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Sample records for distributions starburst models

  1. Starburst models of merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestwich, Andrea H.

    1993-01-01

    In the past decade, infrared observations have shown that interacting and merging galaxies have higher luminosities than isolated systems, with the luminosities in mergers as high as 10(exp 12) solar luminosity. However, the origin of the luminosity found in mergers is controversial, with two main competing theories. The first is the starburst scenario. As two gas rich galaxies start to merge, cloud-cloud collisions induce fast shocks in the molecular gas. This gas cools, collapses, and fragments, producing a blast of star formation. The main rival to this theory is that the infrared luminosity is produced by a dust embedded active nucleus, the merger of two gas rich galaxies providing the 'fuel to feed the monster'. There has even been speculation that there is an evolutionary link between starbursts and active nuclei, and that possibly active galactic nuclei (AGN's) and QSO's were formed from a starburst. Assuming that the infrared luminosity in merging galaxies is due to star formation, there should be ionizing photons produced from the high mass stars, giving rise to recombination line emission. The objective is to use a simple starburst model to test the hypothesis that the extreme infrared luminosity of merging galaxies is due to a starburst.

  2. Observations and starburst models of NGC 520

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernloehr, K.

    1993-03-01

    CCD images in B, V, R, I, and in the light of the emission line H-alpha have been obtained as well as 11 long-slit spectra. Color maps and radial velocity maps show that the irregular galaxy NGC 520 consists of two interacting components which are very likely on a bound orbit and are going to merge. The more massive component is seen almost edge-on and has a warp of about 27. Its nuclear region coincides with the radio continuum source and shows an active starburst which, at visual wavelengths, is almost hidden behind the dust lane of the disk. The spectra of the less massive, although visually brighter, second component northwest of the main component indicate a post-starburst some 2-3 x 10 exp 8 years old. Numerical starburst models, which were fitted to the data of both components, indicate that both starbursts might be deficient in low-mass stars.

  3. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: III. Emission Line Diagnostics of Ensembles of H II Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Leitherer, C; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A

    2006-05-10

    We have built, as far as possible, fully self-consistent models of H II regions around aging clusters of stars. These produce strong emission line diagnostics applicable to either individual H II regions in galaxies, or to the integrated emission line spectra of disk or starburst galaxies. The models assume that the expansion and internal pressure of individual H II regions is driven by the net input of mechanical energy from the central cluster, be it through winds or supernova events. This eliminates the ionization parameter as a free variable, replacing it with a parameter which depends on the ratio of the cluster mass to the pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. These models explain why H II regions with low abundances have high excitation, and demonstrate that at least part of the warm ionized medium is the result of overlapping faint, old, large, and low pressure H II regions. We present a number of line ratios (at both optical and IR wavelengths) that provide reliable abundance diagnostics for either single H II regions or for integrated galaxy spectra, and others that are sensitive to the age of the cluster stars exciting individual H II regions.

  4. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: II. Control of the H II Region Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A; Leitherer, C

    2006-03-01

    We examine from a theoretical viewpoint how the physical parameters of H II regions are controlled both in normal galaxies and in starburst environments. These parameters are the H II region luminosity function, the time-dependent size, the covering fraction of molecular clouds, the pressure in the ionized gas and the ionization parameter. The factors which control them are the initial mass function of the exciting stars, the cluster mass function, the metallicity and the mean pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. We investigate the sensitivity of the H{alpha} luminosity to the IMF, and find that this can translate to about 30% variation in derived star formation rates. The molecular cloud dissipation timescale is estimated from a case study of M17 to be {approx} 1 Myr. Based upon H II luminosity function fitting for nearby galaxies, we propose that the cluster mass function has a log-normal form peaking at {approx} 185M{sub {circle_dot}}. This suggests that the cluster mass function is the continuation of the stellar IMF to higher mass. The pressure in the H II regions is controlled by the mechanical luminosity flux from the central cluster. Since this is closely related to the ionizing photon flux, we show that the ionization parameter is not a free variable, and that the diffuse ionized medium may be composed of many large, faint and old H II regions. Finally, we derive theoretical probability distributions for the ionization parameter as a function of metallicity and compare these to those derived for SDSS galaxies.

  5. Modeling Small Stellar Populations Using Starburst99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Gerardo A.; Leitherer, Claus

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have developed a new approach to form stars from clusters first, where massive stars are formed from fractions of mass of small stellar clusters. This new approximation is based on the empirical power law found in recent years and the maximum stellar mass that can be formed in a cluster. To produce the new models we have used the most recent version of Starburst99 that incorporates the most recent stellar evolution models with rotation. At the verge of solving nearby stellar populations and observing small stellar populations across the universe, this new approach brings a new scope on trying to disentangle the nature of hyper and supermassive stars in small stellar populations. Models for NGC 3603 and NGC 604 are presented. Our most important result is a strong ionizing power from small clusters by forming enough supermassive stars in a cluster of ~ 104 M⊙.

  6. Gas distribution and starbursts in shell galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Melinda L.; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Detailed maps of most elliptical galaxies reveal that, whereas the greatest part of their luminous mass originates from a smooth distribution with a surface brightness approximated by a de Vaucouleurs law, a small percentage of their light is contributed by low surface brightness distortions termed 'fine structures'. The sharp-edged features called 'shells' are successfully reproduced by merger and infall models involving accretion from less massive companions. In this context, dwarf spheroidal and compact disk galaxies are likely progenitors of these stellar phenomena. However, it is probable that the sources of shell-forming material also contain significant amounts of gas. This component may play an important role in constraining the formation and evolution of shell galaxies. To investigate the effects of the gaseous component, numerical simulations were performed to study the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars by more massive primaries, and the evolution of the ensuing debris. The calculations were performed with a hybrid N-body/hydrodynamics code. Collisionless matter is evolved using a conventional N-body technique and gas is treated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in which self-gravitating fluid elements are represented as particles evolving according to Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations. An isothermal equation of state is employed so the gas remains at a temperature 104 K. Owing to the large mass ratio between the primary and companion, the primary is modeled as a rigid potential and the self-gravity of both galaxies is neglected.

  7. Models of ring galaxies. II - Extended starbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struck-Marcell, Curtis; Appleton, P. N.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical models of the development of star-formation bursts in collisional ring galaxies are presented. To extend the work of Appleton and Struck-Marcell (1987) target disks which have relatively high mean cloud mass and gas density are emphasized. In such cases, even relatively low mass intruder galaxies are capable of triggering intense star-formation bursts in the density waves. Although the bursts are very short-lived in any individual gas element, pressure effects stimulate neighboring gas elements to burst, which can result in a sustained enhancement in the net star-formation rate. The results are capable of explaining the high far-infrared fluxes observed in righ galaxies and provide clues to the development of starburst activity in other colliding galaxies.

  8. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. III. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Holtzman, Jon

    2012-11-01

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Myr timescales in 15 starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., H{alpha} emission), there could be a strong bias toward classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially distributed.

  9. Modeling Mid-infrared Diagnostics of Obscured Quasars and Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Sajina, Anna; Jonsson, Patrik; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.; Yan, Lin

    2013-05-01

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z ~ 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z ~ 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a ~109 yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 μm absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 μm, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  10. MODELING MID-INFRARED DIAGNOSTICS OF OBSCURED QUASARS AND STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Jonsson, Patrik; Hernquist, Lars; Hayward, Christopher C.; Sajina, Anna; Cox, Thomas J.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Yan Lin

    2013-05-10

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z {approx} 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z {approx} 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a {approx}10{sup 9} yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 {mu}m absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 {mu}m, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  11. EVOLVING STARBURST MODELING OF FAR-INFRARED/SUBMILLIMETER/MILLIMETER LINE EMISSION. II. APPLICATION TO M 82

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Lihong

    2009-11-01

    We present starburst models for far-infrared/sub-millimeter/millimeter line emission of molecular and atomic gas in an evolving starburst region, which is treated as an ensemble of noninteracting hot bubbles that drive spherical shells of swept-up gas into a surrounding uniform gas medium. These bubbles and shells are driven by stellar winds and supernovae within massive star clusters formed during an instantaneous starburst. The underlying stellar radiation from the evolving clusters affects the properties and structure of photodissociation regions (PDRs) in the shells, and hence the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the molecular and atomic line emission from these swept-up shells and the associated parent giant molecular clouds contain a signature of the stage of evolution of the starburst. The physical and chemical properties of the shells and their structure are computed using a simple, well-known similarity solution for the shell expansion, a stellar population synthesis code, and a time-dependent PDR chemistry model. The SEDs for several molecular and atomic lines ({sup 12}CO and its isotope {sup 13}CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, C, O, and C{sup +}) are computed using a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium line radiative transfer model. By comparing our models with the available observed data of nearby infrared bright galaxies, especially M 82, we constrain the models and in the case of M 82, we provide estimates for the ages (5-6 Myr, 10 Myr) of recent starburst activity. We also derive a total H{sub 2} gas mass of approx(2-3.4) x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun} for the observed regions of the central 1 kpc starburst disk of M 82.

  12. Numerical models of starburst galaxies: Galactic winds and entrained gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan

    My three-dimensional hydro-dynamical simulations of starbursts examine the formation of starburst-driven superbubbles over a range of driving luminosities and mass loadings that determine superbubble growth and wind velocity; floors of both 10 and 10. 4 K are considered. From this I determine the relationshipbetween the velocity of a galactic wind and the characteristics of the starburst. I find a threshold for the formation of a wind, above which the wind speed is not affected by grid resolution or the temperature floor of the radiative cooling employed. Optically bright filaments form at the edge of merging superbubbles, or where a cold dense cloud has been disrupted by the wind. Filaments formed by merging superbubbles will persist and grow to >400 pc in length if anchored to and fed from a star forming complex. For galaxies viewed edge on I use total emission from the superbubble to infer the wind velocity and starburst properties such as thermalization efficiency and mass loading factor. Using synthetic absorption profiles I probe different temperature regimes and measure the velocity of the cold, warm and hot gas phases. I find that the cold and warm gas entrained in the wind move at a much lower velocity than the hot gas, with some of the cold gas in the filaments hardly moving with respect to the galaxy. The absorption profiles show that the velocity of the hot galactic outflow does not depend on the star formation rate (SFR), but the velocity of the warm gas does. The velocity of the warm gas scales as SFR. delta untilthe wind velocity reaches 80 % of the analytic terminal wind speed. The value of delta depends on the atomic ionization with a lower value for low ionization, and a higher value for higher ionization.

  13. The W43-MM1 mini-starburst ridge, a test for star formation efficiency models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louvet, F.; Motte, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Maury, A.; Bonnell, I.; Bontemps, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Hill, T.; Gueth, F.; Peretto, N.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Stephan, G.; Schilke, P.; Csengeri, T.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Lis, D. C.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Star formation efficiency (SFE) theories are currently based on statistical distributions of turbulent cloud structures and a simple model of star formation from cores. They remain poorly tested, especially at the highest densities. Aims: We investigate the effects of gas density on the SFE through measurements of the core formation efficiency (CFE). With a total mass of ~2 × 104 M⊙, the W43-MM1 ridge is one of the most convincing candidate precursors of Galactic starburst clusters and thus one of the best places to investigate star formation. Methods: We used high-angular resolution maps obtained at 3 mm and 1 mm within the W43-MM1 ridge with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to reveal a cluster of 11 massive dense cores, and, one of the most massive protostellar cores known. A Herschel column density image provided the mass distribution of the cloud gas. We then measured the "instantaneous" CFE and estimated the SFE and the star formation rate (SFR) within subregions of the W43-MM1 ridge. Results: The high SFE found in the ridge (~6% enclosed in ~8 pc3) confirms its ability to form a starburst cluster. There is, however, a clear lack of dense cores in the eastern part of the ridge, which may be currently assembling. The CFE and the SFE are observed to increase with volume gas density, while the SFR per free fall time steeply decreases with the virial parameter, αvir. Statistical models of the SFR may describe the outskirts of the W43-MM1 ridge well, but struggle to reproduce its inner part, which corresponds to measurements at low αvir. It may be that ridges do not follow the log-normal density distribution, Larson relations, and stationary conditions forced in the statistical SFR models. Final IRAM/PdBI FITS cube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A15

  14. Starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically discovered samples using 487 Markarian galaxies with redshifts and published IRAS 60 micron fluxes, and 1074 such galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey. It is found that the majority of infrared galaxies which could be detected are low luminosity sources already known from the optical samples, but non-infrared surveys have found only a very small fraction of the highest luminosity sources. Distributions of infrared to optical fluxes and available spectra indicate that the majority of IRAS-selected galaxies are starburst galaxies. Having a census of starburst galaxies and associated dust allow severl important global calculations. The source counts are predicted as a function of flux limits for both infrared and radio fluxes. These galaxies are found to be important radio sources at faint flux limits. Taking the integrated flux to z = 3 indicates that such galaxies are a significant component of the diffuse X-ray background, and could be the the dominant component depending on the nature of the X-ray spectra and source evolution.

  15. Shrouded Starburst

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-19

    A brilliant burst of star formation is revealed in this image combining observations from NASA Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes. The collision of two spiral galaxies has triggered this luminous starburst.

  16. Distributions of molecules in the circumnuclear disk and surrounding starburst ring in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 observed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Shuro; Nakajima, Taku; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Tamura, Yoichi; Izumi, Takuma; Taniguchi, Akio; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2014-07-01

    Sensitive observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) allow astronomers to observe the detailed distributions of molecules with relatively weak intensity in nearby galaxies. In particular, we report distributions of several molecular transitions including shock and dust related species (13CO J = 1-0, C18O J = 1-0, 13CN N = 1-0, CS J = 2-1, SO JN = 32-21, HNCO JKa,Kc = 50,5-40,4, HC3N J = 11-10, 12-11, CH3OH JK = 2K-1K, and CH3CN JK = 6K-5K) in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 observed with the ALMA early science program. The central ˜ 1'(˜ 4.3 kpc) of this galaxy was observed in the 100-GHz region covering ˜ 96-100 GHz and ˜ 108-111 GHz with an angular resolution of ˜ 4'' × 2'' (290 pc × 140 pc) to study the effects of an active galactic nucleus and its surrounding starburst ring on molecular abundances. Here, we present images and report a classification of molecular distributions into three main categories: (1) molecules concentrated in the circumnuclear disk (CND) (SO JN = 32-21, HC3N J = 11-10, 12-11, and CH3CN JK = 6K-5K), (2) molecules distributed both in the CND and the starburst ring (CS J = 2-1 and CH3OH JK = 2K-1K), and (3) molecules distributed mainly in the starburst ring (13CO J = 1-0 and C18O J = 1-0). Since most of the molecules such as HC3N observed in the CND are easily dissociated by UV photons and X-rays, our results indicate that these molecules must be effectively shielded. In the starburst ring, the relative intensity of methanol at each clumpy region is not consistent with those of 13CO, C18O, or CS. This difference is probably caused by the unique formation and destruction mechanisms of CH3OH.

  17. EPISODIC STARBURSTS IN DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES: A SIMPLE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Matthew; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lin Doug

    2012-04-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the Local Group appear to be stripped of their gas within 270 kpc of the host galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams of these dwarfs, however, show clear evidence of episodic star formation ({Delta}t {approx}a few Gyr) over cosmic time. We present a simple model to account for this behavior. Residual gas within the weak gravity field of the dwarf experiences dramatic variations in the gas cooling time around the eccentric orbit. This variation is due to two main effects. The azimuthal compression along the orbit leads to an increase in the gas cooling rate of {approx}([1 + {epsilon}]/[1 - {epsilon}]){sup 2}. The Galaxy's ionizing field declines as 1/R{sup 2} for R > R{sub disk} although this reaches a floor at R {approx} 150 kpc due to the extragalactic UV field ionizing intensity. We predict that episodic star formation is mostly characteristic of dwarfs on moderately eccentric orbits ({epsilon} > 0.2) that do not come too close to the center (R > R{sub disk}) and do not spend their entire orbit far away from the center (R {approx}> 200 kpc). Up to 40% of early infall dwarf spheroidals can be expected to have already had at least one burst since the initial epoch of star formation, and 10% of these dwarf spheroidals experiencing a second burst. Such a model can explain the timing of bursts in the Carina dwarf spheroidal and restrict the orbit of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. However, this model fails to explain why some dwarfs, such as Ursa Minor, experience no burst post-infall.

  18. Co-Evolution Model of AGNs and Nuclear Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatu, N.; Wada, K.

    2009-10-01

    We propose a new evolutionary model of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a circumnuclear disk (CND), taking into account the mass-supply from a host galaxy and the physical states of CND. In the model, two distinct accretion modes depending on gravitational stability of the CND play a key role on accreting gas to a SMBH. (i) If the CND is gravitationally unstable, energy feedback from supernovae (SNe) supports a geometrically thick, turbulent gas disk. The accretion in this mode is dominated by turbulent viscosity, and it is significantly larger than that in the mode (ii), i.e., the CND is supported by gas pressure. Once the gas supply from the host is stopped, the high accretion phase changes to the low one (mode (ii)), but there is a delay with ˜ 108 yr. Through this evolution, the gas-rich CND turns into the gas poor stellar disk. We found that not all the gas supplied from the host galaxy to the central 100 pc region accrete onto the SMBH even in the high accretion phase (mode (i)), because the part of gas is used to form stars. Moreover, a super-Eddington accretion is possible in the high accretion phase and thus the its condition is briefly discussed.

  19. Distribution of Molecules in the Circumnuclear Disk and Surrounding Starburst Ring in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068 Observed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, S.; Nakajima, T.; Kohno, K.; Harada, N.; Herbst, E.; Tamura, Y.; Izumi, T.; Taniguchi, A.; Tosaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    We report distributions of several molecular transitions including shock and dust related species (13CO and C18O J = 1-0, 13CN N = 1-0, CS J = 2-1, SO JN = 32-21, HNCO JKa,Kc = 50,5-40,4, HC3N J = 11-10, 12-11, CH3OH JK = 2K-1K, and CH3CN JK = 6K-5K) in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 observed with ALMA. The central ˜1' (˜4.3 kpc) of this galaxy was observed in the 100 GHz region with an angular resolution of ˜4" x 2" (290 pc x 140 pc) to study the effects of an active galactic nucleus and its surrounding starburst ring on molecular abundances. We report a classification of molecular distributions into three main categories. Organic molecules such as CH3CN are found to be concentrated in the circumnuclear disk. In the starburst ring, the intensity of methanol at each clumpy region is not consistent with that of 13CO.

  20. Models of the Molecular Interstellar Medium in Starbursts and AGN from z=0-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika T.; Cox, T.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dave, R.; Di Matteo, T.; Kelly, B.; Hernquist, L.; Hopkins, P.; Kulesa, C.; Li, Y.; Robertson, B.; Walker, C.

    2006-12-01

    Recent pioneering CO observations of infrared luminous galaxies and AGN at high-z allow us to study coevolution of black hole growth and star formation in galaxies during the heydey of massive galaxy formation. However, little is known concerning the physical nature of these crucial galaxies, and the relationship between the central AGN, ISM, and host galaxy properties to the observed CO emission. In order to provide a framework for an interpretation of these observations, I investigate the nature of the CO emission in starburst galaxies and quasars by combining a 3D non-LTE radiative transfer code with cosmological and galaxy merger hydrodynamic simulations. Here, I highlight recent results from these simulations. Specifically, I will discuss the following: 1. The effect of black hole growth and starbursts on CO emission patterns; 2. The role of galactic winds on CO emission morphologies and line profiles; 3. The nature of CO emission in z 6 Quasars, and how we might use this to constrain models of primordial galaxy formation.

  1. A Robust Test of the Unified Model for Seyfert Galaxies with Implications for the Starburst Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Kimberly A.

    1997-01-01

    My research involves detailed analysis of X-ray emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). For over a decade, the paradigm for AGN has rested soundly on the unified model hypothesis, which posits that the only difference between broad-line objects (e.g., Type 1 Seyfert galaxies) and narrow-line objects (e.g., Type 2 Seyferts) is that in the former case our line of sight evades toroidal obscuration surrounding the nucleus, while in the latter, our line of sight is blocked by the optically thick torus. It is well established that some Seyfert 2s contain Seyfert I nuclei (i.e., a hidden broad line region), but whether or not all Seyfert 2s contain obscured Seyfert 1 nuclei or whether some Seyfert 2s are intrinsically Seyfert 2s is not known. Optical, IR, and UV surveys are not appropriate to examine this hypothesis because such emissions are either anisotropic or subject to the effects of obscuration, and thus depend strongly on viewing angle. Hard X-rays, on the other hand, can penetrate gas with column densities as high as 10( exp 24.5) cm(-2) and thus provide reliable, direct probes of the cores of heavily obscured AGN. Combining NASA archival data from the Advanced Satellite of Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and Rosat, I am accumulating X-ray data between 0.1 and 60 keV to produce a catalog of the broad-band X-ray spectral properties of Seyfert galaxies. These data will be used to perform concrete tests of the unified model, and (compared with similar data on Starbursts) to examine a possible evolutionary connection between Seyfert and Starburst galaxies.

  2. Modelling the vertical structure of nuclear starburst discs: a possible source of AGN obscuration at z ˜ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear starburst discs (NSDs) are star-forming discs that may be residing in the nuclear regions of active galaxies at intermediate redshifts. One-dimensional (1D) analytical models developed by Thompson, Quataert and Murray show that these discs can possess an inflationary atmosphere when dust is sublimated on parsec scales. This makes NSDs a viable source for active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration. We model the two-dimensional (2D) structure of NSDs using an iterative method in order to compute the explicit vertical solutions for a given annulus. These solutions satisfy energy and hydrostatic balance, as well as the radiative transfer equation. In comparison to the 1D model, the 2D calculation predicts a less extensive expansion of the atmosphere by orders of magnitude at the parsec/sub-parsec scale, but the new scaleheight h may still exceed the radial distance R for various physical conditions. A total of 192 NSD models are computed across the input parameter space in order to predict distributions of a line-of-sight column density NH. Assuming a random distribution of input parameters, the statistics yield 56 per cent of Type 1, 23 per cent of Compton-thin Type 2s (CN) and 21 per cent of Compton-thick (CK) AGNs. Depending on the viewing angle (θ) of a particular NSD (fixed physical conditions), any central AGN can appear to be Type 1, CN or CK, which is consistent with the basic unification theory of AGNs. Our results show that log [NH(cm- 2)] ∈ [23,25.5] can be oriented at any angle θ from 0° to ≈80° due to the degeneracy in the input parameters.

  3. The starburst model for active galactic nuclei-II. The nature of the lag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terlevich, R.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Rozyczka, M.; Franco, J.; Melnick, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the starburst model for active galactic nuclei (AGN), the observed broad emission lines and their variability are generated by compact, strongly radiative supernova remnants. These compact remnants are expected to occur preferentially in the central region of massive early-type galaxies undergoing a nuclear burst of star formation. This paper deals with the time-dependent processes that occur prior to thin shell formation in a rapidly radiating supernova remnant, i.e. as it achieves maximum luminosity. This process, which has a typical time-scale of a few weeks and involves energies of about 5 per cent of the total explosion energy, produces time delays between the continuum and line emission, line and contiuum luminosities, and emission-line ratios with values similar to those observed in low-luminosities, and emission-line ratios with similar values to those observed in low-luminosity AGN. The predicted delays are shorter for the high-ionization lines than for the low-ionization lines. We also predict the occurrence, after shell formation, of shorter flares with little or no lag between continuum and lines. The models are compared with the results from the extensive monitoring campaign of NGC 5548 to show that the compact supernova remnant model is capable of giving an accurate and detailed description of the temporal behaviour of the broad-line region as well as accounting for all of the intrinsic parameters of the broad-line region with essentially only one free parameter: the density of the ambient medium.

  4. Space Observations of Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Leitherer, Claus

    1997-01-01

    Led by JHU postdoc Gerhardt Meurer, we completed our analysis of far-UV HST FOC images of nine nearby starbursts. We have been able to delineate the structure of the regions in which the unusually vigorous star-formation is occurring (Meurer et al 1995). At 0.1 arcsec (2 to 20 pc) resolution, the starbursts are resolved into multiple clumps and bright star clusters distributed over a region several hundred pc to a few kpc in size. This suggests that compact sites of star-formation may propagate from place to place within a larger central gas reservoir over the duration of the burst. The UV and optical properties of these clusters suggest that they may correspond to newly 'minted' globular clusters. These clusters typically produce about 10% to 50% of the far-UV light, and are preferentially located in the heart of the starburst, where the background UV surface brightness is highest. Thus, massive star cluster (globular cluster?) formation is a fundamental part of the starburst phenomenon. This confirms and generalizes the results of Whitmore et al (1993). Our starburst images are also being compared to our recent analysis of the HST FOC image of R136 in the LMC (De Marchi et al 1993). We have also extended our results on the UV photometric structure of starbursts to star-forming galaxies in the early universe (Meurer et al 1997). We show that the most actively- star-forming galaxies at all redshifts seem to have approximately the same bolometric surface-brightness, and that the high redshift galaxies may be larger and more luminous versions of local starbursts.

  5. Starburst Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.

    In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  6. Starburst Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.

    In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  7. Starbursts and their dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin

    1987-01-01

    Detailed mechanisms associated with dynamical process occurring in starburst galaxies are considered including the role of bars, waves, mergers, sinking satellites, self gravitating gas and bulge heating. The current understanding of starburst galaxies both observational and theoretical is placed in the context of theories of galaxy formations, Hubble sequence evolution, starbursts and activity, and the nature of quasar absorption lines.

  8. Spatial distribution of GRB and large scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Racz, Istvan; Gyorgy Balazs, Lajos; Toth, Viktor; Horvath, Istvan

    2015-08-01

    We studied the distribution the starburst galaxies from Millenium XXL database at z=0.82. First we examined the starburst distribution in the classical Millenium I, from the DeLucia (2006) database which used a semi-analytical model for the galaxies genesis. We found a relationship between the starburst galaxies and the dark matter density distribution in Millenium I and we determined the Millenium I and Millenium XXL transformation factor. We simulated a starburst galaxies sample with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method where we used the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The connection between the large scale structures homogenous and starburst groups distribution on a defined scale were checked too.

  9. Infrared supernovae in starbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Van Buren, D.; Norman, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of uniquely confirming that the luminosity source of starburst galaxies is a young population of massive stars is considered. Unambiguous detection of the supernova explosion associated with a massive stellar population would provide proof of the starburst hypothesis. High spatial resolution narrow-band infrared imaging of starburst galaxies directly detects the cobalt synthesized in Type II supernova explosions. Coupled with observations of other infrared lines and continuum, progenitor masses can be at least roughly estimated. A statistically large sample of starburst supernovae will lead to an average starburst initial mass function. Standard candles can also be constructed, based on both individual and populations of supernovae. With current and planned instruments, K-band can be found out to cosmological distances. 27 references.

  10. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S.; Wild, Vivienne; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during the post-starburst

  11. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  12. Starburst Galaxy NGC 3310

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-07

    Scientists using NASA Hubble Space Telescope are studying the colors of star clusters to determine the age and history of starburst galaxies, a technique somewhat similar to the process of learning the age of a tree by counting its rings.

  13. PROPERTIES OF NEARBY STARBURST GALAXIES BASED ON THEIR DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Paglione, Timothy A. D.; Abrahams, Ryan D.

    2012-08-20

    The physical relationship between the far-infrared and radio fluxes of star-forming galaxies has yet to be definitively determined. The favored interpretation, the 'calorimeter model', requires that supernova generated cosmic-ray (CR) electrons cool rapidly via synchrotron radiation. However, this cooling should steepen their radio spectra beyond what is observed, and so enhanced ionization losses at low energies from high gas densities are also required. Further, evaluating the minimum energy magnetic field strength with the traditional scaling of the synchrotron flux may underestimate the true value in massive starbursts if their magnetic energy density is comparable to the hydrostatic pressure of their disks. Gamma-ray spectra of starburst galaxies, combined with radio data, provide a less ambiguous estimate of these physical properties in starburst nuclei. While the radio flux is most sensitive to the magnetic field, the GeV gamma-ray spectrum normalization depends primarily on gas density. To this end, spectra above 100 MeV were constructed for two nearby starburst galaxies, NGC 253 and M82, using Fermi data. Their nuclear radio and far-infrared spectra from the literature are compared to new models of the steady-state CR distributions expected from starburst galaxies. Models with high magnetic fields, favoring galaxy calorimetry, are overall better fits to the observations. These solutions also imply relatively high densities and CR ionization rates, consistent with molecular cloud studies.

  14. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. I. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EIGHTEEN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Dolphin, Andrew; Hidalgo-RodrIguez, Sebastian

    2010-09-20

    We use archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of resolved stellar populations to derive the star formation histories (SFHs) of 18 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies. In this first paper, we present the observations, color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and the SFHs of the 18 starburst galaxies, based on a homogeneous approach to the data reduction, differential extinction, and treatment of photometric completeness. We adopt a star formation rate (SFR) threshold normalized to the average SFR of the individual system as a metric for classifying starbursts in SFHs derived from resolved stellar populations. This choice facilitates finding not only the currently bursting galaxies but also 'fossil' bursts increasing the sample size of starburst galaxies in the nearby (D < 8 Mpc) universe. Thirteen of the eighteen galaxies are experiencing ongoing bursts and five galaxies show fossil bursts. From our reconstructed SFHs, it is evident that the elevated SFRs of a burst are sustained for hundreds of Myr with variations on small timescales. A long >100 Myr temporal baseline is thus fundamental to any starburst definition or identification method. The longer lived bursts rule out rapid 'self-quenching' of starbursts on global scales. The bursting galaxies' gas consumption timescales are shorter than the Hubble time for all but one galaxy confirming the short-lived nature of starbursts based on fuel limitations. Additionally, we find that the strength of the H{alpha} emission usually correlates with the CMD-based SFR during the last 4-10 Myr. However, in four cases, the H{alpha} emission is significantly less than what is expected for models of starbursts; the discrepancy is due to the SFR changing on timescales of a few Myr. The inherently short timescale of the H{alpha} emission limits identifying galaxies as starbursts based on the current characteristics which may or may not be representative of the recent SFH of a galaxy.

  15. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of starbursts : from Spitzer-IRS to JWST-MIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael

    2012-06-01

    The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of star-forming regions and starburst galaxies are unique tracers of the star formation processes in these environments, since they contain information on the escaping and processed photons emitted by newly formed massive stars. Understanding these internal processes is crucial in our physical interpretation of observations of unresolved star formation in the Universe. In the first part of this thesis, we study the physical conditions in resolved starburst regions using Bayesian fitting of their spatially integrated infrared SEDs, including both the thermal continuum and the atomic emission lines. We then apply the method to unresolved starburst to learn about their star formation physics. Our approach leads to robust constraints on physical parameters such as age, compactness, and amount of currently ongoing star formation in starburst, which are otherwise biased by model degeneracies, and allows us to link the resolved properties of giant H II regions to the star formation process at larger scales. In the second part of this thesis, we discuss the wavelength calibration of the next instrument to study the midinfrared spectral properties of starbursts, with improved resolution and sensitivity: the mid-infrared instrument (MIRI), which will fly onboard the James Webb Space Telescope in 2018.

  16. Local starburst galaxies and their descendants. Statistics from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergvall, Nils; Marquart, Thomas; Way, Michael J.; Blomqvist, Anna; Holst, Emma; Ostlin, Goran; Zackrisson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Despite strong interest in the starburst phenomenon in extragalactic astronomy, the concept remains ill-defined. Here we use a strict definition of starburst to examine the statistical properties of starburst galaxies in the local universe. We also seek to establish links between starburst galaxies, post-starburst (hereafter postburst) galaxies, and active galaxies. Data were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. We applied a novel method of treating dust attenuation and derive star formation rates, ages, and stellar masses assuming a two-component stellar population model. Dynamical masses are calculated from the width of the H-alpha line. These masses agree excellently with the photometric masses. The mass (gas+stars) range is approximately 10( exp 9) - 10(exp 11.5) solar mass. As a selection criterion for starburst galaxies, we use, the birthrate parameter, b = SFR/SFR, requiring that b is greater than 3. For postburst galaxies, we use, the equivalent width of Hdelta in absorption with the criterion EW (sub Hdelta_abs) is greater than 6 A. Results. We find that only 1% of star-forming galaxies are starburst galaxies. They contribute 3-6% to the stellar production and are therefore unimportant for the local star formation activity. The median starburst age is 70 Myr roughly independent of mass, indicating that star formation is mainly regulated by local feedback processes. The b-parameter strongly depends on burst age. Values close to b = 60 are found at ages approximately 10 Myr, while almost no starbursts are found at ages greater than 1 Gyr. The median baryonic burst mass fraction of sub-L galaxies is 5% and decreases slowly towards high masses. The median mass fraction of the recent burst in the postburst sample is 5-10%. A smaller fraction of the postburst galaxies, however, originates in non-bursting galaxies. The age-mass distribution of the postburst progenitors (with mass fractions is greater than 3%) is bimodal with a break at logM(solar mass

  17. Local starburst galaxies and their descendants. Statistics from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergvall, Nils; Marquart, Thomas; Way, Michael J.; Blomqvist, Anna; Holst, Emma; Ostlin, Goran; Zackrisson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Despite strong interest in the starburst phenomenon in extragalactic astronomy, the concept remains ill-defined. Here we use a strict definition of starburst to examine the statistical properties of starburst galaxies in the local universe. We also seek to establish links between starburst galaxies, post-starburst (hereafter postburst) galaxies, and active galaxies. Data were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. We applied a novel method of treating dust attenuation and derive star formation rates, ages, and stellar masses assuming a two-component stellar population model. Dynamical masses are calculated from the width of the H-alpha line. These masses agree excellently with the photometric masses. The mass (gas+stars) range is approximately 10( exp 9) - 10(exp 11.5) solar mass. As a selection criterion for starburst galaxies, we use, the birthrate parameter, b = SFR/SFR, requiring that b is greater than 3. For postburst galaxies, we use, the equivalent width of Hdelta in absorption with the criterion EW (sub Hdelta_abs) is greater than 6 A. Results. We find that only 1% of star-forming galaxies are starburst galaxies. They contribute 3-6% to the stellar production and are therefore unimportant for the local star formation activity. The median starburst age is 70 Myr roughly independent of mass, indicating that star formation is mainly regulated by local feedback processes. The b-parameter strongly depends on burst age. Values close to b = 60 are found at ages approximately 10 Myr, while almost no starbursts are found at ages greater than 1 Gyr. The median baryonic burst mass fraction of sub-L galaxies is 5% and decreases slowly towards high masses. The median mass fraction of the recent burst in the postburst sample is 5-10%. A smaller fraction of the postburst galaxies, however, originates in non-bursting galaxies. The age-mass distribution of the postburst progenitors (with mass fractions is greater than 3%) is bimodal with a break at logM(solar mass

  18. HerMES: The rest-frame UV emission and a lensing model for the z = 6.34 luminous dusty starburst galaxy HFLS3

    SciTech Connect

    Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, Jae; Casey, C. M.; Ma, Brian; Osage, W. A.; Wardlow, Julie L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Burgarella, D.; Bussmann, R. S.; Clements, D.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Ivison, R. J.; La Porte, N.; Lo Faro, B.; Magdis, G.; Oliver, S. J.; and others

    2014-07-20

    We discuss the rest-frame ultraviolet emission from the starbursting galaxy HFLS3 at a redshift of 6.34. The galaxy was discovered in Herschel/SPIRE data due to its red color in the submillimeter wavelengths from 250 to 500 μm. Keck/NIRC2 K{sub s}-band adaptive optics imaging data showed two potential near-IR counterparts near HFLS3. Previously, the northern galaxy was taken to be in the foreground at z = 2.1, while the southern galaxy was assumed to be HFLS3's near-IR counterpart. The recently acquired Hubble/WFC3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data show conclusively that both optically bright galaxies are in the foreground at z < 6. A new lensing model based on the Hubble imaging data and the millimeter-wave continuum emission yields a magnification factor of 2.2 ± 0.3, with a 95% confidence upper limit on the magnification of 3.5. When corrected for lensing, the instantaneous star formation rate is 1320 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the 95% confidence lower limit around 830 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The dust and stellar masses of HFLS3 from the same spectral energy distribution (SED) models are at the level of 3 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉} and ∼5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, respectively, with large systematic uncertainties on assumptions related to the SED model. With Hubble/WFC3 images, we also find diffuse near-IR emission about 0.5 arcsec (∼3 kpc) to the southwest of HFLS3 that remains undetected in the ACS imaging data. The emission has a photometric redshift consistent with either z ∼ 6 or a dusty galaxy template at z ∼ 2.

  19. Multi-epoch very long baseline interferometric observations of the nuclear starburst region of NGC 253: Improved modeling of the supernova and star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Lenc, E.

    2014-01-01

    The results of multi-epoch observations of the southern starburst galaxy, NGC 253, with the Australian Long Baseline Array at 2.3 GHz are presented. As with previous radio interferometric observations of this galaxy, no new sources were discovered. By combining the results of this survey with Very Large Array observations at higher frequencies from the literature, spectra were derived and a free-free absorption model was fitted of 20 known sources in NGC 253. The results were found to be consistent with previous studies. The supernova remnant, 5.48-43.3, was imaged with the highest sensitivity and resolution to date, revealing a two-lobed morphology. Comparisons with previous observations of similar resolution give an upper limit of 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1} for the expansion speed of this remnant. We derive a supernova rate of <0.2 yr{sup –1} for the inner 300 pc using a model that improves on previous methods by incorporating an improved radio supernova peak luminosity distribution and by making use of multi-wavelength radio data spanning 21 yr. A star formation rate of SFR(M ≥ 5 M {sub ☉}) < 4.9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} was also estimated using the standard relation between supernova and star formation rates. Our improved estimates of supernova and star formation rates are consistent with studies at other wavelengths. The results of our study point to the possible existence of a small population of undetected supernova remnants, suggesting a low rate of radio supernova production in NGC 253.

  20. Young star clusters in circumnuclear starburst rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Ma, Chao; Jia, Siyao; Ho, Luis C.; Anders, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We analyse the cluster luminosity functions (CLFs) of the youngest star clusters in two galaxies exhibiting prominent circumnuclear starburst rings. We focus specifically on NGC 1512 and NGC 6951, for which we have access to Hα data that allow us to unambiguously identify the youngest sample clusters. To place our results on a firm statistical footing, we first explore in detail a number of important technical issues affecting the process from converting the observational data into the spectral energy distributions of the objects in our final catalogues. The CLFs of the young clusters in both galaxies exhibit approximate power-law behaviour down to the 90 per cent observational completeness limits, thus showing that star cluster formation in the violent environments of starburst rings appears to proceed similarly as that elsewhere in the local Universe. We discuss this result in the context of the density of the interstellar medium in our starburst-ring galaxies.

  1. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. V. Further Evidence for Starburst Recycling from Quantitative Galaxy Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Louis E.; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael D.; Oemler, Augustus, Jr.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Monson, Andrew; Persson, Eric; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-11-01

    Using J- and K s-band imaging obtained as part of the IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS), we measure Sérsic indices for 2160 field and cluster galaxies at 0.31 < z < 0.54. Using both mass- and magnitude-limited samples, we compare the distributions for spectroscopically determined passive, continuously star-forming, starburst, and post-starburst systems and show that previously established spatial and statistical connections between these types extend to their gross morphologies. Outside of cluster cores, we find close structural ties between starburst and continuously star-forming, as well as post-starburst and passive types, but not between starbursts and post-starbursts. These results independently support two conclusions presented in Paper II of this series: (1) most starbursts are the product of a non-disruptive triggering mechanism that is insensitive to global environment, such as minor mergers; (2) starbursts and post-starbursts generally represent transient phases in the lives of "normal" star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively, originating from and returning to these systems in closed "recycling" loops. In this picture, spectroscopically identified post-starbursts constitute a minority of all recently terminated starbursts, largely ruling out the typical starburst as a quenching event in all but the densest environments. Data were obtained using the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  2. Spatial distribution of GRBs and large scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Tóth, L. Viktor; Horváth, István

    We studied the space distribution of the starburst galaxies from Millennium XXL database at z = 0.82. We examined the starburst distribution in the classical Millennium I (De Lucia et al. (2006)) using a semi-analytical model for the genesis of the galaxies. We simulated a starburst galaxies sample with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The connection between the large scale structures homogenous and starburst groups distribution (Kofman and Shandarin 1998), Suhhonenko et al. (2011), Liivamägi et al. (2012), Park et al. (2012), Horvath et al. (2014), Horvath et al. (2015)) on a defined scale were checked too.

  3. NGC 1614: A Laboratory for Starburst Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Rieke, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Quillen, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    The modest extinction and reasonably face-on viewing geometry make the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614 an ideal laboratory for study of a powerful starburst. HST/NICMOS observations show: (1) deep CO stellar absorption, tracing a starburst nucleus about 45 pc in diameter; (2) surrounded by an approx. 600 pc diameter ring of supergiant H II regions revealed in Pa-alpha line emission; (3) lying within a molecular ring indicated by its extinction shadow in H - K; and (4) all at the center of a disturbed spiral galaxy. The luminosities of the giant H II regions in the ring axe extremely high, an order of magnitude brighter than 30 Doradus; very luminous H II regions, comparable with 30 Dor, are also found in the spiral arms of the galaxy. Luminous stellar clusters surround the nucleus and lie in the spiral arms, similar to clusters observed in other infrared luminous and ultraluminous galaxies. The star forming activity may have been initiated by a merger between a disk galaxy and a companion satellite, whose nucleus appears in projection about 300 pc to the NE of the nucleus of the primary galaxy. The relation of deep stellar CO bands to surrounding ionized gas ring to molecular gas indicates that the luminous starburst started in the nucleus and is propagating outward into the surrounding molecular ring. This hypothesis is supported by evolutionary starburst modeling that shows that the properties of NGC 1614 can be fitted with two short-lived bursts of star formation separated by 5 Myr (and by inference by a variety of models with a similar duration of star formation). The total dynamical mass of the starburst region of 1.3 x 10(exp 9) solar masses is mostly accounted for by the old pre-starburst stellar population. Although our starburst models use a modified Salpeter initial mass function (turning over near one solar mass), the tight mass budget suggests that the IMF may contain relatively more 10 - 30 solar masses stars and fewer low mass stars than the

  4. Super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoquette, Mark

    2009-07-01

    M82 is the archetype starburst galaxy and the nearest {3.6 Mpc} analogue to the star-forming galaxies identified at high-z. No other galaxy affords the opportunity to study an active starburst at such high spatial resolution, and with such a wealth of complimentary data available in the literature. In our cycle 10 STIS programme, we carried out the first spectroscopic study of a cluster in the core of the M82 starburst. Intriguingly, we found this young {6.5 Myr} cluster to be surrounded by a compact {4.5 pc}, high-pressure HII region, whose evolution appears to have been significantly affected by the high ambient pressures found in this region of the starburst. We therefore propose to obtain spatially resolved STIS spectroscopy of a sample of star clusters within the starburst core, distributed over a range of ambient conditions. Together with measuring accurate ages, masses, sizes, and extinctions of the star clusters, we will also measure the properties of their immediate environments {gas dynamics, pressures/densities, excitations}. Only with the spatial resolution of STIS can we isolate individual clusters in the crowded starburst core of M82, where the background is also bright and highly variable.The data from this proposal will uniquely chart relationships between SSCs and the ISM in their immediate vicinities. By so doing, they will provide the first systematic measurements of how SSCs transmit their power to their surroundings, and ultimately to the starburst-powered galactic wind.

  5. The identification of post-starburst galaxies at z ˜ 1 using multiwavelength photometry: a spectroscopic verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltby, David T.; Almaini, Omar; Wild, Vivienne; Hatch, Nina A.; Hartley, William G.; Simpson, Chris; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James; Rowlands, Kate; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Despite decades of study, we still do not fully understand why some massive galaxies abruptly switch off their star formation in the early Universe, and what causes their rapid transition to the red sequence. Post-starburst galaxies provide a rare opportunity to study this transition phase, but few have currently been spectroscopically identified at high redshift (z > 1). In this paper, we present the spectroscopic verification of a new photometric technique to identify post-starbursts in high-redshift surveys. The method classifies the broad-band optical-near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies using three spectral shape parameters (supercolours), derived from a principal component analysis of model SEDs. When applied to the multiwavelength photometric data in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey, this technique identified over 900 candidate post-starbursts at redshifts 0.5 < z < 2.0. In this study, we present deep optical spectroscopy for a subset of these galaxies, in order to confirm their post-starburst nature. Where a spectroscopic assessment was possible, we find the majority (19/24 galaxies; ˜80 per cent) exhibit the strong Balmer absorption (H δ equivalent width Wλ > 5 Å) and Balmer break, characteristic of post-starburst galaxies. We conclude that photometric methods can be used to select large samples of recently-quenched galaxies in the distant Universe.

  6. [Ne V] Emission in Optically Classified Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, N. P.; Satyapal, S.

    2008-05-01

    Detecting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in galaxies dominated by powerful nuclear star formation and extinction effects poses a unique challenge. Due to the longer wavelength emission and the ionization potential of Ne4+, infrared [Ne V] emission lines are thought to be excellent AGN diagnostics. However, stellar evolution models predict that Wolf-Rayet stars in young stellar clusters emit significant numbers of photons capable of creating Ne4+. Recent observations of [Ne V] emission in optically classified starburst galaxies require us to investigate whether [Ne V] can arise from star formation activity and not an AGN. In this work, we calculate the optical and IR spectrum of gas exposed to a young starburst and AGN SED. We find: (1) a range of parameters where [Ne V] emission can be explained solely by star formation and (2) a range of relative AGN to starburst luminosities that reproduces the [Ne V] observations, yet leaves the optical spectrum looking like a starburst. We also find that infrared emission-line diagnostics are much more sensitive to the AGNs than optical diagnostics, particularly for weak AGNs. We apply our model to the optically classified, yet [Ne V] emitting, starburst galaxy NGC 3621. We find, when taking the infrared and optical spectrum into account, ~30%-50% of the galaxy's total luminosity is due to an AGN. Our calculations show that [Ne V] emission is almost always the result of AGN activity. The models presented in this work can be used to determine the AGN contribution to a galaxy's power output.

  7. Starbursts: From 30 Doradus to Lyman Break Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, R.; González Delgado, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Starbursts are important features of early galaxy evolution. Many of the distant, high-redshift galaxies we are able to detect are in a starbursting phase, often apparently provoked by a violent gravitational interaction with another galaxy. In fact, if we did not know that major starbursts existed, these conference proceedings testify that we would indeed have difficulties explaining the key properties of the Universe! The enhanced synergy facilitated by the collaboration among observers using cutting-edge ground and space-based facilities, theorists and modellers has made these proceedings into a true reflection of the state of the art in this very rapidly evolving field.

  8. Starburst Triggering and Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    Introduction Stability of a two-fluid medium Mechanisms to trigger starbursts Dynamical mechanisms: non-axisymmetry and torques Angular momentum transfer for the stellar component Angular momentum transfer for the gas component feedback and self-regulation Fueling activity by bars The inner Lindblad resonance Nuclear disks and nuclear bars Bar destruction through mass concentration Gas-dominated central disk Environmental effects Numerical codes and gas modelling Star-formation processes Formation of large complexes Lessons from mergers Gas morphology in mergers Tidal tails and dark matter Ring galaxies Groups and clusters Rich clusters Galaxy evolution Evolution along the hubble sequence Fragility of disks Evolution at high redshift Gas and dark matter Hot gas in rich clusters Self-gravity and fractal structure of the ISM Conclusion

  9. THE DRIVING MECHANISM OF STARBURSTS IN GALAXY MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Teyssier, Romain; Chapon, Damien; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-09-10

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of a major merger of disk galaxies, and study the interstellar medium (ISM) dynamics and star formation (SF) properties. High spatial and mass resolutions of 12 pc and 4 x 10{sup 4} M {sub sun} allow us to resolve cold and turbulent gas clouds embedded in a warmer diffuse phase. We compare lower-resolution models, where the multiphase ISM is not resolved and is modeled as a relatively homogeneous and stable medium. While merger-driven bursts of SF are generally attributed to large-scale gas inflows toward the nuclear regions, we show that once a realistic ISM is resolved, the dominant process is actually gas fragmentation into massive and dense clouds and rapid SF therein. As a consequence, SF is more efficient by a factor of up to {approx}10 and is also somewhat more extended, while the gas density probability distribution function rapidly evolves toward very high densities. We thus propose that the actual mechanism of starburst triggering in galaxy collisions can only be captured at high spatial resolution and when the cooling of gas is modeled down to less than 10{sup 3} K. Not only does our model reproduce the properties of the Antennae system, but it also explains the 'starburst mode' recently revealed in high-redshift mergers compared to quiescent disks.

  10. Starburst galaxy Messier 94

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-19

    This image shows the galaxy Messier 94, which lies in the small northern constellation of the Hunting Dogs, about 16 million light-years away. Within the bright ring around Messier 94 new stars are forming at a high rate and many young, bright stars are present within it – thanks to this, this feature is called a starburst ring. The cause of this peculiarly shaped star-forming region is likely a pressure wave going outwards from the galactic centre, compressing the gas and dust in the outer region. The compression of material means the gas starts to collapse into denser clouds. Inside these dense clouds, gravity pulls the gas and dust together until temperature and pressure are high enough for stars to be born.

  11. Compact starbursts in ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, J. J.; Huang, Z.-P.; Yin, Q. F.; Thuan, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    The 40 ultraluminous galaxies in the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample of sources stronger than S = 5.24 Jy at lambda = 60 microns were mapped with approximately 0.25 arcsec resolution at 8.44 GHz. Twenty-five contain diffuse radio sources obeying the FIR-radio correlation; these are almost certainly starburst galaxies. Fourteen other galaxies have nearly blackbody FIR spectra with color temperatures between 60 and 80 K so their (unmeasured) FIR angular sizes must exceed approximately 0.25 arcsec, yet they contain compact (but usually resolved) radio sources smaller than this limit. The unique radio and FIR properties of these galaxies can be modeled by ultraluminous nuclear starbursts so dense that they 67 are optically thick to free-free absorption at about 1.49 GHz and dust absorption at about 25 microns. Only one galaxy (UGC 08058 = Mrk 231) is a dominated by a variable radio source too compact to be an ultraluminous starburst; it must be powered by a 'monster'.

  12. Compact starbursts in ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, J. J.; Huang, Z.-P.; Yin, Q. F.; Thuan, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    The 40 ultraluminous galaxies in the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample of sources stronger than S = 5.24 Jy at lambda = 60 microns were mapped with approximately 0.25 arcsec resolution at 8.44 GHz. Twenty-five contain diffuse radio sources obeying the FIR-radio correlation; these are almost certainly starburst galaxies. Fourteen other galaxies have nearly blackbody FIR spectra with color temperatures between 60 and 80 K so their (unmeasured) FIR angular sizes must exceed approximately 0.25 arcsec, yet they contain compact (but usually resolved) radio sources smaller than this limit. The unique radio and FIR properties of these galaxies can be modeled by ultraluminous nuclear starbursts so dense that they 67 are optically thick to free-free absorption at about 1.49 GHz and dust absorption at about 25 microns. Only one galaxy (UGC 08058 = Mrk 231) is a dominated by a variable radio source too compact to be an ultraluminous starburst; it must be powered by a 'monster'.

  13. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  14. X-Ray Properties of the Central kpc of AGN and Starbursts: The Latest News from Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Kimberly A.

    The X-ray properties of 15 nearby (v < 3000 kms-1) galaxies that possess AGN and/or starbursts are discussed. Two-thirds have nuclear extended emission on scales from ~0.5 to ~1.5 kpc that is either clearly associated with a nuclear outflow or morphologically resembles an outflow. Galaxies that are AGN-dominated tend to have linear structures while starburst-dominated galaxies tend to have plume-like structures. Significant X-ray absorption is present in the starburst regions, indicating that a circumnuclear starburst is sufficient to block an AGN at optical wavelengths. Galaxies with starburst activity possess more X-ray point sources within their central kpc than non-starbursts. Many of these sources are more luminous than typical X-ray binaries. The Chandra results are discussed in terms of the starburst--AGN connection, a revised unified model for AGN, and possible evolutionary scenarios.

  15. Near-IR spectral evolution of dusty starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lançon, Ariane; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    1996-11-01

    We propose a multicomponent analysis of starburst galaxies, based on a model that takes into account the young and evolved stellar components and the gas emission, with their respective extinction, in the frame of a coherent dust distribution pattern. Near-IR signatures are preferentially investigated, in order to penetrate as deep as possible into the dusty starburst cores. We computed the 1.4-2.5 μm spectra of synthetic stellar populations evolving through strong, short timescale bursts of star formation (continuum and lines, R ≃ 500). The evolution model is specifically sensitive to cool stellar populations (AGB and red supergiant stars). It takes advantage of the stellar library of Lançon & Rocca-Volmerange (1992) [A&ASS, 96, 593], observed with the same instrument (FTS/CFHT) as the analysed galaxy sample, so that the instrumental effects are minimised. The main near-IR observable constraints are the molecular signatures of CO and H2O and the slope of the continuum, observed over a range exceptionally broad for spectroscopic data. The H - K colour determined from the spectra measures the intrinsic stellar energy distribution but also differential extinction, which is further constrained by optical emission line ratios. Other observational constraints are the near-IR emission lines (Brγ, He I 2.06 μm, [Fe II] 1.64 μm, H2 2.12 μm) and the far-IR luminosity. The coherence of the results relies on the interpretation in terms of stellar populations from which all observable properties are derived, so that the link between the various wavelength ranges is secured. The luminosity LK is used for the absolute calibration. We apply this approach to the typical spectrum of the core of NGC 1614. Consistent solutions for the starburst characteristics (star-formation rate, IMF, burst age, morphology) are found and the role of each observational constraint in deriving satisfactory models is extensively discussed. The acceptable contamination of the K band light by the

  16. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY ON THE FATE OF IONIZING RADIATION IN LOCAL STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hanish, D. J.; Oey, M. S.; Rigby, J. R.; Lee, J. C.; De Mello, D. F.

    2010-12-20

    The fate of ionizing radiation is vital for understanding cosmic ionization, energy budgets in the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and star formation rate indicators. The low observed escape fractions of ionizing radiation have not been adequately explained, and there is evidence that some starbursts have high escape fractions. We examine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of local star-forming galaxies, containing 13 local starburst galaxies and 10 of their ordinary star-forming counterparts, to determine if there exist significant differences in the fate of ionizing radiation in these galaxies. We find that the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the SEDs are much larger than any systematic differences between starbursts and non-starbursts. For example, we find no significant differences in the total absorption of ionizing radiation by dust, traced by the 24 {mu}m, 70 {mu}m, and 160 {mu}m MIPS bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope, although the dust in starburst galaxies appears to be hotter than that of non-starburst galaxies. We also observe no excess ultraviolet flux in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer bands that could indicate a high escape fraction of ionizing photons in starburst galaxies. The small H{alpha} fractions of the diffuse, warm ionized medium (WIM) in starburst galaxies are apparently due to temporarily boosted H{alpha} luminosity within the star-forming regions themselves, with an independent, constant WIM luminosity. This independence of the WIM and starburst luminosities contrasts with WIM behavior in non-starburst galaxies and underscores our poor understanding of radiation transfer in both ordinary and starburst galaxies.

  17. Exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S.F.; Mateo, M.; Fich, M.; Massey, P.

    1988-11-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies. 30 references.

  18. Distributed fuzzy system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrycz, W.; Chi Fung Lam, P.; Rocha, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    The paper introduces and studies an idea of distributed modeling treating it as a new paradigm of fuzzy system modeling and analysis. This form of modeling is oriented towards developing individual (local) fuzzy models for specific modeling landmarks (expressed as fuzzy sets) and determining the essential logical relationships between these local models. The models themselves are implemented in the form of logic processors being regarded as specialized fuzzy neural networks. The interaction between the processors is developed either in an inhibitory or excitatory way. In more descriptive way, the distributed model can be sought as a collection of fuzzy finite state machines with their individual local first or higher order memories. It is also clarified how the concept of distributed modeling narrows down a gap between purely numerical (quantitative) models and the qualitative ones originated within the realm of Artificial Intelligence. The overall architecture of distributed modeling is discussed along with the detailed learning schemes. The results of extensive simulation experiments are provided as well. 17 refs.

  19. The Circumnuclear Starburst Ring in NGC 1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray-Lacko, Beverly; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    The circumnuclear ring in galaxy NGC 1097 is bursting with star formation at a rate of five solar masses per year as previously measured through Hα emission. The rate of star formation drops by a factor of one thousand outside the circumnuclear ring. We characterize the behavior of the dust in this region by measuring the spectral energy distribution focused exclusively on the circumnuclear ring using a selective variety of high resolution science images spanning wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, and adding proprietary high resolution radio data from Atacoma Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. High resolution radio data obtained from ALMA allows us to constrain the shape of the spectral energy distribution curve specifically at longer wavelengths, and therefore the rate of star formation within the circumnuclear ring. Comparing the spectral energy distribution of the entire galaxy with that of the circumnuclear ring indicates how starburst activity influences the galactic spectral energy distribution.

  20. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  1. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  2. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  3. The role of UV-optical obscuration in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The starburst phenomenon was viewed as increasingly important since the recognition that some galaxies have regions in which stars are forming so rapidly that a transient event must be seen. Such starbursts populate samples of galaxies selected either for UV or IR excess, and some were found from IRAS source identifications that must be quite heavily obscured at optical wavelengths. Many interpretations of the physical conditions in these objects and their stellar populations have relied on scaling from models of individual H II regions, and this certainly seems justified from the gross appearance of the optical spectra and IR spectral shapes. Collection of complementary UV, optical, and near-IR data is presented on a set of starbursts, with a preliminary analysis of models for more realistic internal structure.

