electron density in the floating gate became decreased with increasing program/erase cycles. The reliability degradation occured by the increased depletion region at the bottom of the polysilicon floating gate in the continued program/erase cycle situation due to the word line stress. The degradation mechanisms for the program characteristics of 20-nm NAND flash memories were clarified by examining electron density, darin current and depletion region.

  8. Asymmetries in coronal spectral lines and emission measure distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-12-10

    It has previously been argued that (1) spicules do not provide enough pre-heated plasma to fill the corona, and (2) even if they did, additional heating would be required to keep the plasma hot as it expands upward. Here we address whether spicules play an important role by injecting plasma at cooler temperatures (<2 MK), which then gets heated to coronal values at higher altitudes. We measure red-blue asymmetries in line profiles formed over a wide range of temperatures in the bright moss areas of two active regions. We derive emission measure distributions from the excess wing emission. We find that the asymmetries and emission measures are small and conclude that spicules do not inject an important (dominant) mass flux into the cores of active regions at temperatures >0.6 MK (log T > 5.8). These conclusions apply not only to spicules but also to any process that suddenly heats and accelerates chromospheric plasma (e.g., a chromospheric nanoflare). The traditional picture of coronal heating and chromospheric evaporation appears to remain the most likely explanation of the active region corona.

  9. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  10. Evaluation of foreign systems for lining gas distribution service pipes. Topical report, August 1994-March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Jason Consultants International, Inc. under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) conducted a program to test and evaluate promising trenchless rehabilitation technologies for lining gas distribution service pipes that were developed outside of the U.S., particularly in Japan and Europe. To begin the program, a group of gas industry executives traveled to Japan to evaluate technologies in use at Osaka Gas and Tokyo Gas. Several systems were identified which could be applied to service piping systems in the U.S. This included the Paltem Reverse Lining System, NEXT Technique and the HIT system. Actual field trials were performed at U.S. gas utilities using the Paltem Reverse Lining System from October 1995 to March 1996. This system can be applied successfully to service pipes ranging in diameter from 1 to 4 inches and lengths up to 90 feet. A three-person crew can line at least three services per day. The Paltem Reverse Lining System can handle complex service pipe configurations including bends with minimal excavations. Due to budgetary constraints at GRI and problems with technology transfer, it was not possible to conduct trials using the other identified service renewal systems.

  11. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.487 Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion...

  12. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.487 Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion...

  13. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.487 Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion pitting...

  14. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.487 Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion pitting...

  15. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.487 Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion pitting...

  16. Design method for a laser line beam shaper of a general 1D angular power distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oved, E.; Oved, A.

    2016-05-01

    Laser line is a beam of laser, spanned in one direction using a beam shaper to form a fan of light. This illumination tool is important in laser aided machine vision, 3D scanners, and remote sensing. For some applications the laser line should have a specific angular power distribution. If the distribution is nonsymmetrical, the beam shaper is required to be nonsymmetrical freeform, and its design process using optical design software is time consuming due to the long optimization process which usually converges to some local minimum. In this paper we introduce a new design method of a single element refractive beam shaper of any predefined general 1D angular power distribution. The method makes use of a notion of "prism space", a geometrical representation of all double refraction prisms, and any 1D beam shaper can be described by a continuous curve in this space. It is shown that infinitely many different designs are possible for any given power distribution, and it is explained how an optimal design is selected among them, based on criteria such as high transmission, low surface slopes, robustness to manufacturing errors etc. The method is non-parametric and hence does not require initial guess of a functional form, and the resultant optical surfaces are described by a sequence of points, rather than by an analytic function.

  17. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working

  18. Calculation of Local Stress and Fatigue Resistance due to Thermal Stratification on Pressurized Surge Line Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandriyana, B.; Utaja

    2010-06-01

    Thermal stratification introduces thermal shock effect which results in local stress and fatique problems that must be considered in the design of nuclear power plant components. Local stress and fatique calculation were performed on the Pressurize Surge Line piping system of the Pressurize Water Reactor of the Nuclear Power Plant. Analysis was done on the operating temperature between 177 to 343° C and the operating pressure of 16 MPa (160 Bar). The stagnant and transient condition with two kinds of stratification model has been evaluated by the two dimensional finite elements method using the ANSYS program. Evaluation of fatigue resistance is developed based on the maximum local stress using the ASME standard Code formula. Maximum stress of 427 MPa occurred at the upper side of the top half of hot fluid pipe stratification model in the transient case condition. The evaluation of the fatigue resistance is performed on 500 operating cycles in the life time of 40 years and giving the usage value of 0,64 which met to the design requirement for class 1 of nuclear component. The out surge transient were the most significant case in the localized effects due to thermal stratification.

  19. Calculation of Local Stress and Fatigue Resistance due to Thermal Stratification on Pressurized Surge Line Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Bandriyana, B.; Utaja

    2010-06-22

    Thermal stratification introduces thermal shock effect which results in local stress and fatigue problems that must be considered in the design of nuclear power plant components. Local stress and fatigue calculation were performed on the Pressurize Surge Line piping system of the Pressurize Water Reactor of the Nuclear Power Plant. Analysis was done on the operating temperature between 177 to 343 deg. C and the operating pressure of 16 MPa (160 Bar). The stagnant and transient condition with two kinds of stratification model has been evaluated by the two dimensional finite elements method using the ANSYS program. Evaluation of fatigue resistance is developed based on the maximum local stress using the ASME standard Code formula. Maximum stress of 427 MPa occurred at the upper side of the top half of hot fluid pipe stratification model in the transient case condition. The evaluation of the fatigue resistance is performed on 500 operating cycles in the life time of 40 years and giving the usage value of 0,64 which met to the design requirement for class 1 of nuclear component. The out surge transient were the most significant case in the localized effects due to thermal stratification.

  20. Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB 080310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Ledoux, C.; Raassen, A. J. J.; Smette, A.; De Cia, A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Fox, A. J.; Vestrand, W. T.; Jakobsson, P.

    2013-01-01

    We model the time-variable absorption of Fe II, Fe III, Si II, C II and Cr II detected in Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z = 2.42743. To estimate the rest-frame afterglow brightness as a function of time, we use a combination of the optical VRI photometry obtained by the RAPTOR-T telescope array, which is presented in this paper, and Swift's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations. Excitation alone, which has been successfully applied for a handful of other GRBs, fails to describe the observed column density evolution in the case of GRB 080310. Inclusion of ionization is required to explain the column density decrease of all observed Fe II levels (including the ground state 6D9/2) and increase of the Fe III 7S3 level. The large population of ions in this latter level (up to 10% of all Fe III) can only be explained through ionization of Fe II, as a large fraction of the ionized Fe II ions (we calculate 31% using the Flexible Atomic and Cowan codes) initially populate the 7S3 level of Fe III rather than the ground state. This channel for producing a significant Fe III 7S3 level population may be relevant for other objects in which absorption lines from this level, the UV34 triplet, are observed, such as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and η Carinae. This provides conclusive evidence for time-variable ionization in the circumburst medium, which to date has not been convincingly detected. However, the best-fit distance of the neutral absorbing cloud to the GRB is 200-400 pc, i.e. similar to GRB-absorber distance estimates for GRBs without any evidence for ionization. We find that the presence of time-varying ionization in GRB 080310 is likely due to a combination of the super-solar iron abundance ([Fe/H] = +0.2) and the low H I column density (log N(H i) = 18.7) in the host of GRB 080310. Finally

  1. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  2. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell impact ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3d-shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wavefunctions for the target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3d electrons, are widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to the Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  3. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3rd shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wave functions for target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3rd electrons, is widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  4. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A. E-mail: ohad@unt.edu

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  5. Calculation method for line loss in 10kV distribution grid planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ming-hui; Lin, Ling-xue; Liu, Si-yuan

    2017-01-01

    Distribution grid line loss index is an important indicator of running and managing a distribution grid. A general feature in distribution network is its difficulty in gathering data about structure and operation. Based on its feature, this paper proposed a method for calculating line loss in 10kV distribution grid from the perspective of planning. According to the characteristics of power consumption on different location of the feeder, line loss can be divided into three parts, including the main line loss, the loss of branch line and the loss of distribution transformer. The proposed method achieved quick calculation and component analysis. Distributed coefficient was calculated by analyzing different distributed situation of load on feeder and the equivalent loss power on main line was calculated. Branch line and distribution transformer were equivalent to a resistance located at the head of the line to match the real power consumption. With the data acquirement, accuracy can be improved. Finally, the example of different power supply zone was calculated based on the method. The comparison between the calculated results and technical guidelines of southern power grid indicated the components of the line loss and put forward solutions for loss reduction. The method proposed overcame disadvantage of strong dependence on complete and precise data, which fits for planning work.

  6. A Field Study of Lightning Overvoltages on Low-voltage Distribution Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tsunayoshi; Oguchi, Syuichi; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    Recently, the number of home electric appliances, such as personal computers and telephones, is rapidly increased. Lightning damage to these home electric appliances has a great impact on highly sophisticated information society. There are some cases that lightning overvoltages on low-voltage distribution lines cause malfunction of them, though they equipped surge protective devices to protect against lightning overvoltages. Therefore, for lightning protection of low-voltage equipments including home electric appliances, it's important to understand the phenomenon of lightning overvoltages on low-voltage distribution lines. However, it's not so clear including the generation of them. The Tokyo Electric Power Company carries out the lightning observation on low-voltage distribution lines. The observation results provide the statistical distribution of lightning overvoltages on low-voltage distribution lines. The generation mechanism of lightning overvoltages on low-voltage distribution lines is assumed based on observed waveforms and facilities data.

  7. Distributed parametric effect in long lines and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K.

    2011-10-01

    The article considers a parametric effect which takes place when the velocity of signal propagation in a long line changes. We found the analytical solution describing the form of the transformed signal for a line with losses, when line parameters change symmetrically. We also considered lines without losses, with asymmetrical change of parameters. Our theoretical results comply with experimental data. In certain conditions, such a line can be used as an amplifier. The parametric effect in optics is described by Maxwell's equations, while in case of a long line, the analysis is based on telegrapher's equations. However, it turns out that in the end, both in optics and electronics, the parametric effect is described by wave equations that are mathematically similar. This is because fundamentally, when the parameters of the propagating medium change, the parametric effect is physically based on energy interchange between the controlling (pump) signal and the transformed one. So, the obtained results can be used for analysis of parametric effects in optics and electronics.

  8. Residential magnetic fields, contact voltage and their relationship: the effects of distribution unbalance and residential proximity to a transmission line.

    PubMed

    Kavet, Robert; Daigle, Jeff P; Zaffanella, Luciano E

    2006-12-01

    In previous studies, modeling and measurements have suggested a positive relationship between the average residential magnetic field (B(avg)) and the voltage from the residential water line to earth (V(W-E)). This voltage is the source of exposure to contact current that has been hypothesized to behave as a confounder with respect to the association between residential magnetic fields and childhood leukemia. The previous modeling effort has only considered the influence of distribution lines on the B(avg):V(W-E) relationship. This study extends that analysis to include the effect of distribution line unbalance and the presence of nearby transmission lines. The results show that, compared to balanced systems, unbalanced distribution systems had increased B(avg) and V(W-E), with a relatively greater effect on (VW-E). The presence of a transmission line proportionally increased B(avg) and V(W-E) more on balanced systems than unbalanced systems and attenuated the relationship of B(avg) with V(W-E) on systems with 25% unbalance. Increases in B(avg) due to the transmission line were confined to distances within 100-200 m of the line, but increases in V(W-E) extended to the furthest distance included in the model (365 m). The observations reported may be relevant to prior epidemiological studies of magnetic fields and childhood leukemia, and suggest that research efforts continue to explore the role of contact current in potentially explaining those studies.

  9. Accelerating Mutational Load Is Not Due to Synergistic Epistasis or Mutator Alleles in Mutation Accumulation Lines of Yeast.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Much of our knowledge about the fitness effects of new mutations has been gained from mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. Yet the fitness effect of single mutations is rarely measured in MA experiments. This raises several issues, notably for inferring epistasis for fitness. The acceleration of fitness decline in MA lines has been taken as evidence for synergistic epistasis, but establishing the role of epistasis requires measuring the fitness of genotypes carrying known numbers of mutations. Otherwise, accelerating fitness loss could be explained by increased genetic mutation rates. Here we segregated mutations accumulated over 4800 generations in haploid and diploid MA lines of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found no correspondence between an accelerated fitness decline and synergistic epistasis among deleterious mutations in haploid lines. Pairs of mutations showed no overall epistasis. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that genetic mutation rates did not increase in the MA lines. Crucially, segregant fitness analyses revealed that MA accelerated in both haploid and diploid lines, even though the fitness of diploid lines was nearly constant during the MA experiment. This suggests that the accelerated fitness decline in haploids was caused by cryptic environmental factors that increased mutation rates in all lines during the last third of the lines' transfers. In addition, we provide new estimates of deleterious mutation rates, including lethal mutations, and highlight that nearly all the mutational load we observed was due to one or two mutations having a large effect on fitness. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Spatial biases in number line bisection tasks are due to a cognitive illusion of length.

    PubMed

    Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James; Frühholz, Barbara; Wood, Guilherme

    2012-07-01

    Placing arrow heads (Judd Illusion) or numbers of different magnitude at the end of a line biases perception of the centre of the line. For the Judd Illusion, it is known that this bias depends on the method used: a deliberate (more perceptually based) marking of the centre with a pen is more subject to the illusion than are fast (more action-based) ballistic pointing movements made towards the centre. It has been suggested that the number bias also reflects a cognitive illusion of length. To test this assumption, we used two different response methods in line bisection tasks while lines were flanked by arrow heads or numbers of different magnitudes. For both conditions, we found that the more action-based response method showed less bias. Since the pattern of biases induced by flanking numbers and arrow heads are similar, we confirm that the spatial bias produced by numerical magnitude reflects a cognitive illusion of length.

  11. Double-peaked Emission Lines Due to a Radio Outflow in KISSR 1219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharb, P.; Subramanian, S.; Vaddi, S.; Das, M.; Paragi, Z.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results from 1.5 and 5 GHz phase-referenced VLBA and 1.5 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy KISSR 1219, which exhibits double-peaked emission lines in its optical spectrum. The VLA and VLBA data reveal a one-sided core-jet structure at roughly the same position angles, providing evidence of an active galactic nucleus outflow. The absence of dual parsec-scale radio cores puts the binary black-hole picture in doubt for the case of KISSR 1219. The high brightness temperatures of the parsec-scale core and jet components (>106 K) are consistent with this interpretation. Doppler boosting with jet speeds of ≳0.55c to ≳0.25c, going from parsec to kiloparsec scales, at a jet inclination ≳50° can explain the jet one-sidedness in this Seyfert 2 galaxy. A blueshifted broad emission line component in [O iii] is also indicative of an outflow in the emission line gas at a velocity of ∼350 km s‑1, while the [O i] doublet lines suggest the presence of shock-heated gas. A detailed line ratio study using the MAPPINGS III code further suggests that a shock+precursor model can explain the line ionization data well. Overall, our data suggest that the radio outflow in KISSR 1219 is pushing the emission line clouds, both ahead of the jet and in a lateral direction, giving rise to the double peak emission line spectra.

  12. Accelerating Mutational Load Is Not Due to Synergistic Epistasis or Mutator Alleles in Mutation Accumulation Lines of Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Much of our knowledge about the fitness effects of new mutations has been gained from mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. Yet the fitness effect of single mutations is rarely measured in MA experiments. This raises several issues, notably for inferring epistasis for fitness. The acceleration of fitness decline in MA lines has been taken as evidence for synergistic epistasis, but establishing the role of epistasis requires measuring the fitness of genotypes carrying known numbers of mutations. Otherwise, accelerating fitness loss could be explained by increased genetic mutation rates. Here we segregated mutations accumulated over 4800 generations in haploid and diploid MA lines of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found no correspondence between an accelerated fitness decline and synergistic epistasis among deleterious mutations in haploid lines. Pairs of mutations showed no overall epistasis. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that genetic mutation rates did not increase in the MA lines. Crucially, segregant fitness analyses revealed that MA accelerated in both haploid and diploid lines, even though the fitness of diploid lines was nearly constant during the MA experiment. This suggests that the accelerated fitness decline in haploids was caused by cryptic environmental factors that increased mutation rates in all lines during the last third of the lines’ transfers. In addition, we provide new estimates of deleterious mutation rates, including lethal mutations, and highlight that nearly all the mutational load we observed was due to one or two mutations having a large effect on fitness. PMID:26596348

  13. Field Inspection Techniques for Buried Steam Distribution Lines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    to thank my wife, Jane, for her unfaltering support and patience, and Andrew, Nicholas and Christopher for letting Daddy do his homework without too...to measure them. The method described in Chapter III for measuring losses is applicable to any steam line, as long as access to a few feet of pipe at...diffuse to the surface. If too long a time is allowed, area saturation will result, yielding a result similar to using too high a gas concentration

  14. CO(2) (10.6-microm) atmospheric propagation enhancement due to off-line center tuning.

    PubMed

    Sutton, G W; Douglas-Hamilton, D H

    1979-07-01

    A new analysis is presented for the atmospheric transmission of the CO(2)(P-20) line, which includes pressure shift, bleaching, and tuning off-line center. The results indicate that absorption is negligible above 25 km for an atmospheric CO(2) laser, even at line center, with the resulting transmission equal to 0.5 from sea level and 0.75 from 2.5 km altitude, midlatitude summer. Cavity tuning of about 0.1 cm(-1) produces a transmission of 0.97 from 2.5 km, with a corresponding large decrease in thermal blooming, but with little decrease of cavity efficiency for a well-saturated atmospheric pressure cavity, since the linewidth of the latter is considerably larger than that of the atmosphere.

  15. Voltage Regulation and Line Loss Minimization of Loop Distribution Systems Using UPFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Mahmoud A.; Takeshita, Takaharu

    This paper presents a new method for achieving line loss minimization and voltage regulation in the loop distribution systems, simultaneously. First, mathematical analysis of the line loss minimum conditions in the loop distribution systems is presented. Then, load voltage regulation is applied in the loop distribution system under line loss minimum condition. Reference angle of the desired load voltage is the main factor that can be used to minimize total line loss during load voltage control. In order to achieve these two objectives simultaneously, the UPFC (unified power flow controller), a typical FACTS (flexible AC transmission systems) device, that is capable of instantaneous control of transmission and distribution power flow, is used. Also, the UPFC control scheme to regulate the load voltage under line loss minimization is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme has been verified experimentally using laboratory prototype in a 200V, 6kVA system.

  16. Acoustic radiation from lined, unflanged ducts: Acoustic source distribution program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckemeyer, R. J.; Sawdy, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    An acoustic radiation analysis was developed to predict the far-field characteristics of fan noise radiated from an acoustically lined unflanged duct. This analysis is comprised of three modular digital computer programs which together provide a capability of accounting for the impedance mismatch at the duct exit plane. Admissible duct configurations include circular or annular, with or without an extended centerbody. This variation in duct configurations provides a capability of modeling inlet and fan duct noise radiation. The computer programs are described in detail.

  17. Research on electric field distribution of UHVDC transmission lines and body surface during live working

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chilong; Zou, Dehua; Li, Jinliang; Zhang, Zhanlong; Mei, Daojun

    2017-09-01

    Electric field distortion emerges around personnel working on live Ultra High Voltage Direct Current UHVDC transmission lines, especially when they move from ground-potential to equipotential positions. Unreliable protection threatens the safety of both workers and transmission lines. The current study investigates the electric field distribution of body surface during live working under transmission lines. To provide safety advice, live working person and tower models were established. The body surface field was calculated in different positions under ±800 kV transmission lines, and the distribution of the electric field was summarized.

  18. INTENSITY ENHANCEMENT OF O VI ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION LINES IN SOLAR SPECTRA DUE TO OPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, F. P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S.; Rose, S. J.; Bowler, L. A.; Britton, J.; McCrink, L.

    2014-04-01

    Opacity is a property of many plasmas. It is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, then its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to an optically thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depths. While previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, here we investigate the spatially resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 Å)/I(1038 Å) intensity ratio of O VI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite. We find several I(1032 Å)/I(1038 Å) ratios observed on the disk to be significantly larger than the optically thin value of 2.0, providing the first detection (to our knowledge) of intensity enhancement in the ratio arising from opacity effects in the solar atmosphere. The agreement between observation and theory is excellent and confirms that the O VI emission originates from a slab-like geometry in the solar atmosphere, rather than from cylindrical structures.

  19. Distribution Surge Arrester Failures due to Winter Lightning and Measurement of Energy Absorption Capability of Arresters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko; Kado, Hiroyuki

    Surge arresters and distribution equipments with zinc-oxide elements are used for lightning protection of overhead power distribution lines in Japan. However, these surge arresters are sometimes damaged by direct lightning strokes, especially in winter. Increasing of surge arrester failures in winter is attributed to a very large electric charge of winter lightning than that of summer lightning. For improvement of surge arresters, we have measured the energy absorption capability of surge arresters using a half cycle of alternating current with a frequency of 50Hz for simulating a winter lightning current. The mean values of arrester failure energy increased in proportion to the volume of zinc-oxide element, however the values of arrester failure energy were quite uneven. We also have observed the aspects of damaged zinc-oxide elements, and have investigated the relationship between the arrester failure energy and the failure types of zinc-oxide elements. From these results, we suggest the improvement of the energy absorption capability of distribution surge arresters, especially for the uniform energy absorption capability.

  20. A study of the H2O absorption line shifts in the visible spectrum region due to air pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Korotchenko, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of measured and calculated shift coefficients are presented for 170 absorption lines of H2O in five vibrational-rotational bands. The measurements have been carried out using highly sensitive laser spectrometers with a resolution of at least 0.01/cm; the calculations are based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte-Frost method. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental values of the shift coefficients of H2O lines due to N2, O2, and air pressure.

  1. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines - Steam Tip Sheet #2

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  2. Global Simulation of Proton Precipitation Due to Field Line Curvature During Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, M. L.; Raeder, J.; Donovan, E.; Ge, Y. S.; Kepko, L.

    2012-01-01

    The low latitude boundary of the proton aurora (known as the Isotropy Boundary or IB) marks an important boundary between empty and full downgoing loss cones. There is significant evidence that the IB maps to a region in the magnetosphere where the ion gyroradius becomes comparable to the local field line curvature. However, the location of the IB in the magnetosphere remains in question. In this paper, we show simulated proton precipitation derived from the Field Line Curvature (FLC) model of proton scattering and a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation during two substorms. The simulated proton precipitation drifts equatorward during the growth phase, intensifies at onset and reproduces the azimuthal splitting published in previous studies. In the simulation, the pre-onset IB maps to 7-8 RE for the substorms presented and the azimuthal splitting is caused by the development of the substorm current wedge. The simulation also demonstrates that the central plasma sheet temperature can significantly influence when and where the azimuthal splitting takes place.

  3. Resonance line shape, strain and electric potential distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Martina

    2013-06-01

    Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME) sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite) cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM) simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line shape and a zero

  4. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, V.J.; Liu, T.K.; Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  6. Microbial community profile of a lead service line removed from a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A

    2011-08-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments.

  7. Effect of Overhead Ground Wire Installing under Distribution Lines on Surge Arrester Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    Distribution surge arresters are often damaged by lightning strokes, in particular, winter lightning. An overhead ground wire (OGW) is one of effective measures against surge arrester failures. However, adding the conventional OGW to existing overhead power distribution lines needs the power interruption for construction as well as high costs because of installing them above phase conductors. Experimental results show that a covered conductor for distribution lines is more difficult to attract lightning than a bare conductor. Moreover, lightning strokes to distribution pole heads occupied over 90% of all lightning strokes in the observation result of lightning strokes to actual distribution lines without the conventional OGW, and lightning strokes to power lines were hardly observed. These results indicate that the pole heads shield the power lines from direct lightning strokes. Therefore the author studies the application of an OGW under the distribution lines (UGW) for reducing surge arrester failures. The lightning performance of the UGW is estimated by the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and its effectiveness is demonstrated. The measure is expected to cut costs of construction and maintenance for lightning protection.

  8. Surface temperature distribution along a thin liquid layer due to thermocapillary convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, C. L.; Chai, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The surface temperature distributions due to thermocapillary convections in a thin liquid layer with heat fluxes imposed on the free surface were investigated. The nondimensional analysis predicts that, when convection is important, the characteristics length scale in the flow direction L, and the characteristic temperature difference delta T sub o can be represented by L and delta T sub o approx. (A2Ma)/1/4 delta T sub R, respectively, where L sub R and delta sub R are the reference scales used in the conduction dominant situations with A denoting the aspect ratio and Ma the Marangoni number. Having L and delta sub o defined, the global surface temperature gradient delta sub o/L, the global thermocapillary driving force, and other interesting features can be determined. Numerical calculations involving a Gaussian heat flux distribution are presented to justify these two relations.

  9. Mechanism-based evaluation of thermal ratchetting due to moving temperature distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Igari, Toshihide; Wada, Hiroshi; Ueta, Masahiro

    1995-12-01

    Recently, a structural design against a new type of thermal ratchetting under null-primary-stress condition has been required. The representative case is the thermal ratchetting caused by the movement of hot sodium level during, operation in the reactor vessel of FBR. In this paper, the mechanism of this ratchetting is proposed, and the evaluation method of ratchetting strain is proposed based on this mechanism. The proposed evaluation method is basically based on the hoop-membrane stress due to the axial temperature distribution, and considers the influence of axial bending stress and moving distance of temperature distribution. Predicted results by this equation correspond to analytical results by FEM and can conservatively estimate the experimental results with several kinds of moving distance, stress level and two types of temperature hold for Type 316 and 316FR stainless steels.

  10. Effects due to adsorbed atoms upon angular and energy distributions of surface produced negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, M.; Bacal, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kato, S.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to Cs added hydrogen discharge makes surface of plasma grid of a negative hydrogen ion source covered with Cs and hydrogen. A Monte-Carlo particle simulation code ACAT was run to evaluate the effects due to adsorbed Cs and H atoms upon the angular and energy distributions of H atoms leaving the surface. Accumulation of H atoms on the surface reduces particle reflection coefficients and the mean energy of backscattered H atoms. Angular distributions of H atoms reflected from the hydrogen covered surface tend to be under-cosine at lower energies. Desorption of adsorbed H atoms is more efficient for hydrogen positive ions than for Cs positive ions at lower incident energy. At higher energy more than 100 eV, Cs ions desorb adsorbed H atoms more efficiently than hydrogen ions.

  11. Understanding star formation in molecular clouds. III. Probability distribution functions of molecular lines in Cygnus X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Klessen, R. S.; Simon, R.; Fechtenbaum, S.; Herpin, F.; Tremblin, P.; Csengeri, T.; Myers, P. C.; Hill, T.; Cunningham, M.; Federrath, C.

    2016-03-01

    The probability distribution function of column density (N-PDF) serves as a powerful tool to characterise the various physical processes that influence the structure of molecular clouds. Studies that use extinction maps or H2 column-density maps (N) that are derived from dust show that star-forming clouds can best be characterised by lognormal PDFs for the lower N range and a power-law tail for higher N, which is commonly attributed to turbulence and self-gravity and/or pressure, respectively. While PDFs from dust cover a large dynamic range (typically N ~ 1020-24 cm-2 or Av~ 0.1-1000), PDFs obtained from molecular lines - converted into H2 column density - potentially trace more selectively different regimes of (column) densities and temperatures. They also enable us to distinguish different clouds along the line of sight through using the velocity information. We report here on PDFs that were obtained from observations of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, CS, and N2H+ in the Cygnus X North region, and make a comparison to a PDF that was derived from dust observations with the Herschel satellite. The PDF of 12CO is lognormal for Av ~ 1-30, but is cut for higher Av because of optical depth effects. The PDFs of C18O and 13CO are mostly lognormal up to Av ~ 1-15, followed by excess up to Av ~ 40. Above that value, all CO PDFs drop, which is most likely due to depletion. The high density tracers CS and N2H+ exhibit only a power law distribution between Av ~ 15 and 400, respectively. The PDF from dust is lognormal for Av ~ 3-15 and has a power-law tail up to Av ~ 500. Absolute values for the molecular line column densities are, however, rather uncertain because of abundance and excitation temperature variations. If we take the dust PDF at face value, we "calibrate" the molecular line PDF of CS to that of the dust and determine an abundance [CS]/[H2] of 10-9. The slopes of the power-law tails of the CS, N2H+, and dust PDFs are -1.6, -1.4, and -2.3, respectively, and are thus consistent

  12. Glucocorticoid pretreatment increases toxicity due to peroxides in alveolar epithelial-like cell lines.

    PubMed

    Walther, Udo I; Stets, Regine

    2009-02-04

    In previous experiments an increase in zinc-mediated toxicity was found after pretreatment of alveolar epithelial type II-like cells with glucocorticoids. In this work toxicity of two peroxides (tertiary butyl hydroperoxide [tBHP], hydrogene peroxide [HP]) was assessed in L2 and A549 cells compared to dexamethasone (DEX) pretreated cells. Pretreatment of cells with 7.5micromol/l DEX for 72h decreased cellular glutathione content in both cell lines. Furthermore compared to not pretreated cells toxicity of both peroxides was increased in A549 cells, while in L2 cells only toxicity of tBHP was significantly increased by the glucocorticoid pretreatment. HP toxicity only showed a tendency to be increased in L2 cells after DEX pretreatment. The results point to a glucocorticoid-dependent increased oxidative stress of alveolar epithelial type II cells as antagonised by antioxidative enzymes such as catalase and/or preferentially by the glutathione system. This furthermore should be considered for all glucocorticoid applications in vivo as well.

  13. Excitation of dayside chorus waves due to magnetic field line compression in response to interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; An, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-jia; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2015-10-01

    The excitation of magnetospheric whistler-mode chorus in response to interplanetary (IP) shocks is investigated using wave data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft. As an example, we show a typical chorus wave excitation following an IP shock event that was observed by THEMIS in the postnoon sector near the magnetopause on 3 August 2010. We then analyze characteristic changes during this event and perform a survey of similar events during the period 2008-2014 using the THEMIS and OMNI data set. Our statistical analysis demonstrates that the chorus wave excitation/intensification in response to IP shocks occurs only at high L shells (L > 8) on the dayside. We analyzed the variations of magnetic curvature following the arrival of the IP shock and found that IP shocks lead to more homogeneous background magnetic field configurations in the near-equatorial dayside magnetosphere; and therefore, the threshold of nonlinear chorus wave growth is likely to be reduced, favoring chorus wave generation. Our results provide the observational evidence to support the concept that the geomagnetic field line configuration plays a key role in the excitation of dayside chorus.

  14. Probing with a laser sheet the contact angle distribution along a contact line.

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Daerr, A; Limat, L

    2004-01-01

    An optical method for probing contact angle distribution along contact lines of any shape using a laser sheet is proposed. This method is applied to a dry patch formed inside a film flowing along an inclined plane, both liquid and solid being transparent. Falling normally to the plane, a laser sheet cuts the contact line and is moved along this line. Distortions of the sheet trace observed on a screen put below the plane allow us to extract the contact angle distribution and the local line inclination along the line. Our results show that the contact angle around a dry patch is nearly constant and equal to the static advancing angle, at least when the evolution of its shape is followed for increasing flow rates. This supports a model of dry patch shape recently proposed by Podgorski and co-workers. Preliminary results obtained for decreasing flow are also qualitatively observed.

  15. Comparison of frequency distributions of doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in barley.

    PubMed

    Choo, T M; Reinbergs, E; Park, S J

    1982-09-01

    Both doubled haploid (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) methods were used to derive homozygous lines from two crosses of barley. The frequency distributions of grain yield, heading date, and plant height of the DH and SSD lines were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. It was found that the DH lines distributed in the same manner as the SSD lines with respect to the three characters. The results indicated that although the SSD method had more opportunity for recombination than the DH method, it did not produce a sample of recombinants which differed significantly from the DH sample; thus both methods were equally efficient for use in deriving homozygous lines from F1 hybrids in a relatively short time.

  16. Managing risks from virus intrusion into water distribution systems due to pressure transients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; LeChevallier, Mark W; Teunis, Peter F M; Xu, Minhua

    2011-06-01

    Low or negative pressure transients in water distribution systems, caused by unexpected events (e.g. power outages) or routine operation/maintenance activities, are usually brief and thus are rarely monitored or alarmed. Previous studies have shown connections between negative pressure events in water distribution systems and potential public health consequences. Using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model previously developed, various factors driving the risk of viral infection from intrusion were evaluated, including virus concentrations external to the distribution system, maintenance of a disinfectant residual, leak orifice sizes, the duration and the number of nodes drawing negative pressures. The most sensitive factors were the duration and the number of nodes drawing negative pressures, indicating that mitigation practices should be targeted to alleviate the severity of low/negative pressure transients. Maintaining a free chlorine residual of 0.2 mg/L or above is the last defense against the risk of viral infection due to negative pressure transients. Maintaining a chloramine residual did not appear to significantly reduce the risk. The effectiveness of ensuring separation distances from sewer mains to reduce the risk of infection may be system-specific. Leak detection/repair and cross-connection control should be prioritized in areas vulnerable to negative pressure transients.

  17. The spatial distribution of ultraviolet line and continuum emission in Herbig-Haro objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. G.; Boehm, K. H.; Temple, S. D.; Raga, A. C.; Mateo, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    Archival IUE data and monochromatic CCD images in the optical range are used to compare the spatial distribution of UV and optical emission in HH 1, HH 2, HH 24, HH 32, HH 43, and HH 47. For all six objects, the observed UV radiation is shown to originate in the objects themselves. The results indicate that the C IV and semiforbidden emission-line regions are small. Although the continuum in the IUE short-wavelength range displays a distribution that is broader than that of any measured line emission in the UV or optical range, the continuum distribution in the IUE long-wavelength range is quite narrow.

  18. Radiative transfer of emission lines with non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function: Application to Mercury D2 sodium lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaufray, J.-Y.; Leblanc, F.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the theory and the numerical model used to simulate Doppler-broadened resonant emission lines for any type of velocity function distribution. The field of application of this theoretical model of radiative transfer is particularly well suited for the study of weakly dense atmospheres which are far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (as is the case for most planetary upper atmospheres/exospheres). This model is applied to study the potential effects of radiative transfer and non-Maxwellian distributions on the spectral shape of the D2 sodium emission line in Mercury's exosphere. The small (but not negligible) optical thickness of the D2 sodium emission of an exosphere like Mercury's (with a peak optical thickness of ˜2) can result in an increase of the observed spectral width by up to a few tens of percent. Combined with the non-Maxwellian nature of the exospheric velocity distribution, it may lead to an increase in the spectral width by a factor of up to 2 with respect to the width of an optically thin emission and a Maxwellian distribution. This model has been used to analyze new THEMIS observations of Mercury's exosphere obtained at very high spectral resolution in a companion paper (Leblanc, F., Chaufray, J.-Y., Doressoundiram, A., Berthelier, J.-J., Mangano, V., Lopez-Ariste, A., Borin, P. [2013]).

  19. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  20. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Kepley, Amanda; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Cormier, Diane; Gallagher, Molly; Hughes, Annie; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz & Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  1. Temperature dependences of line widths and peak positions of optical absorption peaks due to localized vibration of hydrogen Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suezawa, M.; Fukata, N.; Saito, M.; Yamada-Kaneta, H.

    2001-12-01

    We studied the temperature dependences of line widths and peak positions of optical absorptions due to the hydrogen bound to point defects and acceptors in Si. Specimens were prepared from floating-zone-grown Si crystals of high-purity and of p-type, doped with group III acceptors. They were doped with H by heating at 1300°C in H 2 gas followed by quenching. The former specimen was then irradiated with 3 MeV electrons at RT to form complexes of H and point defects and the latter specimens were annealed at 150°C to form H-acceptor pairs. We measured their optical absorption spectra by an FT-IR spectrometer in the temperature range of 6 K and RT. Peaks due to localized vibrational modes of H bound to acceptors and point defects were well fitted with Lorentzian line shapes. The temperature dependences of those line widths and peak positions were analyzed with the dephasing model proposed by Persson and Ryberg.

  2. Boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface imperfections of a deterministic or random nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic receptivity of a Blasius boundary layer in the presence of distributed surface irregularities is investigated analytically. It is shown that, out of the entire spatial spectrum of the surface irregularities, only a small band of Fourier components can lead to an efficient conversion of the acoustic input at any given frequency to an unstable eigenmode of the boundary layer flow. The location, and width, of this most receptive band of wavenumbers corresponds to a relative detuning of O(R sub l.b.(exp -3/8)) with respect to the lower-neutral instability wavenumber at the frequency under consideration, R sub l.b. being the Reynolds number based on a typical boundary-layer thickness at the lower branch of the neutral stability curve. Surface imperfections in the form of discrete mode waviness in this range of wavenumbers lead to initial instability amplitudes which are O(R sub l.b.(exp 3/8)) larger than those caused by a single, isolated roughness element. In contrast, irregularities with a continuous spatial spectrum produce much smaller instability amplitudes, even compared to the isolated case, since the increase due to the resonant nature of the response is more than that compensated for by the asymptotically small band-width of the receptivity process. Analytical expressions for the maximum possible instability amplitudes, as well as their expectation for an ensemble of statistically irregular surfaces with random phase distributions, are also presented.

  3. Physics of Galactic Metals: Evolutionary Effects due to Production, Distribution, Feedback, and Interaction with Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Somerville, Rachel S.; Hirschmann, Michaela; Núñez, Alejandro; Hu, Chia-Yu; Oser, Ludwig

    2017-07-01

    We ask how the inclusion of various physical heating processes due to the metal content of gas affects the evolution of central massive galaxies and compute a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that follow these systems and their supermassive black holes. We use a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code with a pressure-entropy formulation and a more accurate treatment of the metal production, turbulent diffusion, and cooling rate based on individual element abundances. The feedback models include (1) active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback via high-velocity broad absorption line winds and Compton/photoionization heating; (2) stellar feedback from multiple processes, including powerful winds from supernovae, stellar winds from young massive stars, and AGB stars, as well as radiative heating within Str\\ddot{{{o}}}mgren spheres; and (3) additional heating effects due to the presence of metals, including grain photoelectric heating and metallicity-dependent X-ray heating by nearby accreting black holes and from the cosmic X-ray background. With a suite of zoom-in simulations of 30 halos with {M}{vir}∼ {10}12.0-13.4, we show that energy and momentum budgeted from all feedback effects generate realistic galaxy properties. We explore the detailed role of each feedback model with three additional sets of simulations with varying input physics. We show that the metal-induced heating reduces the fraction of accreted stellar material but overall has a relatively minor effect on the massive central galaxies. The inclusion of AGN feedback significantly improves the ability of our simulations to yield realistic gas and stellar properties of massive galaxies with a reasonable accreted star fraction from other galaxies.

  4. Analysis of Two Electrocution Accidents in Greece that Occurred due to Unexpected Re-energization of Power Lines.

    PubMed

    Baka, Aikaterini D; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K

    2014-09-01

    Investigation and analysis of accidents are critical elements of safety management. The over-riding purpose of an organization in carrying out an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents, as well as seek a general improvement in the management of health and safety. Hundreds of workers have suffered injuries while installing, maintaining, or servicing machinery and equipment due to sudden re-energization of power lines. This study presents and analyzes two electrical accidents (1 fatal injury and 1 serious injury) that occurred because the power supply was reconnected inadvertently or by mistake.

  5. Analysis of Two Electrocution Accidents in Greece that Occurred due to Unexpected Re-energization of Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    Baka, Aikaterini D.; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K.

    2014-01-01

    Investigation and analysis of accidents are critical elements of safety management. The over-riding purpose of an organization in carrying out an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents, as well as seek a general improvement in the management of health and safety. Hundreds of workers have suffered injuries while installing, maintaining, or servicing machinery and equipment due to sudden re-energization of power lines. This study presents and analyzes two electrical accidents (1 fatal injury and 1 serious injury) that occurred because the power supply was reconnected inadvertently or by mistake. PMID:25379331

  6. Diagnostics of the κ-distribution using Si III lines in the solar transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Kulinová, A.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: The solar transition region satisfies the conditions for appearance of the non-thermal κ-distribution. We aim to prove the occurrence of the non-thermal κ-distribution in the solar transition region and diagnose its parameters. Methods: The intensity ratios of Si iii lines observed by SUMER in 1100-1320 Å region do not correspond to the line ratios computed under the assumption of the Maxwellian electron distribution. We computed a set of synthetic Si iii spectra for the electron κ-distributions with different values of the parameter κ. We had to include the radiation field in our calculations to explain the observed line ratios. We propose diagnostics of the parameter κ and other plasma parameters and analyze the effect of the different gradient of differential emission measures (DEM) on the presented calculations. Results: The used line ratios are sensitive to T, density and the parameter κ. All these parameters were determined from the SUMER observations for the coronal hole (CH), quiet Sun (QS) and active region (AR) using our proposed diagnostics. A strong gradient of DEM influences the diagnosed parameters of plasma. The essential contributions to the total line intensities do not correspond to single T but a wider range of T, and they originate in different atmospheric layers. The amount of the contributions from these atmospheric layers depends on the gradient of DEM and the shape of the electron distribution function. Conclusions: The κ-distribution is able to explain the observed Si iii line spectrum in the transition region. The degree of non-thermality increases with the activity of the solar region, it is lower for CH and higher for the AR. The DEM influences the diagnosed T and Ne but it has only little effect on the diagnostics of the parameter κ.

  7. On the application of a machine learning technique to fault diagnosis of power distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Togami, Masato; Abe, Norihiro; Kitahashi, T.; Ogawa, Harunao

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents one method for fault diagnosis of power distribution lines by using a decision tree. The conventional method, using a decision tree, applies only to discrete attribute values. To apply it to fault diagnosis of power distribution lines, in practice it must be revised in order to treat attributes whose values range over certain widths. This is because the sensor value or attribute value varies owing to the resistance of the fault point or is influenced by noise. The proposed method is useful when the attribute value has such a property, and it takes into consideration the cost of acquiring the information and the probability of the occurrence of a fault.

  8. Gravity Shifting Due to Distribution of Momentum in Black Hole and its Relation with Time Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeygian, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-04-01

    There are many local convection systems of heat and mass in black holes. These large scale coupled systems including planets and molten masses which generate momentum in black hole and consequently generate coupled gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Therefore black hole's gravity is shifting due to distribution of masses/momentum in its convection systems. Two massive black holes which merged at a distance of 1.3 billion light years far from the Earth, produced different momentum and energy before, during, and after the event in different locations of the black hole. This energy and momentum produced gravitational waves which radiated away and recorded on September 14, 2015 by two detectors of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational Observatories (LIGO) in USA. On the other hand, the nature of time is wavy-like motion of the matter and nature of space is jerky-like motion of the matter. These two natures of space-time can be matched on wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. And also magnitude of the time for an atom is momentum of its involved fundamental particles [Gholibeigian, adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS.APR.D1032G]. ∑ ⃗R(mv, σ,τ ) = (pnucleons + pelectrons) In which ⃗Ris time flux, σ&τare space and time coordinates on the string world sheet and p is momentum. Therefore, gravitational waves which travel from black hole to us including different fluxes of time which accompaniment propagated gravitational waves of momentum. As an observable factor, we can look at the 7 milliseconds difference of recorded at the time of arrival of the signals on September 14, 2015 by detector in Livingston before detector in Hanford. This difference of recorded time of signal GW150914 by LIGO cannot be due to warped space-time, because 3002 kilometers distance between two detectors with respect to the 1.3 billion light years (distance of black hole to detectors) is like zero! So, this 7 milliseconds difference between two time's fluxes can be due to

  9. Nosocomial Bloodstream Infection Due to Candida spp. in China: Species Distribution, Clinical Features, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Du, Mingmei; Chen, Liang-An; Liu, Yunxi; Liang, Zhixin

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the distribution of Candida spp., predictors of mortality, and effects of therapeutic measures on outcomes of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Candida spp. This retrospective, population-based study enrolled adult patients with Candida nosocomial BSI from January 2010 to December 2014 in one tertiary care hospital. The demographics, comorbidities, species distribution, risk factors, and effects of antifungal treatment were assessed. In total, 190 episodes of Candida BSI were identified. The most prevalent species was C. albicans (38.9 %), followed by C. parapsilosis (23.2 %) and C. tropicalis (20.5 %). In vitro susceptibility testing showed that 88.9 % of Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. The 30-day hospital mortality was 27.9 %, while the early mortality (within 7 days) was 16.3 %. In a multivariate regression analysis, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score [odds ratio (OR) 1.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.080-1.390; P = 0.002] and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 15.35; 95 % CI 2.391-98.502; P = 0.004) were independently correlated with early mortality. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 24.75; 95 % CI 5.099-120.162; P < 0.001) was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality, while proven catheter-related candidemia (OR 0.16; 95 % CI 0.031-0.810; P = 0.027) was a positive factor for 30-day mortality. Early central venous catheter removal and adequate antifungal treatment were closely related to decreased mortality in patients with primary candidemia. The proportion of candidemia caused by C. albicans was lower than that caused by non-albicans species. The severity of illness influenced early mortality, and the origin of the central venous catheter remarkably affected 30-day mortality.

  10. Development of heterogeneity in proppant distribution due to engineered and natural processes during hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J.; Roy, P.; Walsh, S.

    2015-12-01

    Proppant, such as sand, is injected during hydraulic fracturing to maintain fracture aperture and conductivity. Proppant performance is a complex result of fluid flow, discrete particle mechanics and geomechanical deformation. We present investigations into these phenomena at scales ranging from millimeters to meters. Traditionally, the design goal for proppant placement is uniform distribution by using viscous carrier fluids that keep the proppant suspended and maintain conductivity over the full area of the fracture. Large volume hydraulic fracturing in shales typically use low viscosity fluids, resulting in proppant settling out from the carrier fluid. Consequently, the proppant occupies the lower portion of the fracture. In addition, many shale plays host natural fractures that take up injected carrier fluid, but may not develop sufficient aperture to accommodate proppant. We present simulations investigating natural development of heterogeneity in proppant distribution within fracture networks due to settling and network flow. In addition to natural development of heterogeneity, the petroleum industry has sought to engineer heterogeneity to generate isolated propped portions of the fracture that maintain aperture in adjacent, open channels. We present two examples of such heterogeneous proppant placement (HPP) technologies. The first involves pulsating proppant at the wellhead and the second utilizes a homogenous composite fluid that develops heterogeneity spontaneously through hydrodynamic instabilities. We present simulation results that compare these approaches and conclude that spontaneous creation of heterogeneity has distinct geomechanical advantages. Finally, we present simulations at the scale of individual proppant particles that emphasize the complexity of dynamic instabilities and their influence upon proppant fate. Disclaimer: This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  11. Direct and nearby lightning strike interaction with test power distribution lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, Jens Daniel

    The interaction of direct and nearby rocket-triggered lightning with two unenergized three-phase power distribution lines of about 800 m length was studied at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Florida. A horizontally-configured line was tested in 1999 and 2000, a vertically-configured line in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and a vertically-configured line with overhead ground wire in 2004. All lines were equipped with arresters and, additionally, in 2003, the vertical line had a polemounted transformer. During the 2000, 2001, and 2002 direct strike experiments, arresters frequently failed, but there was no arrester failures either during the 2003 direct strike experiment when the transformer was on the line or during the 2004 direct strike experiment when the lightning current was injected into the overhead ground wire. All line configurations except the one tested in 2004 commonly exhibited flashovers. The division of return stroke currents for the vertically-configured line was initially similar to the division on the horizontally-configured line (that is, the arresters closest to the strike point conducted the bulk of the impulsive current). After some tens of microseconds the currents in all arresters on the vertically-configured line equalized, while the close arrester currents on the horizontally-configured line still conducted significantly more current than the remote arresters. The lightning current division for direct strikes to a phase conductor is successfully modeled with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) for the vertically-configured line and, if the residual voltage of the close arresters is reduced by 20%, successfully modeled for the horizontally-configured line. Currents on the vertically-configured line induced by nearby lightning strikes were measured and compared to results calculated using the LIOV-EMTP96 code. It was found that during a lightning strike 11 m from a grounded line pole, a significant fraction of

  12. Real Distribution of the Coronal Green Line Intensity and Modelling Study of Galactic Cosmic Ray Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushchina, R. T.; Alania, M. V.; Gil, A.; Iskra, K.; Siluszyk, M.