  4. Triggering of starbursts in galaxies by minor mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Using numerical simulation, we explore the triggering of starburst activity in disk galaxies which accrete low-mass dwarf companions. In response to the tidal perturbation of an infalling satellite, a disk galaxy develops a strong two-armed spiral pattern, which in turn drives large quantities of disk gas into its central regions. The global star formation rate stays constant during the early stages of an accretion, before rising rapidly by an order of magnitude when the central gas density becomes very large. The associated central starburst is quite compact. Models which include a bulge component in the disk galaxy show that the presence of a bulge can suppress the radial gas flow and limit the strength of the associated starburst, depending on the overall mass profile. The fact that such relatively common 'minor' mergers may trigger strong starburst activity suggests that many disk galaxies may have experienced starbursts at some point in their lifetime. Implications for galaxy evolution and formation are discussed.

  5. Starburst Driven Superbubbles Radiating to 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Starburst driven superbubbles can produce large scale galactic outflows. Whether any given starburst can create an outflow depends on several variables including the rate at which energy and mass are injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), the radiative cooling prescription used, and the overall density distribution of the ISM. We investigate the effect that two different temperature floors in our radiative cooling prescription have on wind kinematics and content. We find that cooling to 10 K instead of to 104 K increases the mass fraction of cold neutral and hot X-ray gas in the galactic wind while halving that in warm Hα. For sufficiently powerful starbursts our cooling prescription does not affect the terminal velocity of gas within the superbubble. Filaments embedded in the hot galactic wind contain warm and cold gas which moves slower than the surrounding wind, with the coldest gas hardly moving with respect to the galaxy. Optically bright filaments form at the edge of merging superbubbles and if anchored to a star forming complex will persist and grow to > 400 pc in length. These filaments are the main source of warm and cold gas being transported into the galactic halo. Using synthetic absorption profiles we measure the velocity of the warm and hot gas phases and find vwarm ∝ vhot0.5. We also find that vhot ∝ SFR0.5, which implies vwarm ∝ SFR0.25. Warm and cold gas embedded in the galactic wind show asymmetric absorption profiles consistent with observations and theoretical predictions. These asymmetries can be used to infer the kinematics of the filaments and associated dense cores.

  6. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SPITZER-SELECTED LUMINOUS STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, A.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N.; Beelen, A.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Lonsdale, C.; Polletta, M.; Greve, T. R.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Bell, T. A.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Menten, K. M.; Owen, F.

    2010-07-01

    We present SHARC-2 350 {mu}m data on 20 luminous z {approx} 2 starbursts with S{sub 1.2{sub mm}} > 2 mJy from the Spitzer-selected samples of Lonsdale et al. and Fiolet et al. All the sources were detected, with S{sub 350{sub {mu}m}} > 25 mJy for 18 of them. With the data, we determine precise dust temperatures and luminosities for these galaxies using both single-temperature fits and models with power-law mass-temperature distributions. We derive appropriate formulae to use when optical depths are non-negligible. Our models provide an excellent fit to the 6 {mu}m-2 mm measurements of local starbursts. We find characteristic single-component temperatures T{sub 1} {approx_equal} 35.5 {+-} 2.2 K and integrated infrared (IR) luminosities around 10{sup 12.9{+-}0.1} L{sub sun} for the SWIRE-selected sources. Molecular gas masses are estimated at {approx_equal}4 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, assuming {kappa}{sub 850{sub {mu}m}} = 0.15 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and a submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG)-like gas-to-dust mass ratio. The best-fit models imply {approx_gt}2 kpc emission scales. We also note a tight correlation between rest-frame 1.4 GHz radio and IR luminosities confirming star formation as the predominant power source. The far-IR properties of our sample are indistinguishable from the purely submillimeter-selected populations from current surveys. We therefore conclude that our original selection criteria, based on mid-IR colors and 24 {mu}m flux densities, provides an effective means for the study of SMGs at z {approx} 1.5-2.5.

  7. Modelling adipocytes size distribution.

    PubMed

    Soula, H A; Julienne, H; Soulage, C O; Géloën, A

    2013-09-07

    Adipocytes are cells whose task is to store excess energy as lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. Adipocytes can adapt their size according to the lipid amount to be stored. Adipocyte size variation can reach one order of magnitude inside the same organism which is unique among cells. A striking feature in adipocytes size distribution is the lack of characteristic size since typical size distributions are bimodal. Since energy can be stored and retrieved and adipocytes are responsible for these lipid fluxes, we propose a simple model of size-dependent lipid fluxes that is able to predict typical adipocytes size distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF POST-STARBURST QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cales, S. L.; Brotherton, M. S.; Shang Zhaohui; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Canalizo, G.; Stoll, R.; Ganguly, R.; Vanden Berk, D.; Paul, C.; Diamond-Stanic, A. E-mail: mbrother@uwyo.edu E-mail: bennert@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: stoll@astronomy.ohio-state.edu E-mail: daniel.vandenberk@email.stvincent.edu E-mail: aleks@ucsd.edu

    2011-11-10

    We present images of 29 post-starburst quasars (PSQs) from a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel Snapshot program. These broadlined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) possess the spectral signatures of massive (M{sub burst} {approx} 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}), moderate-aged stellar populations (hundreds of Myr). Thus, their composite nature provides insight into the AGN-starburst connection. We measure quasar-to-host galaxy light contributions via semi-automated two-dimensional light profile fits of point-spread-function-subtracted images. We examine the host morphologies and model the separate bulge and disk components. The HST/ACS-F606W images reveal an equal number of spiral (13/29) and early-type (13/29) hosts, with the remaining three hosts having indeterminate classifications. AGNs hosted by early-type galaxies have on average greater luminosity than those hosted by spiral galaxies. Disturbances such as tidal tails, shells, star-forming knots, and asymmetries are seen as signposts of interaction/merger activity. Disturbances like these were found in 17 of the 29 objects and are evenly distributed among early-type and spiral galaxies. Two of these systems are clearly merging with their companions. Compared to other AGNs of similar luminosity and redshift, these PSQs have a higher fraction of early-type hosts and disturbances. Our most luminous objects with disturbed early-type host galaxies appear to be consistent with merger products. Thus, these luminous galaxies may represent a phase in an evolutionary scenario for merger-driven activity. Our less luminous objects appear to be consistent with Seyfert galaxies not requiring triggering by major mergers. Many of these Seyferts are barred spiral galaxies.

  9. Shaken, not Stirred: the Ancestry of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Near-infrared images obtained with WIRCam are used to investigate the recent history of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The distribution of stars in the disk is lopsided, with the projected density of young and intermediate age stars in the north east portion of the disk higher than on the opposite side of the galaxy. Bright AGB stars are also detected out to 15 kpc above the disk plane. Comparisons with models suggest that the extraplanar stars formed over a broad range of ages, suggesting that the disk of NGC 253 was disrupted by a tidal encounter.

  10. Revealing the Most Extreme Starbursts in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Alex

    We have developed a systematic method to select high-redshift massive, dusty starbursts using their far-IR red colors in data from the Herschel Space Observatory. Application to science demonstration data from the HerMES project has shown that this population is numerous (~2 per square degree), and follow up of the first few sources spectroscopically has yielded redshifts from 4 to 6.3. The existence of such extreme starbursts (> 1000 solar masses per year) within 1.6 Gyr of the Big Bang is very difficult to reconcile with models of galaxy formation and evolution, which predict only one such source per hundreds to thousands of square degrees. Here we propose to explore the nature of this population by: (a) developing more efficient methods to select these systems in Herschel data, (b) applying them to several hundred degrees of publicly available data from the HerMES and H-ATLAS surveys, and (c) use the resulting catalog to statistically characterize this population - a critical step in understanding what modifications must be made to current models. Our proposal will increase the number of known high-z massive starburst candidates by an order of magnitude. Taking advantage of the exceptional archival data available in these fields from Spitzer, WISE, and HST, we will study physical conditions in these extreme starbursts, placing them in the context of the overall star formation history of these systems.

  11. The Implications of Extreme Outflows from Extreme Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-05-01

    Interstellar ultraviolet absorption lines provide crucial information about the properties of galactic outflows. In this paper, we augment our previous analysis of the systematic properties of starburst-driven galactic outflows by expanding our sample to include a rare population of starbursts with exceptionally high outflow velocities. In principle, these could be a qualitatively different phenomenon from more typical outflows. However, we find that instead these starbursts lie on, or along the extrapolation of, the trends defined by the more typical systems studied previously by us. We exploit the wide dynamic range provided by this new sample to determine scaling relations of outflow velocity with galaxy stellar mass (M *), circular velocity, star formation rate (SFR), SFR/M *, and SFR/area. We argue that these results can be accommodated within the general interpretational framework we previously advocated, in which a population of ambient interstellar or circumgalactic clouds is accelerated by the combined forces of gravity and the momentum flux from the starburst. We show that this simple physical picture is consistent with both the strong cosmological evolution of galactic outflows in typical star-forming galaxies and the paucity of such galaxies with spectra showing inflows. We also present simple parameterizations of these results that can be implemented in theoretical models and numerical simulations of galaxy evolution.

  12. On the Hydrodynamic Interplay Between a Young Nuclear Starburst and a Central Supermassive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Wünsch, Richard; Silich, Sergiy; Palouš, Jan

    2010-06-01

    We present one-dimensional numerical simulations, which consider the effects of radiative cooling and gravity on the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted by stellar winds and supernovae within young nuclear starbursts (NSBs) with a central supermassive black hole (SMBH). The simulations confirm our previous semi-analytic results for low-energetic starbursts, evolving in a quasi-adiabatic regime, and extend them to more powerful starbursts evolving in the catastrophic cooling regime. The simulations show a bimodal hydrodynamic solution in all cases. They present a quasi-stationary accretion flow onto the black hole, defined by the matter reinserted by massive stars within the stagnation volume and a stationary starburst wind, driven by the high thermal pressure acquired in the region between the stagnation and the starburst radii. In the catastrophic cooling regime, the stagnation radius rapidly approaches the surface of the starburst region, as one considers more massive starbursts. This leads to larger accretion rates onto the SMBH and concurrently to powerful winds able to inhibit interstellar matter from approaching the NSB. Our self-consistent model thus establishes a direct physical link between the SMBH accretion rate and the nuclear star formation activity of the host galaxy and provides a good upper limit to the accretion rate onto the central black hole.

  13. ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN A YOUNG NUCLEAR STARBURST AND A CENTRAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Wuensch, Richard; Palous, Jan

    2010-06-10

    We present one-dimensional numerical simulations, which consider the effects of radiative cooling and gravity on the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted by stellar winds and supernovae within young nuclear starbursts (NSBs) with a central supermassive black hole (SMBH). The simulations confirm our previous semi-analytic results for low-energetic starbursts, evolving in a quasi-adiabatic regime, and extend them to more powerful starbursts evolving in the catastrophic cooling regime. The simulations show a bimodal hydrodynamic solution in all cases. They present a quasi-stationary accretion flow onto the black hole, defined by the matter reinserted by massive stars within the stagnation volume and a stationary starburst wind, driven by the high thermal pressure acquired in the region between the stagnation and the starburst radii. In the catastrophic cooling regime, the stagnation radius rapidly approaches the surface of the starburst region, as one considers more massive starbursts. This leads to larger accretion rates onto the SMBH and concurrently to powerful winds able to inhibit interstellar matter from approaching the NSB. Our self-consistent model thus establishes a direct physical link between the SMBH accretion rate and the nuclear star formation activity of the host galaxy and provides a good upper limit to the accretion rate onto the central black hole.

  14. The interstellar medium in the starburst regions of NGC 253 and NGC 3256

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carral, P.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Lord, S. D.; Colgan, S. W. J.; Haas, Michael R.; Rubin, R. H.; Erickson, E. F.

    1994-01-01

    average separation between the stars is approximately 3 pc. Applying the simple model for the interstellar medium in galactic nuclei of Wolfire, Tielens, & Hollenbach (1990), we find the molecular gas in the central regions of NGC 253 and NGC 3256 to be distributed in a large number (5 x 10(exp 3) to 5 x 10(exp 5)) of small (0.5-2 pc), dense (approximately 10(exp 4)/cu cm) clouds (or alternatively 'thin-flattened' structures) with volume filling factors 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -2), very different from the local Interstellar Medium (ISM) of the Galaxy. We suggest a self-consistent scenario for the ISM in NGC 253 in which clouds and H II gas are in pressure balance with a supernova-shocked, hot 1-3 x 10(exp 6) K, low-density (approximately 10(exp 4)/cu cm), all pervasive medium. A feedback mechanism may be indicated in which the pressure generated by the supernovae compresses the molecular clouds and triggers further massive star formation. The similarity of ISM parameters deduced for NGC 253, NGC 3256, and M82 (Lord et al. 1993) suggests that the ISM properties are independent of the luminosity of the starburst or the triggering mechanism, but are rather endemic to starburst systems. The starburst in NGC 3256 appears to be a scaled-up version of the NGC 253 and M82 starbursts.

  15. An Infrared Search for Extinguished Supernovae in Starburst Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Grossan, B.; Spillar, E.; Tripp, R.; Pirzkal, N.; Sutin, B.M.; Barnaby, D.

    1999-08-01

    IR and radio-band observations of heavily extinguished regions in starburst galaxies suggest a high supernova (SN) rate associated with such regions. Optically measured SN rates may therefore underestimate the total SN rate by factors of up to 10, as a result of the very high extinction ({ital A}{sub {ital B}}thinsp{approximately}thinsp10{endash}20 mag) to core-collapse SNe in starburst regions. The IR/radio SN rates come from a variety of indirect means, however, which suffer from model dependence and other problems. We describe a direct measurement of the SN rate from a regular patrol of starburst galaxies done with {ital K}{prime}-band imaging to minimize the effects of extinction. A collection of {ital K}{prime}-band measurements of core-collapse SNe near maximum light is presented. Such measurements (excluding 1987A) are not well reported in the literature. Results of a preliminary {ital K}{prime}-band search, using the MIRC camera at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory and an improved search strategy using the new ORCA optics, are described. A monthly patrol of a sample of {ital IRAS} bright (mostly starburst) galaxies within 25 Mpc should yield 1{endash}6 SNe yr{sup {minus}1}, corresponding to the range of estimated SN rates. Our initial MIRC search with low resolution (2&arcsec;2 pixels) failed to find extinguished SNe in the {ital IRAS} galaxies, limiting the SN rate outside the nucleus (at greater than 15{double_prime} radius) to less than 3.8 far-IR SN rate units (SNe per century per 10{sup 10} {ital L}{sub {circle_dot}} measured at 60 and 100 {mu}m, or FIRSRU) at 90{percent} confidence. The MIRC camera had insufficient resolution to search nuclear starburst regions, where starburst and SN activity is concentrated; therefore, we were unable to rigorously test the hypothesis of high SN rates in heavily obscured star-forming regions. We conclude that high-resolution nuclear SN searches in starburst galaxies with small fields are more productive than low

  16. Fueling nuclear activity in disk galaxies: Starbursts and monsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Clayton H.; Shlosman, Isaac

    1994-03-01

    We study the evolution of the gas distribution in a globally unstable galactic disk with a particular emphasis on the gasdynamics in the central kiloparsec and the fueling activity there. The two-component self-gravitating disk is embedded in a responsive halo of comparable mass. The gas and stars are evolved using a three-dimensional hybrid smoothed particle hydrodynamics/N-body code and the gravitational interactions are calculated using a hierarchical TREE algorithm. A massive 'star formation' is introduced when the gas becomes Jeans unstable and locally exceeds the critical density of approximately 100 solar mass pc-3. The newly formed OB stars deposit energy in the gas by means of radiation-driven winds and supernovae. This energy is partially thermalized (efficiency of a few percent); the rest is radiated away. Models without star formation are evolved for a comparison. The effect of a massive object at the disk center is studied by placing a 'seed' black hole (BH) of 5 x 107 solar mass with an accretion radius of 20 pc. The tendency of the system to form a massive object 'spontaneously' is tested in models without the BH. We find that for models without star formation the bar- or dynamical friction-driven inflows lead to (1) domination of the central kpc by a few massive clouds that evolve into a single object probably via a cloud binary system, with and without a 'seed' BH, (2) accretion onto the BH which has a sporadic character, and (3) formation of remnant disks around the BH with a radius of 60-80 pc which result from the capture and digestion of clouds. For models with star formation, we find that (1) the enrgy input into the gas induces angular momentum loss and inflow rates by a factor less than 3, (2) the star formation is concentrated mainly at the apocenters of the gaseous circulation in the stellar bar and in the nuclear region, (3) the nuclear starburst phase appears to be very luminous approximately 1045-1046 erg/s and episodic with a typical

  17. Distributed System Modeling Environment (DSME)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    34 Simulation tools, such as the Internetted System Modeling (ISM) system; * Distributed operating systems, such as Cronus and A1I)ha; • Distributed...RADC/COTD in this area is the Cronus distributed operating system. Cronus provides an architecture and tools for building and operating distributed...applications on a diverse set of machines. Cronus is more accurately identified as a distributed computing environment, since its role as a distributed

  18. Hard Gamma Ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.; Marscher, Alan M.

    1996-01-01

    We have completed the study to search for hard gamma ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253. Since supernovae are thought to provide the hard gamma ray emission from the Milky Way, starburst galaxies, with their extraordinarily high supernova rates, are prime targets to search for hard gamma ray emission. We conducted a careful search for hard gamma ray emission from NGC 253 using the archival data from the EGRET experiment aboard the CGRO. Because this starburst galaxy happens to lie near the South Galactic Pole, the Galactic gamma ray background is minimal. We found no significant hard gamma ray signal toward NGC 253, although a marginal signal of about 1.5 sigma was found. Because of the low Galactic background, we obtained a very sensitive upper limit to the emission of greater than 100 MeV gamma-rays of 8 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm s. Since we expected to detect hard gamma ray emission, we investigated the theory of gamma ray production in a dense molecular medium. We used a leaky-box model to simulate diffusive transport in a starburst region. Since starburst galaxies have high infrared radiation fields, we included the effects of self-Compton scattering, which are usually ignored. By modelling the expected gamma-ray and synchrotron spectra from NGC 253, we find that roughly 5 - 15% of the energy from supernovae is transferred to cosmic rays in the starburst. This result is consistent with supernova acceleration models, and is somewhat larger than the value derived for the Galaxy (3 - 10%). Our calculations match the EGRET and radio data very well with a supernova rate of 0.08/ yr, a magnetic field B approx. greater than 5 x 10(exp -5) G, a density n approx. less than 100/sq cm, a photon density U(sub ph) approx. 200 eV/sq cm, and an escape time scale tau(sub 0) approx. less than 10 Myr. The models also suggest that NGC 253 should be detectable with only a factor of 2 - 3 improvement in sensitivity. Our results are consistent with the standard picture

  19. The formation of NGC 3603 young starburst cluster: `prompt' hierarchical assembly or monolithic starburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    The formation of very young massive clusters or `starburst' clusters is currently one of the most widely debated topic in astronomy. The classical notion dictates that a star cluster is formed in situ in a dense molecular gas clump. The stellar radiative and mechanical feedback to the residual gas energizes the latter until it escapes the system. The newly born gas-free young cluster eventually readjusts with the corresponding mass-loss. Based on the observed substructured morphologies of many young stellar associations, it is alternatively suggested that even the smooth-profiled massive clusters are also assembled from migrating less massive subclusters. A very young (age ≈ 1 Myr), massive (>104 M⊙) star cluster like the Galactic NGC 3603 young cluster (HD 97950) is an appropriate testbed for distinguishing between the above `monolithic' and `hierarchical' formation scenarios. A recent study by Banerjee & Kroupa demonstrates that the monolithic scenario remarkably reproduces the HD 97950 cluster. In particular, its shape, internal motion and the mass distribution of stars are found to follow naturally and consistently from a single model calculation undergoing ≈70 per cent by mass gas dispersal. In this work, we explore the possibility of the formation of the above cluster via hierarchical assembly of subclusters. These subclusters are initially distributed over a wide range of spatial volumes and have various modes of subclustering in both absence and presence of a background gas potential. Unlike the above monolithic initial system that reproduces HD 97950 very well, the same is found to be prohibitive with hierarchical assembly alone (with/without a gas potential). Only those systems which assemble promptly into a single cluster (in ≲1 Myr) from a close separation (all within ≲2 pc) could match the observed density profile of HD 97950 after a similar gas removal. These results therefore suggest that the NGC 3603 young cluster has formed essentially

  20. The Chemical Evolution of Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, S.

    2009-10-01

    The chemistry observed in the central region of galaxies is expected to be strongly influenced by the type of nuclear activity (i.e. SB and/or AGN). During the last few years, our understanding of the molecular composition of the extragalactic nuclear ISM has stepped forward thanks to the increased sensitivity of the instruments operating in the mm and sub-mm wavelength. A total of 40 molecular species have been detected outside the Milky Way. However, to make sense of the rapidly increasing extragalactic molecular information, finding the best tracers of the different nuclear activity is of key importance to understand the processes taking place in the most obscured regions of galactic nuclei. I present a summary of the latest results in extragalactic chemistry. Special attention will be paid to the different diagnostic diagrams proposed to disentangle the SB vs. AGN contribution based on the ratios between CO, HCN, and HCO^+, as well as those proposed to define a sequence within the nuclear starburst evolution through the observation of the HNCO/CS ratio, found to be highly contrasted among starburst nuclei. I also discuss the potential of spectral line surveys as a step forward in the understanding the chemistry of extragalactic sources. Recent results of ongoing line surveys both in single-dish (IRAM 30m) and aperture synthesis telescopes (SMA) will be presented. The advent of a new generation of sensitive instruments such as ALMA in the nearby future will offer us the possibility of disentangling the chemical composition of AGN and SB which will be essential to understand the chemistry of the highly obscured nuclei at high redshifts.

  1. STARBURST-DRIVEN GALACTIC WINDS: FILAMENT FORMATION AND EMISSION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Jackie L.; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2009-09-20

    We have performed a series of three-dimensional simulations of the interaction of a supersonic wind with a nonspherical radiative cloud. These simulations are motivated by our recent three-dimensional model of a starburst-driven galactic wind interacting with an inhomogeneous disk, which shows that an optically emitting filament can be formed by the breakup and acceleration of a cloud into a supersonic wind. In this study, we consider the evolution of a cloud with two different geometries (fractal and spherical) and investigate the importance of radiative cooling on the cloud's survival. We have also undertaken a comprehensive resolution study in order to ascertain the effect of the assumed numerical resolution on the results. We find that the ability of the cloud to radiate heat is crucial for its survival, with a radiative cloud experiencing a lower degree of acceleration and having a higher relative Mach number to the flow than in the adiabatic case. This diminishes the destructive effect of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the cloud. While an adiabatic cloud is destroyed over a short period of time, a radiative cloud is broken up via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability into numerous small, dense cloudlets, which are drawn into the flow to form a filamentary structure. The degree of fragmentation is highly dependent on the resolution of the simulation, with the number of cloudlets formed increasing as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is better resolved. Nevertheless, there is a clear qualitative trend, with the filamentary structure still persistent at high resolution. The geometry of the cloud affects the speed at which the cloud fragments; a wind more rapidly breaks up the cloud in regions of least density. A cloud with a more inhomogeneous density distribution fragments faster than a cloud with a more uniform structure (e.g., a sphere). We confirm the mechanism behind the formation of the Halpha emitting filaments found in our global simulations of a

  2. Local starbursts seen when the Universe was 2-4 Gyr old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, S. M.; de Mello, D. F.; Gardner, J. P.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the multiwavelength properties of three nearby starburst galaxies: NGC 3079, NGC 7673, and Mrk 08. We established that each of these galaxies has similar rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) morphologies as Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 1.5 and 4, when the age of the Universe was ~ 4.3 and ~ 1.6 Gyr, respectively. LBGs are at an important stage in galaxy evolution when the Universe had a peak in the star-formation-rate density. Many LBGs are primarily composed of star-forming clumps, i.e., stellar clusters, with a significant lack of older stellar populations. Here, we present the comparison of the spectral-energy distributions (SEDs) of three nearby starburst galaxies with those of typical LBGs. From our nearby sample, each object has been artificially redshifted to observe what the galaxies would look like at z ~ 1 to 4 in the rest-frame FUV. NGC 3079 is an edge-on Seyfert 2 galaxy. It has a bright bulge and is interacting with two other galaxies, with extended Hi only along NGC 3079. The redshifting process changes its appearance, so that at high z it looks like a chain galaxy with multiple knots of star formation and no bulge. NGC 7673 has extended Hi and the star formation is mostly within the inner optical region in the multiple star-forming clumps defining the galaxy morphology. In the FUV, the galaxy looks highly compact with little detail resolved. As it is artificially redshifted, the galaxy continues to look more spherical. Mrk 8 is a merging pair, with the two galaxies observable in the visible spectrum. It is classified as a Wolf-Rayet galaxy, which suggests a very young burst, and is composed of several large star-forming regions. The FUV image does not resolve the separate galaxies, and the appearance remains similar for each redshift. We use the Gini coefficient, M20, and the Sérsic index to quantify the morphologies. The SEDs of the objects have similarities with LBG stellar population models. Because these local galaxies can be

  3. Shaken, not stirred - the BCG starburst recipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergvall, N.; Zackrisson, E.; Östlin, G.; Laurikainen, E.

    2003-06-01

    True starbursts are dramatic events that lead to a rapid exhaustion of the available gas supply and generate massive outflows of gas, strongly influencing the evolution of galaxies. To understand the early phases of galaxy evolution it is therefore crucial to identify the mechanisms that rule this process. In this study we present observations that show that interactions are inefficient to generate starbursts and that mergers appear to be a more plausible mechanism.

  4. Starburst-driven galactic winds - I. Energetics and intrinsic X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, David K.; Stevens, Ian R.

    2000-05-01

    Starburst-driven galactic winds are responsible for the transport of mass, in particular metal-enriched gas, and energy out of galaxies and into the intergalactic medium. These outflows directly affect the chemical evolution of galaxies, and heat and enrich the intergalactic and intercluster medium. Currently, several basic problems preclude quantitative measurements of the impact of galactic winds: the unknown filling factors of, in particular, the soft X-ray-emitting gas prevent accurate measurements of densities, masses and energy content; multiphase temperature distributions of unknown complexity bias X-ray-determined abundances; unknown amounts of energy and mass may reside in hard to observe T~105K and T~107.5K phases; and the relative balance of thermal versus kinetic energy in galactic winds is not known. In an effort to address these problems, we perform an extensive hydrodynamical parameter study of starburst-driven galactic winds, motivated by the latest observation data on the best-studied starburst galaxy M82. We study how the wind dynamics, morphology and X-ray emission depend on the ISM distribution of the host galaxy, the starburst star formation history and strength, and the presence and distribution of mass-loading by dense clouds. We also investigate and discuss the influence of finite numerical resolution on the results of these simulations. We find that the soft X-ray emission from galactic winds comes from low filling factor (η<~2per cent) gas, which contains only a small fraction (<~10per cent) of the mass and energy of the wind, irrespective of whether the wind models are strongly mass-loaded or not. X-ray observations of galactic winds do not directly probe the gas that contains the majority of the energy, mass or metal-enriched gas in the outflow. X-ray emission comes from a complex phase-continuum of gas, covering a wide range of different temperatures and densities. No distinct phases, as are commonly assumed when fitting X-ray spectra

  5. Dusty starburst galaxies in the early Universe as revealed by gravitational lensing.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J D; Marrone, D P; Chapman, S C; De Breuck, C; Hezaveh, Y D; Weiβ, A; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Biggs, A D; Bleem, L E; Bock, J J; Bothwell, M; Bradford, C M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Fomalont, E B; Fassnacht, C D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Hunter, T R; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Murphy, E J; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Sharon, K; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-03-21

    In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we report a redshift survey at a wavelength of three millimetres, targeting carbon monoxide line emission from the star-forming molecular gas in the direction of extraordinarily bright millimetre-wave-selected sources. High-resolution imaging demonstrates that these sources are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. We detect spectral lines in 23 out of 26 sources and multiple lines in 12 of those 23 sources, from which we obtain robust, unambiguous redshifts. At least 10 of the sources are found to lie at z > 4, indicating that the fraction of dusty starburst galaxies at high redshifts is greater than previously thought. Models of lens geometries in the sample indicate that the background objects are ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, powered by extreme bursts of star formation.

  6. Environments of Starburst Galaxies Diagnosed with the NVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, D.; Sosey, M.

    2004-12-01

    We will present the analysis of the environment of starburst galaxies using the National Virtual Observatory. We have matched the sample of starburst galaxies by Wu et al. (2002) with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and searched for companions in their neighborhood. We found: (i) three starbursts with no companion, (ii) four starbursts with clear interaction and in the process of merging, (iii) nine starbursts with at least one companion. We have compared the starburst sample with the sample of isolated galaxies by Karachentseva (1986) and with the SDSS merging galaxies by Allam et al. (2004). Using color selection criteria from the known sample of starburst galaxies, we have built a database of starburst candidates from the SDSS catalogue. This allowed us to do a more statistical comparison of starburst galaxies, their neighborhoods and possible environmental effects on their evolution. Direct links to the SDSS images and related photometry are provided for easy reference.

  7. Extended hot-gas halos around starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomisaka, Kohji; Bregman, Joel N.

    1993-01-01

    A reanalysis of Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) data and new observations from the Ginga Large Area (Proportional) counters (LAC) indicate the presence of extended X-ray emission (10-50 kpc) around the starburst galaxy M82. Here, we discuss our model of this emission, which was obtained by performing numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the starburst event to much later times and larger scales than were previously considered. For our models, we adopted a supernova rate of 0.1/yr, and an extended low-density static halo that is bound to the galaxy. There are three stages to the evolution of the wind-blown bubble and the propagation of the shock front: the bubble expands in an almost uniform density disk gas, with a deceleration of the shock front (t is less than or approximately 3.6 Myr); breakout from the disk and the upward acceleration of the shock front (3.6 Myr is less than or approximately t is less than or approximately 18 Myr); propagation into the halo, leading to a more spherical system and shock deceleration (18 Myr is less than or approximately t). For a halo density of 10(exp -3)/cu cm, the outflow reaches a distance of 40-50 kpc from the center of the starburst galaxy in 50 Myr. We calculated the time evolution of the X-ray luminosity and found that the extended starburst emits 3 x 10(exp 39) erg/s to 10(exp 40) in the Ginga LAC band and approximately 10(exp 41) erg/s in the Einstein band. The degree of the ionization equilibrium in the outflow and its effect on the iron K alpha line emission are discussed.

  8. A more direct measure of supernova rates in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Dave; Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    1994-01-01

    We determine ages for young supernova remnants in the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by applying Chevalier's model for radio emission from supernova blast waves expanding into the ejecta of their precursor stars. Absolute ages are determined by calibrating the model with radio observations of Cas A. We derive supernova rates of 0.10 and 0.08/yr for M82 and NGC 253, respectively. Assuming L (sub FIR) to be proportional to the supernova rate, we find r(sub SN) approximately equal 2 x 10(exp -12) x L(sub FIR), solar yr(exp -1) for these archetypal starburst galaxies. This approach is unique in that the supernova rate is derived from direct observation of supernova remnants rather than from star formation rates and an assumed initial mass function (IMF). We suggest that the approach presented here can be used to derive star-formation rates that are more directly related to observable quantities than those derived by other methods. We find that the supernova rate, far infrared (FIR) luminosity, and dynamical mass of the M82 starburst place few constraints on the initial mass function (IMF) slope and mass limits.

  9. Dissecting 30 Doradus: Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the starburst cluster NGC2070 from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cignoni, Michele

    2015-08-01

    I will present new results on the star formation history of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). Here the focus is on the starburst cluster NGC2070. The star formation history is derived by comparing the deepest ever optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence (PMS) to post-main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. I will discuss the detailed star formation history, initial mass function and reddening distribution and how these relate to previous studies of this starburst region.

  10. Molecular outflows in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations have detected molecular outflows in a few nearby starburst nuclei. We discuss the physical processes at work in such an environment in order to outline a scenario that can explain the observed parameters of the phenomenon, such as the molecular mass, speed and size of the outflows. We show that outflows triggered by OB associations, with NOB ≥ 105 (corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR)≥1 M⊙ yr-1 in the nuclear region), in a stratified disc with mid-plane density n0 ˜ 200-1000 cm-3 and scaleheight z0 ≥ 200(n0/102 cm-3)-3/5 pc, can form molecules in a cool dense and expanding shell. The associated molecular mass is ≥107 M⊙ at a distance of a few hundred pc, with a speed of several tens of km s-1. We show that an SFR surface density of 10 ≤ ΣSFR ≤ 50 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 favours the production of molecular outflows, consistent with observed values.

  11. Modelling the distribution of salaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, S.; Rodgers, G. J.; Yap, Y. J.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we study analytically a simple model of salary distributions where two individuals, (employees) who both work for the same organisation, compare salaries. The higher paid individual does nothing but the lower paid individual leaves the organisation and is replaced by another, whose salary is picked from a power law distribution. We find that the resulting distribution is also power law, but with a different exponent. We also introduce variations to this simple model and find that the resulting distribution is dependent on the distribution from which the new individuals salary is chosen from and also find that the exponent of the resulting distribution is dependent on the total number of individuals comparing salaries. Finally we compare the mean field version and a finite dimension 1-d version of the model by carrying out numerical simulations.

  12. Generic Distributed Systems Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    networking of microcomputers or work- stations with a distributed system and a clear distinction between the two needs to be made. What is expected in a...INFORM.AT1ON PERTAI NING TO LOCATIONS AND POLICY CAN BE COMBINED WITH THE INITIAL DIAGRAM TO PRODUCE A PARTITIONED DFD. THE BOLD LINES REPRESENT SERVICES WHICH...PRA85] D.K. Pradhan, "Fault-tolerant. mIltiprocessor link and bus network Architectures," IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. 34, No. I, Jan. 1985, pp. 33

  13. Uv Imaging of Circumnuclear Starburst Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis

    1996-07-01

    We propose to obtain F218W WFPC images of a well defined sample of nearby galaxies with face-on circumnuclear starburst rings, and covering different levels of activity from pure starbursts to Seyfert 1 {AGNs}. These high resolution images will allow to generate for the first time an homogeneous database with the UV properties of about 60 individual circumnuclear star-forming knots. The use of the database will allow for the first time a direct and quantitative determination of basic ultraviolet properties of individual nuclear/circumnuclear star-forming knots, and of the entire starburst ring, such as: {a} their size and structure, {b} their UV luminosity function and, {c} their contribution to the UV energy output in composite AGN+starburst galaxies. The database will help in our understanding of high redshift blue galaxies, thought to be star-forming galaxies, where the flux detected in optical filters corresponds to flux emitted at UV {1500-3000Angstrom} rest frame wavelengths. The requested UV images will be combined with ROSAT/HRI images to characterize for the first time the high energy end, i.e. UV to soft X-rays, of circumnuclear starburst rings.

  14. Star formation in the starburst cluster in NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correnti, Matteo; Paresce, Francesco; Aversa, Rossella; Beccari, Giacomo; De Marchi, Guido; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Pang, Xiaoying; Spezzi, Loredana; Valenti, Elena; Ventura, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    We have used new, deep, visible and near infrared observations of the compact starburst cluster in the giant HII region NGC 3603 and its surroundings with the WFC3 on HST and HAWK-I on the VLT to study in detail the physical properties of its intermediate mass (˜1-3 M⊙) stellar population. We show that after correction for differential extinction and actively accreting stars, and the study of field star contamination, strong evidence remains for a continuous spread in the ages of pre-main sequence stars in the range ˜2 to ˜30 Myr within the temporal resolution available. Existing differences among presently available theoretical models account for the largest possible variation in shape of the measured age histograms within these limits. We also find that this isochronal age spread in the near infrared and visible Colour-Magnitude Diagrams cannot be reproduced by any other presently known source of astrophysical or instrumental scatter that could mimic the luminosity spread seen in our observations except, possibly, episodic accretion. The measured age spread and the stellar spatial distribution in the cluster are consistent with the hypothesis that star formation started at least 20-30 Myrs ago progressing slowly but continuously up to at least a few million years ago. All the stars in the considered mass range are distributed in a flattened oblate spheroidal pattern with the major axis oriented in an approximate South-East-North-West direction, and with the length of the equatorial axis decreasing with increasing age. This asymmetry is most likely due to the fact that star formation occurred along a filament of gas and dust in the natal molecular cloud oriented locally in this direction.

  15. Clumpy and Extended Starbursts in the Brightest Unlensed Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iono, Daisuke; Yun, Min S.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lee, Minju; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Tamura, Yoichi; Ueda, Junko; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant; Michiyama, Tomonari; Ando, Misaki

    2016-09-01

    The central structure in three of the brightest unlensed z = 3-4 submillimeter galaxies is investigated through 0.″015-0.″05 (120-360 pc) 860 μm continuum images obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The distribution in the central kiloparsec in AzTEC1 and AzTEC8 is extremely complex, and they are composed of multiple ˜200 pc clumps. AzTEC4 consists of two sources that are separated by ˜1.5 kpc, indicating a mid-stage merger. The peak star formation rate densities in the central clumps are ˜300-3000 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, suggesting regions with extreme star formation near the Eddington limit. By comparing the flux obtained by ALMA and Submillimeter Array, we find that 68%-90% of the emission is extended (≳1 kpc) in AzTEC4 and 8. For AzTEC1, we identify at least 11 additional compact (˜200 pc) clumps in the extended 3-4 kpc region. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the luminosity surface densities observed at ≲150 pc scales are roughly similar to that observed in local ULIRGs, as in the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Between 10% and 30% of the 860 μm continuum is concentrated in clumpy structures in the central kiloparsec, while the remaining flux is distributed over ≳1 kpc regions, some of which could also be clumpy. These sources can be explained by a rapid inflow of gas such as a merger of gas-rich galaxies, surrounded by extended and clumpy starbursts. However, the cold mode accretion model is not ruled out.

  16. New tools for the tracing of ancient starbursts: Analysing globular cluster systems using Lick indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, T.; Fritze-v. Alvensleben, U.; de Grijs, R.

    2005-05-01

    We present mathematically advanced tools for the determination of age, metallicity, and mass of old Globular Clusters (CGs) using both broad-band colors and spectral indices, and we present their application to the Globular Cluster Systems (GCSs) of elliptical galaxies. Since one of the most intriguing questions of today's astronomy aims at the evolutionary connection between (young) violently interacting galaxies at high-redshift and the (old) elliptical galaxies we observe nearby, it is necessary to reveal the possibly violent star-formation history of these old galaxies. By means of evolutionary synthesis models, we can show that, using the integrated light of a galaxy's (composite) stellar content alone, it is impossible to date (and, actually, to identify) even very strong starbursts if these events took place more than two or three Gyr ago. However, since large and violent starbursts are associated with the formation of GCs, GCSs are very good tracers of the most violent starburst events in the history of their host galaxies. Using our well-established Göttingen SED (Spectral Energy Distribution) analysis tool, we can reveal the age, metallicity, mass (and possibly extinction) of GCs by comparing the observations with an extensive grid of SSP model colors. This is done in a statistically advanced and reasonable way, including their 1 σ uncertainties. However, since for all colors the evolution slows down considerably at ages older than about 8 Gyr, even with several passbands and a long wavelength base line, the results are severely uncertain for old clusters. Therefore, we incorporated empirical calibrations for Lick indices in our models and developed a Lick indices analysis tool that works in the same way as the SED analysis tool described above. We compare the theoretical possibilities and limitations of both methods as well as their results for the example of the cD galaxy NGC 1399, for which both multi-color observations and, for a subsample of

  17. X-ray Properties of the Central kpc of AGN and Starbursts: The Latest News from Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Kimberly A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray properties of 15 nearby (v less than 3,000 km/s) galaxies that possess AGN (active galactic nuclei) and/or starbursts are discussed. Two-thirds have nuclear extended emission on scales from approx. 0.5 to approx. 1.5 kpc that is either clearly associated with a nuclear outflow or morphologically resembles an outflow. Galaxies that are AGN-dominated tend to have linear structures while starburst-dominated galaxies tend to have plume-like structures. Significant X-ray absorption is present in the starburst regions, indicating that a circumnuclear starburst is sufficient to block an AGN at optical wavelengths. Galaxies with starburst activity possess more X-ray point sources within their central kpc than non-starbursts. Many of these sources are more luminous than typical X-ray binaries. The Chandra results are discussed in terms of the starburst-AGN connection, a revised unified model for AGN, and possible evolutionary scenarios.

  18. Chandra Images the Seething Cauldron of Starburst Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    or a black hole. "Several sources are so bright that they are probably black holes, perhaps left over from past starburst episodes," Garmire explained. The astronomers report that the X-ray emitting gas in the galaxy's core region has a surprisingly hot temperature. "Determining the source of high-energy X rays from M82 may elucidate whether starburst galaxies throughout the universe contribute significantly to the X-ray background radiation that pervades intergalactic space," said Griffiths."The image also shows a chimney-like structure at the base of the galactic wind, which may help us understand how metal-rich starburst gas is dispersed into intergalactic space." "What we don't see may be as important as what we do see," said Garmire. "There is no indication of a single, high luminosity, compact X-ray source from a supermassive black hole at the very center of the galaxy, although considerable evidence exists that such central black holes are present in many or most galaxies.". The astronomers note that recent optical and infrared data suggest most galaxies were starbursts when the universe was young and that their galactic winds may have distributed carbon, oxygen, iron and other heavy atoms that now pervade the Universe. The starburst in M82 is thought to have been caused by a near collision with a large spiral galaxy, M81, about 100 million years ago. At a distance of 11 million light years, M82 is the closest starburst galaxy to our Milky Way Galaxy and provides the best view of this type of galactic structure, which may have played a critical role in the early history of the Universe. The Chandra image was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on September 20, 1999 in an observation that lasted about 13 ½ hours. ACIS was built by Penn State Univ. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. To follow Chandra's progress or download images visit the Chandra sites at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/0094/index.html AND http

  19. A Perfect Starburst Cluster made in One Go: The NGC 3603 Young Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how distinct, near-spherical gas-free clusters of very young, massive stars shape out of vast, complex clouds of molecular hydrogen is one of the biggest challenges in astrophysics. A popular thought dictates that a single gas cloud fragments into many newborn stars which, in turn, energize and rapidly expel the residual gas to form a gas-free cluster. This study demonstrates that the above classical paradigm remarkably reproduces the well-observed central, young cluster (HD 97950) of the Galactic NGC 3603 star-forming region, in particular, its shape, internal motion, and mass distribution of stars naturally and consistently follow from a single model calculation. Remarkably, the same parameters (star formation efficiency, gas expulsion timescale, and delay) reproduce HD 97950, as were found to reproduce the Orion Nebula Cluster, Pleiades, and R136. The present results therefore provide intriguing evidence of formation of star clusters through single-starburst events followed by significant residual gas expulsion.

  20. A perfect starburst cluster made in one go: The NGC 3603 young cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how distinct, near-spherical gas-free clusters of very young, massive stars shape out of vast, complex clouds of molecular hydrogen is one of the biggest challenges in astrophysics. A popular thought dictates that a single gas cloud fragments into many newborn stars which, in turn, energize and rapidly expel the residual gas to form a gas-free cluster. This study demonstrates that the above classical paradigm remarkably reproduces the well-observed central, young cluster (HD 97950) of the Galactic NGC 3603 star-forming region, in particular, its shape, internal motion, and mass distribution of stars naturally and consistently follow from a single model calculation. Remarkably, the same parameters (star formation efficiency, gas expulsion timescale, and delay) reproduce HD 97950, as were found to reproduce the Orion Nebula Cluster, Pleiades, and R136. The present results therefore provide intriguing evidence of formation of star clusters through single-starburst events followed by significant residual gas expulsion.

  1. Black Holes and Starbursts in the Cosmic Web: Clustering and Evolution of Quasars and Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Myers, A. D.; Bootes Survey Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The growth of massive galaxies and their central supermassive black holes is linked to the their surrounding dark matter halos, whose masses can be inferred from measurements of spatial clustering. I will present a a novel technique for deriving real-space clustering using full photometric-redshift probability distributions, and discuss a recent study using this technique to measure clustering of dust-obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) luminous quasars. I will present a similar measurement of the clustering of submillimeter galaxies, and will place the results in context of current models for the co-evolution of quasars and rapid starbursts. Finally I will briefly point toward future observational opportunities with Herschel and the proposed Wide Field X-ray Telescope mission. RCH is funded by an STFC Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  2. Geometry and temperature distribution during radiofrequency tissue ablation: an experimental ex vivo model.

    PubMed

    Lobik, Leonid; Leveillee, Raymond J; Hoey, Michael F

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the temperature distribution and geometry of lesions created by radiofrequency (RF) tissue ablation. We developed an ex-vivo thermal model based on the ability of egg whites to coagulate at 62 degrees to 65 degrees C. This property allows us to observe and record the formation of "lesions" created by different commercially available RF generators and probes. The lesions created by the Radionics Cool-Tip RF system were mostly cylindrical or barrel-shaped, while RITA StarBurst XL and StarBurst XLi electrodes produced cone-like or mushroom-shaped lesions. The time required to achieve maximum lesion size was between 3 and 5 minutes in most trials. The formation of lesions stopped when thermodynamic equilibrium was achieved. The geometry of lesions does not correlate precisely with manufacturer reports, which describe spherical lesions for both RF systems. The 12-minute treatment cycle recommended by company's algorithm may not be necessary because lesion formation was completed and thermodynamic equilibrium was reached significantly earlier. We believe the results of our study may be useful in better understanding the RF ablation process, better planning, and improvement of clinical outcome.

  3. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-infrared Properties of Post-starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Lanz, Lauranne; Lacy, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; French, K. Decker; Ciesla, Laure; Appleton, Philip N.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Crossett, Jacob; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Kelson, Daniel D.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kriek, Mariska; Medling, Anne M.; Mulchaey, John S.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of “E+A” identified post-starburst galaxies, including a deep analysis of 190 post-starbursts detected in the 2 μm All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog. The post-starburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone. Furthermore, we find that post-starbursts occupy a distinct region of [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broadband photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of post-starbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that the mid-infrared (4-12 μm) properties of post-starbursts are consistent with either 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended post-starburst galaxies with 22 μm emission detected with signal-to-noise ratio ≥slant 3 requires a hot dust component to produce their observed rising mid-infrared SED between 12 and 22 μm. The composite SED of WISE 22 μm non-detections (S/N < 3), created by stacking 22 μm images, is also flat, requiring a hot dust component. The most likely source of the mid-infrared emission of these E+A galaxies is a buried active galactic nucleus (AGN). The inferred upper limits to the Eddington ratios of post-starbursts are 10-2-10-4, with an average of 10-3. This suggests that AGNs are not radiatively dominant in these systems. This could mean that including selections capable of identifying AGNs as part of a search for transitioning and post-starburst galaxies would create a more complete census of the transition pathways taken as a galaxy quenches its star formation.

  4. SAMICS marketing and distribution model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A SAMICS (Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards) was formulated as a computer simulation model. Given a proper description of the manufacturing technology as input, this model computes the manufacturing price of solar arrays for a broad range of production levels. This report presents a model for computing these marketing and distribution costs, the end point of the model being the loading dock of the final manufacturer.

  5. Modeling Natural Variation through Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Richard; Schauble, Leona

    2004-01-01

    This design study tracks the development of student thinking about natural variation as late elementary grade students learned about distribution in the context of modeling plant growth at the population level. The data-modeling approach assisted children in coordinating their understanding of particular cases with an evolving notion of data as an…

  6. Modeling Natural Variation through Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Richard; Schauble, Leona

    2004-01-01

    This design study tracks the development of student thinking about natural variation as late elementary grade students learned about distribution in the context of modeling plant growth at the population level. The data-modeling approach assisted children in coordinating their understanding of particular cases with an evolving notion of data as an…

  7. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  8. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  9. Zooming in on major mergers: dense, starbursting gas in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparre, Martin; Springel, Volker

    2016-11-01

    We introduce the `Illustris zoom simulation project', which allows the study of selected galaxies forming in the Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology with a 40 times better mass resolution than in the parent large-scale hydrodynamical Illustris simulation. We here focus on the starburst properties of the gas in four cosmological simulations of major mergers. The galaxies in our high-resolution zoom runs exhibit a bursty mode of star formation with gas consumption time-scales 10 times shorter than for the normal star formation mode. The strong bursts are only present in the simulations with the highest resolution, hinting that a too low resolution is the reason why the original Illustris simulation showed a dearth of starburst galaxies. Very pronounced bursts of star formation occur in two out of four major mergers we study. The high star formation rates, the short gas consumption time-scales and the morphology of these systems strongly resemble observed nuclear starbursts. This is the first time that a sample of major mergers is studied through self-consistent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations instead of using isolated galaxy models setup on a collision course. We also study the orbits of the colliding galaxies and find that the starbursting gas preferentially appears in head-on mergers with very high collision velocities. Encounters with large impact parameters do typically not lead to the formation of starbursting gas.

  10. High energy (gamma)-ray emission from the starburst nucleus of NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo-Santamaria, E; Torres, D F

    2005-06-15

    The high density medium that characterizes the central regions of starburst galaxies and its power to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies make these objects good candidates as {gamma}-rays sources. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the multifrequency emission of the starburst galaxy NGC 253, from radio to gamma-rays, is presented. The model is in agreement with all current measurements and provides predictions for the high energy behavior of the NGC 253 central region. Prospects for observations with the HESS array and GLAST satellite are especially discussed.

  11. Giant Hα Nebula Surrounding the Starburst Merger NGC 6240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Yagi, Masafumi; Ohyama, Youichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Tanaka, Hisashi; Okamura, Sadanori

    2016-03-01

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ˜90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to LHα ≈ 1.6 × 1042 erg s-1. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ˜10-4-10-5 and ˜5 × 108 M⊙, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ˜102 Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  12. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ohyama, Youichi; Okamura, Sadanori

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  13. THE RADIO–GAMMA CORRELATION IN STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, B.; Tjus, J. Becker

    2016-04-20

    We present a systematic study of non-thermal electron–proton plasma and its emission processes in starburst galaxies in order to explain the correlation between the luminosity in the radio band and the recently observed gamma luminosity. In doing so, a steady state description of the cosmic-ray (CR) electrons and protons within the spatially homogeneous starburst is considered where continuous momentum losses are included as well as catastrophic losses due to diffusion and advection. The primary source of the relativistic CRs, e.g., supernova remnants, provides a quasi-neutral plasma with a power-law spectrum in momentum where we account for rigidity-dependent differences between the electron and proton spectrum. We examine the resulting leptonic and hadronic radiation processes by synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering, Bremsstrahlung, and hadronic pion production. Finally, the observations of NGC 253, M82, NGC 4945, and NGC 1068 in the radio and gamma-ray bands as well as the observed supernova rate are used to constrain a best-fit model. In the case of NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945 our model is able to accurately describe the data, showing that: (i) supernovae are the dominant particle accelerators for NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945, but not for NGC 1068; (ii) all considered starburst galaxies are poor proton calorimeters in which for NGC 253 the escape is predominantly driven by the galactic wind, whereas the diffusive escape dominates in NGC 4945 and M82 (at energies >1 TeV); and (iii) secondary electrons from hadronic pion production are important to model the radio flux, but the associated neutrino flux is below the current observation limit.

  14. Physical Conditions in the Molecular Gas of the Local Group Dwarf Starburst, IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Leroy, Adam; Indebetouw, Remy; Sandstrom, Karin; Kepley, Amanda A.; Schruba, Andreas; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Walter, Fabian; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Hughes, Annie; Zschaechner, Laura; Kramer, Carsten; Gratier, Pierre; Krips, Melanie; Lee, Cheoljong

    2016-01-01

    We present new multi-transition mapping of the molecular gas in the nearest dwarf starburst galaxy, the Local Group dwarf IC 10. Using the IRAM 30-m telescope, we have mapped the CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and 13CO(1-0) transitions over the whole area of the disk. We followed up these observations with targeted ARO SMT spectroscopy of the CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) transitions. Together these give the most complete, sensitive view of the internal conditions in the molecular gas of a dwarf starburst galaxy to date. We present the resolved CO line ratios for this dwarf starburst and discuss their implications for the excitation, density, and optical thickness of the CO-emitting molecular gas. We consider both basic LTE calculations and comparing to the results of LVG (Radex) modeling.

  15. Ionizing Photon Production and Escape in Extreme Starbursts: the Case of the Green Peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally

    2015-08-01

    With similarities to high-redshift galaxies and potential Lyman continuum (LyC) escape, the low-redshift "Green Pea" (GP) galaxies represent an important test of ionizing photon production and feedback in young massive clusters. Using optical spectra and HST ACS emission-line imaging, we evaluate the ionizing sources, optical depths, and spatial variation of ionization in these unusual starbursts. The GPs’ spectra imply young starburst ages and possible low LyC optical depths. However, CLOUDY photoionization and Starburst99 models have difficulty reproducing all of the observed line ratios and suggest a need for additional hard ionizing sources. New ACS observations of four GPs highlight the extreme, compact nature of these bursts and reveal regions of low optical depth that are the likely sites of LyC escape.

  16. Quasispecies distribution of Eigen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia; Li, Sheng; Ma, Hong-Ru

    2007-09-01

    We have studied sharp peak landscapes of the Eigen model from a new perspective about how the quasispecies are distributed in the sequence space. To analyse the distribution more carefully, we bring in two tools. One tool is the variance of Hamming distance of the sequences at a given generation. It not only offers us a different avenue for accurately locating the error threshold and illustrates how the configuration of the distribution varies with copying fidelity q in the sequence space, but also divides the copying fidelity into three distinct regimes. The other tool is the similarity network of a certain Hamming distance d0, by which we can gain a visual and in-depth result about how the sequences are distributed. We find that there are several local similarity optima around the centre (global similarity optimum) in the distribution of the sequences reproduced near the threshold. Furthermore, it is interesting that the distribution of clustering coefficient C(k) follows lognormal distribution and the curve of clustering coefficient C of the network versus d0 appears to be linear near the threshold.

  17. Dense molecular gas in starburst galaxies: Warmer than expected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhle, S.; Henkel, C.; de Maio, T.; Seaquist, E. R.

    2011-05-01

    Star formation processes and their feedback play a crucial role in the evolution of almost every galaxy, locally as well as at high redshifts. The question whether or not the initial mass function (IMF) is universal, i.e. the same in all kinds of environments, is still subject to intense debate. A number of recent observations have been interpreted as evidence for a top-heavy IMF, spanning a variety of objects, from the center of our Galaxy to circumnuclear starburst regions and ultra-compact dwarf galaxies. Hydrodynamical simulations can reproduce such a top-heavy IMF if the raw material of star formation, the dense molecular gas, is assumed to have a kinetic temperature of ˜ 100 K. Such a molecular gas phase is not observed in the dense cores in the Galactic plane, but may be present in active environments like the cores of starburst galaxies or near AGN. Unfortunately, the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas in many external galaxies is not well constrained, because many of the most common extragalactic tracer molecules suffer from a degeneracy between the kinetic temperature and the gas density in a non-LTE line ratio analysis. We demonstrate the diagnostic power of a selected set of para-formaldehyde lines as tracers of the kinetic temperature as well as the gas density in external galaxies using our non-LTE radiative transfer model. With this new observational tool, we have engaged in characterizing the properties of the dense molecular gas phase in a number of nearby starburst galaxies and near AGN. Our first results suggest the existence of a dense molecular gas phase that is significantly warmer than the dust and much warmer than dense molecular gas found in the Milky Way disk.

  18. Evidence of ongoing AGN-driven feedback in a quiescent post-starburst E+A galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Dalya; Netzer, Hagai; Poznanski, Dovi; Prochaska, Jason Xavier; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.

    2017-09-01

    Post-starburst E+A galaxies are thought to have experienced a significant starburst that was quenched abruptly. Their disturbed, bulge-dominated morphologies suggest that they are merger remnants. We present Echelle Spectrograph and Imager/Keck observations of SDSS J132401.63+454620.6, a post-starburst galaxy at redshift z = 0.125, with a starburst that started 400 Myr ago, and other properties, like the star formation rate consistent with what is measured in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULRIGs). The galaxy shows both zero velocity narrow lines, and blueshifted broader Balmer and forbidden emission lines (FWHM = 1350 ± 240 km s-1). The narrow component is consistent with LINER-like emission, and the broader component with Seyfert-like emission, both photoionized by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) whose properties we measure and model. The velocity dispersion of the broad component exceeds the escape velocity, and we estimate the mass outflow rate to be in the range 4-120 M⊙ yr-1. This is the first reported case of AGN-driven outflows, traced by ionized gas, in post-starburst E+A galaxies. We show, by ways of a simple model, that the observed AGN-driven winds can consistently evolve a ULIRG into the observed galaxy. Our findings reinforce the evolutionary scenario where the more massive ULIRGs are quenched by negative AGN feedback, evolve first to post-starburst galaxies, and later become typical red and dead ellipticals.