    2003-07-01

    transport equation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) has been numerically solved for different qA>0 (1996) and qA<0 (1987) epochs assuming that free path of GCR scattering in the interplanetary space is controlled by the Sun's coronal green line intensity (CGLI). We found some distinctions in the distribution of the expected heliolatitudinal gradients of GCR for two and three dimensional interplanetary magnetic field. INTRODUCTION. modulation of GCR in the interplanetary space is generally determined by four processesdiffusion, convection, drift and energy change of GCR particles due to interaction with the solar wind. The joint effect of all above mentioned processes result the 11year variation of GCR. In papers [1-3] are assumed that the general reason of the 11-year variation of GCR in the energy range more than 1 GeV is different structure of the irregularities of the IMF in the maxima and minima epochs of solar activity (SA) caused the radical changes of the dependence of diffusion coefficient on the rigidity of GCR particles. EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION. experimental data of sunspot numbers, sunspots' areas and CGLI (λ = 5303˚) show a considerable changes during the 11-year cycle of SA, while e.g. A the changes of the solar wind velocity are not so noticeable [4, 5]. An attempt to take into account influences of the real distributions of the sunspot's areas and the Sun's CGLI on the modulation of GCR considering delay time of the phenomena in the interplanetary space with respect to the processes on the Sun have been undertaken in papers [6-8]. One of parameters of SA contentiously observed on the Earth is the Sun's CGLI. One can suppose that a modulation of GCR by some means is controlled by the changes of the CGLI; particularly there is assumed that a scattering free path of GCR transport is related with the

  13. Numerical analysis of temperature distribution due to basement radiogenic heat production, St. Lawrence Lowlands, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hejuan; Giroux, Bernard; Harris, Lyal B.; Mansour, John

    2017-04-01

    Although eastern Canada is considered as having a low potential for high-temperature geothermal resources, the possibility for additional localized radioactive heat sources in Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement to parts of the Palaeozoic St. Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, suggests that this potential should be reassessed. However, such a task remains hard to achieve due to scarcity of heat flow data and ambiguity about the nature of the basement. To get an appraisal, the impact of radiogenic heat production for different Grenville Province crystalline basement units on temperature distribution at depth was simulated using the Underworld Geothermal numerical modelling code. The region south of Trois-Rivières was selected as representative for the St. Lawrence Lowlands. An existing 3D geological model based on well log data, seismic profiles and surface geology was used to build a catalogue of plausible thermal models. Statistical analyses of radiogenic element (U, Th, K) concentrations from neighbouring outcropping Grenville domains indicate that the radiogenic heat production of rocks in the modelled region is in the range of 0.34-3.24 μW/m3, with variations in the range of 0.94-5.83 μW/m3 for the Portneuf-Mauricie (PM) Domain, 0.02-4.13 μW/m3 for the Shawinigan Domain (Morin Terrane), and 0.34-1.96 μW/m3 for the Parc des Laurentides (PDL) Domain. Various scenarios considering basement characteristics similar to the PM domain, Morin Terrane and PDL Domain were modelled. The results show that the temperature difference between the scenarios can be as much as 12 °C at a depth of 5 km. The results also show that the temperature distribution is strongly affected by both the concentration of radiogenic elements and the thermal conductivity of the basement rocks. The thermal conductivity in the basement affects the trend of temperature change between two different geological units, and the spatial extent of thermal anomalies. The validity of the results was

  14. New concepts on MV distribution from insulated shield wires of HV lines

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, F. ); Cinieri, E. . Ist. di Fisica); Casely-Hayford, L. )

    1989-10-01

    The paper deals with the problem of the most cost effective power supply to the villages and communities of developing countries, located along the route of HV lines, up to 100 km distant from the HV/MV transformer stations. In the first part of the paper a novel solution is presented. This consists of: (i) insulation of the shield wire(s) of an HV line, and wire(s) energization at MV (10 to 34.5 kV) from the closest transformer station; (ii) supply of villages along the line route by means of standard MV/LV distribution transformers connected between the shield wire(s) and ground. Four different schemes are presented, two of them suitable for single-phase distribution, the others for 3-phase supply. The behaviour in steady-state and in transient conditions is analyzed. The second part of the paper reports the positive results of 33 months of operation of an experimental scheme tested in Ghana for supply of single-phase and 3-phase loads from the two insulated shield wires of a 161 kV line. Finally the paper describes the distribution schemes along 407 km of new 161 kV lines in Northern Ghana, where the novel solution is applied to supply power to both domestic and industrial loads in 12 small towns with a design aggregate load of 5000 kW.

  15. Time-dependent Radial Transport of Electron Distributions Due to ECCD in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.; Prater, R.; Petty, C. C.

    2007-11-01

    The radial transport modeling capability in the CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck collisional-rf quasilinear code[1] has been greatly improved and the self-consistent time-dependent toroidal electric field added, making the code truly a ``Fokker-Planck-Transport'' code. The time-dependent, coupled 3D Fokker-Planck equation and the Ampere-Faraday Law equation are solved for the electron distribution, f( u,θu,ρ,t ), and the toroidal loop voltage, Vloop( ρ,t ). A fully 3D, time-implicit solution of the FP equation using sparse-matrix methods[2] is coupled to a new iterative toroidal electric field solve. The DIII-D ECH experiment is in an intermediate driven regime with τtransport τslowing[3] for the EC driven electrons. Results will be reported for time-evolution of radial profiles of current density, fast electrons, and toroidal loop voltage due to EC heating and current drive in DIII-D. [1] R.W. Harvey and M.G. McCoy, IAEA TCM on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, 1992; USDOC NTIS No. 93002962. [2] Y. Peysson et al., Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, 15th Topical Conference, Moran, Wyoming (2003). [3] R.W. Harvey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 205001 (2002).

  16. Non-linear boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani Reffet; Selby, Gregory V.

    1995-01-01

    The process by which a laminar boundary layer internalizes the external disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as boundary-layer receptivity. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of acoustic excitation on boundary-layer receptivity for a flat plate with distributed variable-amplitude surface roughness through measurements with a hot-wire probe. Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) mode shapes due to surface-roughness receptivity have also been determined, analyzed, and shown to be in agreement with theory and other experimental work. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the surface roughness and receptivity for certain roughness configurations with constant roughness wavelength. In addition, strong nonlinear receptivity effects exist for certain surface roughness configurations over a band where the surface roughness and T-S wavelength are matched. The results from the present experiment follow the trends predicted by theory and other experimental work for linear receptivity. In addition, the results show the existence of nonlinear receptivity effects for certain combinations of surface roughness elements.

  17. Non-linear boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani Reffet

    1995-01-01

    The process by which a laminar boundary layer internalizes the external disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as boundary-layer receptivity. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of acoustic excitation on boundary-layer receptivity for a flat plate with distributed variable-amplitude surface roughness through measurements with a hot-wire probe. Tollmien-Schlichting mode shapes due to surface roughness receptivity have also been determined, analyzed, and shown to be in agreement with theory and other experimental work. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the surface roughness and receptivity for certain roughness configurations with constant roughness wavelength. In addition, strong non-linear receptivity effects exist for certain surface roughness configurations over a band where the surface roughness and T-S wavelength are matched. The results from the present experiment follow the trends predicted by theory and other experimental work for linear receptivity. In addition, the results show the existence of non-linear receptivity effects for certain combinations of surface roughness elements.

  18. Non-Arrhenius ionic conductivities in glasses due to a distribution of activation energies.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, C; Schuller, K; Beckman, S P; Martin, S W

    2012-08-17

    Previously observed non-Arrhenius behavior in fast ion conducting glasses [J. Kincs and S. W. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 70 (1996)] occurs at temperatures near the glass transition temperature, T(g), and is attributed to changes in the ion mobility due to ion trapping mechanisms that diminish the conductivity and result in a decreasing conductivity with increasing temperature. It is intuitive that disorder in glass will also result in a distribution of the activation energies (DAE) for ion conduction, which should increase the conductivity with increasing temperature, yet this has not been identified in the literature. In this Letter, a series of high precision ionic conductivity measurements are reported for 0.5Na(2)S + 0.5[xGeS(2) + (1-x)PS(5/2)] glasses with compositions ranging from 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The impact of the cation site disorder on the activation energy is identified and explained using a DAE model. The absence of the non-Arrhenius behavior in other glasses is explained and it is predicted which glasses are expected to accentuate the DAE effect on the ionic conductivity.

  19. Pointing error due to temperature distribution of SiC reflectors in intersatellite laser communications.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liying; Song, Yiwei; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Han, Qiqi; Jiang, Yijun; Wang, Jian; Fu, Sen

    2010-08-01

    Wave-front aberrations due to thermal deformation of elliptical reflectors in periscopic laser communication terminals are studied, and are fitted by Zernike elliptical polynomials. The relationship between pointing error and temperature distribution of elliptical reflectors in intersatellite laser communication systems is researched. The back-fixing method is introduced for fixing the elliptical reflectors, and is proven to reduce pointing error compared to the traditional around-fixing method using a press board. It is shown that the difference between uniform temperature and reference temperature has a much stronger influence than the temperature gradient. For the back-fixing method, the pointing error changes periodically as the uniform temperature changes with a period value of 1.6 degrees C, and the maximum pointing error value is 16.7murad. The result also tells us that, if the difference between uniform temperature and reference temperature is within 1.0 degrees C, there is no pointing error caused by back-fixed reflectors. We hope this work can contribute to the thermal control of elliptical reflectors in intersatellite laser communication terminals.

  20. LINE-1 distribution in Afrotheria and Xenarthra: implications for understanding the evolution of LINE-1 in eutherian genomes.

    PubMed

    Waters, Paul D; Dobigny, Gauthier; Pardini, Amanda T; Robinson, Terence J

    2004-09-01

    Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) comprise about 21% of the human genome (of which L1 is most abundant) and are preferentially accumulated in AT-rich regions, as well as the X and Y chromosomes. Most knowledge of L1 distribution in mammals is restricted to human and mouse. Here we report the first investigation of L1 distribution in the genomes of a wide variety of eutherian mammals, including species in the two basal clades, Afrotheria and Xenarthra. Our results show L1 accumulation on the X of all eutherian mammals, an observation consistent with an ancestral involvement of these elements in the X-inactivation process (the Lyon repeat hypothesis). Surprisingly, conspicuous accumulation of L1 in AT-rich regions of the genome was not observed in any species outside of Euarchontoglires (represented by human, mouse and rabbit). Although several features were common to most species investigated, our comprehensive survey shows that the patterns observed in human and mouse are, in many aspects, far from typical for all mammals. We discuss these findings with reference to models that have previously been proposed to explain the AT distribution bias of L1 in human and mouse, and how this relates to the evolution of these elements in other eutherian genomes.

  1. Modeling of ΔIBL due to random telegraph noise with considering bit-line interference in NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Sung-Min; Bae, Jong-Ho; Park, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Bit-line (BL) current fluctuation (ΔIBL = high IBL - low IBL) of the trap position is modeled as a parameter of the state (program or erase) of adjacent BL cells which affects the current density distribution appreciably. To model ΔIBL, we extracted the integrated electron current density (J0 = f(z)) and the electric blockade length (Lt) by considering the effect of the interference of adjacent cells. A characteristic function (g(z)) which has a Gaussian functional form is defined based on Lt and the trap position within the tunneling oxide from the channel surface (xT). Finally, ΔIBL is extracted through the integration of f(z) and g(z). Our model predicts accurately the ΔIBL with the trap position as a parameter of the state of BL cells, showing good agreement with 3D simulation data.

  2. A Monte Carlo study for the calculation of the average linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for a clinical proton beam line and a radiobiological carbon ion beam line.

    PubMed

    Romano, F; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Rosa, F Di; Mazzaglia, S E; Petrovic, I; Fira, A Ristic; Varisano, A

    2014-06-21

    Fluence, depth absorbed dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of proton and carbon ion beams have been investigated using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking). An open source application was developed with the aim to simulate two typical transport beam lines, one used for ocular therapy and cell irradiations with protons and the other for cell irradiations with carbon ions. This tool allows evaluation of the primary and total dose averaged LET and predict their spatial distribution in voxelized or sliced geometries. In order to reproduce the LET distributions in a realistic way, and also the secondary particles' contributions due to nuclear interactions were considered in the computations. Pristine and spread-out Bragg peaks were taken into account both for proton and carbon ion beams, with the maximum energy of 62 MeV/n. Depth dose distributions were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. Primary and total LET distributions were analysed in order to study the influence of contributions of secondary particles in regions at different depths. A non-negligible influence of high-LET components was found in the entrance channel for proton beams, determining the total dose averaged LET by the factor 3 higher than the primary one. A completely different situation was obtained for carbon ions. In this case, secondary particles mainly contributed in the tail that is after the peak. The results showed how the weight of light and heavy secondary ions can considerably influence the computation of LET depth distributions. This has an important role in the interpretation of results coming from radiobiological experiments and, therefore, in hadron treatment planning procedures.

  3. Application and evaluation of foreign systems for lining gas distribution service pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.R.; Gauthier, S.W.; Spivey, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes a Gas Research Institute program to test and evaluate trenchless rehabilitation technologies for lining gas distribution service pipes. The technical approach for the program was to evaluate foreign service lining systems, determine industry needs versus system capabilities, conduct controlled laboratory evaluations, and perform field evaluations. Two techniques in use at Japanese and British gas companies were investigated, and trials were conducted at six U.S. gas utilities. The reverse lining method of the Japanese utilities was successfully applied to service pipes of 1 to 4 inch diameter for lengths up to 90 feet. The RENU live insertion method used by British Gas is also a potentially viable option for service line renewal. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  5. Enhancement of light absorption in polyazomethines due to plasmon excitation on randomly distributed metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, P.; Antosiewicz, T. J.; Stefaniuk, T.; Ciesielski, A.; Iwan, A.; Wronkowska, A. A.; Wronkowski, A.; Szoplik, T.

    2015-05-01

    In photovoltaic devices, metal nanoparticles embedded in a semiconductor layer allow the enhancement of solar-toelectric energy conversion efficiency due to enhanced light absorption via a prolonged optical path, enhanced electric fields near the metallic inclusions, direct injection of hot electrons, or local heating. Here we pursue the first two avenues. In the first, light scattered at an angle beyond the critical angle for reflection is coupled into the semiconductor layer and confined within such planar waveguide up to possible exciton generation. In the second, light is trapped by the excitation of localized surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles leading to enhanced near-field plasmon-exciton coupling at the peak of the plasmon resonance. We report on results of a numerical experiment on light absorption in polymer- (fullerene derivative) blends, using the 3D FDTD method, where exact optical parameters of the materials involved are taken from our recent measurements. In simulations we investigate light absorption in randomly distributed metal nanoparticles dispersed in polyazomethine-(fullerene derivative) blends, which serve as active layers in bulkheterojunction polymer solar cells. In the study Ag and Al nanoparticles of different diameters and fill factors are diffused in two air-stable aromatic polyazomethines with different chemical structures (abbreviated S9POF and S15POF) mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). The mixtures are spin coated on a 100 nm thick Al layer deposited on a fused silica substrate. Optical constants of the active layers are taken from spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectance measurements using a rotating analyzer type ellipsometer with auto-retarder performed in the wavelength range from 225 nm to 2200 nm. The permittivities of Ag and Al particles of diameters from 20 to 60 nm are assumed to be equal to those measured on 100 to 200 nm thick metal films.

  6. A study on snow distribution in high elevations above the forest line using airborne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, T.; Tanise, A.

    2016-12-01

    In cold and snowy regions, the snowmelt water is essential to meet the water demand. It is very important to estimate snow depth distribution in mountain regions as accurately as possible. However at high elevations above the forest line, it is particularly difficult to set snow survey points according to the risk of avalanches. In recent years, the acquisition of high-density three-dimensional spatial data for wide areas has become possible by using airborne laser scanning. We conducted airborne laser scanning twice, in 2012 and in 2015, to measure the snow depth in the same range in mountainous regions. A purpose of the study was how wind affects the snow depth distribution at high elevations based on measurements done for two years in the same range.The surveys were conducted in the Chubetsu Dam basin. It's located in Hokkaido, northern part of Japan. The range of airborne laser scanning was 10km2 and at elevations between 1,100m and 2,300m. The forest line in the survey area is at the elevation of about 1,450m. The airborne laser scanning was conducted from September 22 to 25, 2009 (during the snow-free period), on March 10, 2012 and on March 27, 2015 (during the snowy period). The snow depth was calculated as the difference between the elevation in the period with snow and that in the period without snow.The snow depth distribution is strongly affected by wind at higher elevations above the forest line. To analyze how wind affects snow depth distribution, we divided a forest area and a high-elevation area into 16 orientation zones each, and we calculated the average snow depth for each zone. The snow depth is nearly evenly distributed in the forest area in 2012 and 2015. In contrast, the snow depth distribution above the forest line shows greater snow depths in the ranges between northeast and southeast than in the ranges between northwest and southwest in 2012 and 2015. Strong winds that can transport snow tend to be westerly when winter storms occur on the

  7. Formation of electron kappa distributions due to interactions with parallel propagating whistler waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X. Lu, Q.

    2014-02-15

    In space plasmas, charged particles are frequently observed to possess a high-energy tail, which is often modeled by a kappa-type distribution function. In this work, the formation of the electron kappa distribution in generation of parallel propagating whistler waves is investigated using fully nonlinear particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A previous research concluded that the bi-Maxwellian character of electron distributions is preserved in PIC simulations. We now demonstrate that for interactions between electrons and parallel propagating whistler waves, a non-Maxwellian high-energy tail can be formed, and a kappa distribution can be used to fit the electron distribution in time-asymptotic limit. The κ-parameter is found to decrease with increasing initial temperature anisotropy or decreasing ratio of electron plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency. The results might be helpful to understanding the origin of electron kappa distributions observed in space plasmas.

  8. Transient overvoltages and overcurrents on 12. 47 kV distribution lines: Computer modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Kolcio, N.; Halladay, J.A.; Allen, G.D.; Fromholtz, E.N. )

    1993-01-01

    American Electric Power conducted field tests to study transient overvoltages and overcurrents on a 12.47 kV distribution line. A separate paper has reported on the field test results. This paper covers the computer modeling and simulation of the field tests. The paper describes the adaptation and refinement of the transformer, load and line models. Computer simulation of the field tests using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) give results which are very close to the actual field tests. Also reported in the paper are the results from a parametric study which were utilized to develop a simplified computer model.

  9. HEMP-induced transients in transmission and distribution (T and D) lines

    SciTech Connect

    Engheta, N.; Lee, K.S.H.; Yang, F.C.; Aguero, R.

    1985-09-01

    The corona effects on the early-time induced transients on the transmission and distribution (T and D) lines are calculated based on two different corona models. Three different sources of excitation of the lines are considered, which include a HEMP plane wave, a localized voltage source, and a current injected at a point on the wire. The induced current and charge are calculated and compared with some available experimental data and with the results of Baum's model. The results illustrate that the corona generally reduces the peak value of the induced current as much as 30% of the value and decreases the rate of rise by about 40%. The HEMP-induced stresses across dielectric insulators in some typical electric power systems are also calculated. The insulators that are considered are line supports in T and D line poles, and transformer bushings in distribution and power transformers. Different elevation and azimuthal angles of HEMP incidence with two different values of ground conductivity are considered. The HEMP-induced ''potential difference'' across the line support and air gap in the transmission lines and the HEMP-induced open-circuit voltage across transformer bushings are calculated. The ''potential difference'' across the line support and across the air gap can be as high as 7 MV. The rise time of the ''potential difference'' is about 110 ns, and the fall time is about 2 to 3 ..mu..s. The open-circuit voltage across transformer bushings can be as large as few tens of MVs and the rise time is in the order of 100 ns and the fall time 800 ns.

  10. A novel method for predicting critical flashover (CFO) voltages insulation strength of multiple dielectrics on distribution overhead lines

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Shahzad, F.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities are striving to improve the appearance of distribution lines, apply different combinations of insulating components to establish the necessary insulation for such lines, by the use of new insulators and simultaneously reduce lightning outages. The impulse critical flashover (CFO) voltages of many overhead line insulators are determined for single and multiple (porcelain, fiberglass, polymers and wood). Laboratory investigation and studies relating to the evaluation of CFO values of distribution lines for multiple dielectrics were reported. Data used by the industry for transmission lines are not fully applicable to estimate CFO`s for distribution lines. Many engineers concerned with the design or operation of high voltage transmission lines have devised methods to estimate the performance of lightning impulse. There is at the present time no such method available on estimating insulation strengths of multiple dielectrics of distribution lines subjected to impulse CFO. This paper presents a method of estimating the CFO insulation strengths of two and three dielectric combinations used on distribution overhead lines using the developed Extended Multi Curves (EMC). The proper use and evaluation of the insulation level by this novel method has a major influence on the design and cost of distribution line construction, application, also improving the performance of specific line designs.

  11. Ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions created by parallel acceleration due to magnetosonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Baker, Daniel N.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Spence, Harlan E.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Kurth, William S.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Blake, J. Bernard.

    2016-04-01

    The Van Allen Probe observations during the recovery phase of a large storm that occurred on 17 March 2015 showed that the ultrarelativistic electrons at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt (L* = 2.6-3.7) exhibited butterfly pitch angle distributions, while the inner belt and the slot region also showed evidence of sub-MeV electron butterfly distributions. Strong magnetosonic waves were observed in the same regions and at the same time periods as these butterfly distributions. Moreover, when these magnetosonic waves extended to higher altitudes (L* = 4.1), the butterfly distributions also extended to the same region. Combining test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we successfully reproduced the formation of the ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions, which primarily result from parallel acceleration caused by Landau resonance with magnetosonic waves. The coexistence of ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions with magnetosonic waves was also observed in the 24 June 2015 storm, providing further support that the magnetosonic waves play a key role in forming butterfly distributions.

  12. Conserved phenotypic variation patterns, evolution along lines of least resistance, and departure due to selection in fossil rodents.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Sabrina; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Michaux, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    Within a group of organisms, some morphologies are more readily generated than others due to internal developmental constraints. Such constraints can channel evolutionary changes into directions corresponding to the greatest intraspecific variation. Long-term evolutionary outputs, however, depend on the stability of these intraspecific patterns of variation over time and from the interplay between internal constraints and selective regimes. To address these questions, the relationship between the structure of phenotypic variance covariance matrices and direction of morphological evolution was investigated using teeth of fossil rodents. One lineage considered here leads to Stephanomys, a highly specialized genus characterized by a dental pattern supposedly favoring grass eating. Stephanomys evolved in the context of directional selection related to the climatic trend of global cooling causing an increasing proportion of grasslands in southwestern Europe. The initial divergence (up to approximately 6.5 mya) was channeled along the direction of greatest intraspecific variation, whereas after 6.5 mya, morphological evolution departed from the direction favored by internal constraints. This departure from the "lines of least resistance" was likely the consequence of an environmental degradation causing a selective gradient strong enough to overwhelm the constraints to phenotypic evolution. However, in a context of stabilizing selection, these constraints actually channel evolution, as exemplified by the lineage of Apodemus. This lineage retained a primitive diet and dental pattern over the last 10 myr. Limited morphological changes occurred nevertheless in accordance with the main patterns of intraspecific variation. The importance of these lines of least resistance directing long-term morphological evolution may explain parallel evolution of some dental patterns in murine evolution.

  13. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  14. Effect of Lightning Protective Devices Attached to Pole Transformers on Reduction of Overvoltage on Distribution Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Yoshinobu; Asakawa, Akira; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Nakada, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    : Class-10A solid-core insulators (BIL 90kV) have been used instead of class-6A pin insulators (BIL 60kV) in order to improve the insulation level of distribution lines. However, lightning protective devices attached to pole transformers may have the effect of reducing the overvoltages on phase conductors. We have investigated the lightning protection effect of devices attached to pole transformers by experiment and analysis using the EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program). The sparkover rate changes from 2.0˜3.3% to 5.5˜9.9% and increases 2.4˜2.8 times when the line insulator of the phase conductors is changed from class-10A to class-6A. It is thought that the insulation level of the line insulator can be reduced depending upon the local particularities, such as number of installed transformers, frequency of direct lightning stroke to the distribution line, and so on although the overall fault rate may increase to some extent.

  15. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-01-01

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:25051035

  16. The velocity distribution of interstellar gas observed in strong UV absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of three strong interstellar UV absorption lines of N I (1199 A), N II (1083 A), and Si III (1206 A) in 47 stars of widely varying distance and a variety of spectral types are analyzed to obtain a velocity distribution function for the interstellar gas. A technique based on the maximum and minimum velocities observed along a line of sight is adopted because of heavy line blending, and results are discussed for both power-law and exponential distribution functions. The expected distribution of radiative-phase supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium is calculated as a function of SNR birthrate and of the interstellar density in which they evolve. The results are combined with observed distance estimates, and it is shown that an interstellar density in excess of 0.1 per cu cm would be required to keep the SNRs sufficiently confined so that their cross sections are consistent with the observed number of components. The alternative possibility is considered that SNRs do not enter the radiative phase before escaping from the Galaxy or colliding with neighboring remnants.

  17. Nanocrystals distribution inside the writing lines in a glass matrix using Argon laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Haro-González, P; Martín, I R; Creus, Alberto Hernández

    2010-01-18

    Localized modification in strontium barium niobate glass doped with Ho(3+) under laser irradiation has been carried out. The preliminary samples of this study have been fabricated by the melt quenching method and doped with 2.5% mol of Ho(3+). A 3.5W cw multiline Ar-laser has been focused and shifted in a line during laser irradiation. The formation of Strontium Barium Niobate nanocrystals has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope image and fluorescence. They have been localized in the irradiation line and change the optical properties of the sample. These nanocrystals have been obtained due to the excitation of the Ho(3+) ions which under nonradiative processes produced the heating of the sample. In this work, it has been demonstrated that the diffusion of the Nb(5+) ions to the border of the irradiated line controls the growth of the nanocrystals in the sample.

  18. A Multi-Moded RF Delay Line Distribution System (MDLDS) for the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher D.

    2002-01-17

    The Delay Line Distribution System (DLDS) is an alternative to conventional pulse compression, which enhances the peak power of rf sources while matching the long pulse of those sources to the shorter filling time of accelerator structures. We present an implementation of this scheme that combines pairs of parallel delay lines of the system into single lines. The power of several sources is combined into a single waveguide delay line using a multi-mode launcher. The output mode of the launcher is determined by the phase coding of the input signals. The combined power is extracted from the delay line using mode-selective extractors, each of which extracts a single mode. Hence, the phase coding of the sources controls the output port of the combined power. The power is then fed to the local accelerator structures. We present a detailed design of such a system, including several implementation methods for the launchers, extractors, and ancillary high power rf components. The system is designed so that it can handle the 600 MW peak power required by the NLC design while maintaining high efficiency.

  19. A Numerical Algorithm to Calculate the Pressure Distribution of the TPS Front End Due to Desorption Induced by Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, I. C.; Kuan, C. K.; Chen, Y. T.; Yang, J. Y.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Chen, J. R.

    2010-06-01

    The pressure distribution is an important aspect of a UHV subsystem in either a storage ring or a front end. The design of the 3-GeV, 400-mA Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) foresees outgassing induced by photons and due to a bending magnet and an insertion device. An algorithm to calculate the photon-stimulated absorption (PSD) due to highly energetic radiation from a synchrotron source is presented. Several results using undulator sources such as IU20 are also presented, and the pressure distribution is illustrated.

  20. Quantification of the evolution of firm size distributions due to mergers and acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Sornette, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of firm sizes is known to be heavy tailed. In order to account for this stylized fact, previous economic models have focused mainly on growth through investments in a company’s own operations (internal growth). Thereby, the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the firm size (external growth) is often not taken into consideration, notwithstanding its potential large impact. In this article, we make a first step into accounting for M&A. Specifically, we describe the effect of mergers and acquisitions on the firm size distribution in terms of an integro-differential equation. This equation is subsequently solved both analytically and numerically for various initial conditions, which allows us to account for different observations of previous empirical studies. In particular, it rationalises shortcomings of past work by quantifying that mergers and acquisitions develop a significant influence on the firm size distribution only over time scales much longer than a few decades. This explains why M&A has apparently little impact on the firm size distributions in existing data sets. Our approach is very flexible and can be extended to account for other sources of external growth, thus contributing towards a holistic understanding of the distribution of firm sizes. PMID:28841683

  1. Quantification of the evolution of firm size distributions due to mergers and acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Lera, Sandro Claudio; Sornette, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of firm sizes is known to be heavy tailed. In order to account for this stylized fact, previous economic models have focused mainly on growth through investments in a company's own operations (internal growth). Thereby, the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the firm size (external growth) is often not taken into consideration, notwithstanding its potential large impact. In this article, we make a first step into accounting for M&A. Specifically, we describe the effect of mergers and acquisitions on the firm size distribution in terms of an integro-differential equation. This equation is subsequently solved both analytically and numerically for various initial conditions, which allows us to account for different observations of previous empirical studies. In particular, it rationalises shortcomings of past work by quantifying that mergers and acquisitions develop a significant influence on the firm size distribution only over time scales much longer than a few decades. This explains why M&A has apparently little impact on the firm size distributions in existing data sets. Our approach is very flexible and can be extended to account for other sources of external growth, thus contributing towards a holistic understanding of the distribution of firm sizes.

  2. Transmitted sound field due to an impulsive line acoustic source bounded by a plate followed by a vortex sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, T.; Chao, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    The propagation of sound due to a line acoustic source in the moving stream across a semiinfinite vortex sheet which trails from a rigid plate is examined in a linear theory for the subsonic case. A solution for the transmitted sound field is obtained with the aid of multiple integral transforms and the Wiener-Hopf technique for both the steady state (time harmonic) and initial value (impulsive source) situations. The contour of inverse transform and hence the decomposition of the functions are determined through causality and radiation conditions. The solution obtained satisfies causality and the full Kutta conditions. The transmitted sound field is composed of two waves in both the stady state and initial value problems. One is the wave scattered from the edge of the plate which is associated with the bow wave and the instability wave. These waves exist in the downstream sectors. The other is the wave transmitted through the vortex sheet which is also associated with the instability wave. Regional divisions of the transmitted sound field are identified.

  3. Electrostatic electron cyclotron instabilities near the upper hybrid layer due to electron ring distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, B.; Speirs, D. C.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the electrostatic electron cyclotron instability involving Bernstein modes in a magnetized plasma. The presence of a tenuous thermal ring distribution in a Maxwellian plasma decreases the frequency of the upper hybrid branch of the electron Bernstein mode until it merges with the nearest lower branch with a resulting instability. The instability occurs when the upper hybrid frequency is somewhat above the third, fourth, and higher electron cyclotron harmonics, and gives rise to a narrow spectrum of waves around the electron cyclotron harmonic nearest to the upper hybrid frequency. For a tenuous cold ring distribution together with a Maxwellian distribution an instability can take place also near the second electron cyclotron harmonic. Noise-free Vlasov simulations are used to assess the theoretical linear growth-rates and frequency spectra, and to study the nonlinear evolution of the instability. The relevance of the results to laboratory and ionospheric heating experiments is discussed.

  4. Transmission of electric fields due to distributed cloud charges in the atmosphere-ionosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Suman; De, S. S.; Haldar, D. K.; Guha, G.

    2017-10-01

    The transmission of electric fields in the lower atmosphere by thunder clouds with a suitable charge distribution profile has been modeled. The electromagnetic responses of the atmosphere are presented through Maxwell's equations together with a time-varying source charge distribution. The conductivities are taken to be exponentially graded function of altitude. The radial and vertical electric field components are derived for isotropic, anisotropic and thundercloud regions. The analytical solutions for the total Maxwell's current which flows from the cloud into the ionosphere under DC and quasi-static conditions are obtained for isotropic region. We found that the effect of charge distribution in thunderclouds produced by lightning discharges diminishes rapidly with increasing altitudes. Also, it is found that time to reach Maxwell's currents a maximum is higher for higher altitudes.

  5. Analysis of shifts in the spatial distribution of vegetation due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, Manuel; Díez-Sierra, Javier; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will modify the statistical regime of most climatological variables, inducing changes on average values and in the natural variability of environmental variables. These environmental variables may be used to explain the spatial distribution of functional types of vegetation in arid and semiarid watersheds through the use of plant optimization theories. Therefore, plant optimization theories may be used to approximate the response of the spatial distribution of vegetation to a changing climate. Predicting changes in these spatial distributions is important to understand how climate change may affect vegetated ecosystems, but it is also important for hydrological engineering applications where climate change effects on water availability are assessed. In this work, Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) is used as the plant optimization theory that describes the spatial distribution of functional types of vegetation. Current climatological conditions are obtained from direct observations from meteorological stations. Climate change effects are evaluated for different temporal horizons and different climate change scenarios using numerical model outputs from the CMIP5. Rainfall estimates are downscaled by means of a stochastic point process used to model rainfall. The study is carried out for the Rio Salado watershed, located within the Sevilleta LTER site, in New Mexico (USA). Results show the expected changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation and allow to evaluate the expected variability of the changes. The updated spatial distributions allow to evaluate the vegetated ecosystem health and its updated resilience. These results can then be used to inform the hydrological modeling part of climate change assessments analyzing water availability in arid and semiarid watersheds.

  6. Forbidden regimes in the distribution of bipartite quantum correlations due to multiparty entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Prabhu, R.; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2017-05-01

    Monogamy is a nonclassical property that limits the distribution of quantum correlation among subparts of a multiparty system. We show that monogamy scores for different quantum correlation measures are bounded above by functions of genuine multipartite entanglement for a large majority of pure multiqubit states. The bound is universal for all three-qubit pure states. We derive necessary conditions to characterize the states that violate the bound, which can also be observed by numerical simulation for a small set of states, generated Haar uniformly. The results indicate that genuine multipartite entanglement restricts the distribution of bipartite quantum correlations in a multiparty system.

  7. Simulation studies of multi-line line-of-sight tunable-diode-laser absorption spectroscopy performance in measuring temperature probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-Le; Liu, Jian-Guo; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Line-of-sight tunable-diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS) with multiple absorption lines is introduced for non-uniform temperature measurement. Temperature binning method combined with Gauss—Seidel iteration method is used to measure temperature probability distribution function (PDF) along the line-of-sight (LOS). Through 100 simulated measurements, the variation of measurement accuracy is investigated with the number of absorption lines, the number of temperature bins and the magnitude of temperature non-uniformity. A field model with 2-T temperature distribution and 15 well-selected absorption lines are used for the simulation study. The Gauss—Seidel iteration method is discussed for its reliability. The investigation result about the variation of measurement accuracy with the number of temperature bins is different from the previous research results.

  8. The effects of lightning and high altitude electromagnetic pulse on power distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Uman, M.A.; Rubinstein, M.; Yacoub, Z.

    1995-01-01

    We simultaneously recorded the voltages induced by lightning on both ends of an unenergized 448-meter long unenergized electric power line and the lightning vertical electric and horizontal magnetic fields at ground level near the line. The lightning data studied and presented here were due both to cloud lightning and to very close (about 20 m from the line) artificially initiated lightning. For cloud sources, a frequency-domain computer program called EMPLIN was used to calculate induced line voltages as a function of source elevation, angle of incidence, and wave polarization of the radiated cloud discharge pulses in order to compare with the measurements. For very-close lightning, the measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories, those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which we call oscillatory, and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which we call impulsive. The amplitude of the induced voltage ranged from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages. A new technique is derived for the calculation of the electromagnetic fields from nearby lightning to ground above an imperfectly conducting ground. This technique was used in conjunction with an existing time domain coupling theory and lightning return stroke model to calculate voltages at either end of the line. The results show fair agreement with the measured oscillatory voltage waveforms if corona is ignored and improved results when corona effects are modeled. The modeling of the impulsive voltage, for which local flashover probably successful. In an attempt to understand better the sources of the line voltages for very close lightning, measurements of the horizontal and vertical electric fields 30 m from triggered lightning were obtained.

  9. Predicting change in eelgrass distribution due to sea level rise in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted...

  10. Predicting change in eelgrass distribution due to sea level rise in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted...

  11. Stress Distribution on Blasting Gallery Barrier Pillar due to Goaf Formation During Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Reddy, Sandi; Sastry, Vedala Rama

    2016-10-01

    Semi-mechanised blasting gallery mining is a sustainable option to achieve higher production and productivity from underground thick coal seams. Judicious design of underground blasting gallery panel requires understanding of stress distribution on barrier pillars during different stages of extraction. This paper presents a study of stress distribution in and around barrier pillar for the different stages of extraction in the blasting gallery panel. Finite difference analysis taken up for final excavation (depillaring) in the panel with different stages of extraction. Analysis revealed that the stress transferred on barrier pillar increased as progress of excavation increased. Maximum stress was observed at a distance of 10 and 12 m from the pillar edge for virgin and goaved out panel sideby respectively, which gradually decreased towards centre of the pillar.

  12. Measurement of the Lick Indices in Early-Type Galaxies: Line-of-Sight Velocity Distribution Corrections for IC 1459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samurovic, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we analyse the measurements of the absorption line-strength Lick indices in the early-type galaxy IC 1459. We use the long-slit spectra of the elliptical galaxy IC 1459 from which its kinematics had previously been extracted to calculate the Lick indices for the observed spectral region (Mg_2, Fe5270, Fe5335 and H_β). We apply the usual procedure and correct the indices to the Lick spectral resolution and for the zero velocity dispersion. The procedure applied in this paper also corrects to non-Gaussian line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) observed in this galaxy, especially in its outer parts. The findings of Kuntschner (2004) were tested and it is shown that the departures from the Gaussian LOSVD may indeed cause erroneous determinations of the Lick indices. The impact of the introduction of non-Gaussian LOSVD differs for different indices. For the galaxy IC~1459 it is shown that the iron indices are especially sensitive when the correction due to anistropies is introduced: the corrections for Fe5270 and Fe5335 are ˜ 10 and ˜ 19 percent larger, respectively, than the corrections obtained in case of a pure Gaussian. The corrections for Mg_2 index are shown to be negligible and the corrections of the H_β index due to anisotropies are also small (below ˜ 4 per cent at most).

  13. Global Galactic distribution of the 1.275 MeV γ-ray line emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyudin, A. F.; Bennett, K.; Lichti, G. G.; Ryan, J.; Schönfelder, V.

    2005-11-01

    We present results of the analysis of 1.275 MeV γ-ray line global distribution derived from the all-sky data accumulated by COMPTEL on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) from 1991 to 1997. Previously the 1.275 MeV γ-ray line was believed to be largely produced in the decay of radioactive isotope 22Na that is synthesised in the classical nova (CN) thermonuclear runaway (TNR). Another way to produce the 1.275 MeV line emission is via the excitation of 22Ne-nuclei, e.g. through the low-energy cosmic ray interactions with the nuclei of the interstellar matter that lead to the production of 22Ne^*, or of 22Na. This scenario, as we now believe, can be dominant in contributing to the total 1.275 MeV γ-ray line emission from the galactic bulge. Unfortunately, systematic uncertainties in the analysis of the COMPTEL data hinder a clear distinction between two alternative scenarios.

  14. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Orion Sources: Templates for Extragalactic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, Edwin A.; Goicoechea, Javier; Schilke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Relative populations in the excited rotational levels of CO are sensitive to conditions in the interstellar medium. Emission lines originating in these levels can thus be used in constraining parameters such as density, temperature, and radiation field. The Herschel Space Observatory has enabled the observation of CO emission lines arising from the J=4 through J=48 rotational levels, many of which are detected in different sources within the Orion star-forming region. We present observations of CO emission toward Orion KL, Orion H2 Peak 1, Orion South, and the Orion Bar, all of which show distinctive CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) indicating the different excitation mechanisms at work. Using the high spectral resolution HIFI observations, we decompose emission line profiles into multiple components (e.g., shock, outflow, photodissociation region, ambient cloud) in order to characterize the CO SLED associated with each component. In doing so, we generate templates for the various excitation mechanisms that can be applied toward understanding the processes occurring in unresolved star-forming regions where CO observations have been made.

  15. A multi-moded rf delay line distribution system for the next linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S.G.; Bowden, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Irwin, J.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.; Li, Z.; Loewen, R.; Miller, R.; Nantista, C.; Ruth, R.D.; Rifkin, J.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.; Adolphsen, C.; Wang, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Delay Line Distribution System (DLDS) (1) is an alternative to conventional pulse compression which enhances the peak power of an rf source while matching the long pulse of that source to the shorter filling time of the accelerator structure. We present a variation on that scheme that combines the parallel delay lines of the system into one single line. The power of several sources is combined into a single waveguide delay line using a multi-mode launcher. The output mode of the launcher is determined by the phase coding of the input signals. The combined power is extracted using several mode extractors, each of which extracts only one single mode. Hence, the phase coding of the sources controls the output port of the combined power. The power is then fed to the local accelerator structures. We present a detailed design of such a system, including several implementation methods for the launchers, extractors, and ancillary high power rf components. The system is designed so that it can handle the 600 MW peak power required by the NLC design, while maintaining high efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. A monolithic constant-fraction discriminator using distributed R-C delay-line shaping

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Xu, M.

    1995-06-01

    A monolithic, CMOS, constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) was fabricated in the Orbit Semiconductor, 1.2 {mu} N-well process. This circuit uses an on-chip, distributed, R-C delay-line to realize the constant-fraction shaping. The delay-line is constructed from a narrow, 500-{mu} serpentine layer of polysilicon above a wide, grounded, second layer of polysilicon. This R-C delay-line generates about 1.1 ns of delay for 5 ns risetime signals with a slope degradation of only {approx_equal} 15% and an amplitude reduction of about 6.1%. The CFD also features an automatic walk adjustment. The entire circuit, including the delay line, has a 200 {mu} pitch and is 950 {mu} long. The walk for a 5 ns risetime signal was measured as {plus_minus} 100 ps over the 100:1 dynamic range from {minus}15 mV to {minus}1.5 mV. to {minus}1.5 V. The CFD consumes 15 mW.

  17. The Line Islands revisited: New 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic evidence for episodes of volcanism due to lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. S.; Gray, L. B.; Clague, D. A.; Hein, J. R.

    2002-03-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar ages of mineral separates and whole rock samples from nine volcanic edifices in the northern Line Islands region, between latitudes 20°N and 6°N, are incompatible with single or multiple hot spot models. Instead, two major episodes of volcanism, each lasting ~5 Ma and separated by ~8 Ma, occurred synchronously over long distances, not just along the main chain but also at nonaligned edifices. Volcanism during the older episode (81-86 Ma) extended over a distance of at least 1200 km along the eastern part of the complex seamount chain. Volcanism during the younger episode (68-73 Ma) was concentrated in the western part of the chain and may have extended over a distance of >4000 km. Chemical analyses of 68 samples represent a compositionally diverse suite, including tholeiitic, transitional, and alkalic basalt, strongly alkalic basanite and nephelinite, and alkalic differentiates ranging from hawaiite to trachyte. The most diverse assemblage of rocks was recovered from a cross-trending seamount chain south of Johnston Atoll. Although compositions of rocks from the two volcanic episodes overlap, compositions from the younger episode generally are more alkalic and include a larger proportion of highly differentiated compositions. None of the samples from the older episode, but many from the younger one, contain hydrous mineral phases such as amphibole and biotite. Extensive coeval volcanism along major segments of the chain is compatible with decompressional melting of heterogeneous mantle due to diffuse lithospheric extension along pre-existing zones of weakness. Episodes of volcanism are probably related to broad upwarping of the Superswell region in the eastern South Pacific, where these lavas originated.

  18. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M. E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.n E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}> 10{sup 11} L {sub sun}), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L {sub IR}>10{sup 12} L {sub sun}), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C{sup +} line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these

  19. Distribution of sensitivity to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide among Japanese lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Hirohata, Tomio; Nagayama, Junya ); Kuratsune, Masanori Nakamura Junior Coll., Fukuoka )

    1991-01-01

    The processes through which the UV-mimic chemical carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), leads to the DNA lesions are well characterized in E. coli, where the formation of stable 4NQO-purine adducts is critical. The DNA excision-repair mechanisms similar to those for E. coli occur in normal human cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an example of a rare recessive autosomal skin disorder which is characterized biochemically as a DNA repair-deficient disease. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) method was recently used to determine the sensitivity of lymphoblastoid cell lines 4NQO. Viable cells take up, non-fluorescent chemical, FDA and convert it to, a fluorescent molecule, fluorescein by intracellular esterases. DNA damage produced by 4NQO could be evaluated on the basis of the cell lethality by this FDA method. In the present study the authors describe the distribution of sensitivity to 4NQO among lymphoblastoid cell lines established from Japanese.

  20. Voltages induced on a power distribution line by overhead cloud lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yacoub, Ziad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Uman, Martin A.; Thomson, Ewen M.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1991-01-01

    Voltages induced by overhead cloud lightning on a 448 m open circuited power distribution line and the corresponding north-south component of the lightning magnetic field were simultaneously measured at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1986. The incident electric field was calculated from the measured magnetic field. The electric field was then used as an input to the computer program, EMPLIN, that calculated the voltages at the two ends of the power line. EMPLIN models the frequency domain field/power coupling theory found, for example, in Ianoz et al. The direction of the source, which is also one of the inputs to EMPLIN, was crudely determined from a three station time delay technique. The authors found reasonably good agreement between calculated and measured waveforms.

  1. Off-line tracking of series parameters in distribution systems using AMI data

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Tess L.; Sun, Yannan; Schneider, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Electric distribution systems have historically lacked measurement points, and equipment is often operated to its failure point, resulting in customer outages. The widespread deployment of sensors at the distribution level is enabling observability. This paper presents an off-line parameter value tracking procedure that takes advantage of the increasing number of measurement devices being deployed at the distribution level to estimate changes in series impedance parameter values over time. The tracking of parameter values enables non-diurnal and non-seasonal change to be flagged for investigation. The presented method uses an unbalanced Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and a measurement residual-based parameter estimation procedure. Measurement residuals from multiple measurement snapshots are combined in order to increase the effective local redundancy and improve the robustness of the calculations in the presence of measurement noise. Data from devices on the primary distribution system and from customer meters, via an AMI system, form the input data set. Results of simulations on the IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to changes in series impedance parameters. A 5% change in series resistance elements can be detected in the presence of 2% measurement error when combining less than 1 day of measurement snapshots into a single estimate.

  2. Displacements and stress distribution in D0 Run IIb stave due to CTE mismatches

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranfo, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-07-01

    A possible D0 Run IIb stave design currently under study is characterized by an outer carbon fiber stiffening shell with the silicon detectors mounted internally and a single central cooling line running between them; in this paper the stave will be analyzed for thermal compatibility since the different coefficient of thermal expansion in the materials may cause unpredictable stresses and strains in the structure. A simplified stave section has been modeled with finite elements for different materials configurations and the vertical and longitudinal displacements induced by the thermal gradient, together with the related stresses, have been computed. Finally, once selected the most suitable material combination, a more realistic model has been created in order to study the influence of the hybrid location along the ladders.

  3. Mapping and modelling of radionuclide distribution on the ground due to the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2014-08-01

    A large-scale environmental monitoring effort, construction of detailed contamination maps based on the monitoring data, studies on radiocaesium migration in natural environments, construction of a prediction model for the air dose rate distribution in the 80 km zone, and construction of a database to preserve and keep open the obtained data have been implemented as national projects. Temporal changes in contamination conditions were analysed. It was found that air dose rates above roads have decreased much faster than those above undisturbed flat fields. Further, the decreasing tendency was found to depend on land uses, magnitudes of initial dose rates and some other factors.

  4. Spontaneous superfluid unpinning and the inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.

    1988-01-01

    The equation of motion of the pinned superfluid which couples to the crust of neutron stars via thermal vortex creep is studied. Spontaneous unpinning at locations characterized by a very inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines is examined as a possible mechanism for the initiation of glitches. It is suggested that structural inhomogeneities in the crust of neutron stars may be responsible for frequent microglitches which lead to pulsar timing noise. A generalization of the model shows promise for explaining the origin of the giant glitches in pulsars.

  5. A High Resolution Digital Phase Shifter using Distributed MEMS Transmission Lines-A New Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose K, Nisha; Baiju, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    Distributed Micro Electromechanical systems Transmission Line (DMTL) is used for designing digital phase shifters, by using an array of shunt switches. In the present paper, a new approach for designing DMTL for small phase steps is proposed. In the present work, an additional single switch section is introduced, having half the phase shift as the other switch sections in the DMTL. The addition of the new switch section does not alter the characteristic impedance or total phase shift of the DMTL phase shifter. A high resolution phase shifter is designed using the proposed model and the simulation results are presented. The proposed method can be further extended for achieving smaller phase steps.

  6. System Design for On-line Distributed Computational Visualization and Steering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qishi; Zhu, Mengxia; Rao, Nageswara S

    2006-01-01

    We propose a distributed computing framework for network-optimized visualization and steering of real-time scientific simulations and computations executed on a remote host, such as workstation, cluster or supercomputer. Unlike the conventional "batch" simulations, this system enables: (i) monitoring of an ongoing remote computation using visualization tools, and (ii) on-line specification of simulation parameters to interactively steer remote computations. Using performance models for transport channels and visualization modules, we develop a dynamic programming method to optimize the realization of the visualization pipeline over a wide-area network to maximize the frame rate. We present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of this system.

  7. A Complex Stellar Line-of-Sight Velocity Distribution in the Lenticular Galaxy NGC 524

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Sil'chenko, O.; Zasov, A.; Afanasiev, V.

    2011-08-01

    We present a detailed study of the stellar and gaseous kinematics in the luminous early-type galaxy NGC 524, derived from the long-slit spectroscopic observations obtained with the Russian 6 m telescope and the IFU data from the SAURON survey. The stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) of NGC 524 exhibits strong asymmetry. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the LOSVD using two complementary approaches by the nbursts full spectral fitting technique: (a) a non-parametric LOSVD recovery and (b) a parametric recovery of two Gaussian kinematical components having different stellar populations. We discuss the origin of the complex stellar LOSVD of NGC 524.

  8. Enhancement of tunability of MAPK cascade due to coexistence of processive and distributive phosphorylation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Yi, Ming; Yang, Lijian; Wei, Wenbin; Ding, Yiming; Jia, Ya

    2014-03-04

    The processive phosphorylation mechanism becomes important when there is macromolecular crowding in the cytoplasm. Integrating the processive phosphorylation mechanism with the traditional distributive one, we propose a mixed dual-site phosphorylation (MDP) mechanism in a single-layer phosphorylation cycle. Further, we build a degree model by applying the MDP mechanism to a three-layer mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. By bifurcation analysis, our study suggests that the crowded-environment-induced pseudoprocessive mechanism can qualitatively change the response of this biological network. By adjusting the degree of processivity in our model, we find that the MAPK cascade is able to switch between the ultrasensitivity, bistability, and oscillatory dynamical states. Sensitivity analysis shows that the theoretical results remain unchanged within a reasonably chosen variation of parameter perturbation. By scaling the reaction rates and also introducing new connections into the kinetic scheme, we further construct a proportion model of the MAPK cascade to validate our findings. Finally, it is illustrated that the spatial propagation of the activated MAPK signal can be improved (or attenuated) by increasing the degree of processivity of kinase (or phosphatase). Our research implies that the MDP mechanism makes the MAPK cascade become a flexible signal module, and the coexistence of processive and distributive phosphorylation mechanisms enhances the tunability of the MAPK cascade.

  9. Modifications of surfactant distributions and surface morphologies in latex films due to moisture exposure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guizhen H; Dong, Jinping; Severtson, Steven J; Houtman, Carl J; Gwin, Larry E

    2009-07-30

    Migration of surfactants in water-based, pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) films exposed to static and cyclic relative humidity conditions was investigated using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Studied PSA films contain monomers n-butyl acrylate, vinyl acetate, and methacrylic acid and an equal mass mixture of anionic and nonionic nonylphenol ethoxylate emulsifiers. A leveling of surfactant concentration distributions is observed via CRM after films stored at 50% relative humidity (RH) are exposed to a 100% RH for an extended time period, while relatively small increases in surface enrichment occur when films are stored at 0% RH. Use of CRM for binary mixtures containing anionic or nonionic surfactant and latex that has undergone dialysis to remove nonpolymeric components indicates that surfactant-polymer compatibility governs to a great extent surface enrichment, but not changes observed with humidity variations. AFM images show that upon drying latex coatings, surfactant and other additives collect in large aggregation regions, which protrude from film surfaces. These structures are absent at high humidity, which appears to result from lateral spreading across the polymer surface. When humidity is reduced, aggregation regions reform but appear to be smaller and more evenly dispersed, and by cycling humidity between 0 and 100% RH, interfacial enrichment can be seen to diminish. Presented results provide greater insights into the distribution behavior of surfactants in latex films and potential mechanisms for observed issues arising for these systems.

  10. Asymmetric lake distribution on Titan mediated by methane transport due to atmospheric eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2015-11-01

    The observed north-south asymmetry in the distribution of Titan's seas and lakes has been proposed to be a consequence of orbital forcing affecting Titan's hydrologic cycle, as in the present the northern summer is longer but milder than its southern counterpart. Though recent general circulation models have simulated asymmetrical surface liquid distributions, the mechanism that generates this asymmetry has not been explained. In this work, we compare axisymmetric and three-dimensional simulations of Titan's atmospheric circulation with the Titan Atmospheric Model (TAM) [Lora et al. 2015, Icarus 250] to investigate the transport of moisture by the atmosphere. A significant hemispheric asymmetry only develops in the latter case, and we demonstrate that equatorward transport by high-latitude, baroclinic eddies is responsible. Eddies transport moisture from the high latitudes into the low and midlatitude cross-equatorial mean meridional circulation, producing an atmospheric "bucket brigade." The moisture transport by eddies is more intense in the south than in the north as a consequence of the orbital forcing, and therefore the result is net northward transport of methane, explaining the surface buildup in the north.

  11. Observation of lines above 2000 A in OVIII and CVI in the PLT tokamak due to charge-exchange processes: diagnostic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S; Skinner, C.H.; Stratton, B.; Bell, R.; Cavallo, A.; Hosea, J.; Hwang, D.; Schilling, G.

    1984-02-01

    Hydrogen-like oxygen and carbon lines from high-n transitions with wavelengths above 2000 A were observed as a result of charge-exchange processes during neutral beam injection of hydrogen atoms into the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak. The lines are: OVIII 2976 A (8 ..-->.. 7 transitions), CVI 3434 A (7 ..-->.. 6), and CVI 5291 A (8 ..-->.. 7). Application of these lines for Doppler ion temperature measurements and initial obeservations of neutral beam vertical and horizontal distributions in the plasma are presented.

  12. A biomonitoring study of genotoxic risk to workers of transformers and distribution line stations.

    PubMed

    Celikler, Serap; Aydemir, Nilufer; Vatan, Ozgur; Kurtuldu, Sevim; Bilaloglu, Rahmi

    2009-12-01

    A cytogenetic monitoring study was carried out on a group of workers from transformer and distribution line stations in the Bursa province of Turkey, to investigate the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric (ELF) and magnetic fields (EMF). Cytogenetic analysis, namely chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed on a strictly selected group of 55 workers and compared to 17 controls. CA and MN frequencies in electrical workers appeared significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.001, 0.05, respectively). The frequency of CA in exposed groups were significantly enhanced with the years of exposure (p < 0.01). The effect of smoking on the level of CA and MN was not significant in the control and exposure groups. The results of this study demonstrated that a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged to occupational exposure to ELMF in electric transformer and distribution stations.

  13. Free-molecule pressure distribution within a fluid line duct vented to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Rader, R. J.; Ayotte, A. R.

    1991-06-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the location and approximate magnitude of leaks from pressurized fluid lines in an enclosed duct venting to space through wall and joint cracks. The model is a one-dimensional treatment of diffuse re-emitting and scattering of adsorbed molecules. The model uses transfer factors from the solution of Hottel and Keller. In order to validate the model, tests were conducted in a vacuum chamber on a subscale mockup of the Space Station fluid distribution tray. In general, model predictions were found to be quite good, except in cases where cracks in the duct were made quite small and uncertainty in their dimensions arose. The model can be used to assist in designing the Space Station fluid distribution tray and a leak detection system.

  14. Superior bit error rate and jitter due to improved switching field distribution in exchange spring magnetic recording media.

    PubMed

    Suess, D; Fuger, M; Abert, C; Bruckner, F; Vogler, C

    2016-06-01

    We report two effects that lead to a significant reduction of the switching field distribution in exchange spring media. The first effect relies on a subtle mechanism of the interplay between exchange coupling between soft and hard layers and anisotropy that allows significant reduction of the switching field distribution in exchange spring media. This effect reduces the switching field distribution by about 30% compared to single-phase media. A second effect is that due to the improved thermal stability of exchange spring media over single-phase media, the jitter due to thermal fluctuation is significantly smaller for exchange spring media than for single-phase media. The influence of this overall improved switching field distribution on the transition jitter in granular recording and the bit error rate in bit-patterned magnetic recording is discussed. The transition jitter in granular recording for a distribution of Khard values of 3% in the hard layer, taking into account thermal fluctuations during recording, is estimated to be a = 0.78 nm, which is similar to the best reported calculated jitter in optimized heat-assisted recording media.

  15. Superior bit error rate and jitter due to improved switching field distribution in exchange spring magnetic recording media

    PubMed Central

    Suess, D.; Fuger, M.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Vogler, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report two effects that lead to a significant reduction of the switching field distribution in exchange spring media. The first effect relies on a subtle mechanism of the interplay between exchange coupling between soft and hard layers and anisotropy that allows significant reduction of the switching field distribution in exchange spring media. This effect reduces the switching field distribution by about 30% compared to single-phase media. A second effect is that due to the improved thermal stability of exchange spring media over single-phase media, the jitter due to thermal fluctuation is significantly smaller for exchange spring media than for single-phase media. The influence of this overall improved switching field distribution on the transition jitter in granular recording and the bit error rate in bit-patterned magnetic recording is discussed. The transition jitter in granular recording for a distribution of Khard values of 3% in the hard layer, taking into account thermal fluctuations during recording, is estimated to be a = 0.78 nm, which is similar to the best reported calculated jitter in optimized heat-assisted recording media. PMID:27245287

  16. Evaluation of uncertainties in lung measurement of actinides due to non-uniform distribution of activity in lungs.

    PubMed

    Nadar, M Y; Akar, D K; Rao, D D; Kulkarni, M S; Pradeepkumar, K S

    2017-09-01

    Various parameters can introduce uncertainties in the lung activity measurements of actinides. In this study, uncertainties due to non-uniform distribution of activity in the lungs are evaluated. To study the effect of non-uniform distribution, lungs of ICRP male thorax voxel and resized phantoms are divided into upper and lower parts of both right and left lungs as well as into anterior and posterior lung regions. Simulation of uniform and non-uniform distribution of activity in lungs is carried out using thorax voxel phantoms in FLUKA for Phoswich and an array of three HPGe detectors for 18-238keV photons. Source sampling for non-uniform distribution of activity is carried out by selecting the source points by varying the weightage to 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 1 in different parts of lungs. Uncertainties in lung activity estimation at different energies are quantified in the form of scattering factors (SFs) which are geometric standard deviations. The SFs due to non-uniform distribution of activity of the order of 0.4-0.6 in different parts of the lungs are found to be ~ 1.25 for Phoswich and HPGe array detectors above 18keV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  18. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  19. Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Zegarra, Diego E; López-Charneco, Magdalena; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J; Concha-Eastman, Alberto; Rodriguez, José F; Conte-Miller, María

    2012-11-01

    To raise awareness of the impact of homicides in Puerto Rico based on the findings of the spatial and temporal distribution of homicides and the use of firearms, by age and gender, using reports of interpersonal violent deaths from the Institute of Forensic Science (IFS) headquartered in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This was a descriptive study of all homicide incidents in Puerto Rico reported by the IFS for the period 2001-2010. For each of the 8 542 cases, data analyzed included age, sex, municipality of incident, date of death, and mechanism. Crude sex- and age-specific mortality rates for Puerto Rico and for each municipality per year and for the 10-year period were calculated. Cumulative rate and cumulative risks were estimated and defined as lifetime risk. The relative distribution of cumulative rates for each municipality was categorized into quartiles of highest to lowest risk and displayed as a map. The risk of homicide death among males is 13 times greater than among females. The highest rates were observed among males 20-24 years of age (198.4 homicides per 100 000). In any given year, firearms were used in at least 80% of homicides. The average lifetime risk of homicide death for males is 1 in 34. Young adult males with access to firearms are at greatest risk of homicide in Puerto Rico. Also, highly urbanized municipalities are at highest risk; however, certain non-urban municipalities along the coast also have a very high homicide risk. Top priorities should be applying the WHO "ecological model" for violent injury prevention and establishing a surveillance system that will assist in identifying the role that socioeconomics, illegal firearms trade, and drug trafficking are playing.

  20. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Laing, James R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA) evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width, respectively. The

  1. A distributed pumping model for a repetitive operated magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xun; Jiande, Zhang; Hanwu, Yang; Zicheng, Zhang

    2013-04-01

    As one of the high power microwave sources, a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) works well in single shot mode. Recent interest has been focused on the repetition rate (rep-rate) operation of the device and it is important to improve the vacuum condition during the pulse bursts. In this paper, a dynamic pumping model for an L-band MILO was developed for the molecular movement and collision in the high-current vacuum diode chamber and the MILO tube on the basis of the Monte-Carlo method. According to the three dimension particle distribution, the idea of distributed pumping was proposed. In this way, another pump system close to the velvet cathode was introduced and located at the end of the MILO tube. Simulation results were verified through the experimental test carried out on a repetitive operated, high-voltage modulator, Torch-01 pulser. Results show that the distributed pumping can efficiently reduce the characteristic time of the pressure drop to one-fifth that of the single pumping. It is also indicated that the distributed pumping model has the potential for helping the MILO operate under rep-rate mode.

  2. Unusual Magnetism Due to a Random Distribution of Cations in α-LiFeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fei; Bie, Xiaofei; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Liu, Lina; Gao, Chunge; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Chunzhong

    2011-09-01

    The magnetic behavior of disordered α-LiFeO2 is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, dc and ac susceptibilities. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of α-LiFeO2 can be fitted by two doublets with similar isomer shifts but different quadruple splittings due to different electric field gradients at the Fe3+ cores. The effective moment of α-LiFeO2 is lower than that theoretical expected because of the formation of short-range antiferromagnetic clusters. The frequency dependence of the ac peaks at 88 K, irreversibility behavior and its evolution with the increasing strength of a superimposed dc field confirm a cluster spin glass state of α-LiFeO2.

  3. Broadening of fast-beam spectral lines due to diffraction at the entrance slit of a spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Stoner, J. O., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical demonstration of the necessity to take into account the effects of diffraction at a spectrometer's entrance slit in adjusting the spectrometer for observation of fast-beam spectral lines under conditions of minimum linewidth. An approximate expression is obtained for the optimum entrance slit width to be used in order to avoid the pronounced broadening of the spectral lines that occurs for very narrow entrance slits.

  4. Cell death and intracellular distribution of hematoporphyrin in a KB cell line.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hongran; Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Inae; Jeong, Jinan; Ko, Youngjong; Song, Jongwoon; You, Sunyeol; Kim, Doman; Kim, Misook; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Kim, Okjoon

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of intracellular photosensitizer distribution on tumor cell death after photodynamic therapy (PDT). The photosensitizer accumulates in tumor tissue during PDT, and generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in tumor cell death. This study was carried out to elucidate the effects of PDT in a KB oral cancer cell line using hematoporphyrin with irradiation at 635 nm and 5 mW/cm(2). After irradiation, the MTT reduction method, agarose gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry, and Diff-Quick staining were performed. The intracellular ROS level was measured by DCF-DA. Intracellular hematoporphyrin was monitored with a confocal microscope, and Western blot and caspase activity assays were performed. In our study, cell survival was reduced by about 50% after 3 h of hematoporphyrin incubation time. In DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry, and Diff-Quick assay, necrosis was identified within 12 h and apoptosis soon thereafter. Confocal microscopy revealed that hematoporphyrin was localized in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus as time passed. The quantities of intracellular ROS correlated with the time of hematoporphyrin accumulation. Additionally, Western blot analysis of Bcl-2/Bax, the release of cytochrome C, and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 showed that apoptosis followed the mitochondria-dependent pathway. PDT with hematoporphyrin in the KB cell line showed morphological changes of cell necrosis and apoptosis, which were associated with the time of distribution and localization of hematoporphyrin. Also, the apoptosis evoked followed the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  5. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR⋆

    PubMed Central

    Parikka, A.; Habart, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Abergel, A.; Pilleri, P.; Dartois, E.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Context The methylidyne cation (CH+) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas (~500–1000 K) in photodissociation regions with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (> 105 cm−3) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH+ and OH correlate with the excited CO, a tracer of dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. Aims Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar in order to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. Methods We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+ J=3-2 transition at 119.8 µm and the OH Λ-doublet at 84 µm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″×110″ with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of CH+ J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel HIFI spectrometer observations. Results The OH and especially CH+ lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH+ and OH morphologies indicate that CH+ formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH+ line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 µm emission coincides with a bright young object, proplyd

  6. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH(+) and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR.

    PubMed

    Parikka, A; Habart, E; Bernard-Salas, J; Goicoechea, J R; Abergel, A; Pilleri, P; Dartois, E; Joblin, C; Gerin, M; Godard, B

    2017-03-01

    The methylidyne cation (CH(+)) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas (~500-1000 K) in photodissociation regions with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (> 10(5) cm(-3)) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH(+) and OH correlate with the excited CO, a tracer of dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH(+) excitation. Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH(+) and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar in order to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. We present spatially sampled maps of the CH(+) J=3-2 transition at 119.8 µm and the OH Λ-doublet at 84 µm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″×110″ with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C(+), O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of CH(+) J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel HIFI spectrometer observations. The OH and especially CH(+) lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH(+) and OH morphologies indicate that CH(+) formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH(+) line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 µm emission coincides with a bright young object, proplyd 244

  7. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A.; Lis, D. C.; Schilke, P.

    2017-02-01

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel/HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel/PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5 ≤ J u ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. Digital Distributed Parameter Model for Analysis of Unsteady Flow in Liquid-Filled Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Don J.; Dorsch, Robert G.; Lightner, Charlene

    1965-01-01

    A distributed parameter model for computing unsteady flow conditions in liquid systems is presented. The model is adapted for use in conjunction with a digital computer. The analytical method employed is essentially a solution synthesized from the effects of incremental step pressure pulses. The pressure pulses are generated because of incremental flow-rate changes that originate in a fluid system from a variety of sources, including the mechanical motion of the system structure. The pressure pulses propagate throughout the system at sonic velocity and are partially transmitted and reflected at each discontinuity. The velocity change caused by each pressure pulse is obtained from the relation for the characteristic acoustic impedance. Pressure and velocity time histories at any point in the system are obtained by a timewise summation of the contributions of the incremental pressure pulses passing that point. The analysis is presented in a form general enough to be applied to a variety of liquid-filled fluid systems. To illustrate the application of the method to a specific system, the response of a long, straight propellant line to a sinusoidal inlet flow and pressure perturbation is computed. Both a constant-cross-section line and a tapered line are analyzed in the example.

  9. Health monitoring of electric power communication line using a distributed optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lidong; Liang, Yun; Li, Binglin; Guo, Jinghong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xuping

    2014-11-01

    Optical fiber ground wire (OPGW) is used for both the earth line and communication line in electric power systems. It is important to find an effective to monitor the status of OPGW and diagnose some possible damages. Fault location of the optical fiber transmission line, lightning stroke location and early-warning of ice covering of OPGW are common tasks for OPGW health monitoring and maintenance. As to these issues, Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) is employed for the health monitoring of OPGW. In experiment, a positive electrode with high pulsed current and a negative electrode are adopted to form a lightning impulse system with duration time of 200ms for simulation of the lightning stroke process, and a tensile force loading apparatus is also constructed to simulate the strain influence of the ice covering on the OPGW. Experimental results demonstrate that the BOTDR can sensitively locate the lightning stroke incidents with the quantity of electric discharging larger than 100C and the strain component has little interference on temperature monitoring as the fiber contained in the OPGW is generally free of strain, and in the ice covering condition the strain feature appears only when the extra tensile force on the OPGW is over 30kN. In addition, the vibration of OPGW does not disturb both the temperature and strain monitoring. As to further applications of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) for the OPGW health monitoring, it is important to enhance its spatial resolution.

  10. Projected Changes in Precipitation Variability and Distribution Due to Land Cover Change in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. J.; Lofgren, B. M.; Andresen, J. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Olson, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Climate-Land Interactions Project (CLIP) is studying climate impacts coupled to land use/land cover (LULC) change in East Africa. Accompanying dramatic shifts in population distribution and economic drivers in eastern Africa are changes in global climate forcings; e.g. the melting of Kilimanjaro's glaciers, shifts in the Indian Ocean Dipole periodicity, and greater drought frequency. These socioeconomic factors can alter the surface energy balance, thereby influencing climate, and climate shifts can in turn influence patterns and practices in agriculture that will affect LULC. Here we present preliminary results from regional climate model simulations under current (2000-2010) and future (2040-2050) climate conditions driven by boundary conditions from NCAR's CCSM model (using scenario A1B), with land cover prognosed by a land transformation model. Prognosed land cover is driven by projected socioeconomic forces ranging from urban migration to agricultural expansion into marginal lands. We first simulate only future (2040-2050) land cover with current (2000-2010) boundary conditions, then current land cover with future CCSM boundary conditions, then finally both future and cover and boundary conditions. In this way, we will be able to observe effects solely from land cover change, effects solely from climate change, and the synergistic effects of both combined.

  11. Variation in the Distribution of Four Cacti Species Due to Climate Change in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Leonor; Domínguez, Irma; Lebgue, Toutcha; Viramontes, Oscar; Melgoza, Alicia; Pinedo, Carmelo; Camarillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study is about four cacti species in the state of Chihuahua, (Coryphantha macromeris, Mammillaria lasiacantha, Echinocereus dasyacanthus and Ferocactus wislizenii). Geographic distribution was inferred with MaxEnt. Projection was estimated under three scenarios simulated from IPCC (A2, B1 and A1B) and four periods (2000, 2020, 2050 and 2080) with 19 climatic variables. MaxEnt projects a species decrease in 2020 under scenario A2, increasing in the following years. In 2080 all species, except E. dasyacanthus, will occupy a larger area than their current one. Scenario B1 projected for 2050 a decrease for all species, and in 2080 all species except E. dasyacanthus will increase their area. With A1B, C. macromeris decreases 27% from 2020 to 2050. E. dasyacanthus increases from 2020 to 2050 and decreases 73% from 2020 to 2080. M. lasiacantha decreases 13% from 2020 to 2080 and F. wislizenii will increase 13% from 2020 to 2080. Some species will remain stable on their areas despite climate changes, and other species may be affected under the conditions of the A1B scenario. It is important to continue with studies which give a broader perspective about the consequences of climate change, thus enabling decision-making about resource management. PMID:24368429

  12. Variation in the distribution of four cacti species due to climate change in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Leonor; Domínguez, Irma; Lebgue, Toutcha; Viramontes, Oscar; Melgoza, Alicia; Pinedo, Carmelo; Camarillo, Javier

    2013-12-24

    This study is about four cacti species in the state of Chihuahua, (Coryphantha macromeris, Mammillaria lasiacantha, Echinocereus dasyacanthus and Ferocactus wislizenii). Geographic distribution was inferred with MaxEnt. Projection was estimated under three scenarios simulated from IPCC (A2, B1 and A1B) and four periods (2000, 2020, 2050 and 2080) with 19 climatic variables. MaxEnt projects a species decrease in 2020 under scenario A2, increasing in the following years. In 2080 all species, except E. dasyacanthus, will occupy a larger area than their current one. Scenario B1 projected for 2050 a decrease for all species, and in 2080 all species except E. dasyacanthus will increase their area. With A1B, C. macromeris decreases 27% from 2020 to 2050. E. dasyacanthus increases from 2020 to 2050 and decreases 73% from 2020 to 2080. M. lasiacantha decreases 13% from 2020 to 2080 and F. wislizenii will increase 13% from 2020 to 2080. Some species will remain stable on their areas despite climate changes, and other species may be affected under the conditions of the A1B scenario. It is important to continue with studies which give a broader perspective about the consequences of climate change, thus enabling decision-making about resource management.

  13. Distribution and chemistry of fracture-lining minerals at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, a >1.5-km-thick sequence of tuffs and subordinate lavas in southwest Nevada, is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste repository site. Fracture-lining minerals have been studied because they may provide information on past fluid transport and because they may act as natural barriers to radionuclide migration within the fractures. Cores from seven drill holes have been studied to determine the distribution and chemistry of minerals lining fractures at Yucca Mountain. Fracture-lining minerals in tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which is above the static water level at Yucca Mountain, are highly variable in distribution, both vertically and laterally across the mountain, with the zeolites mordenite, heulandite, and stellerite widespread in fractures even though the tuff matrix is generally devitrified and nonzeolitic. Where heulandite occurs as both tabular and prismatic crystals in the same fracture, the two morphologies have different compositions, suggesting multiple episodes of zeolite formation within the fractures. Manganese-oxide minerals within the Paintbrush Group are rancieite and lithiophorite. The silica polymorphs (quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite) generally exist in fractures where they exist in the matrix, suggesting that they formed in the fractures at the same time they formed in the matrix. Fluorite, calcite, and opal occur over tridymite in some lithophysal cavities. Calcite also occurs over zeolites in fractures unrelated to lithophysal cavities and is often the youngest mineral in a given fracture. The clays smectite, palygorskite, and sepiolite are common in fractures in the Paintbrush Group in drill core USW GU-3; smectite is an abundant fracture-coating mineral in all drill cores at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Analysis of pressure distributions on combinations of cylinders due to the effect of wind loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kapil; Saha, Anup; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid growth of population, design and construction of taller buildings are being emphasized now-a-days. Especially the design of the group of tall buildings is economic to take care of the housing problem of the huge population. As buildings become taller, effect of wind on them also increases. In this research work, experiments have been conducted to investigate the wind effect on a combination of pentagonal and hexagonal cylinders. The test was conducted in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.22 × 104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction in a uniform flow velocity of 13.5 m/s. A pentagonal cylinder was placed in the upstream and another two hexagonal cylinders were in the downstream. The transverse and longitudinal spacing between the cylinders were varied and the surface static pressures at the different locations of the cylinders were measured with the help of inclined multi-manometers. From the measured values of surface static pressures, pressure coefficients were calculated. Due to the non-dimensional analysis, the results may be applied directly for engineering problems regarding wind loads around a group of skyscrapers, chimneys, towers, oil rigs or marine structures.

  15. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC~T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a data set of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009–2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine-silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 microns). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC~T relations. Changes of only 5 microns in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC~T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC~T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity-limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply-limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  16. HPV genotype distribution in older Danish women undergoing surgery due to cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Mejlgaard, Else; Gravitt, Patti; Høgdall, Estrid; Christiansen, Pernille; Steiniche, Torben; Blaakaer, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 in cervical cancer may decrease with age. This study aimed to describe the HPV genotype distribution in Danish women aged 55 years or older with cervical cancer. In this cross-sectional study we identified 153 cases of cervical cancer diagnosed at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (1990-2012) and Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark (2007-2012). All women had surgery to treat the disease. HPV genotyping was performed on cervical cancer tissue using the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping extra (Fujirebio, Belgium) at the Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The main outcome was to estimate the age-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes included in the bivalent, the quadrivalent, and the nonavalent vaccine. Of 121 cases of cervical cancer included in this study, 113 were HPV-positive (93.4%). Although HPV16 and 18 were the most common genotypes overall, the prevalence of HPV16/18 decreased significantly from 78.1% in women aged 55-59 years to 45.5% in women aged 75 or older (p < 0.001), whereas the prevalence of other HPV types and HPV-negative cases tended to increase with age (p = 0.1). The prevalence of HPV types included in the nonavalent vaccine was stable around 90% until the age of 75 years and then dropped to 63%. In the absence of waning immunity, the nonavalent HPV vaccine would be predicted to reduce cervical cancer burden in Denmark across a broader age-range compared with the reduced type-spectrum vaccines. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.

    2013-09-01

    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC˜T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a dataset of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009-2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 µm). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC˜T relations. Changes of only 5 µm in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC˜T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC˜T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  18. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of brachytherapy lung implant dose distributions from photon-emitting sources due to tissue heterogeneities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Rivard, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    Photon-emitting brachytherapy sources are used for permanent implantation to treat lung cancer. However, the current brachytherapy dose calculation formalism assumes a homogeneous water medium without considering the influence of radiation scatter or tissue heterogeneities. The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric effects of tissue heterogeneities for permanent lung brachytherapy. The MCNP5 v1.40 radiation transport code was used for Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Point sources with energies of 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 MeV were simulated to cover the range of pertinent brachytherapy energies and to glean dosimetric trends independent of specific radionuclide emissions. Source positions from postimplant CT scans of five patient implants were used for source coordinates, with dose normalized to 200 Gy at the center of each implant. With the presence of fibrosis (around the implant), cortical bone, lung, and healthy tissues, dose distributions and (PTV)DVH were calculated using the MCNP ∗FMESH4 tally and the NIST mass-energy absorption coefficients. This process was repeated upon replacing all tissues with water. For all photon energies, 10(9) histories were simulated to achieve statistical errors (k = 1) typically of 1%. The mean PTV doses calculated using tissue heterogeneities for all five patients changed (compared to dose to water) by only a few percent over the examined photon energy range, as did PTV dose at the implant center. The (PTV)V(100) values were 81.2%, 90.0% (as normalized), 94.3%, 93.9%, 92.7%, and 92.2% for 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 MeV source photons, respectively. Relative to water, the maximum bone doses were higher by factors of 3.7, 5.1, 5.2, 2.4, 1.2, and 1.0 The maximum lung doses were about 0.98, 0.94, 0.91, 0.94, 0.97, and 0.99. Relative to water, the maximum healthy tissue doses at the mediastinal position were higher by factors of 9.8, 2.2, 1.3, 1.1, 1.1, and 1.1. However, the maximum doses to

  20. Evaluation of brachytherapy lung implant dose distributions from photon-emitting sources due to tissue heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yun; Rivard, Mark J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Photon-emitting brachytherapy sources are used for permanent implantation to treat lung cancer. However, the current brachytherapy dose calculation formalism assumes a homogeneous water medium without considering the influence of radiation scatter or tissue heterogeneities. The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric effects of tissue heterogeneities for permanent lung brachytherapy. Methods: The MCNP5 v1.40 radiation transport code was used for Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Point sources with energies of 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 MeV were simulated to cover the range of pertinent brachytherapy energies and to glean dosimetric trends independent of specific radionuclide emissions. Source positions from postimplant CT scans of five patient implants were used for source coordinates, with dose normalized to 200 Gy at the center of each implant. With the presence of fibrosis (around the implant), cortical bone, lung, and healthy tissues, dose distributions and {sub PTV}DVH were calculated using the MCNP *FMESH4 tally and the NIST mass-energy absorption coefficients. This process was repeated upon replacing all tissues with water. For all photon energies, 10{sup 9} histories were simulated to achieve statistical errors (k = 1) typically of 1%. Results: The mean PTV doses calculated using tissue heterogeneities for all five patients changed (compared to dose to water) by only a few percent over the examined photon energy range, as did PTV dose at the implant center. The {sub PTV}V{sub 100} values were 81.2%, 90.0% (as normalized), 94.3%, 93.9%, 92.7%, and 92.2% for 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 MeV source photons, respectively. Relative to water, the maximum bone doses were higher by factors of 3.7, 5.1, 5.2, 2.4, 1.2, and 1.0 The maximum lung doses were about 0.98, 0.94, 0.91, 0.94, 0.97, and 0.99. Relative to water, the maximum healthy tissue doses at the mediastinal position were higher by factors of 9.8, 2.2, 1.3, 1.1, 1.1, and

  1. Ringing in the pulse response of long and wideband coaxial transmission lines due to group delay dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzian,G.; de Maria,R.; Caspers, F.; Federmann, S.; Hofle, W.

    2009-05-04

    In particle accelerators coaxial cables are commonly used to transmit wideband beam signals covering many decades of frequencies over long distances. Those transmission lines often have a corrugated outer and/or inner conductor. This particular construction exhibits a significant amount of frequency dependent group delay variation. A comparison of simulations based on theoretical models, numerical simulations and S{sub 21} network analyzer measurements up to 2.5 GHz is presented. It is shown how the non-linear phase response and varying group delay leads to ringing in the pulse response and subsequent distortion of signal s transmitted through such coaxial transmission lines.

  2. A Wireless Sensor Network approach for distributed in-line chemical analysis of water.

    PubMed

    Capella, J V; Bonastre, A; Ors, R; Peris, M

    2010-03-15

    In this work we propose the implementation of a distributed system based on a Wireless Sensor Network for the control of a chemical analysis system for fresh water. This implementation is presented by describing the nodes that form the distributed system, the communication system by wireless networks, control strategies, and so on. Nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are measured in-line using appropriate ion selective electrodes (ISEs), the results obtained being compared with those provided by the corresponding reference methods. Recovery analyses with ISEs and standard methods, study of interferences, and evaluation of major sensor features have also been carried out. The communication among the nodes that form the distributed system is implemented by means of the utilization of proprietary wireless networks, and secondary data transmission services (GSM or GPRS) provided by a mobile telephone operator. The information is processed, integrated and stored in a control center. These data can be retrieved--through the Internet--so as to know the real-time system status and its evolution. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustained distribution of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in epithelial lining fluids on alveolar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Keita; Togami, Kohei; Yamamoto, Eri; Wang, Shujun; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Itagaki, Shirou; Chono, Sumio

    2016-10-01

    The distribution characteristics of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were examined in rats, and the ensuing mechanisms were investigated in the in vitro uptake and protein adsorption experiments. Nonmodified or PEGylated liposomes (particle size 100 nm) were aerosolized into rat lungs. PEGylated liposomes were distributed more sustainably in ELFs than nonmodified liposomes. Furthermore, the uptake of PEGylated liposomes by alveolar macrophages (AMs) was less than that of nonmodified liposomes. In further in vitro uptake experiments, nonmodified and PEGylated liposomes were opsonized with rat ELF components and then added to NR8383 cells as cultured rat AMs. The uptake of opsonized PEGylated liposomes by NR8383 cells was lower than that of opsonized nonmodified liposomes. Moreover, the protein absorption levels in opsonized PEGylated liposomes were lower than those in opsonized nonmodified liposomes. These findings suggest that sustained distributions of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in ELFs reflect evasion of liposomal opsonization with surfactant proteins and consequent reductions in uptake by AMs. These data indicate the potential of PEGylated liposomes as aerosol-based drug delivery system that target ELF for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  4. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, T. R.; Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M.; Weiß, A.; Henkel, C.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aalto, S.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Fischer, J.; Gao, Y.; González-Alfonso, E.; Harris, A.; Naylor, D. A.; Smith, H. A.; Spaans, M.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  5. Predictive factors for the development of central line-associated bloodstream infection due to gram-negative bacteria in intensive care unit patients after surgery.

    PubMed

    Sreeramoju, Pranavi V; Tolentino, Jocelyn; Garcia-Houchins, Sylvia; Weber, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    To examine the relative proportions of central line-associated bloodstream infection (BSI) due to gram-negative bacteria and due to gram-positive bacteria among patients who had undergone surgery and patients who had not. The study also evaluated clinical predictive factors and unadjusted outcomes associated with central line-associated BSI caused by gram-negative bacteria in the postoperative period. Observational, case-control study based on a retrospective review of medical records. University of Chicago Medical Center, a 500-bed tertiary care center located on Chicago's south side. Adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients who developed central line-associated BSI. There were a total of 142 adult patients who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System definition for central line-associated BSI. Of those, 66 patients (46.5%) had infections due to gram-positive bacteria, 49 patients (34.5%) had infections due to gram-negative bacteria, 23 patients (16.2%) had infections due to yeast, and 4 patients (2.8%) had mixed infections. Patients who underwent surgery were more likely to develop central line-associated BSI due to gram-negative bacteria within 28 days of the surgery, compared with patients who had not had surgery recently (57.6% vs 27.3%; P= .002). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.6 [95% CI, 1.2-18.1]; P= .03) and the presence of hypotension at the time of the first blood culture positive for a pathogen (adjusted OR, 9.8 [95% CI, 2.5-39.1]; P= .001) were found to be independently predictive of central line-associated BSI caused by gram-negative bacteria. Unadjusted outcomes were not different in the group with BSI due to gram-negative pathogens, compared to the group with BSI due to gram-positive pathogens. Clinicians caring for critically ill patients after surgery should be especially concerned about the possibility of central line

  6. On-line updating of a distributed flow routing model - River Vistula case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamuz, Emilia; Romanowicz, Renata; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an application of methods of on-line updating in the River Vistula flow forecasting system. All flow-routing codes make simplifying assumptions and consider only a reduced set of the processes known to occur during a flood. Hence, all models are subject to a degree of structural error that is typically compensated for by calibration of the friction parameters. Calibrated parameter values are not, therefore, physically realistic, as in estimating them we also make allowance for a number of distinctly non-physical effects, such as model structural error and any energy losses or flow processes which occur at sub-grid scales. Calibrated model parameters are therefore area-effective, scale-dependent values which are not drawn from the same underlying statistical distribution as the equivalent at-a-point parameter of the same name. The aim of this paper is the derivation of real-time updated, on-line flow forecasts at certain strategic locations along the river, over a specified time horizon into the future, based on information on the behaviour of the flood wave upstream and available on-line measurements at a site. Depending on the length of the river reach and the slope of the river bed, a realistic forecast lead time, obtained in this manner, may range from hours to days. The information upstream can include observations of river levels and/or rainfall measurements. The proposed forecasting system will integrate distributed modelling, acting as a spatial interpolator with lumped parameter Stochastic Transfer Function models. Daily stage data from gauging stations are typically available at sites 10-60 km apart and test only the average routing performance of hydraulic models and not their ability to produce spatial predictions. Application of a distributed flow routing model makes it possible to interpolate forecasts both in time and space. This work was partly supported by the project "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula reach

  7. Conformational transitions of single polymer adsorption in poor solvent: Wetting transition due to molecular confinement induced line tension.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsien-Hung; Li, Yen-Ching

    2016-07-01

    We report a theory capable of describing conformational transitions for single polymer adsorption in a poor solvent. We show that an additional molecular confinement effect near the contact line can act exactly like line tension, playing a critical role in the behavior of an absorbed polymer chain. Using this theory, distinct conformational states: desorbed globule (DG), surface attached cap (SAC), and adsorbed lens (AL), can be vividly revealed, resembling the drying-wetting transition of a nanodroplet. But the transitions between these states can behave rather differently from those in the usual wetting transitions. The DG-SAC transition is discrete, occurring at the adsorption threshold when the globule size at the desorbed state is equal to the adsorption blob. The SAC-AL transition is smooth for finite chain lengths, but can change to discontinuous in the infinite chain limit, characterized by the different end-to-end exponent 3/8 and the unique crossover exponent 1/4. Distinctive critical exponents near this transition are also determined, indicating that it is an additional universality class of phase transitions. This work also sheds light on nanodrop spreading, wherein the important role played by line tension might simply be a manifestation of the local molecular confinement near the contact line.

  8. Conformational transitions of single polymer adsorption in poor solvent: Wetting transition due to molecular confinement induced line tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hsien-Hung; Li, Yen-Ching

    2016-07-01

    We report a theory capable of describing conformational transitions for single polymer adsorption in a poor solvent. We show that an additional molecular confinement effect near the contact line can act exactly like line tension, playing a critical role in the behavior of an absorbed polymer chain. Using this theory, distinct conformational states: desorbed globule (DG), surface attached cap (SAC), and adsorbed lens (AL), can be vividly revealed, resembling the drying-wetting transition of a nanodroplet. But the transitions between these states can behave rather differently from those in the usual wetting transitions. The DG-SAC transition is discrete, occurring at the adsorption threshold when the globule size at the desorbed state is equal to the adsorption blob. The SAC-AL transition is smooth for finite chain lengths, but can change to discontinuous in the infinite chain limit, characterized by the different end-to-end exponent 3/8 and the unique crossover exponent 1/4. Distinctive critical exponents near this transition are also determined, indicating that it is an additional universality class of phase transitions. This work also sheds light on nanodrop spreading, wherein the important role played by line tension might simply be a manifestation of the local molecular confinement near the contact line.

  9. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  10. Distributed On-line Monitoring System Based on Modem and Public Phone Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Qiushi; Li, Guiru

    In order to solve the monitoring problem of urban sewage disposal, a distributed on-line monitoring system is proposed. By introducing dial-up communication technology based on Modem, the serial communication program can rationally solve the information transmission problem between master station and slave station. The realization of serial communication program is based on the MSComm control of C++ Builder 6.0.The software includes real-time data operation part and history data handling part, which using Microsoft SQL Server 2000 for database, and C++ Builder6.0 for user interface. The monitoring center displays a user interface with alarm information of over-standard data and real-time curve. Practical application shows that the system has successfully accomplished the real-time data acquisition from data gather station, and stored them in the terminal database.

  11. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  12. Measurements of induced voltages and currents in a distribution power line and associated atmospheric parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Perez, Julio

    1988-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of thunderstorms around the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has affected scheduled launch, landing, and other ground operations for many years. In order to protect against and provide safe working facilities, KSC has performed and hosted several studies on lightning phenomena. For the reasons mentioned above, KSC has established the Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (ASFL). At these facilities KSC launches wire-towing rockets into thunderstorms to trigger natural lightning to the launch site. A program named Rocket Triggered Lightning Program (RTLP) is being conducted at the ASFL. This report calls for two of the experiments conducted in the summer 1988 Rocket Triggered Lightning Program. One experiment suspended an electric field mill over the launching areas from a balloon about 500 meters high to measure the space charges over the launching area. The other was to connect a waveform recorder to a nearby distribution power line to record currents and voltages wave forms induced by natural and triggered lightning.

  13. Measurements of thermal electron heating and the formation of a non-Maxwellian energy distribution due to ion acoustic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of intense microwaves with an inhomogeneous plasma is studied in the U.C. Davis Prometheus III Device. P-polarized microwaves (f = 1.2 GHz, P/sub 0/ less than or equal to 5 KW) are incident on an essentially collisionless plasma with a long scale length in an oversized waveguide. For modest powers, large amplitude ion acoustic turbulence is observed on the underdense plasma shelf due to a combination of the parametric decay and the electron drift instabilities. Suprathermal and thermal electrons are strongly heated in this region with the thermal heating due to scattering with the ion turbulence. Since the cross section for interaction decreases rapidly as the electron energy increases, the low energy electrons are preferentially heated. The electron distribution function is measured and agrees with theory; the power absorption is reduced by up to a factor of two compared to a Maxwellian distribution. After the microwaves have been measured to decay, the electron distribution function is seen to relax back to its initial Maxwellian form. This occurs, as theory predicts, roughly on the electron-electron collision time scale.

  14. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-Infrared Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 microns/[Ne III], [Ne V]24.32 microns/[O IV]25.89 micron and [O IV] 25.89 microns/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, alpha(sub i), to be between 1.5 - 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha(sub i) approx. 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T(sub BB) = 10(exp 5.18) K to 10(exp 5.7) K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from approx. (Lambda)600 A to > (Lambda)1900 A. In this case, the best fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between approx. (Lambda)700-(Lambda)1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies > 4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of BAT AGN.

  15. Dust Density Distribution and Imaging Analysis of Different Ice Lines in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla, P.; Pohl, A.; Stammler, S. M.; Birnstiel, T.

    2017-08-01

    Recent high angular resolution observations of protoplanetary disks at different wavelengths have revealed several kinds of structures, including multiple bright and dark rings. Embedded planets are the most used explanation for such structures, but there are alternative models capable of shaping the dust in rings as it has been observed. We assume a disk around a Herbig star and investigate the effect that ice lines have on the dust evolution, following the growth, fragmentation, and dynamics of multiple dust size particles, covering from 1 μm to 2 m sized objects. We use simplified prescriptions of the fragmentation velocity threshold, which is assumed to change radially at the location of one, two, or three ice lines. We assume changes at the radial location of main volatiles, specifically H2O, CO2, and NH3. Radiative transfer calculations are done using the resulting dust density distributions in order to compare with current multiwavelength observations. We find that the structures in the dust density profiles and radial intensities at different wavelengths strongly depend on the disk viscosity. A clear gap of emission can be formed between ice lines and be surrounded by ring-like structures, in particular between the H2O and CO2 (or CO). The gaps are expected to be shallower and narrower at millimeter emission than at near-infrared, opposite to model predictions of particle trapping. In our models, the total gas surface density is not expected to show strong variations, in contrast to other gap-forming scenarios such as embedded giant planets or radial variations of the disk viscosity.

  16. Image intensity normalisation by maximising the Siddon line integral in the joint intensity distribution space.

    PubMed

    Kalemis, A; Binnie, D M; Flower, M A; Ott, R J

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven method for image intensity normalisation, which is a prerequisite step for any kind of image comparison. The method involves a novel application of the Siddon algorithm that was developed initially for fast reconstruction of tomographic images and is based on a linear normalisation model with either one or two parameters. The latter are estimated by maximising the line integral, computed using the Siddon algorithm, in the 2D joint intensity distribution space of image pairs. The proposed normalisation method, referred to as Siddon Line Integral Maximisation (SLIM), was compared with three other methodologies, namely background ratio (BAR) scaling, linear fitting and proportional scaling, using a large number of synthesised datasets. SLIM was also compared with BAR normalisation when applied to phantom data and two clinical examples. The new method was found to be more accurate and less biased than its counterparts for the range of characteristics selected for the synthesised data. These findings were in agreement with the results from the analysis of the experimental and clinical data.

  17. Locking distributed feedback laser diode frequency to gas absorption lines based on genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Li, Guanghui; Fang, Zishan; Zhai, Yueyang; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Distributed feedback laser is widely used as the pump beam and probe beam in atomic physical and quantum experiments. As the frequency stability is a vital characteristic to the laser diode in these experiments, a saturated absorption frequency stabilization method assisted with the function of current and frequency is proposed. The relationship between the current and frequency is acquired based on the genetic programming (GP) algorithm. To verify the feasibility of the method, the frequency stabilization system is comprised of two parts that are modeling the relation between the current and frequency by GP and processing the saturated absorption signal. The results of the frequency stabilization experiment proved that this method can not only narrow the frequency searching range near the atomic line center but also compensate for the phase delay between the saturated absorption peak and the zero crossing point of the differential error signal. The reduced phase delay increases the locking probability and makes the wavelength drift only 0.015 pm/h, which converted to frequency drift is 7 MHz/h after frequency locking on the Rb absorption line.

  18. Attachment-Line Transition Due to Roughness on a 76 Degree Swept Cylinder at Mach 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Colin P.; Poll, D. I. A.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 76 deg. swept cylinder to establish the conditions for the attachment-line transition process with, and without, surface roughness in a low-disturbance ("quiet"), Mach number 1.6 flow. Local flow parameters were estimated from pressure measurements. These were in good agreement with predictions from an Euler code (CFL3D) and a boundary layer code (BL3D). Hot-wires and Schlieren photography were used to determine the state of the boundary layer. It was found that, for a near-adiabatic wall condition and a smooth surface, the attachment-line, boundary-layer remained laminar up to the highest attainable Reynolds number (R-bar of 790). Transition under the influence of trip wires was found to depend on wind-tunnel disturbance levels and the onset conditions have been established. Results suggest that current design practice, which is based upon data from conventional ("noisy") tunnels, may be highly conservative.

  19. Closed Form Formulas for Distributed Circuit Model of Discontinuities in HTS Microstrip Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan; Mamaghany, Zahra Mardy; Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi

    A distributed circuit model for different kinds of discontinuities in high temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip transmission lines (TLs), is proposed. In each case, closed form formula for lumped element model is presented based on the configuration of the discontinuity and the characterizations of HTS microstrip TLs. These discontinuities consist of steps in width, open ends, gaps and 90-degree bends. In the case of normal conductor microstrip TLs there are a lot of numerical and analytical equations that can accurately model them, however those formulas are not efficient for HTS TLs. Thus modified relations are extracted utilizing the superconducting characterizations to obtain much more accurate formulas. Additionally temperature dependence of HTS TLs is considered in the relations. Moreover regarding the kinetic inductance in HTS TLs a closed form formula is proposed for characteristic impedance of HTS TLs. Furthermore correction factors based on fringe fields is used to optimize all formulas. Using these formulations can lead to modeling and analysis of some superconducting microwave devices such as resonators, microwave filters, couplers, etc. In contrast to EM analysis, using the distributed circuit model is much easier for analysis of HTS microwave devices. The accuracy of the proposed model is confirmed in comparison with some electromagnetic full-wave simulations. This full analytical approach shows great accuracy in this test case as well.