  19. The nature of the interstellar medium of the starburst low-metallicity galaxy Haro 11: a multi-phase model of the infrared emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Abel, N.; Hony, S.; Galliano, F.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Galametz, M.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Parkin, T. J.; Rémy, A.; Sauvage, M.; Spinoglio, L.; Wilson, C. D.; Wu, R.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The low-metallicity interstellar medium (ISM) is profoundly different from that of normal systems, being clumpy with low dust abundance and little CO-traced molecular gas. Yet many dwarf galaxies in the nearby universe are actively forming stars. As the complex ISM phases are spatially mixed with each other, detailed modeling is needed to understand the gas emission and subsequent composition and structure of the ISM. Aims: Our goal is to describe the multi-phase ISM of the infrared bright low-metallicity galaxy Haro 11, dissecting the photoionised and photodissociated gas components. Methods: We present observations of the mid-infrared and far-infrared fine-structure cooling lines obtained with the Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/PACS spectrometers. We use the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to methodically model the ionised and neutral gas from which these lines originate. Results: We find that the mid- and far-infrared lines account for ~1% of the total infrared luminosity LTIR, acting as major coolants of the gas. Haro 11 is undergoing a phase of intense star formation, as traced by the brightest line, [O iii] 88 μm, with L [O III] /LTIR ~ 0.3%, and high ratios of [Ne iii]/[Ne ii] and [S iv]/[S iii]. Due to their different origins, the observed lines require a multi-phase modeling comprising: a compact H ii region, dense fragmented photodissociation regions (PDRs), a diffuse extended low-ionisation/neutral gas which has a volume filling factor of at least 90%, and porous warm dust in proximity to the stellar source. For a more realistic picture of the ISM of Haro 11 we would need to model the clumpy source and gas structures. We combine these 4 model components to explain the emission of 17 spectral lines, investigate the global energy balance of the galaxy through its spectral energy distribution, and establish a phase mass inventory. While the ionic emission lines of Haro 11 essentially originate from the dense H ii region component, a diffuse low

  20. Video distribution system cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.

    1980-01-01

    A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.

  1. Environment of the Submillimeter-bright Massive Starburst HFLS3 at z ~ 6.34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Wardlow, J. L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Burgarella, D.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Casey, C. M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; González-Solares, E. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Lo Faro, B.; Ma, B.; Magdis, G.; Marques-Chaves, R.; Martínez-Navajas, P.; Oliver, S. J.; Osage, W. A.; Riechers, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Scott, D.; Streblyanska, A.; Vieira, J. D.

    2015-09-01

    We describe the search for Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) near the submillimeter-bright starburst galaxy HFLS3 at z = 6.34 and a study on the environment of this massive galaxy during the end of reionization. We performed two independent selections of LBGs on images obtained with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by combining nondetections in bands blueward of the Lyman break and color selection. A total of 10 objects fulfilling the LBG selection criteria at z\\gt 5.5 were selected over the 4.54 and 55.5 arcmin2 covered by our HST and GTC images, respectively. The photometric redshift, UV luminosity, and star formation rate of these sources were estimated with models of their spectral energy distribution. These z∼ 6 candidates have physical properties and number densities in agreement with previous results. The UV luminosity function at z ∼ 6 and a Voronoi tessellation analysis of this field show no strong evidence for an overdensity of relatively bright objects ({m}{{F}105{{W}}} \\lt 25.9) associated with HFLS3. However, the overdensity parameter deduced from this field and the surface density of objects cannot exclude definitively the LBG overdensity hypothesis. Moreover, we identified three faint objects at less than 3″ from HFLS3 with color consistent with those expected for z ∼ 6 galaxies. Deeper data are needed to confirm their redshifts and to study their association with HFLS3 and the galaxy merger that may be responsible for the massive starburst.

  2. A close view of Galactic Starburst Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandner, Wolfgang; Stolte, Andrea; Gennaro, Mario; Habibi, Maryam; Hußmann, Benjamin; Kudryavtseva, Natalia; Andersen, Morten; Rochau, Boyke; Zinnecker, Hans

    2013-07-01

    Galactic starburst clusters represent the most extreme mode of present-day star formation in the Milky Way, and are ideal laboratories for studies over the entire stellar mass range from less then 0.1 to more than 120 solar masses. We report on the results of our adaptive optics and HST high angular resolution studies comprising both multi-epoch astrometric monitoring of the cluster's internal and external dynamics, and the photometric and spectroscopic characterization of their stellar populations. Among the most surprising results are i) the distinct motions of Galactic Center starburst clusters with respect to the field, ii) the strict coevality of star formation in the spiral arm clusters NGC 3603 YC and Westerlund 1, and iii) the close agreement between dynamical and photometric mass estimates for each of the clusters (indicating that the clusters are dynamically stable and could survive for extended periods of time).

  3. The Starbursts in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.

    2014-09-01

    High-mass stars are major players in the chemical and dynamical evolution of galaxies, and young massive clusters are the natural laboratories to study their evolution and their impact on star formation processes. Only in recent years have we become aware of the existence of numerous massive (Mcl> 10^4 Msun) clusters in our Galaxy. Here I give a review, rather biased towards my own research interests, of the observational and theoretical efforts that have led to a description of their properties, and present an overview of the two (perhaps three) starburst regions known outside the Galactic Centre neighbourhood: the Scutum Complex, its putative counterpart on the far side of the Long Bar, and the starburst cluster Westerlund 1.

  4. Cosmic-ray induced gamma-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2014-05-09

    Cosmic rays in galaxies interact with the interstellar medium and give us a direct view of nuclear and particle interactions in the cosmos. For example, cosmic-ray proton interactions with interstellar hydrogen produce gamma rays via PcrPism→π{sup 0}→γγ. For a 'normal' star-forming galaxy like the Milky Way, most cosmic rays escape the Galaxy before such collisions, but in starburst galaxies with dense gas and huge star formation rate, most cosmic rays do suffer these interactions [1,2]. We construct a 'thick-target' model for starburst galaxies, in which cosmic rays are accelerated by supernovae, and escape is neglected. This model gives an upper limit to the gamma-ray emission. Only two free parameters are involved in the model: cosmic-ray proton acceleration energy rate from supernova and the proton injection spectral index. The pionic gamma-radiation is calculated from 10 MeV to 10 TeV for the starburst galaxy NGC 253, and compared to Fermi and HESS data. Our model fits NGC 253 well, suggesting that cosmic rays in this starburst are in the thick target limit, and that this galaxy is a gamma-ray calorimeter.

  5. Environments of Starburst Galaxies Diagnosed with the NVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Santisteban, M. A.; Sosey, M.; de Mello, D.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analysis of the environment of starburst galaxies using the National Virtual Observatory. We have matched the sample of starburst galaxies by Wu et al. (2002) with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and searched for companions in their neighborhood. We also have compared the starburst sample with the sample of isolated galaxies by Karachentseva (1986) and with the SDSS merging galaxies by Allam et al. (2004). Using color selection criteria from the known sample of starburst galaxies, we have built a database of starburst candidates from the SDSS catalogue. This allowed us to do a more statistical comparison of starburst galaxies, their neighborhoods and possible environmental effects on their evolution. We see the NVO environment as an extrememly useful tool for astronomical research. As such, this poster also details the effective ways in which we were able to access both the SDSS catalogue as well as other internet resources, encorporating the entire project into a very useful internet website.

  6. EXTENDED HCN AND HCO{sup +} EMISSION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY M82

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, P.; Galaz, G.; Salter, D.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A. D.; Kepley, A.

    2014-12-20

    We mapped 3 mm continuum and line emission from the starburst galaxy M82 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We targeted the HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, and HC{sub 3}N lines, but here we focus on the HCN and HCO{sup +} emission. The map covers a field of 1.'2 with an ≈5'' resolution. The HCN and HCO{sup +} observations are short spacings corrected. The molecular gas in M82 had been previously found to be distributed in a molecular disk, coincident with the central starburst, and a galactic scale outflow which originates in the central starburst. With the new short spacings-corrected maps we derive some of the properties of the dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. From the HCN and HCO{sup +} J = (1-0) line emission, and under the assumptions of the gas being optically thin and in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we place lower limits on the amount of dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. The lower limits are 7 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and 21 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, or ≳ 2% of the total molecular mass in the outflow. The kinematics and spatial distribution of the dense gas outside the central starburst suggests that it is being expelled through chimneys. Assuming a constant outflow velocity, the derived outflow rate of dense molecular gas is ≥0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which would lower the starburst lifetime by ≥5%. The energy required to expel this mass of dense gas is (1-10) × 10{sup 52} erg.

  7. Extended HCN and HCO+ Emission in the Starburst Galaxy M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, P.; Galaz, G.; Salter, D.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A. D.; Kepley, A.

    2014-12-01

    We mapped 3 mm continuum and line emission from the starburst galaxy M82 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We targeted the HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, and HC3N lines, but here we focus on the HCN and HCO+ emission. The map covers a field of 1.'2 with an ≈5'' resolution. The HCN and HCO+ observations are short spacings corrected. The molecular gas in M82 had been previously found to be distributed in a molecular disk, coincident with the central starburst, and a galactic scale outflow which originates in the central starburst. With the new short spacings-corrected maps we derive some of the properties of the dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. From the HCN and HCO+ J = (1-0) line emission, and under the assumptions of the gas being optically thin and in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we place lower limits on the amount of dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. The lower limits are 7 × 106 M ⊙ and 21 × 106 M ⊙, or >~ 2% of the total molecular mass in the outflow. The kinematics and spatial distribution of the dense gas outside the central starburst suggests that it is being expelled through chimneys. Assuming a constant outflow velocity, the derived outflow rate of dense molecular gas is >=0.3 M ⊙ yr-1, which would lower the starburst lifetime by >=5%. The energy required to expel this mass of dense gas is (1-10) × 1052 erg.

  8. THE IMPACT OF STARBURSTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Heckman, Timothy; Strickland, David; Wild, Vivienne; Schiminovich, David

    2013-05-01

    We present a study exploring the impact of a starburst on the properties of the surrounding circumgalactic medium (CGM): gas located beyond the galaxy's stellar body and extending out to the virial radius ({approx}200 kpc). We obtained ultraviolet spectroscopic data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) probing the CGM of 20 low-redshift foreground galaxies using background QSOs. Our sample consists of starburst and control galaxies. The latter comprises normal star-forming and passive galaxies with similar stellar masses and impact parameters as the starbursts. We used optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to estimate the properties of the starbursts, inferring average ages of {approx}200 Myr and burst fractions involving {approx}10% of their stellar mass. The COS data reveal highly ionized gas traced by C IV in 80%(4/5) of the starburst and in 17%(2/12) of the control sample. The two control galaxies with C IV absorbers differed from the four starbursts in showing multiple low-ionization transitions and strong saturated Ly{alpha} lines. They therefore appear to be physically different systems. We show that the C IV absorbers in the starburst CGM represent a significant baryon repository. The high detection rate of this highly ionized material in the starbursts suggests that starburst-driven winds can affect the CGM out to radii as large as 200 kpc. This is plausible given the inferred properties of the starbursts and the known properties of starburst-driven winds. This would represent the first direct observational evidence of local starbursts impacting the bulk of their gaseous halos, and as such provides new evidence of the importance of this kind of feedback in the evolution of galaxies.

  9. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  10. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. II. THE DURATION OF STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Dolphin, Andrew; Hidalgo-RodrIguez, Sebastian

    2010-11-20

    The starburst phenomenon can shape the evolution of the host galaxy and the surrounding intergalactic medium. The extent of the evolutionary impact is partly determined by the duration of the starburst, which has a direct correlation with both the amount of stellar feedback and the development of galactic winds, particularly for smaller mass dwarf systems. We measure the duration of starbursts in twenty nearby, ongoing, and 'fossil' starbursts in dwarf galaxies based on the recent star formation histories derived from resolved stellar population data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Contrary to the shorter times of 3-10 Myr often cited, the starburst durations we measure range from 450to650 Myr in fifteen of the dwarf galaxies and up to 1.3 Gyr in four galaxies; these longer durations are comparable to or longer than the dynamical timescales for each system. The same feedback from massive stars that may quench the flickering star formation does not disrupt the overall burst event in our sample of galaxies. While five galaxies present fossil bursts, fifteen galaxies show ongoing bursts and thus the final durations may be longer than we report here for these systems. One galaxy shows a burst that has been ongoing for only 20 Myr; we are likely seeing the beginning of a burst event in this system. Using the duration of the starbursts, we calculate that the bursts deposited 10{sup 53.9}-10{sup 57.2} erg of energy into the interstellar medium through stellar winds and supernovae, and produced 3%-26% of the host galaxy's mass.

  11. EXTREMELY RAPID STAR CLUSTER DISRUPTION IN HIGH-SHEAR CIRCUMNUCLEAR STARBURST RINGS: THE UNUSUAL CASE OF NGC 7742

    SciTech Connect

    De Grijs, Richard; Anders, Peter E-mail: anders@pku.edu.cn

    2012-10-10

    All known mass distributions of recently formed star cluster populations resemble a 'universal' power-law function. Here we assess the impact of the extremely disruptive environment in NGC 7742's circumnuclear starburst ring on the early evolution of the galaxy's high-mass ({approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }) star cluster population. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations, at all ages-including the youngest, {approx}< 15 Myr-the cluster mass functions are robustly and verifiably represented by lognormal distributions that resemble those commonly found only for old, evolved globular cluster systems in the local universe. This suggests that the high-shear conditions in the NGC 7742 starburst ring may significantly speed up dynamical star cluster destruction. This enhanced mass-dependent disruption rate at very young ages might be caused by a combination of the starburst ring's high density and the shear caused by the counterrotating gas disk.

  12. Building a generalized distributed system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    A number of topics related to building a generalized distributed system model are discussed. The effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks, the measurement of effects of distributed database models on transaction availability measures, and a performance analysis of static locking in replicated distributed database systems are covered.

  13. Star Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared OR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  14. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z equals 5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  15. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multiwavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  16. From H I to Stars: H I Depletion in Starbursts and Star-forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA Hα Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Bell, E. F.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    H i in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, H i-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hα survey, we explore H i properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA Hα provides R-band and Hα imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on Hα equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar H i-to-stellar mass ratios ({M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts’ H i. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter H i depletion times ({t}{dep}), implying more efficient H i-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest-mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in {t}{dep} at low {M}*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers; their elevated {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* suggest that H i-to-H2 conversion is still ongoing at this stage. By comparing with the GASS sample, we find that {t}{dep} anticorrelates with stellar surface density for disks, while spheroids show no such trend. Among early-type galaxies, {t}{dep} does not correlate with bulge-to-disk ratio; instead, the gas distribution may determine the star formation efficiency. Finally, the weak connection between galaxies’ specific star formation rates and {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* contrasts with the well-known correlation between {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* and color. We show that dust extinction can explain the H i-color trend, which may arise from the relationship between {M}*, {M}{{H} {{I}}}, and metallicity.

  17. Molecular gas during the post-starburst phase: low gas fractions in green-valley Seyfert post-starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; French, K. Decker; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.

    2017-08-01

    Post-starbursts (PSBs) are candidate for rapidly transitioning from starbursting to quiescent galaxies. We study the molecular gas evolution of PSBs at z ∼ 0.03-0.2. We undertook new CO (2-1) observations of 22 Seyfert PSB candidates using the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope. This sample complements previous samples of PSBs by including green-valley PSBs with Seyfert-like emission, allowing us to analyse for the first time the molecular gas properties of 116 PSBs with a variety of AGN properties. The distribution of molecular gas to stellar mass fractions in PSBs is significantly different from normal star-forming galaxies in the CO Legacy Database (COLD) GASS survey. The combined samples of PSBs with Seyfert-like emission line ratios have a gas fraction distribution that is even more significantly different and is broader (∼0.03-0.3). Most of them have lower gas fractions than normal star-forming galaxies. We find a highly significant correlation between the WISE 12 and 4.6 μm flux ratios and molecular gas fractions in both PSBs and normal galaxies. We detect molecular gas in 27 per cent of our Seyfert PSBs. Taking into account the upper limits, the mean and the dispersion of the distribution of the gas fraction in our Seyfert PSB sample are much smaller (μ = 0.025, σ = 0.018) than previous samples of Seyfert PSBs or PSBs in general (μ ∼ 0.1-0.2, σ ∼ 0.1-0.2).

  18. Discovery of Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in Post-starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. Decker; Yang, Yujin; Zabludoff, Ann; Narayanan, Desika; Shirley, Yancy; Walter, Fabian; Smith, John-David; Tremonti, Christy A.

    2015-03-01

    Post-starburst (or "E+A") galaxies are characterized by low Hα emission and strong Balmer absorption, suggesting a recent starburst, but little current star formation. Although many of these galaxies show evidence of recent mergers, the mechanism for ending the starburst is not yet understood. To study the fate of the molecular gas, we search for CO(1-0) and (2-1) emission with the IRAM 30 m and SMT 10 m telescopes in 32 nearby (0.01 < z < 0.12) post-starburst galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We detect CO in 17 (53%). Using CO as a tracer for molecular hydrogen, and a Galactic conversion factor, we obtain molecular gas masses of M(H2) = 108.6-109.8 M ⊙ and molecular gas mass to stellar mass fractions of ~10-2-10-0.5, comparable to those of star-forming galaxies. The large amounts of molecular gas rule out complete gas consumption, expulsion, or starvation as the primary mechanism that ends the starburst in these galaxies. The upper limits on M(H2) for the 15 undetected galaxies range from 107.7 M ⊙ to 109.7 M ⊙, with the median more consistent with early-type galaxies than with star-forming galaxies. Upper limits on the post-starburst star formation rates (SFRs) are lower by ~10 × than for star-forming galaxies with the same M(H2). We also compare the molecular gas surface densities (Σ _H_2) to upper limits on the SFR surface densities (ΣSFR), finding a significant offset, with lower ΣSFR for a given Σ _H_2 than is typical for star-forming galaxies. This offset from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation suggests that post-starburst galaxies have lower star formation efficiency, a low CO-to-H2 conversion factor characteristic of ultraluminous infrared galaxies, and/or a bottom-heavy initial mass function, although uncertainties in the rate and distribution of current star formation remain.

  19. Anatomy of Starbursts in Extragalactic Giant HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jessica

    2011-10-01

    Extragalactic giant HII regions {EGHRs} are sites of active, concentrated star formation, and thus provide excellent labs to analyze starburst phenomenon. Although they have been known for a long time, ground-based observations cannot resolve the physical structures and stellar content of EGHRs. The high resolution and sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope {HST} are ideal for detailed studies of EGHRs. We have searched the Hubble Legacy Archives {HLA} and found 17 nearby galaxies, within 15 Mpc, with H-alpha and continuum images. We propose to use these images to study the three top-ranking HII regions in each galaxy. While these 51 HII regions span a range in luminosity, most of them are bonafide EGHRs, with H-alpha luminosity greater than a few times 10^39 ergs/s. We will use the H-alpha image to study the distribution and physical structure of the gas in each HII region and determine its H-alpha luminosity and required ionizing flux. We will use the continuum images to determine whether concentrated clusters or distributed OB associations reside in these HII regions, and use photometric measurements to determine the mass and age spread of the resolved stellar population. These will then be compared with the interstellar structures. The results will help us understand the starburst phenomenon and answer questions such as: Are globular clusters formed in EGHRs? How does star formation proceed in an EGHR? How does the physical structure of an EGHR relate to the luminosity, physical location in the host galaxy, and the host galaxy type?

  20. Rotating Starburst Cores In The Most Massive Galaxies At Z=2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadaki, Ken-ichi

    2017-06-01

    Given the Hubble sequence, massive star-forming galaxies are expected to form a dense core at some point and transform their morphology from disk-dominated to bulge-dominated before quenching the star formation activity. At the peak epoch of galaxy formation (z 2), the most massive star-forming galaxies still have extended disks, but are rapidly building up their central cores through extremely compact starbursts. In this talk, I will present new results from ALMA observations of the CO J=3-2 emission line in two z=2.5 massive galaxies hosting a compact starburst. The spatial extent of star-forming molecular gas is as compact as Re 2 kpc, but more extended than the dust emission. Contrasting the observed position-velocity diagrams to dynamical models, we find the starburst cores to be rotation-dominated. The comparisons among dynamical, stellar, gas, and dust mass suggest that the starburst CO-to-H2 conversion factor is appropriate in the spatially resolved cores. The dense cores are likely to be formed in extreme environments like central regions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies.

  1. Hierarchical model for distributed seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Gomez, Javier B.; Pacheco, Amalio F.

    2010-07-15

    A cellular automata model for the interaction between seismic faults in an extended region is presented. Faults are represented by boxes formed by a different number of sites and located in the nodes of a fractal tree. Both the distribution of box sizes and the interaction between them is assumed to be hierarchical. Load particles are randomly added to the system, simulating the action of external tectonic forces. These particles fill the sites of the boxes progressively. When a box is full it topples, some of the particles are redistributed to other boxes and some of them are lost. A box relaxation simulates the occurrence of an earthquake in the region. The particle redistributions mostly occur upwards (to larger faults) and downwards (to smaller faults) in the hierarchy producing new relaxations. A simple and efficient bookkeeping of the information allows the running of systems with more than fifty million faults. This model is consistent with the definition of magnitude, i.e., earthquakes of magnitude m take place in boxes with a number of sites ten times bigger than those boxes responsible for earthquakes with a magnitude m-1 which are placed in the immediate lower level of the hierarchy. The three parameters of the model have a geometrical nature: the height or number of levels of the fractal tree, the coordination of the tree and the ratio of areas between boxes in two consecutive levels. Besides reproducing several seismicity properties and regularities, this model is used to test the performance of some precursory patterns.

  2. Modeling of magnitude distributions by the generalized truncated exponential distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The probability distribution of the magnitude can be modeled by an exponential distribution according to the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Two alternatives are the truncated exponential distribution (TED) and the cutoff exponential distribution (CED). The TED is frequently used in seismic hazard analysis although it has a weak point: when two TEDs with equal parameters except the upper bound magnitude are mixed, then the resulting distribution is not a TED. Inversely, it is also not possible to split a TED of a seismic region into TEDs of subregions with equal parameters except the upper bound magnitude. This weakness is a principal problem as seismic regions are constructed scientific objects and not natural units. We overcome it by the generalization of the abovementioned exponential distributions: the generalized truncated exponential distribution (GTED). Therein, identical exponential distributions are mixed by the probability distribution of the correct cutoff points. This distribution model is flexible in the vicinity of the upper bound magnitude and is equal to the exponential distribution for smaller magnitudes. Additionally, the exponential distributions TED and CED are special cases of the GTED. We discuss the possible ways of estimating its parameters and introduce the normalized spacing for this purpose. Furthermore, we present methods for geographic aggregation and differentiation of the GTED and demonstrate the potential and universality of our simple approach by applying it to empirical data. The considerable improvement by the GTED in contrast to the TED is indicated by a large difference between the corresponding values of the Akaike information criterion.

  3. STAR CLUSTER DISRUPTION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY MESSIER 82

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuo; Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard; Anders, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution, multiple-passband Hubble Space Telescope images spanning the entire optical/near-infrared wavelength range, we obtained a statistically complete U-band-selected sample of 846 extended star clusters across the disk of the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Based on a careful analysis of the clusters' spectral energy distributions, we determined their galaxy-wide age and mass distributions. The M82 clusters exhibit three clear peaks in their age distribution, thus defining relatively young, log (t yr{sup –1}) ≤ 7.5, intermediate-age, log (t yr{sup –1}) in [7.5, 8.5], and old samples, log (t yr{sup –1}) ≥ 8.5. Comparison of the completeness-corrected mass distributions offers a firm handle on the galaxy's star cluster disruption history. The most massive star clusters in the young and old samples are (almost) all concentrated in the most densely populated central region, while the intermediate-age sample's most massive clusters are more spatially dispersed, which may reflect the distribution of the highest-density gas throughout the galaxy's evolutionary history, combined with the solid-body nature of the galaxy's central region.

  4. Widespread HCO Emission in the Nuclear Starburst of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Neri, R.

    2002-08-01

    We present a high-resolution (~5") image of the nucleus of M82 showing the presence of widespread emission of the formyl radical (HCO). The HCO map, the first obtained in an external galaxy, reveals the existence of a structured disk of ~650 pc full diameter. The HCO distribution in the plane mimics the ring morphology displayed by other molecular/ionized gas tracers in M82. More precisely, rings traced by HCO, CO, and H II regions are nested, with the HCO ring lying in the outer edge of the molecular torus. Observations of HCO in Galactic clouds indicate that the abundance of HCO is strongly enhanced in the interfaces between the ionized and molecular gas. The surprisingly high overall abundance of HCO measured in M82 [X(HCO)~4×10-10] indicates that its nuclear disk can be viewed as a giant photon-dominated region (PDR) of ~650 pc size. The existence of various nested gas rings, with the highest HCO abundance occurring at the outer ring [X(HCO)~0.8×10-9], suggests that PDR chemistry is propagating in the disk. We discuss the inferred large abundances of HCO in M82 in the context of a starburst evolutionary scenario, picturing the M82 nucleus as an evolved starburst. Based on observations carried out with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (Spain).

  5. Anatomy of Starbursts in Extragalactic Giant HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jessica Marie; Chu, You-Hua

    2013-06-01

    Extragalactic giant HII regions (EGHRs) are sites of active, concentrated star formation, and thus provide excellent labs to analyze the starburst phenomenon. Although they have been known for a long time, ground-based observations cannot resolve the physical structures and stellar content of EGHRs. The high resolution and sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are ideal for detailed studies of EGHRs. We have searched the Hubble Legacy Archives (HLA) and found > 10 nearby galaxies, within 20 Mpc, with H-α and continuum images. To determine the best methods for analyzing these data, we perform an in-depth analysis of the EGHRs in M51. M51 is a face-on spiral galaxy 8.4 Mpc away, with well-resolved multi-wavelength observations in the HLA. We sample the 20 most luminous HII regions in M51, and the top three in several other galaxies, many of which are bonafide EGHRs with an H-α luminosity > 10^{39} ergs s^{-1}. We use the H-α image to study the distribution and physical structure of the gas in each HII region and determine its H-α luminosity and required ionizing flux. We use the continuum images to determine whether super stellar clusters (SSCs) are found in these HII regions, and use photometric measurements to determine the mass and age spread of the resolved stellar population. These are then compared with the interstellar structures. The results help us provide the groundwork for studying EGHRs in multiple galaxies and elucidate the starburst phenomenon by investigating questions such as: What role does environment play in the formation of EGHRs? How do EGHRs evolve? How does star formation proceed in an EGHR?

  6. SALT/RSS Longslit Spectroscopy of the NGC 1140 Starburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgh, Eric B.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Nordsieck, K. H.; Percival, J. W.; Smith, M. P.; O'Donoghue, D.; Buckley, D. A.; Loaring, N. S.

    2006-06-01

    We present a long-slit spectrum of the amorphous starbursting dwarf galaxy NGC 1140 taken by the Robert Stobie Spectrograph of the Southern African Large Telescope during its commissioning phase in November 2005. A 1.2 arcsecond wide longslit oriented along the major axis in conjunction with a volume phase holographic grating were used to produce a 800 Angstrom wide spectrum, centered on H-alpha, with a resolving power of 5500. Twelve minutes of data were obtained. Emission features from H-alpha, [NII], [SII] and HeI were observed. The peak of the emission features is observed to be 2 arcseconds north of the stellar continuum, consistent with HST imaging of the galaxy, and a bright knot of gas with a velocity offset of 100 km/s is detected about 18 arcseconds south of the continuum peak. The emission lines are well-resolved with FWHM 80-100 km/s in the inner galaxy, typical of intensely star-forming regions, while FWHM 100-140 km/s are seen in the outer galaxy, suggesting a possible galactic wind. The complex velocity field is consistent with the merger model for NGC 1140. The intensity ratio of the [SII] doublet, 6717/6731 is 1.3, indicating a low electron density, and thus modest thermal pressure despite the galaxy's starburst status. The H-alpha/[SII] ratio, which is an indicator of the presence of shocks,varies along the slit with a maximum of 8 at the peak of the gaseous emission and dropping to nearly 2 at the edges of the galaxy, with a value of 3 for the offset knot of gas. Thus shocks could play a role in the outer galaxy, while the knot is more likely a star forming region. We interpret our results in the context of a starburst induced by the merger of two low mass galaxies, as previously discussed by Hunter et al. (1994, ApJS, 91, 79).

  7. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O iii]/[O ii] ∼ 10–60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}ȯ )∼ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  8. The ULX Population in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Strickland, D. K.

    2004-01-01

    Optimism is mounting for the existence of intermediate mass black holes (IMBH), which occupy the mass spectrum somewhere between the stellar-mass and supermassive varieties. IMBH are naturally predicted by theoretical stellar and black hole evolution models, but the strong attention to them began only recently with the discovery of ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULX). If isotropic and accreting normally, ULX have luminosities tens to thousands of times greater than the Eddington luminosity of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole. A standard interpretation of their x-ray flux implies that they are powered by IMBH. On the other hand, they may be stellar-mass black holes that are beamed or emit anisotropically. Therefore, the exact nature of ULX is highly controversial. ULX are common in starburst galaxies. At a distance of only 3 Mpc, NGC 253 is bright, nearby, and one of the best-studied starburst galaxies. Approximately 50 distinct x-ray point sources are detected in or near the plane of the galaxy. At least six of these are ULX, with luminosities greater than 10 times that expected for a stellar-mass, accreting compact object. We present new Chandra data from an 80 ksec observation of NGC 253 obtained in 2003 that provides high quality spectra of these sources. Comparing the 1999 and 2003 Chandra observations, the sources have varied significantly over the course of four years, with one of the ULX disappearing completely. The ULX spectra are similar to black-hole XRBs and at least one appears to possess an iron K line. We will discuss what insight these data provide for the nature of ULX in NGC 253 .

  9. The ULX Population in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Strickland, D. K.

    2004-01-01

    Optimism is mounting for the existence of intermediate mass black holes (IMBH), which occupy the mass spectrum somewhere between the stellar-mass and supermassive varieties. IMBH are naturally predicted by theoretical stellar and black hole evolution models, but the strong attention to them began only recently with the discovery of ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULX). If isotropic and accreting normally, ULX have luminosities tens to thousands of times greater than the Eddington luminosity of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole. A standard interpretation of their x-ray flux implies that they are powered by IMBH. On the other hand, they may be stellar-mass black holes that are beamed or emit anisotropically. Therefore, the exact nature of ULX is highly controversial. ULX are common in starburst galaxies. At a distance of only 3 Mpc, NGC 253 is bright, nearby, and one of the best-studied starburst galaxies. Approximately 50 distinct x-ray point sources are detected in or near the plane of the galaxy. At least six of these are ULX, with luminosities greater than 10 times that expected for a stellar-mass, accreting compact object. We present new Chandra data from an 80 ksec observation of NGC 253 obtained in 2003 that provides high quality spectra of these sources. Comparing the 1999 and 2003 Chandra observations, the sources have varied significantly over the course of four years, with one of the ULX disappearing completely. The ULX spectra are similar to black-hole XRBs and at least one appears to possess an iron K line. We will discuss what insight these data provide for the nature of ULX in NGC 253 .

  10. The effect of galaxy mass ratio on merger-driven starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. J.; Jonsson, Patrik; Somerville, Rachel S.; Primack, Joel R.; Dekel, Avishai

    2008-02-01

    We employ numerical simulations of galaxy mergers to explore the effect of galaxy mass ratio on merger-driven starbursts. Our numerical simulations include radiative cooling of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback to follow the interaction and merger of four disc galaxies. The galaxy models span a factor of 23 in total mass and are designed to be representative of typical galaxies in the local universe. We find that the merger-driven star formation is a strong function of merger mass ratio, with very little, if any, induced star formation for large mass ratio mergers. We define a burst efficiency that is useful to characterize the merger-driven star formation and test that it is insensitive to uncertainties in the feedback parametrization. In accord with previous work we find that the burst efficiency depends on the structure of the primary galaxy. In particular, the presence of a massive stellar bulge stabilizes the disc and suppresses merger-driven star formation for large mass ratio mergers. Direct, coplanar merging orbits produce the largest tidal disturbance and yield the most intense burst of star formation. Contrary to naive expectations, a more compact distribution of gas or an increased gas fraction both decrease the burst efficiency. Owing to the efficient feedback model and the newer version of smoothed particle hydrodynamics employed here, the burst efficiencies of the mergers presented here are smaller than in previous studies.

  11. Debris Flow Distributed Propagation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoretti, C.

    The debris flow distributed propagation model is a DEM-based model. The fan is dis- cretized by square cells and each cell is assigned an altitude on the sea level. The cells of the catchment are distinguished in two categories: the source cells and the stripe cells. The source cells receive the input hydograph: the cells close to the torrent which are flooded by the debris flow overflowing the torrent embankment are source cells. The stripes cells are the cells flooded by debris flow coming from the surrounding cells. At the first time step only the source cells are flooded by debris flow coming from the torrent. At the second time step a certain number of cells are flooded by de- bris flow coming from the source cells. These cells constitute a stripe of cells and are assigned order two. At the third time step another group of cells are flooded by the debris flow coming from the cells whose order is two. These cells constitute another stripe and are assigned order three. The cell order of a stripe is the time step number corresponding to the transition from dry to flooded state. The mass transfer or mo- mentum exchange between cells is governed by two different mechanisms. The mass transfer is allowed only by a positive or equal to zero flow level difference between the drained cell and the receiving cell. The mass transfer is limited by a not negative final flow level difference between the drained cell and the receiving cells. This limitation excludes the case of possible oscillations in the mass transfer. Another limitation is that the mass drained by a cell should be less than the available mass in that cell. This last condition provides the respect of mass conservation. The first mechanism of mass transfer is the gravity. The mass in a cell is transferred to the neighbouring cells with lower altitude and flow level according to an uniform flow law: The second mecha- nism of mass transfer is the broad crested weir. The mass in a cell is transferred to the

  12. The luminous starburst galaxy UGC 8387

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Denise A.; Herter, Terry; Haynes, Martha P.; Beichman, C. A.; Gautier, T. N. Iii

    1995-01-01

    We present broad-band J, H, and K images and K-band spectroscopy of the luminous starburst galaxy UGC 8387. The images show a disturbed morphology, tidal tails, and a single elognated nucleus. Near infrared color maps constructed from the images reveal that the nucleus region is highly reddened. Strong emission from the central 3 arcseconds in the 2.166 micrometer Brackett gamma, 2.122 micrometer H2 v = 1-0 S(1), and 2.058 micrometer He I lines is present in the K-band spectrum. From the Brackett gamma and published radio fluxes, we find an optical depth toward the nucleus of tau(sub V) approximately 24. The CO band heads produce strong absorption in the spectral region long-ward of 2.3 micrometers. We measure a 'raw' CO index of 0.17 +/- 0.02 mag, consistent with a population of K2 supergiants of K4 giants. The nuclear colors, however, are not consistent with an obscured population of evolved stars. Instead, the red colors are best explained by an obscured mixture of stellar and warm dust emission. The amount of dust emission predicted by the near-infrared colors exceeds that expected from comparisons to galactic H II regions. After correcting the spectrum of UGC 8387 for dust emission and extinction, we obtain a CO index of greater than or equal to 0.25 mag. This value suggests the stellar component of the 2.2 micrometer light is dominated by young supergiants. The infrared excess, L(sub IR)/L(sub Ly alpha) derived for UGC 8387 is lower than that observed in galactic H II regions and M82. This implies that either the lower or upper mass cutoff of the initial mass function must be higher than those of local star-forming regions and M82. The intense nuclear starburst in this galaxy is presumably the result of merger activity; and we estimate the starburst age to be at least a few times 10(exp 7) yr.

  13. Can mechanism inform species' distribution models?

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Urban, Mark C; Angilletta, Michael J; Crozier, Lisa G; Rissler, Leslie J; Sears, Michael W

    2010-08-01

    Two major approaches address the need to predict species distributions in response to environmental changes. Correlative models estimate parameters phenomenologically by relating current distributions to environmental conditions. By contrast, mechanistic models incorporate explicit relationships between environmental conditions and organismal performance, estimated independently of current distributions. Mechanistic approaches include models that translate environmental conditions into biologically relevant metrics (e.g. potential duration of activity), models that capture environmental sensitivities of survivorship and fecundity, and models that use energetics to link environmental conditions and demography. We compared how two correlative and three mechanistic models predicted the ranges of two species: a skipper butterfly (Atalopedes campestris) and a fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus). Correlative and mechanistic models performed similarly in predicting current distributions, but mechanistic models predicted larger range shifts in response to climate change. Although mechanistic models theoretically should provide more accurate distribution predictions, there is much potential for improving their flexibility and performance.

  14. Bright Submillimeter Galaxies: Evidence for Maximal Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, I.

    2014-09-01

    AzTEC is a sensitive bolometer camera that, coupled with 10 - 15m-class sub-mm telescopes, has mapped more than 3 sq. deg of the extragalactic sky to depths between 0.7 and 1.1 mJy at 1.1mm, prior to its current installation and operation on the 32m Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). These extragalactic surveys targeted towards blank-fields and biased high-z environments alike have allowed us to identify a few thousands of submillimeter galaxies, powerful obscured starbursts at high-redshifts (z > 1), some of which have intrinsic Star Formation Rates SFR > 1000 Msun/yr and furthermore are extremely compact (~ 1 kpc). Our results imply that these extraordinary systems are forming stars in a gravitationally bound regime in which gravity prohibits the formation of superwinds, leading to matter accumulation within the galaxy and further generations of star formation.

  15. A very deep IRAS survey - Constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacking, Perry; Condon, J. J.; Houck, J. R.

    1987-05-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts.

  16. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references.

  17. Direct distribution model for regional aquatic acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Small, M.J.; Sutton, M.C.

    1986-12-01

    A model is developed to predict the regional distribution of lake acidification and its effect on fish survival. The model predicts the effect of changes in acid deposition rates on the mean and variance of the regional distribution of lake alkalinity using empirical weathering models with variable weathering factors. The regional distribution of lake alkalinity is represented by a three-parameters lognormal distribution. The regional pH distribution is derived using an explicit pH-alkalinity relationship. The predicted pH distribution is combined with a fish presence-absence relationship to predict the fraction of lakes in a region able to support fish. The model is illustrated with a set of 1014 lakes in the Adirondack Park region of New York State. Significant needs for future research for regional aggregation of aquatic acidification models are identified.

  18. FISICA observations of the starburst galaxy, NGC 1569

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.; Hull-Allen, C. G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Thompson, K.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.; Myrick, B.

    2006-06-01

    Using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) we obtained observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. We present our JH band spectra, particularly noting the existence of extended emission in Paschen β and He I.

  19. Resolving the properties of massive, high-redshift starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, James Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) are a population of dusty, obscured sources that represent some of the most extreme sites of star-formation in the Universe. These galaxies have total far-infrared (FIR) luminosities of 10E12-10E13Lsol and colossal star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼100-1000 Msol/yr, with the FIR-emission arising due to the reprocessing of ultraviolet radiation from massive, young stars by dust. Despite their discovery nearly 20 years ago, our understanding of the SMG population has been hampered by the coarse resolution (FWHM = 15-30") of single-dish sub-millimeter surveys. In this thesis I present observations of FIR-bright (S870≳1mJy) galaxies that have precise identifications from high-resolution imaging taken with sub-mm/mm interferometers. I present a multi-wavelength study of 96 SMGs that have unambiguous identifications from observations with Atacama Large Millimeter sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) and determine that the photometric redshift distribution for the SMG population has a median of zphot=2.5±0.2. I show that if the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100Myr then their descendants at z∼0 would have a space density and absolute H -band magnitude distribution that are in good agreement with a volume limited sample of local ellipticals. The low resolution of single-dish surveys has led to concerns about the blending of multiple individual galaxies into a single sub-millimeter source. I present ALMA observations of a sample of 30 bright, single-dish-identified sub-mm sources and show that 61(+19 -15)% are comprised of a blend of multiple SMGs brighter than ≳1mJy. Furthermore, I show that source blending boosts the apparent single-dish number counts by 20% at S870>7.5 mJy. A morphological analysis of the far-infrared emission from a subset of 23 of the brightest sources detected in the ALMA maps shows that the intense starburst in SMGs occurs in a compact region with a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4±0.2kpc

  20. High Mass X-ray Binaries and Star Clusters in Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestwich, Andrea H.; Chandar, R.; Rangelov, B.; Jackson, F.

    2011-09-01

    High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXB) are formed in copious numbers in starburst galaxies. Is there any relationship between HMXBs and young star clusters? Do HMXBs form preferentially in star clusters? What can star clusters tell us about nearby HMXBs, even if they are not directly related? We have studied a variety of nearby starburst galaxies -- including the Antennae, NGC 4449 (a star-bursting dwarf) and NGC 922 (a collisional ring galaxy). In all these systems, we find evidence that a large fraction of (but not all) HMXBs are spatially coincident with (or very close to) a star cluster. Approximately 50 percent of the clusters hosting bright HMXBs are extremely young -- less than 6 Myr. Stellar evolutionary models predict that all stars with initial masses higher than ≈ 30 M⊙ will have completed their main-sequence lifetime after 6 Myr. While still somewhat uncertain, models predict that stars this massive will end their lives as black holes. We therefore conclude that HMXBs coincident with these very young clusters are most likely black hole binaries. We also find evidence for a population of young (30-50 Myr) and intermediate age X-ray sources (100-300 Myr) that are associated with older clusters. The implications of these results for models of HMXB formation and evolution will be briefly discussed.

  1. Dust extinction of the stellar continua in starburst galaxies: The ultraviolet and optical extinction law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) UV and the optical spectra of 39 starburst and blue compact galaxies in order to study the average properties of dust extinction in extended regions of galaxies. The optical spectra have been obtained using an aperture which matches that of IUE, so comparable regions within each galaxy are sampled. The data from the 39 galaxies are compared with five models for the geometrical distribution of dust, adopting as extinction laws both the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud laws. The commonly used uniform dust screen is included among the models. We find that none of the five models is in satisfactory agreement with the data. In order to understand the discrepancy between the data and the models, we have derived an extinction law directly from the data in the UV and optical wavelength range. The resulting curve is characterized by an overall slope which is more gray than the Milky Way extinction law's slope, and by the absence of the 2175 A dust feature. Remarkably, the difference in optical depth between the Balmer emission lines H(sub alpha) and H(sub beta) is about a factor of 2 larger than the difference in the optical depth between the continuum underlying the two Balmer lines. We interpret this discrepancy as a consequence of the fact that the hot ionizing stars are associated with dustier regions than the cold stellar population is. The absence of the 2175 A dust feature can be due either to the effects of the scattering and clumpiness of the dust or to a chemical composition different from that of the Milky Way dust grains. Disentangling the two interpretations is not easy because of the complexity of the spatial distribution of the emitting regions. The extinction law of the UV and optical spectral continua of extended regions can be applied to the spectra of medium- and high-redshift galaxies, where extended regions of a galaxy are, by necessity, sampled.

  2. State of the gas in intense lensed starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Richard David

    2015-11-01

    , albeit likely at a velocity lower than that required to become unbound from the hosting gravitational potential well. Chapter 5 describes line measurements and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting from the full set of spectra and Herschel PACS mini scan maps. The spectra are stacked to search for faint lines, and compared to a detailed interstellar medium (ISM) model to determine average physical properties of the star-forming gas. Photodissociation region (PDR) properties are found to be similar to those derived using other models, however a cosmic ray ionisation rate of 103 times that of the Milky Way, expected in galaxies of this type cannot reproduce the observed line ratios, in particular the low [O i] 63 μm flux. Chapter 6 finally describes the conclusions drawn from the work presented in this thesis and how these data and analysis add to our knowledge and interpretation of high-redshift DSFGs.

  3. Distance distribution in configuration-model networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzan, Mor; Katzav, Eytan; Kühn, Reimer; Biham, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    We present analytical results for the distribution of shortest path lengths between random pairs of nodes in configuration model networks. The results, which are based on recursion equations, are shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulations for networks with degenerate, binomial, and power-law degree distributions. The mean, mode, and variance of the distribution of shortest path lengths are also evaluated. These results provide expressions for central measures and dispersion measures of the distribution of shortest path lengths in terms of moments of the degree distribution, illuminating the connection between the two distributions.

  4. An infrared study of starbursts in the interacting galaxy pair Arp 299 (NGC 3690+IC 694)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Takao; Nagata, Tetsuya; Geballe, T.R.; Okuda, Haruyuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Tokyo Univ.; Kyoto Univ.; Joint Astronomy Center, Hilo, HI; Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara )

    1989-05-01

    Extensive infrared observations have been obtained of the three active regions in Arp 299. Multiaperture JHK photometry reveals that the colors of the three regions are totally different from each other, and that there are very red nuclei smaller than 4 arcsec in two of them. Multiaperture spectroscopy of the Br-gamma and the shock-excited H2 lines shows that both the atomic and molecular lines are spatially extended, indicating that Arp 299 is undergoing an active episode of star formation not only in its nuclei but also well outside of them. Although there is some evidence that suggests the presence of a compact, active galactic nucleus, a simple starburst model can explain the bolometric luminosities, production rates of ionizing photons, and H24 line luminosities of each active region in Arp 299. However, each starburst cannot last longer than 10 to the 8th yr. 56 refs.

  5. Crystallization of silicates in massive young star cluster Westerlund 1: a nearby starburst analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Francisca

    2014-10-01

    We propose to observe dust forming stars in massive young cluster Westerlund 1 with the FORCASTgrism modes. The objective of this proposal is to determine the crystalline fraction of the silicates formed by the brightest mid-infrared point sources in this cluster, by disentangling the crystalline and amorphous silicate contributions to the infrared spectroscopy. This research is motivated by the discovery of large amounts of crystalline silicate dust in starburst galaxies (Spoon et al. 2006), while the silicates in the interstellar medium of our own galaxies are completely amorphous (Kemper et al. 2004). Spoon et al. explain the high crystallinity by the production by massive stars, although models show this may not be sufficient (Kemper et al. 2011). With these observations we hope to accurately pin down the crystalline silicate production by massive stars in a starburst environment.

  6. Do Tidal Interactions Trigger Starbursts in Dwarf Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkus, Charlotte; Cannon, John M.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Johnson, Megan C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Bailin, Jeremy; Ford, Alyson; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2015-01-01

    Starburst dwarf galaxies are extensively studied systems, though the mechanism that triggers starbursts is poorly understood. Tidal interactions and gas accretion are thought to be potential starburst trigger mechanisms, although internal, secular drivers have not been ruled out. If starbursts are a result of external perturbations, then one would expect to see signatures of interaction in the gaseous disk of the galaxy. To examine this hypothesis, we analyze both archival and newly-obtained deep, wide-field HI maps from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of a sample of nineteen well-studied nearby starburst dwarf galaxies to search for such signs of interactions. Our sample is unique in that we have previously derived the star formation histories from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations for all galaxies. In this work we focus on NGC 784 and NGC 672, which both may lie on a filament of dark matter isolated in space. We evaluate methods to determine the presence and properties of low surface-brightness neutral gas in the outer disk regions. This work serves as a prototype for forthcoming analysis of the full sample. With our results we hope to not only establish an effective data analysis procedure, but to also confirm or rule-out tidal interactions as a triggering mechanism of starbursts in this sample of dwarf galaxies.

  7. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  8. Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, David L.; Paglione, Timothy A. D.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jackson, James M.

    1995-01-01

    The starburst galaxy NGC 253 was observed with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satellite. We obtain a 2 sigma upper limit to the gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV of 8 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm/s. Because of their large gas column densities and supernova rates, nearby starburst galaxies were predicted to have gamma-ray fluxes detectable by EGRET. Our nondetection of gamma-rays from NGC 253 motivates us to reexamine in detail the premise of supernova acceleration of cosmic rays and the effect of enhanced cloud densities, photon densities, and magnetic fields on the high-energy spectra of galaxies. By modeling the expected gamma-ray and synchrotron spectra from NGC 253, we find that up to 20% of the energy from supernovae is transferred to cosmic rays in the starburst, which is consistent with supernova acceleration models. Our calculations match the EGRET and radio data well with a supernova rate of 0.08/yr, a magnetic field B greater than or approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp -5) G, a density n approximately 300/cu cm, a photon density U(sub ph) approximately 200 eV/cu cm, and an escape timescale tau(sub o) less than or approximately equal to 10 Myr.

  9. Models for the hotspot distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdy, Donna M.; Stefanick, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Published hotspot catalogs all show a hemispheric concentration beyond what can be expected by chance. Cumulative distributions about the center of concentration are described by a power law with a fractal dimension closer to 1 than 2. Random sets of the corresponding sizes do not show this effect. A simple shift of the random sets away from a point would produce distributions similar to those of hotspot sets. The possible relation of the hotspots to the locations of ridges and subduction zones is tested using large sets of randomly-generated points to estimate areas within given distances of the plate boundaries. The probability of finding the observed number of hotspots within 10 deg of the ridges is about what is expected.

  10. The far infra-red SEDs of main sequence and starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, William I.; Béthermin, Matthieu; del P. Lagos, Claudia; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Cole, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    We compare observed far infra-red/sub-millimetre (FIR/sub-mm) galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of massive galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 1010 h-1 M⊙) derived through a stacking analysis with predictions from a new model of galaxy formation. The FIR SEDs of the model galaxies are calculated using a self-consistent model for the absorption and re-emission of radiation by interstellar dust based on radiative transfer calculations and global energy balance arguments. Galaxies are selected based on their position on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) - stellar mass (M⋆) plane. We identify a main sequence of star-forming galaxies in the model, i.e. a well defined relationship between sSFR and M⋆, up to redshift z ˜ 6. The scatter of this relationship evolves such that it is generally larger at higher stellar masses and higher redshifts. There is remarkable agreement between the predicted and observed average SEDs across a broad range of redshifts (0.5 ≲ z ≲ 4) for galaxies on the main sequence. However, the agreement is less good for starburst galaxies at z ≳ 2, selected here to have elevated sSFRs>10 × the main sequence value. We find that the predicted average SEDs are robust to changing the parameters of our dust model within physically plausible values. We also show that the dust temperature evolution of main sequence galaxies in the model is driven by star formation on the main sequence being more burst-dominated at higher redshifts.

  11. The far infra-red SEDs of main sequence and starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, William I.; Béthermin, Matthieu; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Cole, Shaun

    2017-05-01

    We compare observed far infrared/sub-millimetre (FIR/sub-mm) galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of massive galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 1010 h-1 M⊙) derived through a stacking analysis with predictions from a new model of galaxy formation. The FIR SEDs of the model galaxies are calculated using a self-consistent model for the absorption and re-emission of radiation by interstellar dust based on radiative transfer calculations and global energy balance arguments. Galaxies are selected based on their position on the specific star formation rate (sSFR)-stellar mass (M⋆) plane. We identify a main sequence of star-forming galaxies in the model, i.e. a well-defined relationship between sSFR and M⋆, up to redshift z ˜ 6. The scatter of this relationship evolves such that it is generally larger at higher stellar masses and higher redshifts. There is a remarkable agreement between the predicted and observed average SEDs across a broad range of redshifts (0.5 ≲ z ≲ 4) for galaxies on the main sequence. However, the agreement is less good for starburst galaxies at z ≳ 2, selected here to have elevated sSFRs>10× the main-sequence value. We find that the predicted average SEDs are robust to changing the parameters of our dust model within physically plausible values. We also show that the dust temperature evolution of the main-sequence galaxies in the model is driven by star formation on the main sequence being more burst-dominated at higher redshifts.

  12. An excess of dusty starbursts related to the Spiderweb galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannerbauer, H.; Kurk, J. D.; De Breuck, C.; Wylezalek, D.; Santos, J. S.; Koyama, Y.; Seymour, N.; Tanaka, M.; Hatch, N.; Altieri, B.; Coia, D.; Galametz, A.; Kodama, T.; Miley, G.; Röttgering, H.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Venemans, B.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-10-01

    We present APEX LABOCA 870 μm observations of the field around the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC1138-262 at z = 2.16. We detect 16 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in this ~140 arcmin2 bolometer map with flux densities in the range 3-11 mJy. The raw number counts indicate a density of SMGs that is up to four times that of blank field surveys. Based on an exquisite multiwavelength database, including VLA 1.4 GHz radio and infrared observations, we investigate whether these sources are members of the protocluster structure at z ≈ 2.2. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE and Spitzer MIPS photometry, we derive reliable far-infrared (FIR) photometric redshifts for all sources. Follow-up VLT ISAAC and SINFONI NIR spectra confirm that four of these SMGs have redshifts of z ≈ 2.2. We also present evidence that another SMG in this field, detected earlier at 850 μm, has a counterpart that exhibits Hα and CO(1-0) emission at z = 2.15. Including the radio galaxy and two SMGs with FIR photometric redshifts at z = 2.2, we conclude that at least eight submm sources are part of the protocluster at z = 2.16 associated with the radio galaxy MRC1138-262. We measure a star formation rate density SFRD ~1500 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3, four magnitudes higher than the global SFRD of blank fields at this redshift. Strikingly, these eight sources are concentrated within a region of 2 Mpc (the typical size of clusters in the local universe) and are distributed within the filaments traced by the HAEs at z ≈ 2.2. This concentration of massive, dusty starbursts is not centered on the submillimeter-bright radio galaxy which could support the infalling of these sources into the cluster center. Approximately half (6/11) of the SMGs that are covered by the Hα imaging data are associated with HAEs, demonstrating the potential of tracing SMG counterparts with this population. To summarize, our results demonstrate that submillimeter observations may enable us to study (proto)clusters of massive, dusty

  13. Circumnuclear molecular gas in starburst and Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kameya, Osamo; Nakai, Naomasa

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate circumnuclear molecular gaseous contents and their relation to the nuclear activity, researchers made a search for circumnuclear (12)CO (J=1-0) emission from 28 starburst-nucleus galaxies (SBNs) and 12 Seyfert galaxies with the recession velocities less than 5000 km/s, using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope. The full half-power beam width of 17 arcsec covers a region of less than about 5 kpc in diameter for the sample galaxies. The circumnuclear CO emission was detected from twelve SBNs (one is marginal) and four Seyfert galaxies. The main results and conclusions are summarized. Researchers derived the circumnuclear surface density of molecular gas which is corrected for inclination of the galaxies. This analysis shows that the surface density spans a wide range over two orders of magnitude. Further, there is no significant difference in the surface densities between types 1 and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Thus, we may conclude that the circumnuclear molecular content is not a key parameter producing the dichotomy of the Seyfert galaxies. It is also shown that there is no significant difference in the circumnuclear surface densities of molecular gas among the Seyfert, starburst, and normal galaxies. This implies that the circumnuclear gaseous content is not a key parameter determining which activity occurs in nuclei. We may conclude that more centrally condensed (i.e., less than 10 - 100 pc in diameter) gas components play an essential role on the occurrence of nuclear activities. Comparing results with the previous ones, researchers deduced radial distribution of surface density of molecular gases. They cannot obtain evidence for strong central concentration of molecular gas in the sample Seyfert galaxies except for NGC 3227. This is consistent with the previous result by Blitz, Mathieu, and Bally (1986). Comparing the CO emission line profiles with the previous ones taken with the larger beams, researchers discovered circumnuclear

  14. Starburst and old stellar populations in the z ≃ 3.8 radio galaxies 4C 41.17 and TN J2007-1316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Drouart, G.; De Breuck, C.; Vernet, J.; Seymour, N.; Wylezalek, D.; Lehnert, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Fioc, M.

    2013-03-01

    Using the new evolutionary code PÉGASE.3, we undertook an evolutionary spectral synthesis of the optical-IR-submm spectral energy distribution of two distant (z = 3.8) radio galaxies, 4C 41.17 and TN J2007-1316. These two radio galaxies were selected from the HeRGÉ (Herschel Radio Galaxies Evolution) Project in particular for their faint active galactic nucleus contribution and because they show evidence of a large stellar contribution to their bolometric luminosity. PÉGASE.3 coherently models the reprocessing of the stellar luminosity to dust emission, allowing us to build UV to IR-submm spectral energy distribution libraries that can then be used to fit spectral energy distributions in the observer's frame. Our principal conclusion is that a single stellar population is insufficient to fit the spectral energy distribution of either radio galaxy. Our best fits are a sum of two evolving stellar populations - a recent starburst plus an old population - plus the thermal emission from an active galactic nucleus (which provides a good fit to the mid-IR emission). The two stellar components are: (i) a massive (≃ 1011 M⊙) starburst ≃30 Myr after formation,which is required simultaneously to fit the far-IR Herschel to submm data and the optical data; and (ii) an older massive (≃ 1011-12 M⊙) early-type galaxy population, ≃1.0 Gyr old, which is required principally to fit the mid-IR Spitzer/IRAC data. A young population alone is insufficient because an evolved giant star population produces a 1-μm rest-frame peak that is observed in the IRAC photometry. This discovery confirms that many of the stellar populations in high-redshift radio galaxies were formed by massive starbursts in the early Universe. Gas-rich mergers and/or jet-cloud interactions are favoured for triggering the intense star formation necessary to explain the properties of the spectral energy distributions. The discovery of similar characteristics in two distant radio galaxies suggeststhat

  15. OT1_dweedman_1: Comparing [CII] 158 micron Luminosities to Spectral Properties of Luminous Starburst Galaxies and AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, D.