  20. A Study on EMTP-Analysis Model for Switch-Board SPD with Gap and Propagation Characteristics of Lightning Surge on Simple Indoor Distribution Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Teru; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    The numbers of damages of home electric appliances due to lightning surges have recently increased. Installing Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) for indoor distribution line is one of countermeasures against the damages, and is also spreading after an amendment of the regulation on indoor wires in 2005. Past studies have showed that the SPDs installed on the switchboard are effective for protecting all the equipment supplied by indoor distribution lines against lightning strokes. However, it is difficult to evaluate the protective effects of the SPDs against lightning strikes when considering complex indoor wires in houses. Thus, a high-precision analysis method is required to clarify the lightning performance of the SPDs for interior wiring. In this research, experiments were conducted to grasp the protective effects of the SPDs installed on a switchboard against lightning surges invading into a house, and an analysis model by the EMTP was proposed. The calculated results relatively agreed with the experimental results.

  1. MOVES-Matrix and Distributed Computing for Microscale Line Source Dispersion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haobing; Xu, Xiaodan; Rodgers, Michael O; Xu, Yanzhi Ann; Guensler, Randall L

    2017-02-06

    MOVES and AERMOD are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended models for use in project-level transportation conformity and hot-spot analysis. However, the structure and algorithms involved in running MOVES make analyses cumbersome and time-consuming. Likewise, the modeling setup process, including extensive data requirements and required input formats, in AERMOD lead to a high potential for analysis error in dispersion modeling. This study presents a distributed computing method for line source dispersion modeling that integrates MOVES-Matrix, a high-performance emission modeling tool, with the microscale dispersion models CALINE4 and AERMOD. MOVES-Matrix was prepared by iteratively running MOVES across all possible iterations of vehicle source-type, fuel, operating conditions, and environmental parameters to create a huge multi-dimensional emission rate lookup matrix. AERMOD and CALINE4 are connected with MOVES-Matrix in a distributed computing cluster using a series of Python scripts. This streamlined system built on MOVES-Matrix generates exactly the same emission rates and concentration results as using MOVES with AERMOD and CALINE4, but the approach is more that 200-times faster than using the MOVES graphical user interface. Because AERMOD requires detailed meteorological input, which is difficult to obtain, this study also recommends using CALINE4 as a screening tool for identifying the potential area that may exceed air quality standards before using AERMOD (and identifying areas that are exceedingly unlikely to exceed air quality standards). CALINE4 worst case method yields consistently higher concentration results than AERMOD for all comparisons in this paper, as expected given the nature of the meteorological data employed. Implication Statement The paper demonstrates a distributed computing method for line source dispersion modeling that integrates MOVES-Matrix with the CALINE4 and AERMOD. This streamlined system generates exactly the same

  2. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov,A.E.; , .; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-10-19

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, <5 mm, the electric field-lines tend to bend away from the side surfaces (i.e., a focusing effect). In thick detectors, >1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field.

  3. PAX8 is transcribed aberrantly in cervical tumors and derived cell lines due to complex gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Pedroza-Torres, Abraham; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; De Leon, David Cantu; Morales-González, Fermín; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Mendez, Jorge; García-Castillo, Verónica; Bautista-Isidro, Osvaldo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor PAX8, a member of the paired box-containing gene family with an important role in embryogenesis of the kidney, thyroid gland and nervous system, has been described as a biomarker in tumors of the thyroid, parathyroid, kidney and thymus. The PAX8 gene gives rise to four isoforms, through alternative mRNA splicing, but the splicing pattern in tumors is not yet established. Cervical cancer has a positive expression of PAX8; however, there is no available data determining which PAX8 isoform or isoforms are present in cervical cancer tissues as well as in cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines. Instead of a differential pattern of splicing isoforms, we found numerous previously unreported PAX8 aberrant transcripts ranging from 378 to 542 bases and present in both cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines and tumor samples. This is the first report of PAX8 aberrant transcript production in cervical cancer. Reported PAX8 isoforms possess differential transactivation properties; therefore, besides being a helpful marker for detection of cancer, PAX8 isoforms can plausibly exert differential regulation properties during carcinogenesis.

  4. A Fault Location Algorithm for Two-End Series-Compensated Double-Credit Transmission Lines Using the Distributed Parameter Line Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Ning; Gombos, Gergely; Mousavi, Mirrasoul J.; Feng, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    A new fault location algorithm for two-end series-compensated double-circuit transmission lines utilizing unsynchronized two-terminal current phasors and local voltage phasors is presented in this paper. The distributed parameter line model is adopted to take into account the shunt capacitance of the lines. The mutual coupling between the parallel lines in the zero-sequence network is also considered. The boundary conditions under different fault types are used to derive the fault location formulation. The developed algorithm directly uses the local voltage phasors on the line side of series compensation (SC) and metal oxide varistor (MOV). However, when potential transformers are not installed on the line side of SC and MOVs for the local terminal, these measurements can be calculated from the local terminal bus voltage and currents by estimating the voltages across the SC and MOVs. MATLAB SimPowerSystems is used to generate cases under diverse fault conditions to evaluating accuracy. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is qualified for practical implementation.

  5. Measurement of repulsive force of high Tc materials due to Meissner effect and its two dimensional distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, H.; Itoh, M.; Hida, A.; Endo, H.; Oya, T.

    1991-03-01

    As a basic study for magnetic bearings using high-Tc superconductors, evaluations of the materials were conducted. These evaluations included measurements of the repulsive force and lateral restoring force of various kinds of YBCO pellets. Pure air, which was supplied in the process of fabrication, and the presence of Ag in YBCO showed evidence of the effects of increasing the repulsive force. The lateral restoring force which was observed in the lateral displacement of a levitated permanent magnet over YBCO pellets was also affected by pure air and the presence of Ag. A new measuring instrument for magnetic fields was developed by using a highly sensitive force sensor. Because this instrument has the capability of measuring the repulsive force due to the Meissner effect, it was used for evaluating the two-dimensional distribution of superconducting properties. Results show that the pellets had nonuniform superconducting properties. The two-dimensional distribution of residual flux density on the pellets which had been cooled in a magnetic field (field cooling) was also observed by means of the instrument. The mechanism for generating lateral force is discussed in relation to the distribution.

  6. The effect of tracking performance due to temperature distribution of SiC reflectors in periscopic laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yiwei; Fu, Sen; Tao, Kunyu; Jiang, Yijun

    2015-10-01

    Effect of temperature gradient and uniform temperature on tracking performance of reflectors in periscopic laser communication terminals was studied. Zernike polynomials on elliptical area were used to fit wave-front aberration of elliptical reflectors in periscopic laser communication terminals due to temperature distribution. RMS value of the thermal deformation, tracking error and intensity on detectors degradation at receiving terminals caused by thermal deformation were studied in inter-satellite laser communication system. From the result we can know that effect of temperature gradient is the move of peak intensity and a little degradation. The tracking error reaches 2.9μrad when temperature gradient is 14°C/m. The uniform temperature will cause variation of intensity distribution on focus plane of detectors. When the difference between uniform temperature and reference temperature is small, the astigmatism causing by thermal distortion is very important. As the difference becomes bigger, the high-order modes of Zernike polynomials become very important. The distribution of intensity becomes irregular and the area is very big. This will reduce the tracking performance of detectors. This work will contribute to the thermal control of elliptical reflectors in periscopic laser communication terminals on satellites in orbit.

  7. On-line measurement of intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keita; Tanaka, Misato; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2002-01-01

    Molecular and intramolecular carbon isotope measurements of acetic acid present in natural environments have been performed by off-line procedures. The off-line method is complicated and time-consuming and requires micromolar to millimolar amounts of sample. This limits geochemical isotopic studies, especially at the intramolecular level, on acetic acid present in natural samples. Here, we examine an on-line measurement of intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid using continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) coupled with an on-line pyrolysis system. This is achieved by measurement of the respective carbon isotope ratios of CH4 and CO2 produced by on-line pyrolysis of acetic acid. Results for authentic standards of pure acetic acid demonstrated the practicality of this on-line method, although the carbon isotope ratio of the methyl group could not be determined directly. The precision of the carbon isotope measurements was 0.4 per thousand (1sigma). The carbon isotope distribution determined by the on-line method was identical to that determined by the conventional off-line method within analytical error. The advantages of the on-line method compared with the conventional off-line method are that it is less laborious, requires less analytical time (less than one hour per sample) and, most importantly, uses smaller sample sizes (ca. 10 nanomole). An application of this on-line method to natural geochemical samples will provide an insight into the geochemical cycle of acetic acid. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Increased particle transport due to resonant magnetic perturbations modelled with a vacuum field line tracing code and a 2D fluid code

    SciTech Connect

    Mordijck, S.; Owen, L. W.; Moyer, R. A.

    2010-02-23

    In this paper we compare the pedestal density changes in resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) H-modes at low collisionality with enhanced free streaming due to the creation of open field lines. First, we derive the effective radial transport coefficients by matching an ELMing (edge localized mode) H-mode using SOLPS5. Next, a vacuum field line tracing code, TRIP3D, is employed to calculate free streaming of particles along open field lines inside the traditional 2D axisymmetric separatrix. These coefficients are added to the effective radial transport coefficients from the ELMing H-mode and inserted in SOLPS5 to compute midplane profiles. Finally, we compare the SOLPS5 results with the experimental data from RMP H-modes and find good agreement. This good agreement was achieved not only for one single case, but also for two different experiments, with different triangularities, where the high triangularity case contains two RMP H-modes that give good agreement.

  9. Kinetic-Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms from Analysis of the D Lyman-Alpha Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, M.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D(2p) atoms resulting from electron-impact dissociation of D2 has been measured. A high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer was employed for the first measurement of the D Lyman-alpha (D L(alpha)) emission line profiles at 20- and 100-eV excitation energies. Analysis of the deconvoluted line profile of D L(alpha) at 100 eV reveals the existence of a narrow line central peak of 29+/-2 mA full width at half maximum and a broad pedestal wing structure about 190 mA wide. The wings of the line can be used to determine the fast atom distribution. The wings of D L(alpha) arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited states that cross the Franck-Condon region between 23 and 40 eV. The fast atom distribution at 100-eV electron impact energy spans the energy range from 1 to 10 eV with a peak value near 6 eV. Slow D(2p) atoms characterized by a distribution function with peak energy near 100 meV produce the central peak profile, which is nearly independent of the impact energy. The deconvoluted line profiles of the central peak at 20 eV for dissociative excitation of D2 and H2 are fitted with an analytical function for use in calibration of space flight instrumentation equipped with a D/H absorption cell. The kinetic-energy and line profile results are compared to similar measurements for H2. The absolute cross sections for the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coefficients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  10. Kinetic-Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms from Analysis of the D Lyman-Alpha Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, M.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D(2p) atoms resulting from electron-impact dissociation of D2 has been measured. A high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer was employed for the first measurement of the D Lyman-alpha (D L(alpha)) emission line profiles at 20- and 100-eV excitation energies. Analysis of the deconvoluted line profile of D L(alpha) at 100 eV reveals the existence of a narrow line central peak of 29+/-2 mA full width at half maximum and a broad pedestal wing structure about 190 mA wide. The wings of the line can be used to determine the fast atom distribution. The wings of D L(alpha) arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited states that cross the Franck-Condon region between 23 and 40 eV. The fast atom distribution at 100-eV electron impact energy spans the energy range from 1 to 10 eV with a peak value near 6 eV. Slow D(2p) atoms characterized by a distribution function with peak energy near 100 meV produce the central peak profile, which is nearly independent of the impact energy. The deconvoluted line profiles of the central peak at 20 eV for dissociative excitation of D2 and H2 are fitted with an analytical function for use in calibration of space flight instrumentation equipped with a D/H absorption cell. The kinetic-energy and line profile results are compared to similar measurements for H2. The absolute cross sections for the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coefficients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  11. Correction for ‘artificial’ electron disequilibrium due to cone-beam CT density errors: implications for on-line adaptive stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disher, Brandon; Hajdok, George; Wang, An; Craig, Jeff; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J.

    2013-06-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has rapidly become a clinically useful imaging modality for image-guided radiation therapy. Unfortunately, CBCT images of the thorax are susceptible to artefacts due to scattered photons, beam hardening, lag in data acquisition, and respiratory motion during a slow scan. These limitations cause dose errors when CBCT image data are used directly in dose computations for on-line, dose adaptive radiation therapy (DART). The purpose of this work is to assess the magnitude of errors in CBCT numbers (HU), and determine the resultant effects on derived tissue density and computed dose accuracy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. Planning CT (PCT) images of three lung patients were acquired using a Philips multi-slice helical CT simulator, while CBCT images were obtained with a Varian On-Board Imaging system. To account for erroneous CBCT data, three practical correction techniques were tested: (1) conversion of CBCT numbers to electron density using phantoms, (2) replacement of individual CBCT pixel values with bulk CT numbers, averaged from PCT images for tissue regions, and (3) limited replacement of CBCT lung pixels values (LCT) likely to produce artificial lateral electron disequilibrium. For each corrected CBCT data set, lung SBRT dose distributions were computed for a 6 MV volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique within the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The reference prescription dose was set such that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 54 Gy (i.e. D95). Further, we used the relative depth dose factor as an a priori index to predict the effects of incorrect low tissue density on computed lung dose in regions of severe electron disequilibrium. CT number profiles from co-registered CBCT and PCT patient lung images revealed many reduced lung pixel values in CBCT data, with some pixels corresponding to vacuum (-1000 HU). Similarly, CBCT data in a plastic lung

  12. Correction for 'artificial' electron disequilibrium due to cone-beam CT density errors: implications for on-line adaptive stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung.

    PubMed

    Disher, Brandon; Hajdok, George; Wang, An; Craig, Jeff; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J

    2013-06-21

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has rapidly become a clinically useful imaging modality for image-guided radiation therapy. Unfortunately, CBCT images of the thorax are susceptible to artefacts due to scattered photons, beam hardening, lag in data acquisition, and respiratory motion during a slow scan. These limitations cause dose errors when CBCT image data are used directly in dose computations for on-line, dose adaptive radiation therapy (DART). The purpose of this work is to assess the magnitude of errors in CBCT numbers (HU), and determine the resultant effects on derived tissue density and computed dose accuracy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. Planning CT (PCT) images of three lung patients were acquired using a Philips multi-slice helical CT simulator, while CBCT images were obtained with a Varian On-Board Imaging system. To account for erroneous CBCT data, three practical correction techniques were tested: (1) conversion of CBCT numbers to electron density using phantoms, (2) replacement of individual CBCT pixel values with bulk CT numbers, averaged from PCT images for tissue regions, and (3) limited replacement of CBCT lung pixels values (LCT) likely to produce artificial lateral electron disequilibrium. For each corrected CBCT data set, lung SBRT dose distributions were computed for a 6 MV volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique within the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The reference prescription dose was set such that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 54 Gy (i.e. D95). Further, we used the relative depth dose factor as an a priori index to predict the effects of incorrect low tissue density on computed lung dose in regions of severe electron disequilibrium. CT number profiles from co-registered CBCT and PCT patient lung images revealed many reduced lung pixel values in CBCT data, with some pixels corresponding to vacuum (-1000 HU). Similarly, CBCT data in a plastic lung

  13. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Yu, Zhihao

    2015-11-30

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The scope of work entails analyses of traveling grating generation technologies in an optical fiber, as well as the interrogation of the gratings to infer a distributed temperature along the fiber, for the purpose of developing a real-time refractory health condition monitoring technology for coal gasifiers. During the project period, which is from 2011-2015, three different sensing principles were studied, including four-wave mixing (FWM), coherent optical time-domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). By comparing the three methods, the BOTDA was selected for further development into a complete bench-top sensing system for the proposed high-temperature sensing application. Based on the input from Eastman Chemical, the industrial collaborator on this project, a cylindrical furnace was designed and constructed to simulate typical gasifier refractory temperature conditions in the laboratory, and verify the sensor’s capability to fully monitor refractory conditions on the back-side at temperatures up to 1000°C. In the later stages of the project, the sensing system was tested in the simulated environment for its sensing performance and high-temperature survivability. Through theoretical analyses and experimental research on the different factors affecting the sensor performance, a sensor field deployment strategy was proposed for possible future sensor field implementations.

  14. Distribution characteristics of grepafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophage.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Sun, Jin; Tauchi, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Shigeko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of Grepafloxacin (GPFX), a new quinolone antimicrobial agent, in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and the alveolar macrophage (AM) in rats, which are potential infection sites in respiratory tract infections. We also aimed to clarify the mechanism governing the transferability of GPFX into the alveolus compartment from a kinetic point of view. The AUC ratios of ELF/plasma and AM/plasma after the oral administration of GPFX were 5.69 +/- 1.00 and 352 +/- 57, respectively, which were several-fold greater than those of ciprofloxacin (CPFX). Pharmacokinetic analyses of time profiles of GPFX concentrations in ELF and AM revealed that the influx clearance from plasma to ELF across the alveolar barrier is 5-fold greater than the efflux clearance from ELF. In addition, the permeability of GPFX across the cultured AM cell membrane was 7-fold and 11-fold greater than that of levofloxacin (LVFX) and CPFX, respectively. The extent of intracellular binding to AM cells (expressed as a constant (alpha)) was the greatest for GPFX, followed by CPFX and LVFX. There was a significant correlation between the alpha value and the partitioning to the immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) column, which consists of phospholipid residues covalently bound to silica. These results suggest that GPFX is highly distributed in ELF and AM, and that the high transferability of GPFX into ELF may be attributable to the existence of asymmetrical transport across the alveolar barrier. In addition, it was suggested that both rapid permeability across the AM cell membrane and avid binding to the membrane phospholipids may be responsible for the high accumulation of GPFX in AM.

  15. Corrections to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift due to the insertion of the two-loop electron self-energy with overlapping divergences in the electron line

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1994-12-01

    Contributions on the order of {alpha}{sup 2}(Z{alpha}){sup 5} to hyperfine splitting (HFS) and the Lamb shift due to the insertion of the two-loop electron self-energy diagram with overlapping divergences in the electron line are considered. An explicit expression for the two-loop self-energy diagram with overlapping divergences is obtained in the Fried-Yennie gauge. Contributions to HFS and the Lamb shift due to the diagram containing this subgraph are calculated. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Limits of the energy-spin phase space beyond the proton drip line : entry distributions fo Pt and Au isobars.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Abu Saleem, K.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Danchev, M.; Davids, C. N.; Hartley, D. J.; Heinz, A.; Lister, C. J.; Ma, W. C.; Poli, G. L.; Ressler, J. J.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Rutgers univ.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Tennessee; Univ. of Maryland; Washington Univ.

    2003-01-09

    Entry distributions in angular momentum and excitation energy have been measured for several very proton-rich isotopes of Pt and Au. This is the first systematic study of the energy-spin phase space for nuclei near and beyond the proton drip line. Comparisons are made between the distributions associated with proton-unbound Au nuclei and more stable Pt isobars. In {sup 173}Au the first evidence is seen for the limits of excitation energy and angular momentum which a nucleus beyond the proton drip line can sustain.

  17. ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line broadening due to the earth magnetic field, occuring only in the case of an axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor.

    PubMed

    Aissani, Sarra; Guendouz, Laouès; Marande, Pierre-Louis; Canet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated before, the application of a weak static B0 magnetic field (less than 10 G) may produce definite effects on the ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line when the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus level is of axial symmetry. Here, we address more precisely the problem of the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields (the static field and the radio-frequency field of the pure NQR experiment). For a field of 6G, the evolution of the signal intensity, as a function of this relative orientation, is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. There is in particular an intensity loss by a factor of three when going from the parallel configuration to the perpendicular configuration. By contrast, when dealing with a very weak magnetic field (as the earth field, around 0.5 G), this effect drops to ca. 1.5 in the case Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).This is explained by the fact that the Zeeman shift (due to the very weak magnetic field) becomes comparable to the natural line-width. The latter can therefore be determined by accounting for this competition. Still in the case of HMT, the estimated natural line-width is half the observed line-width. The extra broadening is thus attributed to earth magnetic field. The latter constitutes therefore the main cause of the difference between the natural transverse relaxation time (T₂) and the transverse relaxation time derived from the observed line-width (T₂(⁎)).

  18. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen; Lewellen, IV, John W.; Marksteiner, Quinn R.

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  19. A distributed fault-detection and diagnosis system using on-line parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, T.-H.; Merrill, W.; Duyar, A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a model-based fault-detection and diagnosis system (FDD) is reviewed. The system can be used as an integral part of an intelligent control system. It determines the faults of a system from comparison of the measurements of the system with a priori information represented by the model of the system. The method of modeling a complex system is described and a description of diagnosis models which include process faults is presented. There are three distinct classes of fault modes covered by the system performance model equation: actuator faults, sensor faults, and performance degradation. A system equation for a complete model that describes all three classes of faults is given. The strategy for detecting the fault and estimating the fault parameters using a distributed on-line parameter identification scheme is presented. A two-step approach is proposed. The first step is composed of a group of hypothesis testing modules, (HTM) in parallel processing to test each class of faults. The second step is the fault diagnosis module which checks all the information obtained from the HTM level, isolates the fault, and determines its magnitude. The proposed FDD system was demonstrated by applying it to detect actuator and sensor faults added to a simulation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The simulation results show that the proposed FDD system can adequately detect the faults and estimate their magnitudes.

  20. Localization properties of transmission lines with generalized Thue-Morse distribution of inductances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, Edmundo; Saavedra, Eduardo; Humire, Fernando; Castro, Cristobal; Cortés-Cortés, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    We study the localization properties of direct transmission lines when we distribute two values of inductances LA and LB according to a generalized Thue-Morse aperiodic sequence generated by the inflation rule: A → ABm-1, B → BAm-1, m ≥ 2 and integer. We regain the usual Thue-Morse sequence for m = 2. We numerically study the changes produced in the localization properties of the I (ω) electric current function with increasing m values. We demonstrate that the m = 2 case does not belong to the family m ≥ 3, because when m changes from m = 2 to m = 3, the number of extended states decreases significantly. However, for m ≫ 3, the localization properties become similar to the m = 2 case. Also, the frequency averaged transmission coefficient shows a strong dependence from the N system size and from the m value which characterize each m-tupling sequence. In addition, for all m value studied, using the scaling behavior of the ξ (ω) normalized participation number, the Rq (ω) Rényi entropies and the μq (ω) moments, we have demonstrated the existence of extended states for certain specific frequencies.

  1. Spatial distribution of radiation from the Beam Line VIII-W 15-period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Lent, E.M.; Dickinson, W.C.

    1985-05-13

    We have written a computer program to calculate the spatial distribution of the radiation from insertion devices operating in nominal wiggler mode (K = 15.6), for which the incoherent emission dominates, and our assumption of negligible coherent emission is valid. This program has been applied to the 15-period wiggler now being designed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for Beam Line VIII-W on the Stanford Positron-Electron Accumulation Ring (SPEAR). An approximate spreading function has been applied at each photon energy to account for the intrinsic photon divergence. The effects of the finite wiggler length and the spatial and angular spread of the electron beam have been included. Graphical plots are provided for three different electron energies, 1.8 GeV, 3.0 GeV, and 3.4 GeV, and for a range of photon energies. Separate plots are provided for total radiation, parallel polarization component, and perpendicular polarization component. 3 refs., 71 figs., 63 tabs.

  2. Cilia distribution and polarity in the epithelial lining of the mouse middle ear cavity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenwei; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette; Li, Jian-dong; Chi, Fanglu; Todd, N. Wendell; Lin, Xi; Ren, Dongdong; Chen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The middle ear conducts sound to the cochlea for hearing. Otitis media (OM) is the most common illness in childhood. Moreover, chronic OM with effusion (COME) is the leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Clinically, COME is highly associated with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, implicating significant contributions of cilia dysfunction to COME. The understanding of middle ear cilia properties that are critical to OM susceptibility, however, is limited. Here, we confirmed the presence of a ciliated region near the Eustachian tube orifice at the ventral region of the middle ear cavity, consisting mostly of a lumen layer of multi-ciliated and a layer of Keratin-5-positive basal cells. We also found that the motile cilia are polarized coordinately and display a planar cell polarity. Surprisingly, we also found a region of multi-ciliated cells that line the posterior dorsal pole of the middle ear cavity which was previously thought to contain only non-ciliated cells. Our study provided a more complete understanding of cilia distribution and revealed for the first time coordinated polarity of cilia in the epithelium of the mammalian middle ear, thus illustrating novel structural features that are likely critical for middle ear functions and related to OM susceptibility. PMID:28358397

  3. Quantifying the line-of-sight mass distributions for time-delay lenses with stellar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Cristian; Fassnacht, Chris; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry; Auger, Matt; Koopmans, Leon; Marshall, Phil; Wong, Kenneth; Collett, Thomas; Agnello, Adriano; Blandford, Roger; Courbin, Frederic; Hilbert, Stefan; Meylan, Georges; Sluse, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with a realistic account of systematic uncertainties is currently one of the principal challenges of physical cosmology. Building on our recent successes with two gravitationally lensed systems, we have started a program to achieve accurate cosmographic measurements from five gravitationally lensed quasars. We aim at measuring H_0 with an accuracy better than 4%, comparable to but independent from measurements by current BAO, SN or Cepheid programs. The largest current contributor to the error budget in our sample is uncertainty about the line-of-sight mass distribution and environment of the lens systems. In this proposal, we request wide-field u-band imaging of the only lens in our sample without already available Spitzer/IRCA observations, B1608+656. The proposed observations are critical for reducing these uncertainties by providing accurate redshifts and in particular stellar masses for galaxies in the light cones of the target lens system. This will establish lensing as a powerful and independent tool for determining cosmography, in preparation for the hundreds of time-delay lenses that will be discovered by future surveys.

  4. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  5. Liposomes modify the subcellular distribution of sclareol uptake by HCT-116 cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Paradissis, Agnès; Hatziantoniou, Sophia; Georgopoulos, Aristidis; Psarra, Anna-Maria G; Dimas, Konstantinos; Demetzos, Costas

    2007-01-01

    The uptake of free and liposome-incorporated sclareol and its effect on the growth of human cancer cell line HCT-116 was investigated. Recovery of free and liposomal sclareol in cytosol, nuclei and crude membranes was monitored over time. HCT-116 cells were incubated with 100 microM of free or liposomal sclareol up to 96 h. Intact cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation in order to obtain highly purified fractions of nuclei, cytosol, and crude membranes. Sclareol was extracted from intact cells and from the subcellular fractions using the Bligh-Dyer method and was measured by HPTLC/FID. The effect of sclareol on cell growth was found time dependent. Free sclareol exhibited high toxicity, while the liposomal sclareol showed reduced cytotoxicity but retained the ability to reduce the cell growth rate. The uptake of sclareol by the cells was faster and higher compared to that of its liposomal form. The concentration of sclareol in the three subcellular fractions showed that liposomal sclareol is incorporated in crude membranes and from there it is released in cytosol and nuclei in a time dependent manner, while free sclareol passes directly in the cytosol. These results suggest that liposomal sclareol retains its growth inhibiting activity while its cytotoxic action is diminished. These findings could be due to the sustained delivery of sclareol to the different subcellular sites.

  6. Evaluation of stress distribution due to shearing in non-oriented electrical steel by using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki Omura, Takeshi; Senda, Kunihiro; Fukumura, Masaru; Toda, Hiroaki

    2016-05-15

    The influence of the shearing process on the iron loss of non-oriented electrical steels with grain sizes of 10 μm-150 μm was investigated. The deterioration ratio of iron loss was clearly smaller in sample with small grain sizes. The droop height, reflecting the amount of plastic deformation, displayed a good relationship with the deterioration of iron loss under the effect of the material grain size. To clarify the strain distribution around the sheared edge, the elastic strain in a sheet sample with the thickness of 0.30 mm and grain size of 10 μm was evaluated by using synchrotron radiation. The width of the region of elastic strain due to shearing was two or three times of the material thickness. The results of the plastic strain distribution obtained by the measurements were then used to estimate the iron loss deterioration rate in 5 mm width sheared samples. The estimated loss deteriotation coincided with the actual measured iron loss.

  7. Phase mixing due to the Galactic potential: steps in the position and velocity distributions of popped star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.; Kroupa, P.; Assmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    As star clusters are expected to form with low star formation efficiencies, the gas in the cluster is expelled quickly and early in their development: the star cluster `pops'. This leads to an unbound stellar system, evolving in the Galactic potential. Previous N-body simulations have demonstrated the existence of a stepped number density distribution of cluster stars after popping, both in vertical position and vertical velocity, with a passing resemblance to a Christmas tree. Using numerical and analytical methods, we investigate the source of this structure, which arises due to the phase mixing of the out-of-equilibrium stellar system, determined entirely by the background analytic potential. Considering only the vertical motions, we construct a theoretical model to describe the time evolution of the phase space distribution of stars in a Miyamoto-Nagai disc potential and a full Milky Way-type potential comprising bulge, halo and disc components, which is then compared with N-body simulations. Using our theoretical model, we investigate the possible observational signatures and the feasibility of detection.

  8. Epidemiology of Blood Stream Infection due to Candida Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Japan over 12 Years: Importance of Peripheral Line-Associated Candidemia.

    PubMed

    Ishikane, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia is an important cause of mortality in healthcare settings. Peripheral lines are a source of candidemia, yet few studies have reported on the clinico-epidemiological features of candidemia due to peripheral-line associated blood stream infection (PLABSI). We conducted a single-centre retrospective cohort study of all patients with candidemia between 2002 and 2013. PLABSI was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: the presence of phlebitis or the resolution of clinical symptoms after peripheral-line withdrawal, with careful exclusion of an alternative explanation for bacteraemia. We described the epidemiology of candidemia and assessed predictive factors of PLABSI due to Candida spp., peripheral line-associated candidemia (PLAC), compared with non-PLAC. A total of 301 episodes of candidemia, including 37 of PLAC, were diagnosed during the study period. Central-line associated blood stream infection, intra-abdominal infection, and infection of unknown source accounted for the remaining 233, 14, and 17 cases, respectively. The overall incidence rate of candidemia was 0.11/1000 patient-days. In multivariate analysis, cephalosporin exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22, 95% CI 1.04-4.77), polymicrobial bacteraemia/fungaemia (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.02-8.10), and ID specialist consultation (OR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.13-5.13) were identified as independent predictors of PLAC. Although non-PLAC had a higher mortality, the length of hospital stay after candidemia was similar between the two groups and candidemia duration was longer in the PLAC group. PLACs are an important cause of candidemia in hospitalized patients. Appropriate identification and management of PLAC are crucial.

  9. Epidemiology of Blood Stream Infection due to Candida Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Japan over 12 Years: Importance of Peripheral Line-Associated Candidemia

    PubMed Central

    Ishikane, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Background Candidemia is an important cause of mortality in healthcare settings. Peripheral lines are a source of candidemia, yet few studies have reported on the clinico-epidemiological features of candidemia due to peripheral-line associated blood stream infection (PLABSI). Methods We conducted a single-centre retrospective cohort study of all patients with candidemia between 2002 and 2013. PLABSI was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: the presence of phlebitis or the resolution of clinical symptoms after peripheral-line withdrawal, with careful exclusion of an alternative explanation for bacteraemia. We described the epidemiology of candidemia and assessed predictive factors of PLABSI due to Candida spp., peripheral line-associated candidemia (PLAC), compared with non-PLAC. Results A total of 301 episodes of candidemia, including 37 of PLAC, were diagnosed during the study period. Central-line associated blood stream infection, intra-abdominal infection, and infection of unknown source accounted for the remaining 233, 14, and 17 cases, respectively. The overall incidence rate of candidemia was 0.11/1000 patient-days. In multivariate analysis, cephalosporin exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22, 95% CI 1.04–4.77), polymicrobial bacteraemia/fungaemia (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.02–8.10), and ID specialist consultation (OR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.13–5.13) were identified as independent predictors of PLAC. Although non-PLAC had a higher mortality, the length of hospital stay after candidemia was similar between the two groups and candidemia duration was longer in the PLAC group. Conclusion PLACs are an important cause of candidemia in hospitalized patients. Appropriate identification and management of PLAC are crucial. PMID:27798663

  10. Imputation-Based Fine-Mapping Suggests That Most QTL in an Outbred Chicken Advanced Intercross Body Weight Line Are Due to Multiple, Linked Loci.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Monika; Ahsan, Muhammad; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Örjan

    2017-01-05

    The Virginia chicken lines have been divergently selected for juvenile body weight for more than 50 generations. Today, the high- and low-weight lines show a >12-fold difference for the selected trait, 56-d body weight. These lines provide unique opportunities to study the genetic architecture of long-term, single-trait selection. Previously, several quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to weight differences between the lines were mapped in an F2-cross between them, and these were later replicated and fine-mapped in a nine-generation advanced intercross of them. Here, we explore the possibility to further increase the fine-mapping resolution of these QTL via a pedigree-based imputation strategy that aims to better capture the genetic diversity in the divergently selected, but outbred, founder lines. The founders of the intercross were high-density genotyped, and then pedigree-based imputation was used to assign genotypes throughout the pedigree. Imputation increased the marker density 20-fold in the selected QTL, providing 6911 markers for the subsequent analysis. Both single-marker association and multi-marker backward-elimination analyses were used to explore regions associated with 56-d body weight. The approach revealed several statistically and population structure independent associations and increased the mapping resolution. Further, most QTL were also found to contain multiple independent associations to markers that were not fixed in the founder populations, implying a complex underlying architecture due to the combined effects of multiple, linked loci perhaps located on independent haplotypes that still segregate in the selected lines. Copyright © 2017 Brandt et al.

  11. A novel modular approach to active power-line harmonic filtering in distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shatshat, Ramadan A.

    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient and reliable modular active harmonic filter system to realize a cost-effective solution to the harmonic problem. The proposed filter system consists of a number CSC modules, each dedicated to filter a specific harmonic of choice (Frequency-Splitting Approach). The power rating of the modules will decrease and their switching frequency will increase as the order of the harmonic to be filtered is increased. The overall switching losses are minimized due to the selected harmonic elimination and balanced a "power rating"-"switching frequency" product. Two ADALINEs are proposed as a part of the filter controller for processing the signals obtained from the power-line. One ADALINE (the Current ADALINE) extracts the fundamental and harmonic components of the distorted current. The other ADALINE (the Voltage ADALINE) estimates the line voltage. The outputs of both ADALINEs are used to construct the modulating signals of the filter modules. The proposed controller decides which CSC filter module(s) is connected to the electric grid. The automated connection of the corresponding filter module(s) is based on decision-making rules in such a way that the IEEE 519-1992 limits are not violated. The information available on the magnitude of each harmonic component allows us to select the active filter bandwidth (i.e., the highest harmonic to be suppressed). This will result in more efficiency and higher performance. The proposed controller adjusts the I dc in each CSC module according to the present magnitude of the corresponding harmonic current. This results in optimum dc-side current value and minimal converter losses. The comparison of the proposed modular active filter scheme and the conventional one converter scheme on practical use in industry is presented. This comparison shows that the proposed solution is more economical, reliable and flexible compared to conventional one. High speed and accuracy of ADALINE, self

  12. On the Distribution of Ion Density Depletion Along Magnetic Field Lines as Deduced Using C-NOFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, E.; Kelley, M. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Retterer, J. M.; Su, Y.-J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Roddy, P. A.; Ballenthin, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ion density depletion along magnetic field lines, we compare in situ-measured ion density fluctuations as seen from C/NOFS and compare them to the field-line-integrated depletion of the whole bubble as inferred from electric field measurements. Results show that, within C/NOFS' range, local measurement of the normalized density depletion, (Delta)n/n(sub 0), near the apex may be far less than at other points on the same field line. We argue that the distribution of (Delta)n/n(sub 0) is a weighted distribution concentrated at latitudes of the Appleton anomalies and becomes more heavily weighted the closer the field-aligned bubble rises to the peak of the anomalies. A three-dimensional simulation of an ionospheric bubble verifies our arguments.

  13. Dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, estimated by eigenvectors of gravity gradient tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2016-09-01

    We estimated the dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, by using the dip of the maximum eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor. A series of earthquakes in Kumamoto and Oita beginning on 14 April 2016 occurred along this tectonic line, the largest of which was M = 7.3. Because a gravity gradiometry survey has not been conducted in the study area, we calculated the gravity gradient tensor from the Bouguer gravity anomaly and employed it to the analysis. The general dip distribution of the Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line was found to be about 65° and tends to be higher towards its eastern end. In addition, we estimated the dip around the largest earthquake to be about 60° from the gravity gradient tensor. This result agrees with the dip of the earthquake source fault obtained by Global Navigation Satellite System data analysis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Cryogenic-temperature profiling of high-power superconducting lines using local and distributed optical-fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Palmieri, Luca; Consales, Marco; Giordano, Michele; Borriello, Anna; Bajas, Hugues; Galtarossa, Andrea; Bajko, Marta; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents distributed and multipoint fiber-optic monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting power transmission line down to 30 K and over 20 m distance. Multipoint measurements were conducted using fiber Bragg gratings sensors coated with two different functional overlays (epoxy and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) demonstrating cryogenic operation in the range 300-4.2 K. Distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimide). The integrated system has been placed along the 20 m long cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Cool-down events from 300-30 K have been successfully measured in space and time, confirming the viability of these approaches to the monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.

  15. Nonlinear-resonance line shapes: Dependence on the transverse intensity distribution of a light beam

    SciTech Connect

    Taichenachev, A.V.; Yudin, V.I.; Wynands, R.; Kitching, J.; Hollberg, L.

    2004-02-01

    We analyze the line shape and width of atomic coherent-population-trapping (CPT) resonances excited by laser beams with different transverse intensity profiles. A dramatic difference in the resonance line shape is found when comparing a beam with a 'steplike' profile to a beam with a Gaussian profile. In particular, for nonuniform profiles, a non-Lorentzian functional form is given that is more appropriate for describing the nonlinear resonance line shape than is a conventional Lorentzian. Our analysis is supported by measurements of CPT line shapes in a thermal vapor of {sup 85}Rb.

  16. Drip Line Flushing with Chlorine May Not Be Effective in Reducing Bacterial Loads in Irrigation Water Distribution Systems.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Mary Theresa; Marine, Sasha C; Everts, Kathryne L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-06-01

    Irrigation water distribution systems are used to supply water to produce crops, but the system may also provide a protected environment for the growth of human pathogens present in irrigation water. In this study, the effects of drip tape installation depth and sanitization on the microbial quality of irrigation groundwater were evaluated. Drip tape lines were installed on the soil surface or 5 or 10 cm below the soil surface. Water samples were collected from the irrigation source and the end of each drip line every 2 weeks over an 11-week period, and the levels of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and enterococci were quantified. Half of the lines installed at each depth were flushed with sodium hypochlorite for 1 h during week 6 to achieve a residual of 10 ppm at the end of the line. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.01) effect of drip tape installation depth and sanitizer application on the recovery of E. coli, with increased levels measured at the 5-cm depth and in nonsanitized lines, although the levels were at the limit of detection, potentially confounding the results. There was no significant effect of drip tape depth on total coliforms, aerobic mesophiles, or enterococci. In contrast, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in the recovery of total coliforms was recorded from the ends of lines that received chlorine. This may be indicative of shedding of cells owing to degradation of biofilms that formed on the inner walls of the lines. These findings emphasize the need to better understand conditions that may lead to corrosion and increases in bacterial loads inside drip lines during flushing. Recommendations to growers should suggest collecting groundwater samples for testing at the end of drip lines rather than at the source. Guidelines on flushing drip lines with chlorine may need to include water pH monitoring, a parameter that influences the corrosive properties of chlorine.

  17. Uninformed and probabilistic distributed agent combinatorial searches for the unary NP-complete disassembly line balancing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Seamus M.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    Disassembly takes place in remanufacturing, recycling, and disposal, with a line being the best choice for automation. The disassembly line balancing problem seeks a sequence which: is feasible, minimizes workstations, and ensures similar idle times, as well as other end-of-life specific concerns. Finding the optimal balance is computationally intensive due to exponential growth. Combinatorial optimization methods hold promise for providing solutions to the disassembly line balancing problem, which is proven here to belong to the class of unary NP-complete problems. Probabilistic (ant colony optimization) and uninformed (H-K) search methods are presented and compared. Numerical results are obtained using a recent case study to illustrate the search implementations and compare their performance. Conclusions drawn include the consistent generation of near-optimal solutions, the ability to preserve precedence, the speed of the techniques, and their practicality due to ease of implementation.

  18. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lipids: Differential line broadening due to cross-correlation effects as a probe of membrane structure

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, E.; Adebodun, F.; Chung, J.; Montez, B.; Ki Deok Park; Hongbiao Le; Phillips, B. )

    1991-11-19

    The authors have obtained proton-coupled carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a variety of lipid-water and lipid-drug-water systems, at 11.7 T, as a function of temperature, using the 'magic-angle' sample-spinning (MAS) NMR technique. The resulting spectra show a wide range of line shapes, due to interferences between dipole-dipole and dipole-chemical shielding anisotropy interactions. The differential line-broadening effects observed are particularly large for aromatic and olefinic (sp{sup 2}) carbon atom sites. Coupled spectra of the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine and imipramine, in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-water mesophases, show well-resolved doublets having different line shapes for each of the four aromatic methine groups, due to selective averaging of the four C-H dipolar interactions due to rapid motion about the director (or drug C{sub 2}) axis. {sup 2}H NMR spectra of (2,4,6,8-{sup 2}H{sub 4})desipramine (and imipramine) in the same 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-water mesophase exhibit quadrupole splittings of {approximately}0-2 and {approximately}20 kHz, indicating an approximate magic-angle orientation of the C2-{sup 2}H({sup 1}H) and C8-{sup 2}H({sup 1}H) vectors with respect to an axis of motional averaging, in accord with the {sup 13}C NMR results. The good qualitative agreement between {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H NMR results suggests that useful orientational ({sup 2}H NMR like) information can be deduced from natural-abundance {sup 13}C NMR spectra of a variety of mobile solids.

  19. Can Degradation of Adhesive Interfaces Due to Water Storage Affect Stress Distributions? A Finite-Element Stress Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sema; Eraslan, Oğuz; Eskitaşcıoğlu, Gürcan

    The aim of this finite-element stress analysis (FEA) was to determine the effect of degradation due to water storage on stress distributions in root-filled premolar models restored with composite using either a self-etch (SE) or an etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesive. Four premolar FEA models including root filling, MOD cavity, and composite restorations were created. The cavities were assumed to be treated by SE or E&R adhesives and stored in water for 18 months. The elastic properties of the adhesive-dentin interface after 24-h and 18-month water storage were obtained from the literature and applied to the FEA models. A 300-N load was applied on the functional cusps of the models. The SolidWorks/Cosmosworks structural analysis program was used and the results were presented considering the von Mises stresses. Stresses in the cervical region increased over time on the load-application side of the main tooth models (SE: 84.11 MPa to 87.51 MPa; E&R: 100.24 MPa to 120.8 MPa). When the adhesive interfaces (hybrid layer, adhesive layer) and dentin were evaluated separately, the stresses near the root canal orifices increased over time in both models; however, this change was more noticeable in the E&R models. Stresses at the cavity corners decreased in the E&R model (within the adhesive layer), while SE models showed the opposite (within the hybrid layer). Change in the elastic modulus of the adhesive layer, hybrid layer, and dentin due to water storage has an effect on stresses in root-filled premolar models. The location and the level of the stresses differed depending on the adhesive used.

  20. Statistical Properties of the Stokes V-Parameter Spatial Distribution of Some Spectral Lines Across the Solar DisK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshcherov, V. S.; Demidov, M. L.; Zhigalov, V. V.; Grigoryev, V. M.

    The measurements of the Stokes parameters distribution in spectral lines (the more number of lines, the better) is the most powerful and promising tool of magnetic fields and termodynamical conditions diagnostics in solar plasma. Sometimes [1] it is very important to know such mean values of V-parameter distribution over the line profile as amplitude and area asymmetries, and what is espicially valuable, - on the different positions on the solar disc. At the present paper, using the CCD stokesmeter of the Sayan observatory [2], we study the properties of these parameters as a function of center-to-limb distance and the strength of magnetic fields. A great number of data (dozens of stokesgrames of the whole solar disc) with low-spatial resolution observation (two arc minutes) are used in the investigation. Some questions of theoretical interpretation of the founded properties are discussed. References 1. O.Steiner. Flux Tube Dynamic. - 3rd Advances in Solar Physics Euroconference: Magnetic Fields and Oscillations. (Eds. B.Schmieder, A.Hofmann, J,Staude). ASP Confernce Series. Vol.184, 1999, p.38-54. 2. V.S.Peshcherov, V.V.Zhigalov, M.L.Demidov, V.M. Grigoryev. Large -Scale Solar Magnetic Fields: the Stokes V-Parameter Distribution in the Line FeI 525.0 nm. - JOSO Annual Report, 1998, p.87-88.

  1. Guidelines for Volume Force Distributions Within Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbines on Large-Eddy Simulation-Type Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Moriarty, Patrick J.; Schmitz, Sven

    2014-01-10

    The objective of this work is to develop and test a set of general guidelines for choosing parameters to be used in the state-of-the-art actuator line method (ALM) for modeling wind turbine blades in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The actuator line method is being increasingly used for the computation of wake interactions in large wind farms in which fully blade-resolving simulations are expensive and require complicated rotating meshes. The focus is on actuator line behavior using fairly isotropic grids of low aspect ratio typically used for large-eddy simulation (LES). Forces predicted along the actuator lines need to be projected onto the flow field as body forces, and this is commonly accomplished using a volumetric projection. In this study, particular attention is given to the spanwise distribution of the radius of this projection. A new method is proposed where the projection radius varies along the blade span following an elliptic distribution. The proposed guidelines for actuator line parameters are applied to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Phase VI rotor and the NREL 5-MW turbine. Results obtained are compared with available data and the blade-element code XTurb-PSU. It is found that the new criterion for the projection radius leads to improved prediction of blade tip loads for both blade designs.

  2. Distributions of strong ground motion due to dynamic ruptures across a bimaterial fault: Implications for seismic hazard analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Shoubiao

    2016-12-01

    We perform 2-D finite element calculations of mode II rupture along a bimaterial interface governed by regularized rate- and state-dependent friction law, with the goal of understanding how the bimaterial interface influences the strong ground motion. By comparison with properties of rupture in a homogeneous solid, we found that bimaterial mechanism is important for earthquake ruptures and influences the strong ground motion significantly. The simulated results show that mode II rupture evolves with propagation distance along a bimaterial interface to a unilateral wrinkle-like pulse in the direction of slip on the compliant side of the fault, namely in the positive direction. Strong ground motion caused by seismic waves emanated from the rupture propagation is asymmetrically distributed in space. The computed peak ground acceleration (PGA) is high in the near-fault region. Particularly, PGA is much larger in the region on the side in the positive direction. In addition, it is greater in the more compliant area of the model than that in the stiffer area with corresponding locations. Moreover, the differential PGA due to bimaterial effect increases with increasing degree of material contrast across the fault. It is hoped that the results obtained in this investigation will provide some implications for seismic hazard assessment and fault rupture mechanics.

  3. Enhancement of fusion rates due to quantum effects in the particles momentum distribution in nonideal plasma media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, N. J.; Gladush, M. G.; Petrushevich, Y. V.; Quarati, P.; Starostin, A. N.

    2012-06-01

    This study concerns a situation when measurements of the nonresonant cross-section of nuclear reactions appear highly dependent on the environment in which the particles interact. An appealing example discussed in the paper is the interaction of a deuteron beam with a target of deuterated metal Ta. In these experiments, the reaction cross section for d(d, p)t was shown to be orders of magnitude greater than what the conventional model predicts for the low-energy particles. In this paper we take into account the influence of quantum effects due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for particles in a non-ideal plasma medium elastically interacting with the medium particles. In order to calculate the nuclear reaction rate in the non-ideal environment we apply both the Monte Carlo technique and approximate analytical calculation of the Feynman diagram using nonrelativistic kinetic Green's functions in the medium which correspond to the generalized energy and momentum distribution functions of interacting particles. We show a possibility to reduce the 12-fold integral corresponding to this diagram to a fivefold integral. This can significantly speed up the computation and control accuracy. Our calculations show that quantum effects significantly influence reaction rates such as p +7Be, 3He +4He, p +7Li, and 12C +12C. The new reaction rates may be much higher than the classical ones for the interior of the Sun and supernova stars. The possibility to observe the theoretical predictions under laboratory conditions is discussed.

  4. Detection of algal lipid accumulation due to nitrogen limitation via dielectric spectroscopy of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suspensions in a coaxial transmission line sample cell.

    PubMed

    Bono, Michael S; Ahner, Beth A; Kirby, Brian J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, dielectric characterization of algae cell suspensions was used to detect lipid accumulation due to nitrogen starvation. Wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CC-125) was cultivated in replete and nitrogen-limited conditions in order to achieve a range of lipid contents, as confirmed by Nile Red fluorescence measurements. A vector network analyzer was used to measure the dielectric scattering parameters of a coaxial region of concentrated cell suspension. The critical frequency fc of the normalized transmission coefficient |S21(*)| decreased with increasing lipid content but did not change with cell concentration. These observations were consistent with a decrease in cytoplasmic conductivity due to lipid accumulation in the preliminary transmission line model. This dielectric sensitivity to lipid content will facilitate the development of a rapid, noninvasive method for algal lipid measurement that could be implemented in industrial settings without the need for specialized staff and analytical facilities.

  5. Near-line Archive Data Mining at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Mack, R.; Eng, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is generating immense volumes of data, in some cases too much to provide to users with data-intensive needs. As an alternative to moving the data to the user and his/her research algorithms, we are providing a means to move the algorithms to the data. The Near-line Archive Data Mining (NADM) system is the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center's (GES DAAC) web data mining portal to the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data pool, a 50-TB online disk cache. The NADM web portal enables registered users to submit and execute data mining algorithm codes on the data in the EOSDIS data pool. A web interface allows the user to access the NADM system. The users first develops personalized data mining code on their home platform and then uploads them to the NADM system. The C, FORTRAN and IDL languages are currently supported. The user developed code is automatically audited for any potential security problems before it is installed within the NADM system and made available to the user. Once the code has been installed the user is provided a test environment where he/she can test the execution of the software against data sets of the user's choosing. When the user is satisfied with the results, he/she can promote their code to the "operational" environment. From here the user can interactively run his/her code on the data available in the EOSDIS data pool. The user can also set up a processing subscription. The subscription will automatically process new data as it becomes available in the EOSDIS data pool. The generated mined data products are then made available for FTP pickup. The NADM system uses the GES DAAC-developed Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor (S4P) to automate tasks and perform the actual data processing. Users will also have the option of selecting a DAAC-provided data mining algorithm and using it to process the data of their choice.

  6. The LINEs and SINEs of Entamoeba histolytica: comparative analysis and genomic distribution.

    PubMed

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2005-07-01

    Autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons are commonly referred to as long interspersed elements (LINEs). Short non-autonomous elements that borrow the LINE machinery are called SINES. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three classes of LINEs and SINEs. Together the EhLINEs/SINEs account for about 6% of the genome. The recognizable functional domains in all three EhLINEs included reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. A novel feature was the presence of two types of members-some with a single long ORF (less frequent) and some with two ORFs (more frequent) in both EhLINE1 and 2. The two ORFs were generated by conserved changes leading to stop codon. Computational analysis of the immediate flanking sequences for each element showed that they inserted in AT-rich sequences, with a preponderance of Ts in the upstream site. The elements were very frequently located close to protein-coding genes and other EhLINEs/SINEs. The possible influence of these elements on expression of neighboring genes needs to be determined.

  7. Effects of conductor sag on spatial distribution of power line magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mamishev, A.V.; Nevels, R.D.; Russell, B.D.

    1996-07-01

    Traditional extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field computation techniques assume that the current carrying power line conductors are straight horizontal wires. This assumption results in a model whose magnetic fields are distorted from those produced in reality. An exact solution and an approximation are proposed for modeling magnetic fields produced by the sagged conductors of power lines, by taking advantage of the fact that the equation of the catenary exactly describes the line sag. The proposed approaches differ in the required computational burden and in the precision of the results. A field mapping measurement example illustrates the applicability and the need for this analysis. The relative importance of the catenary effect is discussed.

  8. Functions of cumulative distribution of attenuation due to rain on an interval from 9.5 Km A to 17.8 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedi, F.; Migliorini, P.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement results of attenuation due to rain are reported. Cumulative distribution functions of the attenuation found in three connections are described. Differences between the distribution functions and different polarization frequencies are demonstrated. The possibilty of establishing a bond between the statistics of annual attenuation and worst month attenuation is explored.

  9. Relationship between Emergency Restoration Time of Power Distribution Line after a Disaster and Geographical Characteristics of its Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagai, Shigeo; Terano, Takao

    The effect of an outage caused by a disaster is serious to the society, because the power distribution line is a common basic infrastructure for life support. And the time estimation of emergency restoration process of power distribution line after a disaster is an emerging problem for the safety and security of the society. But the time estimation is a difficult problem and the only practical method in use is a simple approximation method, which doesn't take account of geographical characteristics of the objective area. So, we developed a method which can take account of the influences caused by the geographical characteristics of the objective area on the estimation of the emergency restoration. In this article, we describe an experimental analysis by the method.

  10. Distress Due to Prognostic Uncertainty in Palliative Care: Frequency, Distribution, and Outcomes among Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gramling, Robert; Stanek, Susan; Han, Paul K J; Duberstein, Paul; Quill, Tim E; Temel, Jennifer S; Alexander, Stewart C; Anderson, Wendy G; Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A

    2017-09-18

    Prognostic uncertainty is common in advanced cancer and frequently addressed during palliative care consultation, yet we know little about its impact on quality of life (QOL). We describe the prevalence and distribution of distress due to prognostic uncertainty among hospitalized patients with advanced cancer before palliative care consultation. We evaluate the association between this type of distress and overall QOL before and after palliative care consultation. Observational cohort study. Hospitalized patients with advanced cancer who receive a palliative care consultation at two geographically distant academic medical centers. At the time of enrollment, before palliative care consultation, we asked participants: "Over the past two days, how much have you been bothered by uncertainty about what to expect from the course of your illness?" (Not at all/Slightly/Moderately/Quite a Bit/Extremely). We defined responses of "Quite a bit" and "Extremely" to be indicative of substantial distress. Two hundred thirty-six participants completed the baseline assessment. Seventy-seven percent reported being at least moderately bothered by prognostic uncertainty and half reported substantial distress. Compared with others, those who were distressed by prognostic uncertainty (118/236) reported poorer overall QOL before palliative care consultation (mean QOL 3.8 out of 10 vs. 5.3 out of 10, p = < 0.001) and greater improvement in QOL following consultation (Adjusted difference in mean QOL change = 1.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.2, 2.0). Prognostic uncertainty is a prevalent source of distress among hospitalized patients with advanced cancer at the time of initial palliative care consultation. Distress from prognostic uncertainty is associated with lower levels of preconsultation QOL and with greater pre-post consultation improvement in the QOL.

  11. The influence of lightning induced voltage on the distribution power line polymer insulators.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Mahdi; Abd Rahman, Muhammad Syahmi; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Gomes, Chandima; Jasni, Jasronita; Hajikhani, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Protection of medium voltage (MV) overhead lines against the indirect effects of lightning is an important issue in Malaysia and other tropical countries. Protection of these lines against the indirect effects of lightning is a major concern and can be improved by several ways. The choice of insulator to be used for instance, between the glass, ceramic or polymer, can help to improve the line performance from the perspective of increasing the breakdown strength. In this paper, the electrical performance of a 10 kV polymer insulator under different conditions for impulse, weather and insulator angle with respect to a cross-arm were studied (both experimental and modelling) and the results were discussed accordingly. Results show that the weather and insulator angle (with respect to the cross-arm) are surprisingly influenced the values of breakdown voltage and leakage current for both negative and positive impulses. Therefore, in order to select a proper protection system for MV lines against lightning induced voltage, consideration of the local information concerning the weather and also the insulator angles with respect to the cross-arm are very useful for line stability and performance.

  12. The influence of lightning induced voltage on the distribution power line polymer insulators

    PubMed Central

    Ab-Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Gomes, Chandima; Jasni, Jasronita; Hajikhani, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Protection of medium voltage (MV) overhead lines against the indirect effects of lightning is an important issue in Malaysia and other tropical countries. Protection of these lines against the indirect effects of lightning is a major concern and can be improved by several ways. The choice of insulator to be used for instance, between the glass, ceramic or polymer, can help to improve the line performance from the perspective of increasing the breakdown strength. In this paper, the electrical performance of a 10 kV polymer insulator under different conditions for impulse, weather and insulator angle with respect to a cross-arm were studied (both experimental and modelling) and the results were discussed accordingly. Results show that the weather and insulator angle (with respect to the cross-arm) are surprisingly influenced the values of breakdown voltage and leakage current for both negative and positive impulses. Therefore, in order to select a proper protection system for MV lines against lightning induced voltage, consideration of the local information concerning the weather and also the insulator angles with respect to the cross-arm are very useful for line stability and performance. PMID:28234930

  13. Spectral line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional spectroscopy with skewed frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Marwa H.; Hoenders, Bernhard J.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of Gaussian dynamics on the line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy is well understood as the second-order cumulant expansion provides exact spectra. Gaussian solvent dynamics can be well analyzed using slope line analysis of two-dimensional correlation spectra as a function of the waiting time between pump and probe fields. Non-Gaussian effects are not as well understood, even though these effects are common in nature. The interpretation of the spectra, thus far, relies on complex case to case analysis. We investigate spectra resulting from two physical mechanisms for non-Gaussian dynamics, one relying on the anharmonicity of the bath and the other on non-linear couplings between bath coordinates. These results are compared with outcomes from a simpler log-normal dynamics model. We find that the skewed spectral line shapes in all cases can be analyzed in terms of the log-normal model, with a minimal number of free parameters. The effect of log-normal dynamics on the spectral line shapes is analyzed in terms of frequency correlation functions, maxline slope analysis, and anti-diagonal linewidths. A triangular line shape is a telltale signature of the skewness induced by log-normal dynamics. We find that maxline slope analysis, as for Gaussian dynamics, is a good measure of the solvent dynamics for log-normal dynamics.

  14. Evolution of the angular distribution of laser-generated fast electrons due to resistive self-collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of the angular distribution of laser-generated fast electrons propagating in dense plasmas is studied by 3D numerical simulations. As resistively generated magnetic fields can strongly influence and even pinch the fast electron beam, the question of the effect on the angular distribution is of considerable interest. It was conjectured that in the limit of strong collimation, there will only be minimal changes to the angular distribution, whereas the largest reduction in the angular distribution will occur where there is only modest pinching of the fast electron beam and the beam is able to expand considerably. The results of the numerical simulations indicate this conjecture.

  15. The effect of vertical velocity probability distribution shape on cloud activation of aerosols: off-line calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonttila, J.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Räisänen, P.; Kokkola, H.; Järvinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    Off-line calculations of cloud activation of aerosols using a probability density function (PDF) for vertical velocity (w) are performed. The focus is on the variation of the shape of the PDF using two functional formulations: the Normal distribution PDF and the Pearson type IV PDF. The Normal distribution provides a familiar example, as it has been widely used to approximate vertical velocity distributions in numerous applications, including climate models. Pearson type IV distribution provides an alternative that, to our knowledge, has not been employed before to describe the vertical velocity PDF. The advantage of the Pearson distribution is its versatility in representing skewed and more peaked distribution shapes compared to the Normal distribution, though this is obtained at the expense of increased mathematical complexity. The experiments are performed using a box model, in which the environmental conditions, including the aerosol size distribution (bi-modal) and chemical composition (ammonium-sulphate particles) are prescribed as constants. Measured size distributions comprising clean and polluted cases are used. Cloud activation of aerosols is calculated by integrating over the positive side of the PDF of w, which yields the mean number of activated particles (Nact). The mean, variance, and skewness of the PDFs along with the type of the PDF itself are altered in order to explore the effect of the PDF shape on the activation process. All experiments are repeated for three well-documented activation parameterizations: Lin & Leaitch, Abdul-Razzak & Ghan and Fountoukis & Nenes. The results show that for symmetric distributions of w (skewness = 0) there is a maximum difference of 10-15 % in Nact between the cases with w given by the Normal distribution, and the more peaked Pearson distribution. The largest differences are seen for the most polluted cases. Nact in clean cases will saturate rather quickly with respect to the maximum supersaturation and, hence

  16. Development of An On-Line, Core Power Distribution Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Tunc ALdemir; Don Miller; Peng Wang

    2007-10-02

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop a software package that can construct in three-dimensional core power distributions using the signals from constant temperature power sensors distributed in the reactor core. The software developed uses a mode-based state/parameter estmation technique that is particularly attractive when there are model uncertainties and/or large signal noise. The software yields the expected value of local power at the detector locations and points in between, as well as the probability distribution of the local power density

  17. On-Line Water Quality Parameters as Indicators of Distribution System Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a time when the safety and security of services we have typically taken for granted are under question, a real-time or near real-time method of monitoring changes in water quality parameters could provide a critical line of defense in protecting public health. This study was u...

  18. On-Line Water Quality Parameters as Indicators of Distribution System Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a time when the safety and security of services we have typically taken for granted are under question, a real-time or near real-time method of monitoring changes in water quality parameters could provide a critical line of defense in protecting public health. This study was u...

  19. Non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions due to self-generated turbulence in collisionless guide-field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.

    2016-10-01

    Non-Maxwellian electron velocity space distribution functions (EVDFs) are useful signatures of plasma conditions and non-local consequences of collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the past, EVDFs were obtained mainly for antiparallel reconnection and under the influence of weak guide-fields in the direction perpendicular to the reconnection plane. EVDFs are, however, not well known, yet, for oblique (or component-) reconnection in case and in dependence on stronger guide-magnetic fields and for the exhaust (outflow) region of reconnection away from the diffusion region. In view of the multi-spacecraft Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS), we derived the non-Maxwellian EVDFs of collisionless magnetic reconnection in dependence on the guide-field strength bg from small ( b g ≈ 0 ) to very strong (bg = 8) guide-fields, taking into account the feedback of the self-generated turbulence. For this sake, we carried out 2.5D fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations using the ACRONYM code. We obtained anisotropic EVDFs and electron beams propagating along the separatrices as well as in the exhaust region of reconnection. The beams are anisotropic with a higher temperature in the direction perpendicular rather than parallel to the local magnetic field. The beams propagate in the direction opposite to the background electrons and cause instabilities. We also obtained the guide-field dependence of the relative electron-beam drift speed, threshold, and properties of the resulting streaming instabilities including the strongly non-linear saturation of the self-generated plasma turbulence. This turbulence and its non-linear feedback cause non-adiabatic parallel electron acceleration. We further obtained the resulting EVDFs due to the non-linear feedback of the saturated self-generated turbulence near the separatrices and in the exhaust region of reconnection in dependence on the guide field strength. We found that the influence of the self-generated plasma turbulence

  20. Thermal Structure of a Protoplanetary Disk around HD 163296: A Study of Vertical Temperature Distribution by CO Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Momose, Munetake; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents observations of a protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 in 12CO (J = 1-0), 12CO (J = 3-2), 13CO (J = 1-0), and 13CO (J = 3-2) emission lines. Double-peaked emission profiles originating from the rotating circumstellar disk were detected in all of the lines. The disk parameters were estimated from model calculations in which the radial distribution of the temperature or surface density inside the disk had a power-law form. The surface density should be sufficiently high so that the disk is optically thick for all of the CO lines, as discussed in previous studies based on interferometric observations. The temperature and outer radius of the disk were also confirmed to be consistent with the previous results. Taking advantage of the difference in the position of the photosphere among the CO lines, we revealed the temperature distribution in the vertical direction. The temperature of the 12CO (J = 3-2) emitting region is about twice higher than that of any other CO emitting region; the former is 58.5 ± 9.5 K, while the latter is 31 ± 15 K at 100 AU from the central star, suggesting that there are at least two distinct temperature regions. The best-fit temperature for 13CO (J = 1-0) that should trace the deepest region of the disk is even lower, implying that there is also a different temperature region deep inside of the disk. Such a vertical temperature distribution in a disk was identified both in T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars (e.g., DM Tau, AB Aur, and HD 31648), and this should be a common feature in protoplanetary disks.

  1. Managing Uncertainty Due to a Fundamental Error Source Arising from Scatterer Distribution Complexity in Radar Remote Sensing of Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Meneghini, Robert; Mugnai, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that cloud and rain drops are spatially distributed according to a Poisson distribution within a scattering volume probed by a radar being used to estimate precipitation has represented bedrock theory in establishing 'rules of the game' for pulse averaging--the process needed to beat down noise to an acceptable level in the measurement of radar reflectivity factor. Based on relatively recent observations of 'realistic' spatial distributions of hydrometeor scatterers in a cloudy atmosphere motivates a renewed examination of the consequences of using a too simplified assumption underlying volume scattering--particularly in regards to the standard pulse averaging rule. Our investigation addresses two extremes, simple to complex, insofar as allowed for complexities in an underlying scatterer distribution. It is demonstrated that as the spatial distribution ranges from Poisson (a narrow distribution) to multi-fractal (much broader distribution), uncertainty in a measurement increases if the rule for pulse averaging goes unchanged from its Poisson distribution reference county. [A bounded cascade is used for the multi-fractal distribution, a regularly observed distribution vis-a-vis cloud liquid water content.] The resultant measurement uncertainty leads to a fundamental source of error in the estimation of rain rate from radar measurements, one that has been disregarded since the early 1950s when radar sets first began to be used for rainfall measuring. It is shown how this source of error can be 'managed'--under the assumption that number of data analysis experiments would be carried out, experiments involving pulse-by-pulse measurements obtained from a radar set modified to output individual pulses of reflectivity factor. For practical applications, a new parameter called normalized k-sample intensity invariance is developed to enable defining the required pulse average count according to a preferred degree of uncertainty.

  2. Managing Uncertainty Due to a Fundamental Error Source Arising from Scatterer Distribution Complexity in Radar Remote Sensing of Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Meneghini, Robert; Mugnai, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that cloud and rain drops are spatially distributed according to a Poisson distribution within a scattering volume probed by a radar being used to estimate precipitation has represented bedrock theory in establishing 'rules of the game' for pulse averaging--the process needed to beat down noise to an acceptable level in the measurement of radar reflectivity factor. Based on relatively recent observations of 'realistic' spatial distributions of hydrometeor scatterers in a cloudy atmosphere motivates a renewed examination of the consequences of using a too simplified assumption underlying volume scattering--particularly in regards to the standard pulse averaging rule. Our investigation addresses two extremes, simple to complex, insofar as allowed for complexities in an underlying scatterer distribution. It is demonstrated that as the spatial distribution ranges from Poisson (a narrow distribution) to multi-fractal (much broader distribution), uncertainty in a measurement increases if the rule for pulse averaging goes unchanged from its Poisson distribution reference county. [A bounded cascade is used for the multi-fractal distribution, a regularly observed distribution vis-a-vis cloud liquid water content.] The resultant measurement uncertainty leads to a fundamental source of error in the estimation of rain rate from radar measurements, one that has been disregarded since the early 1950s when radar sets first began to be used for rainfall measuring. It is shown how this source of error can be 'managed'--under the assumption that number of data analysis experiments would be carried out, experiments involving pulse-by-pulse measurements obtained from a radar set modified to output individual pulses of reflectivity factor. For practical applications, a new parameter called normalized k-sample intensity invariance is developed to enable defining the required pulse average count according to a preferred degree of uncertainty.

  3. The HEMP (high altitude electromagnetic pulse) response of an overhead power distribution line

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the HEMP response of a realistic power distribution system was undertaken, and its results are described in this paper. This study involved the following elements: (1) the use of the new HEMP environment, (2) the use of a multiconductor coupling model, and (3) the measurement of the pulse response of an actual distribution transformer to permit the use of this data in the analysis.

  4. Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Solar Flares from Extreme Ultraviolet Lines: A Possible Diagnostic of Ion Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    In a solar flare, a large fraction of the magnetic energy released is converted rapidly to the kinetic energy of non-thermal particles and bulk plasma motion. This will likely result in non-equilibrium particle distributions and turbulent plasma conditions. We investigate this by analyzing the profiles of high temperature extreme ultraviolet emission lines from a major flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:44) observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. We find that in many locations the line profiles are non-Gaussian, consistent with a kappa distribution of emitting ions with properties that vary in space and time. At the flare footpoints, close to sites of hard X-ray emission from non-thermal electrons, the κ index for the Fe xvi 262.976 Å line at 3 MK takes values of 3–5. In the corona, close to a low-energy HXR source, the Fe xxiii 263.760 Å line at 15 MK shows κ values of typically 4–7. The observed trends in the κ parameter show that we are most likely detecting the properties of the ion population rather than any instrumental effects. We calculate that a non-thermal ion population could exist if locally accelerated on timescales ≤0.1 s. However, observations of net redshifts in the lines also imply the presence of plasma downflows, which could lead to bulk turbulence, with increased non-Gaussianity in cooler regions. Both interpretations have important implications for theories of solar flare particle acceleration.

  5. Alu and LINE1 distributions in the human chromosomes: evidence of global genomic organization expressed in the form of power laws.

    PubMed

    Sellis, Diamantis; Provata, Astero; Almirantis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Spatial distribution and clustering of repetitive elements are extensively studied during the last years, as well as their colocalization with other genomic components. Here we investigate the large-scale features of Alu and LINE1 spatial arrangement in the human genome by studying the size distribution of interrepeat distances. In most cases, we have found power-law size distributions extending in several orders of magnitude. We have also studied the correlations of the extent of the power law (linear region in double-logarithmic scale) and of the corresponding exponent (slope) with other genomic properties. A model has been formulated to explain the formation of the observed power laws. According to the model, 2 kinds of events occur repetitively in evolutionary time: random insertion of several types of intruding sequences and occasional loss of repeats belonging to the initial population due to "elimination" events. This simple mechanism is shown to reproduce the observed power-law size distributions and is compatible with our present knowledge on the dynamics of repeat proliferation in the genome.

  6. On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kosse, Pascal; Ciszek, Robert; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in microbial drinking water quality monitoring are needed for the better control of drinking water distribution systems and for public health protection. Conventional water quality monitoring programmes are not always able to detect a microbial contamination of drinking water. In the drinking water production chain, in addition to the vulnerability of source waters, the distribution networks are prone to contamination. In this study, a pilot-scale drinking-water distribution network with an on-line monitoring system was utilized for detecting bacterial intrusion. During the experimental Escherichia coli intrusions, the contaminant was measured by applying a set of on-line sensors for electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature (T), turbidity, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVAS SC) and with a device for particle counting. Monitored parameters were compared with the measured E. coli counts using the integral calculations of the detected peaks. EC measurement gave the strongest signal compared with the measured baseline during the E. coli intrusion. Integral calculations showed that the peaks in the EC, pH, T, turbidity and UVAS SC data were detected corresponding to the time predicted. However, the pH and temperature peaks detected were barely above the measured baseline and could easily be mixed with the background noise. The results indicate that on-line monitoring can be utilized for the rapid detection of microbial contaminants in the drinking water distribution system although the peak interpretation has to be performed carefully to avoid being mixed up with normal variations in the measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive settings of distance relay for MOV-protected series compensated line with distributed capacitance considering wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivov, Oleg Viktorovich

    Series compensated lines are protected from overvoltage by metal-oxide-varistors (MOVs) connected in parallel with the capacitor bank. The nonlinear characteristics of MOV devices add complexity to fault analysis and distance protection operation. During faults, the impedance of the line is modified by an equivalent impedance of the parallel MOV/capacitor circuit, which affects the distance protection. The intermittent wind generation introduces additional complexity to the system performance and distance protection. Wind variation affects the fault current level and equivalent MOV/capacitor impedance during a fault, and hence the distance relay operation. This thesis studies the impact of the intermittent wind power generation on the operation of MOV during faults. For the purpose of simulation, an equivalent wind farm model is proposed to generate a wind generation profile using wind farm generation from California independent system operator (ISO) as a guide for wind power variation to perform the study. The IEEE 12-bus test system is modified to include MOV-protected series capacitor and the equivalent wind farm model. The modified test system is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The study has been achieved considering three phase and single line to ground (SLG) faults on the series compensated line to show the effect of wind variation on the MOV operation. This thesis proposes an adaptive setting method for the mho relay distance protection of series compensated line considering effects of wind power variation and MOV operation. The distributed parameters of a transmission line are taken into account to avoid overreaching and underreaching of distance relays. The study shows that variable wind power affects system power flow and fault current in the compensated line during a fault which affects the operation of MOVs for different fault conditions. The equivalent per-phase impedance of the MOV/capacitor circuit has an effect on the system operation

  8. Regional distribution of large blowdown patches across Amazonia in 2005 caused by a single convective squall line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Raquel Fernandes; Nelson, Bruce Walker; Celes, Carlos Henrique Souza; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2017-08-01

    In mid-January 2005 a convective squall line traversed 4.5 × 106 km2 of Amazonia from southwest to northeast. As seen in Landsat images, this atypical convective storm left blowdown imprints with diffuse geometry, unlike the fan-shaped wind disturbance of much more frequent east-to-west propagating squall lines. Previous work reported 0.2% of the forest area damaged by this one relatively rare event within one Landsat image and assumed similar disturbance across the entire traverse. We mapped convective wind damage impact to the region in 2005 by identifying large-scale (>4 ha) blowdown imprints in 30 Landsat images. The diffuse-type imprints associated with this single squall line contributed up to 60-72% of total 2005 wind-disturbed area detected across the region, but damage was highly concentrated in central Amazonia. Consequently, the distribution of large wind damage patches in 2005 across Amazonia was very different from long-term average. Regional distribution of wind-driven tree mortality for smaller patch sizes remains unknown.

  9. Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of near-field signals has recently attracted considerable interest because of demands for the development of nano-scale optical devices that are capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light. In this paper, we propose a new type of tuneable plasmonic lens that permits the foci of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) signals to be continuously steered by adjusting the input polarization state. The proposed structure consists of multi-lined nanoslit arrays, in which each array is tilted at a different angle to provide polarization sensitivity and the nanoslit size is adjusted to balance the relative amplitudes of the excited SPPs from each line. The nanoslits of each line are designed to focus SPPs at different positions; hence, the SPP focal length can be tuned by modifying the incident polarization state. Unlike in previously reported studies, our method enables plasmonic foci to be continuously varied with a smooth change in the incident linear polarization state. The proposed structures provide a novel degree of freedom in the multiplexing of near fields. Such characteristics are expected to enable the realization of active SPP modulation that can be applied in near-field imaging, optical tweezing systems, and integrated nano-devices. PMID:27620281

  10. Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gun-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-09-01

    The modulation of near-field signals has recently attracted considerable interest because of demands for the development of nano-scale optical devices that are capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light. In this paper, we propose a new type of tuneable plasmonic lens that permits the foci of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) signals to be continuously steered by adjusting the input polarization state. The proposed structure consists of multi-lined nanoslit arrays, in which each array is tilted at a different angle to provide polarization sensitivity and the nanoslit size is adjusted to balance the relative amplitudes of the excited SPPs from each line. The nanoslits of each line are designed to focus SPPs at different positions; hence, the SPP focal length can be tuned by modifying the incident polarization state. Unlike in previously reported studies, our method enables plasmonic foci to be continuously varied with a smooth change in the incident linear polarization state. The proposed structures provide a novel degree of freedom in the multiplexing of near fields. Such characteristics are expected to enable the realization of active SPP modulation that can be applied in near-field imaging, optical tweezing systems, and integrated nano-devices.

  11. Far field intensity distributions due to spatial self phase modulation of a Gaussian beam by a thin nonlocal nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, E V Garcia; Carrasco, M L Arroyo; Otero, M M Mendez; Cerda, S Chavez; Castillo, M D Iturbe

    2010-10-11

    In this work we present a simple model that can be used to calculate the far field intensity distributions when a Gaussian beam cross a thin sample of nonlinear media but the response can be nonlocal.

  12. Changes in Distribution of Carbon Sources and Sinks Due to Spatial Patterns of Harvesting and Human Consumption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Frolking, S.

    2008-12-01

    Harvesting and consumption of plant biomass have major effects on the distribution of CO2 fluxes. Carbon sinks can be created where food and fiber are grown and sources where they are consumed or decomposed. Here, we used the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model, LM3V, land- use reconstructions from the Global Land-use Model (GLM), and population estimates to predict the patterns of CO2 flux resulting from wood and crop growth and distributed consumption. LM3V vegetation dynamics were forced by the GLM scenarios of land-use transitions between natural and secondary vegetation, croplands and pasture. Harvest estimates were reconciled with data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Harvested biomass was distributed and consumed based on population and socio-economic status indicators. Our analysis indicates that patterns of harvesting and subsequent spatial redistribution of plant biomass have significant implications for the distribution of CO2 sources and sinks.

  13. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  14. On-line purge and trap gas chromatography for monitoring of trihalomethanes in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael A; Miller, Sarah; Emmert, Gary L

    2007-06-05

    A method using an automated on-line purge and trap gas chromatograph with a dry electrolytic conductivity detector (DELCD) has been developed for monitoring four regulated trihalomethanes in drinking water distribution systems. This analyzer samples trihalomethanes from drinking water by pervaporation through a silicone capillary membrane contained within a gas extraction cell (GEC) followed by preconcentration using an adsorbent trap. Trihalomethanes are subsequently desorbed from the trap onto a capillary column, separated and detected. The analyzer operates in real-time, samples directly from the drinking water distribution system and is fully automated. The optimization, operation, and evaluation of the analyzer and method are discussed. Method detection limits (MDL) are less than 1.0 microg L(-1) with acceptable estimates for accuracy, and precision. The results from two on-line monitoring studies in chlorinated and chloraminated distribution systems are presented. The performance of the method is compared directly to United Stated Environmental Protection Agency Method 502.2 and shows a very slight, but acceptable bias.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  16. Effect of sweep angle on the pressure distributions and effectiveness of the ogee tip in diffusing a line vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcerak, J. C.; Feller, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Low-speed wind tunnel tests were conducted to study the influence of sweep angle on the pressure distributions of an ogee-tip configuration with relation to the effectiveness of the ogee tip in diffusing a line vortex. In addition to the pressure data, performance and flow-visualization data were obtained in the wind tunnel tests to evaluate the application of the ogee tip to aircraft configurations. The effect of sweep angle on the performance characteristics of a conventional-tip model, having equivalent planform area, was also investigated for comparison with the ogee-tip configuration. Results of the investigation generally indicate that sweep angle has little effect on the characteristics of the ogee in diffusing a line vortex.

  17. Examination of the CLIC drive beam pipe design for thermal distortion caused by distributed beam line

    SciTech Connect

    C. Johnson; K. Kloeppel

    1997-01-01

    Beam transport programs are widely used to estimate the distribution of power deposited in accelerator structures by particle beams, either intentionally as for targets or beam dumps or accidentally owing the beam loss incidents. While this is usually adequate for considerations of radiation safety, it does not reveal the expected temperature rise and its effect on structural integrity. To find this, thermal diffusion must be taken into account, requiring another step in the analysis. The method that has been proposed is to use the output of a transport program, perhaps modified, as input for a finite element analysis program that can solve the thermal diffusion equation. At Cern, the design of the CLIC beam pipe has been treated in this fashion. The power distribution produced in the walls by a distributed beam loss was found according to the widely-used electron shower code EGS4. The distribution of power density was then used to form the input for the finite element analysis pro gram ANSYS, which was able to find the expected temperature rise and the resulting thermal distortion. As a result of these studies, the beam pipe design can be modified to include features that will counteract such distortion.

  18. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  19. Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature. PMID:12406720

  20. Occurrence of mycobacteria in water treatment lines and in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-11-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature.

  1. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  2. Ising spin glass under continuous-distribution random magnetic fields: Tricritical points and instability lines.

    PubMed

    Crokidakis, Nuno; Nobre, Fernando D

    2008-04-01

    The effects of random magnetic fields are considered in an Ising spin-glass model defined in the limit of infinite-range interactions. The probability distribution for the random magnetic fields is a double Gaussian, which consists of two Gaussian distributions centered, respectively, at +H0 and -H0, presenting the same width sigma . It is argued that such a distribution is more appropriate for a theoretical description of real systems than its simpler particular two well-known limits, namely, the single Gaussian distribution (sigma>H0) and the bimodal one (sigma=0) . The model is investigated by means of the replica method, and phase diagrams are obtained within the replica-symmetric solution. Critical frontiers exhibiting tricritical points occur for different values of sigma , with the possibility of two tricritical points along the same critical frontier. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a behavior is verified for a spin-glass model in the presence of a continuous-distribution random field, which represents a typical situation of a real system. The stability of the replica-symmetric solution is analyzed, and the usual Almeida-Thouless instability is verified for low temperatures. It is verified that the higher-temperature tricritical point always appears in the region of stability of the replica-symmetric solution; a condition involving the parameters H0 and sigma , for the occurrence of this tricritical point only, is obtained analytically. Some of our results are discussed in view of experimental measurements available in the literature.

  3. Regularization Method And Its Application In Problem Of Determination A Radial Distribution Of Spectral Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vuceljic, M. J.

    2007-04-23

    There are a lot of methods dealing with the problems how to get the local radial intensity from a measured lateral intensity of the spectral line. All of them need some a priori information and often a preliminary filtering of the signal. Thus, it is always a question about loosing the useful information of the signal. One of the methods for determination radial intensity is a Tikhonov regularization method. This method requires minimum a priori information such as: the intensity is a monotone positive function. To check applicability limitations of the method, some model functions have been introduced. Special attention was devoted to the model function with the fine structure.

  4. The STARK-B database VAMDC node: a repository for spectral line broadening and shifts due to collisions with charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Moreau, N.; Ben Nessib, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. Access to such data via an online database has become indispensable. The STARK-B database is aimed at meeting these needs for widths and shifts of isolated lines of neutral and ionized elements due to electron and ion impacts. This database of the Paris Observatory is a result of scientific cooperation between S Sahal-Bréchot (LERMA) and M S Dimitrijević (AOB). Access to it is free, and it was opened online at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and thus complies with VAMDC and Virtual Observatory standards. VAMDC is a European Union-funded collaboration among groups involved in the generation and use of interoperable atomic and molecular data. STARK-B now contains all our semiclassical-perturbation (SCP) calculated data for more than 123 neutral or ionized elements as published in international refereed journals. It is devoted to modeling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipment, and technological plasmas. Hence, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. The modified semiempirical (MSE) results of calculations have begun to be implemented. In this paper, we highlight the key points of the method and the assumptions used in the calculations, which have lately been revisited. Then we present the database and its recent developments, as well as our ongoing work and our plans for the future.

  5. Distributed flow estimation and closed-loop control of an underwater vehicle with a multi-modal artificial lateral line.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Levi; Lagor, Francis D; Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo; Paley, Derek A

    2015-03-25

    Bio-inspired sensing modalities enhance the ability of autonomous vehicles to characterize and respond to their environment. This paper concerns the lateral line of cartilaginous and bony fish, which is sensitive to fluid motion and allows fish to sense oncoming flow and the presence of walls or obstacles. The lateral line consists of two types of sensing modalities: canal neuromasts measure approximate pressure gradients, whereas superficial neuromasts measure local flow velocities. By employing an artificial lateral line, the performance of underwater sensing and navigation strategies is improved in dark, cluttered, or murky environments where traditional sensing modalities may be hindered. This paper presents estimation and control strategies enabling an airfoil-shaped unmanned underwater vehicle to assimilate measurements from a bio-inspired, multi-modal artificial lateral line and estimate flow properties for feedback control. We utilize potential flow theory to model the fluid flow past a foil in a uniform flow and in the presence of an upstream obstacle. We derive theoretically justified nonlinear estimation strategies to estimate the free stream flowspeed, angle of attack, and the relative position of an upstream obstacle. The feedback control strategy uses the estimated flow properties to execute bio-inspired behaviors including rheotaxis (the tendency of fish to orient upstream) and station-holding (the tendency of fish to position behind an upstream obstacle). A robotic prototype outfitted with a multi-modal artificial lateral line composed of ionic polymer metal composite and embedded pressure sensors experimentally demonstrates the distributed flow sensing and closed-loop control strategies.

  6. UNIFORM BEAM DISTRIBUTIONS AT THE TARGET OF THE NSRL BEAM TRANSFER LINE

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; AHRENS, L.; BROWN, K. CHIANG, I-HUNG, GARDNER, C.J.; MACKAY, W.W.; PILE, P.; RUSEK, A.

    2007-06-25

    Uniform irradiation of biological or material samples with charged particle beams is desired by experimenters because it reduces radiation dose errors. In this paper we present results of uniform beams produced in the NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by a method which was developed theoretically and was proven experimentally at BNL. A similar method which requires collimation of the beam, and also lacks the flexibility of the present method to produce beam various beam sizes at the target, was patented in the year 1988. The present method of producing uniform beam distributions on a plane transverse to the direction of the beam, is based on purely magnetic focusing of the beam and requires no collimation of the beam or any other type of beam interaction with materials. It can also generate uniform beam distributions of various sizes. The method is favorably compared with alternative methods of producing uniform beam distributions and can be applied to the whole energy spectrum of the charged particle beams that are delivered by the BNL Booster synchrotron.

  7. Nucleon Density Distribution of the Proton Drip-Line Nucleus 12N Studied via Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Mitsunori; Morita, Yusuke; Nishimura, Daiki; Takechi, Maya; Iwamoto, Kodai; Wakabayashi, Masaru; Kamisho, Yasuto; Ohno, Junichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Kanbe, Ryosuke; Yamaoka, Shintaro; Mihara, Mototsugu; Matsuta, Kensaku; Yoshinaga, Kenta; Zhu, Ifan; Khono, Junpei; Yamaki, Sayaka; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Shinji; Nagashima, Masayuki; Abe, Kohsuke; Tashiro, Keisuke; Honma, Akira; Ohtsubo, Takashi; Izumikawa, Takuji; Sato, Shinji; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Kitagawa, Atsushi

    Reaction cross sections for the proton drip-line nucleus 12N on Be, C, and Al targets have been measured at intermediate energies from 60A to 200A MeV. The results are compared with the systematics for stable nuclei and also with the experimental reaction cross section data for 12C to show 5-20% enhancement of the present 12N data. The nucleon density distribution of 12N has been extracted through the χ2-fitting procedure, which is consistent with a single particle nature of the loosely-bound valence proton in the p orbital though the error of the density is still large. The large one-proton removal cross sections observed at the same time also supports the long proton tail in the density distribution.

  8. Line-defect calibration for line-scanning projection display.

    PubMed

    An, Seungdo; Song, Jonghyeong; Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Yurlov, Victor; Ryu, Seung-Won; Kim, Eungju; Yun, Sang Kyeong

    2009-09-14

    A method of line-defect calibration for line-scanning projection display is developed to accomplish acceptable display uniformity. The line scanning display uses a line modulating imaging and scanning device to construct a two-dimensional image. The inherent line-defects in an imaging device and optical lenses are the most fatal performance-degrading factor that should be overcome to reach the basic display uniformity level. Since the human eye recognizes line defects very easily, a method that perfectly removes line defects is required. Most line imaging devices are diffractive optical devices that require a coherent light source. This particular requirement makes the calibration method of sequential single pixel measurement and correction insufficient to take out the line defects distributed on screen due to optical crosstalk. In this report, we present a calibration method using a recursively converging algorithm that successfully transforms the unacceptable line-defected images into a uniform display image.

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance line shifts and line shape changes due to heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions of nitroxide free radicals in liquids 8. Further experimental and theoretical efforts to separate the effects of the two interactions.

    PubMed

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav

    2012-03-22

    The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to

  10. EPR Line Shifts and Line Shape Changes Due to Heisenberg Spin Exchange and Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Nitroxide Free Radicals in Liquids: 8. Further Experimental and Theoretical Efforts to Separate the Effects of the Two Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The work in Part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole (DD) interactions on EPR spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due HSE and DD have been derived. By employing non-linear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items (1)–(3) may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions, however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce if this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A key new aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items (1)–(3) due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to illustrate the separation in this

  11. Optical diagnostics for the highly populated tail of an electron energy distribution function in very-high-frequency capacitively coupled plasma using spin- and dipole-forbidden lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Ryu, Sangwon; Jang, Yunchang; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2017-06-01

    A novel method is proposed to determine an electron energy distribution function (EEDF) that includes the highly populated tail originated by energetic beam-like electrons (>20 eV), which often occur in narrow gap, very-high-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (VHF-CCP). This method combines conventional Langmuir probe analysis to represent the EEDF in the low-energy regime and the line-ratio method taken from the optical emission spectrum to represent the highly populated tail of the EEDF. Here the emission lines are chosen with consideration of the excitation rates, which are a function of the shape of the cross-section of the spin- and dipole-forbidden states of an argon atom and the EEDF at corresponding energy. In this method, the analytical EEDF model is chosen for the composition of the Maxwellian for low-energy (bulk) electrons, and Schulze’s time-averaged form of the shifted Maxwellian (Schulze et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 042003) is chosen for the highly populated tail of the EEDF. The variables of the time-averaged form of the shifted Maxwellian, the fraction and mean energy of the beam-like electrons, are determined using an emission model of line-intensity ratios, which describes the line-intensities as a function of the EEDF. This method is advantageous for the diagnostics of a time-averaged EEDF with a highly populated tail, especially where this is due to beam-like electrons that originate from stochastic heating, compared to a two-temperature EEDF.

  12. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  13. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-06-06

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges.

  14. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges. PMID:27275822

  15. Comparison between beta radiation dose distribution due to LDR and HDR ocular brachytherapy applicators using GATE Monte Carlo platform.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Laoues; Rachid, Khelifi; Ahmed, Sidi Moussa

    2016-08-01

    Eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are generally used in brachytherapy for the treatment of eye diseases as uveal melanoma. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo GATE platform to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye according to international recommendations. Mathematical models were developed for four ophthalmic applicators, two HDR 90Sr applicators SIA.20 and SIA.6, and two LDR 106Ru applicators, a concave CCB model and a flat CCB model. In present work, considering a heterogeneous eye phantom and the chosen tumor, obtained results with the use of GATE for mean doses distributions in a phantom and according to international recommendations show a discrepancy with respect to those specified by the manufacturers. The QC of dosimetric parameters shows that contrarily to the other applicators, the SIA.20 applicator is consistent with recommendations. The GATE platform show that the SIA.20 applicator present better results, namely the dose delivered to critical structures were lower compared to those obtained for the other applicators, and the SIA.6 applicator, simulated with MCNPX generates higher lens doses than those generated by GATE.

  16. Vacuum chamber with distributed titanium sublimation pumping for the G-line wiggler at Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; He, Y.; Mistry, N. B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes a 3-m-long vacuum chamber for the new wiggler magnet at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) for the synchrotron light beam line of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Copper was chosen as the main chamber material for its good electric and thermal conductivities. Proper mechanical design and welding procedure were implemented to meet very tight tolerances to ensure adequate vertical aperture for the stored beams in CESR while allowing the required small wiggler gap. Distributed titanium sublimation pumping is incorporated along the 3 m length of the chamber to provide sufficient pumping speed and capacity for CESR and CHESS operations. The chamber pumping performance was evaluated prior to installation. Linear distributed pumping speeds at the beam line of ~720 l/s/m for N2 and CO and ~4000 l/s/m for H2 were measured. The measured pumping capacities for N2, CO and H2 are ~1.0, ~2.0 and ~77 Torr l, respectively, for each titanium sublimation cycle. Measurements also showed that CO molecules adsorb on the N2 and H2 saturated titanium films with virtually the same initial sticking coefficient as on a fresh titanium film. Analyses indicated very different CO adsorption mechanisms between the N2 and H2 saturated titanium films. While the replacement of surface H2 by CO was observed, little desorption of nitrogen was measured. Operational experience showed excellent vacuum pumping performance over two years after the chamber installation.

  17. Retroelements (LINEs and SINEs) in vole genomes: differential distribution in the constitutive heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Acosta, M J; Marchal, J A; Fernández-Espartero, C H; Bullejos, M; Sánchez, A

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of mobile genetic elements is scarcely known in Arvicolinae species, but could be of relevance to understand the origin and complex evolution of the sex chromosome heterochromatin. In this work we cloned two retrotransposon sequences, L1 and SINE-B1, from the genome of Chionomys nivalis and investigated their chromosomal distribution on several arvicoline species. Our results demonstrate first that both retroelements are the most abundant repeated DNA sequences in the genome of these species. L1 elements, in most species, are highly accumulated in the sex chromosomes compared to the autosomes. This favoured L1 insertion could have played an important role in the origin of the enlarged heterochromatic blocks existing in the sex chromosomes of some Microtus species. Also, we propose that L1 accumulation on the X heterochromatin could have been the consequence of different, independent and rapid amplification processes acting in each species. SINE elements, however, were completely lacking from the constitutive heterochromatin, either in autosomes or in the heterochromatic blocks of sex chromosomes. These data could indicate that some SINE elements are incompatible with the formation of heterochromatic complexes and hence are necessarily missing from the constitutive heterochromatin.

  18. Application of the method of lines for solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using a nonuniform grid distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, J. S.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of the method of lines for solutions of physical problems requiring nonuniform grid distributions is investigated. To attain this, it is also necessary to investigate the stiffness characteristics of the pertinent equations. For specific applications, the governing equations considered are those for viscous, incompressible, two dimensional and axisymmetric flows. These equations are transformed from the physical domain having a variable mesh to a computational domain with a uniform mesh. The two governing partial differential equations are the vorticity and stream function equations. The method of lines is used to solve the vorticity equation and the successive over relaxation technique is used to solve the stream function equation. The method is applied to three laminar flow problems: the flow in ducts, curved-wall diffusers, and a driven cavity. Results obtained for different flow conditions are in good agreement with available analytical and numerical solutions. The viability and validity of the method of lines are demonstrated by its application to Navier-Stokes equations in the physical domain having a variable mesh.

  19. Sensitivity of solar off-limb line profiles to electron density stratification and the velocity distribution anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouafi, N.-E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the electron density stratification on the intensity profiles of the H I Ly-α line and the O VI and Mg X doublets formed in solar coronal holes is investigated. We employ an analytical 2-D model of the large scale coronal magnetic field that provides a good representation of the corona at the minimum of solar activity. We use the mass-flux conservation equation to determine the outflow speed of the solar wind at any location in the solar corona and take into account the integration along the line of sight (LOS). The main assumption we make is that no anisotropy in the kinetic temperature of the coronal species is considered. We find that at distances greater than 1 Rsun from the solar surface the widths of the emitted lines of O VI and Mg X are sensitive to the details of the adopted electron density stratification. However, Ly-α, which is a pure radiative line, is hardly affected. The calculated total intensities of Ly-α and the O VI doublet depend to a lesser degree on the density stratification and are comparable to the observed ones for most of the considered density models. The widths of the observed profiles of Ly-α and Mg X are well reproduced by most of the considered electron density stratifications, while for the O VI doublet only few stratifications give satisfying results. The densities deduced from SOHO data result in O VI profiles whose widths and intensity ratio are relatively close to the values observed by UVCS although only isotropic velocity distributions are employed. These density profiles also reproduce the other considered observables with good accuracy. Thus the need for a strong anisotropy of the velocity distribution (i.e. a temperature anisotropy) is not so clear cut as previous investigations of UVCS data suggested. However, these results do not rule completely out the existence of some degree of anisotropy in the corona. The results of the present computations also suggest that the data can also be reproduced if

  20. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, J.; Churchill, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Every parcel of gas along the line of sight to a distant QUASAR will selectively absorb certain wavelengths of continuum light of the quasar due to the presence of the various chemical elements in the gas. Through the analysis of these quasar absorption lines we can study the spatial distributions, motions, chemical enrichment and ionization histories of gaseous structures from REDSHIFT five unti...

  1. a Database for On-Line Event Analysis on a Distributed Memory Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argante, E.; Meesters, M. R. J.; van der Stok, P.; Willers, I.