    2010-07-01

    Herschel PACS spectroscopy of the [CII] emission line at 158 microns is proposed for a carefully selected sample of 123 sources that already have complete low and high resolution mid-infrared spectra between 5 microns and 35 microns from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, and which also have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from IRAS and Akari photometry. [CII] 158 um is the strongest far-infrared emission line and therefore crucial to compare with other features in luminous, dusty galaxies. Sources have 0.004 < z < 0.34 and 43.0 < log L(IR) < 46.8 (erg per sec) and cover the full range of starburst galaxy and AGN classifications. Obtaining these [CII] line fluxes with PACS will allow: 1. determining how precisely [CII] luminosity measures star formation rate by comparing to PAH features and emission lines that arise in starburst galaxies; 2. determining how [CII] luminosity and equivalent width changes with starburst/AGN fraction, by comparing with strength and equivalent width of PAH and [NeII] emission arising from starbursts, and with strength of high ionization lines [NeV] and [OIV] and silicate absorption or emission arising from AGN; 3. determining how [CII] luminosity and equivalent width changes with dust temperature and bolometric luminosity, as derived from spectral energy distributions, and whether this depends on the starburst/AGN fraction. These determinations will allow interpretation of high redshift sources for which the only available diagnostics are the luminosity and equivalent width of the [CII] line and the far-infrared rest-frame SED. The total observing program requires 20.2 hours of Herschel observing time.

  16. Graphical Models via Univariate Exponential Family Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunho; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Allen, Genevera I.; Liu, Zhandong

    2016-01-01

    Undirected graphical models, or Markov networks, are a popular class of statistical models, used in a wide variety of applications. Popular instances of this class include Gaussian graphical models and Ising models. In many settings, however, it might not be clear which subclass of graphical models to use, particularly for non-Gaussian and non-categorical data. In this paper, we consider a general sub-class of graphical models where the node-wise conditional distributions arise from exponential families. This allows us to derive multivariate graphical model distributions from univariate exponential family distributions, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and exponential distributions. Our key contributions include a class of M-estimators to fit these graphical model distributions; and rigorous statistical analysis showing that these M-estimators recover the true graphical model structure exactly, with high probability. We provide examples of genomic and proteomic networks learned via instances of our class of graphical models derived from Poisson and exponential distributions. PMID:27570498

  17. New Constraints on the Escape of Ionizing Photons from Starburst Galaxies Using Ionization-parameter Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation in starburst galaxies is key to understanding cosmic reionization. However, the galactic parameters on which the escape fraction of ionizing radiation depend are not well understood. Ionization-parameter mapping provides a simple, yet effective, way to study the radiative transfer in starburst galaxies. We obtain emission-line ratio maps of [S III]/[S II] for six, nearby, dwarf starbursts: NGC 178, NGC 1482, NGC 1705, NGC 3125, NGC 7126, and He 2-10. The narrowband images are obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. Using these data, we previously reported the discovery of an optically thin ionization cone in NGC 5253, and here we also discover a similar ionization cone in NGC 3125. This latter cone has an opening angle of 40° ± 5° (0.4 sr), indicating that the passageways through which ionizing radiation may travel correspond to a small solid angle. Additionally, there are three sample galaxies that have winds and/or superbubble activity, which should be conducive to escaping radiation, yet they are optically thick. These results support the scenario that an orientation bias limits our ability to directly detect escaping Lyman continuum in many starburst galaxies. A comparison of the star formation properties and histories of the optically thin and thick galaxies is consistent with the model that high escape fractions are limited to galaxies that are old enough (gsim3 Myr) for mechanical feedback to have cleared optically thin passageways in the interstellar medium, but young enough (lsim5 Myr) that the ionizing stars are still present.

  18. New constraints on the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies using ionization-parameter mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael

    2013-12-10

    The fate of ionizing radiation in starburst galaxies is key to understanding cosmic reionization. However, the galactic parameters on which the escape fraction of ionizing radiation depend are not well understood. Ionization-parameter mapping provides a simple, yet effective, way to study the radiative transfer in starburst galaxies. We obtain emission-line ratio maps of [S III]/[S II] for six, nearby, dwarf starbursts: NGC 178, NGC 1482, NGC 1705, NGC 3125, NGC 7126, and He 2-10. The narrowband images are obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. Using these data, we previously reported the discovery of an optically thin ionization cone in NGC 5253, and here we also discover a similar ionization cone in NGC 3125. This latter cone has an opening angle of 40° ± 5° (0.4 sr), indicating that the passageways through which ionizing radiation may travel correspond to a small solid angle. Additionally, there are three sample galaxies that have winds and/or superbubble activity, which should be conducive to escaping radiation, yet they are optically thick. These results support the scenario that an orientation bias limits our ability to directly detect escaping Lyman continuum in many starburst galaxies. A comparison of the star formation properties and histories of the optically thin and thick galaxies is consistent with the model that high escape fractions are limited to galaxies that are old enough (≳3 Myr) for mechanical feedback to have cleared optically thin passageways in the interstellar medium, but young enough (≲5 Myr) that the ionizing stars are still present.

  19. The Seyfert-Starburst Connection in X-rays. 1; The Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenson, N. A.; Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We analyze X-ray spectra and images of a sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies that unambiguously contain starbursts, based on their optical and UV characteristics. Although all sample members contain active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supermassive black holes or other related processes at the galactic centers alone cannot account for the total X-ray emission in all instances. Eleven of the 12 observed galaxies are significantly resolved with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager, while six of the eight sources observed with the lower resolution Position Sensitive Proportional Counter also appear extended on larger scales. The X-ray emission is extended on physical scales of 10 kpc and greater, which we attribute to starburst-driven outflows and supernova heating of the interstellar medium. Spectrally, a physically motivated composite model of the X-ray emission that includes a heavily absorbed (N(sub H) greater than 10(exp 23)/sq cm) nuclear component (the AGN), power-law-like scattered AGN flux, and a thermal starburst describes this sample well. Half the sample exhibit iron K(alpha) lines, which are typical of AGNs.

  20. The Seyfert-Starburst Connection in X-rays. 1; The Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenson, N. A.; Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We analyze X-ray spectra and images of a sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies that unambiguously contain starbursts, based on their optical and UV characteristics. Although all sample members contain active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supermassive black holes or other related processes at the galactic centers alone cannot account for the total X-ray emission in all instances. Eleven of the 12 observed galaxies are significantly resolved with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager, while six of the eight sources observed with the lower resolution Position Sensitive Proportional Counter also appear extended on larger scales. The X-ray emission is extended on physical scales of 10 kpc and greater, which we attribute to starburst-driven outflows and supernova heating of the interstellar medium. Spectrally, a physically motivated composite model of the X-ray emission that includes a heavily absorbed (N(sub H) greater than 10(exp 23)/sq cm) nuclear component (the AGN), power-law-like scattered AGN flux, and a thermal starburst describes this sample well. Half the sample exhibit iron K(alpha) lines, which are typical of AGNs.

  1. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in H I, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal FIR radiation and nonthermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher FIR luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, it is concluded that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties.

  2. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in H I, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal FIR radiation and nonthermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher FIR luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, it is concluded that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties.

  3. N/O abundance ratios in gamma-ray burst and supernova host galaxies at z < 4. Comparison with AGN, starburst and H ii regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, M.

    2017-08-01

    The distribution of the N/O element abundance ratios calculated by the detailed modelling of different galaxy spectra at z < 4 is investigated. Supernova (SN) and long gamma-ray-burst (LGRB) host galaxies cover different redshift domains. N/O ratios in SN hosts increase due to secondary N production towards low z (0.01) accompanying the growing trend of active galaxies [active galactic nucleus (AGN), low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER)]. N/O ratios in LGRB hosts decrease rapidly between z > 1 and z ∼ 0.1 following the N/H trend and reach the characteristic N/O ratios calculated for the H ii regions in local and nearby galaxies. The few short-period gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) hosts included in the galaxy sample show N/H ≤ 0.04 solar and O/H solar. They seem to continue the low bound N/H trend of SN hosts at z < 0.3. The distribution of N/O as a function of metallicity for SN and LGRB hosts is compared with star chemical evolution models. The results show that several LGRB hosts can be explained by star multibursting models when 12+log(O/H) < 8.5, while some objects follow the trend of continuous star formation models. N/O in SN hosts at log(O/H)+12 < 8.5 are not well explained by stellar chemical evolution models calculated for starburst galaxies. At 12+log(O/H) > 8.5 many different objects are nested close to O/H solar with N/O ranging between the maximum corresponding to starburst galaxies and AGN and the minimum corresponding to H ii regions and SGRB.

  4. New trends in species distribution modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Graham, Catherine H.; Pearman, Peter B.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Species distribution modelling has its origin in the late 1970s when computing capacity was limited. Early work in the field concentrated mostly on the development of methods to model effectively the shape of a species' response to environmental gradients (Austin 1987, Austin et al. 1990). The methodology and its framework were summarized in reviews 10–15 yr ago (Franklin 1995, Guisan and Zimmermann 2000), and these syntheses are still widely used as reference landmarks in the current distribution modelling literature. However, enormous advancements have occurred over the last decade, with hundreds – if not thousands – of publications on species distribution model (SDM) methodologies and their application to a broad set of conservation, ecological and evolutionary questions. With this special issue, originating from the third of a set of specialized SDM workshops (2008 Riederalp) entitled 'The Utility of Species Distribution Models as Tools for Conservation Ecology', we reflect on current trends and the progress achieved over the last decade.

  5. Caveats for correlative species distribution modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Holcombe, Tracy R.

    2015-01-01

    Correlative species distribution models are becoming commonplace in the scientific literature and public outreach products, displaying locations, abundance, or suitable environmental conditions for harmful invasive species, threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern. Accurate species distribution models are useful for efficient and adaptive management and conservation, research, and ecological forecasting. Yet, these models are often presented without fully examining or explaining the caveats for their proper use and interpretation and are often implemented without understanding the limitations and assumptions of the model being used. We describe common pitfalls, assumptions, and caveats of correlative species distribution models to help novice users and end users better interpret these models. Four primary caveats corresponding to different phases of the modeling process, each with supporting documentation and examples, include: (1) all sampling data are incomplete and potentially biased; (2) predictor variables must capture distribution constraints; (3) no single model works best for all species, in all areas, at all spatial scales, and over time; and (4) the results of species distribution models should be treated like a hypothesis to be tested and validated with additional sampling and modeling in an iterative process.

  6. Software Model Checking for Verifying Distributed Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Verification procedure is an intelligent exhaustive search of the state space of the design Model Checking 6 Verifying Synchronous Distributed App...Distributed App Sagar Chaki, June 11, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Tool Usage Project webpage (http://mcda.googlecode.com) • Tutorial

  7. Indiana Distributive Education Competency Based Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Rod; And Others

    This Indiana distributive education competency-based curriculum model is designed to help teachers and local administrators plan and conduct a comprehensive marketing and distributive education program. It is divided into three levels--one level for each year of a three-year program. The competencies common to a variety of marketing and…

  8. Dynamic causal modelling of distributed electromagnetic responses

    PubMed Central

    Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we describe a variant of dynamic causal modelling for evoked responses as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG). We depart from equivalent current dipole formulations of DCM, and extend it to provide spatiotemporal source estimates that are spatially distributed. The spatial model is based upon neural-field equations that model neuronal activity on the cortical manifold. We approximate this description of electrocortical activity with a set of local standing-waves that are coupled though their temporal dynamics. The ensuing distributed DCM models source as a mixture of overlapping patches on the cortical mesh. Time-varying activity in this mixture, caused by activity in other sources and exogenous inputs, is propagated through appropriate lead-field or gain-matrices to generate observed sensor data. This spatial model has three key advantages. First, it is more appropriate than equivalent current dipole models, when real source activity is distributed locally within a cortical area. Second, the spatial degrees of freedom of the model can be specified and therefore optimised using model selection. Finally, the model is linear in the spatial parameters, which finesses model inversion. Here, we describe the distributed spatial model and present a comparative evaluation with conventional equivalent current dipole (ECD) models of auditory processing, as measured with EEG. PMID:19398015

  9. Modeling neural activity with cumulative damage distributions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Víctor; Tejo, Mauricio; Guiraud, Pierre; Schmachtenberg, Oliver; Orio, Patricio; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    Neurons transmit information as action potentials or spikes. Due to the inherent randomness of the inter-spike intervals (ISIs), probabilistic models are often used for their description. Cumulative damage (CD) distributions are a family of probabilistic models that has been widely considered for describing time-related cumulative processes. This family allows us to consider certain deterministic principles for modeling ISIs from a probabilistic viewpoint and to link its parameters to values with biological interpretation. The CD family includes the Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions, which possess distinctive properties and theoretical arguments useful for ISI description. We expand the use of CD distributions to the modeling of neural spiking behavior, mainly by testing the suitability of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution, which has not been studied in the setting of neural activity. We validate this expansion with original experimental and simulated electrophysiological data.

  10. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of galaxies: introducing the artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L.; Schurer, A.; Granato, G. L.; Almeida, C.; Baugh, C. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Lacey, C. G.; Paoletti, L.; Petrella, A.; Selvestrel, D.

    2011-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of galaxies is a complex function of the star formation history and geometrical arrangement of stars and gas in galaxies. The computation of the radiative transfer of stellar radiation through the dust distribution is time-consuming. This aspect becomes unacceptable in particular when dealing with the predictions by semi-analytical galaxy formation models populating cosmological volumes, to be then compared with multi-wavelength surveys. Mainly for this aim, we have implemented an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm into the spectro-photometric and radiative transfer code GRASIL in order to compute the SED of galaxies in a short computing time. This allows to avoid the adoption of empirical templates that may have nothing to do with the mock galaxies output by models. The ANN has been implemented to compute the dust emission spectrum (the bottleneck of the computation), and separately for the star-forming molecular clouds (MC) and the diffuse dust (due to their different properties and dependencies). We have defined the input neurons effectively determining their emission, which means this implementation has a general applicability and is not linked to a particular galaxy formation model. We have trained the net for the disc and spherical geometries, and tested its performance to reproduce the SED of disc and starburst galaxies, as well as for a semi-analytical model for spheroidal galaxies. We have checked that for this model both the SEDs and the galaxy counts in the Herschel bands obtained with the ANN approximation are almost superimposed to the same quantities obtained with the full GRASIL. We conclude that this method appears robust and advantageous, and will present the application to a more complex SAM in another paper.

  11. Modelling Root Systems Using Oriented Density Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2011-09-01

    Root architectural models are essential tools to understand how plants access and utilize soil resources during their development. However, root architectural models use complex geometrical descriptions of the root system and this has limitations to model interactions with the soil. This paper presents the development of continuous models based on the concept of oriented density distribution function. The growth of the root system is built as a hierarchical system of partial differential equations (PDEs) that incorporate single root growth parameters such as elongation rate, gravitropism and branching rate which appear explicitly as coefficients of the PDE. Acquisition and transport of nutrients are then modelled by extending Darcy's law to oriented density distribution functions. This framework was applied to build a model of the growth and water uptake of barley root system. This study shows that simplified and computer effective continuous models of the root system development can be constructed. Such models will allow application of root growth models at field scale.

  12. BIMA CO Observations of the Starburst Nucleus of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianjun; Lo, K. Y.

    1995-04-01

    Observations with 2.5" (38 pc) resolution of the CO (J=1-0) emission from the starburst nucleus of M82, obtained with the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) 6-element millimeter-wave array, have revealed unresolved (< 30 pc) structure in the CO emission with very high brightness temperature (up to 34 K). The new observations have also resolved the previously identified double lobe and central peak in the integrated CO intensity into many peaks that are all due to ``velocity crowding" of several velocity components. Most of the CO emitting gas could be located in molecular spiral arms at 125 pc and 390 pc from the nucleus. Outflow motion (approximately 230 km/s) of part of the molecular gas normal to the plane is also indicated. The new observations suggest that the starbursts took place within molecular spiral arms at some distance from the nucleus. The starbursts may in fact have propagated inwards. Given the substantial amount of dense molecular gas still present in the M82 starburst region, it is not clear why the starburst activity appears to have subsided.

  13. Incorporating uncertainty in predictive species distribution modelling

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Colin M.; Lennon, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the need to solve ecological problems (climate change, habitat fragmentation and biological invasions), there has been increasing interest in species distribution models (SDMs). Predictions from these models inform conservation policy, invasive species management and disease-control measures. However, predictions are subject to uncertainty, the degree and source of which is often unrecognized. Here, we review the SDM literature in the context of uncertainty, focusing on three main classes of SDM: niche-based models, demographic models and process-based models. We identify sources of uncertainty for each class and discuss how uncertainty can be minimized or included in the modelling process to give realistic measures of confidence around predictions. Because this has typically not been performed, we conclude that uncertainty in SDMs has often been underestimated and a false precision assigned to predictions of geographical distribution. We identify areas where development of new statistical tools will improve predictions from distribution models, notably the development of hierarchical models that link different types of distribution model and their attendant uncertainties across spatial scales. Finally, we discuss the need to develop more defensible methods for assessing predictive performance, quantifying model goodness-of-fit and for assessing the significance of model covariates. PMID:22144387

  14. Incorporating uncertainty in predictive species distribution modelling.

    PubMed

    Beale, Colin M; Lennon, Jack J

    2012-01-19

    Motivated by the need to solve ecological problems (climate change, habitat fragmentation and biological invasions), there has been increasing interest in species distribution models (SDMs). Predictions from these models inform conservation policy, invasive species management and disease-control measures. However, predictions are subject to uncertainty, the degree and source of which is often unrecognized. Here, we review the SDM literature in the context of uncertainty, focusing on three main classes of SDM: niche-based models, demographic models and process-based models. We identify sources of uncertainty for each class and discuss how uncertainty can be minimized or included in the modelling process to give realistic measures of confidence around predictions. Because this has typically not been performed, we conclude that uncertainty in SDMs has often been underestimated and a false precision assigned to predictions of geographical distribution. We identify areas where development of new statistical tools will improve predictions from distribution models, notably the development of hierarchical models that link different types of distribution model and their attendant uncertainties across spatial scales. Finally, we discuss the need to develop more defensible methods for assessing predictive performance, quantifying model goodness-of-fit and for assessing the significance of model covariates.

  15. Sample sizes and model comparison metrics for species distribution models

    Treesearch

    B.B. Hanberry; H.S. He; D.C. Dey

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution models use small samples to produce continuous distribution maps. The question of how small a sample can be to produce an accurate model generally has been answered based on comparisons to maximum sample sizes of 200 observations or fewer. In addition, model comparisons often are made with the kappa statistic, which has become controversial....

  16. Probing the circumnuclear stellar populations of starburst galaxies in the near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dametto, N. Z.; Riffel, R.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Hernandez-Jimenez, J. A.; Carvalho, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    We employ the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility's near-infrared spectrograph SpeX at 0.8-2.4 μm to investigate the spatial distribution of the stellar populations (SPs) in the four well-known starburst galaxies: NGC 34, NGC 1614, NGC 3310 and NGC 7714. We use the STARLIGHT code updated with the synthetic simple SPs models computed by Maraston. Our main results are that the near-infrared light in the nuclear surroundings of the galaxies is dominated by young-/intermediate-age SPs (t ≤ 2 × 109 yr), summing from ˜40 up to 100 per cent of the light contribution. In the nuclear aperture of two sources (NGC 1614 and NGC 3310), we detected a predominant old SP component (t > 2 × 109 yr), while for NGC 34 and NGC 7714 the younger component prevails. Furthermore, we found evidence of a circumnuclear star formation ring-like structure and a secondary nucleus in NGC 1614, in agreement with previous studies. We also suggest that the merger/interaction experienced by three of the galaxies studied, NGC 1614, NGC 3310 and NGC 7714, can explain the lower metallicity values derived for the young SP component of these sources. In this scenario, the fresh unprocessed metal poorer gas from the destroyed/interacting companion galaxy is driven to the centre of the galaxies and mixed with the central region gas, before star formation takes place. In order to deepen our analysis, we performed the same procedure of SP synthesis using the Maraston & Strömbäck evolutionary population synthesis models. Our results show that the newer and higher resolution M11 models tend to enhance the old-/intermediate-age SP contribution over the younger ages.

  17. Formation of the twin galactic starburst regions NGC 6357 and NGC 6334

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Kazufumi; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2017-03-01

    New CO J=1-0 observations with NANTEN and NANTEN2 reveal that extensive collisions between two molecular clouds at relative velocity of 15 km s-1 triggered the O star formation in the Galactic mini-starbursts NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. Correlated/anti-correlated gas distributions and intermediate velocity features between the two clouds lend support for the cloud-cloud collision scenario. The timescale of the collision and high-mass star formation is as short as less than 0.5 Myrs, suggesting rapid O star formation.

  18. A probability distribution model for rain rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedem, Benjamin; Pavlopoulos, Harry; Guan, Xiaodong; Short, David A.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic approach is suggested for modeling the probability distribution of rain rate. Rain rate, conditional on rain and averaged over a region, is modeled as a temporally homogeneous diffusion process with appropiate boundary conditions. The approach requires a drift coefficient-conditional average instantaneous rate of change of rain intensity-as well as a diffusion coefficient-the conditional average magnitude of the rate of growth and decay of rain rate about its drift. Under certain assumptions on the drift and diffusion coefficients compatible with rain rate, a new parametric family-containing the lognormal distribution-is obtained for the continuous part of the stationary limit probability distribution. The family is fitted to tropical rainfall from Darwin and Florida, and it is found that the lognormal distribution provides adequate fits as compared with other members of the family and also with the gamma distribution.

  19. Modelling lifetime data with multivariate Tweedie distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Siti Rohani Mohd; Yusof, Fadhilah; Bahar, Arifah

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to measure the dependence between individual lifetimes by applying multivariate Tweedie distribution to the lifetime data. Dependence between lifetimes incorporated in the mortality model is a new form of idea that gives significant impact on the risk of the annuity portfolio which is actually against the idea of standard actuarial methods that assumes independent between lifetimes. Hence, this paper applies Tweedie family distribution to the portfolio of lifetimes to induce the dependence between lives. Tweedie distribution is chosen since it contains symmetric and non-symmetric, as well as light-tailed and heavy-tailed distributions. Parameter estimation is modified in order to fit the Tweedie distribution to the data. This procedure is developed by using method of moments. In addition, the comparison stage is made to check for the adequacy between the observed mortality and expected mortality. Finally, the importance of including systematic mortality risk in the model is justified by the Pearson's chi-squared test.

  20. The Fundamental Parameters of the Starburst Cluster Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damineli, Augusto; de Almeida, Leonardo; Teodoro, Mairan M.; Jablonski, Francisco J.

    2013-06-01

    In spite of many published data about the starburst cluster Westerlund~1, fundamental parameters were not yet published -- at least not with the accuracy necessary for a template to massive star formation. Using several telescopes, ranging from 60-cm to 4-m, we gathered high quality data in the optical and near-infrared. Based on photometric analysis of 30 OBSG stars, we derived a reddening law with α=-1.95±0.16 and A_K= 0.72±0.06 -- compatible with Nishiyama et al. (2006) --, which implies the ratios A_B:A_V:A_R:A_I:A_J:A_K = 1.373:1.00:0.748:0.578:0.198:0.066. Our photometric analysis (using data from a monitoring campaign along 70 nights in the I and H bands) together with radial velocity curve modeling for one of the eclipsing binary systems (Wdeb) resulted in parameters more accurate than those published by Koumpia & Bonanos (2012). We derived a distance of d=4.26 ±0.13 kpc, which was crucial to constrain the luminosities of the massive stellar population (WRs, LBVs, Blue, Yellow, and Red super-giants). Using a reddening-free colour indices, we estimated the spectral type of each star in the sample, identify MS and PMS members, and constrained the cluster age. Variability of massive stars along the last 6 years also is reported.

  1. Circumnuclear ionized gas in starburst nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    1990-01-01

    In order to study kinematical properties of starburst nuclei (SBNs), researchers made high-resolution spectroscopy of fifteen SBNs in the H alpha region using an intensified Reticon system attached to the coude focus of the 188-cm reflector at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumental resolution is 21 km s(-1) Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) at lambda sub H alpha. As for the archetypical SBN, Mrk 538 (=NGC 7714), researchers present high-resolution emission line profiles of several species of ions such as (OIII), (NII), (SII), and (OII). Main results and conclusions are summarized. It has been known that emission-line profiles of SBNs are symmetrical and narrow. However, this high-resolution spectroscopy shows that the observed emission-line profiles of the SBNs have the following asymmetrical patterns; blueward, redward, and double-peaked. It is known that such features have been observed for narrow line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). There is no remarkable correlation between the asymmetry index and the reddening indicator such as a Balmer decrement. Thus the line asymmetry is not attributed to inhomogeneous obscuration in the emitting regions. The observed FWHMs of the H alpha emission lines cover a range from 85 km s(-1) to 318 km s(-1) and are slightly larger than those of (NII) lambda 6584A emission except for the double-peaked SBNs. The FWHMs of H alpha emission show a good correlation with sin i (i is an inclination angle of galaxy). This correlation means that the FWHMs of the SBNs suffer significantly from rotational broadening. Mrk 52 is an anomalous SBN because it has narrow emission line widths for its high inclination angle (cf. Taniguchi 1987). From the above correlation, it is estimated that the intrinsic (i.e., rotation free) FWHMs of H alpha emission are about 50 km s(-1).

  2. Circumnuclear ionized gas in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    1990-07-01

    In order to study kinematical properties of starburst nuclei (SBNs), researchers made high-resolution spectroscopy of fifteen SBNs in the H alpha region using an intensified Reticon system attached to the coude focus of the 188-cm reflector at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumental resolution is 21 km s(-1) Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) at lambdaH alpha. As for the archetypical SBN, Mrk 538 (=NGC 7714), researchers present high-resolution emission line profiles of several species of ions such as (OIII), (NII), (SII), and (OII). Main results and conclusions are summarized. It has been known that emission-line profiles of SBNs are symmetrical and narrow. However, this high-resolution spectroscopy shows that the observed emission-line profiles of the SBNs have the following asymmetrical patterns; blueward, redward, and double-peaked. It is known that such features have been observed for narrow line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). There is no remarkable correlation between the asymmetry index and the reddening indicator such as a Balmer decrement. Thus the line asymmetry is not attributed to inhomogeneous obscuration in the emitting regions. The observed FWHMs of the H alpha emission lines cover a range from 85 km s(-1) to 318 km s(-1) and are slightly larger than those of (NII) lambda 6584A emission except for the double-peaked SBNs. The FWHMs of H alpha emission show a good correlation with sin i (i is an inclination angle of galaxy). This correlation means that the FWHMs of the SBNs suffer significantly from rotational broadening. Mrk 52 is an anomalous SBN because it has narrow emission line widths for its high inclination angle (cf. Taniguchi 1987). From the above correlation, it is estimated that the intrinsic (i.e., rotation free) FWHMs of H alpha emission are about 50 km s(-1).

  3. Population distribution models: species distributions are better modeled using biologically relevant data partitions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Predicting the geographic distribution of widespread species through modeling is problematic for several reasons including high rates of omission errors. One potential source of error for modeling widespread species is that subspecies and/or races of species are frequently pooled for analyses, which may mask biologically relevant spatial variation within the distribution of a single widespread species. We contrast a presence-only maximum entropy model for the widely distributed oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) that includes all available presence locations for this species, with two composite maximum entropy models. The composite models either subdivided the total species distribution into four geographic quadrants or by fifteen subspecies to capture spatially relevant variation in P. polionotus distributions. Results Despite high Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) values for all models, the composite species distribution model of P. polionotus generated from individual subspecies models represented the known distribution of the species much better than did the models produced by partitioning data into geographic quadrants or modeling the whole species as a single unit. Conclusions Because the AUC values failed to describe the differences in the predictability of the three modeling strategies, we suggest using omission curves in addition to AUC values to assess model performance. Dividing the data of a widespread species into biologically relevant partitions greatly increased the performance of our distribution model; therefore, this approach may prove to be quite practical and informative for a wide range of modeling applications. PMID:21929792

  4. Population distribution models: species distributions are better modeled using biologically relevant data partitions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sergio C; Soto-Centeno, J Angel; Reed, David L

    2011-09-19

    Predicting the geographic distribution of widespread species through modeling is problematic for several reasons including high rates of omission errors. One potential source of error for modeling widespread species is that subspecies and/or races of species are frequently pooled for analyses, which may mask biologically relevant spatial variation within the distribution of a single widespread species. We contrast a presence-only maximum entropy model for the widely distributed oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) that includes all available presence locations for this species, with two composite maximum entropy models. The composite models either subdivided the total species distribution into four geographic quadrants or by fifteen subspecies to capture spatially relevant variation in P. polionotus distributions. Despite high Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) values for all models, the composite species distribution model of P. polionotus generated from individual subspecies models represented the known distribution of the species much better than did the models produced by partitioning data into geographic quadrants or modeling the whole species as a single unit. Because the AUC values failed to describe the differences in the predictability of the three modeling strategies, we suggest using omission curves in addition to AUC values to assess model performance. Dividing the data of a widespread species into biologically relevant partitions greatly increased the performance of our distribution model; therefore, this approach may prove to be quite practical and informative for a wide range of modeling applications.

  5. Statistical model with a standard Gamma distribution.

    PubMed

    Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban; Kaski, Kimmo

    2004-01-01

    We study a statistical model consisting of N basic units which interact with each other by exchanging a physical entity, according to a given microscopic random law, depending on a parameter lambda. We focus on the equilibrium or stationary distribution of the entity exchanged and verify through numerical fitting of the simulation data that the final form of the equilibrium distribution is that of a standard Gamma distribution. The model can be interpreted as a simple closed economy in which economic agents trade money and a saving criterion is fixed by the saving propensity lambda. Alternatively, from the nature of the equilibrium distribution, we show that the model can also be interpreted as a perfect gas at an effective temperature T(lambda), where particles exchange energy in a space with an effective dimension D(lambda).

  6. Improving Distributed Diagnosis Through Structural Model Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew John; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2011-01-01

    Complex engineering systems require efficient fault diagnosis methodologies, but centralized approaches do not scale well, and this motivates the development of distributed solutions. This work presents an event-based approach for distributed diagnosis of abrupt parametric faults in continuous systems, by using the structural model decomposition capabilities provided by Possible Conflicts. We develop a distributed diagnosis algorithm that uses residuals computed by extending Possible Conflicts to build local event-based diagnosers based on global diagnosability analysis. The proposed approach is applied to a multitank system, and results demonstrate an improvement in the design of local diagnosers. Since local diagnosers use only a subset of the residuals, and use subsystem models to compute residuals (instead of the global system model), the local diagnosers are more efficient than previously developed distributed approaches.

  7. Statistical model with a standard Gamma distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Anirban; Patriarca, Marco

    2005-03-01

    We study a statistical model consisting of N basic units which interact with each other by exchanging a physical entity, according to a given microscopic random law, depending on a parameter λ. We focus on the equilibrium or stationary distribution of the entity exchanged and verify through numerical fitting of the simulation data that the final form of the equilibrium distribution is that of a standard Gamma distribution. The model can be interpreted as a simple closed economy in which economic agents trade money and a saving criterion is fixed by the saving propensity λ. Alternatively, from the nature of the equilibrium distribution, we show that the model can also be interpreted as a perfect gas at an effective temperature T (λ), where particles exchange energy in a space with an effective dimension D (λ).

  8. Statistical model with a standard Γ distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban; Kaski, Kimmo

    2004-07-01

    We study a statistical model consisting of N basic units which interact with each other by exchanging a physical entity, according to a given microscopic random law, depending on a parameter λ . We focus on the equilibrium or stationary distribution of the entity exchanged and verify through numerical fitting of the simulation data that the final form of the equilibrium distribution is that of a standard Gamma distribution. The model can be interpreted as a simple closed economy in which economic agents trade money and a saving criterion is fixed by the saving propensity λ . Alternatively, from the nature of the equilibrium distribution, we show that the model can also be interpreted as a perfect gas at an effective temperature T(λ) , where particles exchange energy in a space with an effective dimension D(λ) .

  9. Detection of gamma rays from a starburst galaxy.

    PubMed

    Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Paz Arribas, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2009-11-20

    Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of approximately 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays--tracers of such cosmic rays--from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.

  10. Dissecting 30 Doradus: Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the starburst cluster NGC2070 from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cignoni, Michele; HTTP Team

    2017-03-01

    I will present new results on the star formation history of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). Here the focus is on the starburst cluster NGC2070. The star formation history is derived by comparing the deepest ever optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence to post-main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. I will discuss the detailed star formation history, initial mass function and reddening distribution.

  11. Induced starburst and nuclear activity: Faith, facts, and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the origin of starburst and nuclear (nonstellar) activity in galaxies is reviewed. A physical understanding of the mechanism(s) that induce both types of activity requires one to address the following issues: (1) what is the source of fuel that powers starbursts and active galactic nuclei; and (2) how is it channeled towards the central regions of host galaxies? As a possible clue, the author examines the role of non-axisymmetric perturbations of galactic disks and analyzes their potential triggers. Global gravitational instabilities in the gas on scales approx. 100 pc appear to be crucial for fueling the active galactic nuclei.

  12. First Detection of the [O III] 88 μm Line at High Redshifts: Characterizing the Starburst and Narrow-line Regions in Extreme Luminosity Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, C.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Parshley, S. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2010-05-01

    We have made the first detections of the 88 μm [O III] line from galaxies in the early universe, detecting the line from the lensed active galactic nucleus (AGN)/starburst composite systems APM 08279+5255 at z = 3.911 and SMM J02399-0136 at z = 2.8076. The line is exceptionally bright from both systems, with apparent (lensed) luminosities ~1011 L sun. For APM 08279, the [O III] line flux can be modeled in a star formation paradigm, with the stellar radiation field dominated by stars with effective temperatures, T eff > 36,000 K, similar to the starburst found in M82. The model implies ~35% of the total far-IR luminosity of the system is generated by the starburst, with the remainder arising from dust heated by the AGN. The 88 μm line can also be generated in the narrow-line region of the AGN if gas densities are around a few 1000 cm-3. For SMM J02399, the [O III] line likely arises from H II regions formed by hot (T eff > 40,000 K) young stars in a massive starburst that dominates the far-IR luminosity of the system. The present work demonstrates the utility of the [O III] line for characterizing starbursts and AGN within galaxies in the early universe. These are the first detections of this astrophysically important line from galaxies beyond a redshift of 0.05.

  13. Distributed Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, I.

    2014-01-01

    Within systems health management, prognostics focuses on predicting the remaining useful life of a system. In the model-based prognostics paradigm, physics-based models are constructed that describe the operation of a system and how it fails. Such approaches consist of an estimation phase, in which the health state of the system is first identified, and a prediction phase, in which the health state is projected forward in time to determine the end of life. Centralized solutions to these problems are often computationally expensive, do not scale well as the size of the system grows, and introduce a single point of failure. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed model-based prognostics scheme that formally describes how to decompose both the estimation and prediction problems into independent local subproblems whose solutions may be easily composed into a global solution. The decomposition of the prognostics problem is achieved through structural decomposition of the underlying models. The decomposition algorithm creates from the global system model a set of local submodels suitable for prognostics. Independent local estimation and prediction problems are formed based on these local submodels, resulting in a scalable distributed prognostics approach that allows the local subproblems to be solved in parallel, thus offering increases in computational efficiency. Using a centrifugal pump as a case study, we perform a number of simulation-based experiments to demonstrate the distributed approach, compare the performance with a centralized approach, and establish its scalability. Index Terms-model-based prognostics, distributed prognostics, structural model decomposition ABBREVIATIONS

  14. SHAKEN, NOT STIRRED: THE DISRUPTED DISK OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-12-10

    Near-infrared images obtained with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the recent history of the nearby Sculptor Group spiral NGC 253, which is one of the nearest starburst galaxies. Bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are traced out to projected distances of {approx}22-26 kpc ({approx}13-15 disk scale lengths) along the major axis. The distribution of stars in the disk is lopsided, in the sense that the projected density of AGB stars in the northeast portion of the disk between 10 and 20 kpc from the galaxy center is {approx}0.5 dex higher than on the opposite side of the galaxy. A large population of red supergiants is also found in the northeast portion of the disk and, with the exception of the central 2 kpc, this area appears to have been the site of the highest levels of star-forming activity in the galaxy during the past {approx}0.1 Gyr. It is argued that such high levels of localized star formation may have produced a fountain that ejected material from the disk, and the extraplanar H I detected by Boomsma et al. may be one manifestation of such activity. Diffuse stellar structures are found in the periphery of the disk, and the most prominent of these is to the south and east of the galaxy. Bright AGB stars, including cool C stars that are identified based on their J - K colors, are detected out to 15 kpc above the disk plane, and these are part of a diffusely distributed, flattened extraplanar component. Comparisons between observed and model luminosity functions suggest that the extraplanar regions contain stars that formed throughout much of the age of the universe. Additional evidence of a diffuse, extraplanar stellar component that contains moderately young stars comes from archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer images. It is suggested that the disk of NGC 253 was disrupted by a tidal encounter with a now defunct companion. This encounter introduced asymmetries that remain to this day, and the projected distribution

  15. Shaken, Not Stirred: The Disrupted Disk of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Near-infrared images obtained with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the recent history of the nearby Sculptor Group spiral NGC 253, which is one of the nearest starburst galaxies. Bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are traced out to projected distances of ~22-26 kpc (~13-15 disk scale lengths) along the major axis. The distribution of stars in the disk is lopsided, in the sense that the projected density of AGB stars in the northeast portion of the disk between 10 and 20 kpc from the galaxy center is ~0.5 dex higher than on the opposite side of the galaxy. A large population of red supergiants is also found in the northeast portion of the disk and, with the exception of the central 2 kpc, this area appears to have been the site of the highest levels of star-forming activity in the galaxy during the past ~0.1 Gyr. It is argued that such high levels of localized star formation may have produced a fountain that ejected material from the disk, and the extraplanar H I detected by Boomsma et al. may be one manifestation of such activity. Diffuse stellar structures are found in the periphery of the disk, and the most prominent of these is to the south and east of the galaxy. Bright AGB stars, including cool C stars that are identified based on their J - K colors, are detected out to 15 kpc above the disk plane, and these are part of a diffusely distributed, flattened extraplanar component. Comparisons between observed and model luminosity functions suggest that the extraplanar regions contain stars that formed throughout much of the age of the universe. Additional evidence of a diffuse, extraplanar stellar component that contains moderately young stars comes from archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer images. It is suggested that the disk of NGC 253 was disrupted by a tidal encounter with a now defunct companion. This encounter introduced asymmetries that remain to this day, and the projected distribution of stars in and around NGC

  16. Analytic modeling of aerosol size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepack, A.; Box, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical functions commonly used for representing aerosol size distributions are studied parametrically. Methods for obtaining best fit estimates of the parameters are described. A catalog of graphical plots depicting the parametric behavior of the functions is presented along with procedures for obtaining analytical representations of size distribution data by visual matching of the data with one of the plots. Examples of fitting the same data with equal accuracy by more than one analytic model are also given.

  17. Evolutionary model of the personal income distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a qualitative picture of the personal income distribution. Treating an economy as a self-organized system the key idea of the model is that the income distribution contains competitive and non-competitive contributions. The presented model distinguishes between three main income classes. 1. Capital income from private firms is shown to be the result of an evolutionary competition between products. A direct consequence of this competition is Gibrat’s law suggesting a lognormal income distribution for small private firms. Taking into account an additional preferential attachment mechanism for large private firms the income distribution is supplemented by a power law (Pareto) tail. 2. Due to the division of labor a diversified labor market is seen as a non-competitive market. In this case wage income exhibits an exponential distribution. 3. Also included is income from a social insurance system. It can be approximated by a Gaussian peak. A consequence of this theory is that for short time intervals a fixed ratio of total labor (total capital) to net income exists (Cobb-Douglas relation). A comparison with empirical high resolution income data confirms this pattern of the total income distribution. The theory suggests that competition is the ultimate origin of the uneven income distribution.

  18. Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Alison

    The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a

  19. Feedback from starbursts: 30 Dorado as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; lim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Stellar feedback remains a key uncertain aspect in galaxy formation and evolution theories. In addition to the mechanical energy injection from fast stellar winds and supernovae of massive stars, their radiative transfer feedback (via direct and indirect/dust-processed radiation pressures and photo-ionization) has also been proposed to play a significant role in dispersing dense dusty gas and possibly in driving outflows from starburst regions. To test the relative efficiency of these two forms of the stellar feedback, we study the energetics of the Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The nebula consists of various blisters of diffuse hot plasma enveloped by cool gas. Based on the X-ray spectroscopy of the nebula, using a 100 ks Suzaku X-ray observation, we estimate the thermal energy of the enclosed plasma, accounting for its temperature distribution and foreground absorption variation. The estimated thermal energy is far short of the expected fraction of the mechanical energy input from the central young stellar association (NGC 2070) of the nebula, according to the classic superbubble solution, indicating a substantial loss of energy via probably hot electron-dust interaction and cosmic-ray acceleration, as well as the cool shell formation. We further characterize the kinetic energy of dense dusty gas, using a recently published dust mass map and the velocity dispersion inferred from molecular and HI gases in the nebula. However, this component of the kinetic energy appears to be dominated by the turbulent and bulk motions of HII gas. The total kinetic energy of the nebula is consistent with the expected fraction of the mechanical energy input. Therefore, the radiation transfer feedback does not seem to play a significant role in the expansion of 30 Doradus.

  20. Distributed Wind Diffusion Model Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Preus, R.; Drury, E.; Sigrin, B.; Gleason, M.

    2014-07-01

    Distributed wind market demand is driven by current and future wind price and performance, along with several non-price market factors like financing terms, retail electricity rates and rate structures, future wind incentives, and others. We developed a new distributed wind technology diffusion model for the contiguous United States that combines hourly wind speed data at 200m resolution with high resolution electricity load data for various consumer segments (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial), electricity rates and rate structures for utility service territories, incentive data, and high resolution tree cover. The model first calculates the economics of distributed wind at high spatial resolution for each market segment, and then uses a Bass diffusion framework to estimate the evolution of market demand over time. The model provides a fundamental new tool for characterizing how distributed wind market potential could be impacted by a range of future conditions, such as electricity price escalations, improvements in wind generator performance and installed cost, and new financing structures. This paper describes model methodology and presents sample results for distributed wind market potential in the contiguous U.S. through 2050.

  1. Initial conditions of formation of starburst clusters: constraints from stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-08-01

    Recent high resolution observations of dense regions of molecular clouds and massive gaseous clumps with instruments like Herschel and ALMA have revealed intricate and filamentary overdensity structures in them. Such progenitors of massive starburst clusters are in contrast with smooth, centrally-pronounced profiles of the latter. In this work, we intend to constrain massive, substructured stellar distributions that would evolve to cluster-like profiles at very young ages (~Myr), as seen in starburst clusters. Taking the well observed NGC3603 Young Cluster (NYC) as an example, we compute the infall and final merger of filament-like compact (0.1-0.3 pc) subclusters, totalling 10000 M_sun, from a range of spatial scales and modes of sub-clustering, using direct N-body calculations. These calculations infer an allowable span of approx. 2.5 pc from which the subclusters can fall in a gas potential and merge to form a single centrally-dense structure in near dynamical equilibrium, within the young age of NYC (1-2 Myr). However, these merged clusters are too compact and centrally overdense compared to typical young clusters. Our N-body calculations, beginning from such compact initial conditions, show that even stellar wind and supernova mass loss, dynamical heating from retaining black holes, external tidal field and heating due to tight O-star binaries together cannot expand these clusters to their observed sizes, even in 100 Myr. Hence an explosive gas dispersal phase seems essential for forming starburst and other young clusters observed in the Milky Way and in the Local Group which can expand the clusters to their observed sizes and concentrations; including that for NYC with approx. 30% clump star formation efficiency. However, some observed massive but highly extended (>10 pc) , >10 Myr old clusters better fit a slow (several Myr timescale) gas dispersal from parsec-scale initial profiles, which can be the future of embedded systems like W3 Main.

  2. ISOCAM view of the starburst galaxies M 82, NGC 253 and NGC 1808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Sauvage, M.; Charmandaris, V.; Laurent, O.; Gallais, P.; Mirabel, I. F.; Vigroux, L.

    2003-03-01

    We present results of mid-infrared lambda = 5.0-16.5 μm spectrophotometric imaging of the starburst galaxies M 82, NGC 253, and NGC 1808 from the ISOCAM instrument on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The mid-infrared spectra of the three galaxies are very similar in terms of features present. The lambda >~ 11 μm continuum attributed to very small dust grains (VSGs) exhibits a large spread in intensity relative to the short-wavelength emission. We find that the 15 mu m dust continuum flux density correlates well with the fine-structure [Ar Ii] 6.99 mu m line flux and thus provides a good quantitative indicator of the level of star formation activity. By contrast, the lambda = 5-11 μm region dominated by emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has a nearly invariant shape. Variations in the relative intensities of the PAH features are nevertheless observed, at the 20%-100% level. We illustrate extinction effects on the shape of the mid-infrared spectrum of obscured starbursts, emphasizing the differences depending on the applicable extinction law and the consequences for the interpretation of PAH ratios and extinction estimates. The relative spatial distributions of the PAH, VSG, and [Ar Ii] 6.99 mu m emission between the three galaxies exhibit remarkable differences. The la 1 kpc size of the mid-infrared source is much smaller than the optical extent of our sample galaxies and 70%-100% of the IRAS 12 mu m flux is recovered within the ISOCAM <= 1.5 arcmin2 field of view, indicating that the nuclear starburst dominates the total mid-infrared emission while diffuse light from quiescent disk star formation contributes little. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK), and with participation of ISAS and NASA.

  3. Class I methanol megamasers: a potential probe of starburst activity and feedback in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Zhang, J.-S.; Wang, J.-Z.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Wu, Q.-W.; Wu, Z.-Z.

    2016-06-01

    Previous observations have shown that the distribution of 36.2-GHz class I methanol megamaser (MM) emission in Arp 220 is highly correlated with the diffuse X-rays. On this basis it was suggested that methanol MM may be produced either by the effects of galactic-outflow-driven shocks and/or cosmic rays. Here we report the results of a single-dish survey undertaken with the Greenbank Telescope (GBT) to improve our understanding of the pumping conditions of extragalactic class I methanol masers and their relationship to starburst and feedback processes within the host galaxies, towards a sample which includes 16 galaxies which show both extended soft X-ray emission, and either OH or H2O MM emission. Large baseline ripples in the GBT spectra limited our results to tentative detections towards 11 of the target galaxies. Analysis of these tentative detections shows that there are significant correlations between the methanol intensity and the host-galaxy infrared, radio and OH MM emission, but no correlation with the X-ray and H2O MM emission. Some sources show methanol emission significantly offset from the systemic velocity of the galaxy (by up to 1000 km s-1) and we propose that these are associated with galactic-scale outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback. The combined observational properties suggest that class I methanol MMs are related to significant starburst and molecular outflow activity and hence may provide a potential probe of AGN feedback and starburst processes in the host galaxies.

  4. RADIO AND MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF COMPACT STARBURSTS: DISTANCING THEMSELVES FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. J.; Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Condon, J. J.; Evans, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures and 1.4 to 8.44 GHz radio spectral indices with 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption features for a sample of 36 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We find that galaxies having small 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EQWs), which signal the presence of weak PAH emission and/or an excess of very hot dust, also have flat spectral indices. The three active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified through their excessively large 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures are also identified as AGN via their small 6.2 {mu}m PAH EQWs. We also find that the flattening of the radio spectrum increases with increasing silicate optical depth, 8.44 GHz brightness temperature, and decreasing size of the radio source even after removing potential AGN, supporting the idea that compact starbursts show spectral flattening as the result of increased free-free absorption. These correlations additionally suggest that the dust obscuration in these galaxies must largely be coming from the vicinity of the compact starburst itself, and is not distributed throughout the (foreground) disk of the galaxy. Finally, we investigate the location of these infrared-bright systems relative to the main sequence (star formation rate versus stellar mass) of star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We find that the radio spectral indices of galaxies flatten with increasing distance above the main sequence, or in other words, with increasing specific star formation rate. This indicates that galaxies located above the main sequence, having high specific star formation rates, are typically compact starbursts hosting deeply embedded star formation that becomes more optically thick in the radio and infrared with increased distance above the main sequence.

  5. Modeling and planning distributed energy systems online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieler, Susana

    Sustainable energy is a core concern worldwide for the foreseeable future. Technologically, its key trends are distributed and renewable energy resources and smart grid capabilities. At the same time, a global need for sustainable energy is meeting increasingly diverse energy policy and economics. To plan with such complex contexts and systems, a novel distributed energy software tool and its initial implementation is presented: the Energy Systems Evaluator Online (ESEO). Its contributions include: (1) A flexible model framework that can simulate current and expected distributed energy systems; (2) An architecture specifying the modular design needed for distributed energy planning software in general; (3) A working implementation as the first general energy planning tool deployed via the Internet with collaborative capabilities.

  6. Income distribution: An adaptive heterogeneous model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. C.; de Figueirêdo, P. H.

    2014-02-01

    In this communication an adaptive process is introduced into a many-agent model for closed economic system in order to establish general features of income distribution. In this new version agents are able to modify their exchange parameter ωi of resources through an adaptive process. The conclusions indicate that assuming an instantaneous learning behavior of all agents a Γ-distribution for income is reproduced while a frozen behavior establishes a Pareto’s distribution for income with an exponent ν=0.94±0.02. A third case occurs when a heterogeneous “inertia” behavior is introduced leading us to a Γ-distribution at the low income regime and a power-law decay for the large income values with an exponent ν=2.05±0.05. This method enables investigation of the resources flux in the economic environment and produces also bounding values for the Gini index comparable with data evidences.

  7. The Starburst-AGN Connection under the Multiwavelength Limelight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of a tight relation between supermassive black hole masses, the bulge luminosity, and the stellar velocity dispersion in the local universe galaxies, mounting experimental evidence has been collected pointing to a connection between nuclear activity and star formation over a wide range of redshifts. Although a growing number of galaxies from different samples exhibit simultaneous starburst and AGN phenomenology, it is still a matter of debate whether this is the smoking gun of a causal relation between them, and, if so, with which trend. Basic issues in modern astrophysics, such as the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes, AGN feeding and feedback to the interstellar and intergalactic medium, as well as the role played by the environment on the star formation history are related to this "Starburst-AGN Connection". This Workshop aims at gathering observational and theoretical astronomers so as to answer the following questions: * The "Starburst-AGN Connection": A causal relation? * "Starburst-AGN Connection" at low and high redshift: any evidence for evolution? * Is there a connection between AGN obscuration and star formation? * In which way are the star formation and AGN phenomena affected by the environment? * Do stars contribute to AGN fueling? Multiwavelength observations in the last decade have given a paramount contribution to improve our understanding in this field. The Workshop will build on this panoptic view, and aims at contributing to the scientific case of future ground-based and space large observatories.

  8. AN IONIZATION CONE IN THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 5253

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael; Martin, Crystal L.

    2011-11-01

    There are few observational constraints on how the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies depends on galactic parameters. Here we report on the first major detection of an ionization cone in NGC 5253, a nearby starburst galaxy. This high-excitation feature is identified by mapping the emission-line ratios in the galaxy using [S III] {lambda}9069, [S II] {lambda}6716, and H{alpha} narrowband images from the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. The ionization cone appears optically thin, which suggests the escape of ionizing photons. The cone morphology is narrow with an estimated solid angle covering just 3% of 4{pi} steradians, and the young, massive clusters of the nuclear starburst can easily generate the radiation required to ionize the cone. Although less likely, we cannot rule out the possibility of an obscured active galactic nucleus source. An echelle spectrum along the minor axis shows complex kinematics that are consistent with outflow activity. The narrow morphology of the ionization cone supports the scenario that an orientation bias contributes to the difficulty in detecting Lyman continuum emission from starbursts and Lyman break galaxies.

  9. Starburst galaxies as seen by gamma-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohm, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Starburst galaxies have a highly increased star-formation rate compared to regular galaxies and inject huge amounts of kinetic power into the interstellar medium via supersonic stellar winds, and supernova explosions. Supernova remnants, which are considered to be the main source of cosmic rays (CRs), form an additional, significant energy and pressure component and might influence the star-formation process in a major way. Observations of starburst galaxies at γ-ray energies give us the unique opportunity to study non-thermal phenomena associated with hadronic CRs and their relation to the star-formation process. In this work, recent observations of starburst galaxies with space and ground-based γ-ray telescopes are being reviewed, and the current state of theoretical work on the γ-ray emission is discussed. A special emphasis is put on the prospects of the next-generation Cherenkov Telescope Array for the study of starburst galaxies in particular and star-forming galaxies in general. xml:lang="fr"

  10. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  11. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  12. Programming model for distributed intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Biegl, C.; Karsai, G.; Bogunovic, N.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Christiansen, T.

    1988-01-01

    A programming model and architecture which was developed for the design and implementation of complex, heterogeneous measurement and control systems is described. The Multigraph Architecture integrates artificial intelligence techniques with conventional software technologies, offers a unified framework for distributed and shared memory based parallel computational models and supports multiple programming paradigms. The system can be implemented on different hardware architectures and can be adapted to strongly different applications.

  13. Modeling risk in distributed healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Zafiropoulos, Elias

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling approach for performing a risk analysis study of networked healthcare information systems. The proposed method is based on CRAMM for studying the assets, threats and vulnerabilities of the distributed information system, and models their interrelationships using Bayesian networks. The most critical events are identified and prioritized, based on "what - if" studies of system operation. The proposed risk analysis framework has been applied to a healthcare information network operating in the North Aegean Region in Greece.

  14. Generative models for discovering sparse distributed representations.

    PubMed

    Hinton, G E; Ghahramani, Z

    1997-08-29

    We describe a hierarchical, generative model that can be viewed as a nonlinear generalization of factor analysis and can be implemented in a neural network. The model uses bottom-up, top-down and lateral connections to perform Bayesian perceptual inference correctly. Once perceptual inference has been performed the connection strengths can be updated using a very simple learning rule that only requires locally available information. We demonstrate that the network learns to extract sparse, distributed, hierarchical representations.

  15. Exploring the Vertical Structure of Nuclear Starburst Disks: A Possible Source of AGN Obscuration at Redshift ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, Raj; Ballantyne, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear starburst disks (NSDs) are star-forming regions that could be present at high redshift (z~1) in the vicinity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). One dimensional analytical models by Thompson et al. (2005) show that, under certain conditions, these disks can be geometrically thick on parsec scales which make them a possible source for AGN obscuration. We construct a 2D model of NSDs where an iterative method is used to obtain vertical solutions for a given annulus. These solutions coherently satisfy the equations of energy balance, hydrostatic, radiative transfer, and the Toomre stability criteria. In comparison to 1D model, a more robust 2D calculation shows the higher scale-height at the outer part of a NSD, but predicts a lower expansion of an atmosphere at the parsec/sub-parsec scale. A total of 96 NSD models are computed under various physical conditions (black hole mass, size of a disk, and a gas fraction) in order to predict the column density distribution along a line of sight. Assuming a random distribution of input parameters, the statistics yield 59% of Type 1, 24% of Compton-thin (CTN), and 17% of Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs. The distribution of obscured AGNs fraction peaks near NH = 1023.5 cm-2. Depending on a viewing angle (θ) of a given NSD, the line of sight NH can vary from 1022 to 1028 cm-2. This supports the unification theory of AGNs as our results show an AGN can appear to be obscured by a CTK (NH > 1024 cm-2) or CTN (1022 cm-2< NH < 1024 cm-2) gas depending on a viewing angle. Using 2D structure, we show any θ is possible for CTN AGNs; however, the maximum allowed θ for CTK AGN is restricted to approximately 60 degrees.

  16. Modeling utilization distributions in space and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keating, K.A.; Cherry, S.

    2009-01-01

    W. Van Winkle defined the utilization distribution (UD) as a probability density that gives an animal's relative frequency of occurrence in a two-dimensional (x, y) plane. We extend Van Winkle's work by redefining the UD as the relative frequency distribution of an animal's occurrence in all four dimensions of space and time. We then describe a product kernel model estimation method, devising a novel kernel from the wrapped Cauchy distribution to handle circularly distributed temporal covariates, such as day of year. Using Monte Carlo simulations of animal movements in space and time, we assess estimator performance. Although not unbiased, the product kernel method yields models highly correlated (Pearson's r - 0.975) with true probabilities of occurrence and successfully captures temporal variations in density of occurrence. In an empirical example, we estimate the expected UD in three dimensions (x, y, and t) for animals belonging to each of two distinct bighorn sheep {Ovis canadensis) social groups in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Results show the method can yield ecologically informative models that successfully depict temporal variations in density of occurrence for a seasonally migratory species. Some implications of this new approach to UD modeling are discussed. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Modeling utilization distributions in space and time.

    PubMed

    Keating, Kim A; Cherry, Steve

    2009-07-01

    W. Van Winkle defined the utilization distribution (UD) as a probability density that gives an animal's relative frequency of occurrence in a two-dimensional (x, y) plane. We extend Van Winkle's work by redefining the UD as the relative frequency distribution of an animal's occurrence in all four dimensions of space and time. We then describe a product kernel model estimation method, devising a novel kernel from the wrapped Cauchy distribution to handle circularly distributed temporal covariates, such as day of year. Using Monte Carlo simulations of animal movements in space and time, we assess estimator performance. Although not unbiased, the product kernel method yields models highly correlated (Pearson's r = 0.975) with true probabilities of occurrence and successfully captures temporal variations in density of occurrence. In an empirical example, we estimate the expected UD in three dimensions (x, y, and t) for animals belonging to each of two distinct bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) social groups in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Results show the method can yield ecologically informative models that successfully depict temporal variations in density of occurrence for a seasonally migratory species. Some implications of this new approach to UD modeling are discussed.