    Parallel in-memory databases can enhance the structuring and parallelization of programs used in High Energy Physics (HBP). Efficient database access routines are used as communication primitives which hide the communication topology in contrast to the more explicit communications like PVM or MPI. A parallel in-memory database, called SPIDER, has been implemented on a 32 node Meiko CS-2 distributed memory machine. The SPIDER primitives generate a lower overhead than the one generated by PVM or MPI. The event reconstruction program, CPREAD, of the CPLEAR experiment, has been used as a test case. Performance measurements showed that CPREAD interfaced to SPIDER can easily cope with the event rate generated by CPLEAR.

  2. Study of Stand-Alone Microgrid under Condition of Faults on Distribution Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malla, S. G.; Bhende, C. N.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of stand-alone microgrid is analyzed under the condition of faults on distribution feeders. During fault since battery is not able to maintain dc-link voltage within limit, the resistive dump load control is presented to do so. An inverter control is proposed to maintain balanced voltages at PCC under the unbalanced load condition and to reduce voltage unbalance factor (VUF) at load points. The proposed inverter control also has facility to protect itself from high fault current. Existing maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm is modified to limit the speed of generator during fault. Extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK established that the performance of the controllers is quite satisfactory under different fault conditions as well as unbalanced load conditions.

  3. Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Chaiwongkhot, Poompong; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    In free-space quantum key distribution (QKD), the sensitivity of the receiver's detector channels may depend differently on the spatial mode of incoming photons. Consequently, an attacker can control the spatial mode to break security. We experimentally investigate a standard polarization QKD receiver and identify sources of efficiency mismatch in its optical scheme. We model a practical intercept-and-resend attack and show that it would break security in most situations. We show experimentally that adding an appropriately chosen spatial filter at the receiver's entrance may be an effective countermeasure.

  4. Predicting habitat suitability and geographic distribution of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) due to climate change in the coastal areas off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Claudio; Andrade, Isabel; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Hormazabal, Samuel; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio; Böhm, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    The effects of climate change on ocean conditions will have impacts on fish stocks, primarily through physiological and behavioural effects, such as changes in growth, reproduction, mortality and distribution. Habitat and distribution predictions for marine fishery species under climate change scenarios are important for understanding the overall impacts of such global changes on the human society and on the ecosystem. In this study, we examine the impacts of climate change on anchovy fisheries off Chile using predicted changes in global models according to the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) and IPCC high future CO2 emission scenario A2, habitat suitability index (HSI) models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. Predictions of chlorophyll-a were developed using historical Chl-a and SST (2003-2013) satellite data and applying a harmonic model. The results show an increase in SST of up to 2.5 °C by 2055 in the north and central-south area for an A2 scenario. The habitat suitability index model was developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly fisheries and environmental data. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) was used as an abundance index in developing the HSI models and was calculated as the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (m3) in a 10‧ × 10‧ fishing grid square of anchovy, integrated over one month of fishing activity. The environmental data included the distance to coast (DC), thermal (SST) and food availability (Chl-a) conditions. The HSI modelling consists of estimating SI curves based on available evidence regarding the optimum range of environmental conditions for anchovy and estimating an integrated HSI using the Arithmetic Mean Model (AMM) method. The

  5. Influence of finish line in the distribution of stress trough an all ceramic implant-supported crown.

    PubMed Central

    SANNINO, G.; GLORIA, F.; OTTRIA, L.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Porpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by finite element analysis (FEA), the influence of finish line on stress distribution and resistance to the loads of a ZrO2 crown and porcelain in implant-supported. Material and methods. The object of this analysis consisted of a fxture, an abutment, a passing screw, a layer of cement, a framework crown, a feldspatic porcelain veneering. The abutment’s marginal design was used in 3 different types of preparation: feather edge, slight chamfer and 50°, each of them was of 1 mm depth over the entire circumference. The ZrO2Y-TZP coping was 0.6 mm thick. Two material matching for the abutment and the framework was used for the simulations: ZrO2 framework and ZrO2 abutment, ZrO2 framework and T abutment. A 600 N axial force distributed over the entire surface of the crown was applied. The numerical simulations with finite elements were used to verify the different distribution of equivalent von Mises stress for three different geometries of abutment and framework. Results Slight chamfer on the matching ZrO2 - ZrO2 is the geometry with minimum equivalent stress of von Mises. Even for T abutment and ZrO2 framework slight chamfer is the best configuration to minimize the localized stress. Geometry that has the highest average stress is one with abutment at 50°, we see a downward trend for all three configurations using only zirconium for both components. Conclusions Finite element analysis. performed for the manifacturing of implant-supported crown, gives exact geometric guide lines about the choice of chamfer preparation, while the analysis of other marginal geometries suggests a possible improved behavior of the mating between ZrO2 abutment and ZrO2 coping. for three different geometries of the abutment and the coping. PMID:23285359

  6. Mercury transformation and distribution across a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production line in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wen; Duan, Lei; Zhu, Zhenwu; Du, Wen; An, Zhongyi; Xu, Lingjun; Zhang, Chi; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2014-02-18

    The production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) via the calcium carbide process utilizes a catalyst containing large amounts of mercury (Hg) and is therefore one of the most important sources of anthropogenic Hg in China. To measure the emission of Hg from PVC production, we established a flowchart for the calcium carbide process, for which we quantified the Hg content of the material/product at each step. Results indicated that 71.5% of the total Hg (Hg(T)) was lost from the catalyst, most of which was recovered by the Hg remover, accounting for 46.0% of the total Hg (Hg(T)). We determined that 3.7% of the Hg(T) was released into the environment, mostly in solid wastes and byproducts such as hydrochloric acid. Furthermore, no Hg has been detected in the PVC end product. However, we were only able to account for 78.1% of the Hg across the whole system, leaving 21.7% unaccounted for in the mass balance. A rough estimation indicates that most of the "missing" Hg had accumulated in deposits on the inner surface of converters and downstream pipelines; however, the emission to the atmosphere was ≤ 1% of the Hg(T). For a PVC production line equipped with a Hg remover, emissions of Hg to the atmosphere have been estimated to be 4.9 g per tonne PVC. Currently, almost all calcium carbide facilities have been equipped with a Hg remover, which may reduce the release of Hg in China by ∼ 500 t/year.

  7. Non-relativistic Free–Free Emission due to the n-distribution of Electrons—Radiative Cooling and Thermally Averaged and Total Gaunt Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2017-09-01

    Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n-distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n-distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n, reaching a minimum when n = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n-distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.

  8. Longitudinal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of a canyon reservoir in Southwest China due to dam construction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qinghe; Liu, Shiliang; Deng, Li; Dong, Shikui; Wang, Cong

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the longitudinal distribution of heavy metals (including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from sediment of a 70-km long canyon reservoir in Yunnan Province was investigated and their potential ecological risks were assessed. The results indicated that the concentration of all the detected metals in the sediments that was sampled near the dam was much higher than that sampled from upstream far from the dam. The geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and contamination factors (CF) suggested that Cd was the most important contamination factor, followed by As and Zn, while the concentration of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb was at uncontaminated levels. Cd posed a high potential ecological risk in the sediment. Furthermore, potential ecological risk is significantly correlated with the distance from the dam.

  9. Validation of a Pole-Mounted Distribution Transformer Model for Electromagnetic Transient Studies by Field Tests Using an Actual-Scale Distribution Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hideki; Noda, Taku; Asakawa, Akira; Shindo, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Abiko, Kenji

    The authors have previously proposed a transient simulation model of pole-mounted distribution transformers and its improved model that takes the skin effect of the secondary winding into account. However, the model has been validated only by laboratory tests with a low-voltage pulse generator. To show the accuracy of the model when used in a realistic situation, in this paper, field-test results using an actual-scale distribution line are presented. The following four cases are considered in the validation. Case1 (direct lightning hit is assumed): impulse current is injected into one phase of the high-voltage wires. Case2 (induced lightning is assumed): impulse current is injected into the bonded three phases of the high-voltage wires. Case3 (backflow lightning is assumed): impulse current is injected into the low-voltage neutral wire. Case4: the same conditions as Case1 except that surge-arrestors are installed for the transformer. All results obtained from the field test are compared with corresponding simulation results by considering the transient behavior of the grounding system. It is confirmed that the transformer model gives accurate results in the realistic situations.

  10. Environmental distribution and associated human health risk due to trace elements and organic compounds in soil in Jiangxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Chen, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    The government of China launched its first national soil quality and pollution survey (NSQPS) during April 2006 to December 2013. Data gathered in several earlier soil surveys were rarely used to understand the status of pollution. In this study, the dataset collected at the provincial level was analyzed for the first time. Concentrations, distribution, diversity, and human health risks of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn) and organic pollutants (benzene hexachloride (BHCs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)) in surface soil samples collected across Jiangxi province,China were presented. The results showed that, the proportion of contaminants with concentrations higher than their corresponding regulatory reference value ranged from 0.12% to 17%. It is worth note that, the local residents are exposed to moderate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks at some sites. The comprehensive analysis of soil pollutants provide baseline information for establishing a long-term soil environmental monitoring program in Jiangxi province, China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of haemoparasites in cattle by reverse line blot hybridisation with a note on the distribution of ticks in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Georges, K; Loria, G R; Riili, S; Greco, A; Caracappa, S; Jongejan, F; Sparagano, O

    2001-08-31

    A reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) of 21 oligonucleotides with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified regions of 16S rRNA (Ehrlichia/Anaplasma group) or 18S rRNA (Babesia/Theileria group) genes of haemoparasites detected Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, Ehrlichia bovis, Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale and unknown species within the Rickettsia tribe.A very high prevalence of mixed infections was detected, which indicated that animals infected with Babesia spp. were also infected with Theileria spp. and/or Anaplasma spp. The tick distribution appeared to be seasonal with Hyalomma marginatum as the most frequently observed tick and Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus as the least frequently observed ticks. Other species identified in the 818 ticks collected during the five sampling periods between April 1998 and November 1999 included H. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group, R. bursa, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, B. annulatus and I. ricinus.

  12. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-12-20

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion.

  13. Characterization and parameterization of atmosphericline-break> particle number-, mass-, and chemical-sizeline-break> distributions in central Europeline-break> during LACE 98 and MINT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neusüß, C.; Wex, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Koziar, C.; Busch, B.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Ebert, M.; Covert, D. S.

    2002-11-01

    Intensive measurements of chemical and physical properties of the atmospheric aerosol have been performed at two sites in central Europe during the Melpitz-Intensive (MINT) in November 1997 and the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98) in July and August 1998. Number-size distributions, hygroscopic particle growth, size-segregated gravimetric mass, and size-segregated chemical masses of water-soluble ions and organic and elemental carbon of aerosol particles have been measured. To obtain information on the quality of the different methods, the number-derived, gravimetric, and chemically derived mass distributions are compared. Gravimetric mass of fine particles is attributed completely to chemical composition by carbonaceous material and ions, including an estimate of the water content due to hygroscopic compounds. For the characterization of coarse particles, which contribute less to the total mass concentration, insoluble material has to be included in the mass balance. Mass concentrations calculated from the number-size distributions are well correlated with the gravimetric mass concentration; however, the calculated mass is larger, especially for the Aitken and accumulation modes. The number-derived mass concentration is most sensitive to the sizing uncertainty of the measured number-size distribution. Moreover, the impactor cutoffs and the limited knowledge about the density of the particles (especially with high carbon content) account for a major part of the uncertainties. The overall uncertainty of the calculated mass, determined as the standard deviation of the average value in a Monte Carlo approach, is found to be about 10%. Lognormal parameters for the number-size and volume-size distributions as well as gravimetric mass-size distribution and corresponding chemical composition are presented for different air mass types. Most of the modal parameters do not differ significantly between the air mass types. Higher mass concentrations

  14. A Coulomb stress model for induced seismicity distribution due to fluid injection and withdrawal in deep boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Troise, Claudia; Tramelli, Anna; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Fluid injection in and withdrawal from wells are basic procedures in mining activities and deep resources exploitation, such as oil and gas extraction, permeability enhancement for geothermal exploitation and waste fluid disposal. All of these activities have the potential to induce seismicity, as exemplified by the 2006 Basel earthquake (ML 3.4). Despite several decades of experience, the mechanisms of induced seismicity are not known in detail, which prevents effective risk assessment and/or mitigation. In this study, we provide an interpretation of induced seismicity based on computation of Coulomb stress changes that result from fluid injection/withdrawal at depth, mainly focused on the interpretation of induced seismicity due to stimulation of a geothermal reservoir. Seismicity is, theoretically, more likely where Coulomb stress changes are larger. For modeling purposes, we simulate the thermodynamic evolution of a system after fluid injection/withdrawal. The associated changes in pressure and temperature are subsequently considered as sources of incremental stress changes, which are then converted to Coulomb stress changes on favourably oriented faults, taking into account the background regional stress. Numerical results are applied to the water injection that was performed to create the fractured reservoir at the enhanced-geothermal-system site, Soultz-sous-Forets (France). Our approach describes well the observed seismicity, and provides an explanation for the different behaviors of a system when fluids are injected or withdrawn.

  15. RhoA activity increases due to hypermethylation of ARHGAP28 in a highly liver-metastatic colon cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    KASUYA, KAZUHIKO; NAGAKAWA, YUICHI; HOSOKAWA, YUICHI; SAHARA, YATSUKA; TAKISHITA, CHIE; NAKAJIMA, TETSUSHI; HIJIKATA, YOSUKE; SOYA, RYOKO; KATSUMATA, KENJI; TSUCHIDA, AKIHIKO

    2016-01-01

    Certain cell lines exhibit metastatic ability (highly metastatic cell lines) while their parent cell lines have no metastatic ability. Differences in methylation, which are not derived from differences in the gene sequence between cell lines, were extensively analyzed. Using an established highly metastatic cell line, KM12SM, and its parent cell line, KM12C, differences in the frequency of methylation were analyzed in the promoter regions of ~480,000 gene sites using Infinium HumanMethylation450. The promoter region of the Rho GTPase-activating protein 28 (ARHGAP28) gene was the most markedly methylated region in KM12SM compared with KM12C. ARHGAP28 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and it converts activated RhoA to inactivated RhoA via GTPase. RhoA activity was compared between these two cell lines. The activated RhoA level was compared using western blot analysis and G-LISA. The activated RhoA level was higher in KM12SM compared to KM12C for western blot analysis and G-LISA analysis. RhoA is a protein involved in cytoskeleton formation and cell motility. RhoA, for which ARHGAP28 acts as a GAP, is possibly a factor involved in the metastatic ability of cancer. PMID:26998271

  16. Estimating the pixel footprint distribution for image fusion by ray tracing lines of sight in a Monte Carlo scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opsahl, T.; Haavardsholm, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    Images from airborne cameras can be a valuable resource for data fusion, but this typically requires them to be georeferenced. This usually implies that the information of every pixel should be accompanied by a single geographical position describing where the center of the pixel is located in the scene. This geospatial information is well suited for tasks like target positioning and orthorectification. But when it comes to fusion, a detailed description of the area on the ground contributing to the pixel signal would be preferable over a single position. In this paper we present a method for estimating these regions. Simple Monte Carlo simulations are used to combine the influences of the main geometrical aspects of the imaging process, such as the point spread function, the camera's motion and the topography in the scene. Since estimates of the camera motion are uncertain to some degree, this is incorporated in the simulations as well. For every simulation, a pixel's sampling point in the scene is estimated by intersecting a randomly sampled line of sight with a 3D-model of the scene. Based on the results of numerous simulations, the pixel's sampling region can be represented by a suitable probability distribution. This will be referred to as the pixel's footprint distribution (PFD). We present results for high resolution hyperspectral pushbroom images of an urban scene.

  17. A new low-complexity angular spread estimator in the presence of line-of-sight with angular distribution selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousnina, Inès; Stéphenne, Alex; Affes, Sofiène; Samet, Abdelaziz

    2011-12-01

    This article treats the problem of angular spread (AS) estimation at a base station of a macro-cellular system when a line-of-sight (LOS) is potentially present. The new low-complexity AS estimator first estimates the LOS component with a moment-based K-factor estimator. Then, it uses a look-up table (LUT) approach to estimate the mean angle of arrival (AoA) and AS. Provided that the antenna geometry allows it, the new algorithm can also benefit from a new procedure that selects the angular distribution of the received signal from a set of possible candidates. For this purpose, a nonlinear antenna configuration is required. When the angular distribution is known, any antenna structure could be used a priori; hence, we opt in this case for the simple uniform linear array (ULA). We also compare the new estimator with other low-complexity estimators, first with Spread Root-MUSIC, after we extend its applicability to nonlinear antenna array structures, then, with a recently proposed two-stage algorithm. The new AS estimator is shown, via simulations, to exhibit lower estimation error for the mean AoA and AS estimation.

  18. Metabolic flux model for an anchorage-dependent MDCK cell line: characteristic growth phases and minimum substrate consumption flux distribution.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Aljoscha; Sidorenko, Yury; Dauner, Michael; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2008-09-01

    Up to now cell-culture based vaccine production processes only reach low productivities. The reasons are: (i) slow cell growth and (ii) low cell concentrations. To address these shortcomings, a quantitative analysis of the process conditions, especially the cell growth and the metabolic capabilities of the host cell line is required. For this purpose a MDCK cell based influenza vaccine production process was investigated. With a segregated growth model four distinct cell growth phases are distinguished in the batch process. In the first phase the cells attach to the surface of the microcarriers and show low metabolic activity. The second phase is characterized by exponential cell growth. In the third phase, preceded by a change in oxygen consumption, contact inhibition leads to a decrease in cell growth. Finally, the last phase before infection shows no further increase in cell numbers. To gain insight into the metabolic activity during these phases, a detailed metabolic model of MDCK cell was developed based on genome information and experimental analysis. The MDCK model was also used to calculate a theoretical flux distribution representing an optimized cell that only consumes a minimum of carbon sources. Comparing this minimum substrate consumption flux distribution to the fluxes estimated from experiments unveiled high overflow metabolism under the applied process conditions.

  19. Spatial distribution of far-infrared rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar photodissociation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikka, A.; Habart, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Abergel, A.; Pilleri, P.; Dartois, E.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The methylidyne cation (CH+) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas ( 500-1000 K) in photodissociation regions (PDRs) with high incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (>105 cm-3) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH+ and OH correlate with the excited CO, which is a tracer of dense and warm gas, and that formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. Aims: Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. Methods: We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+J = 3-2 transition at 119.8 μm and the OH Λ doublet at 84 μm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″× 110″ with Herschel/PACS. We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of the CH+J = 2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel/HIFI spectrometer observations. Results: The OH and especially CH+ lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH+ and OH morphologies indicate that CH+ formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH+ line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 μm emission coincides

  20. Three-dimensional assemblies built up by quantum dots in size-quantization regime: Band gap shifts due to size-distribution of cadmium selenide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Pejova, Biljana

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, it is predicted that the band gap energy of a three-dimensional quantum dot assembly exhibits a red shift when the dispersion of the crystal size distribution is enlarged, even at a fixed average value thereof. The effect is manifested when the size quantization regime in individual quantum dots constituting the assembly has been entered. Under the same conditions, the sub-band gap absorption tails are characterized with large Urbach energies, which could be one or two orders of magnitude larger than the value characteristic for the non-quantized case. - Graphical abstract: Band gap shifts due to size-distribution of nanoparticles in 3D assemblies built up by quantum dots in size-quantization regime. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Optical absorption of 3D QD assemblies in size-quantization regime is modeled. • Band gap energy of the QD solid depends on the size-distribution of the nanoparticles. • QD solid samples with same 〈R〉 exhibit band gap shift depending on size distribution. • QD size distribution leads to large Urbach energies.

  1. Absorption cross sections for HF laser lines due to traces of CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, and CH/sub 4/ in air

    SciTech Connect

    Agroskin, V.Ya.; Vasil'ev, G.K.; Gur'ev, V.I.; Tatarinova, E.E.

    1986-12-01

    The emission from an HF (DF) laser is spread over a large number of vibrational-rotational lines in the range 2.7-4.2 ..mu..m, which contains absorption bands of virtually all substances of interesting quantitative gas analysis, and in particular, detecting atmospheric pollutants, determining discharges from industrial plants, locating deposits of certain minerals, forecasting volcanic activity, and so on. Pulsed chemical HF (DF) lasers can be based on the chain reaction of fluorine with hydrogen (deuterium), which is promising for these purposes because the number of lines is large by comparison with any other type of laser (about 100 lines). These lasers also have high efficiency in converting the pumping energy to radiation and high beam power with relatively small dimensions and the same laser cell can be used to obtain the emission from carbon dioxide in the range 9.6-10.6 ..mu..m by energy transfer from DF to carbon dioxide. It is necessary to know the absorption characteristics of the substances at the lines of the HF (DF) laser. In this paper, the authors report measured cross sections for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon hydrogenate, in the form of minor impurities in the air (about 1-10%) for various lines from an HF laser. The authors compare the data with published values, while the available spectroscopic characteristics are used in theoretical calculations of the absorption cross section and compared with the experiment.

  2. [Decorative forms of hamsters Phodopus (Mammalia, Cricetinae): an analysis of genetic lines distribution and peculiarities of hair changes].

    PubMed

    Feoktistova, N Iu; Chernova, O F; Meshcherskiĭ, I G

    2012-01-01

    Three species of dwarf hamsters (genus Phodopus, family Cricetidae) inhabit some regions of Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China, each having quite extensive range. In recent decades, the dwarf hamsters became widely spread all over the world, initially as laboratory animals and later as popular pets. By now, there is lot of decorative breed lines and colored forms of these animals. Comparison of mtDNA nucleotide sequences of dwarf hamsters acquired in pet shops of some countries in Europe, South-East Asia and North America with distribution of mtDNA haplotypes within natural ranges showed the limitation of decorative line founders' points of origin by one region for each of the species. All haplotypes found in decorative Dzungarian hamsters (Ph. sungorus) purchased ounside Russia coincide with or are significantly close to haplotypes spread in the southern part of West Siberia (Russia) and adjacent regions of Kazakhstan; haplotypes of decorative Campbell's hamster (Ph. campbelli) belong to haplogroup of this species natural populations inhabiting South Tyva (Russia); and all studied decorative Desert hamsters (Ph. roborovskii) had one hapotype specific for South-Eastern Kazakhstan. The review of the history of researches on dwarf hamsters biology allows to determine delivery of hamsters from mentioned regions to scientific laboratories and zoos by certain expeditions and/or researchers. Unlike hamsters with natural hair color, the colored hamsters have no normal hair. Their hair is dull and straggly. The hair differentiation (presence of different hair types and their size characteristics) gets broken and results in deformation, bending, and splitting of the shaft, cracks in cuticle, change of configuration and location of medulla, uneven development of cortex. It is assumed that these destructive changes are associated with genetic characteristics of these hamsters' colored forms.

  3. Critical study of the distribution of rotational velocities of Be stars. I. Deconvolution methods, effects due to gravity darkening, macroturbulence, and binarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Royer, F.; Cidale, L.; Hubert, A.-M.; Semaan, T.; Martayan, C.; Cochetti, Y. R.; Arias, M. L.; Aidelman, Y.; Stee, P.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Among intermediate-mass and massive stars, Be stars are the fastest rotators in the main sequence (MS) and, as such, these stars are a cornerstone to validate models of structure and evolution of rotating stars. Several phenomena, however, induce under- or overestimations either of their apparent Vsini, or true velocity V. Aims: In the present contribution we aim at obtaining distributions of true rotational velocities corrected for systematic effects induced by the rapid rotation itself, macroturbulent velocities, and binarity. Methods: We study a set of 233 Be stars by assuming they have inclination angles distributed at random. We critically discuss the methods of Cranmer and Lucy-Richardson, which enable us to transform a distribution of projected velocities into another distribution of true rotational velocities, where the gravitational darkening effect on the Vsini parameter is considered in different ways. We conclude that iterative algorithm by Lucy-Richardson responds at best to the purposes of the present work, but it requires a thorough determination of the stellar fundamental parameters. Results: We conclude that once the mode of ratios of the true velocities of Be stars attains the value V/Vc ≃ 0.77 in the main-sequence (MS) evolutionary phase, it remains unchanged up to the end of the MS lifespan. The statistical corrections found on the distribution of ratios V/Vc for overestimations of Vsini, due to macroturbulent motions and binarity, produce a shift of this distribution toward lower values of V/Vc when Be stars in all MS evolutionary stages are considered together. The mode of the final distribution obtained is at V/Vc ≃ 0.65. This distribution has a nearly symmetric distribution and shows that the Be phenomenon is characterized by a wide range of true velocity ratios 0.3 ≲ V/Vc ≲ 0.95. It thus suggests that the probability that Be stars are critical rotators is extremely low. Conclusions: The corrections attempted in the present

  4. Measurements and modelling of 137Cs distribution on ground due to the Chernobyl accident: a 27-y follow-up study in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Kadi, S; Antonopoulos-Domis, M

    2014-08-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, an area of ∼1000 m(2) in the University farm of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki was considered as a test ground for radioecological measurements. The radiocesium deposition in this area, due to the Chernobyl accident, was 20 kBq m(-2). The profile of (137)Cs in the soil of this area was measured systematically from 1987 to 2012. The form of the profile has changed over the years. During the 1987-2000 period the (137)Cs distribution was reproducible by a sum of two exponentials. However, at least since 2005 the (137)Cs distribution can be successfully fitted by a single exponential function. The long-time (∼27 y) evolution study of the (137)Cs distribution in soil permit one to extract with the use of a simple compartment model, the mean vertical migration velocity of (137)Cs. Vertical migration of (137)Cs in soil is a very slow process. The mean vertical migration velocity is estimated to be 0.14 cm y(-1).The relative good comparison between the time dependence of the (137)Cs distribution in soil and the model predictions indicate that the simple model used is realistic. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Radiocesium distribution in the tissues of Japanese Black beef heifers fed fallout-contaminated roughage due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Hayashi, Masayuki; Narita, Takumi; Motoyama, Michiyo; Oe, Mika; Ojima, Koichi; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Muroya, Susumu; Chikuni, Koichi; Aikawa, Katsuhiro; Ide, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Naoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Shioya, Shigeru; Takenaka, Akio

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the accumulation and tissue distribution of radioactive cesium nuclides in Japanese Black beef heifers raised on roughage contaminated with radioactive fallout due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 2011. Radiocesium feeding increased both (134)Cs and (137)Cs levels in all tissues tested. The kidney had the highest level and subcutaneous adipose had the lowest of radioactive cesium in the tissues. Different radioactive cesium levels were not found among parts of the muscles. These results indicate that radiocesium accumulated highly in the kidney and homogenously in the skeletal muscles in the heifers.

  6. Crystallization, recrystallization, and melting lines in syndiotactic polypropylene crystallized from quiescent melt and semicrystalline state due to stress-induced localized melting and recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Wang, Yaotao; Fu, Lianlian; Jiang, Zhiyong; Men, Yongfeng

    2014-11-13

    Crystalline lamellar thickness in syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) during crystallization from either isothermal molten or stretching induced localized melt states and during subsequent heating was investigated by means of temperature dependent small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Well-defined crystallization lines where the reciprocal lamellar thickness is linearly dependent on crystallization temperature were observed. Unlike in the case of polybutene-1 where stretching crystallization line was shifted to direction of much smaller lamellar thickness (Macromolecules 2013, 46, 7874), the stretching induced crystallization line for sPP deviates from its corresponding isothermal crystallization line only slightly. Such phenomenon could be attributed to the fact that both crystallization processes from quiescent melt and stress induced localized melt are mediated in a mesomorphic phase in sPP. Subsequent heating of sPP after crystallization revealed the same melting behavior in both systems for the two kinds of crystallites obtained from either quiescent melt or stretching induced localized melt. Both of them underwent melting and recrystallization when the lamellar thickness was smaller than a critical value and melting directly without changing in thickness when the lamellar thickness was larger than the critical value. The melting behavior in sPP systems can be understood by considering the chain relaxation ability within crystalline phase and also can be used as evidence that the crystallization from molten state and stress-induced crystallization passed through the intermediate phase before forming crystallites.

  7. Linking the distribution of (210)Po and (210)Pb with plankton community along Line P, Northeast Subarctic Pacific.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hiu Yan; Stewart, Gillian M; Lomas, Michael W; Kelly, Roger P; Moran, S Bradley

    2014-12-01

    Depth profiles of (210)Po and (210)Pb activity and phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance were collected during two cruises along the Canadian time-series Line P in the Northeast Subarctic Pacific (ranging from 48o39 N to 50o00 N and 126o40 W to 145o00 W) in August 2010 and February 2011 to evaluate connections between the planktonic community and distributions of these radionuclides in the upper 500 m of the water column. Statistical analysis indicates that (210)Po is more effectively removed from the surface ocean when large (>0.1 mg ind(-1) dry wt) zooplankton dominate, and is less effectively scavenged when the picoplankton Synechococcus is present at high concentrations (>1 × 10(5) cells ml(-1)). While the zooplankton field data are consistent with previous lab studies and field observations, the phytoplankton results seem to conflict with recent evidence that small cells may contribute significantly to export in other oligotrophic regions. Differences in ecosystem mechanisms between the Subarctic Pacific and other oligotrophic systems that limit the contribution of small cells to sinking flux remain to be identified.

  8. Small-Signal Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid Distributed Generation Systems in Presence of Ultracapacitor and Tie-Line Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents small-signal analysis of isolated as well as interconnected autonomous hybrid distributed generation system for sudden variation in load demand, wind speed and solar radiation. The hybrid systems comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV) fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitors (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and interconnection of hybrid systems through tie-line is incorporated into the system for improved performance. A comparative assessment of deviation of frequency profile for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations is carried out graphically as well as in terms of the performance index (PI), ie integral square error (ISE). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements of the deviation in frequency profiles in the presence of the ultracapacitors (UC) as compared to other energy storage elements.

  9. How do line managers experience and handle the return to work of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress? A one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ladegaard, Yun; Skakon, Janne; Elrond, Andreas Friis; Netterstrøm, Bo

    2017-08-28

    To examine how line managers experience and manage the return to work process of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress and to identify supportive and inhibiting factors. Semi-structured interviews with 15 line managers who have had employees on sick leave due to work-related stress. The grounded theory approach was employed. Even though managers may accept the overall concept of work-related stress, they focus on personality and individual circumstances when an employee is sick-listed due to work-related stress. The lack of a common understanding of stress creates room for this focus. Line managers experience cross-pressure, discrepancies between strategic and human-relationship perspectives and a lack of organizational support in the return to work process. Organizations should aim to provide support for line managers. Research-based knowledge and guidelines on work-related stress and return to work process are essential, as is the involvement of coworkers. A commonly accepted definition of stress and a systematic risk assessment is also important. Cross-pressure on line managers should be minimized and room for adequate preventive actions should be provided as such an approach could support both the return to work process and the implementation of important interventions in the work environment. Implication for rehabilitation Organizations should aim to provide support for line managers handling the return to work process. Cross-pressure on line managers should be minimized and adequate preventive actions should be provided in relation to the return to work process. Research-based knowledge and guidelines on work-related stress and return to work are essential. A common and formal definition of stress should be emphasized in the workplace.

  10. Familial retinoblastoma due to intronic LINE-1 insertion causes aberrant and noncanonical mRNA splicing of the RB1 gene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Carlos; Cidre, Florencia; Fernández-Teijeiro, Ana; Gómez-Mariano, Gema; de la Vega, Leticia; Ramos, Patricia; Zaballos, Ángel; Monzón, Sara; Alonso, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB, MIM 180200) is the paradigm of hereditary cancer. Individuals harboring a constitutional mutation in one allele of the RB1 gene have a high predisposition to develop RB. Here, we present the first case of familial RB caused by a de novo insertion of a full-length long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) into intron 14 of the RB1 gene that caused a highly heterogeneous splicing pattern of RB1 mRNA. LINE-1 insertion was inferred by mRNA studies and full-length sequenced by massive parallel sequencing. Some of the aberrant mRNAs were produced by noncanonical acceptor splice sites, a new finding that up to date has not been described to occur upon LINE-1 retrotransposition. Our results clearly show that RNA-based strategies have the potential to detect disease-causing transposon insertions. It also confirms that the incorporation of new genetic approaches, such as massive parallel sequencing, contributes to characterize at the sequence level these unique and exceptional genetic alterations.

  11. UNCOVERING THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION IN ACTIVE GALAXIES USING HIGH-IONIZATION MID-INFRARED EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Weaver, K. A.; Kraemer, S. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-09-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of active galaxies in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV)-soft X-ray band (13.6 eV-1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the SED in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]{sub 14.32{mu}m}/[Ne III], [Ne V]{sub 24.32{mu}m}/[O IV]{sub 25.89{mu}m}, and [O IV]{sub 25.89{mu}m}/[Ne III] ratios and does not require the addition of a 'big bump' EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, {alpha}{sub i}, to be between 1.5 and 2.0 and derive a best fit of {alpha}{sub i} {approx} 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate-redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T{sub BB} = 10{sup 5.18} K and 10{sup 5.7} K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from {approx}600 A to 1900 A. In this case, the best-fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between {approx}700 and 1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies >4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of Burst Alert Telescope AGNs.

  12. Adaptation of the Theodorsen theory to the representation of an airfoil as a combination of a lifting line and a thickness distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The theory provides a direct method for resolving an airfoil into a lifting line and a thickness distribution as well as a means of synthesizing thickness and lift components into a resultant airfoil and computing its aerodynamic characteristics. Specific applications of the technique are discussed.

  13. Determination of energy release zones arising due to current losses in the convolution region of the magnetically insulated transmission lines of the ANGARA-5-1 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovski, E. V.; Gribov, A. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Shishlov, A. O.

    2015-05-01

    Among the factors limiting electromagnetic pulse transmission to the load in high-power electro-physical facilities, current losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) are of significant importance. One of such facilities is ANGARA-5-1—a multimodule facility with an output electric power of up to 6 TW. A fairly complicated configuration of the magnetic field in the convolution region of several MITLs makes it difficult to fix the places of current losses there. In this work, these places were determined by detecting the positions of IR sources in the convolution region of the MITLs of the ANGARA-5-1 facility.

  14. Determination of energy release zones arising due to current losses in the convolution region of the magnetically insulated transmission lines of the ANGARA-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grabovski, E. V.; Gribov, A. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Shishlov, A. O.

    2015-05-15

    Among the factors limiting electromagnetic pulse transmission to the load in high-power electro-physical facilities, current losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) are of significant importance. One of such facilities is ANGARA-5-1—a multimodule facility with an output electric power of up to 6 TW. A fairly complicated configuration of the magnetic field in the convolution region of several MITLs makes it difficult to fix the places of current losses there. In this work, these places were determined by detecting the positions of IR sources in the convolution region of the MITLs of the ANGARA-5-1 facility.

  15. Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small odontocetes estimated using density surface modeling with line transect sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaji, Yu; Okazaki, Makoto; Miyashita, Tomio

    2017-06-01

    Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small odontocetes including species in the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae families were investigated using long-term dedicated sighting survey data collected between 1983 and 2006 in the North Pacific. Species diversity indices were calculated from abundance estimated using density surface modeling of line-transect data. The estimated abundance ranged from 19,521 individuals in killer whale to 1,886,022 in pantropical spotted dolphin. The predicted density maps showed that the habitats of small odontocetes corresponded well with distinct oceanic domains. Species richness was estimated to be highest between 30 and 40°N where warm- and cold-water currents converge. Simpson's Diversity Index showed latitudinal diversity gradients of decreasing species numbers toward the poles. Higher diversity was also estimated in the coastal areas and the zonal areas around 35-42°N. Coastal-offshore gradients and latitudinal gradients are known for many taxa. The zonal areas around 35°N and 40°N coincide with the Kuroshio Current and its extension and the subarctic boundary, respectively. These results suggest that the species diversity of small odontocetes primarily follows general patterns of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, while the confluence of faunas originating in distinct water masses increases species diversify in frontal waters around 30-40°N. Population densities tended to be higher for the species inhabiting higher latitudes, but were highest for intermediate latitudes at approximately 35-40°N. According to latitudinal gradients in water temperature and biological productivity, the costs for thermoregulation will decrease in warmer low latitudes, while feeding efficiency will increase in colder high latitudes. These trade-offs could optimize population density in intermediate latitudes.

  16. GRB 980425 host: [C II], [O I], and CO lines reveal recent enhancement of star formation due to atomic gas inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Wardlow, J. L.; Karska, A.; Messias, H.; van der Werf, P.; Hunt, L. K.; Baes, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Rasmussen, J.; Rizzo, J. R.; Rossi, A.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Schady, P.; Sollerman, J.; Xu, D.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Accretion of gas from the intergalactic medium is required to fuel star formation in galaxies. We have recently suggested that this process can be studied using host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Aims: Our aim is to test this possibility by studying in detail the properties of gas in the closest galaxy hosting a GRB (980425). Methods: We obtained the first ever far-infrared (FIR) line observations of a GRB host, namely Herschel/PACS resolved [C ii] 158 μm and [O i] 63 μm spectroscopy, and an APEX/SHeFI CO(2-1) line detection and ALMA CO(1-0) observations of the GRB 980425 host. Results: The GRB 980425 host has elevated [C ii]/FIR and [O i]/FIR ratios and higher values of star formation rates (SFR) derived from line ([C ii], [O i], Hα) than from continuum (UV, IR, radio) indicators. [C ii] emission exhibits a normal morphology, peaking at the galaxy centre, whereas [O i] is concentrated close to the GRB position and the nearby Wolf-Rayet region. The high [O i] flux indicates that there is high radiation field and high gas density at these positions, as derived from modelling of photo-dissociation regions. The [C ii]/CO luminosity ratio of the GRB 980425 host is close to the highest values found for local star-forming galaxies. Indeed, its CO-derived molecular gas mass is low given its SFR and metallicity, but the [C ii]-derived molecular gas mass is close to the expected value. Conclusions: The [O i] and H i concentrations and the high radiation field and density close to the GRB position are consistent with the hypothesis of a very recent (at most a few tens of Myr ago) inflow of atomic gas triggering star formation. In this scenario dust has not had time to build up (explaining high line-to-continuum ratios). Such a recent enhancement of star formation activity would indeed manifest itself in high SFRline/SFRcontinuum ratios because the line indicators are sensitive only to recent (≲10 Myr) activity, whereas the continuum indicators measure

  17. Overview spectra and axial distribution of spectral line intensities in a high-current vacuum arc with CuCr electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lisnyak, M.; Pipa, A. V.; Gorchakov, S. E-mail: weltmann@inp-greifswald.de; Iseni, S.; Franke, St.; Khapour, A.; Methling, R.; Weltmann, K.-D. E-mail: weltmann@inp-greifswald.de

    2015-09-28

    Spectroscopic investigations of free-burning vacuum arcs in diffuse mode with CuCr electrodes are presented. The experimental conditions of the investigated arc correspond to the typical system for vacuum circuit breakers. Spectra of six species Cu I, Cu II, Cu III, Cr I, Cr II, and Cr III have been analyzed in the wavelength range 350–810 nm. The axial intensity distributions were found to be strongly dependent on the ionization stage of radiating species. Emission distributions of Cr II and Cu II can be distinguished as well as the distributions of Cr III and Cu III. Information on the axial distribution was used to identify the spectra and for identification of overlapping spectral lines. The overview spectra and some spectral windows recorded with high resolution are presented. Analysis of axial distributions of emitted light, which originates from different ionization states, is presented and discussed.

  18. Polarization dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency due to fiber inhomogeneity in single mode fiber and its impact on distributed fiber Brillouin sensing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shangran; Pang, Meng; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2012-03-12

    The dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency on lightwave state of polarization (SOP) due to fiber inhomogeneity in single mode fiber (SMF) is investigated by using Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) system. Theoretical analysis shows fiber inhomogeneity leads to fiber birefringence and sound velocity variation, both of which can cause the broadening and asymmetry of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) and thus contribute to the variation of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency with lightwave SOP. Due to fiber inhomogeneity both in lateral profile and longitudinal direction, the measured BGS is the superposition of several spectrum components with different peak frequencies within the interaction length. When pump or probe SOP changes, both the peak Brillouin gain and the overlapping area of the optical and acoustic mode profile that determine the peak efficiency of each spectrum component vary within the interaction length, which further changes the linewidth and peak frequency of the superimposed BGS. The SOP dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency was experimentally demonstrated and quantified by measuring the spectrum asymmetric factor and fitting obtained effective peak frequency respectively via BOTDA system on standard step-index SMF-28 fiber. Experimental results show that on this fiber the Brillouin spectrum asymmetric factor and effective peak frequency vary in the range of 2% and 0.06MHz respectively over distance with orthogonal probe input SOPs. Experimental results also show that in distributed fiber Brillouin sensing, polarization scrambler (PS) can be used to reduce the SOP dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency caused by fiber inhomogeneity in lateral profile, however it maintains the effects caused by fiber inhomogeneity in longitudinal direction. In the case of non-ideal polarization scrambling using practical PS, the fluctuation of effective Brillouin peak frequency caused by fiber inhomogeneity

  19. Minimising mortality in endangered raptors due to power lines: the importance of spatial aggregation to optimize the application of mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Guil, Francisco; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Mosqueda, Ignacio; Gómez, María Elena; Aranda, Antonio; Arredondo, Angel; Guzmán, José; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano; Margalida, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Electrocution by power lines is one of the main causes of non-natural mortality in birds of prey. In an area in central Spain, we surveyed 6304 pylons from 333 power lines to determine electrocution rates, environmental and design factors that may influence electrocution and the efficacy of mitigation measures used to minimise electrocution cases. A total of 952 electrocuted raptors, representing 14 different species, were observed. Electrocuted raptors were concentrated in certain areas and the environmental factors associated with increased electrocution events were: greater numbers of prey animals; greater vegetation cover; and shorter distance to roads. The structural elements associated with electrocutions were shorter strings of insulators, one or more phases over the crossarm, cross-shaped design and pylon function. Of the 952 carcasses found, 148 were eagles, including golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). Electrocuted eagles were clustered in smaller areas than other electrocuted raptors. The factors associated with increased eagle electrocution events were: pylons function, shorter strings of insulators, higher slopes surrounding the pylon, and more numerous potential prey animals. Pylons with increased string of insulators had lower raptor electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, although this technique was unsuccessful for eagles. Pylons with cable insulation showed higher electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, both for raptors and eagles, despite this is the most widely used and recommended mitigation measure in several countries. To optimize the application of mitigation measures, our results recommend the substitution of pin-type insulators to suspended ones and elongating the strings of insulators.

  20. Minimising Mortality in Endangered Raptors Due to Power Lines: The Importance of Spatial Aggregation to Optimize the Application of Mitigation Measures

    PubMed Central

    Guil, Francisco; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Mosqueda, Ignacio; Gómez, María Elena; Aranda, Antonio; Arredondo, Ángel; Guzmán, José; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano; Margalida, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Electrocution by power lines is one of the main causes of non-natural mortality in birds of prey. In an area in central Spain, we surveyed 6304 pylons from 333 power lines to determine electrocution rates, environmental and design factors that may influence electrocution and the efficacy of mitigation measures used to minimise electrocution cases. A total of 952 electrocuted raptors, representing 14 different species, were observed. Electrocuted raptors were concentrated in certain areas and the environmental factors associated with increased electrocution events were: greater numbers of prey animals; greater vegetation cover; and shorter distance to roads. The structural elements associated with electrocutions were shorter strings of insulators, one or more phases over the crossarm, cross-shaped design and pylon function. Of the 952 carcasses found, 148 were eagles, including golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). Electrocuted eagles were clustered in smaller areas than other electrocuted raptors. The factors associated with increased eagle electrocution events were: pylons function, shorter strings of insulators, higher slopes surrounding the pylon, and more numerous potential prey animals. Pylons with increased string of insulators had lower raptor electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, although this technique was unsuccessful for eagles. Pylons with cable insulation showed higher electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, both for raptors and eagles, despite this is the most widely used and recommended mitigation measure in several countries. To optimize the application of mitigation measures, our results recommend the substitution of pin-type insulators to suspended ones and elongating the strings of insulators. PMID:22140549

  1. Calculation of the absorbed dose distribution due to irregularly shaped photon beams using pencil beam kernels derived from basic beam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchi, Pascal; Woudstra, Evert

    1996-04-01

    In radiotherapy, accurately calculated dose distributions of irregularly shaped photon beams are needed. In this paper, an algorithm is presented which enables the calculation of dose distributions due to irregular fields using pencil beam kernels derived from simple basic beam data usually measured on treatment units, i.e. central axis depth - dose curves and profiles. The only extra data that are needed, and are not currently measured, is the phantom scatter factor curve at the reference depth. The algorithm has been developed as an extension to a previously developed algorithm for rectangular fields which is based on the Milan - Bentley storage model. In the case of an irregular field, the depth dose and the boundary function are computed by convolution of a field intensity function with pencil beam kernels. The depth dose is computed by using a `scatter' kernel, which is derived from the stored depth - dose curves and from the phantom scatter factor curve. The boundary function is computed by using a `boundary' kernel, which is derived from the boundary profile of a number of large square fields. Because of the simplicity of the data used and the underlying concepts, which for instance do not separate the head scatter from the primary beam, this algorithm presents some shortcomings. On the other hand, this simplicity is also of great advantage and the inaccuracy is acceptable for most clinical situations.

  2. Kinetic Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms From Analysis of the D Lyman-a Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, Marco; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The absolute cross sections of the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coeffiecients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  3. Kinetic Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms From Analysis of the D Lyman-a Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, Marco; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The absolute cross sections of the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coeffiecients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  4. Atomic far-IR fine-structure line mapping of L1630, M17, and W3: Comparison of (O I) and (C II) distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. E.; Jaffe, Dan T.; Zhou, Shudong

    1995-01-01

    We mapped the distribution of atomic far-IR line emission from (O I) and (C II) over parsec scales in the Galactic star-forming regions L1630, M17, and W3 using the MPE Far-Infrared Fabry-Perot Imaging spectrometer (FIFI) on board the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The lines mapped include (O I) 63 microns, (O I) 146 microns, and (C II) 158 microns. Comparison of the intensities and ratios of these lines with models of photodissociation regions (e.g., Tielens & Hollenbach 1985, ApJ, 344, 770) allows us to derive temperatures and densities of the primarily neutral atomic gas layers lying on the surfaces of UV-illuminated molecular gas. In general, the (C II) line arises ubiquitously throughout the molecular clouds while the (O I) lines are mainly confined to warm, dense gas (T is greater than 100 K, n is greater than 10(exp 4)/cu cm) near the sites of O and B stars. The distribution of (C II) in the star-forming clouds implies that the (C II) emission arises on the surfaces of molecular clumps throughout the clouds, rather than only at the boundary layer between molecular gas and H II regions.

  5. Distribution of leakage currents in the cylindrical and conical sections of the magnetically insulated transmission line of the Angara-5-1 facility in experiments with wire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovski, E. V.; Gribov, A. N.; Samokhin, A. A.; Shishlov, A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Current leakages in the magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) impose restrictions on the transmission of electromagnetic pulses to the load in high-power electrophysical facilities. The multimodule Angara-5-1 facility with an output electric power of up to 6 TW is considered. In this work, the experimental and calculated profiles of leakage currents in two sections of the line are compared when the eight-module facility is loaded by a wire array. The azimuthal distribution of the current in the cylindrical section of the MITL is also considered.

  6. Distribution of leakage currents in the cylindrical and conical sections of the magnetically insulated transmission line of the Angara-5-1 facility in experiments with wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Grabovski, E. V.; Gribov, A. N.; Samokhin, A. A.; Shishlov, A. O.

    2016-08-15

    Current leakages in the magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) impose restrictions on the transmission of electromagnetic pulses to the load in high-power electrophysical facilities. The multimodule Angara-5-1 facility with an output electric power of up to 6 TW is considered. In this work, the experimental and calculated profiles of leakage currents in two sections of the line are compared when the eight-module facility is loaded by a wire array. The azimuthal distribution of the current in the cylindrical section of the MITL is also considered.

  7. Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloendoprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Gregor; Mengele, Karin; Yfanti, Christina; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Hellmann, Daniela; Welk, Anita; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Rosner, Marsha Rich; Tang, Wei-Jen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cells is presented. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a multi-organ tissue microarray (pancreas, lung, kidney, central/peripheral nervous system, liver, breast, placenta, myocardium, striated muscle, bone marrow, thymus, spleen) and on a cell microarray encompassing 31 tumor cell lines of different origin plus trophoblast cells, and normal blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. IDE protein is expressed by all of the tissues assessed and in all of the tumor cell lines except Raji and HL-60; trophoblast cells and granulocytes but not normal lymphocytes are also IDE-positive. PMID:18783335

  8. Increased free radical production in hypertension due to increased expression of the NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox) in lymphoblast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Andrew I; Wong, Richard K M; Lee, Virginia; Jennings, Sonja; Quinn, Pauline A; Ng, Leong L

    2002-04-01

    To confirm increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypertension, to demonstrate the source of ROS and to analyse NADPH oxidase subcomponent expression in hypertension. A lymphoblast model was used, as this has previously been used in the study of hypertension and of NADPH oxidase. Chemiluminescence (CL) was chosen to assay ROS production, as it is simple and sensitive. Lymphocytes from 12 hypertensive patients (HT), and 12 age- and sex-matched normotensive (NT) subjects, were immortalized. Luminol, isoluminol and Cypridina luciferin analogue (CLA) CL were used to assay ROS production. NADPH oxidase subunits were measured by Western blot analysis. Stimulation with 50 micromol/l arachidonic acid (AA) resulted in increased ROS production in HT cell lines with luminol, CLA and isoluminol CL. Stimulation with 500 nmol/l 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) produced a detectable increase in HT ROS production with luminol and with CLA, whereas there was no significant difference with isoluminol. The ROS production was abolished by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) but not by rotenone, indicating that a non-mitochondrial flavoprotein such as NADPH oxidase is the source of ROS. Analysis of NADPH oxidase subcomponents revealed an increase in p22(phox) in HT subjects. We have shown there is increased ROS production in lymphoblasts derived from hypertensive subjects, probably originating from NADPH oxidase. As the ROS production persists in transformed cells, this suggests a genetic predisposition to increased ROS production. Increased expression of p22(phox) in HT lymphoblasts may account for some of the increased ROS.

  9. Differential distribution of a SINE element in the Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar genomes: Role of the LINE-encoded endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are closely related protistan parasites but while E. histolytica can be invasive, E. dispar is completely non pathogenic. Transposable elements constitute a significant portion of the genome in these species; there being three families of LINEs and SINEs. These elements can profoundly influence the expression of neighboring genes. Thus their genomic location can have important phenotypic consequences. A genome-wide comparison of the location of these elements in the E. histolytica and E. dispar genomes has not been carried out. It is also not known whether the retrotransposition machinery works similarly in both species. The present study was undertaken to address these issues. Results Here we extracted all genomic occurrences of full-length copies of EhSINE1 in the E. histolytica genome and matched them with the homologous regions in E. dispar, and vice versa, wherever it was possible to establish synteny. We found that only about 20% of syntenic sites were occupied by SINE1 in both species. We checked whether the different genomic location in the two species was due to differences in the activity of the LINE-encoded endonuclease which is required for nicking the target site. We found that the endonucleases of both species were essentially very similar, both in their kinetic properties and in their substrate sequence specificity. Hence the differential distribution of SINEs in these species is not likely to be influenced by the endonuclease. Further we found that the physical properties of the DNA sequences adjoining the insertion sites were similar in both species. Conclusions Our data shows that the basic retrotransposition machinery is conserved in these sibling species. SINEs may indeed have occupied all of the insertion sites in the genome of the common ancestor of E. histolytica and E. dispar but these may have been subsequently lost from some locations. Alternatively, SINE expansion took place after the

  10. An application of an ecological framework to understand risk factors of PTSD due to prolonged conflict exposure: Israeli and Palestinian adolescents in the Line of Fire

    PubMed Central

    Rosshandler, Yasmin; Hall, Brian J.; Canetti, Daphna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents living in Israel and the Palestinian authority are exposed to political violence. This review examines psychosocial risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) organized within an ecological framework. Method Relevant articles were identified through PubMed and PsycINFO. Studies measuring risk and/or protective factors for PTSD in the Palestinian and/or Israeli adolescent populations due to conflict exposure from 1990 to present were included. Results A total of 20 studies met inclusion criteria. Greater violence exposure, poor economic resources, living in rural compared to urban areas, poor family and peer relations and poor coping skills were associated with PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The ecological framework is a useful approach to understanding factors affecting adolescent PTSD. Future research should focus on socio-ecological levels that have received limited attention. PMID:26950012

  11. Distribution and characterization of more than 1000 T-DNA tags in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon community standard line Bd21.

    PubMed

    Thole, Vera; Worland, Barbara; Wright, Jonathan; Bevan, Michael W; Vain, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    A collection of 4117 fertile T-DNA lines has been generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the diploid community standard line Bd21 of Brachypodium distachyon. The regions flanking the T-DNA left and right borders of the first 741 transformed plants were isolated by adapter-ligation PCR and sequenced. A total of 1005 genomic sequences (representing 44.1% of all flanking sequences retrieved) characterized 660 independent T-DNA loci assigned to a unique location in the Brachypodium genome sequence. Seventy-six percent of the fertile plant lines contained at least one anchored T-DNA locus (1.17 loci per tagged line on average). Analysis of the regions flanking both borders of the T-DNA increased the number of T-DNA loci tagged and the number of tagged lines by approximately 50% when compared to a single border analysis. T-DNA integration (2.4 insertions per Mb on average) was proportional to chromosome size, however, varied greatly along each chromosome with often low insertion level around centromeres. The frequency of insertion within transposable elements (5.3%) was fivefold lower than expected if random insertion would have occurred. More than half of the T-DNAs inserted in genic regions. On average, one gene could be tagged for every second fertile plant line produced and more than one plant line out of three contained a T-DNA insertion directly within or 500 bp around the coding sequence. Approximately, 60% of the genes tagged corresponded to expressed genes. The T-DNA lines generated by the BrachyTAG programme are available as a community resource and have been distributed internationally since 2008 via the BrachyTAG.org web site.

  12. Evaluation of the absorption line blackbody distribution function of CO2 and H2O using the proper orthogonal decomposition and hyperbolic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Chu, H.; Zhou, H.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2013-10-01

    Databases of the absorption line blackbody distribution function (ALBDF) of CO2 and H2O were generated over a wide range of gas and blackbody temperatures and the full range of gas concentration from line-by-line (LBL) calculations using the latest version of HITEMP. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the hyperbolic correlations (HC) were then used for rapid calculation the ALBDF value at an arbitrary combination of gas and blackbody temperatures and gas concentration. A novel hyperbolic correlation for H2O was proposed to fully account for the self-broadening effect. The accuracy of POD and the HC was evaluated by comparing the ALBDF values and the total gas emissivities from these two approximate methods at several selected conditions against those from LBL calculations. POD is significantly more accurate than HC at essentially no extra computational costs.

  13. Early outbreak detection by linking health advice line calls to water distribution areas retrospectively demonstrated in a large waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjelkmar, Pär; Hansen, Anette; Schönning, Caroline; Bergström, Jakob; Löfdahl, Margareta; Lebbad, Marianne; Wallensten, Anders; Allestam, Görel; Stenmark, Stephan; Lindh, Johan

    2017-04-18

    In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s) and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources. In addition, a retrospective study based on phone calls to a health advice line was performed by comparing patterns of phone calls between different water distribution areas. Our analyses showed that approximately 18,500 individuals were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Skellefteå in 2011. This makes it the second largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Europe to date. Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts of subtype IbA10G2 were found in patient and sewage samples, but not in raw water or in drinking water, and the initial contamination source could not be determined. The outbreak went unnoticed to authorities for several months. The analysis of the calls to the health advice line provides strong indications early in the outbreak that it was linked to a particular water treatment plant. We conclude that an earlier detection of the outbreak by linking calls to a health advice line to water distribution areas could have limited the outbreak substantially.

  14. Distribution

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  15. Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Wayne A.

    This monograph was written for the Conference of the New Instructional Materials in Physics, held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for students who have had an introductory college physics course. It seeks to provide an introduction to the idea of distributions in general, and to some aspects of the subject in…

  16. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A.; Haralur, Satheesh B.; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. Materials and Methods: On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Results: Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. Conclusions: The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype. PMID:27195228

  17. Physical dose distribution due to multi-sliced kV X-ray beam in labeled tissue-like media: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, M; Kakuee, O R; Fathollahi, V; Shahvar, A; Mohati, M; Ghafoori, M

    2011-02-01

    Radiotherapy remains a major modality of cancer therapy. Thanks to high flux and high brilliance of synchrotron-generated X-ray, laboratory research with planar microscopically thin X-ray beam promise exciting new opportunities for treatment of cancer. High tolerance of normal tissues at doses up to several hundred Gy in a single dose fraction and preferential damage of tumors at very high doses have been uniquely observed in animal models exposed to microbeams. The fact that beams as thick as 0.68 mm could retain a part of these effects, opens the possibility that the required beam can be produced by high power X-ray tubes besides a dedicated synchrotron. Fortunately, dose distribution due to kilovolt X-rays could be enhanced by the introduction of high-Z contrast agents to tissue-like media. In this work, dose deposition in a phantom--partially loaded with Au and I as contrast agents--irradiated by multi-sliced kV X-ray beam was experimentally investigated in the peak and valley regions both on the surface and in the depth of phantom. The results of experimental dosimetry using Gaf-chromic films were compared with corresponding Monte-Carlo simulation. Relative reduction in the deposited dose in the peak regions downstream the area containing contrast agents in comparison with the adjacent areas was experimentally observed.

  18. The Research of Mobile GIS Power Distribution Line Inspection Based on Mobile SVG/J2ME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Deng, Fengxia; Zhang, Wenbin; Zeng, Xuan

    To deal with the contradiction between the line inspection business requirements for processing massive map data and the limitations which the line inspection mobile terminals have in processing performance, memory and storage capacity etc., this paper analyzes advantages of the Mobile SVG and J2ME in the mobile GIS, and proposes a mobile GIS line inspection program based on Mobile SVG and J2ME. The program organized map data by classification and block, generated static or dynamic SVG documents by GIS server, and made full use of J2ME platform's support for resource limited equipments to achieve the functions of GPS positioning, parsing SVG documents or XML attribute files and real-time displaying and browsing map. It makes up the low memory defect of mobile terminals, improves the data transmission efficiency, ensures the clarity of the map and improves the inspection quality.

  19. Nonlinear Color-Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  20. Differential expression and cytoplasm/membrane distribution of endoglin (CD105) in human tumour cell lines: Implications in the modulation of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Postiglione, L; Di Domenico, G; Caraglia, M; Marra, M; Giuberti, G; Del Vecchio, L; Montagnani, S; Macri, M; Bruno, E M; Abbruzzese, A; Rossi, G

    2005-05-01

    Endoglin (CD105, an accessory component of the TGF-beta receptor complex) expression and distribution on different human tumour cells and its role in cellular proliferation were evaluated. We examined: 1) sixteen human carcinoma cell lines, 2) eight human sarcoma cell lines, 3) five miscellaneous tumour cell lines. HECV (endothelial cells) were employed as a positive control for endoglin expression. Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts (NHDF) and 293 cells (epithelial kidney cells) were used as normal controls for connective and epithelial tissues, respectively. The results showed that CD105 was poorly expressed in the majority of human carcinoma cells (10/16), whereas it was highly expressed in most human sarcoma cells (7/8), and differently expressed by miscellaneous tumour cell lines. These data reflect endoglin expression by the normal counterparts of tumour cell lines, i.e. NHDF and 293 cells. However, CD105 levels in sarcoma cell lines, even though consistently lower than in NHDF, were significantly higher than those observed in carcinoma cells. Interestingly, CD105 presented a strong expression in the cytoplasm of MDA-MB-453 (breast carcinoma), NPA (papillary thyroid carcinoma), COLO-853 (melanoma) and SaOS-2 (osteosarcoma), but was weakly expressed on their cell membrane. This differential expression in the cytoplasm and on the membrane of some tumour cells, suggests a complex mechanism of translocation for this protein. The analysis of clonal growth in soft agar of some cell lines, characterized by high CD105 expression, showed an increased colony formation potential that was antagonized by the addition of anti-CD105 blocking mAb. The results indicated that endoglin is differentially expressed in human carcinoma and sarcoma cells and its overexpression modulates the proliferative rate of human solid tumour cells. Moreover, these data suggest that CD105 is involved in the regulation of TGF-beta effects in human solid malignancies, and therefore it could play an

  1. Fabry-Pérot resonator: spectral line shapes, generic and related Airy distributions, linewidths, finesses, and performance at low or frequency-dependent reflectivity.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nur; Kores, Cristine Calil; Geskus, Dimitri; Pollnau, Markus

    2016-07-25

    We systematically characterize the Fabry-Pérot resonator. We derive the generic Airy distribution of a Fabry-Pérot resonator, which equals the internal resonance enhancement factor, and show that all related Airy distributions are obtained by simple scaling factors. We analyze the textbook approaches to the Fabry-Pérot resonator and point out various misconceptions. We verify that the sum of the mode profiles of all longitudinal modes is the fundamental physical function that characterizes the Fabry-Pérot resonator and generates the Airy distribution. Consequently, the resonator losses are quantified by the linewidths of the underlying Lorentzian lines and not by the measured Airy linewidth. Therefore, we introduce the Lorentzian finesse which provides the spectral resolution of the Lorentzian lines, whereas the usually considered Airy finesse only quantifies the performance of the Fabry-Pérot resonator as a scanning spectrometer. We also point out that the concepts of linewidth and finesse of the Airy distribution of a Fabry-Pérot resonator break down at low reflectivity. Furthermore, we show that a Fabry-Pérot resonator has no cut-off resonance wavelength. Finally, we investigate the influence of frequency-dependent mirror reflectivities, allowing for the direct calculation of its deformed mode profiles.

  2. [Restorative effect of quercetin on subcellular distribution of daunorubicin in multidrug resistant leukemia cell lines K562/ADM and HL-60/ADM].

    PubMed

    Cai, Xun; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Han, Jie-Ying; Gu, Chun-Hong; Zhong, Hua; Ouyang, Ren-Rong

    2004-12-01

    Quercetin, a widely distributed natural flavonoid with a variety of biological functions, can reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in leukemia according to recent researches. This study was to investigate the mechanism of quercetin restoring subcellular distribution of daunorubicin (DNR) in multidrug resistant leukemia cell lines, K562/ADM and HL-60/ADM, and reversing their MDR. MTT cell viability assay was used to verify the sensitization of DNR by quercetin in K562/ADM and HL-60/ADM cells,and determine the reverse concentration extent,confocal laser scanning microscope was used to observe the subcellular distribution of DNR in K562/ADM and HL-60/ADM cells,and relevant sensitive cell lines, K562/S and HL-60/S,before and after quercetin exposion. Compared with K562/S and HL-60/S cells,20-40 micromol/L of quercetin in vitro remarkably enhanced the sensitivity of K562/ADM and HL-60/ADM cells to DNR, restore the subcellular distribution of DNR, so as to reverse MDR. quercetin could be a candidate of effective multidrug resistance-reversing agent in leukemia chemotherapy.

  3. Distribution of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections Determined From Washington State's Annual Reporting Validation Program, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Jason M; Cummings, M Jeanne; Birnbaum, David W

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare-associated infection reporting validation is essential because this information is increasingly used in public healthcare quality assurances and care reimbursement. Washington State's validation of central line-associated bloodstream infection reporting applies credible quality sciences methods to ensure that hospital reporting accuracy is maintained. This paper details findings and costs from our experience. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:489-492.

  4. The characterisation and distribution of cells lining the axillary gland of the adult green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E

    1984-01-01

    The axillary gland of the marine turtle lies in the angle formed by the carapace and plastron. The gland is compound tubular and the secretions released by the various acini are conveyed to the exterior via a large excretory duct lined by stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium. The main secretory areas are lined by holocrine cells, i.e. they degenerate on discharging their contents. The epithelium lining the short ducts which carry the holocrine secretions to the large excretory duct is invaginated regularly giving rise to shallow intraepithelial acini. The cells lining these acini are of two types, granular and mitochondrial. These cells communicate via complex infoldings of their lateral cell walls. The granular cells produce an acidic mucosubstance. The holocrine regions are embedded in a large amount of striated muscle and are separated from the latter by a band of collagen containing variable numbers of melanocytes. The short secretory ducts and large excretory duct have less muscle associated with them but there is a corresponding increase in the volume of collagen. When handled, the adult turtle ejects a milky fluid via the plastral pore. This pungent secretion is weakly acidic. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6715249

  5. [Expression and Subcellular Distribution of Costimulatory Molecules B7-H1,B7-H3 and B7-H4 in Human Hematologic Malignancy Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan-Fang; Zhu, Ming-Xia; Wan, Wen-Li; Li, Hai-Shen; Wu, Fei-Fei; Yan, Xin-Xing; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the expression and subcellular distribution of costimulatory molecules B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 in human hematologic malignancy cell lines. The expression and subcellular distribution of B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 in 13 human hematologic malignancy cell lines were determined by RT-PCR, qPCR, Western blot and flow cytometry, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB MNC) of 12 volunteers were used as control. The mRNA of B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 was widely expressed in PB MNC and hematologic malignancy cell lines, with a lower level of B7-H4. The mRNA expression of 3 molecules was highest in Maver, Z138, and HL-60, respectively, while among them the B7-H3 and B7-H4 had no expression in CZ1. The nuclear and cytoplasmic protein of 3 costimulatory molecules abnormally overexpressed only in hematologic malignancy cell lines, with the highest level in U937, Z138, and Raji, respectively, while the B7-H3 and B7-H4 had no expression in CZ1. There were differences among mRNA expression, nuclear and cytoplasmic protein expression of 3 molecules in cell lines derived from the same type of tumor, but the differences of expression in mRNA and protein levels were not exactly the same. The B7-H3 expression abundance in membrane localization was higher in U937, Maver and Z138, while the membrane protein of B7-H1 and B7-H4 had no or low expression in 13 cell lines. The mRNA expression of costimulatory molecules B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 can be widely detected. The protein level of 3 costimulatory molecules abnormally overexpressed only in hematologic malignancy cell lines, moreover the subcellular localizations mostly was found in nucleus and cytoplasm, while the membrane protein expresses in low level or had no expression. There are differences among the expression of 3 molecules in cell lines derived from the same type of tumor.

  6. Power Scaling of the Size Distribution of Economic Loss and Fatalities due to Hurricanes, Earthquakes, Tornadoes, and Floods in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Scott, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, the size of natural disaster events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods is measured in terms of wind speed (m/sec), energy released (ergs), or discharge (m3/sec) rather than by economic loss or fatalities. Economic loss and fatalities from natural disasters result from the intersection of the human infrastructure and population with the size of the natural event. This study investigates the size versus cumulative number distribution of individual natural disaster events for several disaster types in the United States. Economic losses are adjusted for inflation to 2014 USD. The cumulative number divided by the time over which the data ranges for each disaster type is the basis for making probabilistic forecasts in terms of the number of events greater than a given size per year and, its inverse, return time. Such forecasts are of interest to insurers/re-insurers, meteorologists, seismologists, government planners, and response agencies. Plots of size versus cumulative number distributions per year for economic loss and fatalities are well fit by power scaling functions of the form p(x) = Cx-β; where, p(x) is the cumulative number of events with size equal to and greater than size x, C is a constant, the activity level, x is the event size, and β is the scaling exponent. Economic loss and fatalities due to hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods are well fit by power functions over one to five orders of magnitude in size. Economic losses for hurricanes and tornadoes have greater scaling exponents, β = 1.1 and 0.9 respectively, whereas earthquakes and floods have smaller scaling exponents, β = 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Fatalities for tornadoes and floods have greater scaling exponents, β = 1.5 and 1.7 respectively, whereas hurricanes and earthquakes have smaller scaling exponents, β = 0.4 and 0.7 respectively. The scaling exponents can be used to make probabilistic forecasts for time windows ranging from 1 to 1000 years

  7. Measurement of nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions by combining line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with regularization methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang

    2013-07-10

    Regularization methods were combined with line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) to measure nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions along the laser path when a priori information of the temperature distribution tendency is available. Relying on measurements of 12 absorption transitions of water vapor from 1300 to 1350 nm, the nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions were retrieved by making the use of nonlinear and linear regularization methods, respectively. To examine the effectiveness of regularization methods, a simulated annealing algorithm for nonlinear regularization was implemented to reconstruct the temperature distribution, while three linear regularization methods, namely truncated singular value decomposition, Tikhonov regularization, and a revised Tikhonov regularization method, were implemented to retrieve the concentration distribution. The results show that regularization methods not only can be used to retrieve temperature and concentration distributions closer to the original but also are less sensitive to measurement noise. When no sufficient optical access is available for TDLAS tomography, the methods proposed in the paper can be used to obtain more details of the combustion field with higher accuracy and robustness, which are expected to play a more important role in combustion diagnosis.

  8. Enzymatic activity necessary to restore the lethality due to Escherichia coli RNase E deficiency is distributed among bacteria lacking RNase E homologues

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kato, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNase E (Eco-RNase E), encoded by rne (Eco-rne), is considered the global RNA decay initiator. Although Eco-RNase E is an essential gene product in E. coli, some bacterial species, such as Bacillus subtilis, do not possess Eco-RNase E sequence homologues. B. subtilis instead possesses RNase J1/J2 (Bsu-RNase J1/J2) and RNase Y (Bsu-RNase Y) to execute RNA decay. Here we found that E. coli lacking the Eco-rne gene (Δrne E. coli) was viable conditional on M9 minimal media by introducing Bsu-RNase J1/J2 or Bsu-RNase Y. We also cloned an extremely short Eco-RNase E homologue (Wpi-RNase E) and a canonical sized Bsu-RNase J1/J2 homologue (Wpi-RNase J) from Wolbachia pipientis, an α-proteobacterial endosymbiont of arthropods. We found that Wpi-RNase J restored the colony-forming ability (CFA) of Δrne E. coli, whereas Wpi-RNase E did not. Unexpectedly, Wpi-RNase E restored defective CFA due to lack of Eco-RNase G, a paralogue of Eco-RNase E. Our results indicate that bacterial species that lack Eco-RNase E homologues or bacterial species that possess Eco-RNase E homologues which lack Eco-RNase E-like activities have a modest Eco-RNase E-like function using RNase J and/or RNase Y. These results suggest that Eco-RNase E-like activities might distribute among a wide array of bacteria and that functions of RNases may have changed dynamically during evolutionary divergence of bacterial lineages. PMID:28542621

  9. A case report of false negative Legionella test results in a chlorinated public hot water distribution system due to the lack of sodium thiosulfate in sampling bottles.

    PubMed

    Wiedenmann, A; Langhammer, W; Botzenhart, K

    2001-12-01

    We examined samples from the showers and the central water distribution system of a public building with an indoor swimming pool. The pool was used for school and recreational activities and as a sports therapy facility for patients with coronary heart disease. The building's hot water system was contaminated with Legionella pneumophila. Due to the building's intricate piping system, several attempts to completely eliminate legionellae by thermal and chemical disinfection had failed, so an external sanitation company was charged with the installation of a continuous chlorination device in order to keep Legionella concentrations low. The laboratory which was contracted by the sanitation company to monitor bacteria levels after installation of the chlorination device used sampling bottles without sodium thiosulfate and repeatedly reported an absence of Legionella. However, up to 69,000 colony forming particles (CFP) of Legionella pneumophila (Lp) per litre and up to 171 CFP/ml of heterotrophic bacteria could be detected when parallel samples were collected in bottles containing sodium thiosulfate at standard concentrations. Laboratories, epidemiologists, public health officials and technical staff who may be in charge of delivering, preparing or using sterile sampling devices for the collection of environmental samples to be tested for legionellae should be aware that cultures can return false negative results if the sampling containers used to collect chlorinated drinking water or chlorinated pool water samples do not contain a neutralizing agent to instantly inactivate residual halogen biocides. False negative results may lead to a false sense of security regarding the safety of water systems or the success of disinfection measures, and may thus endanger public health or even hinder the epidemiological clarification of outbreaks.

  10. Enzymatic activity necessary to restore the lethality due to Escherichia coli RNase E deficiency is distributed among bacteria lacking RNase E homologues.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masaru; Kageyama, Daisuke; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kato, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNase E (Eco-RNase E), encoded by rne (Eco-rne), is considered the global RNA decay initiator. Although Eco-RNase E is an essential gene product in E. coli, some bacterial species, such as Bacillus subtilis, do not possess Eco-RNase E sequence homologues. B. subtilis instead possesses RNase J1/J2 (Bsu-RNase J1/J2) and RNase Y (Bsu-RNase Y) to execute RNA decay. Here we found that E. coli lacking the Eco-rne gene (Δrne E. coli) was viable conditional on M9 minimal media by introducing Bsu-RNase J1/J2 or Bsu-RNase Y. We also cloned an extremely short Eco-RNase E homologue (Wpi-RNase E) and a canonical sized Bsu-RNase J1/J2 homologue (Wpi-RNase J) from Wolbachia pipientis, an α-proteobacterial endosymbiont of arthropods. We found that Wpi-RNase J restored the colony-forming ability (CFA) of Δrne E. coli, whereas Wpi-RNase E did not. Unexpectedly, Wpi-RNase E restored defective CFA due to lack of Eco-RNase G, a paralogue of Eco-RNase E. Our results indicate that bacterial species that lack Eco-RNase E homologues or bacterial species that possess Eco-RNase E homologues which lack Eco-RNase E-like activities have a modest Eco-RNase E-like function using RNase J and/or RNase Y. These results suggest that Eco-RNase E-like activities might distribute among a wide array of bacteria and that functions of RNases may have changed dynamically during evolutionary divergence of bacterial lineages.

  11. Distributed Compressive Sensing vs. Dynamic Compressive Sensing: Improving the Compressive Line Sensing Imaging System through Their Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    experiment dataset obtained from an underwater imaging test setup. 1. BACKGROUND The laser line scanner (LLS) is state-of-art underwater active imaging...configuration and higher energy efficiency. The technique also enables compact and robust system design. A series of test -tank experiments were conducted to...apply this technique to some test -tank datasets and provide results and detailed analysis. Our conclusions are summarized in Section 6. . 2. CS AND DCS

  12. Biological impacts of TiO2 on human lung cell lines A549 and H1299: particle size distribution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedja, Roslyn; Marquis, Christopher; Lim, May; Amal, Rose

    2011-09-01

    Increasing use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in many commercial applications has led to emerging concerns regarding the safety and environmental impact of these materials. In this study, we have investigated the biological impact of nano-TiO2 (with particle primary size of 20 nm Aeroxide P25) on human lung cell lines in vitro and also the effect of particle size distribution on the particle uptake and apparent toxicity. The biological impact of nano-TiO2 is shown to be influenced by the concentration and particle size distribution of the TiO2 and the impact was shown to differ between the two cell lines (A549 and H1299) investigated herein. A549 cell line was shown to be relatively resistant to the total amount of TiO2 particles uptaken, as measured by cell viability and metabolic assays, while H1299 had a much higher capacity to ingest TiO2 particles and aggregates, with consequent evidence of impact at concentrations as low as 30-150 μg/mL TiO2. Evidence gathered from this study suggests that both viability and metabolic assays (measuring metabolic and mitochondrial activities and also cellular ATP level) should be carried out collectively to gain a true assessment of the impact of exposure to TiO2 particles.

  13. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: III. Emission Line Diagnostics of Ensembles of H II Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Leitherer, C; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A

    2006-05-10

    We have built, as far as possible, fully self-consistent models of H II regions around aging clusters of stars. These produce strong emission line diagnostics applicable to either individual H II regions in galaxies, or to the integrated emission line spectra of disk or starburst galaxies. The models assume that the expansion and internal pressure of individual H II regions is driven by the net input of mechanical energy from the central cluster, be it through winds or supernova events. This eliminates the ionization parameter as a free variable, replacing it with a parameter which depends on the ratio of the cluster mass to the pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. These models explain why H II regions with low abundances have high excitation, and demonstrate that at least part of the warm ionized medium is the result of overlapping faint, old, large, and low pressure H II regions. We present a number of line ratios (at both optical and IR wavelengths) that provide reliable abundance diagnostics for either single H II regions or for integrated galaxy spectra, and others that are sensitive to the age of the cluster stars exciting individual H II regions.

  14. Analyzing the effect on heat transfer due to nonuniform distribution of liquid flow among the tubes of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkevich, A. I.; Sharifullin, V. N.; Sharifullin, A. V.

    2010-09-01

    A method is proposed using which nonuniform distribution of liquid flow among the tubes of a shell-and-tube apparatus can be taken into account by means of a statistical distribution function. A formula showing interrelation of this function with the indicator of heat transfer intensity in the apparatus tube space is given.

  15. Current trends in the application of non-ceramic insulators for transmission & distribution lines subject to contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCI) have been in application for more than 25 years. During this time, manufacturers have worked diligently to improve product designs and polymer materials. Today, the use of Non-Ceramic Polymer insulators is proliferating as Utilities become more confident in this advanced technology. The application advantages of NCI technology are more widely recognized and understood and credibility is growing in the long term service performance of these insulators. Current estimates place the NCI market share as high as 50% of the total US transmission insulator market. Indeed, Reliable Power Products is proud to advise that their insulators have been selected for the first 500 KV-DC transmission line in the USA to use 100% composite polymer insulators. With the combination of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (Los Angeles to Las Vegas) and Salt River Project (Las Vegas to Phoenix), a total of almost 1,000 Kms. of transmission line will be insulated with Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators. The total project will include almost 15,000 insulator strings. User confidence is not confined to the USA market. The application of NCI`s by International Utilities has also experienced significant growth. This may be evidenced by EHV installations in South America, Middle East, South Africa, Australia and South East Asia.

  16. Slar SI III line ratios from the high-resolution telescope and spectrograph on board Spacelab 2 - The effects of non-Maxellian electron distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Dufton, P. L.; Kingston, A. E.; Cook, J. W.

    1989-05-01

    Electron impact excitation rates for transitions in Si III, incorporating the effects of non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution functions (EVDFs), are presented for a range of electron temperatures appropriate to the solar transition region. A comparison of theoretical line ratios with observational data for a quiet solar region, a sunspot, and an active region obtained with the high-resolution telescope and spectrograph (HRTS) on board Spacelab 2 indicates that non-Maxwellian EVDFs may exist in the transition region. Non-Maxwellian effects appear to be larger for the sunspot than for the quiet sun, implying that the temperature gradient may be greater in the former.

  17. Crosstalk analysis of the in-line quasi-distributed low-coherence low-finesse Fabry-Pérot fiber-optic interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojlović, Lazo M.

    2016-09-01

    A crosstalk analysis of the in-line quasi-distributed low-coherence low-finesse Fabry-Pérot fiber-optic interferometric sensors is presented in this paper. The appropriate selection of the sensor cavity lengths eliminates the presence of the second-order intermodulations. Therefore, the intermodulations that can significantly influence the sensors crosstalk are the third-order intermodulations. For a typical sensor configuration by choosing the in-fiber mirror reflection coefficient lower than 0.5%, the minimum achievable signal-to-intermodulation ratio is higher than 26 dB for a maximal possible number of sensor placed along the fiber that satisfies broad range of requirements for most of the quasi-distributed measurements of typical parameters such as strain and temperature.

  18. Impact assessment of a high-speed railway line on species distribution: application to the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in Franche-Comté.

    PubMed

    Clauzel, Céline; Girardet, Xavier; Foltête, Jean-Christophe

    2013-09-30

    The aim of the present work is to assess the potential long-distance effect of a high-speed railway line on the distribution of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in eastern France by combining graph-based analysis and species distribution models. This combination is a way to integrate patch-level connectivity metrics on different scales into a predictive model. The approach used is put in place before the construction of the infrastructure and allows areas potentially affected by isolation to be mapped. Through a diachronic analysis, comparing species distribution before and after the construction of the infrastructure, we identify changes in the probability of species presence and we determine the maximum distance of impact. The results show that the potential impact decreases with distance from the high-speed railway line and the largest disturbances occur within the first 500 m. Between 500 m and 3500 m, the infrastructure generates a moderate decrease in the probability of presence with maximum values close to -40%. Beyond 3500 m the average disturbance is less than -10%. The spatial extent of the impact is greater than the dispersal distance of the tree frog, confirming the assumption of the long-distance effect of the infrastructure. This predictive modelling approach appears to be a useful tool for environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. The results of the species distribution assessment may provide guidance for field surveys and support for conservation decisions by identifying the areas most affected.

  19. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  20. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm(-1) (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm(-1) (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  1. Real-Time Data Warehousing and On-Line Analytical Processing at Aberdeen Test Center’s Distributed Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Aberdeen Test Center,Aberdeen Proving Ground,MD,21005 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

  2. Digital image processing for the acquisition of graphic similarity of the distributional patterns between cutaneous lesions of linear scleroderma and Blaschko's lines.

    PubMed

    Jue, Mihn Sook; Kim, Moon Hwan; Ko, Joo Yeon; Lee, Chang Woo

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to objectively evaluate whether linear scleroderma (LS) follows Blaschko's lines (BL) in Korean patients using digital image processing. Thirty-two patients with LS were examined. According to the patients' clinical photographs, their skin lesions were plotted on the head and body charts. With the aid of graphics software, a digital image was produced that included an overlay of all the individual lesions and was used to compare the graphics with the published BL. To investigate the image similarity between the graphic patterns of the LS and BL, each case was analyzed by means of Hough transformations and Czekanowski's methods. The comparative investigation of the graphic similarity of distributional patterns between the LS and BL showed that Czekanowski's similarity index was 0.947 on average. In conclusion, our objective results suggest that the graphic patterns of the distribution of the LS skin lesions showed a high degree of similarity and in fact were almost identical to that of BL which may be the lines of embryonic development of the skin. This finding may suggest that some developmental factors during the embryological age could constitute the cause of LS. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell-cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells.

  4. Normal growth and normalization of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in atypical Turner syndrome (45,X/46,XX/47,XXX). Correlation of body height with distribution of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Partsch, C J; Pankau, R; Sippell, W G; Tolksdorf, M

    1994-06-01

    A comparison has been made of a case with 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX mosaicism with some 50 cases in the literature. A significant positive correlation was found between height standard deviation scores of mosaic patients from the literature and the frequency of cells with a normal chromosome constitution (n = 21, rs = 0.552, P < 0.01). In contrast, a significant negative correlation was seen between body height and the frequency of cells with a 45,X constitution (n = 21, rs = -0.594, P < 0.01). There was no significant correlation of height standard deviation score with the 47,XXX cell line (n = 21, rs = -0.353). A patient with a rare chromosomal mosaicism (45,X/46,XX/47,XXX) is described. The diagnosis was first made by chromosome analysis in amniotic cells. The patient showed no symptoms suggestive of Turner syndrome and growth followed the 75th height percentile. Basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulated gonadotropin levels normalized after age 4.8 years and did not subsequently return to hypergonadotropic levels. In blood lymphocytes, there was an increase in the frequency of cells with a normal chromosome constitution over 9 years. This in vivo cell selection is discussed. Chromosome analysis in skin fibroblasts showed the same triple mosaicism with a similar distribution of cell lines as in blood lymphocytes. In conclusion, statistical evidence was demonstrated that the severity of short stature is correlated with the distribution of cell lines in 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX mosaicism. This finding is of importance for the genetic counselling in cases of prenatal diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and distribution in interstitial and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of danofloxacin in ruminant and preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Mzyk, D A; Baynes, R E; Messenger, K M; Martinez, M; Smith, G W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare active drug concentrations in the plasma vs. different effector compartments including interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of healthy preruminating (3-week-old) and ruminating (6-month-old) calves. Eight calves in each age group were given a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose (8 mg/kg) of danofloxacin. Plasma, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected over 96 h and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. PELF concentrations were calculated by a urea dilution assay of the BAL fluids. Plasma protein binding was measured using a microcentrifugation system. For most preruminant and ruminant calves, the concentration-time profile of the central compartment was best described by a two-compartment open body model. For some calves, a third compartment was also observed. The time to maximum concentration in the plasma was longer in preruminating calves (3.1 h) vs. ruminating calves (1.4 h). Clearance (CL/F) was 385.15 and 535.11 mL/h/kg in preruminant and ruminant calves, respectively. Ruminant calves maintained higher ISF/plasma concentration ratios throughout the study period compared to that observed in preruminant calves. Potential reasons for age-related differences in plasma concentration-time profiles and partitioning of the drug to lungs and ISF as a function of age are explored.

  6. The Spatial Distribution of Complex Molecules in Sagittarius B2: a line survey at 7 mm with CABB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Paul; Lo, Nadia; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Thorwirth, Sven; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Walsh, Andrew; Bronfman, Leonardo; Purcell, Cormac; Cordiner, Martin; Remijan, Anthony; Lowe, Vicki; Charnley, Steven; Qin, Sheng-Li; Balnozan, Egon

    2011-10-01

    We wish to survey the whole 7-mm band toward the pre-eminent molecular source in the Galaxy, the Sagittarius B2 (N) Large Molecule Heimat, using the CABB on the ATCA. This is a follow-up program to the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecule Survey (PRIMOS) which is surveying Sgr B2(N-LMH) over the whole frequency range accessible to the GBT. Complementary single dish and interferometer observations are essential to the understanding of the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM), and the ATCA has the spatial resolution to allow us to investigate the variations in the ISM chemistry at small spatial scales, and to compare with the extended distributions to which the single dish is sensitive. With the CABB, the ATCA now has the bandwidth to make the necessary broad band studies feasible. In this term we request 24 hours

  7. Vertical Distributions of PH3 in Saturn from Observations of Its 1-0 and 3-2 Rotational Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. S.; Serabyn, E.; Lee, Y. T.

    2000-01-01

    Far-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of the 1-0 and 3-2 PH3 transitions in Saturn's disk near 267 and 800 GHz (8.9 and 26.7/cm), respectively, were analyzed simultaneously to derive a global mean profile for the PH3 vertical mixing ratio between 100 and 600 mbar total pressure. The far-infrared spectrum is relatively free from spectral interlopers, suffers minimal absorption or scattering by atmospheric particulates, and contains intrinsically weak PH3 lines that are sensitive to a range of atmospheric depths. The combined spectra are inconsistent with a uniform tropospheric mixing ratio, even with a stratospheric cut-off. They are consistent with a volume mixing ratio of PH3 that drops from 1.2 x 10(exp -5) at 645 mbar pressure to a value of 4.1 x 10(exp -7) at 150 mbar pressure, a decrease that is linear is log abundance vs log pressure. The mixing ratio could drop even more quickly at atmospheric pressures below 150 mbar and still be consistent with the data. The mixing ratio may well remain constant with depth for pressures above 630 mbar. The maximum PH3 mixing ratio in this model is consistent with a [P]/[H] ratio in the deep atmosphere that is about a factor of 10 higher than solar composition. Such a model is consistent with rapid mixing up to the radiative-convective boundary and transport by, for example, vertical waves just above this boundary. In the best fitting model, the eddy diffusion coefficient is approximately 10(exp 4) sq cm near 630 mbar, and it must increase with altitude. The predominant PH3 loss mechanisms are direct photolysis by UV radiation and scavenging by H atoms produced by the photolysis.

  8. A resettable in-line particle concentrator using AC electrokinetics for distributed monitoring of microalgae in source waters

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Quan; Wu, Jayne; Greenbaum, Elias; Evans, Barbara R.

    2016-12-29

    Green algae have been studied as an important and effective biomarker to indicate water quality due to their sensitivity to toxic agents in freshwater sources. But, conventional methods to monitor algal physiology use a chlorophyll fluorometer whose use is hampered by high-cost, large footprint, and limited sensitivity for practical samples containing low algal concentration. In order to overcome these constraints, we developed a multi-level electrode platform for resettable trapping of algae via AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) and negative dielectrophoresis. Preliminary experiments were performed in freshwater with conductivity of 0.02 S/m. Algal trapping was demonstrated at a low voltage of 2 V. The concentration effect was experimentally verified by measuring the fluorescence intensity of algae and using hemocytometer counting chambers at the inlet and outlet of the multilevel microchannel lab-on-a-chip. An optimal frequency was found for trapping, which agrees with the frequency dependence of ACEO flow velocity. Through-flow rate and electrode dimensions were optimized as well. Trapping efficiencies within the range of 26% - 65% have been obtained. A maximum trapping rate of 182 cells/s was obtained with a flow rate of 20 l/min. Our lab-on-a-chip shows high potential for improving the limit of detection in algal monitoring and enabling the development of a portable, integrated and automated system for monitoring the quality of source drinking waters.

  9. A resettable in-line particle concentrator using AC electrokinetics for distributed monitoring of microalgae in source waters

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Quan; Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN; Wu, Jayne; ...

    2016-12-29

    Green algae have been studied as an important and effective biomarker to indicate water quality due to their sensitivity to toxic agents in freshwater sources. But, conventional methods to monitor algal physiology use a chlorophyll fluorometer whose use is hampered by high-cost, large footprint, and limited sensitivity for practical samples containing low algal concentration. In order to overcome these constraints, we developed a multi-level electrode platform for resettable trapping of algae via AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) and negative dielectrophoresis. Preliminary experiments were performed in freshwater with conductivity of 0.02 S/m. Algal trapping was demonstrated at a low voltage of 2 V.more » The concentration effect was experimentally verified by measuring the fluorescence intensity of algae and using hemocytometer counting chambers at the inlet and outlet of the multilevel microchannel lab-on-a-chip. An optimal frequency was found for trapping, which agrees with the frequency dependence of ACEO flow velocity. Through-flow rate and electrode dimensions were optimized as well. Trapping efficiencies within the range of 26% - 65% have been obtained. A maximum trapping rate of 182 cells/s was obtained with a flow rate of 20 l/min. Our lab-on-a-chip shows high potential for improving the limit of detection in algal monitoring and enabling the development of a portable, integrated and automated system for monitoring the quality of source drinking waters.« less

  10. Concentrated Ground Motion Distribution Due to Diagonal Rupture Propagation during the Mw 7.0 Event of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Yun, S.

    2016-12-01

    Strong ground motions from the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes were observed with high seismic intensities in the JMA scale. In the source region of the largest strike-slip event (Mw 7.0), three seismometers (dark red triangles in the figure) marked the intensity 7, which is the highest in the JMA scale. Since the source fault is 40 to 50 km long and the hypocenter (large cyan star) is located near its southwestern end, the fault rupture propagated northeastward along the most of the fault length. This propagation should have caused rupture directivity effects and such a widespread ground motion distribution as in the 1992 Landers and 1995 Kobe earthquakes. However, we can see only a concentrated distribution of intensities, and large directivity pulses are found only in a limited area (black arrows). Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by using the result of a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the fault rupture included not only northeastward propagation but also upward propagation, and this diagonal rupture propagation resulted in the concentrated ground motion distribution, which had been cut off by the free surface.

  11. Autophagosome Proteins LC3A, LC3B and LC3C Have Distinct Subcellular Distribution Kinetics and Expression in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Michael I.; Kalamida, Dimitra; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Zois, Christos E.; Sivridis, Efthimios; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.

    2015-01-01

    LC3s (MAP1-LC3A, B and C) are structural proteins of autophagosomal membranes, widely used as biomarkers of autophagy. Whether these three LC3 proteins have a similar biological role in autophagy remains obscure. We examine in parallel the subcellular expression patterns of the three LC3 proteins in a panel of human cancer cell lines, as well as in normal MRC5 fibroblasts and HUVEC, using confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of cell fractions. In the cytoplasm, there was a minimal co-localization between LC3A, B and C staining, suggesting that the relevant autophagosomes are formed by only one out of the three LC3 proteins. LC3A showed a perinuclear and nuclear localization, while LC3B was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm and localized in the nucleolar regions. LC3C was located in the cytoplasm and strongly in the nuclei (excluding nucleoli), where it extensively co-localized with the LC3A and the Beclin-1 autophagy initiating protein. Beclin 1 is known to contain a nuclear trafficking signal. Blocking nuclear export function by Leptomycin B resulted in nuclear accumulation of all LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins, while Ivermectin that blocks nuclear import showed reduction of accumulation, but not in all cell lines. Since endogenous LC3 proteins are used as major markers of autophagy in clinical studies and cell lines, it is essential to check the specificity of the antibodies used, as the kinetics of these molecules are not identical and may have distinct biological roles. The distinct subcellular expression patterns of LC3s provide a basis for further studies. PMID:26378792

  12. Development of a wavelength-stabilized distributed bragg reflector laser diode to the Cs-D2 line for field use in accurate geophysical measurements.

    PubMed

    Hori, Teruhito; Araya, Akito; Moriwaki, Shigenori; Mio, Norikatsu

    2007-02-01

    We have developed a wavelength-stabilized laser diode (LD) for geophysical measurement devices, which benefit from the uniformity of laser light. Regarding this purpose, a system that has such characteristics as low power consumption, sturdiness against mechanical disturbances, and a long life with long-term frequency stability is especially required. Therefore, we adopt as the light source a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) LD because it has various advantages concerning such properties. This paper describes the durable and compact wavelength-stabilized laser system. Since our DBR-LD oscillates at 852 nm, we selected the Cs-D2 line (6 2S1/2-6 2P3/2 transition) as a frequency reference to obtain a long-term stability in wavelength. Stabilization is performed by a feedback system using a modulation transfer (MT) method, which is a kind of Doppler-free saturated absorption spectroscopy, to acquire a saturated absorption signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Using this system, we could continuously lock the laser frequency to the hyperfine component of the Cs-D2 line for more than one week. By an Allan standard deviation measurement, the uncertainty of the stabilized laser frequency was found to be better than 1 x 10(-10) (<40 kHz) in a Gatetime region longer than 100 s.

  13. IGF-I and retinoic acid regulate the distribution pattern of IGFBPs synthesized by the canine mammary tumor cell line CMT-U335.

    PubMed

    Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M A; Kwant, M M; Slob, A; Hellmén, E; Mol, J A

    1999-03-01

    Stromal-epithelial interactions modulate growth and development in normal and neoplastic mammary gland. The release of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) by the stromal compartment of the mammary gland may play a modulating role in the IGF-mediated proliferation of mammary epithelium. Therefore, the IGFBP-expression pattern of the canine mammary tumor cell line U335 (CMT-U335), which has a mesenchymal phenotype, was determined. In addition, the effects of IGFs and all trans retinoic acid (RA) on DNA synthesis, and IGFBP secretion and distribution were examined. The IGFBPs secreted by CMT-U335 were characterized as IGFBP-2, -4, -5, and -6. Moreover, CMT-U335 appeared to be a suitable mammary mesenchymal cell line for study of the regulatory factors of IGFBP expression and the mechanism(s) involved. IGFs and RA enhanced IGFBP concentrations in cell-conditioned medium with IGF-I and RA having an additive effect. The IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis, however, was inhibited by RA. The difference between IGF-I and RA was an enhanced IGFBP-5 binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) by RA, whereas IGF-I reduced binding to the ECM. Because high doses of insulin had no significant effects on IGFBP concentrations in the medium, it is concluded that IGF-I-induced changes in IGFBP concentrations are not mediated by type-IIGF receptors and may be the consequence of IGFBP redistribution.

  14. The Cost of Costing Treatments Incorrectly: Errors in the Application of Drug Prices in Economic Evaluation Due to Failing to Account for the Distribution of Patient Weight.