  18. THE PROPERTIES OF POST-STARBURST QUASARS BASED ON OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Cales, Sabrina L.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Shang, Zhaohui; Runnoe, Jessie C.; DiPompeo, Michael A. E-mail: scales@uwyo.edu E-mail: shang@uwyo.edu E-mail: mdipompe@uwyo.edu; and others

    2013-01-10

    We present optical spectroscopy of a sample of 38 post-starburst quasars (PSQs) at z {approx} 0.3, 29 of which have morphological classifications based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These broad-lined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) possess the spectral signatures of massive intermediate-aged stellar populations, making them potentially useful for studying connections between nuclear activity and host galaxy evolution. We model the spectra in order to determine the ages and masses of the host stellar populations, and the black hole masses and Eddington fractions of the AGNs. Our model components include an instantaneous starburst, a power law, and emission lines. We find that the PSQs have M {sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} accreting at a few percent of Eddington luminosity and host {approx}10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun} stellar populations which are several hundred Myr to a few Gyr old. We investigate relationships among these derived properties, spectral properties, and morphologies. We find that PSQs hosted in spiral galaxies have significantly weaker AGN luminosities, older starburst ages, and narrow emission-line ratios diagnostic of ongoing star formation when compared to their early-type counterparts. We conclude that the early-type PSQs are likely the result of major mergers and were likely luminous infrared galaxies in the past, while spiral PSQs with more complex star formation histories are triggered by less dramatic events (e.g., harassment, bars). We provide diagnostics to distinguish the early-type and spiral hosts when high spatial resolution imaging is not available.

  19. Toward Gas Chemistry in Low Metallicity Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Anderson, Crystal N.; Turner, Jean; Ott, Juergen; Beck, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Dense gas, which is intimately connected with star formation, is key to understanding star formation. Though challenging to study, dense gas in low metallicity starbursts is important given these system's often extreme star formation and their potential implications for high redshift analogs. High spatial resolution (~50 pc) ALMA observations of several key probes of gas chemistry, including HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), CCH(1-0;3/2-1/2) and SiO(2-1), towards the nearby super star-cluster (SSC) forming, sub-solar metallicity galaxy NGC 5253 are discussed. Dense gas is observed to be extended well beyond the current compact starburst, reaching into the apparently infalling molecular streamer. The faintness of HCN, the standard dense gas tracer, is extreme both in an absolute sense relative to high metallicity starbursts of a similar intensity and in a relative sense, with the HCO+/HCN ratio being one of the most elevated observed. UV-irradiated molecular gas, traced by CCH, is also extended over the mapped region, not being strongly correlated with the SSC. Despite the accretion of molecular gas from the halo and the intense burst of star formation, chemical signatures of shocked gas, traced by SiO (and HNCO), are not obvious. By placing NGC 5253 in context with other local starbursts, like 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Clouds and the high metallicity proto-typical starburst NGC 253, it is suggested that a combination of gas excitation and abundance changes associated with the sub solar metallicity may explain these anomalous dense gas properties.

  20. Modeling Mosquito Distribution. Impact of the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.

    2011-09-01

    In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide mosquito density estimate and mosquito distribution, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. Mosquito dispersal modeling, together with a compartmental approach, leads to a quasilinear parabolic system. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering various landscapes, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and, thus, in the efficiency or not of vector control.

  1. Angular correlation between IceCube high-energy starting events and starburst sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur

    2016-12-01

    Starburst galaxies and star-forming regions in the Milkyway, with high rate of supernova activities, are candidate sources of high-energy neutrinos. Using a gamma-ray selected sample of these sources we perform statistical analysis of their angular correlation with the four-year sample of high-energy starting events (HESE), detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We find that the two samples (starburst galaxies and local star-forming regions) are correlated with cosmic neutrinos at ~ (2-3)σ (pre-trial) significance level, when the full HESE sample with deposited energy gtrsim 20 TeV is considered. However when we consider the HESE sample with deposited energy gtrsim 60 TeV, which is almost free of atmospheric neutrino and muon backgrounds, the significance of correlation decreased drastically. We perform a similar study for Galactic sources in the 2nd Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources (2FHL, >50 GeV) catalog as well, obtaining ~ (2-3)σ (pre-trial) correlation, however the significance of correlation increases with higher cutoff energy in the HESE sample for this case. We also fit available gamma-ray data from these sources using a pp interaction model and calculate expected neutrino fluxes. We find that the expected neutrino fluxes for most of the sources are at least an order of magnitude lower than the fluxes required to produce the HESE neutrinos from these sources. This puts the starburst sources being the origin of the IceCube HESE neutrinos in question.

  2. Building a generalized distributed system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1992-01-01

    The key elements in the second year (1991-92) of our project are: (1) implementation of the distributed system prototype; (2) successful passing of the candidacy examination and a PhD proposal acceptance by the funded student; (3) design of storage efficient schemes for replicated distributed systems; and (4) modeling of gracefully degrading reliable computing systems. In the third year of the project (1992-93), we propose to: (1) complete the testing of the prototype; (2) enhance the functionality of the modules by enabling the experimentation with more complex protocols; (3) use the prototype to verify the theoretically predicted performance of locking protocols, etc.; and (4) work on issues related to real-time distributed systems. This should result in efficient protocols for these systems.

  3. Distributed earth model/orbiter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, Erik; Mcclanahan, Scott; Smith, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Distributed Earth Model/Orbiter Simulation (DEMOS) is a network based application developed for the UNIX environment that visually monitors or simulates the Earth and any number of orbiting vehicles. Its purpose is to provide Mission Control Center (MCC) flight controllers with a visually accurate three dimensional (3D) model of the Earth, Sun, Moon and orbiters, driven by real time or simulated data. The project incorporates a graphical user interface, 3D modelling employing state-of-the art hardware, and simulation of orbital mechanics in a networked/distributed environment. The user interface is based on the X Window System and the X Ray toolbox. The 3D modelling utilizes the Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS) standard and Raster Technologies hardware for rendering/display performance. The simulation of orbiting vehicles uses two methods of vector propagation implemented with standard UNIX/C for portability. Each part is a distinct process that can run on separate nodes of a network, exploiting each node's unique hardware capabilities. The client/server communication architecture of the application can be reused for a variety of distributed applications.

  4. Dynamics of starbursting dwarf galaxies. III. A H I study of 18 nearby objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Federico; Verheijen, Marc; Fraternali, Filippo

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of starbursting dwarf galaxies, using both new and archival H I observations. We consider 18 nearby galaxies that have been resolved into single stars by HST observations, providing their star formation history and total stellar mass. We find that 9 objects have a regularly rotating H I disk, 7 have a kinematically disturbed H I disk, and 2 show unsettled H I distributions. Two galaxies (NGC 5253 and UGC 6456) show a velocity gradient along the minor axis of the H I disk, which we interpret as strong radial motions. For galaxies with a regularly rotating disk we derive rotation curves, while for galaxies with a kinematically disturbed disk, we estimate the rotation velocities in their outer parts. We derive baryonic fractions within about 3 optical scale lengths and find that, on average, baryons constitute at least 30% of the total mass. Despite the star formation having injected ~1056 ergs in the ISM in the past ~500 Myr, these starbursting dwarfs have both baryonic and gas fractions similar to those of typical dwarf irregulars, suggesting that they did not eject a large amount of gas out of their potential wells. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgH I datacubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A71

  5. Modeling Emergent Macrophyte Distributions: Including Sub-dominant Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed stands of emergent vegetation are often present following drawdowns but models of wetland plant distributions fail to include subdominant species when predicting distributions. Three variations of a spatial plant distribution cellular automaton model were developed to explo...

  6. Modeling Emergent Macrophyte Distributions: Including Sub-dominant Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed stands of emergent vegetation are often present following drawdowns but models of wetland plant distributions fail to include subdominant species when predicting distributions. Three variations of a spatial plant distribution cellular automaton model were developed to explo...

  7. Resistance distribution in the hopping percolation model.

    PubMed

    Strelniker, Yakov M; Havlin, Shlomo; Berkovits, Richard; Frydman, Aviad

    2005-07-01

    We study the distribution function P (rho) of the effective resistance rho in two- and three-dimensional random resistor networks of linear size L in the hopping percolation model. In this model each bond has a conductivity taken from an exponential form sigma proportional to exp (-kappar) , where kappa is a measure of disorder and r is a random number, 0< or = r < or =1 . We find that in both the usual strong-disorder regime L/ kappa(nu) >1 (not sensitive to removal of any single bond) and the extreme-disorder regime L/ kappa(nu) <1 (very sensitive to such a removal) the distribution depends only on L/kappa(nu) and can be well approximated by a log-normal function with dispersion b kappa(nu) /L , where b is a coefficient which depends on the type of lattice, and nu is the correlation critical exponent.

  8. Models of Cognition in Distributed Learning Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-13

    SUBTITLE Models of Cognition in Distributed Learning Environments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Institute for Defense Analyses,4850 Mark...Center Dr ,Alexandria,VA,22311 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  9. MUSE Reveals a Recent Merger in the Post-starburst Host Galaxy of the TDE ASASSN-14li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, J. L.; Krühler, T.; Anderson, J. P.; Galbany, L.; Kochanek, C. S.; Aquino, E.; Brown, J. S.; Dong, Subo; Förster, F.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Maureira, J. C.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2016-10-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectroscopic observations of the host galaxy (PGC 043234) of one of the closest (z = 0.0206, D ≃ 90 Mpc) and best-studied tidal disruption events (TDEs), ASASSN-14li. The MUSE integral field data reveal asymmetric and filamentary structures that extend up to ≳10 kpc from the post-starburst host galaxy of ASASSN-14li. The structures are traced only through the strong nebular [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα emission lines. The total off-nuclear [O iii] λ5007 luminosity is 4.7 × 1039 erg s-1, and the ionized H mass is ˜ {10}4(500/{n}{{e}}) {M}⊙ . Based on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, the nebular emission can be driven by either AGN photoionization or shock excitation, with AGN photoionization favored given the narrow intrinsic line widths. The emission line ratios and spatial distribution strongly resemble ionization nebulae around fading AGNs such as IC 2497 (Hanny's Voorwerp) and ionization “cones” around Seyfert 2 nuclei. The morphology of the emission line filaments strongly suggest that PGC 043234 is a recent merger, which likely triggered a strong starburst and AGN activity leading to the post-starburst spectral signatures and the extended nebular emission line features we see today. We briefly discuss the implications of these observations in the context of the strongly enhanced TDE rates observed in post-starburst galaxies and their connection to enhanced theoretical TDE rates produced by supermassive black hole binaries.

  10. The Initial Mass Function of the Starburst Cluster Westerlund 1: What is it telling us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, B.; Sung, H.; Hur, H.

    2013-06-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) is very important tool to understand the star formation processes and the history of chemical enrichment in remote galaxies as well as our Galaxy. Although many investigators have studied the IMF of stellar population in different star forming conditions from small nearby star forming regions (SFRs) to high redshift galaxies, its universality has been still debating. Indirect indicators and models with several assumptions have been used to infer the underlying IMF of the unresolved populations. However, the reliability of their results is very difficult to be examined. The IMF of low-mass part is relatively well studied from the observation of many small SFRs in the solar neighborhood, and seems to be a similar shape among SFRs. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to reliably sample the massive star population because such stars are mainly formed within heavily reddened and distant star forming regions. Discovery of several starburst clusters containing tens to hundreds of massive stars, such as the Arches, NGC 3603, Quintuplet, Westerlund 1 and 2 in the Galaxy, and R136 in the LMC, makes it possible to study massive stars. To address a conclusion on the universality or diversity of the IMF we have observed several starburst open clusters with 4 m-class telescopes. As part of a systematic study on the IMF of massive part we have investigated the starburst cluster Westerlund 1 which is known to be the most massive cluster in the Galaxy. The cluster is thought to host more than 400 early type stars (>= 15Mo). The richness of massive stars makes it possible to study the massive regime in the IMF. In this study we present the IMF of the cluster derived from both optical and near infrared photometry. With a fairly shallow slope of Gamma = -0.8 ± 0.1, the shape of the IMF is found to be very similar to that of another starburst cluster NGC 3603. The total mass inferred from the integration of the IMF well exceeds 5.0 x 10^4 Mo, which is

  11. Cyanoacetylene in IC 342: An Evolving Dense Gas Component with Starburst Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L.; Schinnerer, Eva

    2011-07-01

    We present the first images of the J = 5-4 and J = 16-15 lines of the dense gas tracer, cyanoacetylene, HC3N, in an external galaxy. The central 200 pc of the nearby star-forming spiral galaxy, IC 342, was mapped using the Very Large Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. HC3N(5-4) line emission is found across the nuclear mini-spiral, but is very weak toward the starburst site, the location of the strongest mid-IR and radio emission. The J = 16-15 and 10-9 lines are also faint near the large H II region complex, but are brighter relative to the 5-4 line, consistent with higher excitation. The brightest HC3N emission is located in the northern arm of the nuclear mini-spiral, 100 pc away from the radio/IR source to the southwest of the nucleus. This location appears less affected by ultraviolet radiation and may represent a more embedded, earlier stage of star formation. HC3N excitation temperatures are consistent with those determined from C18O; the gas is dense 104 - 105 cm-3 and cool, Tk < 40 K. So as to not violate limits on the total H2 mass determined from C18O, at least two dense components are required to model IC 342's giant molecular clouds. These observations suggest that HC3N(5-4) is an excellent probe of the dense, quiescent gas in galaxies. The high excitation combined with faint emission toward the dense molecular gas at the starburst indicates that it currently lacks large masses of very dense gas. We propose a scenario where the starburst is being caught in the act of dispersing or destroying its dense gas in the presence of the large H II region. This explains the high star formation efficiency seen in the dense component. The little remaining dense gas appears to be in pressure equilibrium with the starburst H II region. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  12. Methods and theory in bone modeling drift: comparing spatial analyses of primary bone distributions in the human humerus.

    PubMed

    Maggiano, Corey M; Maggiano, Isabel S; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two novel methods quantifying bone shaft tissue distributions, and relates observations on human humeral growth patterns for applications in anthropological and anatomical research. Microstructural variation in compact bone occurs due to developmental and mechanically adaptive circumstances that are 'recorded' by forming bone and are important for interpretations of growth, health, physical activity, adaptation, and identity in the past and present. Those interpretations hinge on a detailed understanding of the modeling process by which bones achieve their diametric shape, diaphyseal curvature, and general position relative to other elements. Bone modeling is a complex aspect of growth, potentially causing the shaft to drift transversely through formation and resorption on opposing cortices. Unfortunately, the specifics of modeling drift are largely unknown for most skeletal elements. Moreover, bone modeling has seen little quantitative methodological development compared with secondary bone processes, such as intracortical remodeling. The techniques proposed here, starburst point-count and 45° cross-polarization hand-drawn histomorphometry, permit the statistical and populational analysis of human primary tissue distributions and provide similar results despite being suitable for different applications. This analysis of a pooled archaeological and modern skeletal sample confirms the importance of extreme asymmetry in bone modeling as a major determinant of microstructural variation in diaphyses. Specifically, humeral drift is posteromedial in the human humerus, accompanied by a significant rotational trend. In general, results encourage the usage of endocortical primary bone distributions as an indicator and summary of bone modeling drift, enabling quantitative analysis by direction and proportion in other elements and populations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  13. AGN and Starbursts in Dusty Galaxy Mergers: Insights from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.

    2014-07-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is combining imaging and spectroscopic data from the Herschel, Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes augmented with extensive ground-based observations in a multiwavelength study of approximately 180 Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and 20 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) that comprise a statistically complete subset of the 60μm-selected IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. The objects span the full range of galaxy environments (giant isolated spirals, wide and close pairs, minor and major mergers, merger remnants) and nuclear activity types (Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst/HII), with proportions that depend strongly on the total infrared luminosity. I will review the science motivations and present highlights of recent results selected from over 25 peer-reviewed journal articles published recently by the GOALS Team. Statistical investigations include detection of high-ionization Fe K emission indicative of deeply embedded AGN, comparison of UV and far-IR properties, investigations of the fraction of extended emission as a function of wavelength derived from mid-IR spectroscopy, mid-IR spectral diagnostics and spectral energy distributions revealing the relative contributions of AGN and starbursts to powering the bolometric luminosity, and quantitative structure analyses that delineate the evolution of stellar bars and nuclear stellar cusps during the merger process. Multiwavelength dissections of individual systems have unveiled large populations of young star clusters and heavily obscured AGN in early-stage (II Zw 96), intermediate-stage (Mrk 266, Mrk 273), and late-stage (NGC 2623, IC 883) mergers. A recently published study that matches numerical simulations to the observed morphology and gas kinematics in mergers has placed four systems on a timeline spanning 175-260 million years after their first passages, and modeling of additional (U)LIRGs is underway. A very

  14. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Mosquito Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.

    2011-11-01

    We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.

  15. Modeling wealth distribution in growing markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Urna; Mohanty, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce an auto-regressive model which captures the growing nature of realistic markets. In our model agents do not trade with other agents, they interact indirectly only through a market. Change of their wealth depends, linearly on how much they invest, and stochastically on how much they gain from the noisy market. The average wealth of the market could be fixed or growing. We show that in a market where investment capacity of agents differ, average wealth of agents generically follow the Pareto-law. In few cases, the individual distribution of wealth of every agentcould also be obtained exactly. We also show that the underlying dynamics of other well studied kinetic models of markets can be mapped to the dynamics of our auto-regressive model.

  16. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Treesearch

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  17. Modeling Error Distributions of Growth Curve Models through Bayesian Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Growth curve models are widely used in social and behavioral sciences. However, typical growth curve models often assume that the errors are normally distributed although non-normal data may be even more common than normal data. In order to avoid possible statistical inference problems in blindly assuming normality, a general Bayesian framework is…

  18. A New Interpretation for the Variation in Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris T.; Allen, James T.; Baldwin, Jack A.; Hewett, Paul C.; Ferland, Gary J.; Meskhidze, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Starburst galaxies have been easily distinguished from AGN using diagnostic emission line ratio diagrams constraining their excitation mechanism. Previous modeling of the star forming (SF) galaxy sequence outlined on the BPT diagram has led to the interpretation that high metallicity SF galaxies and low ionization SF galaxies are synonymous. Here, we present a new interpretation. Using a large sample of low-z SDSS galaxies, we co-added similar spectra of pure star forming galaxies allowing many weaker emission lines to act as consistency checks on strong line diagnostics. For the first time, we applied a locally optimally-emitting cloud (LOC) model to understand the physical reason for the variation in starburst galaxy emission line spectra. We fit over twenty diagnostic diagrams constraining the excitation mechanism, SED, temperature, density, metallicity, and grain content, making this work far more constrained than previous studies. Our results indicate that low luminosity SF galaxies could simply have less concentrated regions of ionized gas compared to their high luminosity counterparts, but have similar metallicities, thus requiring reevaluation about underlying nature of star forming galaxies.

  19. THE EFFECT OF STARBURST METALLICITY ON BRIGHT X-RAY BINARY FORMATION PATHWAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, T.; Kalogera, V.; Sepinsky, J. F.; Prestwich, A.; Zezas, A.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2010-12-20

    We investigate the characteristics of young (<20 Myr) and bright (L{sub X} > 1 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and find the population to be strongly metallicity dependent. We separate the model populations among two distinct formation pathways: (1) systems undergoing active Roche lobe overflow (RLO) and (2) wind accretion systems with donors in the (super)giant stage, which we find to dominate the HMXB population. We find metallicity to primarily affect the number of systems which move through each formation pathway, rather than the observable parameters of systems which move through each individual pathway. We discuss the most important model parameters affecting the HMXB population at both low and high metallicities. Using these results, we show that (1) the population of ultra-luminous X-ray sources can be consistently described by very bright HMXBs which undergo stable RLO with mild super-Eddington accretion and (2) the HMXB population of the bright starburst galaxy NGC 1569 is likely dominated by one extremely metal-poor starburst cluster.

  20. MODELING THE NUCLEAR INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE II ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Lira, Paulina; Videla, Liza; Wu, Yanling; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alexander, David M.; Ward, Martin

    2013-02-20

    We present results from model fitting to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a homogeneous sample of Seyfert II galaxies drawn from the 12 {mu}m Galaxy Sample. Imaging and nuclear flux measurements are presented in an accompanying paper. Here we add Spitzer/IRS observations to further constrain the SEDs after careful subtraction of a starburst component. We use the library of CLUMPY torus models from Nenkova et al. and also test the two-phase models recently produced by Stalevski et al. We find that photometric and spectroscopic observations in the mid-IR ({lambda} {approx}> 5 {mu}m) are crucial to properly constrain the best-fit torus models. About half of our sources show clear near-IR excess of their SEDs above the best-fit models. This problem can be less severe when using the Stalevski et al. models. The nature of this emission is not clear since best-fitted blackbody temperatures are very high ({approx}1700-2500 K) and the Type II classification of our sources would correspond to a small probability to peer directly into the hottest regions of the torus. Crucially, the derived torus parameters are quite robust when using CLUMPY models, independently of whether or not the sources require an additional blackbody component. Our findings suggest that tori are characterized by N{sub 0}{approx}>5, {sigma} {approx}> 40, {tau} {approx}< 25, Angle i {approx}> 40 Degree-Sign , Y {approx}< 50, and A {sup los} {sub v} {approx} 100-300, where N{sub 0} is the number of clouds in the equatorial plane of the torus, {sigma} is the characteristic opening angle of the cloud distribution, {tau} is the opacity of a single cloud, Angle i is the line-of-sight orientation of the torus, Y is the ratio of the inner to the outer radii, and A {sup los} {sub v} is the total opacity along the line of sight. From these, we can determine typical torus sizes and masses of 0.1-5.0 pc and 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M {sub Sun }, respectively. We find tentative evidence that those nuclei with

  1. Assessment of distributed arterial network models.

    PubMed

    Segers, P; Stergiopulos, N; Verdonck, P; Verhoeven, R

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relative importance of elastic non-linearities, viscoelasticity and resistance vessel modelling on arterial pressure and flow wave contours computed with distributed arterial network models. The computational results of a non-linear (time-domain) and a linear (frequency-domain) mode were compared using the same geometrical configuration and identical upstream and downstream boundary conditions and mechanical properties. pressures were computed at the ascending aorta, brachial and femoral artery. In spite of the identical problem definition, computational differences were found in input impedance modulus (max. 15-20%), systolic pressure (max. 5%) and pulse pressure (max. 10%). For the brachial artery, the ratio of pulse pressure to aortic pulse pressure was practically identical for both models (3%), whereas for the femoral artery higher values are found for the linear model (+10%). The aortic/brachial pressure transfer function indicates that pressure harmonic amplification is somewhat higher in the linear model for frequencies lower than 6 Hz while the opposite is true for higher frequencies. These computational disparities were attributed to conceptual model differences, such as the treatment of geometric tapering, rather than to elastic or convective non-linearities. Compared to the effect of viscoelasticity, the discrepancy between the linear and non-linear model is of the same importance. At peripheral locations, the correct representation of terminal impedance outweight the computational differences between the linear and non-linear models.

  2. Starburst galaxies in the COSMOS field: clumpy star-formation at redshift 0 < z < 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa-Goñi, R.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. At high redshift, starburst galaxies present irregular morphologies with 10-20% of their star formation occurring in giant clumps. These clumpy galaxies are considered the progenitors of local disk galaxies. To understand the properties of starbursts at intermediate and low redshift, it is fundamental to track their evolution and the possible link with the systems at higher z. Aims: We present an extensive, systematic, and multiband search and analysis of the starburst galaxies at redshift (0 < z < 0.5) in the COSMOS field, as well as detailed characteristics of their star-forming clumps by using Hubble Space Telescope/Advance Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) images. Methods: The starburst galaxies are identified using a tailor-made intermediate-band color excess selection, tracing the simultaneous presence of Hα and [OIII] emission lines in the galaxies. Our methodology uses previous information from the zCOSMOS spectral database to calibrate the color excess as a function of the equivalent width of both spectral lines. This technique allows us to identify 220 starburst galaxies at redshift 0 < z < 0.5 using the SUBARU intermediate-band filters. Combining the high spatial resolution images from the HST/ACS with ground-based multi-wavelength photometry, we identify and parametrize the star-forming clumps in every galaxy. Their principal properties, sizes, masses, and star formation rates are provided. Results: The mass distribution of the starburst galaxies is remarkably similar to that of the whole galaxy sample with a peak around M/M⊙ ~ 2 × 108 and only a few galaxies with M/M⊙ > 1010. We classify galaxies into three main types, depending on their HST morphology: single knot (Sknot), single star-forming knot plus diffuse light (Sknot+diffuse), and multiple star-forming knots (Mknots/clumpy) galaxy. We found a fraction of Mknots/clumpy galaxy fclumpy = 0.24 considering out total sample of starburst galaxies up to z ~ 0.5. The individual star

  3. ZERODUR strength modeling with Weibull statistical distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The decisive influence on breakage strength of brittle materials such as the low expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR is the surface condition. For polished or etched surfaces it is essential if micro cracks are present and how deep they are. Ground surfaces have many micro cracks caused by the generation process. Here only the depths of the micro cracks are relevant. In any case presence and depths of micro cracks are statistical by nature. The Weibull distribution is the model used traditionally for the representation of such data sets. It is based on the weakest link ansatz. The use of the two or three parameter Weibull distribution for data representation and reliability prediction depends on the underlying crack generation mechanisms. Before choosing the model for a specific evaluation, some checks should be done. Is there only one mechanism present or is it to be expected that an additional mechanism might contribute deviating results? For ground surfaces the main mechanism is the diamond grains' action on the surface. However, grains breaking from their bonding might be moved by the tool across the surface introducing a slightly deeper crack. It is not to be expected that these scratches follow the same statistical distribution as the grinding process. Hence, their description with the same distribution parameters is not adequate. Before including them a dedicated discussion should be performed. If there is additional information available influencing the selection of the model, for example the existence of a maximum crack depth, this should be taken into account also. Micro cracks introduced by small diamond grains on tools working with limited forces cannot be arbitrarily deep. For data obtained with such surfaces the existence of a threshold breakage stress should be part of the hypothesis. This leads to the use of the three parameter Weibull distribution. A differentiation based on the data set alone without preexisting information is possible but requires a

  4. Comparison between fully distributed model and semi-distributed model in urban hydrology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Bompard, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Water management in urban areas is becoming more and more complex, especially because of a rapid increase of impervious areas. There will also possibly be an increase of extreme precipitation due to climate change. The aims of the devices implemented to handle the large amount of water generate by urban areas such as storm water retention basins are usually twofold: ensure pluvial flood protection and water depollution. These two aims imply opposite management strategies. To optimize the use of these devices there is a need to implement urban hydrological models and improve fine-scale rainfall estimation, which is the most significant input. In this paper we suggest to compare two models and their sensitivity to small-scale rainfall variability on a 2.15 km2 urban area located in the County of Val-de-Marne (South-East of Paris, France). The average impervious coefficient is approximately 34%. In this work two types of models are used. The first one is CANOE which is semi-distributed. Such models are widely used by practitioners for urban hydrology modeling and urban water management. Indeed, they are easily configurable and the computation time is reduced, but these models do not take fully into account either the variability of the physical properties or the variability of the precipitations. An alternative is to use distributed models that are harder to configure and require a greater computation time, but they enable a deeper analysis (especially at small scales and upstream) of the processes at stake. We used the Multi-Hydro fully distributed model developed at the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. It is an interacting core between open source software packages, each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environment. Four heavy rainfall events that occurred between 2009 and 2011 are analyzed. The data comes from the Météo-France radar mosaic and the resolution is 1 km in space and 5 min in time. The closest radar of the Météo-France network is

  5. Starburst clusters in the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Maryam

    2014-09-01

    an overpopulation of massive stars in the core (r<0.2 pc) with a flat slope of α_{Nishi}=-1.50 ±0.35 in comparison to the Salpeter slope of α=-2.3. The slope of the mass function increases to α_{Nishi}=-2.21 ±0.27 in the intermediate annulus (0.2 models of the cluster revealed, the clusters in the Galactic center region are dynamically evolved at younger ages due to their high cluster mass and the special Galactic center environment. Therefore, I probed the contribution of drifted sources from numerical models of the massive clusters in the Galactic center to the observed distribution of isolated massive sources in this region. This study shows that stars as massive as 100 M_⊙ drift away from the center of each cluster by up to ˜60 pc using the cluster models. The best analyzed model reproduces ˜60% of the known isolated massive stars out to 80 pc from the center of the Arches cluster. This number increases to 70-80% when we only consider the region that is ˜ 20 pc from the Arches cluster. Our finding shows that most of the apparently isolated high-mass stars might originate from the known star clusters. This result, together with the fact that no top-heavy mass function is required to explain the spatial variation of the mass function in the Arches cluster, implies that no evidence is

  6. Gamma-rays from pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannheim, Karl; Elsässer, Dominik; Tibolla, Omar

    2012-07-01

    Recently, gamma-ray emission at TeV energies has been detected from the starburst galaxies NGC253 (Acero et al., 2009) [1] and M82 (Acciari et al., 2009) [2]. It has been claimed that pion production due to cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants interacting with the interstellar gas is responsible for the observed gamma rays. Here, we show that the gamma-ray pulsar wind nebulae left behind by the supernovae contribute to the TeV luminosity in a major way. A single pulsar wind nebula produces about ten times the total luminosity of the Sun at energies above 1 TeV during a lifetime of 105 years. A large number of 3 × 104 pulsar wind nebulae expected in a typical starburst galaxy at a distance of 4 Mpc can readily produce the observed TeV gamma rays.

  7. Pseudoabsence Generation Strategies for Species Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    Hanberry, Brice B.; He, Hong S.; Palik, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Species distribution models require selection of species, study extent and spatial unit, statistical methods, variables, and assessment metrics. If absence data are not available, another important consideration is pseudoabsence generation. Different strategies for pseudoabsence generation can produce varying spatial representation of species. Methodology We considered model outcomes from four different strategies for generating pseudoabsences. We generating pseudoabsences randomly by 1) selection from the entire study extent, 2) a two-step process of selection first from the entire study extent, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from areas with predicted probability <25%, 3) selection from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, 4) a two-step process of selection first for pseudoabsences from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from the areas with predicted probability <25%. We used Random Forests as our statistical method and sixteen predictor variables to model tree species with at least 150 records from Forest Inventory and Analysis surveys in the Laurentian Mixed Forest province of Minnesota. Conclusions Pseudoabsence generation strategy completely affected the area predicted as present for species distribution models and may be one of the most influential determinants of models. All the pseudoabsence strategies produced mean AUC values of at least 0.87. More importantly than accuracy metrics, the two-step strategies over-predicted species presence, due to too much environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences, whereas models based on random pseudoabsences under-predicted species presence, due to too little environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences. Models using pseudoabsences from surveyed plots produced a balance between areas with high and low predicted probabilities and the strongest relationship between

  8. Pseudoabsence generation strategies for species distribution models.

    PubMed

    Hanberry, Brice B; He, Hong S; Palik, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution models require selection of species, study extent and spatial unit, statistical methods, variables, and assessment metrics. If absence data are not available, another important consideration is pseudoabsence generation. Different strategies for pseudoabsence generation can produce varying spatial representation of species. We considered model outcomes from four different strategies for generating pseudoabsences. We generating pseudoabsences randomly by 1) selection from the entire study extent, 2) a two-step process of selection first from the entire study extent, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from areas with predicted probability <25%, 3) selection from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, 4) a two-step process of selection first for pseudoabsences from plots surveyed without detection of species presence, followed by selection for pseudoabsences from the areas with predicted probability <25%. We used Random Forests as our statistical method and sixteen predictor variables to model tree species with at least 150 records from Forest Inventory and Analysis surveys in the Laurentian Mixed Forest province of Minnesota. Pseudoabsence generation strategy completely affected the area predicted as present for species distribution models and may be one of the most influential determinants of models. All the pseudoabsence strategies produced mean AUC values of at least 0.87. More importantly than accuracy metrics, the two-step strategies over-predicted species presence, due to too much environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences, whereas models based on random pseudoabsences under-predicted species presence, due to too little environmental distance between the pseudoabsences and recorded presences. Models using pseudoabsences from surveyed plots produced a balance between areas with high and low predicted probabilities and the strongest relationship between density and area with predicted

  9. SPEEDES for distributed information enterprise modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James P.; Hillman, Robert G.

    2002-07-01

    The Air Force is developing a Distributed Information Enterprise Modeling and Simulation (DIEMS) framework under sponsorship of the High Performance Computer Modernization Office Common High Performance Computing Software Support Initiative (HPCMO/CHSSI). The DIEMS framework provides a design analysis environment for deployable distributed information management systems. DIEMS establishes the necessary analysis capability allowing developers to identify and mitigate programmatic risk early within the development cycle to allow successful deployment of the associated systems. The enterprise-modeling framework builds upon the Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete-Event Simulation (SPEEDES) foundation. This simulation framework will utilize 'Challenge Problem' class resources to address more than five million information objects and hundreds of thousands of clients comprising the future information based force structure. The simulation framework will be capable of assessing deployment aspects such as security, quality of service, and fault tolerance. SPEEDES provides an ideal foundation to support simulation of distributed information systems on a multiprocessor platform. SPEEDES allows the simulation builder to perform optimistic parallel processing on high performance computers, networks of workstations, or combinations of networked computers and HPC platforms.

  10. Inhomogeneous Tsallis distributions in the HMF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, P.-H.; Campa, A.

    2010-08-01

    We study the maximization of the Tsallis functional at fixed mass and energy in the Hamiltonian Mean Field (HMF) model. We give a thermodynamical and a dynamical interpretation of this variational principle. This leads to q-distributions known as stellar polytropes in astrophysics. We study phase transitions between spatially homogeneous and spatially inhomogeneous equilibrium states. We show that there exists a particular index qc = 3 playing the role of a canonical tricritical point separating first and second order phase transitions in the canonical ensemble and marking the occurence of a negative specific heat region in the microcanonical ensemble. We apply our results to the situation considered by Antoni and Ruffo [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2361 (1995)] and show that the anomaly displayed on their caloric curve can be explained naturally by assuming that, in this region, the QSSs are polytropes with critical index qc = 3. We qualitatively justify the occurrence of polytropic (Tsallis) distributions with compact support in terms of incomplete relaxation and inefficient mixing (non-ergodicity). Our paper provides an exhaustive study of polytropic distributions in the HMF model and the first plausible explanation of the surprising result observed numerically by Antoni and Ruffo (1995). In the course of our analysis, we also report an interesting situation where the caloric curve presents both microcanonical first and second order phase transitions.

  11. HAWK-I infrared supernova search in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miluzio, M.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Cresci, G.; Greggio, L.; Mannucci, F.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The use of SN rates to probe explosion scenarios and to trace the cosmic star formation history received a boost from a number of synoptic surveys. There has been a recent claim of a mismatch by a factor of two between star formation and core collapse SN rates, and different explanations have been proposed for this discrepancy. Aims: We attempted an independent test of the relation between star formation and supernova rates in the extreme environment of starburst galaxies, where both star formation and extinction are extremely high. Methods: To this aim we conducted an infrared supernova search in a sample of local starbursts galaxies. The rationale behind searching in the infrared is to reduce the bias due to extinction, which is one of the putative reasons for the observed discrepancy between star formation and supernova rates. To evaluate the outcome of the search we developed a MonteCarlo simulation tool that is used to predict the number and properties of the expected supernovae based on the search characteristics and the current understanding of starburst galaxies and supernovae. Results: During the search we discovered 6 supernovae (4 with spectroscopic classification), which is in excellent agreement with the prediction of the MonteCarlo simulation tool that is, on average, 5.3 ± 2.3 events. Conclusions: The number of supernovae detected in starburst galaxies is consistent with what is predicted from their high star formation rate when we recognize that a major fraction (~ 60%) of the events remain hidden in the inaccessible, high-density nuclear regions because of a combination of reduced search efficiency and high extinction. ESO proposal: 083.D-0259, 085.D-0335, 085.D-0348, 087.D-0494, 087.D-0922. GTC proposal: GTC50-11B.

  12. Starburst or AGN dominance in submm-luminous candidate AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Alexander, Dave; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Chapman, Scott; Clements, Dave; Dunlop, James; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Hughes, David; Ivison, Rob; Kim, Sungeun; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mat; Pope, Alexandra; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Scott, Douglas; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Vaccari, Mattia; van Kampen, Eelco

    2008-03-01

    It is widely believed that starbursts/ULIRGs and AGN activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging; and sub-mm selected galaxies (SMGs) seem to be simply high redshift ULIRGs, observed near the peak of activity. In this evolutionary picture every SMG would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. In order to probe this evolutionary sequence, a crucial sub-sample to focus on would be the 'missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst and AGN signatures and to determine if the starburst is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look in the mid-IR for their signatures, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We have selected a sample of SMGs which are good candidates for harboring powerful AGN on the basis of their IRAC colours (S8um/S4.5um>2). Once we confirm these SMGs are AGN-dominated, we can then perform an audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission. The proposed observations with IRS will probe the physics of how SMGs evolve from a cold-dust starburst-dominated ULIRG to an AGN/QSO by measuring the level of the mid-IR continuum, PAH luminosity, and Si absorption in these intermediate `transitory' AGN/SMGs.

  13. A starburst region around l = 347° - 350°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, A.; Negueruela, I.; Monguió, M.; González-Fernández, C.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Dorda, R.; Clark, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    Very recently, a number of obscured massive open clusters have been identified in the Milky Way. A very significant fraction of them lie either close to the base of the Scutum Arm or towards Galactic longitude of 350°. We are studying these clusters and their neighbourhoods, finding very good evidence for a major starburst region close to the near tip of the Galactic Long Bar.

  14. New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

  15. Searching for Tidal Disruption Events in Post-Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevel, David; Arcavi, Iair

    2016-06-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are a class of transient phenomena that occur when a star passes sufficiently close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) to be destroyed by tidal forces. Increasing the number of known TDEs will facilitate the study of SMBHs and black hole accretion physics. Recently it has been shown that TDEs occur most often in quiescent post-starburst galaxies (identified by strong Balmer absorption), some of which are know as "E+A" galaxies. These galaxies may have undergone a merger possibly contributing to the likelihood of TDEs. Using Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) we are conducting a transient survey, called SEATiDE (Searching E+A Galaxies for Tidal Disruption Events), of 100 E+A galaxies. We experiment with different image subtraction techniques to improve our ability of detecting TDE flares in the centers of these galaxies. A future survey will cover an order of magnitude more post-starburst galaxies to measure their TDE rates in more detail with the aim of understanding why TDEs so strongly prefer post-starburst environments.

  16. The escape of Lyman photons from a young starburst: the case of Haro11†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena; Adamo, Angela

    2007-12-01

    Lyman α (Lyα) is one of the dominant tools used to probe the star-forming galaxy population at high redshift (z). However, astrophysical interpretations of data drawn from Lyα alone hinge on the Lyα escape fraction which, due to the complex radiative transport, may vary greatly. Here, we map the Lyα emission from the local luminous blue compact galaxy Haro11, a known emitter of Lyα and the only known candidate for low-z Lyman continuum emission. To aid in the interpretation, we perform a detailed ultraviolet and optical multiwavelength analysis and model the stellar population, dust distribution, ionizing photon budget, and star-cluster population. We use archival X-ray observations to further constrain properties of the starburst and estimate the neutral hydrogen column density. The Lyα morphology is found to be largely symmetric around a single young star-forming knot and is strongly decoupled from other wavelengths. From general surface photometry, only very slight correlation is found between Lyα and Hα, E(B - V), and the age of the stellar population. Only around the central Lyα bright cluster do we find the Lyα/Hα ratio at values predicted by the recombination theory. The total Lyα escape fraction is found to be just 3 per cent. We compute that ~90 per cent of the Lyα photons that escape do so after undergoing multiple resonance scattering events, masking their point of origin. This leads to a largely symmetric distribution and, by increasing the distance that photons must travel to escape, decreases the escape probability significantly. While dust must ultimately be responsible for the destruction of Lyα, it plays a little role in governing the observed morphology, which is regulated more by interstellar medium kinematics and geometry. We find tentative evidence for local Lyα equivalent width in the immediate vicinity of star clusters being a function of cluster age, consistent with hydrodynamic studies. We estimate the intrinsic production

  17. Ionized gas pressure correlates with star formation intensity in nearby starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tianxing; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Yang, Huan

    2016-06-01

    We estimate the electron density of the ionized gas and thus the thermal pressure in HII regions; and compare that to the SFR (star formation rate) surface density for a combined sample of about 40 green peas and Lyman Break Analogs at z < 0.30. The electron density of the ionized gas is measured from sulfur line ratio ([SII] 6716 / 6731). We find that the SFR surface density is correlated with the electron density and the thermal pressure in HII regions for the star-forming galaxies with SFR surface density above a certain threshold. This work shows quantitatively the correlation between SFR surface density and electron density and that between SFR surface density and the thermal pressure in HII regions for the nearby starburst galaxies. This is consistent with theoretical models of disks (e.g. Kim et al. (2011) if we assume that the thermal pressure in HII regions is comparable to the total diffuse gas pressure at the midplane of the diffuse neutral gas. It is also in agreement with the results from star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2.5. We might infer that the starburst galaxies at low-redshift (z < 0.3) share similar physical properties to the galaxies at high redshift (z ~ 2.5).

  18. Models and theory for precompound angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Pohl, B.A.; Remington, B.A. ); Scobel, W.; Trabandt, M. . 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik); Byrd, R.C. ); Foster, C.C. ); Bonetti, R.; Chiesa, C. . Ist. di Fisica Generale Applicata); Grimes, S.M. (Ohio Univ

    1990-06-06

    We compare angular distributions calculated by folding nucleon- nucleon scattering kernels, using the theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin, and the systematics of Kalbach, with a wide range of data. The data range from (n,xn) at 14 MeV incident energy to (p,xn) at 160 MeV incident energy. The FKK theory works well with one adjustable parameter, the depth of the nucleon-nucleon interaction potential. The systematics work well when normalized to the hybrid model single differential cross section prediction. The nucleon- nucleon scattering approach seems inadequate. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Current distribution modeling for novel alumina electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.P. . Alcoa Labs.)

    1991-01-01

    One-, two- and three-dimensional secondary current distributions are calculated for anode designs and electrolysis being investigated for a novel alumina electrolysis process using a three dimensional or extended area anode design. Agreement with measured polarization is good. The results indicate that for a particular configuration and electrolyte, the maximum local current density will be 28% of the superficial current density. An alternative design giving a maximum of 15% of the superficial current density was also investigated with the models. Evaluation of some other electrolyte systems indicates that they will not be suitable for use in the high surface area configuration. 18 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Distributed Slip Model for Simulating Virtual Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani-Kadmiel, S.; Tsesarsky, M.; Gvirtzman, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We develop a physics based, generic finite fault source, which we call the Distributed Slip Model (DSM) for simulating large virtual earthquakes. This task is a necessary step towards ground motion prediction in earthquake-prone areas with limited instrumental coverage. A reliable ground motion prediction based on virtual earthquakes must account for site, path, and source effects. Assessment of site effect mainly depends on near-surface material properties which are relatively well constrained, using geotechnical site data and borehole measurements. Assessment of path effect depends on the deeper geological structure, which is also typically known to an acceptable resolution. Contrarily to these two effects, which remain constant for a given area of interest, the earthquake rupture process and geometry varies from one earthquake to the other. In this study we focus on a finite fault source representation which is both generic and physics-based, for simulating large earthquakes where limited knowledge is available. Thirteen geometric and kinematic parameters are used to describe the smooth "pseudo-Gaussian" slip distribution, such that slip decays from a point of peak slip within an elliptical rupture patch to zero at the borders of the patch. Radiation pattern and spectral charectaristics of our DSM are compared to those of commonly used finite fault models, i.e., the classical Haskell's Model (HM) and the modified HM with Radial Rupture Propagation (HM-RRP) and the Point Source Model (PSM). Ground motion prediction based on our DSM benefits from the symmetry of the PSM and the directivity of the HM while overcoming inadequacy for modeling large earthquakes of the former and the non-physical uniform slip of the latter.

  1. Detection of the 158 Micrometers[CII] Transition at z=1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-Wide Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 158 micron [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J142824.0+352619, a hyperluminous ( L(sub IR) approximates 10(exp 13) L (sub solar)) starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L(sub [Cu II] L(sub Fir) approximates 2 x 10(exp -3) of the far-IR (FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n approximates 10(exp 4.2) /cm(exp 3) , and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field approximately 10(exp 3.2) times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) ratio is higher than observed in local ultralummous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) and L(sub CO)/L(sub FIR) ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies. This suggests that MIPS J142824.0+352619 is a scaled-up version of a starburst nucleus, with the burst extended over several kiloparsecs.

  2. Detection of the 158 Micrometers[CII] Transition at z=1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-Wide Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 158 micron [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J142824.0+352619, a hyperluminous ( L(sub IR) approximates 10(exp 13) L (sub solar)) starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L(sub [Cu II] L(sub Fir) approximates 2 x 10(exp -3) of the far-IR (FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n approximates 10(exp 4.2) /cm(exp 3) , and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field approximately 10(exp 3.2) times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) ratio is higher than observed in local ultralummous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) and L(sub CO)/L(sub FIR) ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies. This suggests that MIPS J142824.0+352619 is a scaled-up version of a starburst nucleus, with the burst extended over several kiloparsecs.

  3. Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Marske, Katharine A.; Nógues-Bravo, David; Normand, Signe

    2011-10-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for estimating and studying past organism distributions. SDM complements fossil and genetic evidence by providing (i) quantitative and potentially high-resolution predictions of the past organism distributions, (ii) statistically formulated, testable ecological hypotheses regarding past distributions and communities, and (iii) statistical assessment of range determinants. In this article, we provide an overview of applications of SDM to paleobiology, outlining the methodology, reviewing SDM-based studies to paleobiology or at the interface of paleo- and neobiology, discussing assumptions and uncertainties as well as how to handle them, and providing a synthesis and outlook. Key methodological issues for SDM applications to paleobiology include predictor variables (types and properties; special emphasis is given to paleoclimate), model validation (particularly important given the emphasis on cross-temporal predictions in paleobiological applications), and the integration of SDM and genetics approaches. Over the last few years the number of studies using SDM to address paleobiology-related questions has increased considerably. While some of these studies only use SDM (23%), most combine them with genetically inferred patterns (49%), paleoecological records (22%), or both (6%). A large number of SDM-based studies have addressed the role of Pleistocene glacial refugia in biogeography and evolution, especially in Europe, but also in many other regions. SDM-based approaches are also beginning to contribute to a suite of other research questions, such as historical constraints on current distributions and diversity patterns, the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions, past community assembly, human paleobiogeography, Holocene paleoecology, and even deep-time biogeography (notably, providing

  4. Sparse distributed memory and related models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1992-01-01

    Described here is sparse distributed memory (SDM) as a neural-net associative memory. It is characterized by two weight matrices and by a large internal dimension - the number of hidden units is much larger than the number of input or output units. The first matrix, A, is fixed and possibly random, and the second matrix, C, is modifiable. The SDM is compared and contrasted to (1) computer memory, (2) correlation-matrix memory, (3) feet-forward artificial neural network, (4) cortex of the cerebellum, (5) Marr and Albus models of the cerebellum, and (6) Albus' cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC). Several variations of the basic SDM design are discussed: the selected-coordinate and hyperplane designs of Jaeckel, the pseudorandom associative neural memory of Hassoun, and SDM with real-valued input variables by Prager and Fallside. SDM research conducted mainly at the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) in 1986-1991 is highlighted.

  5. ROSAT observations of NGC 2146: Evidence for a starburst-driven superwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, L.; Heckman, T. M.; Weaver, K. A.; Lehnert, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    We have imaged the edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 2146 with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) and the High Resolution Imager (HRI) on board ROSAT and have compared these data to optical images and long-slit spectra. NGC 2146 possesses a very large X-ray nebula with a half-light radius of 1 min (4 kpc) and a maximum diameter of approximately 4 min, or 17 kpc. The X-ray emission is resolved by the PSPC and preferentially oriented along the minor axis, with a total flux of 1.1 x 10(exp -12) ergs/sq cm/s over 0.2 - 2.4 keV and a luminosity of approximately 3 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. The inner X-ray nebula is resolved by the HRI into at least four bright knots together with strong diffuse emission responsible for at least 50% of the flux within a radius of 0.5 min (approximately 2 kpc). The brightest knot has a luminosity of (2 - 3) x 10(exp 39) ergs/s. The X-ray nebula has a spatial extent much larger than the starburst ridge seen at centimeter wavelengths by Kronberg & Biermann (1981) and is oriented in a `X-like' pattern along the galaxy minor axis at a position angle of approximately 30 degrees. This minor-axis X-ray emission is associated with a region of H alpha and dust filaments seen in optical images. Optical spectra show that the emission-line gas along the minor axis is characterized by relatively broad lines (approximately 250 km/s full width half-maximum (FWHM)) and by `shocklike' emission-line flux ratios. Together with the blue-asymmetric nuclear emission-line and NaD interstellar absorption-line profiles, these optical data strongly suggest the presence of a starburst-driven superwind. The X-ray spectrum extracted from the central 5 min contains a strong Fe L emission-line complex at 0.6 - 1.0 keV and a hard excess above 1.0 keV. The spectrum is best described with a two-component model, containing a soft (kT approximately 400 - 500 eV) Raymond-Smith thermal plasma together with either a Gamma = 1.7 power-law or a kT greater than 2.2 ke

  6. How can model comparison help improving species distribution models?

    PubMed

    Gritti, Emmanuel Stephan; Gaucherel, Cédric; Crespo-Perez, Maria-Veronica; Chuine, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Today, more than ever, robust projections of potential species range shifts are needed to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Such projections are so far provided almost exclusively by correlative species distribution models (correlative SDMs). However, concerns regarding the reliability of their predictive power are growing and several authors call for the development of process-based SDMs. Still, each of these methods presents strengths and weakness which have to be estimated if they are to be reliably used by decision makers. In this study we compare projections of three different SDMs (STASH, LPJ and PHENOFIT) that lie in the continuum between correlative models and process-based models for the current distribution of three major European tree species, Fagussylvatica L., Quercusrobur L. and Pinussylvestris L. We compare the consistency of the model simulations using an innovative comparison map profile method, integrating local and multi-scale comparisons. The three models simulate relatively accurately the current distribution of the three species. The process-based model performs almost as well as the correlative model, although parameters of the former are not fitted to the observed species distributions. According to our simulations, species range limits are triggered, at the European scale, by establishment and survival through processes primarily related to phenology and resistance to abiotic stress rather than to growth efficiency. The accuracy of projections of the hybrid and process-based model could however be improved by integrating a more realistic representation of the species resistance to water stress for instance, advocating for pursuing efforts to understand and formulate explicitly the impact of climatic conditions and variations on these processes.

  7. Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

  8. Transfer function modeling of damping mechanisms in distributed parameter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, J. C.; Inman, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    This work formulates a method for the modeling of material damping characteristics in distributed parameter models which may be easily applied to models such as rod, plate, and beam equations. The general linear boundary value vibration equation is modified to incorporate hysteresis effects represented by complex stiffness using the transfer function approach proposed by Golla and Hughes. The governing characteristic equations are decoupled through separation of variables yielding solutions similar to those of undamped classical theory, allowing solution of the steady state as well as transient response. Example problems and solutions are provided demonstrating the similarity of the solutions to those of the classical theories and transient responses of nonviscous systems.

  9. Pressure Distribution over Thick Airfoils - Model Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

    1923-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the distribution of loading over thick wings of various types. The unloading on the wing was determined by taking the pressure at a number of holes on both the upper and lower surfaces of a model wing in the wind tunnel. The results from these tests show, first, that the distribution of pressure over a thick wing of uniform section is very little different from that over a thin wing; second, that wings tapering either in chord or thickness have the lateral center of pressure, as would be expected, slightly nearer the center of the wings; and, third, that wings tapering in plan form and with a section everywhere proportional to the center section may be considered to have a loading at any point which is proportional to the chord when compared to a wing with a similar constant section. These tests confirm the belief that wings tapering both in thickness and plan form are of considerable structural value because the lateral center of pressure is thereby moved toward the center of the span.

  10. The Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Galactic Center: A Starburst Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. P.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cohen, M.; Price, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    Using the Michelson interferometer on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), we have taken spectra of many positions in the central 25 min of the Galactic Center (GC) with a 6 min x 9 min FOV. The spectral coverage was 380 to 1700/ cm (6 to 26 microns) and the resolution was approx. 21/cm. The spectra exhibit strong UIR/PAH features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 microns, in addition to the ionic lines of (Ne II), at 12.8 microns, (S III) 18.7 microns, and (Ar II) 6.98 microns. There are deep silicate absorption features at 10 and 18 microns and a cold continuum increasing at the longest wavelengths. Additional weak features are present in the spectra. We discuss the variation in the extinction at 10 microns as a function of location in the GC. Compared to the MSX spectrum of the Orion nebula, smoothed to the same resolution and multiplied by the estimated GC extinction, the GC spectra have similar PAH features, but the Orion Nebula also has strong lines of (He III) 15.6 microns, (S IV) 10.5 microns, and (Ar III) 8.99 microns and its 25 microns continuum is stronger (colder). Thus, the GC exhibits the mid-IR spectrum of a low excitation H II region and a nearby molecular cloud with a surface photodissociation region (PDR). This is in excellent agreement with the canonical model of a starburst nucleus in which the hot stars and molecular clouds are randomly distributed. The outer surfaces of the clouds are photodissociated and ionized by the photons from the stars located outside the clouds. The PAH molecules are transiently heated by the stellar photons. Since the exciting stars are located well outside the clouds, the radiation field is dilute compared to a newly-formed blister H II region like Orion; this dilute radiation field causes the relatively low excitation of the ionic lines.

  11. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase

  12. A distributed clients/distributed servers model for STARCAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirenne, B.; Albrecht, M. A.; Durand, D.; Gaudet, S.

    1992-01-01

    STARCAT, the Space Telescope ARchive and CATalogue user interface has been along for a number of years already. During this time it has been enhanced and augmented in a number of different fields. This time, we would like to dwell on a new capability allowing geographically distributed user interfaces to connect to geographically distributed data servers. This new concept permits users anywhere on the internet running STARCAT on their local hardware to access e.g., whichever of the 3 existing HST archive sites is available, or get information on the CFHT archive through a transparent connection to the CADC in BC or to get the La Silla weather by connecting to the ESO database in Munich during the same session. Similarly PreView (or quick look) images and spectra will also flow directly to the user from wherever it is available. Moving towards an 'X'-based STARCAT is another goal being pursued: a graphic/image server and a help/doc server are currently being added to it. They should further enhance the user independence and access transparency.

  13. First Detection of the [O(sub III)] 88 Micrometers Line at High Redshifts: Characterizing the Starburst and Narrow-Line Regions in Extreme Luminosity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, C.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Parshley, S. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have made the first detections of the 88 micrometers [O(sub III)] line from galaxies in the early universe, detecting the line from the lensed active galactic nucleus (AGN)/starburst composite systems APM 08279+5255 at z 3.911 and SMM J02399-0136 at z = 2.8076. The line is exceptionally bright from both systems, with apparent (lensed) luminosities approx.10(exp 11) Solar Luminosity, For APM 08279, the [O(sub III)] line flux can be modeled in a star formation paradigm, with the stellar radiation field dominated by stars with effective temperatures, T(sub eff) > 36,000 K, similar to the starburst found in M82. The model implies approx.35% of the total far-IR luminosity of the system is generated by the starburst, with the remainder arising from dust heated by the AGN. The 881,tm line can also be generated in the narrow-line region of the AGN if gas densities are around a few 1000 cu cm. For SMM J02399, the [O(sub III)] line likely arises from HII regions formed by hot (T(sub eff) > 40,000 K) young stars in a massive starburst that dominates the far-IR luminosity of the system. The present work demonstrates the utility of the [O(sub III)] line for characterizing starbursts and AGN within galaxies in the early universe. These are the first detections of this astrophysically important line from galaxies beyond a redshift of 0.05.s

  14. First Detection of the [O(sub III)] 88 Micrometers Line at High Redshifts: Characterizing the Starburst and Narrow-Line Regions in Extreme Luminosity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, C.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Parshley, S. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have made the first detections of the 88 micrometers [O(sub III)] line from galaxies in the early universe, detecting the line from the lensed active galactic nucleus (AGN)/starburst composite systems APM 08279+5255 at z 3.911 and SMM J02399-0136 at z = 2.8076. The line is exceptionally bright from both systems, with apparent (lensed) luminosities approx.10(exp 11) Solar Luminosity, For APM 08279, the [O(sub III)] line flux can be modeled in a star formation paradigm, with the stellar radiation field dominated by stars with effective temperatures, T(sub eff) > 36,000 K, similar to the starburst found in M82. The model implies approx.35% of the total far-IR luminosity of the system is generated by the starburst, with the remainder arising from dust heated by the AGN. The 881,tm line can also be generated in the narrow-line region of the AGN if gas densities are around a few 1000 cu cm. For SMM J02399, the [O(sub III)] line likely arises from HII regions formed by hot (T(sub eff) > 40,000 K) young stars in a massive starburst that dominates the far-IR luminosity of the system. The present work demonstrates the utility of the [O(sub III)] line for characterizing starbursts and AGN within galaxies in the early universe. These are the first detections of this astrophysically important line from galaxies beyond a redshift of 0.05.s

  15. A multiwavelength study of the starburst galaxy NGC 7771

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard I.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ward, Martin J.

    1997-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the interacting starburst galaxy NGC 7771, including new optical and ultraviolet spectra and a previously unpublished soft X-ray ROSAT image and spectrum. The FIR, radio, and X-ray fluxes suggest that a massive burst of star formation is currently in progress, but the small equivalent width of the Balmer emission lines, the weak UV flux, the low abundance of ionized oxygen, and the shape of the optical spectrum lead us to conclude that there are few O stars. This might normally suggest that star formation has ceased, but the barred gravitational potential and large gas reserves of the galaxy imply that this should not be so, and we therefore consider other explanations. We argue that the observations cannot be due to effects of geometry, density-bounded nebulae, or dust within the nebulae, and conclude that a truncated IMF is required. The dwarf galaxy NGC 7770 appears to be in the initial stages of a merger with NGC 7771, and the resulting tidal perturbations may have induced the apparent two-armed spiral pattern, and driven a substantial fraction of the disk gas inwards. The presence of a bulge in NGC 7771 may be moderating the starburst so that, while still occurring on a large scale with a supernova rate of 0.8-1/yr, it is less violent and the IMF has a relatively low upper mass limit. We find that there is a cluster of stars obscuring part of the starburst region, and we offer an explanation of its origin.

  16. A Multiwavelength Study of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 7771

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard I.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ward, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the interacting starburst galaxy NGC 7771, including new optical and ultra-violet spectra and a previously unpublished soft X-ray ROSAT image and spectrum. The far-infrared, radio, and X-ray fluxes suggest that a massive burst of star-formation is currently in progress but the small equivalent width of the Balmer emission lines (equivalent width H(alpha approximately equals 100 A), the weak UV flux, the low abundance of ionised oxygen, and the shape of the optical spectrum lead us to conclude that there are few 0 stars. This might normally suggest that star-formation has ceased but the galaxy's barred gravitational potential and large gas reserves imply that this should not be so, and we therefore consider other explanations. We argue that the observations cannot be due to effects of geometry, density bounded nebulae, or dust within the nebulae, and conclude that a truncated IMF is required. The dwarf galaxy NGC 7770 appears to be in the initial stages of a merger with NGC 7771, and the resulting tidal perturbations may have induced the apparent two-armed spiral pattern, and driven a substantial fraction of the disk gas inwards. The presence of a bulge in NGC 7771 may be moderating the starburst so that, while still occuring on a large scale with a supernova rate of 0.8-1/yr, it is less violent and the IMF has a relatively low upper mass limit. We find that there is a cluster of stars obscuring part of the starburst region, and we offer an explanation of its origin.

  17. Normal and Starburst Galaxies in Deep X-ray Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This talk will cover progress of the last several years in unraveling the nature of normal and starburst galaxies in deep X-ray surveys. This includes discussion of the normal galaxy X-ray Luminosity Function in deep field and cluster surveys and what it tells us about the binary populations in galaxies. The utility of broad band X-ray emission, especially as compared to other multiwavelength measurements of current/recent star formation, will be reviewed. These broad band X-ray measurements of star formation are based upon X-ray/Star Formation Rate correlations that span the currently available redshift range (0 < z < 1). I will also discuss new efforts underway to systematically characterize the X-ray emission from galaxies in group and cluster environments, including a new effort underway in the Coma cluster of galaxies. I will finish with discussion of the redshift frontier for studies of X-ray star formation, currently 2 approx.4, where the UV-selected Lyman Break galaxies are the best glimpse we have into X-ray emission from star formation in the early Universe. Lyman Break galaxies are of particular interest due to the overlap in basic properties with starburst galaxies in the more local Universe. Understanding the outflows in such starburst galaxies is of critical importance to constraining the "stellar" portion of cosmic feedback. The talk will close with a brief discussion of distant normal galaxy science with future X-ray observatories such as the upcoming Con-X/XEUS mission(s).

  18. Starburst-driven Galactic Superbubbles Radiating to 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Our three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of starbursts examine the formation of superbubbles over a range of driving luminosities and mass loadings that determine superbubble growth and wind velocity. From this we determine the relationship between the velocity of a galactic wind (GW) and the power of the starburst. We find a threshold for the formation of a wind, above which the speed of the wind is not affected by grid resolution or the temperature floor of our radiative cooling. We investigate the effect that two different temperature floors in our radiative cooling prescription have on wind kinematics and content. We find that cooling to 10 K instead of to 104 K increases the mass fraction of cold neutral and hot X-ray gas in the GW, while halving that in warm Hα. Our simulations show that the mass of cold gas transported into the lower halo does not depend on the starburst strength. Optically bright filaments form at the edge of merging superbubbles, or where a cold dense cloud has been disrupted by the wind. Filaments formed by merging superbubbles will persist and grow to \\gt 400 pc in length if anchored to a star forming complex. Filaments embedded in the hot GW contain warm and cold gas that moves 300-1200 km s-1 slower than the surrounding wind, with the coldest gas hardly moving with respect to the Galaxy. Warm and cold matter in the GW show asymmetric absorption profiles consistent with observations, with a thin tail up to the wind velocity.

  19. A Multiwavelength Study of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 7771

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Richard I.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ward, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the interacting starburst galaxy NGC 7771, including new optical and ultra-violet spectra and a previously unpublished soft X-ray ROSAT image and spectrum. The far-infrared, radio, and X-ray fluxes suggest that a massive burst of star-formation is currently in progress but the small equivalent width of the Balmer emission lines (equivalent width H(alpha approximately equals 100 A), the weak UV flux, the low abundance of ionised oxygen, and the shape of the optical spectrum lead us to conclude that there are few 0 stars. This might normally suggest that star-formation has ceased but the galaxy's barred gravitational potential and large gas reserves imply that this should not be so, and we therefore consider other explanations. We argue that the observations cannot be due to effects of geometry, density bounded nebulae, or dust within the nebulae, and conclude that a truncated IMF is required. The dwarf galaxy NGC 7770 appears to be in the initial stages of a merger with NGC 7771, and the resulting tidal perturbations may have induced the apparent two-armed spiral pattern, and driven a substantial fraction of the disk gas inwards. The presence of a bulge in NGC 7771 may be moderating the starburst so that, while still occuring on a large scale with a supernova rate of 0.8-1/yr, it is less violent and the IMF has a relatively low upper mass limit. We find that there is a cluster of stars obscuring part of the starburst region, and we offer an explanation of its origin.

  20. The Seyfert-Starburst Connection in X-rays. 2; Results and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenson, N. A.; Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of X-ray imaging and spectroscopic analysis of a sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies that contain starbursts, based on their optical and UV characteristics. These composite galaxies exhibit extended, soft, thermal X-ray emission, which we attribute to their starburst components. Comparing their X-ray and far-infrared properties with ordinary Seyfert and starburst galaxies, we identify the spectral characteristics of their various intrinsic emission sources. The observed far-infrared emission of the composite galaxies may be associated almost exclusively with star formation, rather than the active nucleus. The ratio of the hard X-ray luminosity to the far-infrared and [O III] (lambda)5007 luminosity distinguishes most of these composite galaxies from "pure" Seyfert 2 galaxies, while their total observed hard X-ray luminosity distinguishes them from "pure" starbursts. The hard nuclear X-ray source is generally heavily absorbed (N(sub H) greater than 10(exp 23)/sq cm) in the composite galaxies. Based on these results, we suggest that the interstellar medium of the nuclear starburst is a significant source of absorption. The majority of the sample are located in groups or are interacting with other galaxies, which may trigger the starburst or allow rapid mass infall to the central black hole or both. We conclude that starbursts are energetically important in a significant fraction of active galaxies and that starbursts and active galactic nuclei may be part of a common evolutionary sequence.

  1. The multifrequency spectrum of the starburst galaxy NGC 2782

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bregman, J. N.; Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.; Cohen, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear region of NGC 2782 has been observed at radio, millimeter, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray frequencies to understand the ionization source that gives rise to the narrow emission lines. The continuum is probably caused by a normal galactic population plus considerable numbers of young stars and warm dust. In the ultraviolet and optical spectra, which are powerful diagnostics, no strong lines are detected in the 1200 A-3200 A region aside from L-alpha, and the optical emission lines cover only a narrow ionization range. The line and continuum properties suggest that NGC 2782 is a starburst galaxy, in which young stars photoionize the surrounding gas.

  2. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Nearby Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey; Lee, Janice

    Do cycles of violent, intense, but short-lived bursts constitute a significant mode of global starformation in present-day galaxies? Such events can have a profound effect on galaxies, particularly those with shallowpotential wells, and observational measures of their prevalence inform our understanding of a wide range of issues ingalaxy evolution. I will highlight what we have learned about starbursts from multi-wavelength observations of galaxiesin the local volume on both galactic and smaller scales, and explore how connections with the study of the deaths ofmassive stars may further our understanding of open issues in galaxy evolution.

  3. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Nearby Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Janice

    2015-08-01

    Do cycles of violent, intense, but short-lived bursts constitute a significant mode of global star formation in present-day galaxies? Such events can have a profound effect on galaxies, particularly those with shallow potential wells, and observational measures of their prevalence inform our understanding of a wide range of issues in galaxy evolution. I will highlight what we have learned about starbursts from multi-wavelength observations of galaxies in the local volume on both galactic and smaller scales, and explore how connections with the study of the deaths of massive stars may further our understanding of open issues in galaxy evolution.

  4. Search for Supernovae in Starburst Galaxies with HAWK-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miluzio, M.

    2014-03-01

    With the aim of testing the relation between supernova (SN) rate and star formation rate, we conducted a SN search in a sample of local starburst galaxies (SBs) where both star formation rates and extinction are extremely high. The search was performed in the near-infrared, where the bias due to extinction is reduced using HAWK-I on the VLT. We discovered six SNe, in excellent agreement with expectations, when considering that, even in our search, about 60% of events remain hidden in the nuclear regions due to a combination of reduced search efficiency and very high extinction.

  5. Astrophysics of Feedback in local AGN and Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Gabriele; Ptak, Andrew; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Members of SWAG2. 3

    2015-09-01

    Accretion onto supermassive black holes at the centre of many galaxies can generate radiation, jets and winds powerful enough to modify the properties of the interstellar medium and of the galactic star formation. Ultimately, in a process called feedback, this can influence the rate of gas accretion onto the supermassive black hole. Also powerful starburst galaxies, through winds, are thought to have a deep impact onto the host galaxy. We will review the current status of evidence for the presence of the feedback process in active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies as well as the prospects for Athena.

  6. Constraining Stellar Feedbacks: Photo-ionization vs. Shock-ionization in Local Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Martin, C.; Pellerin, A.; Strickland, D.; Dopita, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the small- and intermediate-scale structure of interstellar medium(ISM) of five local starburst galaxies; NGC1569, NGC4449, Holmberg II, NGC5236, and HE2-10. Each galaxy has four narrow band images for H-beta(4861A), [OIII](5007A), H-alpha(6563A), and [SII](6717,6731A) (or [NII](6583A)), imaged by Advanced Camera for Survey(ACS), Wide Field Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2), and Wide Field Camera 3(WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope(HST). We produce line diagnostics diagrams from those narrow band images on a pixel-by-pixel basis and discriminate shock-ionized gas (pixels) by using the ``maximum starburst line'' of Kewley et al. (2001). The properties of line ratios, [SII]/H-alpha vs [OIII]/H-beta, H-alpha vs [OIII]/H-beta, and H-alpha vs [SII]/H-alpha, for photo-ionized gas are well explained by the photo-ionization model of Kewley et al. (2001). When comparing the four galaxies, NGC3077, NGC4214, NGC5236, and NGC5253, previously studied in Calzetti et al. (2004) with our galaxies, we have found similar groups which share the same trend in line ratio plots. The origin of the groups can be explained by the effects of different metallicity and different starforming strength with respect to potential depth, which are strongly related to cooling rate and galactic wind driving mechanism. We compare the shock-ionized gas with shock-ionization model of Allen et al. (2008). Although the ``maximum starburst line'' gives us conservative estimation of shock-ionized gas, our rough estimation of shock velocity 250km/s of HE2-10 is consistent with Mendez et al. (1999). As an Appendix, we present a new objective technique for continuum subtraction from narrow-band image. We have found that skewness values of continuum subtracted images show a transitional feature around the optimal subtraction. We present some real applications and discuss about the strong points and the weak points of this technique.

  7. Time domain analysis of the weighted distributed order rheological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lili; Pu, Hai; Li, Yan; Li, Ming

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the fundamental solution and relevant properties of the weighted distributed order rheological model in the time domain. Based on the construction of distributed order damper and the idea of distributed order element networks, this paper studies the weighted distributed order operator of the rheological model, a generalization of distributed order linear rheological model. The inverse Laplace transform on weighted distributed order operators of rheological model has been obtained by cutting the complex plane and computing the complex path integral along the Hankel path, which leads to the asymptotic property and boundary discussions. The relaxation response to weighted distributed order rheological model is analyzed, and it is closely related to many physical phenomena. A number of novel characteristics of weighted distributed order rheological model, such as power-law decay and intermediate phenomenon, have been discovered as well. And meanwhile several illustrated examples play important role in validating these results.

  8. Models of sporadic meteor body distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Belkovich, O. I.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of orbital elements and flux density over the celestial sphere are the most common forms of representation of the meteor body distribution in the vicinity of the Earth's orbit. The determination of flux density distribution of sporadic meteor bodies was worked out. The method and its results are discussed.

  9. Tracing Evolution of Starbursts and AGNs using Ultra-deep Radio and mm/smm Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Min S.; Gim, Hansung; Morrison, Glenn; Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Owen, Frazer; Kellermann, Ken; Aretxaga, Itziar; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hughes, David; Lowenthal, James; Miller, Neal; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-08-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a rapid build up of metals among massive galaxies during their rapid growth via an intense starburst in the early epochs. These star formation activities may be largely obscured in the UV and optical light, as in the local universe. If the growth of supermassive blackholes occurs at or nearly the same time, the accompanying AGN activity may also be heavily obscured. Ultra-deep surveys in the radio and far-infrared can offer extinction-free view of these systems, and the advent of new facilities such as the Jansky VLA, ALMA, and LMT now allows us to probe directly the population of starburst galaxies that are responsible for the bulk of the stellar mass build-up during the epoch of galaxy growth (SFR > 10-100 M⊙/yr at z≈2 or earlier). We will present our analysis of the properties of the micro-Jansky radio sources identified by new Jansky VLA surveys of the GOODS and COSMOS fields using the rich archival data already available (Herschel, Spitzer, Chandra, ALMA, LMT, etc.). Specifically, we find evidence for two populations of microJy radio sources with distinct spectral index distribution. We explore whether this reflects differences in the underlying powering mechanisms by examining their radio-FIR correlation and X-ray properties. We also find the previously reported apparent systematic change in the "q-value" with increasing redshift, and we examine the reality of this trend in some detail. Finally, we will also examine the spatial extent of activities for a subset of the sample where high angular resolution (better than 1") information is available.

  10. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S.; Patton, D. R.; Besla, G.; Pearson, S.; Putman, M.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S.; Titans, TiNy

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The Hα emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M ⊙ yr‑1, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  11. Anatomy of Starbursts in Extragalactic Giant HII Regions: M51 Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jessica Marie; Chu, You-Hua

    2013-03-01

    Extragalactic giant HII regions (EGHRs) are sites of active, concentrated star formation, and thus provide excellent labs to analyze the starburst phenomenon. Although they have been known for a long time, ground-based observations cannot resolve the physical structures and stellar content of EGHRs. The high resolution and sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are ideal for detailed studies of EGHRs. We have searched the Hubble Legacy Archives (HLA) and found 17 nearby galaxies, within ˜15 Mpc, with Hα and continuum images; to determine the best methods for analyzing these data, we perform an in-depth analysis of the EGHRs in M51. M51 is a face-on spiral galaxy ˜8.4 Mpc away, with well-resolved multi-wavelength observations in the HLA. We sample the 25 most luminous HII regions in M51, many of which are bonafide EGHRs with an H-alpha luminosity > 1039 ergs s-1. We use the Hα image to study the distribution and physical structure of the gas in each HII region and determine its Hα luminosity and required ionizing flux. We use the continuum images to determine whether super stellar clusters (SSCs) are found in these HII regions, and use photometric measurements to determine the mass and age spread of the resolved stellar population. These are then compared with the interstellar structures. The results help us provide the groundwork for studying EGHRs in multiple galaxies and elucidate the starburst phenomenon by investigating questions such as: What role does environment play in the formation of EGHRs? How do EGHRs evolve? How does star formation proceed in an EGHR?

  12. How does star formation proceed in the circumnuclear starburst ring of NGC 6951?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, T. P. R.; Schinnerer, E.; Emsellem, E.; Hunt, L. K.; McDermid, R. M.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    Gas inflowing along stellar bars is often stalled at the location of circumnuclear rings, which form an effective reservoir for massive star formation and thus shape the central regions of galaxies. However, how exactly star formation proceeds within these circumnuclear starburst rings is the subject of debate. Two main scenarios for this process have been put forward. In the first, the onset of star formation is regulated by the total amount of gas present in the ring with star forming starting, once a mass threshold has been reached, in "random" positions within the ring like "popcorn". In the second, star formation primarily takes place near the locations where the gas enters the ring. This scenario has been dubbed "pearls-on-a-string". Here we combine new optical IFU data covering the full stellar bar with existing multiwavelength data to study the 580 pc radius circumnuclear starburst ring in detail in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6951. Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival data together with SAURON and OASIS IFU data, we derive the ages and stellar masses of star clusters, as well as the total stellar content of the central region. Adding information on the molecular gas distribution, stellar and gaseous dynamics, and extinction, we find that the circumnuclear ring in NGC 6951 is ~1-1.5 Gyr old and has been forming stars for most of that time. We see evidence for preferred sites of star formation within the ring, consistent with the "pearls-on-a-string" scenario, when focusing on the youngest stellar populations. The ring's longevity means that this signature is washed out when older stellar populations are included in the analysis. Tables 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgOASIS maps and SAURON cube are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A81

  13. The Starburst-AGN connection: quenching the fire and feeding the monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Telles, Eduardo; De Propris, Roberto; Chu, Zhang-Hu

    2015-10-01

    The merger of two spiral galaxies is believed to be one of the main channels for the production of elliptical and early-type galaxies. In the process, the system becomes an (ultra) luminous infrared galaxy, or (U)LIRG, that morphs to a quasar, to a K+A galaxy, and finally to an early-type galaxy. The time scales for this metamorphosis are only loosely constrained by observations. In particular, the K+A phase should follow immediately after the quasi stellar object (QSO) phase during which the dust and gas remaining from the (U)LIRG phase are expelled by the active galactic nucleus (AGN). An intermediate class of QSOs with K+A spectral signatures, the post-starburst QSOs (PSQ), may represent the transitional phase between QSOs and K+As. We have compiled a sample of 72 bona fide z < 0.5 PSQ from the SDSS DR7 QSO catalogue. We find the intermediate age populations in this sample to be on average significantly weaker and metal poorer than their putative descendants, the K+A galaxies. The typical spectral energy distribution of PSQ is well fitted by three components: starlight; an obscured power-law; and a hot dust component required to reproduce the mid-IR fluxes. From the slope and bolometric luminosity of the power-law component we estimate typical masses and accretion rates of the AGN, but we find little evidence of powerful radio-loud or strong X-ray emitters in our sample. This may indicate that the power-law component originates in a nuclear starburst rather than in an AGN, as expected if the bulk of their young stars are still being formed, or that the AGN is still heavily enshrouded in dust and gas. We find that both alternatives are problematic and that more and better optical, X-ray, and mm-wave observations are needed to elucidate the evolutionary history of PSQ.

  14. Stochastic Models for the Distribution of Index Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a probability model of the occurrence of index terms used to derive discrete distributions which are mixtures of Poisson and negative binomial distributions. These distributions give better fits than the simpler Zipf distribution, have the advantage of being more explanatory, and can incorporate a time parameter if necessary. (25…

  15. A Probabilistic Model for the Distribution of Authorships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajiferuke, Isola

    1991-01-01

    Discusses bibliometric studies of research collaboration and describes the development of a theoretical model for the distribution of authorship. The shifted Waring distribution model and 15 other probability models are tested for goodness-of-fit, and results are reported that indicate the shifted inverse Gaussian-Poisson model provides the best…

  16. A random distribution reacting mixing layer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for simulation of molecular mixing and the resulting velocity and temperature fields has been developed. The ideas are applied to the flow conditions present in the NASA Lewis Planar Reacting Shear Layer (PRSL) facility, and results compared to experimental data. A gaussian transverse turbulent velocity distribution is used in conjunction with a linearly increasing time scale to describe the mixing of different regions of the flow. Equilibrium reaction calculations are then performed on the mix to arrive at a new species composition and temperature. Velocities are determined through summation of momentum contributions. The analysis indicates a combustion efficiency of the order of 80 percent for the reacting mixing layer, and a turbulent Schmidt number of 2/3. The success of the model is attributed to the simulation of large-scale transport of fluid. The favorable comparison shows that a relatively quick and simple PC calculation is capable of simulating the basic flow structure in the reacting and non-reacting shear layer present in the facility given basic assumptions about turbulence properties.

  17. A random distribution reacting mixing layer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Richard A.; Marek, C. John; Myrabo, Leik N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for simulation of molecular mixing, and the resulting velocity and temperature fields has been developed. The ideas are applied to the flow conditions present in the NASA Lewis Research Center Planar Reacting Shear Layer (PRSL) facility, and results compared to experimental data. A gaussian transverse turbulent velocity distribution is used in conjunction with a linearly increasing time scale to describe the mixing of different regions of the flow. Equilibrium reaction calculations are then performed on the mix to arrive at a new species composition and temperature. Velocities are determined through summation of momentum contributions. The analysis indicates a combustion efficiency of the order of 80 percent for the reacting mixing layer, and a turbulent Schmidt number of 2/3. The success of the model is attributed to the simulation of large-scale transport of fluid. The favorable comparison shows that a relatively quick and simple PC calculation is capable of simulating the basic flow structure in the reacting and nonreacting shear layer present in the facility given basic assumptions about turbulence properties.

  18. MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF POST-STARBURST QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Peng; Shang Zhaohui; Brotherton, Michael S.; Dale, Daniel A.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Hines, Dean C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2013-07-20

    We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph low-resolution spectra of 16 spectroscopically selected post-starburst quasars (PSQs) at z {approx} 0.3. The optical spectra of these broad-lined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) simultaneously show spectral signatures of massive intermediate-aged stellar populations making them good candidates for studying the connections between AGNs and their hosts. The resulting spectra show relatively strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features at 6.2 and 11.3 {mu}m and a very weak silicate feature, indicative of ongoing star formation and low dust obscuration levels for the AGNs. We find that the mid-infrared composite spectrum of PSQs has spectral properties between ULIRGs and QSOs, suggesting that PSQs are hybrid AGN and starburst systems as also seen in their optical spectra. We also find that PSQs in early-type host galaxies tend to have relatively strong AGN activities, while those in spiral hosts have stronger PAH emission, indicating more star formation.

  19. Are bars essential for starbursts in non-interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Rieke, G. H.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed here are the 1.6 and 2.2 micron images of a sample of galaxies that are classified as unbarred by the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. These galaxies have characteristic properties of nuclear starbursts and are examined through near infrared imaging in a search for hidden bars. Researchers selected a sample of 36 galaxies from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog that have far infrared luminosities greater than 10(exp 10) solar luminosity and hot Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) colors between 60 and 100 microns, indicative of nuclear starbursts, but are not classified as Seyfert 1 or 2. Their determination of the presence of a bar relies primarily on an analysis of the 2 micron image using the Galaxy Surface Photometry (GASP) package (Cawson, 1983). The GASP analysis programs determine the galaxy surface brightness and ellipticity profiles as well as the position angle and the center coordinates of the ellipses. To test the way that GASP will characterize the surface brightness of barred galaxies, two galaxies with known bars, NGC 1068 and NGC 2523, were imaged with the 2 micron camera and analyzed with GASP. Fifteen of the sample that are not clearly barred from optical data and are isolated were imaged at 1.6 and 2.2 microns; 9 of these do not appear to have bars. Strong bars therefore do not appear to be an absolute requirement for high infrared luminosity in isolated galaxies.

  20. Feeding IC 342: The nuclear spiral of a starburst galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D.; Turner, J. L.; Hurt, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    IC 342 is a large nearby (1.8 Mpc, Turner and Hurt, 1991, hereafter T&H) spiral galaxy undergoing a moderate nuclear starburst. T&H have previously mapped the inner arcminute in CO-13(1-0) using the Owens Valley Millimeter Interferometer and found evidence that the nuclear molecular gas takes the form of spiral arms in a density wave pattern. They suggest that radial streaming along the arms may channel gas from the exterior of the galaxy into the nucleus, feeding the starburst. We have mapped the CO-12(1-0) emission of the inner 2 kpc of IC 342 at 2.8 inch resolution using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Interferometer. The greater sensitivity of CO-12 observations has allowed us to trace the spiral pattern out to a total extent of greater than 1 kpc. The CO-12 observations extend considerably the structure observed at CO-13 and offer further evidence that a spiral density wave may extend from the disk into the nucleus of IC 342.

  1. Feeding IC 342: The nuclear spiral of a starburst galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, D.; Turner, J. L.; Hurt, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    IC 342 is a large nearby (1.8 Mpc, Turner and Hurt, 1991, hereafter T&H) spiral galaxy undergoing a moderate nuclear starburst. T&H have previously mapped the inner arcminute in CO-13(1-0) using the Owens Valley Millimeter Interferometer and found evidence that the nuclear molecular gas takes the form of spiral arms in a density wave pattern. They suggest that radial streaming along the arms may channel gas from the exterior of the galaxy into the nucleus, feeding the starburst. We have mapped the CO-12(1-0) emission of the inner 2 kpc of IC 342 at 2.8 inch resolution using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Interferometer. The greater sensitivity of CO-12 observations has allowed us to trace the spiral pattern out to a total extent of greater than 1 kpc. The CO-12 observations extend considerably the structure observed at CO-13 and offer further evidence that a spiral density wave may extend from the disk into the nucleus of IC 342.

  2. Ultraviolet imaging of the AGN+starburst galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, Susan G.; Fanelli, Michael N.; Roberts, Laura J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bohlin, Ralph; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1994-01-01

    Images of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 were obtained at two ultraviolet wavelengths by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). These data represent the first detailed UV imagery of a composite (active galactic nucleus + starburst) disk galaxy. NGC 1068 cotains multiple components at UV wavelengths: the central active galactic nucleus; a population of very luminous starburst knots; a bright oval inner disk; and a fainter, more circular halo. The most luminous knot, which is located approximately 750 pc from the nucleus at PA 315 deg, is approximately 80 times the luminosity of 30 Doradus and gives NGC 1068 a 'double nucleus' appearance in the UV. Significant extended emission is observed throughout the disk, unlike other disk galaxies so far observed in the UV. The radial brightness profile in both UV bandpasses generally follows an exponential decline to approximately 5 kpc. A faint halo extending to approximately 13 kpc is likely to be a galaxian-sized reflection nebula where ambient dust scatters the intense UV continuum from the inner galaxy. UV colors show a striking asymmetric morphology, which is correlated with the observed molecular CO emission.

  3. The fine line between normal and starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Sheth, Kartik; Scott, Kimberly S.; Toft, Sune; Magdis, Georgios E.; Damjanov, Ivana; Zahid, H. Jabran; Casey, Caitlin M.; Cortzen, Isabella; Gómez Guijarro, Carlos; Karim, Alexander; Leslie, Sarah K.; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Recent literature suggests that there are two modes through which galaxies grow their stellar mass - a normal mode characterized by quasi-steady star formation, and a highly efficient starburst mode possibly triggered by stochastic events such as galaxy mergers. While these differences are established for extreme cases, the population of galaxies between these two regimes is poorly studied and it is not clear where the transition between these two modes of star formation occurs. We utilize the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the CO J = 3-2 line luminosity in a sample of 20 infrared luminous galaxies that lie in the intermediate range between normal and starburst galaxies at z ∼ 0.25-0.65 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field to examine their gas content and star formation efficiency. We compare these quantities to the galaxies' deviation from the well-studied 'main sequence' (MS) correlation between star formation rate and stellar mass and find that at log(SFR/SFRMS) ≲ 0.6, a galaxy's distance to the main sequence is primarily driven by increased gas content, and not a more efficient star formation process.

  4. Early Starbursts and Magnetic Field Generation in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völk, H. J.; Atoyan, A. M.

    2000-09-01

    We propose a mechanism for the early generation of the mean intracluster magnetic field in terms of magnetized galactic winds. These winds are the result of starburst phases of the cluster galaxies, assumed to produce the predominant population of early-type galaxies in mergers of gas-rich progenitors. After further cluster contraction, typical field strengths are 10-7 G. This estimate may increase to the level of 10-6 G if more extreme galactic parameters and subsequent shear amplification of the field are considered. The topology of the field is one of almost unconnected wind bubbles with Parker-type spiral field configurations over scales of the distance between galaxies. Further cluster accretion, which continues chaotically in space and time up to the present, will perturb these ``large-scale'' mean fields on smaller or at best comparable spatial scales. The small-scale fields in the resulting turbulent fluctuation spectrum should be able to confine relativistic particles over times longer than the age of the universe. The nonthermal particle content of galaxy clusters should therefore also have a ``cosmological'' hadronic component generated during the early starburst phase of the member galaxies. Already by itself it implies a nonthermal energy fraction of about 10% for the intracluster gas that should then be detectable by future γ-ray telescopes.

  5. Some bivariate distributions for modeling the strength properties of lumber

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Johnson; James W. Evans; David W. Green

    Accurate modeling of the joint stochastic nature of the strength properties of dimension lumber is essential to the determination of reliability-based design safety factors. This report reviews the major techniques for obtaining bivariate distributions and then discusses bivariate distributions whose marginal distributions suggest they might be useful for modeling the...

  6. Winds of change: reionization by starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the properties of the galaxies that reionized the Universe and the history of cosmic reionization using the 'Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments' (eagle) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We obtain the evolution of the escape fraction of ionizing photons in galaxies assuming that galactic winds create channels through which 20 per cent of photons escape when the local surface density of star formation is greater than 0.1 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Such threshold behaviour for the generation of winds is observed, and the rare local objects that have such high star formation surface densities exhibit high escape fractions of ˜10 per cent. In our model, the luminosity-weighted mean escape fraction increases with redshift as \\bar{f}_esc=0.045 ((1+z)/4)^{1.1} at z > 3, and the galaxy number weighted mean as = 2.2 × 10-3 ((1 + z)/4)4, and becomes constant ≈0.2 at redshift z > 10. The escape fraction evolves as an increasingly large fraction of stars forms above the critical surface density of star formation at earlier times. This evolution of the escape fraction, combined with that of the star formation rate density from eagle, reproduces the inferred evolution of the filling factor of ionized regions during the reionization epoch (6 < z < 8), the evolution of the post-reionization (0 ≤ z < 6) hydrogen photoionization rate and the optical depth due to Thomson scattering of the cosmic microwave background photons measured by the Planck satellite.

  7. Atomic hydrogen distribution. [in Titan atmospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabarie, N.

    1974-01-01

    Several possible H2 vertical distributions in Titan's atmosphere are considered with the constraint of 5 km-A a total quantity. Approximative calculations show that hydrogen distribution is quite sensitive to two other parameters of Titan's atmosphere: the temperature and the presence of other constituents. The escape fluxes of H and H2 are also estimated as well as the consequent distributions trapped in the Saturnian system.

  8. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Crocker, R.; Meurer, G. R.; Bhandari, S.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Offringa, A. R.; Hanish, D. J.; Seymour, N.; Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E.; Callingham, J. R.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Procopio, P.; Wayth, R. B.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Carroll, P.; Dillon, J. S.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Jacobs, D. J.; Kim, H.-S.; Kittiwisit, P.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Neben, A. R.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Riding, J.; Sethi, S. K.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, N.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Webster, R. L.; Wyithe, S. B.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Srivani, K. S.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2017-03-01

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free-free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154-231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ˜8 kpc in the z-direction (from the major axis).

  9. Free-free and H42α emission from the dusty starburst within NGC 4945 as observed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendo, G. J.; Henkel, C.; D'Cruze, M. J.; Dickinson, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Karim, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present observations of the 85.69 GHz continuum emission and H42α line emission from the central 30 arcsec within NGC 4945. Both sources of emission originate from nearly identical structures that can be modelled as exponential discs with scalelengths of ˜2.1 arcsec (or ˜40 pc). An analysis of the spectral energy distribution based on combining these data with archival data imply that 84 ± 10 per cent of the 85.69 GHz continuum emission originates from free-free emission. The electron temperature is 5400 ± 600 K, which is comparable to what has been measured near the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy. The star formation rate (SFR) based on the H42α and 85.69 GHz free-free emission (and using a distance of 3.8 Mpc) is 4.35 ± 0.25 M⊙ yr-1. This is consistent with the SFR from the total infrared flux and with previous measurements based on recombination line emission, and it is within a factor of ˜2 of SFRs derived from radio data. The Spitzer Space Telescope 24 μm data and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer 22 μm data yield SFRs ˜10× lower than the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array measurements, most likely because the mid-infrared data are strongly affected by dust attenuation equivalent to AV = 150. These results indicate that SFRs based on mid-infrared emission may be highly inaccurate for dusty, compact circumnuclear starbursts.

  10. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: Physical properties derived from energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Brisbin, D.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Novak, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Albrecht, M.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P. L.; Casey, C. M.; Hayward, C. C.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Jiang, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F.; Padilla, N. D.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Scott, K. S.; Sheth, K.; Tasca, L. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) represent an important source population in the origin and cosmic evolution of the most massive galaxies. Hence, it is imperative to place firm constraints on the fundamental physical properties of large samples of SMGs. Aims: We determine the physical properties of a sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field that were pre-selected at the observed-frame wavelength of λobs = 1.1 mm, and followed up at λobs = 1.3 mm with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA). Methods: We used the MAGPHYS model package to fit the panchromatic (ultraviolet to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 124 of the target SMGs, which lie at a median redshift of z = 2.30 (19.4% are spectroscopically confirmed). The SED analysis was complemented by estimating the gas masses of the SMGs by using the λobs = 1.3 mm dust emission as a tracer of the molecular gas component. Results: The sample median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of the stellar masses, obscured star formation rates, dust temperatures, and dust and gas masses were derived to be log(M⋆/M⊙) = 11.09+0.41-0.53, SFR = 402+661-233 M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 39.7+9.7-7.4 K, log(Mdust/M⊙) = 9.01+0.20-0.31, and log(Mgas/M⊙ = 11.34+0.20-0.23, respectively. The Mdust/M⋆ ratio was found to decrease as a function of redshift, while the Mgas/Mdust ratio shows the opposite, positive correlation with redshift. The derived median gas-to-dust ratio of 120+73-30 agrees well with the canonical expectation. The gas fraction (Mgas/ (Mgas + M⋆)) was found to range from 0.10 to 0.98 with a median of 0.62+0.27-0.23. We found that 57.3% of our SMGs populate the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies, while 41.9% of the sources lie above the MS by a factor of greater than three (one source lies below the MS). These super-MS objects, or starbursts, are preferentially found at z ≳ 3, which likely reflects the sensitivity limit of our source selection. We estimated that the median gas

  11. Gendist: An R Package for Generated Probability Distribution Models.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Shaiful Anuar; Nadarajah, Saralees; Absl Kamarul Adzhar, Zahrul Azmir; Mohamed, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the R package gendist that computes the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the quantile function and generates random values for several generated probability distribution models including the mixture model, the composite model, the folded model, the skewed symmetric model and the arc tan model. These models are extensively used in the literature and the R functions provided here are flexible enough to accommodate various univariate distributions found in other R packages. We also show its applications in graphing, estimation, simulation and risk measurements.

  12. Gendist: An R Package for Generated Probability Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Shaiful Anuar; Nadarajah, Saralees; ABSL Kamarul Adzhar, Zahrul Azmir; Mohamed, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the R package gendist that computes the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the quantile function and generates random values for several generated probability distribution models including the mixture model, the composite model, the folded model, the skewed symmetric model and the arc tan model. These models are extensively used in the literature and the R functions provided here are flexible enough to accommodate various univariate distributions found in other R packages. We also show its applications in graphing, estimation, simulation and risk measurements. PMID:27272043

  13. Rotating Starburst Cores in Massive Galaxies at z = 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Nelson, Erica J.; Belli, Sirio; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Hayashi, Masao; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Koyama, Yusei; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Tacconi, Linda J.; Übler, Hannah; Wisnioski, Emily; Wuyts, Stijn; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Lippa, Magdalena; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ikarashi, Soh; Kohno, Kotaro; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Ichi

    2017-06-01

    We present spatially resolved ALMA observations of the CO J=3-2 emission line in two massive galaxies at z = 2.5 on the star-forming main sequence. Both galaxies have compact dusty star-forming cores with effective radii of {R}{{e}}=1.3+/- 0.1 {kpc} and {R}{{e}}=1.2+/- 0.1 {kpc} in the 870 μm continuum emission. The spatial extent of star-forming molecular gas is also compact with {R}{{e}}=1.9+/- 0.4 {kpc} and {R}{{e}}=2.3+/- 0.4 {kpc}, but more extended than the dust emission. Interpreting the observed position-velocity diagrams with dynamical models, we find the starburst cores to be rotation dominated with the ratio of the maximum rotation velocity to the local velocity dispersion of {v}\\max /{σ }0={7.0}-2.8+2.5 ({v}\\max ={386}-32+36 km s-1) and {v}\\max /{σ }0={4.1}-1.5+1.7 ({v}\\max ={391}-41+54 km s-1). Given that the descendants of these massive galaxies in the local universe are likely ellipticals with v/σ nearly an order of magnitude lower, the rapidly rotating galaxies would lose significant net angular momentum in the intervening time. The comparisons among dynamical, stellar, gas, and dust mass suggest that the starburst CO-to-H2 conversion factor of {α }{CO}=0.8 {M}⊙ (K km s-1 pc-2)-1 is appropriate in the spatially resolved cores. The dense cores are likely to be formed in extreme environments similar to the central regions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Our work also demonstrates that a combination of medium-resolution CO and high-resolution dust continuum observations is a powerful tool for characterizing the dynamical state of molecular gas in distant galaxies.

  14. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  15. Modeling the Delivery Physiology of Distributed Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Gilbert; Rosca, Ioan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses instructional delivery models and their physiology in distributed learning systems. Highlights include building delivery models; types of delivery models, including distributed classroom, self-training on the Web, online training, communities of practice, and performance support systems; and actors (users) involved, including experts,…

  16. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  17. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  18. Generalized Valon Model for Double Parton Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniowski, Wojciech; Ruiz Arriola, Enrique; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    We show how the double parton distributions may be obtained consistently from the many-body light-cone wave functions. We illustrate the method on the example of the pion with two Fock components. The procedure, by construction, satisfies the Gaunt-Stirling sum rules. The resulting single parton distributions of valence quarks and gluons are consistent with a phenomenological parametrization at a low scale.

  19. Extragalactic molecular line surveys: the starburst galaxy NGC253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, S.; Mauersberger, R.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Henkel, C.; García-Burillo, S.

    Figure 1 shows the first spectral line survey towards an extragalactic source, the starburst galaxy NGC253. The scan, carried out at the IRAM 30m telescope, covers ~86% of the observable 2mm atmospheric window from 129.1 to 175.2GHz. A total of ~ 100 spectral features have been identified as transitions from 25 different molecular species. Ten out of these 25 molecules have been detected for the first time towards a starbust galaxy. NO, NS, SO2, H2S and H2CS were reported by Martín et al.(2003), Martín et al.(2005) while C2S, CH2NH, NH2CN, HOCO+ and C3H are tentatively detected in the survey. These new detections implies an increase of ~ 40% in the 27 molecular species previosly detected outside the galaxy (Mauersberger & Henkel(1993), Mauersberger et al.(1995), Sage & Ziurys(1995), Heikkila et al.(1999).) Additionaly, DNC and N2D+, two deuterated species never obseved in the extragalactic ISM, are tentatively identified. The molecular abundances derived for each species in NGC253 have been compared with five Galactic sources known to be prototypes of different types of chemistry. The chemical complexity of NGC253 resembles closely that observed towards prototypical Galactic Center molecular clouds (SgrB2(OH) in, thought to be mainly dominated by low velocity shocks Martín-Pintado et al.(2001). This comparison certainly indicates that the chemistry of the molecular environment within the nuclear region of NGC253 and that in Galactic Center molecular clouds are driven by similar physical processes. Also a comparison has been performed with five selected prominent galaxies which clearly shows up the chemical differenciation between nuclei of galaxies. The chemical complexity of IC342, and also that of NGC4945 except for the observed lack of SiO, clearly resemble that of NGC253. On the other hand, it is remarkable the different chemical complexity observed between the starburst nuclei within NGC253 and M82. This difference has been interpreted in terms of the

  20. A Direct Distribution Model for Regional Aquatic Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Mitchell J.; Sutton, Michael C.

    1986-12-01

    A model is developed to predict the regional distribution of lake acidification and its effect on fish survival. The model predicts the effect of changes in acid deposition rates on the mean and variance of the regional distribution of lake alkalinity using empirical weathering models with variable weathering factors. The regional distribution of lake alkalinity is represented by a three-parameter lognorrnal distribution. The regional pH distribution is derived using an explicit pH-alkalinity relationship. The predicted pH distribution is combined with a fish presence-absence relationship to predict the fraction of lakes in a region able to support fish. The model is illustrated with a set of 1014 lakes in the Adirondack Park region of New York State. Significant needs for future research for regional aggregation of aquatic acidification models are identified.

  1. Estimation of Distribution Overlap of Urn Models

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Jerrad; Lladser, Manuel E.

    2012-01-01

    A classical problem in statistics is estimating the expected coverage of a sample, which has had applications in gene expression, microbial ecology, optimization, and even numismatics. Here we consider a related extension of this problem to random samples of two discrete distributions. Specifically, we estimate what we call the dissimilarity probability of a sample, i.e., the probability of a draw from one distribution not being observed in draws from another distribution. We show our estimator of dissimilarity to be a -statistic and a uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimator of dissimilarity over the largest appropriate range of . Furthermore, despite the non-Markovian nature of our estimator when applied sequentially over , we show it converges uniformly in probability to the dissimilarity parameter, and we present criteria when it is approximately normally distributed and admits a consistent jackknife estimator of its variance. As proof of concept, we analyze V35 16S rRNA data to discern between various microbial environments. Other potential applications concern any situation where dissimilarity of two discrete distributions may be of interest. For instance, in SELEX experiments, each urn could represent a random RNA pool and each draw a possible solution to a particular binding site problem over that pool. The dissimilarity of these pools is then related to the probability of finding binding site solutions in one pool that are absent in the other. PMID:23139734

  2. Statistical modeling of tornado intensity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotzek, Nikolai; Grieser, Jürgen; Brooks, Harold E.

    We address the issue to determine an appropriate general functional shape of observed tornado intensity distributions. Recently, it was suggested that in the limit of long and large tornado records, exponential distributions over all positive Fujita or TORRO scale classes would result. Yet, our analysis shows that even for large databases observations contradict the validity of exponential distributions for weak (F0) and violent (F5) tornadoes. We show that observed tornado intensities can be much better described by Weibull distributions, for which an exponential remains a special case. Weibull fits in either v or F scale reproduce the observations significantly better than exponentials. In addition, we suggest to apply the original definition of negative intensity scales down to F-2 and T-4 (corresponding to v=0 m s -1) at least for climatological analyses. Weibull distributions allow for an improved risk assessment of violent tornadoes up to F6, and better estimates of total tornado occurrence, degree of underreporting and existence of subcritical tornadic circulations below damaging intensity. Therefore, our results are relevant for climatologists and risk assessment managers alike.

  3. Dense molecular gas towards W49A: a template for extragalactic starbursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.; Bayet, E.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The HCN, HCO+, and HNC molecules are commonly used as tracers of dense star-forming gas in external galaxies, but such observations are spatially unresolved. Reliably inferring the properties of galactic nuclei and disks requires detailed studies of sources whose structure is spatially resolved. Aims: To understand the origin of extragalactic molecular line emission, we compare the spatial distributions and abundance ratios of HCN, HCO+, and HNC in W49A, the most massive and luminous star-forming region in the Galactic disk. Methods: Maps of a 2' (6.6 pc) field at 14'' (0.83 pc) resolution of the J = 4-3 transitions of HCN, H13CN, HC15N, HCO+, H13CO+, HC18O+, and HNC are combined with supplementary observations of the J = 5-4 transition of DCN and the J = 3-2 transitions of HCN and H13CO+. Most of the data are from HARP/ACSIS, with supplementary data from JCMT Receiver A and the SCUBA archive. We use maps of the integrated intensity and line-profiles to pick out regions of the source to study in more detail. We compare column densities and abundance ratios towards these regions with each other and with predictions from gas-phase chemical models. Results: The kinematics of the molecular gas in W49A appears complex, with a mixture of infall and outflow motions. Both the line profiles and comparison of the main and rarer species show that the main species are optically thick. Two “clumps” of infalling gas that we look at in more detail appear to be at ~40 K, compared to ≥100 K at the source centre, and may be ~10× denser than the rest of the outer cloud. The chemical modelling suggests that the HCN/HNC ratio probes the current gas temperature, while the HCN/HCO+ ratio and the deuterium fractionation were set during an earlier, colder phase of evolution. Conclusions: The similarity in the derived physical conditions in W49A and those inferred for the molecular gas in external galaxies suggest that W49A is an appropriate analogue of an extragalactic star

  4. Westerlund 1: monolithic formation of a starburst cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Clark, J. Simon; Ritchie, Ben W.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2017-03-01

    Westerlund 1 is in all likelihood the most massive young cluster in the Milky Way, with a mass on the order of 105 M ⊙. To determine its bulk properties we have made multi-epoch radial velocity measurements for a substantial fraction of its OB stars and evolved supergiants and obtained multi-object spectroscopy of candidate cluster members in its locale. The results of these two studies show that Westerlund 1 is apparently subvirial and appears completely isolated, with hardly any massive star in its vicinity that could be associated with it in terms of distance modulus or radial velocity. The cluster halo does not extend much further than five parsec away from the centre. All these properties are very unusual among starburst clusters in the Local Universe, which tend to form in the context of large star-forming regions.

  5. Extragalactic Chemistry of Starbursts: the Case of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usero, A.; García-Burillo, S.

    2003-09-01

    The study of Chemistry in External Galaxies has been made possible since the advent of last generation millimeter telescopes/interferometers. Going beyond CO maps is key to study the evolutionary path of massive star formation episodes in galaxies. We present here the results obtained from a high-resolution (~5'') study made in the nucleus of the starburst galaxy M82, based on observations of the silicon monoxide (SiO) and the formyl radical (HCO) species. Observations have been carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. SiO and HCO are privileged tracers of shock chemistry and photon-dominated regions (PDR) environments, respectively. These maps show a sharp picture of the heavy influence of the star formation episode on the properties of the interstellar medium in M82.

  6. Structure of the Interacting Starburst Galaxy II Zw 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigan, P. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Rudie, G.; Wehner, E. H.

    2005-09-01

    II Zw 23 (UGC 3179) is a luminous (MB -21) nearby compact narrow emission line starburst galaxy with blue optical colors and strong emission lines. We present a photometric and morphological study of II Zw 23 and its interacting companion, PC016099, using data obtained with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in combination with a WFPC2 image from the HST archives. II Zw 23 has a highly disturbed outer structure with long trails of debris that may be feeding tidal dwarfs. Its central regions appear disk-like, a structure that is consistent with the overall rotation pattern observed in the Hα emission line velocity field measured from Densepak observations obtained with WIYN. We discuss these results in terms of the different evolutionary paths followed by stars and gas during strong interactions and the possibility of rapid secondary galactic disk formation in such events.

  7. Radio identifications of UGC galaxies - starbursts and monsters

    SciTech Connect

    Condon, J.J.; Broderick, J.J.

    1988-07-01

    New and previously published observational data on galaxies with declination less than +82 deg from the Uppsala General Catalog (Nilson, 1973) are compiled in extensive tables and characterized in detail. Optical positions are confirmed by measurement of Palomar Sky Survey O prints, and radio identifications for 176 galaxies are made on the basis of 1.4-GHz Green Bank sky maps or 1.49-GHz observations obtained with the C configuration of the VLA in November-December 1986; contour maps based on the latter observations are provided. Radio-selected and IR-selected galaxy populations are found to be similar (and distinct from optically selected populations), and three radio/IR criteria are developed to distinguish galaxies powered by starbursts from those with supermassive black holes or other monster energy sources. 197 references.

  8. Diagnostics of Robust Growth Curve Modeling Using Student's "t" Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Growth curve models with different types of distributions of random effects and of intraindividual measurement errors for robust analysis are compared. After demonstrating the influence of distribution specification on parameter estimation, 3 methods for diagnosing the distributions for both random effects and intraindividual measurement errors…

  9. Direct Measurement of the Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; Rank, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Supernovae play a key role in the dynamics, structure, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The massive stars that end their lives as supernovae live for short times. Many are still associated with dusty star formation regions when they explode, making them difficult to observe at visible wavelengths. In active star forming regions (galactic nuclei and starburst regions), dust extintion is especially severe. Thus, determining the supernova rate in the active star forming regions of galaxies, where the supernova rate can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the average, has proven to be difficult. From observations of SN1987A, we know that the [NiII] 6.63 micron emission line was the strongest line in the infrared spectrum for a period of a year and a half after the explosion. Since dust extintion is much less at 6.63 pm than at visible wavelengths (A(sub 6.63)/A(sub V) = 0.025), the NiII line can be used as a sensitive probe for the detection of recent supernovae. We have observed a sample of starburst galaxies at 6.63 micron using ISOCAM to search for the NiII emission line characteristic of recent supernovae. We did not detect any NiII line emission brighter than a 5sigma limit of 5 mJy. We can set upper limits to the supernova rate in our sample, scaled to the rate in M82, of less than 0.3 per year at the 90% confidence level using Bayesian methods. Assuming that a supernova would have a NiII with the same luminosity as observed in SN1987A, we find less than 0.09 and 0.15 per year at the 50% and 67% confidence levels. These rates are somewhat less if a more normal type II supernovae has a NiII line luminosity greater than the line in SN1987A.

  10. Westerlund 1: monolithic formation of a starburst cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Clark, J. Simon; Ritchie, Ben; Goodwin, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Westerlund 1 is in all likelihood the most massive young cluster in the Milky Way, with a mass on the order of 105 Msol. We have been observing its massive star population for ten years, measuring radial velocity changes for a substantial fraction of its OB stars and evolved supergiants. The properties of the evolved population are entirely consisting with a single burst of star formation, in excellent agreement with the results of studies based on the lower-mass population.Here we will present two new studies of the cluster: 1) A direct measurement of its average radial velocity and velocity dispersion based on individual measurements for several dozen stars with constant radial velocity and 2) A search for massive stars in its immediate neighbourhood using multi-object spectroscopy.The results of these two studies show that Westerlund 1 is decidedly subvirial and has a systemic radial velocity significantly different from that of nearby gas, which was assumed to provide a dynamical distance by previous authors. Moreover, the dynamical distance is inconsistent with the properties of the high-mass stellar population. In addition, we find that the cluster is completely isolated, with hardly any massive star in its vicinity that could be associated in terms of distance modulus or radial velocity. The cluster halo does not extend much further than five parsec away from the centre. All these properties are very unusual among starburst clusters in the Local Universe, which tend to form in the context of large star-forming regions.Westerlund 1 is thus the best example we have of a starburst cluster formed monolithically.

  11. Direct Measurement of the Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. D.; Temi, P.; Rank, D.

    2000-01-01

    Supernovae play a key role in the dynamics, structure, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The massive stars that end their lives as supernovae live for short enough times that many are still associated with dusty star formation regions when they explode, making them difficult to observe at visible wavelengths. In active star forming regions (galactic nuclei and starburst regions), dust extinction is especially severe. Thus, determining the supernova rate in active star forming regions of galaxies, where the supernova rate can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the average, has proven to be difficult. From observations of SN1987A, we know that the [NiII] 6.63 micrometer emission line was the strongest line in the infrared spectrum for a period of a year and half after th explosion. Since dust extinction is much less at 6.63 micrometers than at visible wavelengths (A(sub 6.63)/A(sub V) = 0.025), the [NiII] line can be used as a sensitive probe for the detection of recent supernovae. We have observed a sample of starburst galaxies at 6.63 micrometers using ISOCAM to search for the [NiII] emission line characteristic of recent supernovae. We did not detect any [NiII] line emission brighter than a 5-sigma limit of 5 mJy. We can set upper limits to the supernova rate in our sample, scaled ot the rate in M82, of less than 0.3 per year at the 90% confidence level using Bayesian methods. Assuming that a supernova would have a [NiII] line with the same luminosity as observed in SN1987A, we find less than 0.09 and 0.15 per year at the 50% and 67% confidence levels. These rates are somewhat less if a more normal type II supernovae has a [NiII] line luminosity greater than the line in SN1987A.

  12. Galactic Starburst NGC 3603 from X-Rays to Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffat, A. F. J.; Corcoran, M. F.; Stevens, I. R.; Skalkowski, G.; Marchenko, S. V.; Muecke, A.; Ptak, A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brenneman, L.; Mushotzky, R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NGC 3603 is the most massive and luminous visible starburst region in the Galaxy. We present the first Chandra/ACIS-I X-ray image and spectra of this dense, exotic object, accompanied by deep cm-wavelength ATCA radio image at similar or less than 1 inch spatial resolution, and HST/ground-based optical data. At the S/N greater than 3 level, Chandra detects several hundred X-ray point sources (compared to the 3 distinct sources seen by ROSAT). At least 40 of these sources are definitely associated with optically identified cluster O and WR type members, but most are not. A diffuse X-ray component is also seen out to approximately 2 feet (4 pc) form the center, probably arising mainly from the large number of merging/colliding hot stellar winds and/or numerous faint cluster sources. The point-source X-ray fluxes generally increase with increasing bolometric brightnesses of the member O/WR stars, but with very large scatter. Some exceptionally bright stellar X-ray sources may be colliding wind binaries. The radio image shows (1) two resolved sources, one definitely non-thermal, in the cluster core near where the X-ray/optically brightest stars with the strongest stellar winds are located, (2) emission from all three known proplyd-like objects (with thermal and non-thermal components, and (3) many thermal sources in the peripheral regions of triggered star-formation. Overall, NGC 3603 appears to be a somewhat younger and hotter, scaled-down version of typical starbursts found in other galaxies.

  13. The beta distribution: A statistical model for world cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Much work has been performed in developing empirical global cloud cover models. This investigation was made to determine an underlying theoretical statistical distribution to represent worldwide cloud cover. The beta distribution with probability density function is given to represent the variability of this random variable. It is shown that the beta distribution possesses the versatile statistical characteristics necessary to assume the wide variety of shapes exhibited by cloud cover. A total of 160 representative empirical cloud cover distributions were investigated and the conclusion was reached that this study provides sufficient statical evidence to accept the beta probability distribution as the underlying model for world cloud cover.

  14. Institutionalizing Distributed Learning: Models of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorg, Steven E.; Darling, Carol J.

    To meet the challenges of a rapidly-growing student population, a desire to increase student retention and success rates, a shortage of classroom space, and the need to maintain quality educational opportunities for students, the University of Central Florida (UCF) is strategically employing distributed learning. In three years, UCF has progressed…

  15. Modeling SAR images with a generalization of the Rayleigh distribution.

    PubMed

    Kuruoğlu, Ercan E; Zerubia, Josiane

    2004-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery has found important applications due to its clear advantages over optical satellite imagery one of them being able to operate in various weather conditions. However, due to the physics of the radar imaging process, SAR images contain unwanted artifacts in the form of a granular look which is called speckle. The assumptions of the classical SAR image generation model lead to a Rayleigh distribution model for the histogram of the SAR image. However, some experimental data such as images of urban areas show impulsive characteristics that correspond to underlying heavy-tailed distributions, which are clearly non-Rayleigh. Some alternative distributions have been suggested such as the Weibull, log-normal, and the k-distribution which had success in varying degrees depending on the application. Recently, an alternative model namely the alpha-stable distribution has been suggested for modeling radar clutter. In this paper, we show that the amplitude distribution of the complex wave, the real and the imaginery components of which are assumed to be distributed by the alpha-stable distribution, is a generalization of the Rayleigh distribution. We demonstrate that the amplitude distribution is a mixture of Rayleighs as is the k-distribution in accordance with earlier work on modeling SAR images which showed that almost all successful SAR image models could be expressed as mixtures of Rayleighs. We also present parameter estimation techniques based on negative order moments for the new model. Finally, we test the performance of the model on urban images and compare with other models such as Rayleigh, Weibull, and the k-distribution.

  16. The Galactic Starburst Region NGC 3603 : exciting new insights on the formation of high mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nürnberger, D. E. A.