    PubMed

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Porter, Joshua; Lee, Dawn; Hertel, Nadine; Latimer, Nicholas R

    2016-12-01

    The cost of pharmaceuticals dosed by weight or body surface area (BSA) can be estimated in several ways for economic evaluations. A review of 20 recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence appraisals showed that 17 of them took the mean weight or BSA of patients, 2 costed the individual patient data from trials, and 2 fitted a distribution to patient-level data. To investigate the estimated drug costs using different methodologies to account for patient characteristics for pharmaceuticals with a weight- or BSA-based posology. The secondary objective was to explore the suitability of general population data as a proxy for patient-level data. Patient-level data were pooled from three clinical trials and used to calculate a hypothetical cost per administration of eight licensed pharmaceuticals, applying the three methods used in recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence appraisals. The same analysis was performed using data from the Health Survey for England (in place of patient-level data) to investigate the validity of using general population data as a substitute for patient-level data. Compared with using patient-level data from clinical trials, the mean patient characteristics (weight or BSA) led to an underestimation of drug cost by 6.1% (range +1.5% to -25.5%). Fitting a distribution to patient-level data led to a mean difference of +0.04%. All estimates were consistent using general population data. Estimation of drug costs in health economic evaluation should account for the distribution in weight or BSA to produce accurate results. When patient data are not available, general population data may be used as an alternative. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Waning habitats due to climate change: the effects of changes in streamflow and temperature at the rear edge of the distribution of a cold-water fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Santiago, José; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Solana-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; García de Jalón, Diego; Alonso, Carlos; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert; Ribalaygua, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    Climate changes affect aquatic ecosystems by altering temperatures and precipitation patterns, and the rear edges of the distributions of cold-water species are especially sensitive to these effects. The main goal of this study was to predict in detail how changes in air temperature and precipitation will affect streamflow, the thermal habitat of a cold-water fish (the brown trout, Salmo trutta), and the synergistic relationships among these variables at the rear edge of the natural distribution of brown trout. Thirty-one sites in 14 mountain rivers and streams were studied in central Spain. Models of streamflow were built for several of these sites using M5 model trees, and a non-linear regression method was used to estimate stream temperatures. Nine global climate models simulations for Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were downscaled to the local level. Significant reductions in streamflow were predicted to occur in all of the basins (max. -49 %) by the year 2099, and seasonal differences were noted between the basins. The stream temperature models showed relationships between the model parameters, geology and hydrologic responses. Temperature was sensitive to streamflow in one set of streams, and summer reductions in streamflow contributed to additional stream temperature increases (max. 3.6 °C), although the sites that are most dependent on deep aquifers will likely resist warming to a greater degree. The predicted increases in water temperatures were as high as 4.0 °C. Temperature and streamflow changes will cause a shift in the rear edge of the distribution of this species. However, geology will affect the extent of this shift. Approaches like the one used herein have proven to be useful in planning the prevention and mitigation of the negative effects of climate change by differentiating areas based on the risk level and viability of fish populations.

  16. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Basile, Chiara; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Coca Perez, Marco; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael; Vergara Gil, Alex; Cremonesi, Marta

    2015-03-01

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with 131I, 177Lu, 188Re or 90Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with 90Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D95%, D50% or Dmax (ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax) and dose profiles. For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for 177Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D95% and D50% underestimations between 30-60% and 15-50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (-1.2%), AM (-3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED. The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by differences among the VSVs

  17. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT.

    PubMed

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Basile, Chiara; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Diaz, Nestor Cornejo; Perez, Marco Coca; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael; Gil, Alex Vergara; Cremonesi, Marta

    2015-03-07

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with (131)I, (177)Lu, (188)Re or (90)Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with (90)Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D95%, D50% or Dmax (ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax) and dose profiles.For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for (177)Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D95% and D50% underestimations between 30-60% and 15-50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (-1.2%), AM (-3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED.The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by differences among the VSVs

  18. Flooding impairs Fe uptake and distribution in Citrus due to the strong down-regulation of genes involved in Strategy I responses to Fe deficiency in roots.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Quiñones, Ana; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work determines the ffects of long-term anoxia conditions--21 days--on Strategy I responses to iron (Fe) deficiency in Citrus and its impact on Fe uptake and distribution. The study was carried out in Citrus aurantium L. seedlings grown under flooding conditions (S) and in both the presence (+Fe) and absence of Fe (-Fe) in nutritive solution. The results revealed a strong down-regulation (more than 65%) of genes HA1 and FRO2 coding for enzymes proton-ATPase and Ferric-Chelate Reductase (FC-R), respectively, in -FeS plants when compared with -Fe ones. H+-extrusion and FC-R activity analyses confirmed the genetic results, indicating that flooding stress markedly repressed acidification and reduction responses to Fe deficiency (3.1- and 2.0-fold, respectively). Waterlogging reduced by half Fe concentration in +FeS roots, which led to 30% up-regulation of Fe transporter IRT1, although this effect was unable to improve Fe absorption. Consequently, flooding inhibited 57Fe uptake in +Fe and -Fe seedlings (29.8 and 66.2%, respectively) and 57Fe distribution to aerial part (30.6 and 72.3%, respectively). This evidences that the synergistic action of both enzymes H+-ATPase and FC-R is the preferential regulator of the Fe acquisition system under flooding conditions and, hence, their inactivation implies a limiting factor of citrus in their Fe-deficiency tolerance in waterlogged soils.

  19. Distribution of PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) in PM(10) fraction in ambient air due to vehicular pollution in Kolkata megacity.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal

    2006-11-01

    This research paper aims at establishing baseline PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentration levels, which could be effectively used to develop and upgrade the standards in air pollution in developing countries. The relative contribution of fine fractions (PM(2.5)) and coarser fractions (PM(10-2.5)) to PM(10) fractions were investigates in a megacity which is overcrowded and congested due to lack of road network and deteriorated air quality because of vehicular pollution. The present study was carried out during the winter of 2002. The average 24h PM(10) concentration was 304 microg/m(3), which is 3 times more than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and higher PM(10) concentration was due to fine fraction (PM(2.5)) released by vehicular exhaust. The 24h average PM(2.5) concentration was found 179 microg/m(3), which is exceeded USEPA and EU standards of 65 and 50 microg/m(3) respectively for the winter. India does not have any PM(2.5) standards. The 24 h average PM(10-2.5) concentrations were found 126 microg/m(3). The PM(2.5) constituted more than 59% of PM(10) and whereas PM(10)-PM(2.5) fractions constituted 41% of PM(10). The correlation between PM(10) and PM(2.5) was found higher as PM(2.5) comprised major proportion of PM(10) fractions contributed by vehicular emissions.

  20. Root distribution of Pinus pinaster, P. radiata, Eucalyptus globulus and E. kochii and associated soil chemistry in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, R A; Speijers, J; Nicholas, B D

    2004-12-01

    We quantified the extent and distribution of roots of four commonly planted tree species (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus radiata D. Don, P. pinaster Aiton and E. kochii Maiden & Blakely subsp. plenissima C.A. Gardner) in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines, and examined the effect of soil type and root pruning on root morphology. Root distribution in soil adjacent to tree lines was mapped by a trench profile method at 13 sites on the south coast of Western Australia. Soil samples were collected to determine water content and fertility. The lateral extent of tree roots ranged from 10 m for E. kochii to 44 m for P. pinaster. This equated to between 1.5 and 2.5 times tree height (H) for E. globulus and Pinus spp. to 4H for E. kochii. Root density declined logarithmically with distance from the trees and was greatest for P. pinaster and least for E. globulus (P < 0.001). The rate of decrease in root density with distance from the trees was greatest for the Pinus spp. and least for E. kochii (P < 0.05). Root density was generally greatest in the top 0.5 m of the soil profile and decreased with increasing depth. This decrease was relatively gradual in the deep sands, but abrupt in clay subsoil. Root dry mass in the sandy top soil beyond 0.5H ranged between 1.0 and 55.5 Mg km(treeline) (-1) for 6-year-old E. kochii and 50-year-old P. pinaster, respectively. Soil water content generally increased with distance from the trees (P < 0.001). There was no evidence of reduced soil fertility in the top 1.4 m of the soil profile adjacent to the trees. Two to four years after trees had been root pruned, both the lateral extent and vertical distribution of roots were similar for pruned and unpruned trees. The density of roots < 2 mm in diameter was greater for root-pruned trees than for unpruned trees (P < 0.05). We conclude that the study species can compete with agricultural crops based on the lateral extent of their roots and the occurrence of greatest root density

  1. Free Radical-Initiated and Gap Junction-Mediated Bystander Effect due to Nonuniform Distribution of Incorporated Radioactivity in a Three-Dimensional Tissue Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Bishayee, Anupam; Hill, Helene Z.; Stein, Dana; Rao, Dandamudi V.; Howell, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the biological effects of nonuniform distribution of radioactivity in mammalian cells, we have developed a novel three-dimensional tissue culture model. Chinese hamster V79 cells were labeled with tritiated thymidine and mixed with unlabeled cells, and multicellular clusters (~1.6 mm in diameter) were formed by gentle centrifugation. The short-range β particles emitted by 3H impart only self-irradiation of labeled cells without significant cross-irradiation of unlabeled bystander cells. The clusters were assembled in the absence or presence of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and/or 100 µM lindane. DMSO is a hydroxyl radical scavenger, whereas lindane is an inhibitor of gap junctional intercellular communication. The clusters were maintained at 10.5°C for 72 h to allow 3H decays to accumulate and then dismantled, and the cells were plated for colony formation. When 100% of the cells were labeled, the surviving fraction was exponentially dependent on the mean level of radioactivity per labeled cell. A two-component exponential response was observed when either 50 or 10% of the cells were labeled. Though both DMSO and lindane significantly protected the unlabeled or bystander cells when 50 or 10% of the cells were labeled, the effect of lindane was greater than that of DMSO. In both cases, the combined treatment (DMSO + lindane) elicited maximum protection of the bystander cells. These results suggest that the bystander effects caused by nonuniform distributions of radioactivity are affected by the fraction of cells that are labeled. Furthermore, at least a part of these bystander effects are initiated by free radicals and are likely to be mediated by gap junctional intercellular communication. PMID:11175669

  2. COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED GAS SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Renyue

    2015-05-20

    We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.

  3. Farmland shift due to climate warming and impacts on temporal-spatial distributions of water resources in a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Hao, Zengchao; Liu, Hongbin; Shi, Yandan; Hao, Fanghua

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming increases the active accumulated temperature (AAT) of crops and may change crop structures and patterns. Climate warming along with farmland responses has combined consequences for watershed hydrological indicators, which would be expected to exhibit different temporal-spatial patterns. In our study we investigate the combined impacts of increased temperature and shifted farmland on the hydrological features in middle-high latitude agricultural watersheds. The AAT responses in latitudinal and altitudinal directions were revealed by using an agro-climate model under different warming scenarios (△T = 0.1 °C is applied to the interval from 0.7 °C to 1.5 °C). Then, the spatial distributions of dryland shifting to paddy land were determined considering △AAT. For every 1 °C increase in average annual temperature, the boundary for planting paddy fields will shift northward by approximately 160 km and upward in the altitudinal direction by 180 m. Increasing temperature values and the new crop distributions were imported into the SWAT model, which quantified the temporal (monthly and yearly) and spatial changes of runoff and actual evapotranspiration (ET). Annual runoff decreased at a rate of 9.5 mm/°C, and annual ET increased at a rate of 7 mm/°C under climate warming combined with shifted farmlands. Combined impacts increased runoff in February, March and September, and decreased runoff from April to July. ET increased from March to July and decreased in August and September. The comparison of spatial water resource responses indicated that lower altitude and lower latitude areas experienced larger changes in runoff and ET than was the case for higher altitude and higher latitude areas.

  4. Flooding Impairs Fe Uptake and Distribution in Citrus Due to the Strong Down-Regulation of Genes Involved in Strategy I Responses to Fe Deficiency in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Quiñones, Ana; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M. Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work determines the ffects of long-term anoxia conditions—21 days—on Strategy I responses to iron (Fe) deficiency in Citrus and its impact on Fe uptake and distribution. The study was carried out in Citrus aurantium L. seedlings grown under flooding conditions (S) and in both the presence (+Fe) and absence of Fe (-Fe) in nutritive solution. The results revealed a strong down-regulation (more than 65%) of genes HA1 and FRO2 coding for enzymes proton-ATPase and Ferric-Chelate Reductase (FC-R), respectively, in –FeS plants when compared with –Fe ones. H+-extrusion and FC-R activity analyses confirmed the genetic results, indicating that flooding stress markedly repressed acidification and reduction responses to Fe deficiency (3.1- and 2.0-fold, respectively). Waterlogging reduced by half Fe concentration in +FeS roots, which led to 30% up-regulation of Fe transporter IRT1, although this effect was unable to improve Fe absorption. Consequently, flooding inhibited 57Fe uptake in +Fe and –Fe seedlings (29.8 and 66.2%, respectively) and 57Fe distribution to aerial part (30.6 and 72.3%, respectively). This evidences that the synergistic action of both enzymes H+-ATPase and FC-R is the preferential regulator of the Fe acquisition system under flooding conditions and, hence, their inactivation implies a limiting factor of citrus in their Fe-deficiency tolerance in waterlogged soils. PMID:25897804

  5. β-Thalassemia due to intronic LINE-1 insertion in the β-globin gene (HBB): molecular mechanisms underlying reduced transcript levels of the β-globin(L1) allele.

    PubMed

    Lanikova, Lucie; Kucerova, Jana; Indrak, Karel; Divoka, Martina; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Prchal, Josef T; Divoky, Vladimir

    2013-10-01

    We describe the molecular etiology of β(+)-thalassemia that is caused by the insertion of the full-length transposable element LINE-1 (L1) into the intron-2 of the β-globin gene (HBB). The transcript level of the affected β-globin gene was severely reduced. The remaining transcripts consisted of full-length, correctly processed β-globin mRNA and a minute amount of three aberrantly spliced transcripts with a decreased half-life due to activation of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. The lower steady-state amount of mRNA produced by the β-globin(L1) allele also resulted from a reduced rate of transcription and decreased production of full-length β-globin primary transcripts. The promoter and enhancer sequences of the β-globin(L1) allele were hypermethylated; however, treatment with a demethylating agent did not restore the impaired transcription. A histone deacetylase inhibitor partially reactivated the β-globin(L1) transcription despite permanent β-globin(L1) promoter CpG methylation. This result indicates that the decreased rate of transcription from the β-globin(L1) allele is associated with an altered chromatin structure. Therefore, the molecular defect caused by intronic L1 insertion in the β-globin gene represents a novel etiology of β-thalassemia.

  6. Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg−1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release. PMID:20150198

  7. Effects of temperature on stress corrosion cracking behavior of stainless steel and outer oxide distribution in cracks due to exposure to high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Cracking growth tests were conducted in high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 561-423 K to evaluate the effects of H2O2 on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel (SS) at temperature lower than the boiling water reactor (BWR) operating temperature. Small compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from thermally sensitized type 304 SS. Despite the observation of only a small portion intergranular SCC (IGSCC) near the side groove of the CT specimen at 561 K in high-temperature water containing 100 ppb H2O2, the IGSCC area expanded to the central region of the CT specimens at 423 and 453 K. Effects of H2O2 on SCC appeared intensely at temperature lower than the BWR operating temperature because of a reduction in the thermal decomposition of H2O2. To estimate the environment in the cracks, outer oxide distribution on the fracture surface and the fatigue pre-crack were examined by laser Raman spectroscopy and thermal equilibrium calculation was performed.

  8. Propagation characteristics of superconducting microstrip lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S.G.; Ke, J.Y.; Chen, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    The modified spectral-domain approach is applied to study the propagation characteristics of high temperature superconducting microstrip lines whose signal strip and ground plane are of arbitrary thickness. In this study, numerical results for effective dielectric constant, attenuation constant, and strip current distribution are presented to discuss the effects due to frequency, temperature, strip thickness, and substrate loss tangent. In particular, the conductor and dielectric attenuation constants of superconducting microstrip line are depicted separately to discuss the mechanism of the line losses. A comparison with published theoretical and experimental results is also included to check the accuracy of the new approach`s results.

  9. Thermal structure and CO distribution for the Venus mesosphere/lower thermosphere: 2001-2009 inferior conjunction sub-millimeter CO absorption line observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald

    2012-02-01

    Sub-millimeter 12CO (346 GHz) and 13CO (330 GHz) line absorptions, formed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Venus (70-120 km), have been mapped across the nightside Venus disk during 2001-2009 inferior conjunctions, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Radiative transfer analysis of these thermal line absorptions supports temperature and CO mixing profile retrievals, as well as Doppler wind fields (described in the companion paper, Clancy et al., 2012). Temporal sampling over the hourly, daily, weekly and interannual timescales was obtained over 2001-2009. On timescales inferred as several weeks, we observe changes between very distinctive CO and temperature nightside distributions. Retrieved nightside CO, temperature distributions for January 2006 and August 2007 observations display strong local time, latitudinal gradients consistent with early morning (2-3 am), low-to-mid latitude (0-40NS) peaks of 100-200% in CO and 20-30 K in temperature. The temperature increases are most pronounced above 100 km altitudes, whereas CO variations extend from 105 km (top altitude of retrieval) down to below 80 km in the mesosphere. In contrast, the 2004 and 2009 periods of observation display modest temperature (5-10 K) and CO (30-60%) increases, that are centered on antisolar (midnight) local times and equatorial latitudes. Doppler wind derived global (zonal and should be SSAS) circulations from the same data do not exhibit variations correlated with these CO, temperature short-term variations. However, large-scale residual wind fields not fit by the zonal, SSAS circulations are observed in concert with the strong temperature, CO gradients observed in 2006 and 2007 (Clancy et al., 2010). These short term variations in nightside CO, temperature distributions may also be related to observed nightside variations in O 2 airglow (Hueso, H., Sánchez-Lavega, A., Piccioni, G., Drossart, P., Gérard, J.C., Khatuntsev, I., Zasova, L., Migliorini, A. [2008]. J

  10. X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrill, Manolo Edgar; Abdallah, Joseph; Zhang, Honglin; Hakel, Peter; Mancini, Roberto C

    2008-01-01

    We apply the magnetic-sublevel atomic kinetics model POLAR to the calculation of polarization properties of satellite lines in Li-like Si driven by subpicosecond-duration laser pulses. We identify spectral lines whose polarization can serve as a marker of plasma anisotropy due to anisotropy in the electron distribution function. We also discuss the utility and limitations of ur current theoretical approach and point out possible future improvements and directions.

  11. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-Line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Berrick, Steve; Leptuokh, Gregory; Liu, Zhong; Rui, Hualan; Pham, Long; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM On-line Visualization and Analysis System precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be ,integrated into existing operational decision support system for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that ,allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical ,parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output ,on screen in a matter of seconds.

  12. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-Line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Berrick, Steve; Leptuokh, Gregory; Liu, Zhong; Rui, Hualan; Pham, Long; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM On-line Visualization and Analysis System precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be ,integrated into existing operational decision support system for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that ,allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical ,parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output ,on screen in a matter of seconds.

  13. Distribution of pathogens in central line-associated bloodstream infections among patients with and without neutropenia following chemotherapy: evidence for a proposed modification to the current surveillance definition.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, James P; Robichaux, Chad; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Reyes, Mary Dent; Jacob, Jesse T

    2013-02-01

    Many bloodstream infections (BSIs) occurring in patients with febrile neutropenia following cytotoxic chemotherapy are due to translocation of intestinal microbiota. However, these infections meet the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition of central line-associated BSIs (CLABSIs). We sought to determine the differences in the microbiology of NHSN-defined CLABSIs in patients with and without neutropenia and, using these data, to propose a modification of the CLABSI definition. Retrospective review. Two large university hospitals over 18 months. All hospital-acquired BSIs occurring in patients with central venous catheters in place were classified using the NHSN CLABSI definition. Patients with postchemotherapy neutropenia (500 neutrophils/mm(3) or lower) at the time of blood culture were considered neutropenic. Pathogens overrepresented in the neutropenic group were identified to inform development of a modified CLABSI definition. Organisms that were more commonly observed in the neutropenic group compared with the nonneutropenic group included Escherichia coli (22.7% vs 2.5%; P < .001) but not other Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus faecium (18.2% vs 6.1%; P = .002), and streptococci (18.2% vs 0%; P < .001). Application of a modified CLABSI definition (removing BSI with enterococci, streptococci, or E. coli) excluded 33 of 66 neutropenic CLABSIs and decreased the CLABSI rate in one study hospital with large transplant and oncology populations from 2.12 to 1.79 cases per 1,000 line-days. Common gastrointestinal organisms were more common in the neutropenia group, suggesting that many BSIs meeting the NHSN criteria for CLABSI in the setting of neutropenia may represent translocation of gut organisms. These findings support modification of the NHSN CLABSI definition.

  14. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  15. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  16. Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural short-lived isotope distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-04-01

    provide simple models governing these processes under relatively high sedimentation rates, i.e., when Ra-diffusion from the sediment towards the water column may be neglected. In sites characterized by extreme sedimentologival events, 228Th/232Th profiles depict departures from this model, thus bearing information on the timing and processes involved. Examples from the Saguenay Fjord (Canada) illustrate the case of fast-deposited layers due to floods, whereas examples from estuaries and coastal areas of Sinaloa show evidence for re-suspension and/or erosion events linked notably to storminess and/or land use changes. In the first case, the fast accumulation of flood layers has sealed most of the early 20th-century contamination, whereas in the second case, erosion and re-suspension events led to either some removal of sediments contaminated by heavy metals, or their secondary release into the environment.

  17. Distribution and infection frequency of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Maryland populations of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and culture in an Anopheles gambiae mosquito cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Ren, Xiaoxia; Norris, Douglas E; Rasgon, Jason L

    2012-02-01

    Amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick) is a broadly distributed tick that transmits multiple pathogens of humans and domestic animals. 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted-fever group rickettsial species that is potentially associated with human disease. In 2008 and 2009, we assayed over 500 unfed adult ticks from 19 Maryland populations for the presence of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. Infection frequencies ranged from 33% to 100%, with an average infection rate of 60% in 2008 and 69% in 2009. Infection frequencies did not differ statistically between sexes. To develop a system in which to study 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in the laboratory, we used a cell line developed from Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Sua5B) to isolate and culture 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' from field-collected A. americanum ticks from 2 localities in Maryland. After infection, Sua5B cells were infected for more than 40 passages. Infection was confirmed by Rickettsia-specific PCR, gene sequencing, and Rickettsia-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These data show that 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' is widespread in Maryland A. americanum populations and that Sua5B cells are a useful tool for culturing Rickettsia infections from wild ticks.

  18. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D; Panyutin, Igor G

    2016-01-02

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC.

  19. The Broad-Line Region Cloud Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Matthias

    Generally, it is believed that the broad-emission lines are emitted by rapidly moving clouds or filaments within the BLR. The line profiles are expected to be variable on time scales of years due to redistribution of the clouds. However, observations show that profile changes can occur more rapidly than this indicating that hydrodynamical instabilities are associated with the BLR clouds themselves. Since the number of clouds is estimated to at least ~ 10^7 it is difficult to explain how stochastic events affecting individual clouds can yield detectable profile variations. Small-scale fluctuations due to as many as 4 x 10^6 clouds would be still observable in emission-line profiles taken with high spectral resolution and high S/N ratio (cf. Capriotti et al. 1981). Echelle spectra of 3C 273 and NGC 5548 will be presented. The line profiles of H\\alpha and H\\beta have been studied with high spectral resolution (\\Delta v ~ 10 km s^{-1}). The statistical variations of the residua of the H\\alpha and H\\beta line profiles will be used to test whether this is consistent with the expected statistical scatter due to the finite number of line emitting clouds. Based on these fluctuations it will be possible to derive an estimation of the total number of emission-line clouds. The results will be compared with simulations of cloud ensembles with different distributions, geometries, and numbers of individual emitters.

  20. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    SciTech Connect

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Trenti, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  1. Community LINE Source Model (C-LINE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an introduction for the live demo and explains the purpose of C-LINE and its key features. C-LINE is a web-based model designed to inform the community user of local air quality impacts due to mobile-sources in their region of interest using a simplifie...

  2. Distortion of bulk-ion distribution function due to nuclear elastic scattering and its effect on T(d,n){sup 4}He reaction rate coefficient in neutral-beam-injected deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.

    2007-05-15

    An effect of nuclear elastic scattering on the rate coefficient of fusion reaction between field deuteron and triton in the presence of neutral beam injection heating is studied. Without assuming a Maxwellian for bulk-ion distribution function, the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) equations for field (bulk) deuteron, field (bulk) triton, {alpha}-particle, and beam deuteron are simultaneously solved in an ITER-like deuterium-tritium thermonuclear plasma [R. Aymar, Fusion Eng. Des. 55, 107 (2001)]. The BFP calculation shows that enhancement of the reaction rate coefficient due to knock-on tail formation in fuel-ion distribution functions becomes appreciable, especially in the case of low-density operations.

  3. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui; Hopkins, Philip

    2010-08-20

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 < z < 4.5 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find evidence for 'cosmic downsizing' of black holes in BLQSOs, where the peak in their number density shifts to higher redshift with increasing black hole mass. The cosmic mass density for black holes seen as BLQSOs peaks at z {approx} 2. We estimate the completeness of the SDSS as a function of the black hole mass and Eddington ratio, and find that at z > 1 it is highly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} and L/L{sub Edd} {approx}< 0.5. We estimate a lower limit on the lifetime of a single BLQSO phase to be t {sub BL} > 150 {+-} 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M {sub BH} = 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be {approx}3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 0.05 and has a dispersion of {approx}0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  4. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Pham, L.; Shen, S.; Zhu, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are (1) area plot - averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; (2) time plot - time series averaged over any rectangular area; (3) Hovmoller plots - longitude-time and latitude-time plots; (4) ASCII

  5. Effect of testosterone on growth of P388 leukemia cell line in vivo and in vitro. Distribution of peripheral blood T lymphocytes and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Aboudkhil, S; Henry, L; Zaid, A; Bureau, J P

    2005-01-01

    In transplanted mice, the P388 tumor grew better in castrated than in non castrated (NC) mice. The proportion of CD8+ in the blood was more numerous in NC mice. The T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) were also high in the mice with small tumor tissue (<10 mg). The correlation observed between the tumor weight and T cell subset in PBL and in the mice with small tumors could confirm the important intervention of CD4+ and CD8+ cells to inhibit growth of tumor. Depo-testosterone (DT) injection reduced strongly weight and tumor growth in mice. On top of that, DT administration induced a significant increase in the percentage of blood CD8+ cells in grafted mice. The effect of DT was studied on the cell cycle progression, in tumor tissue of P388 tumor bearing BDF1 mice and in P388 murine leukemia cell line in culture. The cell cycle analysis in tumor tissue showed that DT decreased both the cells in S phase and the proliferating leukemic cells, with accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase. The testosterone can inhibit the proliferation of leukemic cells with a pharmacological dose (10(-7) M). This growth inhibition, dose and time dependent, was associated with cell cycle arrest; P388 cells accumulates in G0/G1 phase. We also observed a correlation between tumor weight and the percentage of cells in G0/G1 and the relative number of cells in proliferative state (S + G2/M). To conclude, our experiments reported that testosterone prevents the growth of tumor: indirectly by modulation of subsets T cells distribution and directly by the alteration of the cell cycle.

  6. Cashaic: An on-line Instrument for the Measurement of the Global Humidity Distribution in the Free Troposphere (0-13 km Altitude)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helten, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Sträter, W.; Kley, D.; Spelten, N.; Schiller, C.; Wernli, H.

    2003-04-01

    The CASHAIC instrument (CASHAIC = Compact Airborne Sampling Humidity/ Automatic In flight Calibration), employed on in-service aircraft as an ideal platform for continuous and accurate humidity measurements, could contribute to a better knowledge of the atmospheric water vapor distribution. This would enhance the reliability and evidence of prognostic model simulations of chemistry, weather and climate of the atmosphere considerably (eg. IPCC-report, 2001), particularly in the middle/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Only few water vapor measurements of sufficient quality in this regions of the atmosphere have been reported. The CASHAIC instrument is a small, light-weighted quasi maintenance-free humidity measuring system and has been developed in the frame of the German AFO-2000 research programme. An important aim will be to achieve on-line access of the measured data for weather services, to support meteorological synoptic and weather forecasting. To guarantee reliable, precise, and accurate data, an automatic in flight calibration procedure (= AIC) has been developed. The procedure is basing on experience with the water vapor measurement device employed in the EU-programme MOZAIC (Helten et al., 1998). It was tested for performance and reliability with raw data of the MOZAIC programme and also on more than 20 aircraft flights of the SPURT programme. Results of in-flight performance tests obtained in flights onboard a research aircraft during SPURT campaigns and of the test with MOZAIC raw data will be presented and discussed. During the SPURT campaigns a Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence hygrometer was used as a reference instrument. References: Helten, M., H. G. J. Smit, W. Sträter, D. Kley, P. Nedelec, M. Zöger, R. Busen, Calibration and performance of automatic compact instrumentation for the measurement of relative humidity from passenger aircraft, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25,643-25,652, 1998. IPPC (=Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  7. [Distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in runoff from the middle line source area of south-to-north water diversion project].

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao; Zhang, Kun-Feng; Zhou, Tian-Jian; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Wang, Qing-Qing; He, Xiao-Qi

    2011-07-01

    The distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in runoff from the middle line source area of south-to-north water diversion project were studied. Five groups of artificial runoff fields were established to collect runoff based on the different types of land-use, the contents of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in the runoff were determined using GC/MS method. The results showed that the average concentrations of PAHs of the aqueous phase in the collected runoff samples of different land-use types decreased in the order:cultivated land (26.53 ng x L(-1)) > oak forest (20.91 ng x L(-1)) > orchard (17.59 ng x L(-1)), and the average concentrations of PAHs of the particle phase were cultivated land (1 073.72 ng x g(-1)) > orchard (652.29 ng x g(-1)) > oak forest (385.46 ng x g(-1)). The high carcinogenic components Bap were detected in both run off of cultivated land and orchard with a detected rate of 30%. According to National Recommended Water Quality Standards of priority toxic pollutants (2006 USEPA), it was found that Chr exceed standard 40%, with a detected rate of 100%. It was also found that the runoff volume and the total PAHs content in runoff increase with the slope, and PAHs loss and slope were closely related in same land-use types. Based on the Molecular Markers Indicative Law, it can be concluded that the dominant source of PAHs in runoff of study area was combustion of coal, and a small amount came from vehicle exhaust emissions. There is a certain degree of ecological risk about runoff PAHs pollution in the study area, which is worth further attention.

  8. Mechanism of Pole-mounted Transformer Damage by Backflow Lightning and Measures against the Damage on Low-voltage Distribution Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hideki; Hongo, Yasuji; Kado, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Shigeu

    Pole-mounted transformer is one of the equipment that is easier to receive lightning damage. As our information society advances, the needs for supply reliability of electric power become higher, and the decreasing of lightning damages of pole-mounted transformers becomes necessary. In recent years, lightning protective devices (surge arresters) have been installed around the primary bushing of the transformers. Therefore, the number of disconnections around the primary bushing caused by lightning has been decreasing. However, the surge arrester that installed at the primary side of transformer cannot protect the transformer against backflow lightning that invades to the secondary side of transformer. The characteristic of the transformer damage by the backflow lightning is that electro-magnetic force occurring by the current flowing into the secondary side of transformer deforms the windings of the transformer. In this paper, the mechanism of transformer damage by the current flowing into the secondary side is clarified by the comparison between actual lightning damage case and the results of verification test using short-circuit generator. Effective counter measures against the damage of transformer by the backflow lightning are examined by EMTP calculations. From the calculation results, neutral grounding on low-voltage distribution line is the most effective measures in the point of decreasing of the amount of current flowing into the transformer. The less the grounding resistance, the less the amount of current flowing into the transformer. Moreover, decreasing the voltage of the secondary-side of the transformer is important to protect the bushing of the secondary-side. By the calculation result, it is clarified that the surge arresters installed around the secondary side of the transformer are effective for decreasing the voltage of the secondary side of the transformer.

  9. Line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collange, Sylvain; Daumas, Marc; Defour, David

    2008-01-01

    We report here on software that performs line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on gases. Elaborate models (such as narrow band and correlated-K) are accurate and efficient for bands where various components are not simultaneously and significantly active. Line-by-line is probably the most accurate model in the infrared for blends of gases that contain high proportions of H 2O and CO 2 as this was the case for our prototype simulation. Our implementation on graphics processing units sustains a speedup close to 330 on computation-intensive tasks and 12 on memory intensive tasks compared to implementations on one core of high-end processors. This speedup is due to data parallelism, efficient memory access for specific patterns and some dedicated hardware operators only available in graphics processing units. It is obtained leaving most of processor resources available and it would scale linearly with the number of graphics processing units in parallel machines. Line-by-line simulation coupled with simulation of fluid dynamics was long believed to be economically intractable but our work shows that it could be done with some affordable additional resources compared to what is necessary to perform simulations on fluid dynamics alone. Program summaryProgram title: GPU4RE Catalogue identifier: ADZY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 62 776 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 513 247 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: x86 PC Operating system: Linux, Microsoft Windows. Compilation requires either gcc/g++ under Linux or Visual C++ 2003/2005 and Cygwin under Windows. It has been tested using gcc 4.1.2 under Ubuntu Linux 7.04 and using Visual C

  10. CORONAL EMISSION LINES AS THERMOMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.

    2010-01-10

    Coronal emission-line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

  11. The Spectral Energy Distributions of z ~ 8 Galaxies from the IRAC Ultra Deep Fields: Emission Lines, Stellar Masses, and Specific Star Formation Rates at 650 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbé, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Carollo, C. M.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ~ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ~120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ~28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct >=3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at >=5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ~ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ~ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ~ 7 and z ~ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of {W}_{[O\\,\\scriptsize{III}]\\ \\lambda \\lambda 4959,5007+H\\beta }=670^{+260}_{-170} Å contributing 0.56^{+0.16}_{-0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ~ 8. The corresponding {W}_{H\\alpha }=430^{+160}_{-110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11_{-5}^{+11} Gyr-1 and a stellar population age of 100_{-50}^{+100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ~3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to \\rho ^*(z=8,M_{\\rm{UV}}<-18)=0.6^{+0.4}_{-0.3}\\times 10^6 \\,M_\\odot Mpc-3. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated

  12. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    DMSP satellites. (5) The effective ion mass in the day side is more than two times higher than night side below altitude ~500 km. (6) The O+/H+ and O+/(H ++He+) transition heights at day side are ~300-500 km higher than night side; the transition heights from the IRI-2012 model lie within the uncertainty limit of WM sounding for night side, but for day side (L-shell>2.5) they are 200 km higher than WM uncertainty limits. (7) foF2 (F2 peak plasma densities) from ionosonde stations and the IRI-2012 model are ~1.5-3 MHz higher than those from WM sounding during daytime. These measurements are very important as the ion density profile along geomagnetic field lines is poorly known. They can lead to a better understanding of global cold plasma distribution inside the plasmasphere at low altitude and thereby bridge the gap between high topside ionosphere and plasmasphere measurements. These results will provide important guidance for the design of future space-borne sounders in terms of frequency and virtual range, in order to adequately cover ion density measurements at low altitudes and wide range of MLTs, solar and geophysical conditions.

  13. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT z {approx} 1.4 IN THE SUBARU XMM-NEWTON DEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuta, K.; Akiyama, M.; Ueda, Y.; Hiroi, K.; Ohta, K.; Iwamuro, F.; Yabe, K.; Moritani, Y.; Sumiyoshi, M.; Maihara, T.; Watson, M. G.; Silverman, J.; Tamura, N.; Kimura, M.; Takato, N.; Dalton, G.; Lewis, I.; Bonfield, D.; Lee, H.; Curtis-Lake, E.; and others

    2012-12-20

    In order to investigate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), we construct the black hole mass function (BHMF) and Eddington ratio distribution function (ERDF) of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z {approx} 1.4 in the Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field. A significant part of the accretion growth of SMBHs is thought to take place in this redshift range. Black hole masses of X-ray-selected broad-line AGNs are estimated using the width of the broad Mg II line and 3000 A monochromatic luminosity. We supplement the Mg II FWHM values with the H{alpha} FWHM obtained from our NIR spectroscopic survey. Using the black hole masses of broad-line AGNs at redshifts between 1.18 and 1.68, the binned broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs are calculated using the V{sub max} method. To properly account for selection effects that impact the binned estimates, we derive the corrected broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs by applying the maximum likelihood method, assuming that the ERDF is constant regardless of the black hole mass. We do not correct for the non-negligible uncertainties in virial BH mass estimates. If we compare the corrected broad-line AGN BHMF with that in the local universe, then the corrected BHMF at z = 1.4 has a higher number density above 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} but a lower number density below that mass range. The evolution may be indicative of a downsizing trend of accretion activity among the SMBH population. The evolution of broad-line AGN ERDFs from z = 1.4 to 0 indicates that the fraction of broad-line AGNs with accretion rates close to the Eddington limit is higher at higher redshifts.

  14. Performance of On-line Measurements of The Global Distribution of Humidity In The Free Troposphere (0-13 Km Altitude)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helten, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Sträter, W.; Kley, D.; Spelten, N.; Schiller, C.

    Better knowledge of the water vapor distribution would enhance the reliability and evidence of prognostic model simulations of chemistry, weather and climate of the atmosphere considerably (eg. IPCC-report, 2001), particularly in the middle/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Only few water vapor measurements of sufficient quality in this regions of the atmosphere have been reported (Kley and Russell, 1999). The EC-programme MOZAIC has shown that in-service aircraft are an ideal platform for continuous and accurate measurements (Helten et al, 1998). In the frame of the German AFO-2000 research programme a stand alone humidity measuring system is under development, small, light weighted quasi maintenance-free on one hand and re- liable, precise, and accurate on the other, with emphasis on quality assurance of the measured data. An important aim will be to achieve on-line access of the measured data for weather services, to support meteorological synoptic and weather forecasting. Results of in-flight performance tests obtained from several flights onboard a research aircraft during SPURT campaigns, where a Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence hygrometer was used as a reference instrument (Zöger et al., 1999), will be presented and discussed. References: Helten, M., H. G. J. Smit, W. Sträter, D. Kley, P. Ned- elec, M. Zöger, R. Busen, Calibration and performance of automatic compact instru- mentation for the measurement of relative humidity from passenger aircraft, J. Geo- phys. Res., 103, 25,643-25,652, 1998. IPPC (=Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), Third Assessment Report - Climate Change 2001 : The Scientific Basis, Cambridge University Press, 2001 Kley, D., and J.R. Russell III, Plan for the SPARC Water Vapour Assessment (WAVAS), SPARC Newsletter, 13, 5-8,1999. Zöger, M., A. Afchine, N. Eicke, M.-T. Gerhards, E. Klein, D.S. McKenna, U. Mörschel, U. Schmidt, V. Tan, F Tuijter, T. Woyke, C. Schiller, Fast in situ stratospheric hygrom- eters: A

  15. Tetralocular ovary and high silique width in yellow sarson lines of Brassica rapa (subspecies trilocularis) are due to a mutation in Bra034340 gene, a homologue of CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yadava, Satish Kumar; Paritosh, Kumar; Panjabi-Massand, Priya; Gupta, Vibha; Chandra, Atika; Sodhi, Y S; Pradhan, Akshay K; Pental, Deepak

    2014-11-01

    Genetic locus for tetralocular ovary (tet-o) in Brassica rapa was identified and it was shown that the number of locules and width of silique are associated. Brassica rapa is a highly polymorphic species containing many vegetables and oleiferous types. An interesting group of oleiferous types is the yellow sarson group (subspecies trilocularis) grown mostly in eastern India. This group contains lines that have bilocular ovaries, a defining trait of Brassicaceae, but also lines that have tetralocular ovaries. Yellow sarson lines commonly have high silique width which is further enhanced in the tetralocular types. We mapped the locus influencing tetralocular ovary in B. rapa using three mapping populations (F2, F6 and F7) derived from a cross between Chiifu (subspecies pekinensis, having bilocular ovary) and Tetralocular (having tetralocular ovary). QTL mapping of silique width was undertaken using the three mapping populations and a F2 population derived from a cross between Chiifu and YSPB-24 (a bilocular line belonging to yellow sarson group). Qualitative mapping of the trait governing locule number (tet-o) in B. rapa mapped the locus to linkage group A4. QTL mapping for silique width detected a major QTL on LG A4, co-mapping with the tet-o locus in bilocular/tetralocular cross. This QTL was not detected in the bilocular/bilocular cross. Saturation mapping of the tet-o region with SNP markers identified Bra034340, a homologue of CLAVATA3 of Arabidopsis thaliana, as the candidate gene for locule number. A C → T transition at position 176 of the coding sequence of Bra034340 revealed co-segregation with the tetralocular phenotype. The study of silique related traits is of interest both for understanding evolution under artificial selection and for breeding of cultivated Brassica species.

  16. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Anuar, A.; Mohd Arshad, A. D.; Idris, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  17. Co-seismic stress transfer and magnitude-frequency distribution due to the 2012 Varzaqan-Ahar earthquake doublets (Mw 6.5 and 6.4), NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Shoja

    2016-12-01

    The Coulomb stress changes imparted by the 2012 Varzaqan-Ahar earthquake doublets to the surrounding area have been examined and correlated with the spatial distribution of the aftershocks. The stress changes due to the first main shock show that the western half of the South Ahar Fault, the southeastern half of the magnetic lineament ML1, the northeastern end of the ML2, the entire length of the ML3, a large part of the ML4 and the northeastern half of the ML5 were brought closer to failure. Whereas the entire length of the Khajeh Fault, a part of the North Tabriz Fault, the western half of the ML1, a large part of the ML2, the northwestern end of the ML4 and the southwestern half of the ML5 were moved away from failure. Along the length of the ML1, some aftershocks were clustered in the southeastern and central sections, while around the western section there is no earthquake clustering. The epicentral distributions of the aftershocks exhibit that most of the events were concentrated in the increased Coulomb stress zones. The b-value distributions in the map view and in the cross-sectional view have been investigated. The map view shows that the low b-value regions (e.g., the north-northwest, east-northeast and southeast of the main shock) are in good agreement with the positive Coulomb stress change zones. The cross-sectional view indicates that the high b-value regions correlate with the areas of high co-seismic slip release. Therefore, surrounding the hypocenter and the western end of the first main shock fault have high b-values, more slip and positive stress drop, while the central sections of the fault have low b-values, less slip and negative stress drop.

  18. Measurement of the DC Stark shift for visible NeI lines and electric field distribution in the cathode sheath of an abnormal glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanović, N. V.; Šišović, N. M.; Spasojević, Dj; Konjević, N.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of the DC Stark shift for seven visible NeI lines in the plane cathode sheath region of an abnormal glow discharge operated in neon with a small admixture of hydrogen. The electric field (up to 13.4 kV cm‑1) in the cathode sheath region is measured from the π-polarized profile of the H alpha line of hydrogen using the Stark polarization spectroscopy technique. Within the realized range of the electric field, the NeI lines exhibit a quadratic Stark effect. The values of coefficients, correlating Stark shift and electric field strength, were determined, enabling their future use for unknown electric field strength measurements. Among the studied lines, so far only the Stark effect analysis of the NeI 511.367 nm line has been reported, in which case our results are in good agreement with the best fit formula proposed by Jäger and Windholz (1984 Phys. Scr. 29 344) for one out of three Stark components detected under our experimental conditions.

  19. Radii broadening due to molecular collision in focused ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    Point exposures of poly(methyl methacrylate) resist are carried out with focused ion beams of Si++ and Au++ from a liquid AuSi ion source in order to obtain a current density distribution in the probe. All the distributions are composed of a main Gaussian distribution and a long tail dependent on r-3.3 (r means radial distance). The magnitude of this tail increases with the increase in ambient pressure of the ion-drifting space. When the probe is steered at the corner of deflection field, two types of clear ghost patterns appear: (1) circular patterns and (2) lines trailing from the main spot toward the deflection center. It is revealed that they are produced by exposures to ions or energetic neutrals generated with charge transfer collision of the primary ions with residual gas molecules. It is shown that the long tail in the current density distribution is also due to scattering with the residual gas molecules.

  20. Line Emission from Optically Thick RelativisticAccretion Tori

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, Steven V.; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.

    2007-09-14

    We calculate line emission from relativistic accretion tori around Kerr black holes and investigate how the line profiles depend on the viewing inclination, spin of the central black hole, parameters describing the shape of the tori, and spatial distribution of line emissivity on the torus surface. We also compare the lines with those from thin accretion disks. Our calculations show that lines from tori and lines from thin disks share several common features. In particular, at low and moderate viewing inclination angles they both have asymmetric double-peaked profiles with a tall, sharp blue peak and a shorter red peak which has an extensive red wing. At high viewing inclination angles they both have very broad, asymmetric lines which can be roughly considered as single-peaked. Torus and disk lines may show very different red and blue line wings, but the differences are due to the models for relativistic tori and disks having differing inner boundary radii. Self-eclipse and lensing play some role in shaping the torus lines, but they are effective only at high inclination angles. If inner and outer radii of an accretion torus are the same as those of an accretion disk, their line profiles show substantial differences only when inclination angles are close to 90{sup o}, and those differences are manifested mostly at the central regions of the lines instead of the wings.

  1. An on-line monitoring system for oil-film, pressure and temperature distributions in large-scale hydro-generator bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbel, M.; Haffner, K.

    1999-05-01

    Instrumentation that allows the behaviour of a hydro-generator thrust bearing to be monitored during operation is described. The measurement system was developed at the Asea Brown Boveri corporate research centre in Switzerland and was tested under realistic operating conditions at the Harbin Electric Machinery Company bearing-testing facility in the People's Republic of China. Newly developed fibre-optical proximity probes were used for the on-line monitoring of the thin oil film between the static and rotating parts of the bearing. These sensors are based on a back-reflection technique and can be used for various target materials such as Babbitt and Teflon. The monitoring system comprises about 120 temperature sensors, four pressure sensors and five optical oil-film thickness sensors. Temperature sensors are installed at specific static locations, whereas pressure and oil-film sensors are positioned in the runner and generate data during rotation. A special feature of the monitoring equipment is its on-line processing capability. Digital signal processors operating in parallel handle pressure and oil-film thickness data. Important measurement parameters such as the maximum pressure, maximum temperature and minimum oil-film thickness are displayed on-line. Detailed three-dimensional temperature information on one of the load segments can be obtained from subsequent off-line data analysis. The system also calculates two-dimensional plots of the oil-film thickness and pressure for most of the 12 load segments.

  2. A method to predict electromigration failure of metal lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagawa, Kazuhiko; Naito, Kazushi; Saka, Masumi; Abé, Hiroyuki

    1999-12-01

    A new calculation method of atomic flux divergence (AFDgen) due to electromigration has recently been proposed by considering all the factors on void formation, and AFDgen has been identified as a parameter governing void formation by observing agreement of the numerical prediction of the void with experiment. In this article, a method to predict the electromigration failure of metal lines was proposed by using AFDgen. Lifetime and failure site in a polycrystalline line were predicted by numerical simulation of the processes of void initiation, its growth to line failure, where the change in distributions of current density and temperature with void growth was taken into account. The usefulness of this prediction method was verified by the experiment where the angled aluminum line was treated. The failure location was determined by the line shape and the operating condition. The present simulation accurately predicted the lifetime as well as the failure location of the metal line.

  3. Mass flow velocity distribution in the solar chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A study of chromospheric lines (those of Si-II and Si-III) was made using the data from high resolution telescope and spectrograph (HRTS). The optically thick line profiles such as lambda 1206 due to Si-III and lambda 1265 and lambda 1533 due to Si-II were to be investigated in detail using the techniques of spectrum synthesis in an attempt to model the mass flow velocity distribution in the region of the solar atmosphere.

  4. A tentative detection of the 183-GHz water vapor line in the martian atmosphere: Constraints upon the H2O abundance and vertical distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Encrenaz, TH.; Lellouch, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Paubert, G.; Gulkis, S.

    1995-01-01

    The 183-GHz water vapor line was tentatively detected on Mars in January 1991, with the IRAM 30-m millimeter antenna, under extremely dry atmospheric conditions. The measurement refers to the whole disk. The spectral line, although marginally detected, can be fit with a constant H2O mixing ratio of 1.0 x 10(exp -5), which corresponds to a water abundance of 1 pr-microns; in any case, an upper limit of 3 pr-microns is inferred. This value is comparable to the very small abundances measured by Clancy (1992) 5 weeks before our observation and seems to imply both seasonal and long-term variations in the martian water cycle.

  5. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor distribution in the neuroleptic nonresponsive and neuroleptic responsive lines of mice, a quantitative receptor autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Hitzemann, B; Hitzemann, R

    1992-04-01

    The present study uses quantitative receptor autoradiography to examine D1 and D2 receptor binding in the neuroleptic responsive and neuroleptic nonresponsive (NNR) lines of mice. The neuroleptic responsive and NNR mice have differed for at least eight generations by an order of magnitude in their sensitivity (ED50s) to catalepsy induced by neuroleptics with a high D2/D1 receptor activity profile. Across the entire rostral-caudal dimensions of the lateral caudate-putamen (CPu), of the dorsomedial CPu, the nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra zona reticulata, we found no difference in the density of [3H]SCH 23390 binding sites. [3H]Spiroperidol binding sites were not different in the dorsomedial CPu or nucleus accumbens but were significantly decreased (20-30%) in the NNR line in the caudal aspect of the lateral CPu. The NNR line also showed a significant elevation of D