    2004-10-01

    powerful stellar winds which evaporate and disperse the surrounding interstellar medium, thus "lifting the courtains" around nearby young stars at a relatively early evolutionary stage. Such premises are given in the Galactic starburst region NGC 3603. Nevertheless, a large observational effort with different telescopes and instruments -- in particular, taking advantage of the high angular resolution and high sensitivity of near and mid IR instruments available at ESO -- was necessary to achieve the goals of my study. After a basic introduction on the topic of (high mass) star formation in Chapter 1, a short overview of the investigated region NGC 3603 and its importance for both galactic and extragalactic star formation studies is given in Chapter 2. Then, in Chapter 3, I report on a comprehensive investigation of the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas and dust associated with the NGC 3603 region. In Chapter 4 I thoroughly address the radial extent of the NGC 3603 OB cluster and the spatial distribution of the cluster members. Together with deep Ks band imaging data, a detailed survey of NGC 3603 at mid IR wavelengths allows to search the neighbourhood of the cold molecular gas and dust for sources with intrinsic mid IR excess (Chapter 5). In Chapter 6 I characterize the most prominent sources of NGC 3603 IRS 9 and show that these sources are bona-fide candidates for high mass protostars. Finally, a concise summary as well as an outlook on future prospects in high mass star formation research is given in Chapter 7.

  17. Evolución en Núcleos Activos de Galaxias y QSOs I. Relación Starbursts y AGNs en Galaxias Próximas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lípari, S.; Merlo, D.; Moyano, M.

    We have started a new part of our program: ``Study of Evolution of AGNs & QSOs''. This new part is mainly a study of the relation between Starbursts and AGNs-QSOs in nearby galaxies (using our model of Evolutive, Composite & Explosive AGNs-QSOs). In particular, we have started spectrophotometric and imaging observations at CASLEO, Bosque Alegre, Gemini, Calar Alto, etc. This study also includes the analysis of Archive Data. Here we show our first results for NGC 1097. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Spatially Resolved Stellar Populations Of Nearby Post-Starburst Galaxies In SDSS-IV MaNGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Charles; Betances, Ashley; Bonilla, Alaina Marie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Migliore, Christina; Goddard, Daniel; Masters, Karen; SDSS-IV MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    We have selected five galaxies in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) project of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) identified as post-starburst (E+A) systems, in the transition between "blue cloud" and "red sequence" galaxies. We measure the equivalent widths of the Balmer series, D4000 break, and metal lines across each galaxy, and produce maps of the stellar age, stellar mass, and metallicities of each galaxy using FIREFLY, a full spectral analysis code. We have found that the measured properties of the galaxies overall generally matches well with single-aperture SDSS spectra from which the original post-starburst identifications were made. The variation in the spatial distributions of the stellar populations, in particular the A-stars, give us insight into the details of the transitional E+A quenching phase. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement No. SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  19. Starbursting brightest cluster galaxy: a Herschel view of the massive cluster MACS J1931.8-2634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. S.; Balestra, I.; Tozzi, P.; Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Yu, Heng; Rosati, P.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Biviano, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the dust-obscured star formation (SF) properties of the massive, X-ray-selected galaxy cluster MACS J1931.8-2634 at z = 0.352. Using far-infrared (FIR) imaging in the range 100-500 μm obtained with the Herschel telescope, we extract 31 sources (2σ) within r ˜ 1 Mpc from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). Among these sources, we identify six cluster members for which we perform an analysis of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We measure total infrared luminosity (LIR), star formation rate (SFR) and dust temperature. The BCG, with LIR = 1.4 × 1012 L⊙ is an ultraluminous infrared galaxy and hosts a type-II active galactic nuclei (AGN). We decompose its FIR SED into AGN and starburst components and find equal contributions from AGN and starburst. We also recompute the SFR of the BCG finding SFR = 150 ± 15 M⊙ yr-1. We search for an isobaric cooling flow in the cool core using Chandra X-ray data, and find no evidence for gas colder than 1.8 keV in the inner 30 kpc, for an upper limit to the instantaneous mass-deposition rate of 58 M⊙ yr-1 at 95 per cent c.l. This value is 3× lower than the SFR in the BCG, suggesting that the on-going SF episode lasts longer than the intracluster medium cooling events.

  20. A BACKWARD EVOLUTION MODEL FOR INFRARED SURVEYS: THE ROLE OF AGN- AND COLOR-L {sub TIR} DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Valiante, E.; Lutz, D.; Sturm, E.; Genzel, R.; Chapin, E. L. E-mail: sturm@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: valiante@phas.ubc.ca

    2009-08-20

    Empirical 'backward' galaxy evolution models for infrared (IR) bright galaxies are constrained using multiband IR surveys. We developed a new Monte Carlo algorithm for this task, implementing luminosity-dependent distribution functions for the galaxies' IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and for the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution, allowing for evolution of these quantities. The adopted SEDs take into account the contributions of both starbursts and AGN to the IR emission, for the first time in a coherent treatment rather than invoking separate AGN and star-forming populations. In the first part of the paper we consider the quantification of the AGN contribution for local universe galaxies, as a function of the total IR luminosity. It is made using a large sample of luminous infrared galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies for which mid-IR spectra are available in the Spitzer archive. We find the ratio of AGN 6 {mu}m luminosity and the total IR luminosity to rise with L {sup 1.4} {sub TIR} over the IR luminosity range 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} L {sub sun} and estimate its spread. Judging from the modest number of distant sources with Spitzer spectroscopy, the relation changes at high-z. In the second part we present the model. Our best-fit model adopts very strong luminosity evolution, L = L {sub 0}(1 + z){sup 3.4}, up to z = 2.3, and density evolution, {rho} = {rho}{sub 0}(1 + z){sup 2}, up to z = 1, for the population of IR galaxies. At higher z, the evolution rates drop as (1 + z){sup -1} and (1 + z){sup -1.5}, respectively. To reproduce mid-IR to submillimeter number counts and redshift distributions, it is necessary to introduce both an evolution in the AGN contribution and an evolution in the luminosity-temperature relation. At a given total IR luminosity, high-redshift IR galaxies have typically smaller AGN contributions to the rest-frame mid-IR, and colder far-IR dust temperatures than locally. We also suggest an extension of the local IR

  1. Modeling distributed axonal delays in mean-field brain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. A.; Robinson, P. A.

    2008-11-01

    The range of conduction delays between connected neuronal populations is often modeled as a single discrete delay, assumed to be an effective value averaging over all fiber velocities. This paper shows the effects of distributed delays on signal propagation. A distribution acts as a linear filter, imposing an upper frequency cutoff that is inversely proportional to the delay width. Distributed thalamocortical and corticothalamic delays are incorporated into a physiologically based mean-field model of the cortex and thalamus to illustrate their effects on the electroencephalogram (EEG). The power spectrum is acutely sensitive to the width of the thalamocortical delay distribution, and more so than the corticothalamic distribution, because all input signals must travel along the thalamocortical pathway. This imposes a cutoff frequency above which the spectrum is overly damped. The positions of spectral peaks in the resting EEG depend primarily on the distribution mean, with only weak dependences on distribution width. Increasing distribution width increases the stability of fixed point solutions. A single discrete delay successfully approximates a distribution for frequencies below a cutoff that is inversely proportional to the delay width, provided that other model parameters are moderately adjusted. A pair of discrete delays together having the same mean, variance, and skewness as the distribution approximates the distribution over the same frequency range without needing parameter adjustment. Delay distributions with large fractional widths are well approximated by low-order differential equations.

  2. Distributed Time Delay Goodwin's Models of the Business Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S. N.; Todorov, M. D.

    2011-11-01

    We consider continuously distributed time delay Goodwin's model of the business cycle. We show that the delay induced sawtooth oscillations, similar to those detected by R. H. Strotz, J. C. McAnulty, J. B. Naines, Econometrica, 21, 390-411 (1953) for Goodwin's model with fixed investment time lag, exist only for very narrow delay distribution when the variance of the delay distribution much less than the average delay.

  3. Bayesian Analysis for Binomial Models with Generalized Beta Prior Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, James J.; Novick, Melvin, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Libby-Novick class of three-parameter generalized beta distributions is shown to provide a rich class of prior distributions for the binomial model that removes some restrictions of the standard beta class. A numerical example indicates the desirability of using these wider classes of densities for binomial models. (Author/BW)

  4. Instantaneous Starburst of the Massive Clusters Westerlund 1 and NGC 3603 YC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, Natalia; Brandner, Wolfgang; Gennaro, Mario; Rochau, Boyke; Stolte, Andrea; Andersen, Morten; Da Rio, Nicola; Henning, Thomas; Tognelli, Emanuele; Hogg, David; Clark, Simon; Waters, Rens

    2012-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the age spread of resolved stellar populations in a starburst cluster. The method relies on a two-step process. In the first step, kinematic members of the cluster are identified based on multi-epoch astrometric monitoring. In the second step, a Bayesian analysis is carried out, comparing the observed photometric sequence of cluster members with sets of theoretical isochrones. When applying this methodology to optical and near-infrared high angular resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and adaptive optics observations of the ~5 Myr old starburst cluster Westerlund 1 and ~2 Myr old starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC, we derive upper limits for the age spreads of 0.4 and 0.1 Myr, respectively. The results strongly suggest that star formation in these starburst clusters happened almost instantaneously.

  5. INSTANTANEOUS STARBURST OF THE MASSIVE CLUSTERS WESTERLUND 1 AND NGC 3603 YC

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtseva, Natalia; Brandner, Wolfgang; Gennaro, Mario; Rochau, Boyke; Henning, Thomas; Stolte, Andrea; Andersen, Morten; Da Rio, Nicola; Tognelli, Emanuele; Hogg, David; Clark, Simon; Waters, Rens

    2012-05-10

    We present a new method to determine the age spread of resolved stellar populations in a starburst cluster. The method relies on a two-step process. In the first step, kinematic members of the cluster are identified based on multi-epoch astrometric monitoring. In the second step, a Bayesian analysis is carried out, comparing the observed photometric sequence of cluster members with sets of theoretical isochrones. When applying this methodology to optical and near-infrared high angular resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and adaptive optics observations of the {approx}5 Myr old starburst cluster Westerlund 1 and {approx}2 Myr old starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC, we derive upper limits for the age spreads of 0.4 and 0.1 Myr, respectively. The results strongly suggest that star formation in these starburst clusters happened almost instantaneously.

  6. Modeling a geographically distributed MEMS fabrication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, William L.; Huff, Michael A.

    2001-04-01

    Manufacturing is typically limited to fabrication of parts at a single location, with some sites assembling components from parts made elsewhere. The age of ubiquitous information transfer has made it conceivable to distribute manufacturing geographically, in order to provide access to unique manufacturing capabilities in a flexible manner. If the overhead of a distributed manufacturing network can be adequately reduced, it has the potential to make previously cost ineffective low volume and custom applications economically feasible. The MEMS-Exchange is an infrastructural service available to the domestic microelectromechanical systems community that provides an interface between MEMS designers and microfabrication facilities (academic, commercial, and government labs) which allows designers to develop and exercise custom process sequences in order to realize their devices.

  7. Distributed parameter modeling of repeated truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Han-Ching

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to find homogeneous models for beam-like repeated flexible structures is proposed which conceptually involves two steps. The first step involves the approximation of 3-D non-homogeneous model by a 1-D periodic beam model. The structure is modeled as a 3-D non-homogeneous continuum. The displacement field is approximated by Taylor series expansion. Then, the cross sectional mass and stiffness matrices are obtained by energy equivalence using their additive properties. Due to the repeated nature of the flexible bodies, the mass, and stiffness matrices are also periodic. This procedure is systematic and requires less dynamics detail. The first step involves the homogenization from a 1-D periodic beam model to a 1-D homogeneous beam model. The periodic beam model is homogenized into an equivalent homogeneous beam model using the additive property of compliance along the generic axis. The major departure from previous approaches in literature is using compliance instead of stiffness in homogenization. An obvious justification is that the stiffness is additive at each cross section but not along the generic axis. The homogenized model preserves many properties of the original periodic model.

  8. Distribution of Errors In Geoid Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilker, M.; Ollikainen, M.; Poutanen, M.

    Ellipsoidal heights from GPS observations and orthometric or normal heights from spirit levelling are used to investigate the errors in existing geoid models and get an insight in the possible improvements the new geoid models based on measurements by the gravity satellites CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE can bring. We use the global geoid models OSU91A and EGM96, the European model EGG97, the Nordic model NKG96 and the newest model for Finland FIN2000. FIN2000 is fitted to the Finnish height system and is the most accurate of the five. A total of 245 points in Finland and Sweden are used in the analysis. For all points GPS-determined heights are available as well as orthometric or normal heights based on spirit levelling. Geoid heights obtained from these heights are compared with the values obtained from the geoid models. First, a bias and tilt are removed from the geoid model to adjust it to the height system. After this, covariance values are computed and the distance dependence of the residual errors is studied. Unmodelled long- period errors in the geoid models appear to be present. Using these results we discuss the improvement of global geoid models by the data from the gravity satellites.

  9. Star formation quenching in high-redshift large-scale structure: post-starburst galaxies in the Cl 1604 supercluster at z ∼ 0.9

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Po-Feng; Gal, Roy R.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lubin, Lori M.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Squires, Gordon K.

    2014-09-01

    The Cl 1604 supercluster at z ∼ 0.9 is one of the most extensively studied high-redshift large-scale structures, with more than 500 spectroscopically confirmed members. It consists of eight clusters and groups, with members numbering from a dozen to nearly a hundred, providing a broad range of environments for investigating the large-scale environmental effects on galaxy evolution. Here we examine the properties of 48 post-starburst galaxies in Cl 1604, comparing them to other galaxy populations in the same supercluster. Incorporating photometry from ground-based optical and near-infrared imaging, along with Spitzer mid-infrared observations, we derive stellar masses for all Cl 1604 members. The colors and stellar masses of the K+A galaxies support the idea that they are progenitors of red sequence galaxies. Their morphologies, residual star formation rates, and spatial distributions suggest that galaxy mergers may be the principal mechanism producing post-starburst galaxies. Interaction between galaxies and the dense intracluster medium (ICM) is also effective, but only in the cores of dynamically evolved clusters. The prevalence of post-starburst galaxies in clusters correlates with the dynamical state of the host cluster, as both galaxy mergers and the dense ICM produce post-starburst galaxies. We also investigate the incompleteness and contamination of K+A samples selected by means of Hδ and [O II] equivalent widths. K+A samples may be up to ∼50% incomplete due to the presence of LINERs/Seyferts, and up to ∼30% of K+A galaxies could have substantial star formation activity.

  10. Star Formation Quenching in High-redshift Large-scale Structure: Post-starburst Galaxies in the Cl 1604 Supercluster at z ~ 0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Gal, Roy R.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lubin, Lori M.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Squires, Gordon K.

    2014-09-01

    The Cl 1604 supercluster at z ~ 0.9 is one of the most extensively studied high-redshift large-scale structures, with more than 500 spectroscopically confirmed members. It consists of eight clusters and groups, with members numbering from a dozen to nearly a hundred, providing a broad range of environments for investigating the large-scale environmental effects on galaxy evolution. Here we examine the properties of 48 post-starburst galaxies in Cl 1604, comparing them to other galaxy populations in the same supercluster. Incorporating photometry from ground-based optical and near-infrared imaging, along with Spitzer mid-infrared observations, we derive stellar masses for all Cl 1604 members. The colors and stellar masses of the K+A galaxies support the idea that they are progenitors of red sequence galaxies. Their morphologies, residual star formation rates, and spatial distributions suggest that galaxy mergers may be the principal mechanism producing post-starburst galaxies. Interaction between galaxies and the dense intracluster medium (ICM) is also effective, but only in the cores of dynamically evolved clusters. The prevalence of post-starburst galaxies in clusters correlates with the dynamical state of the host cluster, as both galaxy mergers and the dense ICM produce post-starburst galaxies. We also investigate the incompleteness and contamination of K+A samples selected by means of Hδ and [O II] equivalent widths. K+A samples may be up to ~50% incomplete due to the presence of LINERs/Seyferts, and up to ~30% of K+A galaxies could have substantial star formation activity.

  11. A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the κ-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature.

  12. Mixed Poisson distributions in exact solutions of stochastic autoregulation models.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Jayaprakash, C

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we study the interplay between stochastic gene expression and system design using simple stochastic models of autoactivation and autoinhibition. Using the Poisson representation, a technique whose particular usefulness in the context of nonlinear gene regulation models we elucidate, we find exact results for these feedback models in the steady state. Further, we exploit this representation to analyze the parameter spaces of each model, determine which dimensionless combinations of rates are the shape determinants for each distribution, and thus demarcate where in the parameter space qualitatively different behaviors arise. These behaviors include power-law-tailed distributions, bimodal distributions, and sub-Poisson distributions. We also show how these distribution shapes change when the strength of the feedback is tuned. Using our results, we reexamine how well the autoinhibition and autoactivation models serve their conventionally assumed roles as paradigms for noise suppression and noise exploitation, respectively.

  13. A model for predicting fog aerosol size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudiger, Joshua J.; Book, Kevin; Baker, Brooke; deGrassie, John Stephen; Hammel, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An accurate model and parameterization of fog is needed to increase the reliability and usefulness of electro-optical systems in all relevant environments. Current models vary widely in their ability to accurately predict the size distribution and subsequent optical properties of fog. The Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM), developed to model the distribution of aerosols in the maritime environment, does not currently include a model for fog. One of the more prevalent methods for modeling particle size spectra consists of fitting a modified gamma function to fog measurement data. This limits the fog distribution to a single mode. Here we establish an empirical model for predicting complicated multimodal fog droplet size spectra using machine learning techniques. This is accomplished through careful measurements of fog in a controlled laboratory environment and measuring fog particle size distributions during outdoor fog events.

  14. Neuronal model with distributed delay: analysis and simulation study for gamma distribution memory kernel.

    PubMed

    Karmeshu; Gupta, Varun; Kadambari, K V

    2011-06-01

    A single neuronal model incorporating distributed delay (memory)is proposed. The stochastic model has been formulated as a Stochastic Integro-Differential Equation (SIDE) which results in the underlying process being non-Markovian. A detailed analysis of the model when the distributed delay kernel has exponential form (weak delay) has been carried out. The selection of exponential kernel has enabled the transformation of the non-Markovian model to a Markovian model in an extended state space. For the study of First Passage Time (FPT) with exponential delay kernel, the model has been transformed to a system of coupled Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) in two-dimensional state space. Simulation studies of the SDEs provide insight into the effect of weak delay kernel on the Inter-Spike Interval(ISI) distribution. A measure based on Jensen-Shannon divergence is proposed which can be used to make a choice between two competing models viz. distributed delay model vis-á-vis LIF model. An interesting feature of the model is that the behavior of (CV(t))((ISI)) (Coefficient of Variation) of the ISI distribution with respect to memory kernel time constant parameter η reveals that neuron can switch from a bursting state to non-bursting state as the noise intensity parameter changes. The membrane potential exhibits decaying auto-correlation structure with or without damped oscillatory behavior depending on the choice of parameters. This behavior is in agreement with empirically observed pattern of spike count in a fixed time window. The power spectral density derived from the auto-correlation function is found to exhibit single and double peaks. The model is also examined for the case of strong delay with memory kernel having the form of Gamma distribution. In contrast to fast decay of damped oscillations of the ISI distribution for the model with weak delay kernel, the decay of damped oscillations is found to be slower for the model with strong delay kernel.

  15. A distributed computing model for telemetry data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Scott, Kevin L.; Weismuller, Steven P.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new approach to distributing processed telemetry data among spacecraft flight controllers within the control centers at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This approach facilitates the development of application programs which integrate spacecraft-telemetered data and ground-based synthesized data, then distributes this information to flight controllers for analysis and decision-making. The new approach combines various distributed computing models into one hybrid distributed computing model. The model employs both client-server and peer-to-peer distributed computing models cooperating to provide users with information throughout a diverse operations environment. Specifically, it provides an attractive foundation upon which we are building critical real-time monitoring and control applications, while simultaneously lending itself to peripheral applications in playback operations, mission preparations, flight controller training, and program development and verification. We have realized the hybrid distributed computing model through an information sharing protocol. We shall describe the motivations that inspired us to create this protocol, along with a brief conceptual description of the distributed computing models it employs. We describe the protocol design in more detail, discussing many of the program design considerations and techniques we have adopted. Finally, we describe how this model is especially suitable for supporting the implementation of distributed expert system applications.

  16. A distributed computing model for telemetry data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Scott, Kevin L.; Weismuller, Steven P.

    1994-05-01

    We present a new approach to distributing processed telemetry data among spacecraft flight controllers within the control centers at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This approach facilitates the development of application programs which integrate spacecraft-telemetered data and ground-based synthesized data, then distributes this information to flight controllers for analysis and decision-making. The new approach combines various distributed computing models into one hybrid distributed computing model. The model employs both client-server and peer-to-peer distributed computing models cooperating to provide users with information throughout a diverse operations environment. Specifically, it provides an attractive foundation upon which we are building critical real-time monitoring and control applications, while simultaneously lending itself to peripheral applications in playback operations, mission preparations, flight controller training, and program development and verification. We have realized the hybrid distributed computing model through an information sharing protocol. We shall describe the motivations that inspired us to create this protocol, along with a brief conceptual description of the distributed computing models it employs. We describe the protocol design in more detail, discussing many of the program design considerations and techniques we have adopted. Finally, we describe how this model is especially suitable for supporting the implementation of distributed expert system applications.

  17. Model of the amplitude probability distribution of atmospheric radio noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, V. V.

    1987-08-01

    The proposed four-parameter model is a combination of two sets of distributions whose intersection is the Hall model. A comparison of the model with experimental data on narrow-band and broadband reception at frequencies from 400 Hz to 10 MHz shows that the model guarantees the accuracy of the description of statistically valid features of the probability distributions of atmospheric radio noise (ARN). The sufficiency of existing techniques for the suppression of ARN is demonstrated. Expressions for calculating the noise level at receiver outputs are obtained which take into account the dependence of the integrated probability distribution of the envelope on the reception band.

  18. Photovoltaic subsystem marketing and distribution model: programming manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Complete documentation of the marketing and distribution (M and D) computer model is provided. The purpose is to estimate the costs of selling and transporting photovoltaic solar energy products from the manufacturer to the final customer. The model adjusts for the inflation and regional differences in marketing and distribution costs. The model consists of three major components: the marketing submodel, the distribution submodel, and the financial submodel. The computer program is explained including the input requirements, output reports, subprograms and operating environment. The program specifications discuss maintaining the validity of the data and potential improvements. An example for a photovoltaic concentrator collector demonstrates the application of the model.

  19. Analysis of Jingdong Mall Logistics Distribution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kang; Cheng, Feng

    In recent years, the development of electronic commerce in our country to speed up the pace. The role of logistics has been highlighted, more and more electronic commerce enterprise are beginning to realize the importance of logistics in the success or failure of the enterprise. In this paper, the author take Jingdong Mall for example, performing a SWOT analysis of their current situation of self-built logistics system, find out the problems existing in the current Jingdong Mall logistics distribution and give appropriate recommendations.

  20. Highlights And Shadows Of High Redshift Starbursts: A Herschel­Fmos Joint Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Annagrazia

    2017-06-01

    Starburst galaxies represent a critical stage in galaxy evolution as they are the likely progenitors of passively evolving ellipticals. The properties of high-redshift starbursts are however still debated as it is not clear to which extent their vigorous star formation rate is caused by an enhanced gas fraction or an enhanced star formation efficiency, and what physical processes trigger such violent activity. Our study of the rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of twelve z 1.6 Herschel starbursts combined with a rich ancillary data-set from UV to ALMA, is shedding light on some of these questions. By measuring the nebular extinction from different indicators, we find that 90% of their extreme SFR arises from an heavily obscured component which is thick in the optical. We also measure their gas-phase metallicity, showing that starbursts are metal-rich outliers from the metallicity-SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the main sequence population. Our findings are consistent with a major merger origin for the starburst event. I will present this study discussing its implications on our interpretation of the high-redshift starbursts physics. I will also briefly discuss possible extensions of this work with the future PFS survey and how we can take advantage of the IFU capabilities of JWST/NIRspec to unveil the complex structure of these elusive systems.

  1. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN GALAXY MERGERS AND STARBURST: EVIDENCE FROM THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Wentao; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Major mergers and interactions between gas-rich galaxies with comparable masses are thought to be the main triggers of starburst. In this work, we study, for a large stellar mass range, the interaction rate of the starburst galaxies in the local universe. We focus independently on central and satellite star forming galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Here the starburst galaxies are selected in the star formation rate (SFR) stellar mass plane with SFRs five times larger than the median value found for ''star forming'' galaxies of the same stellar mass. Through visual inspection of their images together with close companions determined using spectroscopic redshifts, we find that ∼50% of the ''starburst'' populations show evident merger features, i.e., tidal tails, bridges between galaxies, double cores, and close companions. In contrast, in the control sample we selected from the normal star forming galaxies, only ∼19% of galaxies are associated with evident mergers. The interaction rates may increase by ∼5% for the starburst sample and 2% for the control sample if close companions determined using photometric redshifts are considered. The contrast of the merger rate between the two samples strengthens the hypothesis that mergers and interactions are indeed the main causes of starburst.

  2. Discrete Latent Markov Models for Normally Distributed Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmittmann, Verena D.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Neale, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    Van de Pol and Langeheine (1990) presented a general framework for Markov modeling of repeatedly measured discrete data. We discuss analogical single indicator models for normally distributed responses. In contrast to discrete models, which have been studied extensively, analogical continuous response models have hardly been considered. These…

  3. A second generation distributed point polarizable water model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Revati; Wang, Fang-Fang; Jenness, Glen R; Jordan, Kenneth D

    2010-01-07

    A distributed point polarizable model (DPP2) for water, with explicit terms for charge penetration, induction, and charge transfer, is introduced. The DPP2 model accurately describes the interaction energies in small and large water clusters and also gives an average internal energy per molecule and radial distribution functions of liquid water in good agreement with experiment. A key to the success of the model is its accurate description of the individual terms in the n-body expansion of the interaction energies.

  4. Building a generalized distributed system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1993-01-01

    The key elements in the 1992-93 period of the project are the following: (1) extensive use of the simulator to implement and test - concurrency control algorithms, interactive user interface, and replica control algorithms; and (2) investigations into the applicability of data and process replication in real-time systems. In the 1993-94 period of the project, we intend to accomplish the following: (1) concentrate on efforts to investigate the effects of data and process replication on hard and soft real-time systems - especially we will concentrate on the impact of semantic-based consistency control schemes on a distributed real-time system in terms of improved reliability, improved availability, better resource utilization, and reduced missed task deadlines; and (2) use the prototype to verify the theoretically predicted performance of locking protocols, etc.

  5. The radio core structure of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. A young clustered starburst revealed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varenius, E.; Conway, J. E.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Aalto, S.; Beswick, R.; Costagliola, F.; Klöckner, H.-R.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The galaxy NGC 4418 contains one of the most compact obscured nuclei within a luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) in the nearby Universe. This nucleus contains a rich molecular gas environment and an unusually high ratio of infrared-to-radio luminosity (q-factor). The compact nucleus is powered by either a compact starburst or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: The aim of this study is to constrain the nature of the nuclear region (starburst or AGN) within NGC 4418 via very-high-resolution radio imaging. Methods: Archival data from radio observations using the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) interferometers are imaged. Sizes and flux densities are obtained by fitting Gaussian intensity distributions to the image. The average spectral index of the compact radio emission is estimated from measurements at 1.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. Results: The nuclear structure of NGC 4418 visible with EVN and MERLIN consists of eight compact (<49 mas i.e. <8 pc) features spread within a region of 250 mas, i.e. 41 pc. We derive an inverted spectral index α ≥ 0.7 (Sν ∝ να) for the compact radio emission. Conclusions: Brightness temperatures >104.8 K indicate that these compact features cannot be HII-regions. The complex morphology and inverted spectrum of the eight detected compact features is evidence against the hypothesis that an AGN alone is powering the nucleus of NGC 4418. The compact features could be super star clusters with intense star formation, and their associated free-free absorption could then naturally explain both their inverted radio spectrum and the low radio-to-IR ratio of the nucleus. The required star formation area density is extreme, however, and close to the limit of what can be observed in a well-mixed thermal/non-thermal plasma produced by star formation, and is also close to the limit of what can be physically sustained.

  6. Spreadsheet Modeling of Electron Distributions in Solids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassy, Wingfield V.

    2006-01-01

    A series of spreadsheet modeling exercises constructed as part of a new upper-level elective course on solid state materials and surface chemistry is described. The spreadsheet exercises are developed to provide students with the opportunity to interact with the conceptual framework where the role of the density of states and the Fermi-Dirac…

  7. Renewable deployment: Model for a fairer distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunewald, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Typically, the allocation of renewable power sources is determined by a desire to maximize output and reduce generation costs in order to satisfy the preferences of a small number of stakeholders. A new model broadens this perspective by considering societal equity and acceptability, with the aim of improving the siting process.

  8. Spreadsheet Modeling of Electron Distributions in Solids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassy, Wingfield V.

    2006-01-01

    A series of spreadsheet modeling exercises constructed as part of a new upper-level elective course on solid state materials and surface chemistry is described. The spreadsheet exercises are developed to provide students with the opportunity to interact with the conceptual framework where the role of the density of states and the Fermi-Dirac…

  9. The Ubiquity of Coeval Starbursts in Massive Galaxy Cluster Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Caitlin M.

    2016-06-01

    The universe’s largest galaxy clusters likely built the majority of their massive >1011 M {}⊙ galaxies in simultaneous, short-lived bursts of activity well before virialization. This conclusion is reached based on emerging data sets for z\\gt 2 proto-clusters and the characteristics of their member galaxies, in particular, rare starbursts and ultraluminous active galactic nuclei (AGN). The most challenging observational hurdle in identifying such structures is their very large volumes, ˜104 comoving Mpc3 at z\\gt 2, subtending areas of approximately half a degree on the sky. Thus, the contrast afforded by an overabundance of very rare galaxies in comparison to the background can more easily distinguish overdense structures from the surrounding, normal density field. Five 2≲ z≲ 3 proto-clusters from the literature are discussed in detail and are found to contain up to 12 dusty starbursts or luminous AGN galaxies each, a phenomenon that is unlikely to occur by chance even in overdense environments. These are contrasted with three higher-redshift (4≲ z≲ 5.5) dusty star-forming galaxy (DSFG) groups, whose evolutionary fate is less clear. Measurements of DSFGs’ gas depletion times suggest that they are indeed short-lived on ˜100 Myr timescales, and accordingly the probability of finding a structure containing more than 8 such systems is ˜0.2%, unless their “triggering” is correlated on very large spatial scales, ˜10 Mpc across. The volume density of DSFG-rich proto-clusters is found to be comparable to all of the >1015 M {}⊙ galaxy clusters in the nearby universe, which is a factor of five larger than expected in some simulations. Some tension still exists between measurements of the volume density of DSFG-rich proto-clusters and the expectation that they are generated via short-lived episodes, as the latter suggests that only a fraction (\\lt \\tfrac{1}{2}) of all proto-clusters should be rich with DSFGs. However, improved observations of proto

  10. Correcting transit time distributions in coarse MODFLOW-MODPATH models.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In low to medium resolution MODFLOW models, the area occupied by sink cells often far exceeds the surface area of the streams they represent. As a result, MODPATH will calculate inaccurate particle traces and transit times. A frequency distribution of transit times for a watershed will also be in error. Such a distribution is used to assess the long-term impact of nonpoint source pollution on surface waters and wells. Although the inaccuracies for individual particles can only be avoided by increased model grid resolution or other advanced modeling techniques, the frequency distribution can be improved by scaling the particle transit times by an adjustment factor during post-processing.

  11. Distribution system reliability assessment using hierarchical Markov modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.E.; Gupta, S.; Christie, R.D.; Venkata, S.S.; Fletcher, R.

    1996-10-01

    Distribution system reliability assessment is concerned with power availability and power quality at each customer`s service entrance. This paper presents a new method, termed Hierarchical Markov Modeling (HMM), which can perform predictive distribution system reliability assessment. HMM is unique in that it decomposes the reliability model based on system topology, integrated protection systems, and individual protection devices. This structure, which easily accommodates the effects of backup protection, fault isolation, and load restoration, is compared to simpler reliability models. HMM is then used to assess the reliability of an existing utility distribution system and to explore the reliability impact of several design improvement options.

  12. Cometary atmospheres: Modeling the spatial distribution of observed neutral radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Progress on modeling the spatial distributions of cometary radicals is described. The Monte Carlo particle-trajectory model was generalized to include the full time dependencies of initial comet expansion velocities, nucleus vaporization rates, photochemical lifetimes and photon emission rates which enter the problem through the comet's changing heliocentric distance and velocity. The effect of multiple collisions in the transition zone from collisional coupling to true free flow were also included. Currently available observations of the spatial distributions of the neutral radicals, as well as the latest available photochemical data were re-evaluated. Preliminary exploratory model results testing the effects of various processes on observable spatial distributions are also discussed.

  13. THE LYMAN ALPHA MORPHOLOGY OF LOCAL STARBURST GALAXIES: RELEASE OF CALIBRATED IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlin, Goeran; Hayes, Matthew; Kunth, Daniel; Atek, Hakim; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Petrosian, Artashes E-mail: matthew.hayes@unige.ch

    2009-09-15

    We present reduced and calibrated high resolution Lyman-alpha (Ly{alpha}) images for a sample of six local star-forming galaxies. Targets were selected to represent a range in luminosity and metallicity and to include both known Ly{alpha} emitters and nonemitters. Far ultraviolet imaging was carried out with the Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the F122M (Ly{alpha} online) and F140LP (continuum) filters. The resulting Ly{alpha} images are the product of careful modeling of both the stellar and nebular continua, facilitated by supporting HST imaging at {lambda} {approx} 2200, 3300, 4400, 5500, H{alpha}, and 8000 A, combined with Starburst 99 evolutionary synthesis models, and prescriptions for dust extinction on the continuum. In all, the resulting morphologies in Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and UV continuum are qualitatively very different and we show that the bulk of Ly{alpha} emerges in a diffuse component resulting from resonant scattering events. Ly{alpha} escape fractions, computed from integrated H{alpha} luminosities and recombination theory, are found never to exceed 14%. Internal dust extinction is estimated in each pixel and used to correct Ly{alpha} fluxes. However, the extinction corrections are far too small (by factors from 2.6 to infinity) to reconcile the emerging global Ly{alpha} luminosities with standard recombination predictions. Surprisingly, when comparing the global equivalent widths of Ly{alpha} and H{alpha}, the two quantities appear to be anticorrelated, which may be due to the evolution of mechanical feedback from the starburst. This calls for caution in the interpretation of Ly{alpha} observations in terms of star formation rates. The images presented have a physical resolution 3 orders of magnitude better than attainable at high redshifts from the ground with current instrumentation and our images may therefore serve as useful templates for comparing with observations and modeling of

  14. A generalized flow path model for water distribution optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, N.; Cheng, W.; Yeh, W. W.

    2008-12-01

    A generalized flow path model is developed for optimizing a water distribution system. The model simultaneously describes a water distribution system in two parts: (1) the water delivery relationships between suppliers and receivers and (2) the physical water delivery system. In the first part, the model considers waters from different suppliers as multiple commodities. This helps the model to clearly describe water deliveries by identifying the relationships between suppliers and receivers. The second part characterizes a physical water distribution network by all possible flow paths. The advantages of the proposed model are that: (1) it is a generalized methodology to optimize water distribution, delivery scheduling, water trade, water transfer, and water exchange under existing reservoir operation rules, contracts, and agreements; (2) it can consider water as multiple commodities if needed; and (3) no simplifications are made for either the physical system or the delivery relationships. The model can be used as a tool for decision making for scheduling optimization. The model optimizes not only the suppliers to each receiver but also their associated flow paths for supplying water. This characteristic leads to the optimum solution that contains the optimal scheduling results and detailed information of water distribution in the physical system. That is, the water right owner, water quantity and its associated flow path of each delivery action are represented explicitly in the results rather than merely an optimized total flow quantity in each arc of a distribution network. The proposed model is first verified by a hypothetical water distribution system. Then, the model is applied to the water distribution system of the Tou-Qian River Basin in northern Taiwan. The results show that the flow path model has the ability to optimize the quantity of each water delivery, the associated flow paths of the delivery, and the strategies of water transfer while considering

  15. Detection of the 158 Micrometers[CII] Transition at z=1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-Wide Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 158 micrometer [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J 142824.0+3526l9, a hyperluminous (L(sub IR) approx. 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L[C II]/L(sub FIR) approx. equals 2 x l0(exp -3) of the far-IR(FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n approx. 10(exp 4.2)/cu cm., and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field approx. 10(exp 3.2) times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L[C II]/L(sub F1R) ratio is higher than observed in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L[CII]/L(sub FIR) and L(sub CO)/L(sub FIR) ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies

  16. Detection of the 158 Micrometers[CII] Transition at z=1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-Wide Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 158 micrometer [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J 142824.0+3526l9, a hyperluminous (L(sub IR) approx. 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L[C II]/L(sub FIR) approx. equals 2 x l0(exp -3) of the far-IR(FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n approx. 10(exp 4.2)/cu cm., and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field approx. 10(exp 3.2) times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L[C II]/L(sub F1R) ratio is higher than observed in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L[CII]/L(sub FIR) and L(sub CO)/L(sub FIR) ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies

  17. A flow path model for regional water distribution optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2009-09-01

    We develop a flow path model for the optimization of a regional water distribution system. The model simultaneously describes a water distribution system in two parts: (1) the water delivery relationship between suppliers and receivers and (2) the physical water delivery network. In the first part, the model considers waters from different suppliers as multiple commodities. This helps the model clearly describe water deliveries by identifying the relationship between suppliers and receivers. The physical part characterizes a physical water distribution network by all possible flow paths. The flow path model can be used to optimize not only the suppliers to each receiver but also their associated flow paths for supplying water. This characteristic leads to the optimum solution that contains the optimal scheduling results and detailed information concerning water distribution in the physical system. That is, the water rights owner, water quantity, water location, and associated flow path of each delivery action are represented explicitly in the results rather than merely as an optimized total flow quantity in each arc of a distribution network. We first verify the proposed methodology on a hypothetical water distribution system. Then we apply the methodology to the water distribution system associated with the Tou-Qian River basin in northern Taiwan. The results show that the flow path model can be used to optimize the quantity of each water delivery, the associated flow path, and the water trade and transfer strategy.

  18. Distributed parameter modeling for the control of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The use of FEMs of spacecraft structural dynamics is a common practice, but it has a number of shortcomings. Distributed-parameter models offer an alternative, but present both advantages and difficulties. First, the model order does not have to be reduced prior to the inclusion of control system dynamics. This advantage eliminates the risk involved with model 'order reduction'. Second, distributed parameter models inherently involve fewer parameters, thereby enabling more accurate parameter estimation using experimental data. Third, it is possible to include the damping in the basic model, thereby increasing the accuracy of the structural damping. The difficulty in generating distributed parameter models of complex spacecraft configurations has been greatly alleviated by the use of PDEMOD, BUNVIS-RG, or DISTEL. PDEMOD is being developed for simultaneously modeling structural dynamics and control system dynamics.

  19. Modelling income data using two extensions of the exponential distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderín-Ojeda, Enrique; Azpitarte, Francisco; Gómez-Déniz, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we propose two extensions of the Exponential model to describe income distributions. The Exponential ArcTan (EAT) and the composite EAT-Lognormal models discussed in this paper preserve key properties of the Exponential model including its capacity to model distributions with zero incomes. This is an important feature as the presence of zeros conditions the modelling of income distributions as it rules out the possibility of using many parametric models commonly used in the literature. Many researchers opt for excluding the zeros from the analysis, however, this may not be a sensible approach especially when the number of zeros is large or if one is interested in accurately describing the lower part of the distribution. We apply the EAT and the EAT-Lognormal models to study the distribution of incomes in Australia for the period 2001-2012. We find that these models in general outperform the Gamma and Exponential models while preserving the capacity of the latter to model zeros.

  20. Modeling The Size Distribution Of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Nicole; Esposito, L. W.

    2007-10-01

    Spatial structures such as density and bending waves, self-gravity and moonlet wakes are among the better known pieces in the puzzle of the formation and evolution of Saturn's main rings. But also the actual sizes of ring particles are very important to understand the long-term behavior or the system. The Cassini mission is continuing to provide a wealth of new observations. Among those are the transient features, bright clumps, and brightness fluctuations in the rather mysterious F ring that are partially attributed to a population of moonlets hidden well within the bright core of the structure. Detections of opaque features during stellar occultations of the UVIS and VIMS instruments strongly support this idea. Further, the discovery of embedded moonlets in Saturn's A ring raises questions about the origin of these objects; not to forget about the km-sized moons, Pan and Daphnis, orbiting within the A ring. Are they remnants of a shattered moon or is it possible to accrete these objects from the surrounding ring material? Currently, the theory still lags behind the observations. Here, we employ a generalized kinetic approach aiming at the long-term evolution of the size distribution that cannot be achieved by current N-body simulations and discuss its implications for the evolution and origin of Saturn's rings.

  1. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    SciTech Connect

    GIESEKE, J. A.

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure, and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.

  2. Modeling Gas Distribution in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Martin; Lewis, Josiah; Brittain, Sean

    2010-07-01

    Protoplanetary accretion disks are disks of dust and gas which surround and feed material onto a forming star in the earliest stages of its evolution. One of the most useful methods for studying these disks is near infrared spectroscopy of rovibrational CO emission. This paper presents the methods in which synthetically generated spectra are modeled and fit to spectral data gathered from protoplanetary disks. This paper also discussed the methods in which this code can be improved by modifying the code to run a Monte Carlo analysis of best fit across the CONDOR cluster at Clemson University, thereby allowing for the creation of a catalog of protoplanetary disks with detailed information about them as gathered from the model.

  3. Submillimeter recombination lines in dust-obscured starbursts and active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.; Murchikova, L.

    2013-12-10

    We examine the use of submillimeter (submm) recombination lines of H, He, and He{sup +} to probe the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity of starbursts (SBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that the submm recombination lines of H, He, and He{sup +} are in fact extremely reliable and quantitative probes of the EUV continuum at 13.6 eV to above 54.6 eV. At submm wavelengths, the recombination lines originate from low energy levels (n = 20-50). The maser amplification, which poses significant problems for quantitative interpretation of the higher n, radio frequency recombination lines, is insignificant. Lastly, at submm wavelengths, the dust extinction is minimal. The submm line luminosities are therefore directly proportional to the emission measures (EM{sub ION} = n{sub e} × n {sub ion} × volume) of their ionized regions. We also find that the expected line fluxes are detectable with ALMA and can be imaged at ∼0.''1 resolution in low redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Imaging of the H I lines will provide accurate spatial and kinematic mapping of the star formation distribution in low-z IR-luminous galaxies, and the relative fluxes of the H I and He II recombination lines will strongly constrain the relative contributions of SBs and AGNs to the luminosity. The H I lines should also provide an avenue to constraining the submm dust extinction curve.

  4. ISM gas removal from starburst galaxies and the premature death of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melioli, C.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent observational studies of the age distribution of star clusters in nearby merging galaxies and starburst (SB) galaxies indicate a premature death of the young clusters. The fate of an evolving star cluster crucially depends of its gas content. This behaves like a glue that helps to keep the star system gravitationally bound. In SB systems where the rate of supernovae (SNe) explosions is elevated one should expect an efficient heating of the gas and its complete removal which could then favor the rapid dissociation of the evolving star clusters. Based on a contemporaneous study of the dynamical evolution of the interstellar gas in SB environments (Melioli & de Gouveia Dal Pino 2004, A&A, 424, 817) where it has been considered also the presence of dense clouds that may inhibit the heating efficiency of the interstellar gas by the SNe, we have here computed the timescales for gas removal from young clusters embedded in these systems and found that they are consistent with the very short timescales for cluster dissolution which are inferred from the observational studies above. Our results indicate that typical SB proto-clusters should start to disperse after less than 5 Myr. For a given total gas mass content, this result is nearly insensitive to the initial star formation efficiency.

  5. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Charmandaris, Vassilis; van der Werf, Paul; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Cao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ˜34 pc) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6-5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6-5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ˜10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa-α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ˜ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ˜34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s-1 (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  6. 3D spectroscopy of merger Seyfert galaxy Mrk 334: nuclear starburst, superwind and the circumnuclear cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Moiseev, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    We are presenting new results on kinematics and structure of the Mrk 334 Seyfert galaxy. Panoramic (3D) spectroscopy is performed at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences using the integral-field Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph (MPFS) and scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The deep images have revealed that Mrk 334 is observed during the final stage of its merging with a massive companion. A possible mass ratio ranges from 1/5 to 1/3. The merger has triggered mass redistribution in the disc resulting in an intensification of nuclear activity and in a burst of star formation in the inner region of the galaxy. The circumnuclear starburst is so intense that its contribution to the gas ionization exceeds that contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). We interpret the nuclear gas outflow with velocities of ~200kms-1 as a galactic superwind that accompanies the violent star formation. This suggestion is consistent with the asymmetric X-ray brightness distribution in Mrk 334. The trajectory of the fragments of the disrupted satellite in the vicinity of the main galaxy nucleus can be traced. In the galaxy disc, a cavern is found that is filled with a low-density ionized gas. We consider this region to be the place where the remnants of the companion have recently penetrated through the gaseous disc of the main galaxy.

  7. Loss of CPEB3 Upregulates MEGF10 to Impair Mosaic Development of ON Starburst Amacrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin-Peng; Bai, Geng-Shuo; Wu, Meng-Fang; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Huang, Yi-Shuian

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3 (CPEB3) regulates target RNA translation in neurons. Here, we examined CPEB3 distribution and function in the mouse retina. CPEB3 is expressed in retinal neurons, including those located in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) but not in cone and rod photoreceptors in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). A previous study found CPEB3 expressed in cholinergic starburst amacrine cells (SACs). We first examined these cells and observed aberrant SAC mosaicism in CPEB3-knockout (KO) retinas. Retinal neurons showed orderly spatial arrangements. Many individual subtypes are organized non-randomly in patterns called mosaics. Despite CPEB3 being expressed in both populations of SACs, OFF SACs in the INL and ON SACs in the GCL, aberrant mosaic regularity was observed in only ON SACs of CPEB3-KO retinas. Molecular characterization revealed that translation of multiple epidermal growth factor 10 (Megf10) RNA is suppressed by CPEB3 during the first week of postnatal development, when MEGF10 is primarily expressed in SACs and mediates homotypic repulsive interactions to define intercellular spacing of SACs. Thus, elevated MEGF10 expression in the absence of the translational repressor CPEB3 may account for the defective spatial organization of ON SACs. Our findings uncover for the first time that translational control plays a role in shaping retinal mosaic arrangement. PMID:27822178

  8. Highest redshift neutral hydrogen image in emission: A CHILES detection of a starbursting spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min Su; Momjian, Emmanuel; CHILES Team

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of gas accretion, processing, and removal across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the VLA, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe HI from z=0 to z=0.5. The full survey consists of 1002 hours of observing time, giving us the sensitivity to image HI in 300 galaxies in the COSMOS field. Here, we report the highest redshift HI detection to date, the LIRG COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z=0.376 with the first 178 hours of CHILES data. While the optical image shows it to be a large undisturbed spiral, the HI distribution is very extended and offset from the optical center. This could be evidence for interactions with companions or accretion fueling the starburst. In addition, we present follow-up LMT CO observations that reveal it to be gas-rich in molecular hydrogen. This is the first study of the HI and CO for a galaxy beyond the local Universe, which will enable us to start exploring the ISM of LIRGs at higher redshift.

  9. ALMA Resolves the Molecular Gas in a Young Low-metallicity Starburst Galaxy at z = 1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Gladders, M. D.; Wuyts, Eva; Rigby, Jane; Sharon, Keren; Aravena, Manuel; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Ibar, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of CO lines and dust continuum emission of the source RCSGA 032727–132609, a young z = 1.7 low-metallicity starburst galaxy. The CO(3–2) and CO(6–5) lines and continuum at rest-frame 450 μm are detected and show a resolved structure in the image plane. We use the corresponding lensing model to obtain a source plane reconstruction of the detected emissions revealing an intrinsic flux density of {S}450μ {{m}}={23.5}-8.1+26.8 μJy and intrinsic CO luminosities {L}{CO(3-2)}{\\prime }={2.90}-0.23+0.21 × {10}8 {{K}} {km} {{{s}}}-1 {{pc}}2 and {L}{CO(6-5)}{\\prime }={8.0}-1.3+1.4× {10}7 {{K}} {km} {{{s}}}-1 {{pc}}2. We used the resolved properties in the source plane to obtain molecular gas and star formation rate surface densities of {{{Σ }}}{{H}2}={16.2}-3.5+5.8 {M}ȯ {{pc}}-2 and {{{Σ }}}{SFR}={0.54}-0.27+0.89 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2, respectively. The intrinsic properties of RCSGA 032727–132609 show an enhanced star formation activity compared to local spiral galaxies with similar molecular gas densities, supporting the ongoing merger–starburst phase scenario. RCSGA 032727–132609 also appears to be a low-density starburst galaxy similar to local blue compact dwarf galaxies, which have been suggested as local analogs to high-redshift low-metallicity starburst systems. Finally, the CO excitation level in the galaxy is consistent with having the peak at J∼ 5, with a higher excitation concentrated in the star-forming clumps.

  10. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  11. Modeling and Verification of Distributed Generation and Voltage Regulation Equipment for Unbalanced Distribution Power Systems; Annual Subcontract Report, June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M. W.; Broadwater, R.; Hambrick, J.

    2007-07-01

    This report summarizes the development of models for distributed generation and distribution circuit voltage regulation equipment for unbalanced power systems and their verification through actual field measurements.

  12. Detection of the 158 μm [C II] Transition at z = 1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-wide Starburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of 158 μm [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J142824.0+352619, a hyperluminous (L IR ~ 1013 L sun) starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L [C II]/L FIR ≈ 2 × 10-3 of the far-IR (FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n ~ 104.2 cm-3, and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field ~103.2 times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L [C II]/L FIR ratio is higher than observed in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L [C II]/L FIR and L CO/L FIR ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies. This suggests that MIPS J142824.0+352619 is a scaled-up version of a starburst nucleus, with the burst extended over several kiloparsecs.

  13. DETECTION OF THE 158 {mu}m [C II] TRANSITION AT z = 1.3: EVIDENCE FOR A GALAXY-WIDE STARBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of 158 {mu}m [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J142824.0+352619, a hyperluminous (L {sub IR} {approx} 10{sup 13} L {sub sun}) starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L {sub [CII]}/L {sub FIR} {approx} 2 x 10{sup -3} of the far-IR (FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n {approx} 10{sup 4.2} cm{sup -3}, and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field {approx}10{sup 3.2} times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L {sub [CII]}/L {sub FIR} ratio is higher than observed in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L {sub [CII]}/L {sub FIR} and L {sub CO}/L {sub FIR} ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies. This suggests that MIPS J142824.0+352619 is a scaled-up version of a starburst nucleus, with the burst extended over several kiloparsecs.

  14. Modeling the distribution of neotropical birds throughout the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, I.; Handley, Lawrence R.; D'Erchia, Frank J.; Charron, Tammy M.

    2000-01-01

    I assessed tbe geographic information system (GIS) model and data layers used to create individual Neotropical bird species distribution maps from habitat data contained in the Ecological and Distributional Databases in 'Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation' by D.F. Stotz, J.W. Fitzpatrick, T.A. Parker Ill, and D.K. Moskovits.

  15. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework

    Treesearch

    Satoshi Hirabayashi; Charles N. Kroll; David J. Nowak

    2012-01-01

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling systemwas developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry...

  16. The Poisson-Lognormal Model for Bibliometric/Scientometric Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Illustrates that the Poisson-lognormal model provides good fits to a diverse set of distributions commonly studied in bibliometrics and scientometrics. Topics discussed include applications to the empirical data sets related to the laws of Lotka, Bradford, and Zipf; causal processes that could generate lognormal distributions; and implications for…

  17. On scaling properties of cluster distributions in Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruge, C.; Wagner, F.

    1992-01-01

    Scaling relations of cluster distributions for the Wolff algorithm are derived. We found them to be well satisfied for the Ising model in d=3 dimensions. Using scaling and a parametrization of the cluster distribution, we determine the critical exponent β/ν=0.516(6) with moderate effort in computing time.

  18. Constraints on the low-mass IMF in young super-star clusters in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greissl, Julia Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    As evidence for variations in the initial mass function (IMF) in nearby star forming regions remains elusive we are forced to expand our search to more extreme regions of star formation. Starburst galaxies, which contain massive young clusters have in the past been reported to have IMFs different than that characterizing the field star IMF. In this thesis we use high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra to place constraints on the shape of the IMF in extreme regions of extragalactic star formation and also try to understand the star formation history in these regions. Through high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra it is possible to directly detect low-mass PMS stars in unresolved young super-star clusters, using absorption features that trace cool stars. Combining Starburst99 and available PMS tracks it is then possible to constrain the IMF in young super-star clusters using a combination of absorption lines each tracing different ranges of stellar masses and comparing observed spectra to models. Our technique can provide a direct test of the universality of the IMF compared to the Milky Way. We have obtained high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectra of two young super-star clusters in the starburst galaxies NGC 4039/39 and NGC 253 in order to constrain the low-mass IMF and star formation history in the clusters. The cluster in NGC 4038/39 shows signs of youth such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines as well as late-type absorption lines indicative of cool stars. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence stars or red supergiants alone. We interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages over the physical region of 90 pc our spectrum represents. One cluster is young (≤ 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second

  19. Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, Benjamin; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Baring-Gould, Ian; Margolis, Robert

    2016-02-01

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand model (dGen) is a geospatially rich, bottom-up, market-penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) for residential, commercial, and industrial entities in the continental United States through 2050. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed dGen to analyze the key factors that will affect future market demand for distributed solar, wind, storage, and other DER technologies in the United States. The new model builds off, extends, and replaces NREL's SolarDS model (Denholm et al. 2009a), which simulates the market penetration of distributed PV only. Unlike the SolarDS model, dGen can model various DER technologies under one platform--it currently can simulate the adoption of distributed solar (the dSolar module) and distributed wind (the dWind module) and link with the ReEDS capacity expansion model (Appendix C). The underlying algorithms and datasets in dGen, which improve the representation of customer decision making as well as the spatial resolution of analyses (Figure ES-1), also are improvements over SolarDS.

  20. Modeling and analysis of solar distributed generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Rivera, Eduardo Ivan

    Recent changes in the global economy are creating a big impact in our daily life. The price of oil is increasing and the number of reserves are less every day. Also, dramatic demographic changes are impacting the viability of the electric infrastructure and ultimately the economic future of the industry. These are some of the reasons that many countries are looking for alternative energy to produce electric energy. The most common form of green energy in our daily life is solar energy. To convert solar energy into electrical energy is required solar panels, dc-dc converters, power control, sensors, and inverters. In this work, a photovoltaic module, PVM, model using the electrical characteristics provided by the manufacturer data sheet is presented for power system applications. Experimental results from testing are showed, verifying the proposed PVM model. Also in this work, three maximum power point tracker, MPPT, algorithms would be presented to obtain the maximum power from a PVM. The first MPPT algorithm is a method based on the Rolle's and Lagrange's Theorems and can provide at least an approximate answer to a family of transcendental functions that cannot be solved using differential calculus. The second MPPT algorithm is based on the approximation of the proposed PVM model using fractional polynomials where the shape, boundary conditions and performance of the proposed PVM model are satisfied. The third MPPT algorithm is based in the determination of the optimal duty cycle for a dc-dc converter and the previous knowledge of the load or load matching conditions. Also, four algorithms to calculate the effective irradiance level and temperature over a photovoltaic module are presented in this work. The main reasons to develop these algorithms are for monitoring climate conditions, the elimination of temperature and solar irradiance sensors, reductions in cost for a photovoltaic inverter system, and development of new algorithms to be integrated with maximum

  1. Beyond a Climate-Centric View of Plant Distribution: Edaphic Variables Add Value to Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, Frieda; de Blois, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Both climatic and edaphic conditions determine plant distribution, however many species distribution models do not include edaphic variables especially over large geographical extent. Using an exceptional database of vegetation plots (n = 4839) covering an extent of ∼55000 km2, we tested whether the inclusion of fine scale edaphic variables would improve model predictions of plant distribution compared to models using only climate predictors. We also tested how well these edaphic variables could predict distribution on their own, to evaluate the assumption that at large extents, distribution is governed largely by climate. We also hypothesized that the relative contribution of edaphic and climatic data would vary among species depending on their growth forms and biogeographical attributes within the study area. We modelled 128 native plant species from diverse taxa using four statistical model types and three sets of abiotic predictors: climate, edaphic, and edaphic-climate. Model predictive accuracy and variable importance were compared among these models and for species' characteristics describing growth form, range boundaries within the study area, and prevalence. For many species both the climate-only and edaphic-only models performed well, however the edaphic-climate models generally performed best. The three sets of predictors differed in the spatial information provided about habitat suitability, with climate models able to distinguish range edges, but edaphic models able to better distinguish within-range variation. Model predictive accuracy was generally lower for species without a range boundary within the study area and for common species, but these effects were buffered by including both edaphic and climatic predictors. The relative importance of edaphic and climatic variables varied with growth forms, with trees being more related to climate whereas lower growth forms were more related to edaphic conditions. Our study identifies the potential for

  2. Beyond a climate-centric view of plant distribution: edaphic variables add value to distribution models.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Frieda; de Blois, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Both climatic and edaphic conditions determine plant distribution, however many species distribution models do not include edaphic variables especially over large geographical extent. Using an exceptional database of vegetation plots (n = 4839) covering an extent of ∼55,000 km2, we tested whether the inclusion of fine scale edaphic variables would improve model predictions of plant distribution compared to models using only climate predictors. We also tested how well these edaphic variables could predict distribution on their own, to evaluate the assumption that at large extents, distribution is governed largely by climate. We also hypothesized that the relative contribution of edaphic and climatic data would vary among species depending on their growth forms and biogeographical attributes within the study area. We modelled 128 native plant species from diverse taxa using four statistical model types and three sets of abiotic predictors: climate, edaphic, and edaphic-climate. Model predictive accuracy and variable importance were compared among these models and for species' characteristics describing growth form, range boundaries within the study area, and prevalence. For many species both the climate-only and edaphic-only models performed well, however the edaphic-climate models generally performed best. The three sets of predictors differed in the spatial information provided about habitat suitability, with climate models able to distinguish range edges, but edaphic models able to better distinguish within-range variation. Model predictive accuracy was generally lower for species without a range boundary within the study area and for common species, but these effects were buffered by including both edaphic and climatic predictors. The relative importance of edaphic and climatic variables varied with growth forms, with trees being more related to climate whereas lower growth forms were more related to edaphic conditions. Our study identifies the potential

  3. Modeling anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions: derivation and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we develop a model for the anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution and examine its properties. First, we provide the characteristic conditions that the modeling of consistent and well-defined anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions needs to fulfill. Then, we examine several models, showing their possible advantages and/or failures in accordance to these conditions. We derive a consistent model, and examine its properties and its connection with thermodynamics. We show that the temperature equals the average of the directional temperature-like components, as it holds for the classical, anisotropic Maxwell distribution. We also derive the internal energy and Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, where we show that both are maximized for zero anisotropy, that is, the isotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution.

  4. Influence of temporal rainfall distribution on surface runoff modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Šraj, Mojca; Vidmar, Andrej

    2017-04-01

    Temporal rainfall distribution within individual rainfall events can have large impact on the surface runoff characteristics such as the peak discharge values and time to peak discharge. Thus, the information about temporal rainfall distribution within rainfall event is crucial for reliable hydrological modelling, design of hydraulic structures and flood protection. The main aim of this study is to show how incorrect identification of temporal rainfall distribution can influence on surface runoff modelling results and consequently on the design hydrographs. For the purpose of this study calibrated and validated hydrological model HBV-light of the Savinja catchment in Slovenia (catchment area: 1850 km2) was used. The automatic calibration was performed using the PEST tool. Using the hydrological model it was shown that uniform rainfall distribution within rainfall event and rainfall event durations that are significantly larger than the critical rainfall duration can lead to incorrect identification of the design parameters such as hydrograph shape and peak discharge.

  5. Random exchange models and the distribution of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalas, Enrico

    2016-12-01

    I am presenting my personal point of view on what is interesting in Econophysics. In particular, I focus on random exchange models for the distribution of wealth in order to illustrate the concept of statistical equilibrium in Economics.

  6. Constraining the properties of AGN host galaxies with spectral energy distribution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Georgakakis, A.; Bernhard, E.; Mitchell, P. D.; Buat, V.; Elbaz, D.; LeFloc'h, E.; Lacey, C. G.; Magdis, G. E.; Xilouris, M.

    2015-04-01

    Detailed studies of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of normal galaxies have increasingly been used to understand the physical mechanism dominating their integrated emission, mainly owing to the availability of high quality multi-wavelength data from the UV to the far-infrared (FIR). However, systems hosting dust-enshrouded nuclear starbursts and/or an accreting supermassive black hole (an active galactic nucleus or AGN) are especially challenging to study. This is due to the complex interplay between the heating by massive stars and the AGN, the absorption and emission of radiation from dust, as well as the presence of the underlying old stellar population. We used the latest release of CIGALE, a fast state-of-the-art galaxy SED-fitting model relying on energy balance, to study the influence of an AGN in a self consistent manner in estimating both the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass in galaxies, as well as to calculate the contribution of the AGN to the power output of the host. Using the semi-analytical galaxy formation model galform, we created a suite of mock galaxy SEDs using realistic star formation histories (SFH). We also added an AGN of Type-1, Type-2, or intermediate-type whose contribution to the bolometric luminosity can be variable. We performed an SED-fitting of these catalogues with CIGALE, assuming three different SFHs: a single-exponentially-decreasing (1τ-dec), a double-exponentially-decreasing (2τ-dec), and a delayed SFH. Constraining the overall contribution of an AGN to the total infrared luminosity (fracAGN) is very challenging for fracAGN< 20%, with uncertainties of ~5-30% for higher fractions depending on the AGN type, while FIR and sub-mm are essential. The AGN power has an impact on the estimation of M∗ in Type-1 and intermediate-type AGNs but has no effect on galaxies hosting Type-2 AGNs. We find that in the absence of AGN emission, the best estimates of M∗ are obtained using the 2τ-dec model but at the expense of

  7. Starburst or AGN Dominance in Submillimetre-Luminous Candidate AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Pope, Alexandra; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Alexander, David M.; Dunlop, James

    2010-06-01

    It is widely believed that ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging, with the peak of activity occurring at z~2, where submillimetre galaxies are thousands of times more numerous than local ULIRGs. In this evolutionary picture, submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole (BH) strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. To probe this evolutionary sequence we have focussed on the `missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst (SB) and AGN signatures, in order to determine if the SB is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present from their IRAC colours. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look for their signatures in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer IRS, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We present the results of our audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs-where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission.

  8. Carbon Abundances in Starburst Galaxies of the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus; de Mink, Selma; Wofford, Aida; Kewley, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    The cosmological origin of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe, is not well known and a matter of heavy debate. We investigate the behavior of C/O to O/H in order to constrain the production mechanism of carbon. We measured emission-line intensities in the spectral range from 1600 to 10000 Å on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long-slit spectra of 18 starburst galaxies in the local universe. We determined chemical abundances through traditional nebular analysis, and we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine where our carbon and oxygen abundances lie in the parameter space. We conclude that our C and O abundance measurements are sensible. We analyzed the behavior of our sample in the [C/O] versus [O/H] diagram with respect to other objects such as DLAs, neutral ISM measurements, and disk and halo stars, finding that each type of object seems to be located in a specific region of the diagram. Our sample shows a steeper C/O versus O/H slope with respect to other samples, suggesting that massive stars contribute more to the production of C than N at higher metallicities, only for objects where massive stars are numerous; otherwise, intermediate-mass stars dominate the C and N production.

  9. Uncovering the Beast: The Galactic Starburst Region W49A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homeier, N.; Alves, J.

    2002-12-01

    We present J, H, and Ks images of an unbiased 5‧ x 5‧ (16 pc x 16 pc) survey of the densest region of the W49 giant molecular cloud. The observations reveal a massive stellar cluster (Cluster 1) about 3 pc East of the well-known Welch ring of ultra-compact H II regions, as well as three smaller clusters associated with compact sources of radio emission. Cluster 1 powers a 6 pc diameter giant H II region seen at both the NIR and radio continuum, and has more than 30 visual magnitudes of internal imhomogeneous extinction, implying that it is still deeply embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The census of massive stars in W49A agrees or slightly overabundant when compared with the number of Lyman continuum photons derived from radio observations. We argue that although the formation of the Welch ring could have been triggered by Cluster 1, the entire W49A starburst region seems to have been multi-seeded instead of resulting from a coherent trigger.

  10. STAR-FORMING OR STARBURSTING? THE ULTRAVIOLET CONUNDRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Hong, S.; Kennicutt, R.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Portouw, J.; Gordon, K. D.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-11-20

    Compared to starburst galaxies, normal star-forming galaxies have been shown to display a much larger dispersion of the dust attenuation at fixed reddening through studies of the IRX-beta diagram (the IR/UV ratio 'IRX' versus the UV color 'beta'). To investigate the causes of this larger dispersion and attempt to isolate second parameters, we have used GALEX UV, ground-based optical, and Spitzer infrared imaging of eight nearby galaxies, and examined the properties of individual UV and 24 mum selected star-forming regions. We concentrated on star-forming regions, in order to isolate simpler star formation histories than those that characterize whole galaxies. We find that (1) the dispersion is not correlated with the mean age of the stellar populations; (2) a range of dust geometries and dust extinction curves are the most likely causes for the observed dispersion in the IRX-beta diagram, (3) together with some potential dilution of the most recent star-forming population by older unrelated bursts, at least in the case of star-forming regions within galaxies; and (4) we also recover some general characteristics of the regions, including a tight positive correlation between the amount of dust attenuation and the metal content. Although generalizing our results to whole galaxies may not be immediate, the possibility of a range of dust extinction laws and geometries should be accounted for in the latter systems as well.

  11. Radio identifications of UGC galaxies - Starbursts and monsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, J. J.; Broderick, J. J.

    1988-07-01

    Radio identifications of galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies with δ < +82° were made from the Green Bank 1400 MHz sky maps. Every source having peak flux density SP ≥ 150 mJy in the ≈12 arcmin FWHM map point-source response and position <5 arcmin in both coordinates from the optical position of any UGC galaxy was considered a candidate identification to ensure that very extended (up to 1 Mpc) and asymmetric sources would not be missed. Maps in the literature or new 1.49 GHz VLA C array maps made with 18 arcsec resolution were used to confirm or reject candidate identifications. The resulting list of 176 confirmed identifications should be complete, reliable, and suitable for statistical investigations of radio emission from nearby (D < 300 Mpc for H0 = 50 km s-1Mpc-1) galaxies of all morphological types. Three criteria for distinguishing starbursts from monsters on the basis of radio and far-infrared continuum only are given and used to classify the dominant energy sources in the N = 176 confirmed galaxy identifications.

  12. Effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Data distribution, degree of data replication, and transaction access patterns are key factors in determining the performance of distributed database systems. In order to simplify the evaluation of performance measures, database designers and researchers tend to make simplistic assumptions about the system. The effect is studied of modeling assumptions on the evaluation of one such measure, the number of transaction rollbacks, in a partitioned distributed database system. Six probabilistic models and expressions are developed for the numbers of rollbacks under each of these models. Essentially, the models differ in terms of the available system information. The analytical results so obtained are compared to results from simulation. From here, it is concluded that most of the probabilistic models yield overly conservative estimates of the number of rollbacks. The effect of transaction commutativity on system throughout is also grossly undermined when such models are employed.

  13. Effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Data distribution, degree of data replication, and transaction access patterns are key factors in determining the performance of distributed database systems. In order to simplify the evaluation of performance measures, database designers and researchers tend to make simplistic assumptions about the system. Here, researchers investigate the effect of modeling assumptions on the evaluation of one such measure, the number of transaction rollbacks in a partitioned distributed database system. The researchers developed six probabilistic models and expressions for the number of rollbacks under each of these models. Essentially, the models differ in terms of the available system information. The analytical results obtained are compared to results from simulation. It was concluded that most of the probabilistic models yield overly conservative estimates of the number of rollbacks. The effect of transaction commutativity on system throughput is also grossly undermined when such models are employed.

  14. An Ultraviolet and Near-Infrared View of NGC 4214: A Starbursting Core Embedded in a Low Surface Brightness Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Michael N.; Waller, William W.; Smith, Denise A.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry; Neff, Susan G.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Bohlin, Ralph; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1997-05-01

    During the Astro-2 Spacelab mission in 1995 March, the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) obtained far-UV (λ = 1500 Å) imagery of the nearby Sm/Im galaxy NGC 4214. The UIT images have a spatial resolution of ~3" and a limiting surface brightness, μ1500 > 25 mag arcsec-2, permitting detailed investigation of the intensity and spatial distribution of the young, high-mass stellar component. These data provide the first far-UV imagery covering the full spatial extent of NGC 4214. Comparison with a corresponding I-band image reveals the presence of a starbursting core embedded in an extensive low surface brightness disk. In the far-UV (FUV), NGC 4214 is resolved into several components: a luminous, central knot; an inner region (r <~ 2.5 kpc) with ~15 resolved sources embedded in bright, diffuse emission; and a population of fainter knots extending to the edge of the optically defined disk (r ~ 5 kpc). The FUV light, which traces recent massive star formation, is observed to be more centrally concentrated than the I-band light, which traces the global stellar population. The FUV radial light profile is remarkably well represented by an R1/4 law, providing evidence that the centrally concentrated massive star formation in NGC 4214 is the result of an interaction, possibly a tidal encounter, with a dwarf companion(s). The brightest FUV source produces ~8% of the global FUV luminosity. This unresolved source, corresponding to the Wolf-Rayet knot described by Sargent & Filippenko, is located at the center of the FUV light distribution, giving NGC 4214 an active galactic nucleus-like morphology. Another strong source is present in the I band, located 19" west, 10" north of the central starburst knot, with no FUV counterpart. The I-band source may be the previously unrecognized nucleus of NGC 4214 or an evolved star cluster with an age greater than ~200 Myr. The global star formation rate derived from the total FUV flux is consistent with rates derived using data at other

  15. The Evolution of Post-starburst Galaxies from z ~ 1 to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Strauss, Michael A.; Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Post-starburst galaxies are in the transitional stage between blue, star-forming galaxies and red, quiescent galaxies and therefore hold important clues for our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we systematically searched for and identified a large sample of post-starburst galaxies from the spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9. In total, we found more than 6000 objects with redshifts between z ˜ 0.05 and z ˜ 1.3, making this the largest sample of post-starburst galaxies in the literature. We calculated the luminosity function of the post-starburst galaxies using two uniformly selected subsamples: the SDSS main galaxy sample and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS sample. The luminosity functions are reasonably fit by half-Gaussian functions. The peak magnitudes shift as a function of redshift from M ˜ -23.5 at z ˜ 0.8 to M ˜ -20.3 at z ˜ 0.1. This is consistent with the downsizing trend, whereby more massive galaxies form earlier than low-mass galaxies. We compared the mass of the post-starburst stellar population found in our sample to the decline of the global star formation rate and found that only a small amount (˜1%) of all star formation quenching in the redshift range z = 0.2-0.7 results in post-starburst galaxies in the luminosity range our sample is sensitive to. Therefore, luminous post-starburst galaxies are not the place where most of the decline in the star formation rate of the universe is happening.

  16. Exploring the Limits of Star Formation from the Extreme Environment of Starbursts to the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderman, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and gas surface densities in Galactic star forming regions and integral field unit (IFU) spatially resolved regions in nearby interacting/starburst galaxies. Our Galactic study uses a sample of 20 molecular clouds from the Spitzer c2d and Gould's Belt surveys. These data allow us to probe the low mass star formation regime that is essentially invisible to tracers (such as H-alpha emission) used to establish extragalactic relations (eg., Schmidt-Kennicutt relation). We find Galactic clouds above a threshold of 129 Msun/pc2 lie on a linear relation above extragalactic relations. Our extragalactic IFU survey is the VIRUS-P Investigation of the eXtreme ENvironments of Starbursts (VIXENS) which includes 15 nearby interacting/starburst galaxies that span a range of interaction phases: from close pairs to late stage mergers. The main goal of VIXENS is to investigate the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation on spatial scales of 0.1-0.9 kpc and test theoretical predictions at high SFR and gas surface densities in starburst galaxies. If a starburst CO-to-H2 conversion factor is used, we find sub-kpc scale starburst regions lie above extragalactic relations, overlapping with global measurements of high-z mergers as well as Galactic star forming regions. The overlap with Galactic star forming regions suggests that the bulk of gas in mergers is efficiently forming stars. These unique data sets allow us to compare SFR-gas surface density relations from Galactic clouds to extreme starbursts on spatially resolved scales for the first time.

  17. Evolution of Dense Gas with Starburst Age: When Star Formation Versus Dense Gas Relations Break Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, J. L.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-05-01

    Dense gas correlates well with star formation on kpc scales. On smaller scales, motions of individual clouds become comparable to the 100 Myr ages of starbursts. One then expects the star formation rate vs. dense gas relations to break down on giant molecular cloud scales. We exploit this to study the evolutionary history of nuclear starburst in the nearby spiral, IC 342. Maps of the J=5-4 and 16-15 transitions of dense gas tracer HC3N at 20 pc resolution made with the VLA and the Plateau de Bure interferometer are presented. The 5-4 line of HC3N traces very dense gas in the cold phase, while the 16-15 transition traces warm, dense gas. These reveal changes in dense cloud structure on scales of 30 pc among clouds with star formation histories differing by only a few Myrs. HC3N emission does not correlate well with young star formation at these high spatial resolutions, but gas excitation does. The cold, dense gas extends well beyond the starburst region implying large amounts of dense quiescent gas not yet actively forming stars. Close to the starburst the high excitation combined with faint emission indicates that the immediate (30 pc) vicinity of the starburst lacks large masses of very dense gas and has high dense gas star formation efficiencies. The dense gas appears to be in pressure equilibrium with the starburst. We propose a scenario where the starburst is being caught in the act of dispersing or destroying the dense gas in the presence of the expanding HII region. This work is supported by the NSF through NRAO and grant AST-1009620.

  18. Modelling LARES temperature distribution and thermal drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The LARES satellite, a laser-ranged space experiment to contribute to geophysics observation, and to measure the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, has been observed to undergo an anomalous along-track orbital acceleration of -0.4 pm/s2 (pm : = picometer). This thermal "drag" is not surprising; along-track thermal drag has previously been observed with the related LAGEOS satellites (-3.4 pm/s2). It is hypothesized that the thermal drag is principally due to anisotropic thermal radiation from the satellite's exterior. We report the results of numerical computations of the along-track orbital decay of the LARES satellite during the first 126 days after launch. The results depend to a significant degree on the visual and IR absorbance α and emissivity ɛ of the fused silica Cube Corner Reflectors. We present results for two values of α IR = ɛ IR : 0.82, a standard number for "clean" fused silica; and 0.60, a possible value for silica with slight surface contamination subjected to the space environment. The heating and the resultant along-track acceleration depend on the plane of the orbit, the sun position, and, in particular, on the occurrence of eclipses, all of which are functions of time. Thus we compute the thermal drag for specific days. We compare our model to observational data, available for a 120 day period starting with the 7th day after launch, which shows the average acceleration of -0.4 pm/s2. With our model the average along-track thermal drag over this 120 day period for CCR α IR = ɛ IR = 0.82 was computed to be -0.59 pm/s2. For CCR α IR = ɛ IR = 0.60 we compute -0.36 pm/s2. LARES consists of a solid spherical tungsten sphere, into which the CCRs are set in colatitude circles. Our calculation models the satellite as 93 isothermal elements: the tungsten part, and each of the 92 Cube Corner Reflectors. The satellite is heated from two sources: sunlight and Earth's infrared (IR) radiation. We work in the fast-spin regime, where CCRs with

  19. Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaozhou Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.

  20. The scaling of geographic ranges: implications for species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yackulic, Charles B.; Ginsberg, Joshua R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for timely science to inform policy and management decisions; however, we must also strive to provide predictions that best reflect our understanding of ecological systems. Species distributions evolve through time and reflect responses to environmental conditions that are mediated through individual and population processes. Species distribution models that reflect this understanding, and explicitly model dynamics, are likely to give more accurate predictions.

  1. Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RD-A157 917 ACTORS: A MODEL OF CONCURRENT COMPUTATION IN 1/3- DISTRIBUTED SY𔃿TEMS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CRMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...EmmmmmmEmmmmmE mmmmmmmmmmmmmmlfllfllf EEEEEEEmmmmmEE Sa~WNVS AO nflWl ,VNOIJVN 27 n- -o :1 ~ili0 Technical Report 844 Actors: A Model Of Concurrent...Computation In Distributed Systems Gui A. Aghai MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Thsdocument ha. been cipp -oved I= pblicrelease and sale; itsI

  2. Dynamic species distribution models from categorical survey data.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, Nova; Milligan, Gregg; Burrows, Michael T; Freckleton, Rob; Spencer, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    1. Species distribution models are static models for the distribution of a species, based on Hutchinson's niche concept. They make probabilistic predictions about the distribution of a species, but do not have a temporal interpretation. In contrast, density-structured models based on categorical abundance data make it possible to incorporate population dynamics into species distribution modelling. 2. Using dynamic species distribution models, temporal aspects of a species' distribution can be investigated, including the predictability of future abundance categories and the expected persistence times of local populations, and how these may respond to environmental or anthropogenic drivers. 3. We built density-structured models for two intertidal marine invertebrates, the Lusitanian trochid gastropods Phorcus lineatus and Gibbula umbilicalis, based on 9 years of field data from around the United Kingdom. Abundances were recorded on a categorical scale, and stochastic models for year-to-year changes in abundance category were constructed with winter mean sea surface temperature (SST) and wave fetch (a measure of the exposure of a shore) as explanatory variables. 4. Both species were more likely to be present at sites with high SST, but differed in their responses to wave fetch. Phorcus lineatus had more predictable future abundance and longer expected persistence times than G. umbilicalis. This is consistent with the longer lifespan of P. lineatus. 5. Where data from multiple time points are available, dynamic species distribution models of the kind described here have many applications in population and conservation biology. These include allowing for changes over time when combining historical and contemporary data, and predicting how climate change might alter future abundance conditional on current distributions.

  3. A Federated Authorization Service for Bridging Learning Object Distribution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jean-Noël; Le, Tien-Dung; Massart, David

    In a large federation of commercial learning object repositories, customers might be confronted to different access control procedures put in place by different content providers to enforce their respective distribution models. This paper proposes a federated authorization service that provides a uniform access to learning objects protected by different authorization protocols. This service is based on a learning object broker that mediates different distribution models.

  4. Weibull model of multiplicity distribution in hadron-hadron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sadhana; Nandi, Basanta K.; Sett, Priyanka

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the use of the Weibull distribution as a simple parametrization of charged particle multiplicities in hadron-hadron collisions at all available energies, ranging from ISR energies to the most recent LHC energies. In statistics, the Weibull distribution has wide applicability in natural processes that involve fragmentation processes. This provides a natural connection to the available state-of-the-art models for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions, which involve QCD parton fragmentation and hadronization. The Weibull distribution describes the multiplicity data at the most recent LHC energies better than the single negative binomial distribution.

  5. A Complex Network Approach to Distributional Semantic Models

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies on network analysis have focused on language networks based on free word association, which reflects human lexical knowledge, and have demonstrated the small-world and scale-free properties in the word association network. Nevertheless, there have been very few attempts at applying network analysis to distributional semantic models, despite the fact that these models have been studied extensively as computational or cognitive models of human lexical knowledge. In this paper, we analyze three network properties, namely, small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical properties, of semantic networks created by distributional semantic models. We demonstrate that the created networks generally exhibit the same properties as word association networks. In particular, we show that the distribution of the number of connections in these networks follows the truncated power law, which is also observed in an association network. This indicates that distributional semantic models can provide a plausible model of lexical knowledge. Additionally, the observed differences in the network properties of various implementations of distributional semantic models are consistently explained or predicted by considering the intrinsic semantic features of a word-context matrix and the functions of matrix weighting and smoothing. Furthermore, to simulate a semantic network with the observed network properties, we propose a new growing network model based on the model of Steyvers and Tenenbaum. The idea underlying the proposed model is that both preferential and random attachments are required to reflect different types of semantic relations in network growth process. We demonstrate that this model provides a better explanation of network behaviors generated by distributional semantic models. PMID:26295940

  6. A Complex Network Approach to Distributional Semantic Models.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies on network analysis have focused on language networks based on free word association, which reflects human lexical knowledge, and have demonstrated the small-world and scale-free properties in the word association network. Nevertheless, there have been very few attempts at applying network analysis to distributional semantic models, despite the fact that these models have been studied extensively as computational or cognitive models of human lexical knowledge. In this paper, we analyze three network properties, namely, small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical properties, of semantic networks created by distributional semantic models. We demonstrate that the created networks generally exhibit the same properties as word association networks. In particular, we show that the distribution of the number of connections in these networks follows the truncated power law, which is also observed in an association network. This indicates that distributional semantic models can provide a plausible model of lexical knowledge. Additionally, the observed differences in the network properties of various implementations of distributional semantic models are consistently explained or predicted by considering the intrinsic semantic features of a word-context matrix and the functions of matrix weighting and smoothing. Furthermore, to simulate a semantic network with the observed network properties, we propose a new growing network model based on the model of Steyvers and Tenenbaum. The idea underlying the proposed model is that both preferential and random attachments are required to reflect different types of semantic relations in network growth process. We demonstrate that this model provides a better explanation of network behaviors generated by distributional semantic models.

  7. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  8. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Harut A. Avakian; Efremov, A. V.; Schweitzer, P.; Yuan, F.

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  9. Modelling healthcare systems with phase-type distributions.

    PubMed

    Fackrell, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Phase-type distributions constitute a very versatile class of distributions. They have been used in a wide range of stochastic modelling applications in areas as diverse as telecommunications, finance, biostatistics, queueing theory, drug kinetics, and survival analysis. Their use in modelling systems in the healthcare industry, however, has so far been limited. In this paper we introduce phase-type distributions, give a survey of where they have been used in the healthcare industry, and propose some ideas on how they could be further utilized.

  10. Model-centric distribution automation: Capacity, reliability, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Dilek, Murat; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-26

    A series of analyses along with field validations that evaluate efficiency, reliability, and capacity improvements of model-centric distribution automation are presented. With model-centric distribution automation, the same model is used from design to real-time control calculations. A 14-feeder system with 7 substations is considered. The analyses involve hourly time-varying loads and annual load growth factors. Phase balancing and capacitor redesign modifications are used to better prepare the system for distribution automation, where the designs are performed considering time-varying loads. Coordinated control of load tap changing transformers, line regulators, and switched capacitor banks is considered. In evaluating distribution automation versus traditional system design and operation, quasi-steady-state power flow analysis is used. In evaluating distribution automation performance for substation transformer failures, reconfiguration for restoration analysis is performed. In evaluating distribution automation for storm conditions, Monte Carlo simulations coupled with reconfiguration for restoration calculations are used. As a result, the evaluations demonstrate that model-centric distribution automation has positive effects on system efficiency, capacity, and reliability.

  11. Model-centric distribution automation: Capacity, reliability, and efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Dilek, Murat; ...

    2016-02-26

    A series of analyses along with field validations that evaluate efficiency, reliability, and capacity improvements of model-centric distribution automation are presented. With model-centric distribution automation, the same model is used from design to real-time control calculations. A 14-feeder system with 7 substations is considered. The analyses involve hourly time-varying loads and annual load growth factors. Phase balancing and capacitor redesign modifications are used to better prepare the system for distribution automation, where the designs are performed considering time-varying loads. Coordinated control of load tap changing transformers, line regulators, and switched capacitor banks is considered. In evaluating distribution automation versus traditionalmore » system design and operation, quasi-steady-state power flow analysis is used. In evaluating distribution automation performance for substation transformer failures, reconfiguration for restoration analysis is performed. In evaluating distribution automation for storm conditions, Monte Carlo simulations coupled with reconfiguration for restoration calculations are used. As a result, the evaluations demonstrate that model-centric distribution automation has positive effects on system efficiency, capacity, and reliability.« less

  12. Modeling highway-traffic headway distributions using superstatistics.

    PubMed

    Abul-Magd, A Y

    2007-11-01

    We study traffic clearance distributions (i.e., the instantaneous gap between successive vehicles) and time-headway distributions by applying the Beck and Cohen superstatistics. We model the transition from free phase to congested phase with the increase of vehicle density as a transition from the Poisson statistics to that of the random-matrix theory. We derive an analytic expression for the spacing distributions that interpolates from the Poisson distribution and Wigner's surmise and apply it to the distributions of the net distance and time gaps among the succeeding cars at different densities of traffic flow. The obtained distribution fits the experimental results for single-vehicle data of the Dutch freeway A9 and the German freeway A5.

  13. Modelling complex geological circular data with the projected normal distribution and mixtures of von Mises distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, R. M.; Clifford, D.; Waters, C. N.

    2014-07-01

    Circular data are commonly encountered in the earth sciences and statistical descriptions and inferences about such data are necessary in structural geology. In this paper we compare two statistical distributions appropriate for complex circular data sets: the mixture of von Mises and the projected normal distribution. We show how the number of components in a mixture of von Mises distribution may be chosen, and how one may choose between the projected normal distribution and the mixture of von Mises for a particular data set. We illustrate these methods with a few structural geological data, showing how the fitted models can complement geological interpretation and permit statistical inference. One of our data sets suggests a special case of the projected normal distribution which we discuss briefly.

  14. Modelling complex geological angular data with the Projected Normal distribution and mixtures of von Mises distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, R. M.; Clifford, D.; Waters, C. N.

    2013-12-01

    Angular data are commonly encountered in the earth sciences and statistical descriptions and inferences about such data are necessary in structural geology. In this paper we compare two statistical distributions appropriate for complex angular data sets: the mixture of von Mises and the projected normal distribution. We show how the number of components in a mixture of von Mises distribution may be chosen, and how one may chose between the projected normal distribution and mixture of von Mises for a particular data set. We illustrate these methods with some structural geological data, showing how the fitted models can complement geological interpretation and permit statistical inference. One of our data sets suggests a special case of the projected normal distribution which we discuss briefly.

  15. Running shared mental models as a distributed cognitive process.

    PubMed

    Banks, A P; Millward, L J

    2000-11-01

    Shared mental models theory normally takes the individual as its unit of analysis. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for studying shared mental models in which the model is considered to be distributed amongst the team. From this framework a cognitive process is predicted which describes how shared mental models are run. A team reasoning task requiring planning was used to illustrate this framework and test predictions derived from it. Two aspects of sharing mental models were studied; the degree of overlap between team members' mental models and the organization of the division of the model between team members. Experimental results showed that the cognitive processes used were distributed amongst the team and support was found for most, but not all, aspects of the proposed process of running a shared mental model. The organization of sharing was found to influence this process.

  16. Properties Preservation in Distributed Execution of Petri Nets Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anikó; Barbosa, Paulo; Gomes, Luís; Ramalho, Franklin; Figueiredo, Jorge; Junior, Antônio

    Model-based development for embedded system design has been used to support the increase of system's complexity. Several modeling formalisms are well matched for usage within this area. One of the goals of this work is to contribute to the usage of Petri nets as system specification language within model-based development of embedded systems having MDA proposals as a reference for the development flow. Distributed execution of the Petri net model is achieved through model partitioning into sub-modules. System decomposition is obtained through net splitting operation. Two types of implementation platforms were considered: compliant and non-compliant with zero time delay for communication between modules. Using model-checking techniques, properties associated with the execution of the distributed models in both types of platforms were compared with the execution of the initial (centralized) Petri net model.

  17. The Impact of Massive Starbursts on the Chemical Evolution of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.

    Young, compact star clusters containing hundreds to thousands of the most massive OB and Wolf-Rayet type stars are common features of actively star-forming galaxies. Radio-wave H scI and millimeter-wave CO aperture synthesis observations of the interstellar gas in several such systems reveal strong evidence for recent collisions or mergers with other galaxies which probably triggered the present burst. Most of the oxygen in the universe, and to a lesser extent carbon and nitrogen, is synthesized within massive stars and returned to the interstellar gas by stellar winds and supernova explosions as these stars evolve. Yet, spatially-resolved spectroscopic investigations of the ionized gas in several starburst galaxies fail to find any sign of recent nucleosynthesis products in the vicinity of evolved starclusters. The chemical abundances of O, N, He, and probably C, appear very homogeneous on scales of ~1 kpc or less, despite the fact that models of the chemical enrichment expected from a single 106/ Msolar burst show that large localized chemical enhancements should occur. That there is no evidence of localized chemical enrichment within the H scII regions of most metal-poor galaxies suggests the recently-released heavy elements are 'hiding' either in a hot, 106 phase or in a cool neutral atomic or molecular phase. In either case, the timescale for visible enrichment in galaxies appears to exceed the lifetimes of the H scII regions and the spatial scales must exceed 1 kpc. These data are inconsistent with the H scII region 'self-enrichment' or 'pollution' hypothesis. For now, heavy elements produced in starbursts can be considered 'missing', but upcoming X-ray observatories may be able to establish their physical phase and location. Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopic measurements show evidence for a correlation between C and N abundances among galaxies with similar metallicity (O/H). The existence of such a correlation implies that C and N production mechanisms

  18. Validated modeling of distributed energy resources at distribution voltages : LDRD project 38672.

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, Mark E.; Ginn, Jerry W.

    2004-03-01

    A significant barrier to the deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) onto the power grid is uncertainty on the part of utility engineers regarding impacts of DER on their distribution systems. Because of the many possible combinations of DER and local power system characteristics, these impacts can most effectively be studied by computer simulation. The goal of this LDRD project was to develop and experimentally validate models of transient and steady state source behavior for incorporation into utility distribution analysis tools. Development of these models had not been prioritized either by the distributed-generation industry or by the inverter industry. A functioning model of a selected inverter-based DER was developed in collaboration with both the manufacturer and industrial power systems analysts. The model was written in the PSCAD simulation language, a variant of the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), a code that is widely used and accepted by utilities. A stakeholder team was formed and a methodology was established to address the problem. A list of detailed DER/utility interaction concerns was developed and prioritized. The list indicated that the scope of the problem significantly exceeded resources available for this LDRD project. As this work progresses under separate funding, the model will be refined and experimentally validated. It will then be incorporated in utility distribution analysis tools and used to study a variety of DER issues. The key next step will be design of the validation experiments.

  19. Electrical utilities model for determining electrical distribution capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, R. L.

    1997-09-03

    In its simplest form, this model was to obtain meaningful data on the current state of the Site`s electrical transmission and distribution assets, and turn this vast collection of data into useful information. The resulting product is an Electrical Utilities Model for Determining Electrical Distribution Capacity which provides: current state of the electrical transmission and distribution systems; critical Hanford Site needs based on outyear planning documents; decision factor model. This model will enable Electrical Utilities management to improve forecasting requirements for service levels, budget, schedule, scope, and staffing, and recommend the best path forward to satisfy customer demands at the minimum risk and least cost to the government. A dynamic document, the model will be updated annually to reflect changes in Hanford Site activities.

  20. Modeling stream fish distributions using interval-censored detection times.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mário; Filipe, Ana Filipa; Bardos, David C; Magalhães, Maria Filomena; Beja, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Controlling for imperfect detection is important for developing species distribution models (SDMs). Occupancy-detection models based on the time needed to detect a species can be used to address this problem, but this is hindered when times to detection are not known precisely. Here, we extend the time-to-detection model to deal with detections recorded in time intervals and illustrate the method using a case study on stream fish distribution modeling. We collected electrofishing samples of six fish species across a Mediterranean watershed in Northeast Portugal. Based on a Bayesian hierarchical framework, we modeled the probability of water presence in stream channels, and the probability of species occupancy conditional on water presence, in relation to environmental and spatial variables. We also modeled time-to-first detection conditional on occupancy in relation to local factors, using modified interval-censored exponential survival models. Posterior distributions of occupancy probabilities derived from the models were used to produce species distribution maps. Simulations indicated that the modified time-to-detection model provided unbiased parameter estimates despite interval-censoring. There was a tendency for spatial variation in detection rates to be primarily influenced by depth and, to a lesser extent, stream width. Species occupancies were consistently affected by stream order, elevation, and annual precipitation. Bayesian P-values and AUCs indicated that all models had adequate fit and high discrimination ability, respectively. Mapping of predicted occupancy probabilities showed widespread distribution by most species, but uncertainty was generally higher in tributaries and upper reaches. The interval-censored time-to-detection model provides a practical solution to model occupancy-detection when detections are recorded in time intervals. This modeling framework is useful for developing SDMs while controlling for variation in detection rates, as it

  1. Working toward integrated models of alpine plant distribution

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Bradley Z.; Randin, Christophe F.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried; Choler, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been frequently employed to forecast the response of alpine plants to global changes. Efforts to model alpine plant distribution have thus far been primarily based on a correlative approach, in which ecological processes are implicitly addressed through a statistical relationship between observed species occurrences and environmental predictors. Recent evidence, however, highlights the shortcomings of correlative SDMs, especially in alpine landscapes where plant species tend to be decoupled from atmospheric conditions in micro-topographic habitats and are particularly exposed to geomorphic disturbances. While alpine plants respond to the same limiting factors as plants found at lower elevations, alpine environments impose a particular set of scale-dependent and hierarchical drivers that shape the realized niche of species and that require explicit consideration in a modelling context. Several recent studies in the European Alps have successfully integrated both correlative and process-based elements into distribution models of alpine plants, but for the time being a single integrative modelling framework that includes all key drivers remains elusive. As a first step in working toward a comprehensive integrated model applicable to alpine plant communities, we propose a conceptual framework that structures the primary mechanisms affecting alpine plant distributions. We group processes into four categories, including multi-scalar abiotic drivers, gradient dependent species interactions, dispersal and spatial–temporal plant responses to disturbance. Finally, we propose a methodological framework aimed at developing an integrated model to better predict alpine plant distribution. PMID:24790594

  2. Lots of Small Stars Born in Starburst Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    Decisive Study of NGC 3603 with the VLT and ISAAC An international group of astronomers [1] has used the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal (Chile) to perform unique observations of an interstellar nebula in which stars are currently being born. Thanks to the excellent imaging properties of the first of the four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, ANTU, they were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of large numbers of small and relatively light, new-born stars in NGC 3603, a well-known "starburst" region in the Milky Way Galaxy . Until now, it has only been possible to observe brighter and much heavier stars in such nebulae. The new observations show that stars of all masses are being born together in the same starburst event, a fundamental result for our understanding of the very complex process of star formation. Background of the project The present research programme was granted observing time with VLT ANTU in April 1999. Its general aim is to investigate collective, massive star formation, in particular the coalescence of high- and low-mass stars in the violent environments of starburst regions . These are areas in which the processes that lead to the birth of new stars are particularly active just now. Several fundamental questions arise in this context. A very basic one is whether low-mass stars form at all in such environments. And if so, do they form together with the most massive stars in a starburst event or do they form at different times, before or after or perhaps on different timescales? Are low-mass stars born with any "preferred" mass that may possibly give further clues to the ongoing processes? All of this is most important in order to understand the detailed mechanisms of star formation. Most current theoretical scenarios explain how single stars form in an isolated, contracting gas cloud, but most stars in the Universe did not form in that simple way. Once some massive stars have formed in some place and start to shine, they

  3. Electrical Power Distribution and Control Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Johnny S.; Liffring, Mark; Mehdi, Ishaque S.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD&C) Modeling and how modeling can support analysis. The presentation discusses using the EASY5 model to simulate and analyze the Space Shuttle Electric Auxiliary Power Unit. Diagrams of the model schematics are included, as well as graphs of the battery cell impedance, hydraulic load dynamics, and EPD&C response to hydraulic load variations.

  4. [A new precipitation distribution hydrological model and its application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengtang; Kang, Shaozhong; Liu, Yin

    2005-03-01

    In distribution hydrological models, precipitation is the key input data for analyzing and computing hydrological processes. Finding a way to produce distribution precipitation data is a hotspot in hydrological research. This paper presented the hypothesis that the distribution of precipitation on the earth surface is the result of the effects of atmosphere system and terrain. Moreover, the spatial distribution of natural precipitation is a group of concentric ovals on the flat earth surface, and has a definite centre with maximum precipitation not affected by terrain. Supporting by the hypothesis, this paper established a new precipitation distribution hydrological model which could simulate the spatial distribution of precipitation, and modified the terrain effect on precipitation through Newton interpolation. The position of the precipitation centre and its precipitation amount were simulated in first time, and thus, the model could have a practical value in basin storm analysis and real-time runoff forecasting. The model was tested by the precipitation data of the Xichuan river basin in the Loess Plateau, which indicated that the model had a high precision.

  5. Scaling precipitation input to distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegeli, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Wever, Nander; Bavay, Mathias; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Precise knowledge about the snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applications such as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or water supply and hydropower. To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed, physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is often driven by spatial interpolations from automatic weather stations (AWS). As AWS are sparsely spread, the data needs to be interpolated, leading to errors in the spatial distribution of the snow cover - especially on subcatchment scale. With the recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snow depth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and vertical accuracy. Here we use maps of the snow depth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models acquired with the airborne opto-electronic scanner ADS to preprocess and redistribute precipitation input data for Alpine3D to improve the accuracy of spatial distribution of snow depth simulations. A differentiation between liquid and solid precipitation is made, to account for different precipitation patterns that can be expected from rain and snowfall. For liquid precipitation, only large scale distribution patterns are applied to distribute precipitation in the simulation domain. For solid precipitation, an additional small scale distribution, based on the ADS data, is applied. The large scale patterns are generated using AWS measurements interpolated over the domain. The small scale patterns are generated by redistributing the large scale precipitation according to the relative snow depth in the ADS dataset. The determination of the precipitation phase is done using an air temperature threshold. Using this simple approach to redistribute precipitation, the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error could be reduced by a factor of 2 to less than 20 cm for the season 2011/12. The

  6. Modelling and validation of particle size distributions of supported nanoparticles using the pair distribution function technique

    DOE PAGES

    Gamez-Mendoza, Liliana; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; ...

    2017-04-13

    The particle size of supported catalysts is a key characteristic for determining structure–property relationships. It is a challenge to obtain this information accurately and in situ using crystallographic methods owing to the small size of such particles (<5 nm) and the fact that they are supported. In this work, the pair distribution function (PDF) technique was used to obtain the particle size distribution of supported Pt catalysts as they grow under typical synthesis conditions. The PDF of Pt nanoparticles grown on zeolite X was isolated and refined using two models: a monodisperse spherical model (single particle size) and a lognormalmore » size distribution. The results were compared and validated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results. Both models describe the same trends in average particle size with temperature, but the results of the number-weighted lognormal size distributions can also accurately describe the mean size and the width of the size distributions obtained from STEM. Since the PDF yields crystallite sizes, these results suggest that the grown Pt nanoparticles are monocrystalline. As a result, this work shows that refinement of the PDF of small supported monocrystalline nanoparticles can yield accurate mean particle sizes and distributions.« less

  7. The role of magnetic fields in starburst galaxies as revealed by OH megamasers

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, James; Quataert, Eliot; Heiles, Carl; Bauermeister, Amber E-mail: eliot@astro.berkeley.edu

    2014-01-10

    We present estimates of magnetic field strengths in the interstellar media of starburst galaxies derived from measurements of Zeeman splitting associated with OH megamasers. The results for eight galaxies with Zeeman detections suggest that the magnetic energy density in the interstellar medium of starburst galaxies is comparable to their hydrostatic gas pressure, as in the Milky Way. We discuss the significant uncertainties in this conclusion, and possible measurements that could reduce these uncertainties. We also compare the Zeeman splitting derived magnetic field estimates to magnetic field strengths estimated using synchrotron fluxes and assuming that the magnetic field and cosmic rays have comparable energy densities, known as the 'minimum energy' argument. We find that the minimum energy argument systematically underestimates magnetic fields in starburst galaxies, and that the conditions that would be required to produce agreement between the minimum energy estimate and the Zeeman derived estimate of interstellar medium magnetic fields are implausible. The conclusion that magnetic fields in starburst galaxies exceed the minimum energy magnetic fields is consistent with starburst galaxies adhering to the linearity of the far-infrared-radio correlation.

  8. HIGH-DENSITY MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 1614 REVEALED WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-09-15

    We present the results of HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 transition line observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 1614, obtained with ALMA Cycle 0. We find that high density molecular gas traced with these lines shows a velocity structure such that the northern (southern) side of the nucleus is redshifted (blueshifted) with respect to the nuclear velocity of this galaxy. The redshifted and blueshifted emission peaks are offset by {approx}0.''6 at the northern and southern sides of the nucleus, respectively. At these offset positions, observations at infrared >3 {mu}m indicate the presence of active dusty starbursts, supporting the picture that high-density molecular gas is the site of active starbursts. The enclosed dynamical mass within the central {approx}2'' in radius, derived from the dynamics of the high-density molecular gas, is {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, which is similar to previous estimates. Finally, the HCN emission is weaker than HCO{sup +} but stronger than HNC for J = 4-3 for all starburst regions of NGC 1614, as seen for J = 1-0 transition lines in starburst-dominated galaxies.

  9. Modeling highway travel time distribution with conditional probability models

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Han, Lee

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Freight Management and Operations, the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) has developed performance measures through the Freight Performance Measures (FPM) initiative. Under this program, travel speed information is derived from data collected using wireless based global positioning systems. These telemetric data systems are subscribed and used by trucking industry as an operations management tool. More than one telemetric operator submits their data dumps to ATRI on a regular basis. Each data transmission contains truck location, its travel time, and a clock time/date stamp. Data from the FPM program provides a unique opportunity for studying the upstream-downstream speed distributions at different locations, as well as different time of the day and day of the week. This research is focused on the stochastic nature of successive link travel speed data on the continental United States Interstates network. Specifically, a method to estimate route probability distributions of travel time is proposed. This method uses the concepts of convolution of probability distributions and bivariate, link-to-link, conditional probability to estimate the expected distributions for the route travel time. Major contribution of this study is the consideration of speed correlation between upstream and downstream contiguous Interstate segments through conditional probability. The established conditional probability distributions, between successive segments, can be used to provide travel time reliability measures. This study also suggests an adaptive method for calculating and updating route travel time distribution as new data or information is added. This methodology can be useful to estimate performance measures as required by the recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP 21).

  10. Modeling natural gas market volatility using GARCH with different distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiaodong; Shan, Xian

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we model natural gas market volatility using GARCH-class models with long memory and fat-tail distributions. First, we forecast price volatilities of spot and futures prices. Our evidence shows that none of the models can consistently outperform others across different criteria of loss functions. We can obtain greater forecasting accuracy by taking the stylized fact of fat-tail distributions into account. Second, we forecast volatility of basis defined as the price differential between spot and futures. Our evidence shows that nonlinear GARCH-class models with asymmetric effects have the greatest forecasting accuracy. Finally, we investigate the source of forecasting loss of models. Our findings based on a detrending moving average indicate that GARCH models cannot capture multifractality in natural gas markets. This may be the plausible explanation for the source of model forecasting losses.

  11. Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

  12. Information-Theoretic Latent Distribution Modeling: Distinguishing Discrete and Continuous Latent Variable Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Distinguishing between discrete and continuous latent variable distributions has become increasingly important in numerous domains of behavioral science. Here, the authors explore an information-theoretic approach to latent distribution modeling, in which the ability of latent distribution models to represent statistical information in observed…

  13. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

  14. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

  15. Modelling psychiatric measures using Skew-Normal distributions

    PubMed Central

    Counsell, N.; Cortina-Borja, M.; Lehtonen, A.; Stein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from psychiatric research frequently exhibit departures from Normality. Methods which utilise the data optimally to model the distribution directly are available. We highlight the issue of modelling skewness, resulting from screening instruments where the majority of respondents are healthy individuals and few participants have a value reflecting particular disorders. PMID:21036551

  16. A Distribution-Free Test for Model Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, John B.; Brewer, James K.

    This paper presents an index of goodness-of-fit for comparing m models over n trials. The index allows for differentiated weighting of the trials as to their importance in the comparison of the models. Several possible weighting schemes are suggested and the conditions on the weights which assure asymptotic normality of the index distribution are…

  17. Modelling of particle distribution in the melting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wolf, D. A.; Russchenberg, H. W. J.; Ligthart, L. P.

    1990-12-01

    The analysis of radiowave propagation through, and radar scattering from, the melting layer requires a model of the melting ice particles with appropriate statistics of shape, size, and orientation distributions. Previous studies have indicated that the melting layer can be modeled by a collection of wet snow spheroids in air, of which the effective permittivity and the volume fraction are the most important parameters. It is proposed that the distribution of spheroid shapes can be modeled by a flat probability density of depolarization parameter lambda (3) between a minimum and a maximum value. The location of the average lambda (3) is crucial; the width is less important.

  18. Stress distributions in human teeth modeled with a natural graded material distribution.

    PubMed

    Chen, YungChung; Fok, Alex

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the structural stress distribution in human teeth could be affected by the presence of a graded material distribution often found in nature using the finite element (FE) method. Hydroxyapatite (HA) tablets with different densities were scanned using a Micro-CT scanner to obtain a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the elastic modulus via the mineral density. Two maxillary premolars were scanned to provide the geometries and material distributions for constructing the FE models. Stress analyses were then performed to compare the stress distributions between the models with uniform material properties and those with a graded material layout. The attenuation coefficients and densities of the HA tablets measured ranged from 109.77 to 175.01cm(-1) and 0.99 to 1.54gcm(-3), respectively. A linear relationship was found between them and applied to the premolars to derive the elastic modulus via the mineral density. Stress analysis showed that, with a graded material layout, the peak maximum principal stress in the enamel was reduced by about 50% and the overall stress distribution was more uniform. Along the DEJ, two stress peaks were found near the dentin horns, but again they were much lower in magnitude in the models with a graded material distribution. The results from this study support the hypothesis that the material layout in human enamel is optimized for distributing the external load evenly. They also point to the importance of taking into account the graded material distribution in nature when performing stress analysis for tooth structures. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoluchowski coagulation models of sea ice thickness distribution dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlovitch, D.; Illner, R.; Monahan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential decrease with thickness. This tail characterizes the range of ice thickness produced by mechanical redistribution of ice through the process of ridging, rafting, and shearing. We investigate how well the thickness distribution can be simulated by representing mechanical redistribution as a generalized stacking process. Such processes are naturally described by a well-studied class of models known as Smoluchowski Coagulation Models (SCMs), which describe the dynamics of a population of fixed-mass "particles" which combine in pairs to form a "particle" with the combined mass of the constituent pair at a rate which depends on the mass of the interacting particles. Like observed sea ice thickness distributions, the mass distribution of the populations generated by SCMs has an exponential or quasi-exponential form. We use SCMs to model sea ice, identifying mass-increasing particle combinations with thickness-increasing ice redistribution processes. Our model couples an SCM component with a thermodynamic component and generates qualitatively accurate thickness distributions with a variety of rate kernels. Our results suggest that the exponential tail of the sea ice thickness distribution arises from the nature of the ridging process, rather than specific physical properties of sea ice or the spatial arrangement of floes, and that the relative strengths of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes are key in accurately simulating the rate at which the sea ice thickness tail drops off with thickness.

  20. An extensive comparison of species-abundance distribution models

    PubMed Central

    Baldridge, Elita; Harris, David J.; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A number of different models have been proposed as descriptions of the species-abundance distribution (SAD). Most evaluations of these models use only one or two models, focus on only a single ecosystem or taxonomic group, or fail to use appropriate statistical methods. We use likelihood and AIC to compare the fit of four of the most widely used models to data on over 16,000 communities from a diverse array of taxonomic groups and ecosystems. Across all datasets combined the log-series, Poisson lognormal, and negative binomial all yield similar overall fits to the data. Therefore, when correcting for differences in the number of parameters the log-series generally provides the best fit to data. Within individual datasets some other distributions performed nearly as well as the log-series even after correcting for the number of parameters. The Zipf distribution is generally a poor characterization of the SAD. PMID:28028483

  1. A hierarchical distributed control model for coordinating intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    A hierarchical distributed control (HDC) model for coordinating cooperative problem-solving among intelligent systems is described. The model was implemented using SOCIAL, an innovative object-oriented tool for integrating heterogeneous, distributed software systems. SOCIAL embeds applications in 'wrapper' objects called Agents, which supply predefined capabilities for distributed communication, control, data specification, and translation. The HDC model is realized in SOCIAL as a 'Manager'Agent that coordinates interactions among application Agents. The HDC Manager: indexes the capabilities of application Agents; routes request messages to suitable server Agents; and stores results in a commonly accessible 'Bulletin-Board'. This centralized control model is illustrated in a fault diagnosis application for launch operations support of the Space Shuttle fleet at NASA, Kennedy Space Center.

  2. Molecular gas heating mechanisms, and star formation feedback in merger/starbursts: NGC 6240 and Arp 193 as case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; Van der Werf, Paul; Israel, F. P.; Greve, T. R.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Y. E-mail: zyzhang@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: aweiss@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2014-06-20

    We used the SPIRE/FTS instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory to obtain the Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of CO from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12 of Arp 193 and NGC 6240, two classical merger/starbursts selected from our molecular line survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (L {sub IR} ≥ 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}). The high-J CO SLEDs are then combined with ground-based low-J CO, {sup 13}CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, CS line data and used to probe the thermal and dynamical states of their large molecular gas reservoirs. We find the two CO SLEDs strongly diverging from J = 4-3 onward, with NGC 6240 having a much higher CO line excitation than Arp 193, despite their similar low-J CO SLEDs and L {sub FIR}/L {sub CO,} {sub 1} {sub –0}, L {sub HCN}/L {sub CO} (J = 1-0) ratios (proxies of star formation efficiency and dense gas mass fraction). In Arp 193, one of the three most extreme starbursts in the local universe, the molecular SLEDs indicate a small amount (∼5%-15%) of dense gas (n ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) unlike NGC 6240 where most of the molecular gas (∼60%-70%) is dense (n ∼ (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}) cm{sup –3}). Strong star-formation feedback can drive this disparity in their dense gas mass fractions, and also induce extreme thermal and dynamical states for the molecular gas. In NGC 6240, and to a lesser degree in Arp 193, we find large molecular gas masses whose thermal states cannot be maintained by FUV photons from Photon-Dominated Regions. We argue that this may happen often in metal-rich merger/starbursts, strongly altering the initial conditions of star formation. ALMA can now directly probe these conditions across cosmic epoch, and even probe their deeply dust-enshrouded outcome, the stellar initial mass function averaged over galactic evolution.

  3. Tritium distributions in an isopycnic model of the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yanli; Richards, Kelvin J.

    1996-05-01

    An ocean general circulation model with an isopycnic coordinate in the vertical is used to simulate the North Atlantic circulation. Tritium and helium are injected into the model after an initial spin-up phase to assist our understanding of the model response and to validate the model itself by comparing the model data with available tracer observations. In this paper, the distribution of tritium is presented and compared with observations in 1972 (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) and 1981 (Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO)). The vertical penetration of tritium in the model compares well with observations, reflecting the ventilation patterns in the subtropical and subpolar gyres and the deep overflows from the Greenland and Norwegian basin through the Denmark Strait and across the Iceland-Faeroes rise. However, the distributions of tritium on various isopycnic layers do show discrepancies with observations, and the magnitude of tritium concentration is too high in the model. It is found that the model produces a pronounced maximum tritium concentration in the interior of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre in 1972, which is not observed. The presence of this maximum suggests that the ratio of diffusion to advection timescales (the Péclet number) is too high in the model. A simple two-dimensional advection-diffusion model is used to explore the relationships between the distributions of tritium and the timescales of advection and diffusion processes. These experiments suggest an upper bound on the Péclet number. A further experiment using the Atlantic isopycnic model with a decreased Péclet number shows some improvement to the distribution of tritium on the isopycnic layers. Comparisons of tritium-helium age in 1981 between the model results and TTO data show that the model has a too rapid circulation. The lack of mixing by eddies in the model is also believed to be partially responsible for the discrepancies between the modeled tritium distributions and the

  4. The Structure Of Post-Starburst Galaxies In The Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltby, David; Almaini, Omar; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-06-01

    Despite decades of study, we still do not fully understand why some massive galaxies abruptly switch off their star formation in the early Universe, and what causes their rapid transition to the red sequence. Post-starburst galaxies (PSBs) are key to understanding this transition phase, as they represent systems in which a major burst of star formation was rapidly quenched within the last Gyr. Recently, a new photometric PCA technique, has identified over 900 candidate PSBs in the UDS field at redshifts 0.5 to 2. In this conference poster, I present spectroscopic verification of this technique and demonstrate that 80% of the photometrically-selected PSB candidates show spectral signatures characteristic of this population. I also present results on the morphological structure of these galaxies, obtained from a combination of deep ground- and space-based imaging (UDS UKIRT-WFCAM and CANDELS HST-ACS/WFC3). Using both 2D-Sersic modelling and an independent isophotal analysis, I show that PSB galaxies at high redshift (z above 1) are surprisingly compact and spheroidal, while at lower redshifts they are more extended and disc-dominated. I also discuss what these results can tell us about the potential quenching mechanisms operating in this important transitional population at different epochs.

  5. THE STARBURST CLUSTER WESTERLUND 1: THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND MASS SEGREGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Jae-Joon; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Bessell, Michael S. E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr

    2013-02-01

    Westerlund 1 is the most important starburst cluster in the Galaxy due to its massive star content. We have performed BVI{sub C} and JK{sub S} photometry to investigate the initial mass function (IMF). By comparing the observed color with the spectral-type-intrinsic-color relation, we obtain the mean interstellar reddening of (E(B - V)) = 4.19 {+-} 0.23 and (E(J - K{sub S} )) = 1.70 {+-} 0.21. Due to the heavy extinction toward the cluster, the zero-age main sequence fitting method based on optical photometry proved to be inappropriate for the distance determination, while the near-infrared photometry gave a reliable distance to the cluster-3.8 kpc from the empirical relation. Using the recent theoretical stellar evolution models with rotation, the age of the cluster is estimated to be 5.0 {+-} 1.0 Myr. We derived the IMF in the massive part and obtained a fairly shallow slope of {Gamma} = -0.8 {+-} 0.1. The integration of the IMF gave a total mass for the cluster in excess of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The IMF shows a clear radial variation indicating the presence of mass segregation. We also discuss the possible star formation history of Westerlund 1 from the presence of red supergiants and relatively low luminosity yellow hypergiants.

  6. The Starburst Cluster Westerlund 1: The Initial Mass Function and Mass Segregation